Carless, Paul A; Henry, David A; Moxey, Annette J; O’Connell, Dianne; Brown, Tamara; Fergusson, Dean A
Background Concerns regarding the safety of transfused blood have prompted reconsideration of the use of allogeneic (from an unrelated donor) red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, and a range of techniques to minimise transfusion requirements. Objectives To examine the evidence for the efficacy of cell salvage in reducing allogeneic blood transfusion and the evidence for any effect on clinical outcomes. Search methods We identified studies by searching CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1950 to June 2009), EMBASE (1980 to June 2009), the internet (to August 2009) and bibliographies of published articles. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials with a concurrent control group in which adult patients, scheduled for non-urgent surgery, were randomised to cell salvage (autotransfusion) or to a control group who did not receive the intervention. Data collection and analysis Data were independently extracted and the risk of bias assessed. Relative risks (RR) and weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. The primary outcomes were the number of patients exposed to allogeneic red cell transfusion and the amount of blood transfused. Other clinical outcomes are detailed in the review. Main results A total of 75 trials were included. Overall, the use of cell salvage reduced the rate of exposure to allogeneic RBC transfusion by a relative 38% (RR 0.62; 95% CI 0.55 to 0.70). The absolute reduction in risk (ARR) of receiving an allogeneic RBC transfusion was 21% (95% CI 15% to 26%). In orthopaedic procedures the RR of exposure to RBC transfusion was 0.46 (95% CI 0.37 to 0.57) compared to 0.77 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.86) for cardiac procedures. The use of cell salvage resulted in an average saving of 0.68 units of allogeneic RBC per patient (WMD −0.68; 95% CI −0.88 to −0.49). Cell salvage did not appear to impact adversely on clinical outcomes. Authors’ conclusions
Chimutengwende-Gordon, Mukai; Khan, Wasim S; Maruthainar, Nimalan
The decision to transfuse patients perioperatively is made on an individual basis and should consider factors such as duration and severity of anaemia, symptoms, physiological parameters and comorbidities. Autologous blood transfusion has the benefit of avoiding some of the immunological and infective complications associated with allogenic blood transfusion. Pharmacological agents as well as anaesthetic and surgical techniques have a role in avoiding the need for blood transfusion.
Chalfin, Heather J.; Frank, Steven M.; Feng, Zhaoyong; Trock, Bruce J.; Drake, Charles G.; Partin, Alan W.; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Ness, Paul M.; Jeong, Byong C.; Lee, Seung B.; Han, Misop
BACKGROUND Potential adverse effects of blood transfusion (BT) remain controversial, especially for clinical outcomes after curative cancer surgery. Some postulate that immune modulation after allogeneic BT predisposes to recurrence and death, but autologous superiority is not established. This study assessed whether BT is associated with long-term prostate cancer recurrence and survival a large single-institutional radical prostatectomy (RP) database. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Between 1994 and 2012, a total of 11,680 patients had RP with available outcome and transfusion data. A total of 7443 (64%) had complete covariate data. Clinical variables associated with biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were identified with Cox proportional hazards models for three groups: no BT (reference, 27.7%, n = 2061), autologous BT only (68.8%, n = 5124), and any allogeneic BT (with or without autologous, 3.5%, n = 258). RESULTS Median (range) follow-up was 6 (1–18) years. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly decreased OS (but not BRFS or PCSS) in the allogeneic group versus autologous and no BT groups (p = 0.006). With univariate analysis, any allogeneic BT had a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.29 (range, 1.52–3.46; p < 0.0001) for OS, whereas autologous BT was not significant (HR, 1.04 [range, 0.82–1.32], p = 0.752). In multivariable models, neither autologous nor allogeneic BT was independently associated with BRFS, CSS, or OS, and a dose response was not observed for allogeneic units and BRFS. CONCLUSION Although allogeneic but not autologous BT was associated with decreased long-term OS, after adjustment for confounding clinical variables, BT was not independently associated with OS, BRFS, or CSS regardless of transfusion type. Notably, no association was observed between allogeneic BT and cancer recurrence. Observed differences in OS may reflect confounding. PMID:24601996
Graham, I D; Fergusson, D; Dokainish, H; Biggs, J; McAuley, L; Laupacis, A
BACKGROUND: Preoperative autologous donation is one way to decrease a patient's exposure to allogeneic blood transfusion. This study was designed to determine patients' perceptions about the autologous blood donation process and their experiences with transfusion. METHODS: To assess patient perception, a questionnaire was administered a few days before surgery to patients undergoing elective cardiac and orthopedic surgery in a Canadian teaching hospital. All patients attending the preoperative autologous donation clinic during a 10-month period were eligible. A convenience sample of patients undergoing the same types of surgery who had not predonated blood were selected from preadmission clinics. Patient charts were reviewed retrospectively to assess actual transfusion practice in all cases. RESULTS: A total of 80 patients underwent cardiac surgery (40 autologous donors, 40 nondonors) and 73 underwent orthopedic surgery (38 autologous donors, 35 nondonors). Of the autologous donors, 75 (96%) attended all scheduled donation appointments, 73 (93%) said that they were "very likely" or "likely" to predonate again, and 75 (96%) said that they would recommend autologous donation to others. There was little difference in preoperative symptoms between the autologous donors and the nondonors, although the former were more likely than the latter to report that their overall health had remained the same during the month before surgery (30 [75%] v. 21 [52%] for the cardiac surgery patients and 30 [79%] v. 18 [51%] for the orthopedic surgery patients). When the autologous donors were asked what they felt their chances would have been of receiving at least one allogeneic blood transfusion had they not predonated, the median response was 80%. When they were asked what their chances were after predonating their own blood, the median response was 0%. The autologous donors were significantly less likely to receive allogeneic blood transfusions (6 [15%] for cardiac surgery and 3 [8
Donohue, Ciara I; Mallett, Susan V
Liver transplantation (LT) was historically associated with massive blood loss and transfusion. Over the past two decades transfusion requirements have reduced dramatically and increasingly transfusion-free transplantation is a reality. Both bleeding and transfusion are associated with adverse outcomes in LT. Minimising bleeding and reducing unnecessary transfusions are therefore key goals in the perioperative period. As the understanding of the causes of bleeding has evolved so too have techniques to minimize or reduce the impact of blood loss. Surgical “piggyback” techniques, anaesthetic low central venous pressure and haemodilution strategies and the use of autologous cell salvage, point of care monitoring and targeted correction of coagulopathy, particularly through use of factor concentrates, have all contributed to declining reliance on allogenic blood products. Pre-emptive management of preoperative anaemia and adoption of more restrictive transfusion thresholds is increasingly common as patient blood management (PBM) gains momentum. Despite progress, increasing use of marginal grafts and transplantation of sicker recipients will continue to present new challenges in bleeding and transfusion management. Variation in practice across different centres and within the literature demonstrates the current lack of clear transfusion guidance. In this article we summarise the causes and predictors of bleeding and present the evidence for a variety of PBM strategies in LT. PMID:26722645
Henry, David A; Carless, Paul A; Moxey, Annette J; O’Connell, Dianne; Stokes, Barrie J; Fergusson, Dean A; Ker, Katharine
the head-to-head trials suggest an advantage of aprotinin over the lysine analogues TXA and EACA in terms of reducing perioperative blood loss, but the differences were small. Compared to control, aprotinin reduced the probability of requiring RBC transfusion by a relative 34% (relative risk [RR] 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60 to 0.72). The RR for RBC transfusion with TXA was 0.61 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.70) and was 0.81 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.99) with EACA. When the pooled estimates from the head-to-head trials of the two lysine analogues were combined and compared to aprotinin alone, aprotinin appeared more effective in reducing the need for RBC transfusion (RR 0.90; 95% CI 0.81 to 0.99). Aprotinin reduced the need for re-operation due to bleeding by a relative 54% (RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.62). This translates into an absolute risk reduction of 2% and a number needed-to-treat (NNT) of 50 (95% CI 33 to 100). A similar trend was seen with EACA (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.99) but not TXA (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.17). The blood transfusion data were heterogeneous and funnel plots indicate that trials of aprotinin and the lysine analogues may be subject to publication bias. When compared with no treatment aprotinin did not increase the risk of myocardial infarction (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.11), stroke (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.52), renal dysfunction (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.54) or overall mortality (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.06). Similar trends were seen with the lysine analogues, but data were sparse. These data conflict with the results of recently published non-randomised studies, which found increased risk of cardiovascular complications and death with aprotinin. There are concerns about the adequacy of reporting of uncommon events in the small clinical trials included in this review. When aprotinin was compared directly with either, or both, of the two lysine analogues it resulted in a significant increase in the risk of death (RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.02, 1.89), and
Glenngård, A H; Persson, U; Söderman, C
Anaemia is characterised by an insufficient number of red blood cells (RBCs) and might occur for different reasons, e.g. surgical procedures are often with associated blood loss. Patients who suffer from anaemia have the option of treatment with blood transfusion or medical treatment. In this study, the societal cost, for the case of Sweden, of RBC transfusion using three different techniques, i.e. allogeneic, autologous and intraoperative transfusion, was estimated. The analysis was based on information from interviews with hospital staff at large Swedish hospitals and from published data. The average cost for a 2 units transfusion was found to be Swedish kronor (SEK) 6330 (702 Euro) for filtered allogeneic RBCs and SEK 5394 (598 Euro) for autologous RBCs for surgery patients. Transfusion reactions accounted for almost 35 per cent of the costs of allogeneic RBC transfusions. The administration cost was found to be much higher for autologous transfusions compared with allogeneic transfusions. The cost of intraoperative erythrocyte salvage was calculated to be SEK 2567 (285 Euro) per transfusion (>4 units).
Solh, Melhem; Brunstein, Claudio; Morgan, Shanna; Weisdorf, Daniel
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients have substantial transfusion requirements. Factors associated with increased transfusions and the extent of blood product use in umbilical cord blood (UCB) recipients are uncertain. We reviewed blood product use in 229 consecutive adult recipients of allogeneic HCT at the University of Minnesota: 147 with leukemia, 82 lymphoma or myeloma; 58% received unrelated UCB and 43% sibling donor peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) grafts. Although neutrophil recovery was prompt (UCB median 17, range 2–45 days, and PBSC 14, range 3–34 days), only 135 of 229 (59% cumulative incidence, CI) achieved RBC independence and 157 (69%) achieved platelet independence by 6 months. Time to platelet independence was prolonged in UCB recipients (median UCB 41 vs. PBSC 14 days) and in patients who had received a prior transplant (median 48 vs. 32 days). Patients who received UCB grafts required more RBC through day 60 post HCT (mean UCB 7.8 (95% CI 6.7–8.9) vs. PBSC 5.2 (3.7–6.7) transfusions, p=0.04), and more platelet transfusions (mean 25.2 (95% CI 22.1–28.2) vs. 12.9 (9.4–16.4), p<0.01) compared to PBSC recipients. Patient receiving myeloablative (MA) conditioning required more RBC and platelet transfusions during the first 2 months post HCT compared to reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) (7.4 vs. 6.2, p=0.3 for RBC; 23.2 vs 17.5, p=0.07 for platelets). Despite prompt neutrophil engraftment, UCB recipients had delayed platelet recovery as well as more prolonged and costly blood product requirements. Enhanced approaches to accelerate multilineage engraftment could limit the transfusion-associated morbidity and costs accompanying UCB allotransplantation. PMID:20813199
Solh, Melhem; Brunstein, Claudio; Morgan, Shanna; Weisdorf, Daniel
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients have substantial transfusion requirements. Factors associated with increased transfusions and the extent of blood product use in umbilical cord blood (UCB) recipients are uncertain. We reviewed blood product use in 229 consecutive adult recipients of allogeneic HCT at the University of Minnesota: 147 with leukemia, 82 lymphoma or myeloma; 58% received unrelated UCB and 43% sibling donor peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) grafts. Although neutrophil recovery was prompt (UCB median 17, range: 2-45 days, and PBSC 14, range: 3-34 days), only 135 of 229 (59% cumulative incidence) achieved red blood cell (RBC) independence and 157 (69%) achieved platelet independence by 6 months. Time to platelet independence was prolonged in UCB recipients (median UCB 41 versus PBSC 14 days) and in patients who had received a prior transplant (median 48 versus 32 days). Patients who received UCB grafts required more RBC through day 60 post-HCT (mean UCB 7.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.7-8.9) versus PBSC 5.2 (3.7-6.7) transfusions, P = .04), and more platelet transfusions (mean 25.2 (95% CI 22.1-28.2) versus 12.9 (9.4-16.4), P < .01) compared to PBSC recipients. Patients receiving myeloablative (MA) conditioning required more RBC and platelet transfusions during the first 2 months post-HCT compared to reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) (7.4 versus 6.2, P = .30 for RBC; 23.2 versus 17.5, P = .07 for platelets). Despite prompt neutrophil engraftment, UCB recipients had delayed platelet recovery as well as more prolonged and costly blood product requirements. Enhanced approaches to accelerate multilineage engraftment could limit the transfusion-associated morbidity and costs accompanying UCB allotransplantation.
Vamvakas, Eleftherios C; Blajchman, Morris A
After reviewing the relative frequency of the causes of allogeneic blood transfusion-related mortality in the United States today, we present 6 possible strategies for further reducing such transfusion-related mortality. These are (1) avoidance of unnecessary transfusions through the use of evidence-based transfusion guidelines, to reduce potentially fatal (infectious as well as noninfectious) transfusion complications; (2) reduction in the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury in recipients of platelet transfusions through the use of single-donor platelets collected from male donors, or female donors without a history of pregnancy or who have been shown not to have white blood cell (WBC) antibodies; (3) prevention of hemolytic transfusion reactions through the augmentation of patient identification procedures by the addition of information technologies, as well as through the prevention of additional red blood cell alloantibody formation in patients who are likely to need multiple transfusions in the future; (4) avoidance of pooled blood products (such as pooled whole blood-derived platelets) to reduce the risk of transmission of emerging transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) and the residual risk from known TTIs (especially transfusion-associated sepsis [TAS]); (5) WBC reduction of cellular blood components administered in cardiac surgery to prevent the poorly understood increased mortality seen in cardiac surgery patients in association with the receipt of non-WBC-reduced (compared with WBC-reduced) transfusion; and (6) pathogen reduction of platelet and plasma components to prevent the transfusion transmission of most emerging, potentially fatal TTIs and the residual risk of known TTIs (especially TAS).
Muñoz Gómez, M; Bisbe Vives, E; Basora Macaya, M; García Erce, J A; Gómez Luque, A; Leal-Noval, S R; Colomina, M J; Comin Colet, J; Contreras Barbeta, E; Cuenca Espiérrez, J; Garcia de Lorenzo Y Mateos, A; Gomollón García, F; Izuel Ramí, M; Moral García, M V; Montoro Ronsano, J B; Páramo Fernández, J A; Pereira Saavedra, A; Quintana Diaz, M; Remacha Sevilla, Á; Salinas Argente, R; Sánchez Pérez, C; Tirado Anglés, G; Torrabadella de Reinoso, P
In recent years, several safety alerts have questioned or restricted the use of some pharmacological alternatives to allogeneic blood transfusion in established indications. In contrast, there seems to be a promotion of other alternatives, based on blood products and/or antifibrinolytic drugs, which lack a solid scientific basis. The Multidisciplinary Autotransfusion Study Group and the Anemia Working Group España convened a multidisciplinary panel of 23 experts belonging to different healthcare areas in a forum for debate to: 1) analyze the different safety alerts referred to certain transfusion alternatives; 2) study the background leading to such alternatives, the evidence supporting them, and their consequences for everyday clinical practice, and 3) issue a weighted statement on the safety of each questioned transfusion alternative, according to its clinical use. The members of the forum maintained telematics contact for the exchange of information and the distribution of tasks, and a joint meeting was held where the conclusions on each of the items examined were presented and discussed. A first version of the document was drafted, and subjected to 4 rounds of review and updating until consensus was reached (unanimously in most cases). We present the final version of the document, approved by all panel members, and hope it will be useful for our colleagues.
dos Santos, Antonio Alceu; Baumgratz, Jose Francisco; Vila, Jose Henrique Andrade; Castro, Rodrigo Moreira; Bezerra, Rodrigo Freire
Blood transfusions have still been used as a standard therapy to treat severe anemia. Current evidences point to both excessive allogeneic blood consumption and decreased donations, which result in reduced stocks in blood banks. Several studies have increasingly suggested a more restrictive transfusion practice for blood products. Currently, a number of autologous blood conservation protocols in surgeries have been noted. We report a case of severe anemia with 2.9 g/dL hemoglobin, which was successfully handled without using the standard therapy to treat anemia with hemotransfusions. Such a case of severe anemia condition resulted after the patient was submitted to ascending aortic aneurism repair, valvar aortic replacement, reimplantation of right coronary ostium, followed by a coronary artery bypass grafting and several postoperative complications. The main clinical and surgical strategies used in this case to avoid blood transfusions were acute normovolemic hemodilution, intraoperative blood cell salvage, and meticulous hemostasis, beyond epsilon-aminocaproic acid, desmopressin, prothrombin complex concentrate, human fibrinogen concentrate, factor VIIa recombinant, erythropoietin and hyperoxic ventilation. PMID:28197273
Leal-Noval, S R; Muñoz, M; Asuero, M; Contreras, E; García-Erce, J A; Llau, J V; Moral, V; Páramo, J A; Quintana, M; Basora, M; Bautista-Paloma, F J; Bisbe, E; Bóveda, J L; Castillo-Muñoz, A; Colomina, M J; Fernández, C; Fernández-Mondéjar, E; Ferrándiz, C; García de Lorenzo, A; Gomar, C; Gómez-Luque, A; Izuel, M; Jiménez-Yuste, V; López-Briz, E; López-Fernández, M L; Martín-Conde, J A; Montoro-Ronsano, B; Paniagua, C; Romero-Garrido, J A; Ruiz, J C; Salinas-Argente, R; Sánchez, C; Torrabadella, P; Arellano, V; Candela, A; Fernández, J A; Fernández-Hinojosa, E; Puppo, A
Since allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT) is not harmless, multiple alternatives to ABT (AABT) have emerged, though there is great variability in their indications and appropriate use. This variability results from the interaction of a number of factors, including the specialty of the physician, knowledge and preferences, the degree of anemia, transfusion policy, and AABT availability. Since AABTs are not harmless and may not meet cost-effectiveness criteria, such variability is unacceptable. The Spanish Societies of Anesthesiology (SEDAR), Hematology and Hemotherapy (SEHH), Hospital Pharmacy (SEFH), Critical Care Medicine (SEMICYUC), Thrombosis and Hemostasis (SETH) and Blood Transfusion (SETS) have developed a Consensus Document for the proper use of AABTs. A panel of experts convened by these 6 Societies have conducted a systematic review of the medical literature and have developed the 2013 Seville Consensus Document on Alternatives to Allogeneic Blood Transfusion, which only considers those AABT aimed at decreasing the transfusion of packed red cells. AABTs are defined as any pharmacological or non-pharmacological measure aimed at decreasing the transfusion of red blood cell concentrates, while preserving patient safety. For each AABT, the main question formulated, positively or negatively, is: « Does this particular AABT reduce the transfusion rate or not?» All the recommendations on the use of AABTs were formulated according to the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology.
Weber, Christian Friedrich
Evaluating the patient's individual bleeding history with a standardized questionnaire, using "point-of-care" - methods for coagulation analyses and providing autologous transfusion techniques are preconditions of a modern coagulation management. Therapy of coagulopathic patients should be based on structured hemotherapy algorithms. Surgical haemostasis and the maintenance of the basic conditions for haemostasis are elementary requirements for an effective therapy. In cases of diffuse bleeding, early antifibrinolytic therapy should be considered. Coagulation factor deficiencies should be corrected "goal-directed" using coagulation factor concentrates. Transfusion of fresh frozen plasma is only indicated in the clinical setting of massive transfusions. DDAVP and transfusion of platelet concentrates are options to optimize primary haemostasis. In cases of on-going bleeding, recombinant activated coagulation factor VII represents an option for "ultima-ratio" therapy.
dos Santos, Antônio Alceu; da Silva, José Pedro; da Silva, Luciana da Fonseca; de Sousa, Alexandre Gonçalves; Piotto, Raquel Ferrari; Baumgratz, José Francisco
Introdution Allogeneic blood is an exhaustible therapeutic resource. New evidence indicates that blood consumption is excessive and that donations have decreased, resulting in reduced blood supplies worldwide. Blood transfusions are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as higher hospital costs. This makes it necessary to seek out new treatment options. Such options exist but are still virtually unknown and are rarely utilized. Objective To gather and describe in a systematic, objective, and practical way all clinical and surgical strategies as effective therapeutic options to minimize or avoid allogeneic blood transfusions and their adverse effects in surgical cardiac patients. Methods A bibliographic search was conducted using the MeSH term “Blood Transfusion” and the terms “Cardiac Surgery” and “Blood Management.” Studies with titles not directly related to this research or that did not contain information related to it in their abstracts as well as older studies reporting on the same strategies were not included. Results Treating anemia and thrombocytopenia, suspending anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, reducing routine phlebotomies, utilizing less traumatic surgical techniques with moderate hypothermia and hypotension, meticulous hemostasis, use of topical and systemic hemostatic agents, acute normovolemic hemodilution, cell salvage, anemia tolerance (supplementary oxygen and normothermia), as well as various other therapeutic options have proved to be effective strategies for reducing allogeneic blood transfusions. Conclusion There are a number of clinical and surgical strategies that can be used to optimize erythrocyte mass and coagulation status, minimize blood loss, and improve anemia tolerance. In order to decrease the consumption of blood components, diminish morbidity and mortality, and reduce hospital costs, these treatment strategies should be incorporated into medical practice worldwide. PMID:25714216
Lubarsky, D A; Hahn, C; Bennett, D H; Smith, L R; Bredehoeft, S J; Klein, H G; Reves, J G
We sought to determine the actual cost to Duke University Medical Center of a perioperative red blood cell transfusion. A recent audit at Duke University Medical Center determined the base average direct and indirect hospital costs for providing a unit of red blood cells. The Transfusion Service's base cost for providing an allogeneic unit of red blood cells was $113.58. To obtain the actual hospital cost of transfusing a unit of red blood cells in the perioperative period, associated costs were calculated and added to the Transfusion Service's base cost. These associated costs included compatibility tests on multiple units per each unit transfused in the perioperative period, performing ABO and Rh typing and antibody screening on samples from patients who were not subsequently transfused, compatibility tests on units not issued, handling costs of units issued but not used, physically administering the blood, and the cost of the recipient contracting an infectious disease or developing a transfusion reaction. These associated costs increased the cost of transfusing an allogeneic unit of red blood cells in the perioperative period to $151.20. Perhaps the techniques described in the study can be used to quantify cost/benefit ratios associated with future changes in transfusion practice.
Muñoz, M; Naveira, E; Seara, J; Palmer, J H; Cuenca, J; García-Erce, J A
An important percentage of patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR) receive allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT) to avoid the risks of acute anaemia. However, concerns about the risks of ABT have led to the search for alternatives, such as stimulation of erythropoiesis. We prospectively investigated the effect of postoperative administration of 300 mg of intravenous iron sucrose on ABT requirements in THR patients (group 2; n = 24). A previous series of 22 THR patients served as the control group (group 1). All patients were operated on by the same surgeon, using the same implant, and a set of clinical data was gathered. No adverse reactions to iron administration were observed. The group-given iron showed a trend to a lower transfusion rate (46 vs. 73%; P = 0.067) and lower transfusion index (0.96 vs. 1.68 units/patient; P = 0.038). Moreover, amongst the non-transfused patients, admission haemoglobin levels were lower in those coming from the iron group than those from the control group (12.7 +/- 0.9 vs. 14.0 +/- 1.2 g dL(-1), respectively; P = 0.017). Postoperative parenteral iron administration could be a safe and effective way to reduce ABT requirements in the THR patients. A large, randomized controlled trial to confirm these results is warranted.
Wajon, P; Gibson, J; Calcroft, R; Hughes, C; Thrift, B
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is postulated to decrease postoperative mediastinal chest tube drainage (MCTD) and allogeneic blood transfusions (ABT) after surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. However, recent metaanalysis of the literature reveals that few good quality (therapeutic yield) trials that show a benefit have been published. The potential hemodynamic instability caused by plateletpheresis has not been emphasized. We studied the effect of plateletpheresis on MCTD, ABT, and hemodynamic stability in reoperative coronary artery bypass graft patients, a group perceived to be at high risk for ABT. Ninety patients were randomly assigned to Pheresis or Control groups. epsilon-Aminocaproic acid was given to all patients. Hemodynamic instability was assessed by degree of volume and inotrope resuscitation required. Part of the sequestered platelet volume was used to make autologous platelet gel, which was applied as a wound sealant. Mean pheresis yield was 30% +/- 7% of the circulating platelet mass or 6.4 +/- 2.2 allogeneic platelet unit equivalents. Total MCTD did not differ between the groups. There were no differences in mean packed red blood cell, platelet, and plasma transfusion rates. Overall, 52% of the Pheresis group received ABT, versus 55% of the Control group. Fifty-three percent of the Pheresis group patients exhibited significant hemodynamic instability, versus 27% of the Control group (P < 0.05). This study was unable to show any reduction in MCTD or ABT, although the plateletpheresis technique may offset platelet dysfunction caused by aspirin or increased blood exposure to nonbiologic surfaces, or it may compensate for lack of antifibrinolytic use. The significantly increased incidence of hemodynamic instability in the Pheresis group means that the risk/benefit ratio must be determined for individual cardiac surgical units.
Gu, Jiwei; Skals, Regitze Kuhr; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Jakobsen, Carl-Johan; Bæch, John; Petersen, Mikkel Steen
Background Allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion has been associated with new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) following cardiac surgery. Prolonged storage time of RBC may increase the risk. The primary aim of the study was to evaluate whether the storage time of RBC is associated with development of POAF. Materials and methods Pre-, per- and postoperative data were retrieved from the Western Denmark Heart Registry and local blood banks regarding patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery, valve surgery or combined procedures in Aalborg or Aarhus University Hospital during 2010–2014. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the risk of POAF according to transfusion of RBC on the day of surgery. Furthermore, we determined trend in storage time of RBC according to risk of POAF using restricted cubic splines. Patients with a history of preoperative atrial fibrillation, patients who received transfusions preoperative and patients who died at the day of surgery were among excluded patients. Results A total of 2,978 patients with a mean age of 66.4 years were included and 609 patients (21%) received RBC transfusion on the day of surgery. POAF developed in 752 patients (25%) and transfused patients were at an increased risk compared with non-transfused patients (adjusted Odds Ratios for patients receiving RBC: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.11–1.69, P-value = 0.004). However, RBC transfusion was not necessarily the cause of POAF and may only be a marker for development of POAF. There was no significant association between storage time of RBC and POAF. Conclusions In contrast to intraoperative allogeneic RBC transfusion in general, increased storage time of RBC is not associated with development of POAF in cardiac surgery. PMID:28225837
Carbonell, F.; Calvo, W.; Fliedner, T.M.; Kratt, E.; Gerhartz, H.; Koerbling, M.; Nothdurft, W.; Ross, W.M.
Cytogenetic studies were performed on two dog groups after total body irradiation and allogeneic transfusion with cryopreserved blood mononuclear cells. The first group of dogs was transfused with unseparated leukocytes and suffered from graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Cytogenetic studies demonstrated only cells of donor origin in all dogs of this group. The second group of animals was transfused with fraction 2 of a discontinuous albumin gradient. The dogs of this group did not develop GvHD, and the cytogenetic studies showed the presence of a mosaic of cells from donor and recipient origin in all of them. These results suggest that the GvHD may suppress autochthonous regeneration.
Lapierre, V; Kuentz, M; Tiberghien, P
Allogeneic peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) is presently being evaluated in a French randomized study comparing peripheral blood vs bone marrow. Cases of potentially lethal acute hemolysis have recently been reported after allogeneic PBSCT in the presence of a 'minor' ABO incompatibility. Patients were frequently transfused with recipient-compatible and donor-incompatible RBC and usually did not receive methotrexate in addition to cyclosporin A for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. In order to homogenize immuno-hematological (IH) assessment and transfusion practices within our protocol, we made proposals to 25 allo-transplant French centers on the following aspects: pre-inclusion IH assessment, IH exclusion criteria, transfusion rules, post-transplant IH surveillance and treatment of hemolysis. Analysis of responses to our proposals led to the elaboration of guidelines which were approved and implemented by the French Bone Marrow Transplantation Society (SFGM). Pre-inclusion IH testing includes mandatory detection and titration of anti-RBC allo-Ab, as well as titration of anti-A and anti-B Ab. The presence in the donor of an anti-A (group A or AB recipients), anti-B (group B or AB recipients) Ab with a titer >1/32 or the presence of allo-Ab against Rh, Kell, Fya, Fyb, Jka, Jkb, Ss Ag present on recipient RBC is an exclusion criterion for the protocol. ABO and RhD compatibility of RBC blood products with both HSC donor and recipient is mandatory. A similar compatibility is also required for Rh (other than D) and Kell Ag. If not possible, compatibility of RBC blood products with the HSC donor is mandatory. Lastly, guidelines regarding post-transplantation IH follow-up as well as acute hemolysis treatment have been elaborated. The implementation of these guidelines should contribute to enhancing the quality of transfusion practice after PBSCT. Such an approach will be applied to other aspects of transfusion medicine in the
Background A number of studies have investigated the effect of perioperative blood transfusion (PBT) for patients after radical prostatectomy (RP), with some reporting conflicting results. A systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis were conducted to explore the association between PBT (autologous or allogeneic) and biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS), overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients undergoing RP. Methods The PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases were searched for published controlled clinical studies on perioperative allogeneic or autologous blood transfusion (BT) and patient survival after RP. STATA software version 12.0 was used for data analysis. We used hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to test the correlation between BT and patient survival after RP. Results Data from a total of 26,698 patients in ten published studies were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis results showed that autologous BT was not associated with BRFS (HR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.96–1.18; Z = 1.17; P = 0.24), OS (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.71–1.04; Z = 1.58; P = 0.11), or CSS (HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.49–1.96; Z = 0.05; P = 0.96). Allogeneic BT exhibited a significant association with worse BRFS (HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01–1.16; Z = 2.37; P = 0.02), OS (HR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.24–1.64; Z = 4.95; P<0.01) and CSS (HR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.18–2.56; Z = 2.81; P = 0.005). Conclusion Our data showed an association between allogeneic BT and reduced BRFS, OS and CSS in patients after RP. These findings indicate that perioperative blood conservation strategies are important for decreasing the allogeneic BT rate. PMID:28135341
Fayed, Nirmeen; Mourad, Wessam; Yassen, Khaled; Görlinger, Klaus
Background The ability to predict transfusion requirements may improve perioperative bleeding management as an integral part of a patient blood management program. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate preoperative thromboelastometry as a predictor of transfusion requirements for adult living donor liver transplant recipients. Methods The correlation between preoperative thromboelastometry variables in 100 adult living donor liver transplant recipients and intraoperative blood transfusion requirements was examined by univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. Thresholds of thromboelastometric parameters for prediction of packed red blood cells (PRBCs), fresh frozen plasma (FFP), platelets, and cryoprecipitate transfusion requirements were determined with receiver operating characteristics analysis. The attending anesthetists were blinded to the preoperative thromboelastometric analysis. However, a thromboelastometry-guided transfusion algorithm with predefined trigger values was used intraoperatively. The transfusion triggers in this algorithm did not change during the study period. Results Univariate analysis confirmed significant correlations between PRBCs, FFP, platelets or cryoprecipitate transfusion requirements and most thromboelastometric variables. Backward stepwise logistic regression indicated that EXTEM coagulation time (CT), maximum clot firmness (MCF) and INTEM CT, clot formation time (CFT) and MCF are independent predictors for PRBC transfusion. EXTEM CT, CFT and FIBTEM MCF are independent predictors for FFP transfusion. Only EXTEM and INTEM MCF were independent predictors of platelet transfusion. EXTEM CFT and MCF, INTEM CT, CFT and MCF as well as FIBTEM MCF are independent predictors for cryoprecipitate transfusion. Thromboelastometry-based regression equation accounted for 63% of PRBC, 83% of FFP, 61% of cryoprecipitate, and 44% of platelet transfusion requirements. Conclusion Preoperative thromboelastometric analysis is
Earl, Helena M.; Whitehead, Lynne; Jefferies, Sarah J.; Burnet, Neil G.
Patients with bony and soft tissue sarcomas may require intensive treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which often leads to a fall in haemoglobin levels, requiring blood transfusion. There may be advantages in predicting which patients will require transfusion, partly because anaemia and hypoxia may worsen the response of tumours to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Between 1997 and 2003, a total of 26 patients who received intensive treatment with curative intent were identified. Transfusions were given to maintain the haemoglobin at 10g/dl or above during chemotherapy, and at 12 g/dl or above during radiotherapy. Eighteen (69%) required a transfusion, the majority as a result of both the chemotherapy and RT criteria. There were 78 transfusion episodes, and 181 units of blood given. In the 18 patients who required transfusion, the average number of units was 10.1, but seven patients required more blood than this. The most significant factor influencing blood transfusion was choice of intensive chemotherapy. Intensive chemotherapy and presenting Hb less than 11.6 g/dl identified 13 out of 18 patients who needed transfusion. Adding a drop in haemoglobin of greater than 1.7 g/dl after one cycle of chemotherapy identified 16 out of 18 patients who required transfusion. The seven patients who had heavy transfusion requirements were identified by age 32 or less, intensive chemotherapy and a presenting Hb of 12 g/dl or less. Erythropoietin might be a useful alternative to transfusion in selected patient groups, especially those with heavy transfusion requirements. PMID:18521418
apheresis platelets and cryoprecipitate transfused during their hospital stay was 0.7 2.2 U and 1.0 4.0 U, respectively. Patients who received...different, and for the volume of packed red blood cells, platelets , and cryoprecipitate transfused. For the unmatched cohorts, p values for categorical...7.2; 4 (1–66) 2.1 4.8; 0 (0–31) 0.001 Mean units of platelets received 0.7 2.2; 0 (0–34) 0.7 1.4; 0 (0–10) 0.7 2.8; 0 (0–34) 0.99 Mean units
Jones, R M; de Lloyd, L; Kealaher, E J; Lilley, G J; Precious, E; Burckett St Laurent, D; Hamlyn, V; Collis, R E; Collins, P W
Limited data exist on platelet transfusion during postpartum haemorrhage. We retrospectively analysed a consecutive cohort from a single centre of 347 women with moderate or severe postpartum haemorrhage, transfused according to national guidelines. Twelve (3%) women required a platelet transfusion. There were no differences between women who did and did not receive platelets with respect to age, mode of initiation of labour or mode of delivery. Women receiving a platelet transfusion had a lower median (IQR [range]) platelet count at study entry than women who did not receive platelets before haemorrhage (135 (97-175 [26-259])×10(9) .l(-1) vs 224 (186-274 [91-1006])×10(9) .l(-1) ), respectively), and at diagnosis of postpartum haemorrhage (median 114 (78-153 [58-238])×10(9) .l(-1) vs 193 (155-243 [78-762])×10(9) .l(-1) respectively). Six women were thrombocytopenic pre-delivery. The cause of haemorrhage that was associated with the highest rate of platelet transfusion was placental abruption, with three of 14 women being transfused. If antenatal thrombocytopenia or consumptive coagulopathy were not present, platelets were only required for haemorrhage > 5000 ml. Early formulaic platelet transfusion would have resulted in many women receiving platelets unnecessarily. Using current guidelines, the need for platelet transfusion is uncommon without antenatal thrombocytopenia, consumptive coagulopathy or haemorrhage > 5000 ml. We found no evidence to support early fixed-ratio platelet transfusion.
[2013: The Seville document on consensus on the alternatives to allogenic blood transfusion. Update to the Seville document. Spanish Societies of Anaesthesiology (SEDAR), Haematology and Haemotherapy (SEHH), Hospital Pharmacy (SEFH), Critical Care Medicine (SEMICYUC), Thrombosis and Haemostasis (SETH) and Blood Transfusion (SETS)].
Leal-Noval, S R; Muñoz, M; Asuero, M; Contreras, E; García-Erce, J A; Llau, J V; Moral, V; Páramo, J A; Quintana, M
As allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT) is not harmless, multiple alternatives to TSA (AABT) have emerged, but there is a huge variability with respect to their indications and appropriate use. This variability results from the interplay of a number of factors, which include physicians specialty, knowledge and preferences, degree of anaemia, transfusion policy, and AABT availability. Since the ABBT are not harmless and may not meet costeffectiveness criteria, such avariability is unacceptable. The Spanish Societies of Anaesthesiology (SEDAR), Haematology and Haemotherapy (SEHH), Hospital Pharmacy (SEFH), Critical Care Medicine (SEMICYUC), Thrombosis and Haemostasis (SETH) and Blood Transfusion (SETS) have developed a Consensus Document for the proper use of AABTs. A panel of experts convened by these six Societies have conducted a systematic review of the medical literature and developed the «2013. Seville Document of Consensus on Alternatives to Allogeneic Blood Transfusion», which only considers those AABT aimed to decrease the transfusion of packed red cells. The AABTs are defined as any pharmacological and non-pharmacological measure aimed to decrease the transfusion of of red blood cell concentrates, while preserving the patient safety. For each AABT, the main question is formulated, positively or negatively, as: «Does or does not this particular AABT reduce the transfusion rate?» All the recommendations on the use of AABTs were formulated according to the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology.
Callahan, Devon S; Ashman, Zane; Kim, Dennis Y; Plurad, David S
Long bone fractures are cited as an etiology for significant blood loss; however, there is scant supporting literature. We examined the relationship between long bone fractures, blood transfusions, and solid organ injuries. We hypothesize that transfusions are rare with long bone fractures in the absence of a liver or splenic injury. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients admitted with femur, tibia, and humerus fractures. Outcomes included transfusion requirements and mortality. A total of 1837 patients were included. There were 182 patients with at least one solid organ injury. A greater portion of patients with femur fractures and a lower proportion of patients with tibia fractures required transfusion. Adjusting for solid organ injuries, there was no difference in transfusions for any patient with these fractures compared with the group, or when grouped by organ injury severity. A solid organ injury significantly increases the risk of death among patients with long bone fractures. Blood loss requiring transfusion in patients with orthopedic and solid organ injuries should not be attributed to the presence of fractures alone. The need for transfusions in these patients should lower the threshold for reimaging or intervention for the solid organ injury. Further study is warranted to quantify blood loss by fracture type with or without solid organ.
Zou, Shimian; Stramer, Susan L; Dodd, Roger Y
Over the past 20 years, there has been a major increase in the safety of the blood supply, as demonstrated by declining rates of posttransfusion infection and reductions in estimated residual risk for such infections. Reliable estimates of residual risk have been possible within the American Red Cross system because of the availability of a large amount of reliable and consistent data on donations and infectious disease testing results. Among allogeneic blood donations, the prevalence rates of infection markers for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus have decreased over time, although rates for markers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus did not. The incidence (/100 000 person-years) of HIV and HCV among repeat donors showed apparent increases from 1.55 and 1.89 in 2000 through 2001 to 2.16 and 2.98 in 2007 through 2008. These observed fluctuations confirm the need for continuous monitoring and evaluation. The residual risk of HIV, HCV, and human T-cell lymphotropic virus among all allogeneic donations is currently below 1 per 1 million donations, and that of hepatitis B surface antigen is close to 1 per 300 000 donations.
Desai, Sagar J.; Wood, Kristi S.; Marsh, Jackie; Bryant, Dianne; Abdo, Hussein; Lawendy, Abdel-Rahman; Sanders, David W.
Background Hip fractures are common injuries that result in blood loss and frequently require the transfusion of blood products. We sought to identify risk factors leading to increased blood transfusion in patients presenting with hip fractures, especially those factors that are modifiable. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the cases of all patients who had fixation of their hip fractures between October 2005 and February 2010. The need for transfusion was correlated with potential risk factors, including age, sex, preoperative hemoglobin, fracture type, fixation method and more. Results A total of 835 patients had fixation of their hip fractures during the study period; 631 met the inclusion criteria and 249 of them (39.5%) were transfused. We found an association between need for blood transfusion and female sex (p = 0.018), lower preoperative hemoglobin (p < 0.001), fracture type (p < 0.001) and fixation method (p < 0.001). Compared with femoral neck fractures, there was a 2.37 times greater risk of blood transfusion in patients with intertrochanteric fractures (p < 0.001) and a 4.03 times greater risk in those with subtrochanteric fractures (p < 0.001). Dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation decreased the risk of transfusion by about half compared with intramedullary nail or hemiarthroplasty. We found no association with age, delay to operation (p = 0.17) or duration of surgery (p = 0.30). Conclusion The only modifiable risk factor identified was fixation method. When considering blood transfusion requirements in isolation, we suggest a potential benefit in using a DHS for intertrochanteric and femoral neck fractures amenable to DHS fixation. PMID:25265109
[The "Seville" Consensus Document on Alternatives to Allogenic Blood Transfusion. Sociedades españolas de Anestesiología (SEDAR), Medicina Intensiva (SEMICYUC), Hematología y Hemoterapia (AEHH), Transfusión sanguínea (SETS) Trombosis y Hemostasia (SETH)].
Alberca, Ignacio; Asuero, Ma Soledad; Bóveda, José L; Carpio, Nelly; Contreras, Enric; Fernández-Mondéjar, Enrique; Forteza, Alejandro; García-Erce, José A; García de Lorenzo, Abelardo; Gomar, Carmen; Gómez, Aurelio; Llau, Juan V; López-Fernández, María F; Moral, Victoria; Muñoz, Manuel; Páramo, José A; Torrabadella, Pablo; Quintana, Manuel; Sánchez, Calixto
The Consensus Document on Alternatives to Allogenic Blood Transfusion (AABT) has been drawn up by a panel of experts from 5 scientific societies. The Spanish Societies of Anesthesiology (SEDAR), Critical Care Medicine and Coronary Units (SEMICYUC), Hematology and Hemotherapy (AEHH), Blood Transfusion (SETS) and Thrombosis and Hemostasis (SETH) have sponsored and participated in this Consensus Document. Alternatives to blood transfusion have been divided into pharmacological and non-pharmacological, with 4 modules and 12 topics. The main objective variable was the reduction of allogenic blood transfusions and/or the number of transfused patients. The extent to which this objective was achieved by each AABT was evaluated using the Delphi method, which classifies the grade of recommendation from A (supported by controlled studies) to E (non-controlled studies and expert opinion). The experts concluded that most of the indications for AABT were based on middle or low grades of recommendation, "C", "D", or "E", thus indicating the need for further controlled studies.
Mentzer, R M; Rahko, P S; Canver, C C; Chopra, P S; Love, R B; Cook, T D; Hegge, M O; Lasley, R D
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effect, if any, of adenosine blood cardioplegia on blood component usage after heart surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The most common cause of nonsurgical postcardiopulmonary bypass bleeding is platelet dysfunction. For this reason, pharmacologic agents are under investigation in an effort to reduce the need for transfusion in this setting. METHODS: A posthoc analysis of blood product usage was performed in data obtained from a Phase I, single center, open label, randomized study performed in 63 patients. The trial was designed to test the safety and tolerance of adenosine when added to blood cardioplegia in increasing doses to enhance myocardial protection. The database provided information regarding the effect of adenosine cardioplegia on venous plasma adenosine concentrations, the amount of platelets, fresh frozen plasma and packed erythrocytes used, and the association between the adenosine dose and postoperative thoracic drainage. RESULTS: The postoperative thoracic drainage at 6 hours, 24 hours, and at the time of chest tube removal in the high-dose adenosine cardioplegia group was 68%, 76%, and 75% of the placebo and low-dose adenosine cardioplegia group (p < 0.05). The highest dose of adenosine studied increased baseline adenosine venous plasma levels 360-fold, from 0.17 +/- 0.09 mumol/L to 42.30 +/- 11.20 mumol/L (p < 0.05). This marked increase was associated with a 68%, 56%, and 58% reduction in platelet, fresh frozen plasma, and packed erythrocyte usage, respectively (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In addition to enhancing the heart's tolerance to ischemia, adenosine-supplemented cardioplegic solution also may reduce bleeding after cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:8857856
Lahanas, A; Argerakis, P W; Johnson, K A; Burdan, M L; Ozdirik, J E
A low haematocrit during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with adverse outcomes and often results in homologous blood transfusions. Oxygenators with improved venous reservoir designs aid in reducing the priming volume. Recently, we changed our small adult oxygenator model from the D905 EOS oxygenator (Dideco, Mirandola, Italy) to the Capiox FX1540 (Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). We conducted a retrospective study of 42 patents to evaluate the impact of the Capiox FX 1540 on blood transfusion requirements in small patients (body surface area (BSA) up to 1.8 m(2)). The D905 EOS group had a lower minimum intraoperative haematocrit than the FX1540 group (20 ± 3 v 22 ± 4, p = 0.029) with 73% of the patients receiving intraoperative blood transfusions compared with 30% in the FX 1540 group (p = 0.012). Patients in the D905 EOS group received one blood transfusion more during CPB than the FX 1540 patients (p = 0.002). The haematocrits at the end of CPB and in the early postoperative period were identical in both groups. The postoperative ventilation time, length of stay in the intensive care unit and postoperative chest drain bleeding were similar in both groups. In conclusion, the Capiox FX1540 was effective in reducing intraoperative packed red cell transfusions.
Harris, Ryan N; Moskal, Joseph T; Capps, Susan G
Peri-operative tranexamic acid (TXA) significantly reduces the need for allogeneic blood transfusion in total hip arthroplasty (THA) and thus hospital costs are reduced. Before employing TXA in primary THA at our institution, facility costs were $286.90/THA for blood transfusion and required 0.45 man-hours/THA (transfusion rate 19.87%). After incorporating TXA, the cost for intravenous application was $123.38/THA for blood transfusion and TXA medication and 0.07 man-hours/THA (transfusion rate 4.39%) and the cost for topical application was $132.41/THA for blood transfusion and TXA and 0.14 man-hours/THA (transfusion rate 12.86%). TXA has the potential to reduce the facility cost per THA and the man-hours/THA from blood transfusions.
... availability of blood and blood products. (b) Provision of testing. The facility must provide prompt ABO grouping, D(Rho) typing, unexpected antibody detection, compatibility testing, and laboratory investigation... meeting equivalent requirements as determined by CMS. (c) Blood and blood products storage...
... availability of blood and blood products. (b) Provision of testing. The facility must provide prompt ABO grouping, D(Rho) typing, unexpected antibody detection, compatibility testing, and laboratory investigation... meeting equivalent requirements as determined by CMS. (c) Blood and blood products storage...
... availability of blood and blood products. (b) Provision of testing. The facility must provide prompt ABO grouping, D(Rho) typing, unexpected antibody detection, compatibility testing, and laboratory investigation... meeting equivalent requirements as determined by CMS. (c) Blood and blood products storage...
Klauke, Nora; Gräff, Ingo; Fleischer, Andreas; Boehm, Olaf; Guttenthaler, Vera; Baumgarten, Georg; Meybohm, Patrick; Wittmann, Maria
Objectives Prehospital hypothermia is defined as a core temperature <36.0°C and has been shown to be an independent risk factor for early death in patients with trauma. In a retrospective study, a possible correlation between the body temperature at the time of admission to the emergency room and subsequent in-hospital transfusion requirements and the in-hospital mortality rate was explored. Setting This is a retrospective single-centre study at a primary care hospital in Germany. Participants 15 895 patients were included in this study. Patients were classified by admission temperature and transfusion rate. Excluded were ambulant patients and patients with missing data. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome values were length of stay (LOS) in days, in-hospital mortality, the transferred amount of packed red blood cells (PRBCs), and admission to an intensive care unit. Secondary influencing variables were the patient's age and the Glasgow Coma Scale. Results In 22.85% of the patients, hypothermia was documented. Hypothermic patients died earlier in the course of their hospital stay than non-hypothermic patients (p<0.001). The administration of 1–3 PRBC increased the LOS significantly (p<0.001) and transfused patients had an increased risk of death (p<0.001). Prehospital hypothermia could be an independent risk factor for mortality (adjusted OR 8.521; p=0.001) and increases the relative risk for transfusion by factor 2.0 (OR 2.007; p=0.002). Conclusions Low body temperature at hospital admission is associated with a higher risk of transfusion and death. Hence, a greater awareness of prehospital temperature management should be established. PMID:27029772
Yoo, Moon-Jib; Ryu, Jee-Won; Kim, Jeong-Sang
Purpose Although allogeneic blood transfusion is the most common method of transfusion in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), there are reports showing significant decrease in the amount of allogeneic transfusion and incidence of side effects after combined use of autologous transfusion. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of using an autologous transfusion device in TKA. Materials and Methods Patients who underwent TKA at our institution from January 2003 to January 2014 were divided into two groups: group A (n=127) who received allogeneic transfusion only in TKA and group B (n=118) who received autologous transfusion via an autologous transfusion device and allogeneic transfusion. In both groups, the patients were transfused when the hemoglobin level was below 9 g/dL. In group B, blood collected by the autologous transfusion device was transfused only once after surgery. The total blood loss volume, total transfusion volume, and the presence of side effects were assessed based on medical records. Results Group A received 294.6 mL more allogeneic transfusion than group B (p<0.001). There were no significant differences with regard to the development of side effects between groups. Conclusions Application of an autologous transfusion device during TKA can be effective in reducing the allogeneic transfusion volume. Moreover, allogeneic transfusion was not necessary after autologous transfusion in some patients. PMID:26389070
Meier, J.; Filipescu, D.; Kozek-Langenecker, S.; Llau Pitarch, J.; Mallett, S.; Martus, P.; Matot, I.
Background. Transfusion of allogeneic blood influences outcome after surgery. Despite widespread availability of transfusion guidelines, transfusion practices might vary among physicians, departments, hospitals and countries. Our aim was to determine the amount of packed red blood cells (pRBC) and blood products transfused intraoperatively, and to describe factors determining transfusion throughout Europe. Methods. We did a prospective observational cohort study enrolling 5803 patients in 126 European centres that received at least one pRBC unit intraoperatively, during a continuous three month period in 2013. Results. The overall intraoperative transfusion rate was 1.8%; 59% of transfusions were at least partially initiated as a result of a physiological transfusion trigger- mostly because of hypotension (55.4%) and/or tachycardia (30.7%). Haemoglobin (Hb)- based transfusion trigger alone initiated only 8.5% of transfusions. The Hb concentration [mean (sd)] just before transfusion was 8.1 (1.7) g dl−1 and increased to 9.8 (1.8) g dl−1 after transfusion. The mean number of intraoperatively transfused pRBC units was 2.5 (2.7) units (median 2). Conclusion. Although European Society of Anaesthesiology transfusion guidelines are moderately implemented in Europe with respect to Hb threshold for transfusion (7–9 g dl−1), there is still an urgent need for further educational efforts that focus on the number of pRBC units to be transfused at this threshold. Clinical trial registration. NCT 01604083. PMID:26787795
Dettori, I; Ladaique, P
The platelet refractoriness is a complication of transfusion treatments potentially dramatic in onco-haematology. Chemo-treatment of haematological malignancies or packs of allogeneic bone marrow transplants require iterative platelet transfusion requirements. The discovery of a platelet refractoriness along with its support should be the most reactive as possible but also adapted to the cause. In the case of allo-immunization, it may be expected. The purpose of this presentation is to recall the different etiologies and perform a feedback on the support transfusion platelet of onco-haematology adult patients at Institut Paoli-Calmettes (IPC) in partnership with the EFSAM.
Green, Laura; Knight, Marian; Seeney, Frances; Hopkinson, Cathy; Collins, Peter W; Collis, Rachel E; Simpson, Nigel A B; Weeks, Andrew; Stanworth, Simon J
Understanding the coagulopathy of major-obstetric-haemorrhage (MOH) that leads to massive-transfusion (MT) is fundamental to improving outcomes. This study reports on the haematological features and transfusion management of women experiencing MT [defined as transfusion of ≥8 units of red blood cells (RBC) within 24 h of delivery]. One hundred and eighty-one cases [median (interquartile range; IQR) age 33 years (29-36)] were identified from all UK hospitals, using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System between July 2012 and June 2013. The median (IQR) estimated blood loss was 6 l (4·5-8). At presentation, the median platelet count was lowest for placenta accreta, compared with other causes, while the median prothrombin time and fibrinogen were <1·5 × mean normal and <3 g/l, respectively for all aetiologies. Median platelet count and fibrinogen fell to <75 × 10(9) /l and <2 g/l, respectively for all causes during bleeding, except for trauma. The median (IQR) units of RBC, fresh-frozen-plasma (FFP) and cryoprecipitate transfused were 10 (8-14), 6 (4-8) and 2 (2-4), respectively. The median time from the onset of bleeding to delivery of the first RBC unit was significantly shorter for women who delivered via elective caesarean section, compared with others. The coagulopathy of MT during MOH differs significantly depending on its cause, suggesting that more targeted transfusion strategies are required.
Patil, Vijaya; Shetmahajan, Madhavi
Haemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Rapid transfusion of large volumes of blood products is required in patients with haemorrhagic shock which may lead to a unique set of complications. Recently, protocol based management of these patients using massive transfusion protocol have shown improved outcomes. This section discusses in detail both management and complications of massive blood transfusion. PMID:25535421
Jaime-Pérez, José C; Villarreal-Villarreal, César D; Salazar-Riojas, Rosario; Méndez-Ramírez, Nereida; Vázquez-Garza, Eduardo; Gómez-Almaguer, David
Blood components transfused to hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are irradiated to prevent transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD). The effect of transfusing non-irradiated blood products in HSCT outcome, including incidence of transplant complications, bacterial infections, acute and chronic GVHD presentation, and characteristics, has not been documented. Clinical records as well as blood bank and electronic databases of HSCT patients grafted after reduced-intensity conditioning who received irradiated versus non-irradiated blood products, after blood irradiation became unavailable at our center, were scrutinized for transplant outcome, clinical evolution, engraftment characteristics including days to neutrophil and platelet recovery, acute and chronic GVHD, rate and type of infections, and additional transplant-related comorbidities. All transfused blood products were leukoreduced. A total of 156 HSCT recipients was studied, 73 received irradiated and 83 non-irradiated blood components. Bacterial infections were significantly more frequent in patients transfused with non-irradiated blood products, P = .04. Clinically relevant increased rates of fever and neutropenia and mucositis were also documented in these patients. No cases of TA-GVHD occurred. Classical GVHD developed in 37 patients (50.7%) who received irradiated blood products and 36 (43.9%) who received non-irradiated blood products, P = .42. Acute GVHD developed in 28 patients (38.4%) in the blood-irradiated and 33 patients (39.8%) in the non-irradiation group, P = .87. The 2-year GVHD-free survival rate was 40% in the irradiated versus 40.6% in the non-irradiation group, P = .071. Increased bacterial infections were found in HSCT recipients transfused with non-irradiated blood products, which ideally must always be irradiated.
Mauro, Margherita; Camoglio, Francesco; Piccoli, Pierluigi; De Bortoli, Massimiliano; Balter, Rita; Pegoraro, Anna; Cesaro, Simone
In patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), refractoriness to platelet transfusion has been associated with graft failure, delayed engraftment, early mortality and decreased overall survival. Therapeutic strategies include plasma exchange, immunoglobulins, rituximab, and splenectomy. We describe here three patients with refractoriness to platelet transfusion due to anti-human leukocyte antibodies who were splenectomized before HSCT (two cases) and after HSCT (one case) due to the lack of efficacy of other therapies. Splenectomy was uneventful. All three patients achieved a full donor engraftment. We suggest that splenectomy is feasible and effective in HSCT patients to reduce the risk of graft failure or delayed engraftment. PMID:27114815
Mauro, Margherita; Camoglio, Francesco; Piccoli, Pierluigi; De Bortoli, Massimiliano; Balter, Rita; Pegoraro, Anna; Cesaro, Simone
In patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), refractoriness to platelet transfusion has been associated with graft failure, delayed engraftment, early mortality and decreased overall survival. Therapeutic strategies include plasma exchange, immunoglobulins, rituximab, and splenectomy. We describe here three patients with refractoriness to platelet transfusion due to anti-human leukocyte antibodies who were splenectomized before HSCT (two cases) and after HSCT (one case) due to the lack of efficacy of other therapies. Splenectomy was uneventful. All three patients achieved a full donor engraftment. We suggest that splenectomy is feasible and effective in HSCT patients to reduce the risk of graft failure or delayed engraftment.
Tanhehco, Yvette C.; Berns, Jeffrey S.
Prior to the introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO), red blood cell (RBC) transfusions were frequently required when iron and anabolic steroids failed to improve the clinical symptoms of anemia associated with hemoglobin (Hb) levels that were commonly less than 7 g/dL. After the approval of EPO in the US in 1989, the Hb levels of patients on hemodialysis dramatically improved and the need for RBC transfusions decreased significantly. The need for RBC transfusion remains for patients who require an immediate increase in their RBC mass due to symptomatic anemia and is likely to increase due to changes in the management of anemia in dialysis patients resulting from clinical trials data, regulatory changes, and new reimbursement policies for EPO. The safety of the blood supply has greatly improved over the last few decades and the risk of transfusion-transmitted diseases has now been dramatically reduced. Non-infectious complications of transfusion currently cause the majority of morbidity and mortality associated with transfusion in the US. Transfusion also brings a risk of alloimmunization, a particular concern for dialysis patients waiting for kidney transplantation. Knowledge of the risks of RBC transfusions will help clinicians better assess the risks and benefits of transfusing patients with ESRD. This article reviews the modern day infectious and non-infectious risks of allogeneic RBC transfusions. PMID:22686519
Baltierra, David; Harper, Tiffany; Jones, Matthew Page; Nau, Konrad C
Until the 1980s, liberal blood transfusion criteria with limited evidence were used regardless of the patient's clinical condition. However, blood transfusion products are associated with several risks, such as infection, acute lung injury, circulatory overload, and hemolytic transfusion reactions. More restrictive transfusion criteria and patient monitoring can decrease the need for transfusions, as well as decrease morbidity and mortality rates and costs. The national supply of blood products continues to decline with more stringent blood donor criteria. Preoperative autologous blood donation has fallen out of favor in patients without antibodies to high-incidence antigens because of increased rates of transfusion, waste of predonated units, and significant costs. Instead, preoperative erythropoietin plus iron therapy in patients who are at high risk of postoperative anemia as well as intraoperative techniques, such as use of antifibrinolytics and cell salvage, can prevent the need for allogeneic blood transfusion. Artificial blood products remain problematic and are not used in the United States.
Haouzi, Philippe; Van de Louw, Andry
Our study intended to determine the effects on oxygen uptake (VO2) of restoring a normal rate of O2 delivery following blood transfusion (BT) after a severe hemorrhage (H). Spontaneously breathing urethane anesthetized rats were bled by removing 20 ml/kg of blood over 30 min. Rats were then infused with their own shed blood 15 min after the end of H. At mid-perfusion, half of the rats received a unique infusion of the decoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP, 6 mg/kg). VO2 and arterial blood pressure (ABP) were continuously measured throughout the study, along with serial determination of blood lactate concentration [La]. Animals were euthanized 45 min after the end of reperfusion; liver and lungs were further analyzed for early expression of oxidative stress gene using RT-PCR. Our bleeding protocol induced a significant decrease in ABP and increase in [La], while VO2 dropped by half. The O2 deficit progressively accumulated during the period of bleeding reached -114 ± 53 ml/kg, just before blood transfusion. Despite the transfusion of blood, a significant O2 deficit persisted (-82 ± 59 ml/kg) 45 min after reperfusion. This slow recovery of VO2 was sped up by DNP injection, leading to a fast recovery of O2 deficit after reperfusion, becoming positive (+460 ± 132 ml/kg) by the end of the protocol, supporting the view that O2 supply is not the main controller of VO2 dynamics after BT. Of note is that DNP also enhanced oxidative stress gene expression (up-regulation of NADPH oxidase 4 in the lung for instance). The mechanism of slow recovery of O2 requirement/demand following BT and the resulting effects on tissues exposed to relatively high O2 partial pressure are discussed.
Tsai, Hui-Jen; Lin, Sheng-Fung; Liu, Ta-Chih; Chang, Chao-Sung; Hsiao, Hui-Hua; Chen, Tyen-Po
Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a complication of ABO-incompatible allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The mechanism is not well known, although the isoagglutinin titer before transplantation or cyclosporine use is considered to be the cause. Patients with this complication require more blood transfusions than those without it. There is no standard treatment. We report two cases of PRCA after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation that were successfully treated with plasma exchange and low-dose steroid.
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McKinley, Todd O; McCarroll, Tyler; Gaski, Greg E; Frantz, Travis L; Zarzaur, Ben L; Terry, Colin; Steenburg, Scott D
Multiply injured patients (MIPs) in hemorrhagic shock develop oxygen debt which causes organ dysfunction and can lead to death. We developed a noninvasive patient-specific index, Shock Volume (SV), to quantify the magnitude of hypoperfusion. SV integrates the magnitude and duration that incremental shock index values are elevated above known thresholds of hypoperfusion using serial individual vital sign data. SV can be monitored in real time to assess ongoing hypoperfusion. The goal of this study was to determine how SV corresponded to transfusion requirements and organ dysfunction in a retrospective cohort of 74 MIPs. We measured SV in 6-h increments for 48 h after injury in multiply injured adults (18-65; Injury Severity Score ≥18). Patients who had accumulated 40 units of SV within 6 h of injury and 100 units of SV within 12 h of injury were at high risk for requiring massive transfusion or multiple critical administration transfusions. SV measurements were equally sensitive and specific as compared with base deficit values in predicting transfusions. SV measurements at 6 h after injury stratified patients at risk for multiple organ failure determined by Denver scores. In addition, SV values corresponded to the magnitude of organ failure determined by Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores. SV is a patient-specific index that can be quantified in real time in critically injured patients. It is a surrogate for cumulative hypoperfusion and it predicts high-volume transfusions and organ dysfunction.
Laclé, Miangela M.; Borel Rinkes, Inne H. M.
Brunner's gland hamartoma, also called hyperplasia, adenoma, and Brunneroma, is an extremely rare benign proliferative lesion of Brunner's glands in the duodenum. While being mostly small and asymptomatic, they can result in gastrointestinal bleeding and obstruction. We report the case of a 54-year-old man presenting with melena and severe anemia requiring blood transfusion. CT scans showed a large mass of 8 cm in diameter, presumably arising in the duodenum. Endoscopic biopsies were not conclusive. As we were unable to determine the nature of the mass preoperatively and due to the severe symptoms, its size, and the uncertain malignant potential, a classic Whipple procedure was performed. The resected specimen showed extensive proliferation of Brunner's glands without signs of malignancy. PMID:28299229
Frenkel, Nicola C; Laclé, Miangela M; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Molenaar, Izaak Q; Hagendoorn, Jeroen
Brunner's gland hamartoma, also called hyperplasia, adenoma, and Brunneroma, is an extremely rare benign proliferative lesion of Brunner's glands in the duodenum. While being mostly small and asymptomatic, they can result in gastrointestinal bleeding and obstruction. We report the case of a 54-year-old man presenting with melena and severe anemia requiring blood transfusion. CT scans showed a large mass of 8 cm in diameter, presumably arising in the duodenum. Endoscopic biopsies were not conclusive. As we were unable to determine the nature of the mass preoperatively and due to the severe symptoms, its size, and the uncertain malignant potential, a classic Whipple procedure was performed. The resected specimen showed extensive proliferation of Brunner's glands without signs of malignancy.
Hatakeyama, Naoki; Hori, Tsukasa; Yamamoto, Masaki; Inazawa, Natsuko; Iesato, Kotoe; Miyazaki, Toru; Ikeda, Hisami; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Nobuhiro
PTR is a serious problem in patients being treated for hematologic disorders. Two patients with acute leukemia developed PTR after allogeneic BMT from one HLA-antigen-mismatched mother attributable to HLA antibodies, which could not be detected in their serum before BMT. HLA antibodies, whose specificity resembled that of each patient, were detected in each donor's serum. Each donor had probably been immunized during pregnancy by their partner's HLA antigens expressed by the fetus, consequently, transplanted donor-derived cells provoked HLA antibodies in each recipient early after BMT, and those HLA antibodies induced PTR. If the mothers are selected as donors for their children, they should be tested for the presence of HLA antibodies.
Calabro, Samuele; Gallman, Antonia; Gowthaman, Uthaman; Liu, Dong; Chen, Pei; Liu, Jingchun; Krishnaswamy, Jayendra Kumar; Nascimento, Manuela Sales L.; Xu, Lan; Patel, Seema R.; Williams, Adam; Tormey, Christopher A.; Hod, Eldad A.; Spitalnik, Steven L.; Zimring, James C.; Hendrickson, Jeanne E.; Stowell, Sean R.
Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a life-saving therapeutic tool. However, a major complication in transfusion recipients is the generation of antibodies against non-ABO alloantigens on donor RBCs, potentially resulting in hemolysis and renal failure. Long-lived antibody responses typically require CD4+ T cell help and, in murine transfusion models, alloimmunization requires a spleen. Yet, it is not known how RBC-derived antigens are presented to naive T cells in the spleen. We sought to answer whether splenic dendritic cells (DCs) were essential for T cell priming to RBC alloantigens. Transient deletion of conventional DCs at the time of transfusion or splenic DC preactivation before RBC transfusion abrogated T and B cell responses to allogeneic RBCs, even though transfused RBCs persisted in the circulation for weeks. Although all splenic DCs phagocytosed RBCs and activated RBC-specific CD4+ T cells in vitro, only bridging channel 33D1+ DCs were required for alloimmunization in vivo. In contrast, deletion of XCR1+CD8+ DCs did not alter the immune response to RBCs. Our work suggests that blocking the function of one DC subset during a narrow window of time during RBC transfusion could potentially prevent the detrimental immune response that occurs in patients who require lifelong RBC transfusion support. PMID:27185856
Chanplakorn, Pongsthorn; Woratanarat, Patarawan; Kawinwonggowit, Viroj
Background. Recently, intra-articular tranexamic acid (IA-TXA) application has become a popular method for perioperative blood loss (PBL) reduction in total knee replacement (TKR). Nevertheless, through our knowledge, no previous studies had shown the correlation perioperative factors and the risk of excessive PBL or need of blood transfusion (BT) after IA-TXA. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study was conducted in patients underwent 299 primary TKRs, using IA-TXA, during 2-year period (2013-2014). Patient's characteristic and perioperative data were reviewed and collected. PBL was measured as total hemoglobin loss (THL), estimated total blood loss (ETBL), and drainage volume per kg (DV/kg). Excessive PBL was defined as PBL that exceeded 90th percentile. Results. From multivariate analysis, low preoperative hemoglobin (Hb) level and body mass index (BMI) were the significant predictors of postoperative BT (p < 0.0001 and 0.003, resp.). Excessive THL significant associated with preoperative Hb (p < 0.0001). Excessive ETBL significantly associated with preoperative Hb, height, preoperative range-of-motion, and creatinine clearance (p < 0.05 all). Low BMI and large prosthesis size were the significant predictors of excessive DV/kg (p = 0.0001 and 0.002, resp.). Conclusions. Low preoperative Hb and BMI were the significant risks of postoperative transfusion after TKR with IA-TXA. Moreover, multiple perioperative factors could result in higher PBL. PMID:28331851
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulations applicable to blood and blood components, including Source Plasma, to make the donor eligibility and testing requirements more consistent with current practices in the blood industry, to more closely align the regulations with current FDA recommendations, and to provide flexibility to accommodate advancing technology. In order to better assure the safety of the nation's blood supply and to help protect donor health, FDA is revising the requirements for blood establishments to test donors for infectious disease, and to determine that donors are eligible to donate and that donations are suitable for transfusion or further manufacture. FDA is also requiring establishments to evaluate donors for factors that may adversely affect the safety, purity, and potency of blood and blood components or the health of a donor during the donation process. Accordingly, these regulations establish requirements for donor education, donor history, and donor testing. These regulations also implement a flexible framework to help both FDA and industry to more effectively respond to new or emerging infectious agents that may affect blood product safety.
Busch, O R; Hop, W C; Marquet, R L; Jeekel, J
OBJECTIVE. The authors analyzed the effect of blood transfusions on the pattern of colorectal cancer recurrence. BACKGROUND. Retrospective studies suggest that blood transfusions are associated with a poor prognosis in patients who undergo operations for colorectal malignancies. In a previously published, randomized trial, it was investigated whether autologous blood transfusions could overcome this putative detrimental effect. However, this did not appear to be the case. METHODS. In the current study, the authors analyzed the patterns of recurrence in 420 patients who underwent curative operations for colorectal cancer. RESULTS. Patients who did not require transfusions (N = 143) had significantly better disease-free survival than those who did need transfusions (N = 277); percentages at 4 years were 73% and 59%, respectively (p = 0.001). No difference was found between both groups in comparing cumulative percentages of patients having metastases; percentages at 4 years were 25% in the group that did not undergo transfusion and 27% in the transfused group. The percentage of cases having local recurrence, however, was significantly increased (p = 0.0006) in the transfused group as compared with the group that did not undergo transfusion; percentages at 4 years were 20% and 3%, respectively. The groups of patients receiving only allogeneic, only autologous, or both types of transfusions all had a significantly higher incidence of local recurrence than the patients who did not receive transfusions, but no differences were found between these three groups. CONCLUSIONS. These findings suggest that the association between blood transfusions and prognosis in colorectal cancer is a result of the circumstances that necessitate transfusions, leading to the development of local recurrences, but not of distant metastases. PMID:7986147
Matijevic, Nena; Wang, Yao-Wei W.; Holcomb, John B.; Kozar, Rosemary; Cardenas, Jessica C.; Wade, Charles E.
Background Severe injury often results in substantial bleeding and mortality. Injury provokes cellular activation and release of extracellular vesicles. Circulating microvesicles (MVs) are predominantly platelet-derived and highly procoagulant. They support hemostasis and vascular function. The roles of MVs in survival after severe injury are largely unknown. We hypothesized that altered MV phenotypes would be associated with transfusion requirements and poor outcomes. Methods This single-centre study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. The study cohort consisted of patients with major trauma requiring blood product transfusion and 26 healthy controls. Plasma samples for MVs were collected upon admission to the emergency department (n=169) and post-resuscitation (n=42), and analysed by flow cytometry for MV counts and cellular origin: platelet (PMV), erythrocyte (RMV), leukocyte (LMV), endothelial (EMV), tissue factor (TFMV), and annexin V (AVMV). Twenty-four hour mortality is the outcome measurement used to classify survivors versus non-survivors. Data were compared over time and analysed with demographic and clinical data. Results The median age was 34 (IQR 23, 51), 72% were male, Injury Severity Score was 29 (IQR 19, 36), and 24 h mortality was 13%. MV levels and phenotypes differed between patients and controls. Elevated admission EMVs were found both in survivors (409/µL) and non-survivors (393/µL) compared to controls (23/µL, p<0.001) and persisted over time. Admission levels of PMV, AVMV, RMV, and TFMV were significantly lower in patients who died compared to survivors, but were not independently associated with the 24 h mortality rate. Patients with low MV levels at admission received the most blood products within the first 24 h. AVMV and PMV levels either increased over time or stabilized in survivors but decreased in non-survivors, resulting in significantly lower levels at intensive care unit admission in non-survivors (1,048 vs. 1
Green, William Scott; Toy, Pearl; Bozic, Kevin J
Autologous blood donation and erythropoietin (EPO) have been shown to be effective in reducing allogeneic blood transfusion, but the cost-effectiveness of these interventions remains unclear. A cost minimization analysis was performed, comparing the total costs of allogeneic blood transfusion strategy and autologous and allogeneic blood transfusion strategy for 161 primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and 195 total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients. An EPO cost minimization model was constructed using a previously published algorithm for blood management after total joint arthroplasty. The least costly strategy was autologous blood donation in combination with allogeneic blood for THA and TKA patients at $856 and $892 per patient, respectively. The most costly strategy was allogeneic only at $1769 and $1352 per THA and TKA patient, respectively. The EPO strategy model predicted costs similar to the autologous and allogeneic. A strategy that combines autologous blood donation with EPO for patients who cannot donate autologous blood may provide the greatest cost savings and minimize allogeneic blood transfusion.
Kerkhoff, Andrew D.; Lawn, Stephen D.; Schutz, Charlotte; Burton, Rosie; Boulle, Andrew; Cobelens, Frank J.; Meintjes, Graeme
Background. Morbidity and mortality remain high among hospitalized patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in sub-Saharan Africa despite widespread availability of antiretroviral therapy. Severe anemia is likely one important driver, and some evidence suggests that blood transfusions may accelerate HIV progression and paradoxically increase short-term mortality. We investigated the relationship between anemia, blood transfusions, and mortality in a South African district hospital. Methods. Unselected consecutive HIV-infected adults requiring acute medical admission to a Cape Town township district hospital were recruited. Admission hemoglobin concentrations were used to classify anemia severity according to World Health Organization/AIDS Clinical Trials Group criteria. Vital status was determined at 90 days, and Cox regression analyses were used to determine independent predictors of mortality. Results. Of 585 HIV-infected patients enrolled, 578 (98.8%) were included in the analysis. Anemia was detected in 84.8% of patients and was severe (hemoglobin, 6.5–7.9 g/dL) or life-threatening (hemoglobin, <6.5 g/dL) in 17.3% and 13.3%, respectively. Within 90 days of the date of admission, 13.5% (n = 78) patients received at least 1 blood transfusion with red cell concentrate and 77 (13.3%) patients died. In univariable analysis, baseline hemoglobin and receipt of blood transfusion were associated with increased mortality risk. However, in multivariable analysis, neither hemoglobin nor receipt of a blood transfusion were independently associated with greater mortality risk. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome-defining illnesses other than tuberculosis and impaired renal function independently predicted mortality. Conclusions. Newly admitted HIV-infected adults had a high prevalence of severe or life-threatening anemia and blood transfusions were frequently required. However, after adjustment for confounders, blood transfusions did not confer an
Spahn, Donat R; Goodnough, Lawrence T
The use of alternatives to allogeneic blood continues to rest on the principles that blood transfusions have inherent risks, associated costs, and affect the blood inventory available for health-care delivery. Increasing evidence exists of a fall in the use of blood because of associated costs and adverse outcomes, and suggests that the challenge for the use of alternatives to blood components will similarly be driven by costs and patient outcomes. Additionally, the risk-benefit profiles of alternatives to blood transfusion such as autologous blood procurement, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, and haemostatic agents are under investigation. Nevertheless, the inherent risks of blood, along with the continued rise in blood costs are likely to favour the continued development and use of alternatives to blood transfusion. We summarise the current roles of alternatives to blood in the management of medical and surgical anaemias.
McNeer, Brian; Dickason, Brent; Niles, Scott; Ploessl, Jay
An 11-month-old patient with idiopathic cardiomyopathy was scheduled for orthotopic heart transplantation. A perioperative exchange transfusion was performed because of elevated panel reactive antibody levels. This process was accomplished in the operating room prior to instituting cardiopulmonary bypass using a modified cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. In preparation for the procedure, the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit was primed with washed leukocyte-filtered banked packed red blood cells, fresh-frozen plasma, albumin, and heparin. Pump prime laboratory values were normalized prior to beginning the exchange transfusion. The patient's blood was downloaded from the venous line just proximal to the venous reservoir while simultaneously transfusing the normalized prime at normothermia. Approximately 125% of the patients calculated blood volume was exchanged. This technique greatly reduces the likelihood of hyperacute rejection. The exchange transfusion process, in addition to the patient immature immune system, provides additional options in orthotopic heart transplantation for patients that may otherwise not be considered suitable candidates.
Wagner, S J; Friedman, L I; Dodd, R Y
The incidence of sepsis caused by transfusion of bacterially contaminated blood components is similar to or less than that of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis C virus infection, yet significantly exceeds those currently estimated for transfusion-associated human immunodeficiency and hepatitis B viruses. Outcomes are serious and may be fatal. In addition, transfusion of sterile allogenic blood can have generalized immunosuppressive effects on recipients, resulting in increased susceptibility to postoperative infection. This review examines the frequency of occurrence of transfusion-associated sepsis, the organisms implicated, and potential sources of bacteria. Approaches to minimize the frequency of sepsis are discussed, including the benefits and disadvantages of altering the storage conditions for blood. In addition, the impact of high levels of bacteria on the gross characteristics of erythrocyte and platelet concentrates is described. The potentials and limitations of current tests for detecting bacteria in blood are also discussed. PMID:7923050
Helm, A T; Karski, M T; Parsons, S J; Sampath, J S; Bale, R S
We prospectively audited 79 patients undergoing primary knee or hip arthroplasty (38 knees, 41 hips) and found that 66% (58% of knees, 73% of hips) had at least one unit of blood transfused postoperatively, with a mean transfusion requirement of 13 units per patient (1.1 for knees, 0 to 6; 1.5 for hips, 0 to 4). We then established a new protocol for postoperative blood transfusion. This requires the calculation of the maximum allowable blood loss (MABL) that each individual patient can safely lose based upon their weight and preoperative haematocrit. The total blood loss up to this volume is replaced with colloid. When a patient's total blood loss reaches their MABL their haematocrit is measured at the bedside using the Microspin system (Bayer plc, Newbury, UK). If their haematocrit is low (< 0.30 for men, < 0.27 for women), blood is transfused. As a safety net all patients have their haemoglobin formally checked on days 1, 2, and 3 after surgery and have a transfusion if the haemoglobin levels are less than 8.5 g/dl. We conducted a further audit of 82 patients (35 knees, 47 hips) after the introduction of this protocol. Under the new protocol only 24% of patients required blood (11% of knees, 34% of hips) with a mean transfusion requirement of 0.56 units per patient (0.26 for knees, 0 to 4; 0.79 for hips, 0 to 4). The use of clinical audit and the introduction of strict guidelines for transfusion can change transfusion practice and result in improved patient care. Our transfusion protocol is a simple and effective method of keeping transfusion to a minimum and is particularly useful in departments which do not have the facility to use autologous blood or reinfusion drains for relective orthopaedic surgery.
Yu, Yu; Yu, Jing; Iclozan, Cristina; Kaosaard, Kane; Anasetti, Claudio; Yu, Xue-Zhong
Bim, a BH3-only Bcl-2-family protein, is essential for T-cell negative selection in the thymus as well as for the death of activated T cells in the periphery. The role of Bim has been extensively studied in T-cell responses to self-antigens and viral infections. Recent findings on Bim in autoimmunity triggered our interest in investigating whether Bim may play a role in another disease with inflammatory symptoms as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Here we report that Bim is required for optimal T-cell responses to alloantigens in vivo and for the development of GVHD. Using murine models of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT), we found that donor T cells deficient for Bim are impaired in the induction of GVHD primarily due to a significant defect in T cell activation and expansion in vivo. Upon TCR engagement, Bim(-/-) T cells exhibited selective defects in CD69 expression and phosphorylation of PLCγ1. Our studies uncover a novel aspect of Bim function in T-cell activation with important implications in understanding the mechanisms of T-cell activation and tolerance under allogeneic transplantation.
Bilgili, Mustafa Gökhan; Erçin, Ersin; Peker, Gökhan; Kural, Cemal; Başaran, Serdar Hakan; Duramaz, Altuğ; Avkan, Cevdet
Background: Blood loss and replacement is still a controversial issue in major orthopaedic surgery. Allogenic blood transfusion may cause legal problems and concerns regarding the transmission of transfusion-related diseases. Cellsaver Systems (CSS) were developed as an alternative to allogenic transfusion but CSS transfusion may cause coagulation, infection and haemodynamic instability. Aims: Our aim was to analyse the efficiency and cost analysis of a cell saver auto-transfusion system in the total knee arthroplasty procedure. Study Design: Retrospective comparative study. Methods: Those patients who were operated on by unilateral, cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were retrospectively evaluated. Group 1 included 37 patients who were treated using the cell saver system, and Group 2 involved 39 patients who were treated by allogenic blood transfusion. The groups were compared in terms of preoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels, blood loss and transfusion amount, whether allogenic transfusion was made, degree of deformity, body mass index and cost. Results: No significant results could be obtained in the statistical comparisons made in terms of the demographic properties, deformity properties, preoperative laboratory values, transfusion amount and length of hospital stay of the groups. Average blood loss was calculated to be less in Group 1 (p<0.05) and cost was higher in Group 1 (p<0.05). Conclusion: Cell saver systems do not decrease the amount of allogenic blood transfusion and costs more. Therefore, the routine usage of the auto-transfusion systems is a controversial issue. Cell saver system usage does not affect allogenic blood transfusion incidence or allogenic blood transfusion volume. It was found that preoperative haemoglobin and body mass index rates may affect allogenic blood transfusion. Therefore, it is foreseen that auto-transfusion systems could be useful in patients with low haemoglobin level and body mass index. PMID:25207187
Wang, Hui; Wu, Xiaojian; Wang, Yuantao; Oldenborg, Per-Arne; Yang, Yong-Guang
CD47 is a ligand of the inhibitory receptor, signal regulatory protein (SIRP)alpha, and its interaction with SIRPalpha on macrophages prevents phagocytosis of autologous hematopoietic cells. CD47-SIRPalpha signaling also regulates dendritic cell (DC) endocytosis, activation, and maturation. In this study, we show that CD47 expression on donor cells plays an important role in suppression of allograft rejection by donor-specific transfusion (DST). DST was performed by i.v. injection of splenocytes from C57BL/6 donors into MHC class I-disparate bm1 mice 7 d prior to donor skin grafting. Administration of wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 donor splenocytes markedly prolonged donor skin survival in bm1 mouse recipients. In contrast, bm1 mice receiving DST from CD47 knockout (KO) donors showed no inhibition or even acceleration of donor skin graft rejection compared with non-DST control (naive) bm1 mice. T cells from bm1 mice receiving CD47 KO, but not WT, DST exhibited strong anti-donor responses. The ability of DST to suppress alloresponses was positively correlated with the density of CD47 molecules on donor cells, as CD47(+/-) DST was able to prolonged donor skin survival, but to a significantly less extent than WT DST. Furthermore, DCs from CD47 KO, but not WT, DST recipients showed rapid activation and contributed to donor skin rejection. These results show for the first time that CD47 on donor cells is required to repress recipient DC activation and suppress allograft rejection after DST, and suggest CD47 as a potential target for facilitating the induction of transplant tolerance.
Bruce, Warwick; Campbell, David; Daly, David; Isbister, James
Data from the Australian Better Safer Transfusion programme show that about one-third of patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty receive perioperative blood transfusions, placing them at increased risk for adverse clinical outcomes. Other concerns associated with allogeneic blood transfusion include the quality of stored red cell concentrates, the cost of provision of blood and the predicted local demographics, which mean that fewer donors will need to support a greater number of recipients. In view of the multiple challenges associated with allogeneic blood transfusion and its provision, we developed practical management recommendations for perioperative bleeding in joint replacement surgery, based on available evidence and expert consensus opinion, that aim to promote a new, responsible approach to transfusion management. Key recommendations are as follows. Patients' medical health, including haemoglobin and iron levels, needs to be evaluated and optimized preoperatively. Anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy should be stopped if possible, unless indicated for secondary cardiovascular prevention or coronary stent patency, in which case careful consideration is required. If substantial blood loss is anticipated, intraoperative management with antifibrinolytic agents is recommended for bleeding prophylaxis. Normothermia should be maintained. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures are recommended for post-operative thromboprophylaxis. A blood management programme should be instituted for haemodynamically stable patients.
Dirweesh, Ahmed; Amodu, Afolarin; Khan, Muhammad; Zijoo, Ritika; Ambreen, Bushra; Ibrahim, Mohammad; Ijaz, Muhammad; Nawwar, Abdelhameed; Genena, Kareem; Tahir, Muhammad; Kumar, Naresh; Debari, Vincent A.; Wallach, Sara
Background The prevalence of diverticulosis is increasing with 5-10% of patients developing diverticulitis and 5-15% developing symptomatic bleeding. Diverticulitis can result in abscess, perforation, fistula, or obstruction. Bleeding has combined morbidity and mortality rates of 10-20%. The purpose of this study was to compare diverticulitis-related complications and transfusion requirements for diverticular bleeding in patients with normal to moderately reduced kidney function (glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) and patients with severe renal impairment (GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2), and identify factors associated with these outcomes. Methods We retrospectively reviewed records of all patients with diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding treated at our hospital from January 1, 2011 to July 31, 2016. Patients were evaluated for baseline characteristics, GFR, baseline hemoglobin, medications, comorbidities, length of stay (LOS), presence of perforations or abscesses and the need for transfusion. Results Of the 291 patients included, males were 167 (58%). Perforations and abscesses complicating diverticulitis developed in 31/136 (23%) of patients with GFR ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2, and in 13/26 (50%) of patients with GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (odds ratio (OR): 3.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.423 - 8.06; P = 0.0073). Mean LOS (days) was 6.3 ± 4 in the GFR ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 group and 8.5 ± 4.4 in GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 group (P = 0.0001). Blood transfusion for diverticular bleeding occurred in 11/78 (14%) of patients with GFR ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and in 22/51 (43%) of patients with GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (OR: 4.6; 95% CI: 1.99 - 10.76; P = 0.0004). Among patients who needed transfusion, mean LOS was 8.5 ± 2.5 in GFR ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 group and 9 ± 5 in those with GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P = 0.04). There were no differences in age, gender or race between the study groups. Conclusion There was a significant increase in complicated
Bradai, Mohamed; Abad, Mohand Tayeb; Pissard, Serge; Lamraoui, Fatima; Skopinski, Laurent; de Montalembert, Mariane
Hydroxyurea (HU) enhances fetal hemoglobin (Hb) production. An increase in total Hb level has been repeatedly reported during HU treatment in patients with sickle cell disease and in several patients with beta-thalassemia intermedia. Effects in patients with beta-thalassemia major are controversial. We now report a marked elevation of total Hb levels with HU that permitted regular transfusions to be stopped in 7 children with transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia. The median follow-up was 19 +/- 3 months (range, 13-21 months). We conclude that HU can eliminate transfusional needs in children with beta-thalassemia major, which could be particularly useful in countries such as Algeria, where supplies of blood or chelating agents are limited.
blinded to the treatment group, evaluated the de- identified data for analysis. AIM 1: In a prospective, randomized trial, evaluate transfusion...minimal differences between treatment 6 groups. However, we are in the process of multifactorial analysis with the help of the experts from...Adiposity after Hemorrhagic Shock and Resuscitation (PI Kozar) Evaluate sarcopenia based on admission CT and compare to BMI and outcomes. CTs from patients
Survey of experts on therapeutic policies and proposals for the optimal timing for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in transfusion-dependent patients with myelodysplastic syndrome-refractory anemia
Moon, Joon Ho; Lee, Yoo Jin; Park, Sung Woo; Kim, Ji Yoon
Background Most hypomethylating agent (HMA) responders with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) eventually need allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) because they often acquire resistance to HMAs within two years of treatment. Considering the nature of MDS and the poor outcomes of SCT when performed after confirming the progression of MDS to acute myeloid leukemia (AML), allogeneic SCT should be performed with caution in patients with low-risk MDS. Methods To address low-risk MDS, the Korean AML/MDS working party group designed a survey for 34 MDS experts in Korea on therapeutic HMA and allogeneic SCT policies for low-risk MDS. The level of consensus was defined as the percentage of agreement among the experts. Results With regard to the optimal time for allogeneic SCT for HMA responders with MDS-RA, 76% experts agreed that allogeneic SCT should be performed when a patient has a low platelet count. With regard to the relapse pattern that was most commonly found during HMA treatment in responding patients with MDS-RA, 54% experts agreed that the most common pattern that indicated HMA failure was the gradual worsening of cytopenia. Conclusion The optimal time to perform allogeneic SCT in RA patients who achieved hematologic complete remission during HMA treatment is when the platelet count decreases. However, these suggestions need to be evaluated in larger future studies. Therefore, careful decisions should be taken at each step of allogeneic SCT to maximize the outcomes for patients with MDS-RA and iron overload. PMID:27104191
Vida, Vladimiro L; Spiezia, Luca; Bortolussi, Giacomo; Marchetti, Marta E; Campello, Elena; Pittarello, Demetrio; Gregori, Dario; Stellin, Giovanni; Simioni, Paolo
The objective of this study is to evaluate the preoperative coagulation pattern and its association to postoperative blood products transfusion in children with congenital heart disease (CHD), focusing on cyanotic patients (oxygen saturation, SATO 2 < 85%). From January to August 2014, preoperative standard coagulation tests and rotational thromboelastometry assays were performed on 81 pediatric patients (<16 years old) who underwent surgery for CHD with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass. Sixty patients (74%) were acyanotic and 21 (26%) cyanotic. Mean age at time of surgery was 7.9 months (interquartile range 2.9-43.6 months). Cyanotic patients had a significantly higher hematocrit (P < 0.001), a reduced prothrombin activity (PT) (P = 0.01) level, and a lower platelet count (P = 0.02) than acyanotic patients. An inverse linear association was found between patient's SATO2 and clot formation time (CFT) (INTEM, P = 0.001, and EXTEM, P < 0.0001). A direct linear association was found between patient's SATO2 and maximum clot firmness (MCF) (INTEM, P = 0.04, and EXTEM, P = 0.05). Preoperative cyanosis was also associated with a lower median MCF in FIBTEM (P = 0.02). Cyanotic patients required more frequent postoperative transfusions of fibrinogen (7/21 patients, 33% vs. 4/60 patients, 6.7%, P = 0.01) and fresh frozen plasma (14/21, 67% vs. 25/60, 42%, P = 0.08). Patients with a lower presurgery PT and platelet count subsequently required more fibrinogen transfusion P = 0.02 and P = 0.003, respectively); the same goes for patients with a longer CFT (INTEM, P = 0.01 and EXTEM, P = 0.03) and a reduced MCF (INTEM, P = 0.02 and FIBTEM, P = 0.01) as well. Cyanotic patients showed significant preoperative coagulation anomalies and required a higher postoperative fibrinogen supplementation. The preoperative MCF FIBTEM has become an important factor in our postoperative thromboelastometry-guided transfusion
Hirata, Yuichi; Li, Hao-Wei; Takahashi, Kazuko; Ishii, Hiroshi; Sykes, Megan; Fujisaki, Joji
NK cells resist engraftment of syngeneic and allogeneic bone marrow (BM) cells lacking major histocompatibility (MHC) class I molecules, suggesting a critical role for donor MHC class I molecules in preventing NK cell attack against donor hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), and their derivatives. However, using high-resolution in vivo imaging, we demonstrated here that syngeneic MHC class I knockout (KO) donor HSPCs persist with the same survival frequencies as wild-type donor HSPCs. In contrast, syngeneic MHC class I KO differentiated hematopoietic cells and allogeneic MHC class I KO HSPCs were rejected in a manner that was significantly inhibited by NK cell depletion. In vivo time-lapse imaging demonstrated that mice receiving allogeneic MHC class I KO HSPCs showed a significant increase in NK cell motility and proliferation as well as frequencies of NK cell contact with and killing of HSPCs as compared to mice receiving wild-type HSPCs. The data indicate that donor MHC class I molecules are required to prevent NK cell-mediated rejection of syngeneic differentiated cells and allogeneic HSPCs, but not of syngeneic HSPCs.
Hirata, Yuichi; Li, Hao-Wei; Takahashi, Kazuko; Ishii, Hiroshi; Sykes, Megan; Fujisaki, Joji
NK cells resist engraftment of syngeneic and allogeneic bone marrow (BM) cells lacking major histocompatibility (MHC) class I molecules, suggesting a critical role for donor MHC class I molecules in preventing NK cell attack against donor hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), and their derivatives. However, using high-resolution in vivo imaging, we demonstrated here that syngeneic MHC class I knockout (KO) donor HSPCs persist with the same survival frequencies as wild-type donor HSPCs. In contrast, syngeneic MHC class I KO differentiated hematopoietic cells and allogeneic MHC class I KO HSPCs were rejected in a manner that was significantly inhibited by NK cell depletion. In vivo time-lapse imaging demonstrated that mice receiving allogeneic MHC class I KO HSPCs showed a significant increase in NK cell motility and proliferation as well as frequencies of NK cell contact with and killing of HSPCs as compared to mice receiving wild-type HSPCs. The data indicate that donor MHC class I molecules are required to prevent NK cell-mediated rejection of syngeneic differentiated cells and allogeneic HSPCs, but not of syngeneic HSPCs. PMID:26544200
Ozgönenel, Bülent; Kanhere, Rujuta; O'Malley, Barbara; Balasubramaniam, Mamtha; Eisenbrey, A Bradley
This audit encompassing a six-month period on the current practice of red blood cell transfusion following elective primary total hip arthroplasty showed that the rate of allogeneic blood avoidance was 84.8% for preoperative autologous blood donors and 47.8% for non-donors (p<0.001). Lower preoperative hemoglobin level was associated with an increased allogeneic unit transfusion (p<0.001). The intraoperative use of autologous blood collection and transfusion systems did not reduce the transfusion risk, and the use of the colloid volume expander was associated with a 1.8-fold increased risk of transfusion (p=0.022).
Hu, Jun; Yu, Zhu-Ping; Wang, Peng; Shi, Chun-Yan; Yang, Hui-Xia
Background: The reports on massive transfusions (MTs) in obstetrics have recently been an increasing trend. We aimed to define the clinical features, risk factors, main causes, and outcomes of MTs due to severe postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and the frequency trends over the past 10 years. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 3552 PPH patients who were at ≥28 weeks of gestation in the Obstetric Department of Peking University First Hospital from January 2006 to February 2015. The clinical records of patients receiving MT with ≥5 units (approximately 1000 ml) of red blood cells within 24 h of giving birth were included. The Pearson's Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the frequency distributions among the categorical variables of the clinical features. Results: One-hundred six women were identified with MT over the 10-year period. The MT percentage was stable between the first 5-year group (2006–2010) and the second 5-year group (2011–2015) (2.5‰ vs. 2.7‰, χ2 = 154.85, P = 0.25). Although uterine atony remained the main cause of MT, there was a rising trend for placental abnormalities (especially placenta accreta) in the second 5-year group compared with the first 5-year group (34% vs. 23%, χ2 = 188.26, P = 0.03). Twenty-four (23%) women underwent hysterectomy, and among all the causes of PPH, placenta accreta had the highest hysterectomy rate of 70% (17/24). No maternal death was observed. Conclusions: There was a rising trend for placental abnormalities underlying the stable incidence of MT in the PPH cases. Placenta accreta accounted for the highest risk of hysterectomy. It is reasonable to have appropriate blood transfusion backup for high-risk patients, especially those with placenta accreta. PMID:28229990
Nahirniak, Susan; Slichter, Sherrill J; Tanael, Susano; Rebulla, Paolo; Pavenski, Katerina; Vassallo, Ralph; Fung, Mark; Duquesnoy, Rene; Saw, Chee-Loong; Stanworth, Simon; Tinmouth, Alan; Hume, Heather; Ponnampalam, Arjuna; Moltzan, Catherine; Berry, Brian; Shehata, Nadine
Patients with hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia are at an increased risk for hemorrhage and alloimmunization to platelets. Updated guidance for optimizing platelet transfusion therapy is needed as data from recent pivotal trials have the potential to change practice. This guideline, developed by a large international panel using a systematic search strategy and standardized methods to develop recommendations, incorporates recent trials not available when previous guidelines were developed. We found that prophylactic platelet transfusion for platelet counts less than or equal to 10 × 10(9)/L is the optimal approach to decrease the risk of hemorrhage for patients requiring chemotherapy or undergoing allogeneic or autologous transplantation. A low dose of platelets (1.41 × 10(11)/m2) is hemostatically as effective as higher dose of platelets but requires more frequent platelet transfusions suggesting that low-dose platelets may be used in hospitalized patients. For outpatients, a median dose (2.4 × 10(11)/m2) may be more cost-effective to prevent clinic visits only to receive a transfusion. In terms of platelet products, whole blood-derived platelet concentrates can be used interchangeably with apheresis platelets, and ABO-compatible platelet should be given to improve platelet increments and decrease the rate of refractoriness to platelet transfusion. For RhD-negative female children or women of child-bearing potential who have received RhD-positive platelets, Rh immunoglobulin should probably be given to prevent immunization to the RhD antigen. Providing platelet support for the alloimmunized refractory patients with ABO-matched and HLA-selected or crossmatched products is of some benefit, yet the degree of benefit needs to be assessed in the era of leukoreduction.
Clevenger, Ben; Mallett, Susan V
There is wide variation in the management of coagulation and blood transfusion practice in liver transplantation. The use of blood products intraoperatively is declining and transfusion free transplantations take place ever more frequently. Allogenic blood products have been shown to increase morbidity and mortality. Primary haemostasis, coagulation and fibrinolysis are altered by liver disease. This, combined with intraoperative disturbances of coagulation, increases the risk of bleeding. Meanwhile, the rebalancing of coagulation homeostasis can put patients at risk of hypercoagulability and thrombosis. The application of the principles of patient blood management to transplantation can reduce the risk of transfusion. This includes: preoperative recognition and treatment of anaemia, reduction of perioperative blood loss and the use of restrictive haemoglobin based transfusion triggers. The use of point of care coagulation monitoring using whole blood viscoelastic testing provides a picture of the complete coagulation process by which to guide and direct coagulation management. Pharmacological methods to reduce blood loss include the use of anti-fibrinolytic drugs to reduce fibrinolysis, and rarely, the use of recombinant factor VIIa. Factor concentrates are increasingly used; fibrinogen concentrates to improve clot strength and stability, and prothrombin complex concentrates to improve thrombin generation. Non-pharmacological methods to reduce blood loss include surgical utilisation of the piggyback technique and maintenance of a low central venous pressure. The use of intraoperative cell salvage and normovolaemic haemodilution reduces allogenic blood transfusion. Further research into methods of decreasing blood loss and alternatives to blood transfusion remains necessary to continue to improve outcomes after transplantation.
Clevenger, Ben; Mallett, Susan V
There is wide variation in the management of coagulation and blood transfusion practice in liver transplantation. The use of blood products intraoperatively is declining and transfusion free transplantations take place ever more frequently. Allogenic blood products have been shown to increase morbidity and mortality. Primary haemostasis, coagulation and fibrinolysis are altered by liver disease. This, combined with intraoperative disturbances of coagulation, increases the risk of bleeding. Meanwhile, the rebalancing of coagulation homeostasis can put patients at risk of hypercoagulability and thrombosis. The application of the principles of patient blood management to transplantation can reduce the risk of transfusion. This includes: preoperative recognition and treatment of anaemia, reduction of perioperative blood loss and the use of restrictive haemoglobin based transfusion triggers. The use of point of care coagulation monitoring using whole blood viscoelastic testing provides a picture of the complete coagulation process by which to guide and direct coagulation management. Pharmacological methods to reduce blood loss include the use of anti-fibrinolytic drugs to reduce fibrinolysis, and rarely, the use of recombinant factor VIIa. Factor concentrates are increasingly used; fibrinogen concentrates to improve clot strength and stability, and prothrombin complex concentrates to improve thrombin generation. Non-pharmacological methods to reduce blood loss include surgical utilisation of the piggyback technique and maintenance of a low central venous pressure. The use of intraoperative cell salvage and normovolaemic haemodilution reduces allogenic blood transfusion. Further research into methods of decreasing blood loss and alternatives to blood transfusion remains necessary to continue to improve outcomes after transplantation. PMID:24876736
The word autologous is Greek in origin. The definition is exact 'autos' means self and 'logus' means relation. Thus, the meaning is 'related to self'. Autologous blood transfusion, which also is referred to frequently but incorrectly and imprecisely as auto transfusion, designates the reinfusion of blood or blood components to the same individual from whom they were taken. Homologous blood is blood or blood components, from another human donor, taken and stored for later transfusion as required.
... notice a decrease in red blood cell levels. Iron overload If you receive multiple blood transfusions, you may end up with too much iron in your blood. Iron overload (hemochromatosis) can damage ...
Patel, Ketan K; Patel, Atul K; Ranjan, Rajiv R; Shah, Apurva P
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a well-known complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is much less common and nearly uniformly fatal complication of blood transfusion. The risk factors underlying the development of TA- GVHD are incompletely defined, but it is commonly seen in individuals with congenital or acquired immunodeficiency, transfusions from blood relatives, intrauterine transfusions and HLA-matched platelet transfusions. Diagnosis of TA-GVHD may be difficult at a time due to rarity in occurrence and overlapping clinical features with various infections and drug reactions. We describe a case of transfusion-associated GVHD that occurred after transfusion of whole blood from unrelated donor in an immunocompetent patient.
Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, laboratory tests , documented injuries, blood product admin- istration (stored RBC, fresh whole blood [FWB], FFP, cryo...distress syndrome (ARDS), infection, deep ve- nous thrombosis ( DVT ), pulmonary embolism ( PE ), and stroke. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 13.0...difference in requirements for crystalloids. The incidence of late complication including ARDS, infection, and thrombotic events ( DVT , PE , stroke) was not
Introduction Isolated vital signs (for example, heart rate or systolic blood pressure) have been shown unreliable in the assessment of hypovolemic shock. In contrast, the Shock Index (SI), defined by the ratio of heart rate to systolic blood pressure, has been advocated to better risk-stratify patients for increased transfusion requirements and early mortality. Recently, our group has developed a novel and clinical reliable classification of hypovolemic shock based upon four classes of worsening base deficit (BD). The objective of this study was to correlate this classification to corresponding strata of SI for the rapid assessment of trauma patients in the absence of laboratory parameters. Methods Between 2002 and 2011, data for 21,853 adult trauma patients were retrieved from the TraumaRegister DGU® database and divided into four strata of worsening SI at emergency department arrival (group I, SI <0.6; group II, SI ≥0.6 to <1.0; group III, SI ≥1.0 to <1.4; and group IV, SI ≥1.4) and were assessed for demographics, injury characteristics, transfusion requirements, fluid resuscitation and outcomes. The four strata of worsening SI were compared with our recently suggested BD-based classification of hypovolemic shock. Results Worsening of SI was associated with increasing injury severity scores from 19.3 (± 12) in group I to 37.3 (± 16.8) in group IV, while mortality increased from 10.9% to 39.8%. Increments in SI paralleled increasing fluid resuscitation, vasopressor use and decreasing hemoglobin, platelet counts and Quick’s values. The number of blood units transfused increased from 1.0 (± 4.8) in group I to 21.4 (± 26.2) in group IV patients. Of patients, 31% in group III and 57% in group IV required ≥10 blood units until ICU admission. The four strata of SI discriminated transfusion requirements and massive transfusion rates equally with our recently introduced BD-based classification of hypovolemic shock. Conclusion SI upon emergency department
Kopko, Patricia M.
Summary ABO-incompatible transplants comprise up to 50% of allogeneic progenitor cell transplants. Major, minor and bidirectional ABO-incompatible transplants each have unique complications that can occur, including hemolysis at the time of progenitor cell infusion, hemolysis during donor engraftment, passenger lymphocyte syndrome, delayed red blood cell engraftment, and pure red cell aplasia. Appropriate transfusion support during the different phases of the allogeneic progenitor cell transplant process is an important part of ABO-incompatible transplantation. PMID:27022318
Park, Se Hoon; Lee, Se Hoon; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Park, Jinny; Park, Joon Oh; Kim, Kihyun; Kim, Won Seog; Jung, Chul Won; Im, Young-Hyuk; Kang, Won Ki; Park, Keunchil; Kim, Seon Woo; Lee, Kyoo Hyung; Lee, Je Hwan
Major ABO incompatibility may be potentially associated with immediate or delayed hemolysis and delayed onset of erythropoiesis in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To determine if hemolysis can be prevented by the inhibition of graft erythropoiesis, we performed hypertransfusion and assessed red cell transfusion requirement and independence. Between October 1995 and December 2001, 28 consecutive patients receiving major ABO incompatible HSCT at Samsung Medical Center were hypertransfused to maintain their hemoglobin levels at 15 g/dL or more. We retrospectively compared the outcomes of these patients with those of 47 patients at Asan Medical Center whose target hemoglobin levels were 10 g/dL. Reticulocyte engraftment was significantly delayed in hypertransfused group (51 days vs. 23 days; p=.001). There was no significant difference in the total amount of red cells transfused within 90 days post-HSCT (25 units vs. 26 units; p=.631). No significant difference in the time to red cell transfusion independence was observed between the two groups (63 days vs. 56 days; p=.165). In conclusion, we failed to improve red cell transfusion requirement and independence in major ABO incompatible HSCT with hypertransfusion. PMID:14966346
Despotis, G J; Filos, K S; Zoys, T N; Hogue, C W; Spitznagel, E; Lappas, D G
The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate whether heparin and protamine doses administered using a standardized protocol based on body weight and activated clotting time values are associated with either transfusion of hemostatic blood products (HBPs) or excessive postoperative bleeding. Analysis using 10 multiple logistic or linear regression models in 487 cardiac surgical patients included perioperative variables that may have an association with either transfusion of HBP and/or excessive postoperative chest tube drainage (CTD). Prolonged duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), lower pre-CPB heparin dose, lower core body temperature in the intensive care unit, combined procedures, older age, repeat procedures, a larger volume of salvaged red cells reinfused intraoperatively and abnormal laboratory coagulation results (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and platelet count) after CPB were associated with both transfusion of HBP and increased CTD. Female gender, lower total heparin dose, preoperative aspirin use and the number of HBPs administered intraoperatively were associated only with increased CTD, whereas a larger total protamine dose was associated only with perioperative transfusion of HBPs. Preoperative use of warfarin or heparin was not associated with excessive blood loss of perioperative transfusion of HBPs. In contrast to previous studies using bovine heparin, data from the present study do not support the use of reduced doses of porcine heparin during CPB.
Epstein, Nancy E.
Background: Typically, fibrin sealants (FSs) and fibrin glues (FGs) are used to strengthen dural repairs during spinal surgery. In 2014, Epstein demonstrated that one FS/FG, Tisseel (Baxter International Inc., Westlake Village, CA, USA) equalized the average times to drain removal and length of stay (LOS) for patients with versus without excess bleeding (e.g. who did not receive Tisseel) undergoing multilevel laminectomies with 1-2 level noninstrumented fusions (LamF). Methods: Here Tisseel was utilized to promote hemostasis for two populations; 39 patients undergoing average 4.4 level lumbar laminectomies with average 1.3 level noninstrumented fusions (LamF), and 48 patients undergoing average 4.0 level laminectomies alone (Lam). We compared the average operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), postoperative drainage, LOS, and transfusion requirements for the LamF versus Lam groups. Results: The average operative times, EBL, postoperative drainage, LOS, and transfusion requirements were all greater for LamF versus Lam patients; operative times (4.1 vs. 3.0 h), average EBL (192.3 vs. 147.9 cc), drainage (e.g. day 1; 199.6 vs. 167.4 cc; day 2; 172.9 vs. 63.9 cc), average LOS (4.6 vs. 2.5 days), and transfusion requirements (11 LamF patients; 18 Units [U] RBC versus 2 Lam patients; 3 U RBC). Conclusions: Utilizing Tisseel to facilitate hemostasis in LamF versus Lam still resulted in greater operative times, EBL, postoperative average drainage, LOS, and transfusion requirements for patients undergoing the noninstrumented fusions. Although Tisseel decreases back bleeding within the spinal canal, it does not reduce blood loss from LamF decorticated transverse processes. PMID:26005579
DeLoughery, Thomas G
Care of the patient with massive bleeding involves more than aggressive surgery and infusion of large amounts of blood products. The proper management of massive transfusions-whether they are in trauma patients or other bleeding patients-requires coordination of the personnel in the surgical suite or the emergency department, the blood bank, and laboratory.
Intractable intraoperative bleeding requiring platelet transfusion during emergent cholecystectomy in a patient with dual antiplatelet therapy after drug-eluting coronary stent implantation (with video)
Fujikawa, Takahisa; Noda, Tomohiro; Tada, Seiichiro; Tanaka, Akira
We report a case of a 76-year-old man, receiving dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and ticlopidine for the past 6 years after implantation of drug-eluting coronary stent, developed a severe hypochondriac pain. After diagnosing severe acute cholecystitis by an enhanced CT, emergent laparotomy under continuation of DAPT was attempted. During the operation, intractable bleeding from the adhesiolysed liver surface was encountered, which required platelet transfusion. Subtotal cholecystectomy with abdominal drainage was performed, and the patient recovered without any postoperative bleeding or thromboembolic complications. Like the present case, the final decision should be made to perform platelet transfusion when life-threatening DAPT-induced intraoperative bleeding occurs during an emergent surgery, despite the elevated risk of stent thrombosis. PMID:23536626
Pareek, Tej K.; Eid, Saada; Ganguly, Sudipto; Tyler, Megan; Huang, Alex Y.; Letterio, John J.
Molecular intermediates in T-cell activation pathways are crucial targets for the therapy and prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). We recently identified an essential role for cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) in T-cell activation and effector function, but the contribution of Cdk5 activity to the development of GVHD has not been explored. Using an established, preclinical, murine, GVHD model, we reveal that Cdk5 activity is increased in key target organs early after allo-HCT. We then generated chimeric mice (Cdk5+/+C or Cdk5−/−C) using hematopoietic progenitors from either embryonic day 16.5 Cdk5+/+ or Cdk5−/− embryos to enable analyses of the role of Cdk5 in GVHD, as germ line Cdk5 gene deletion is embryonically lethal. The immunophenotype of adult Cdk5−/−C mice is identical to control Cdk5+/+C mice. However, transplantation of donor Cdk5−/−C bone marrow and T cells dramatically reduced the severity of systemic and target organ GVHD. This phenotype is attributed to decreased T-cell migration to secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs), reduced in vivo proliferation within these organs, and fewer cytokine-producing donor T cells during GVHD development. Moreover, these defects in Cdk5−/− T-cell function are associated with altered CCR7 signaling following ligation by CCL19, a receptor:ligand interaction critical for T-cell migration into SLOs. Although Cdk5 activity in donor T cells contributed to graft-versus-tumor effects, pharmacologic inhibition of Cdk5 preserved leukemia-free survival. Collectively, our data implicate Cdk5 in allogeneic T-cell responses after HCT and as an important new target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:28064242
Murawski, K.; Peetoom, F.
These proceedings contain 24 selections, including papers presented at the conference of American Red Cross held in May 1985, on the Subject of transfusion medicine. Some of the titles are: Fluosol/sup R/-DA in Radiation Therapy; Expression of Cloned Human Factor VIII and the Molecular Basis of Gene Defects that Cause Hemophilia; DNA-Probing Assay in the Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Genome in Human Peripheral Blood Cells; and Monoclonal Antibodies: Convergence of Technology and Application.
Kong, Yu-Gyeong; Kim, Ji Yoon; Yu, Jihion; Lim, Jinwook; Hwang, Jai-Hyun; Kim, Young-Kug
Radical cystectomy, which is performed to treat muscle-invasive bladder tumors, is among the most difficult urological surgical procedures and puts patients at risk of intraoperative blood loss and transfusion. Fluid management via stroke volume variation (SVV) is associated with reduced intraoperative blood loss. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of SVV-guided fluid therapy for reducing blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing radical cystectomy.This study included 48 patients who underwent radical cystectomy, and these patients were randomly allocated to the control group and maintained at <10% SVV (n = 24) or allocated to the trial group and maintained at 10% to 20% SVV (n = 24). The primary endpoints were comparisons of the amounts of intraoperative blood loss and transfused red blood cells (RBCs) between the control and trial groups during radical cystectomy. Intraoperative blood loss was evaluated through the estimated blood loss and estimated red cell mass loss. The secondary endpoints were comparisons of the postoperative outcomes between groups.A total of 46 patients were included in the final analysis: 23 patients in the control group and 23 patients in the trial group. The SVV values in the trial group were significantly higher than in the control group. Estimated blood loss, estimated red cell mass loss, and RBC transfusion requirements in the trial group were significantly lower than in the control group (734.3 ± 321.5 mL vs 1096.5 ± 623.9 mL, P = 0.019; 274.1 ± 207.8 mL vs 553.1 ± 298.7 mL, P <0.001; 0.5 ± 0.8 units vs 1.9 ± 2.2 units, P = 0.005). There were no significant differences in postoperative outcomes between the two groups.SVV-guided fluid therapy (SVV maintained at 10%-20%) can reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing radical cystectomy without resulting in adverse outcomes. These findings provide useful information for
Transfusion. 2004; 44:809–813. 9. Malone DL, Dunne J, Tracy JK, Putnam AT, Scalea TM, Napolitano LM. Blood transfusion, independent of shock severity, is...mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med. 2004;32:1817–1824. 15. Dunne JR, Malone DL, Tracy JK, Napolitano LM. Allogenic blood transfusion in the first...infection rates in the critically ill patient. Crit Care Med. 2002;30:2249–2254. 37. Malone D, Kuhls D, Napolitano LM, McCarter R, Scalea T. Blood
McMillan, D; Brady, P; Foot, C; Levy, R; Thomson, A
The current literature pertaining to associated morbidity and mortality with homologous blood transfusion in the surgical patient seems to be pointing only in one direction, which is we must start reducing our patients exposure to homologous blood and products. There appears to be ever mounting evidence of increases in infraction, stroke, transfusion related lung injury, infection, and death that authors are associating with transfusion. A number of authors are reporting success in reducing their patients' requirements for homologous transfusion simply by working as a team or what is known as a multidisciplinary approach and following set transfusion protocols and algorithms. At our institution we have taken note of these reports and have taken the first steps in the formation of a Cardiac Surgical Transfusion Management Group where all specialties involved in the decision making process of transfusion in the cardiac surgical patient can have representation and be directly involved in the establishment of protocols, transfusion algorithms, and a transfusion audit system. The main goal of this group is to implement a change in transfusion practice and to assess the impact the change has had on transfusion requirements and make appropriate recommendations to the treating specialists.
Roche, C; Théfenne, H; Hance, P; Garnotel, E
Blood transfusion safety covers all stages from prescription of immuno-haematological examinations until the completion of the transfusion. According to the 05/11/2006 Afssaps' decision on good transfusion practices, transfusions should not be given at night unless the patient is actively bleeding or has some other urgent clinical need. A retrospective study was used to assess the proportion of transfusions at night. Through this professional practice evaluation, we analyze the reasons leading to perform transfusions at late hours, in order to reduce errors and improve safety for patients.
Gautam, Parshotam Lal; Katyal, Sunil; Yamin, Mohammad; Singh, Amandip
Context: Total knee replacement (TKR) is often carried out using a tourniquet to minimize intraoperative blood loss. However, its application enhances local fibrinolysis, resulting in excessive blood loss during the post-operative period. Fibrinolytic profile varies in different regions and races. Tranexamic acid has been shown to reduce post-operative blood loss and the need for transfusion in TKR. However, there is paucity of literature from the Indian population and the efficacy of the agent has not been tested in Indian patients undergoing TKR. Aims: Effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss in TKR surgery in the Indian population. Setting and Design: In this double-blinded study, 40 patients undergoing unilateral TKR were randomly divided into two groups. Methods: All patients were conducted under spinal anaesthesia using injection bupivacaine 0.5% heavy 12-15 mg. The treatment group received 10 mg/kg tranexamic acid, intravenous (IV), half an hour before deflation of the tourniquet, with a second dose of 2 mg/kg administered 3 hours after the first dose. The exact protocol was followed for the placebo group, except that normal saline was used instead of tranexamic acid. Blood loss, blood transfusion details and change in haemoglobin levels were noted. Statistical Analysis: Student's paired ‘t’ test was used in statistical analysis. Results: The mean post-operative blood loss in the tranexamic acid group was 272.5±122.5 ml (mean±SD), and 685±118.2 ml in the placebo group (P<0.001). The total blood loss was lower in the tranexamic acid group than in the placebo group (427.6 ml vs. 911.6 ml; P<0.001). The absolute number of blood transfusions and the number of patients who required transfusions were lower in the tranexamic acid group than in the placebo group. None of the patients had any side or adverse effect. Conclusions: Tranexamic acid significantly decreases post-operative blood loss and reduces the need for blood transfusion in patients undergoing
Arslan, Önder; Coşkun, Hasan Şanol; Arat, Mutlu; Soydan, Ender; Özcan, Muhit; Gürman, Günhan; Çelebi, Harika; Demirer, Taner; Akan, Hamdi; İlhan, Osnman; Konuk, Nahide; Uysal, Akın; Berksaç, Meral; Koç, Haluk
ABO incompatibility is not a contraindication for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, but this procedure requires an extra effort for erythrocyte or plasma depletion in certain well established conditions. Some acute or delayed immunohematological complications such as acute or chronic hemolysis and pure red cell aplasia may be encountered. In this study the outcome and transplant related complications of ABO incompatible and identical cases, who have received allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells from their HLA identical siblings were compared with each other. Ninety-one patients (CML 36, AML 37, other 18) were analyzed retrospectively including 51 (60.4%) ABO identical patients and 36 (39.6%) ABO mismatched (MM) patients, who have a bi-directional MM (n= 5), major MM (n= 16), minor MM (n= 9) and Rh MM (n= 6). Median follow up was 13 (0.5-43.0) months. We did not observed any significant differences between two groups (identical vs non-identical) in terms of acute hemolysis preceding stem cell infusion, peritransplant transfusion demand, acute- and chronic graft versus host disease. There was no change in estimated disease free survival and overall survival durations. We did not observed any influence of ABO/Rh incompatibility on short term outcome in allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in our series and did not recommend further manipulation of the infused stem cells.
Wang, Meng; Zheng, Xin-Feng; Jiang, Lei-Sheng
Background Routine use of antifibrinolytic agents in spine surgery is still an issue of debate. Objective To gather scientific evidence for the efficacy and safety of antifibrinolytic agents including aprotinin, tranexamic acid (TXA) and epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA, traditionally known as Amicar) in reducing perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in scoliosis surgery. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), retrospective case-control studies, and retrospective cohort studies on the use of antifibrinolytic agents in scoliosis surgery by searching in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Controlled Trials of papers published from January 1980 through July 2014. Safety of the antifibrinolytic agents was evaluated in all included studies, while efficacy was evaluated in RCTs. Results Eighteen papers with a total of 1,158 patients were eligible for inclusion in this study. Among them, 8 RCTs with 450 patients were included for evaluation of pharmacologic efficacy (1 RCT was excluded because of a lack of standard deviation data). Mean blood loss was reduced in patients with perioperative use of antifibrinolytic agents by 409.25 ml intraoperatively (95% confidence interval [CI], 196.57–621.94 ml), 250.30 ml postoperatively (95% CI, 35.31–465.30), and 601.40 ml overall (95% CI, 306.64–896.16 ml). The mean volume of blood transfusion was reduced by 474.98 ml (95% CI, 195.30–754.67 ml). The transfusion rate was 44.6% (108/242) in the patients with antifibrinolytic agents and 68.3% (142/208) in the patients with placebo. (OR 0.38; 95% CI; 0.25–0.58; P<0.00001, I2 = 9%). All studies were included for evaluation of safety, with a total of 8 adverse events reported overall (4 in the experimental group and 4 in the control group). Conclusion The systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that aprotinin, TXA, and EACA all significantly reduced
Vamvakas, Eleftherios C; Blajchman, Morris A
Allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT)-related immunomodulation (TRIM) encompasses the laboratory immune aberrations that occur after ABT and their established or purported clinical effects. TRIM is a real biologic phenomenon resulting in at least one established beneficial clinical effect in humans, but the existence of deleterious clinical TRIM effects has not yet been confirmed. Initially, TRIM encompassed effects attributable to ABT by immunomodulatory mechanisms (e.g., cancer recurrence, postoperative infection, or virus activation). More recently, TRIM has also included effects attributable to ABT by pro-inflammatory mechanisms (e.g., multiple-organ failure or mortality). TRIM effects may be mediated by: (1) allogeneic mononuclear cells; (2) white-blood-cell (WBC)-derived soluble mediators; and/or (3) soluble HLA peptides circulating in allogeneic plasma. This review categorizes the available randomized controlled trials based on the inference(s) that they permit about possible mediator(s) of TRIM, and examines the strength of the evidence available for relying on WBC reduction or autologous transfusion to prevent TRIM effects.
Bloch, Evan M; Jackman, Rachael P; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Busch, Michael P
Microchimerism, the coexistence of genetically disparate populations of cells in a receptive host, is well described in both clinical and physiological settings, including transplantation and pregnancy. Microchimerism can also occur following allogeneic blood transfusion in traumatically injured patients, where donor cells have been observed decades after transfusion. To date, transfusion-associated microchimerism (TA-MC) appears confined to this clinical subset, most likely due to the immune perturbations that occur following severe trauma that allow foreign donor cells to survive. TA-MC appears to be unaffected by leukoreduction and has been documented following transfusion with an array of blood products. The only significant predictor of TA-MC to date is the age of red cells, with fresher units associated with higher risk. Thus far, no adverse clinical effect has been observed in limited studies of TA-MC. There are, however, hypothesized links to transfusion-associated graft vs. host disease (TA-GvHD) that may be unrecognized and consequently under-reported. Microchimerism in other settings has gained increasing attention due to a plausible link to autoimmune diseases, as well as its diagnostic and therapeutic potential vis-a-vis ante-natal testing and adoptive immunotherapy, respectively. Furthermore, microchimerism provides a tool to further our understanding of immune tolerance and regulation. PMID:23102759
Weinberg, Jordan A.; MacLennan, Paul A.; Vandromme–Cusick, Marianne J.; Angotti, Jonathan M.; Magnotti, Louis J.; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Rue, Loring W.; Barnum, Scott R.; Patel, Rakesh P.
Background Trauma patients are often transfused allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs) in an effort to augment tissue oxygen delivery. However, the effect of RBC transfusion on microvascular perfusion in this patient population is not well understood. To this end, we investigated the effect of RBC transfusion on sublingual microvascular perfusion in trauma patients. Methods Sublingual microcirculation was imaged at bedside with a sidestream dark field illumination microscope before and after transfusion of one RBC unit in hemodynamically stable, anemic trauma patients. The proportion of perfused capillaries (PPC) pre- and post-transfusion was determined, and the percent change in capillary perfusion following transfusion (ΔPPC) calculated. Results Sublingual microcirculation was observed in 30 patients. Mean age was 47 (SD=21), mean ISS was 29 (SD=16), and mean pre-transfusion hemoglobin was 7.5 g/dL (SD=0.9). No patients had MAP < 65 mm Hg (mean 89 mm Hg, SD 17) or lactate > 2.5 mmol/L (mean 1.1 mmol/L, SD 0.3). Following transfusion, ΔPPC ranged from +68% to -36% and was found to inversely correlate significantly with pre-transfusion PPC (Spearman r= -0.63, p=0.0002). Conclusions Pre-transfusion PPC may be selectively deranged in otherwise stable trauma patients. Patients with relatively altered baseline PPC tend to demonstrate improvement in perfusion following transfusion, while those with relatively normal perfusion at baseline tend to demonstrate either no change or, in fact, a decline in PPC. Bedside sublingual imaging may have the potential to detect subtle perfusion defects and ultimately inform clinical decision making with respect to transfusion. PMID:22344313
Initial fluconazole prophylaxis may not be required in adults with acute leukemia or myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative disorders after reduced intensity conditioning peripheral blood stem cell allogeneic transplantation.
Brissot, Eolia; Cahu, Xavier; Guillaume, Thierry; Delaunay, Jacques; Ayari, Sameh; Peterlin, Pierre; Le Bourgeois, Amandine; Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Milpied, Noel; Bene, Marie-Christine; Moreau, Philippe; Mohty, Mohamad; Chevallier, Patrice
In the myeloablative transplant setting, the early use of fluconazole prophylaxis provides a benefit in overall survival. Recent changes in transplantation practices, including the use of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) and/or reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen may have favorably impacted the epidemiology of invasive fungal infections (IFI) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Yet, the impact of removing fluconazole prophylaxis after RIC PBSC allotransplant is ill known. Here, a retrospective analysis was performed comparing patients who received fluconazole as antifungal prophylaxis (n = 53) or not (n = 56) after allo-SCT for acute leukemia or myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative syndrome. Sixteen IFI were documented (14 %) at a median time of 103 days after transplantation, including eight before day +100, at a similar rate, whether the patients received fluconazole prophylaxis (13 %) or not (16 %). IFI were due mainly to Aspergillus species (87 %), and only two Candida-related IFI (13 %) were documented in the non-fluconazole group before day +100. The incidences of IFI (overall, before or after day +100) as well as 3-year overall and disease-free survival, non-relapse mortality, or acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were similar between both groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that fluconazole may not be required at the initial phase of RIC allo-SCT using PBSC. This result has to be confirmed prospectively while Aspergillus prophylaxis should be discussed in this particular setting.
Each year, more than three millions of blood components are transfused to more than five hundred thousand patients in France. The optimal use of blood components requires that physicians prescribing blood components master the clinical indications of red blood cells concentrates, platelet concentrates and fresh frozen plasma. In addition, physicians in charge of blood component prescription should provide adequate pre- and post-transfusion information to their patients. Compliance of blood components administration in patients with safety guidelines contributes as well to their optimal use. In addition, for each blood component transfused, a proper evaluation of its safety and its efficacy should be done. Finally, a regular evaluation of transfusion practice in hospital services were blood components are used, through audits made in cooperation with their blood component provider, either blood transfusion centre or the hospital blood bank, enables to appreciate the level of compliance with safety and clinical guidelines, and more globally how the transfusion process is mastered.
Giraud, Sylvain; Robinson, Neil; Mangin, Patrice; Saugy, Martial
Since the introduction in 2001 of a urine-based detection method for recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEPO), transfusion-doping practices have regained interest. To address this problem, an efficient antidoping test designed to obtain direct proof of allogeneic blood transfusion was developed and validated. This test, based on flow cytometry analysis of red blood cell (RBCs) phenotypes, was used to determine the absence or the presence of numerous RBCs populations in a blood sample. A such, it may constitute a direct proof of an abnormal blood population resulting from homologous transfusion. Single-blind and single-site studies were carried out to validate this method as a forensic quality standard analysis and to allow objective interpretation of real cases. The analysis of 140 blood samples containing different percentages (0-5%) of a minor RBCs population were carried on by four independent analysts. Robustness, sensitivity, specificity, precision and stability were assessed. ISO-accredited controls samples were used to demonstrate that the method was robust, stable and precise. No false positive results were observed, resulting in a 100% specificity of the method. Most samples containing a 1.5% minor RBCs population were unambiguously detected, yielding a 78.1% sensitivity. These samples mimicked blood collected from an athlete 3 months after a homologous blood transfusion event where 10% of the total RBCs present in the recipient originated in the donor. The observed false negative results could be explained by differences in antigen expression between the donor and the recipient. False negatives were more numerous with smaller minor RBCs populations. The method described here fulfils the ISO-17025 accreditation and validation requirements. The controls and the methodology are solid enough to determine with certainty whether a sample contains one or more RBCs populations. This variable is currently the best indicator for homologous blood transfusion doping.
Fontaine, Magali J; Malone, James; Mullins, Franklin M; Grumet, F Carl
TRALI is a challenging diagnosis for both the transfusion specialist and the clinician. A Canadian consensus panel has recently proposed guidelines to better define TRALI and its implications. The guidelines recommend classifying each suspected case in one of the following 3 categories: (1) "TRALI," (2) "Possible TRALI," or (3) "Not TRALI." We report the clinical presentation, laboratory evaluation, and management of 3 patients with respiratory failure (RF) following allogeneic blood transfusions. These patients all experienced RF within 6 hr post-transfusion. Based on a review of the clinical and laboratory data and applying the Canadian guidelines, the first patient, a 67-yr-old man with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, was diagnosed as "TRALI" due to the sudden onset of RF requiring intensive resuscitation. The second patient, a 55-yr-old man with aplastic anemia, was diagnosed as "Possible TRALI" due to pre-existing RF that worsened after blood transfusion. The third patient, a 1-yr-old male, was diagnosed as transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO) and "Possible TRALI," although his RF improved after treatment with diuretics. In all 3 cases, the blood donor center was informed of the suspected TRALI reactions. The remaining blood products from the donors associated with these reactions were quarantined. After review of the clinical data, the donors associated with cases #1 and #3 were screened by the blood center for granulocyte and HLA antibodies. Using a Luminex flow bead array, the following class I and class II antibodies specific for patient #1 were identified in the respective donor: anti-A25, B8, B18, and anti-DR15, DR 17. Subsequently, donor #1 was permanently deferred. A non-specific IgM anti-granulocyte antibody was identified in the donor associated with case #3, and this donor was subsequently disqualified from plasma and platelet donations. In conclusion, the Canadian guidelines to categorize patients suspected of TRALI provide a useful
Gu, Yisu; Estcourt, Lise J; Doree, Carolyn; Hopewell, Sally; Vyas, Paresh
Background Bone marrow failure disorders include a heterogenous group of disorders, of which myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), forms the largest subgroup. MDS is predominantly a disease of the elderly, with many elderly people managed conservatively with regular allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions to treat their anaemia. However, RBC transfusions are not without risk. Despite regular transfusions playing a central role in treating such patients, the optimal RBC transfusion strategy (restrictive versus liberal) is currently unclear. Objectives To assess the efficacy and safety of a restrictive versus liberal red blood cell transfusion strategy for patients with myelodysplasia, acquired aplastic anaemia, and other inherited bone marrow failure disorders. Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 4), Ovid MEDLINE (from 1946), Ovid EMBASE (from 1974), EBSCO CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1980) and ongoing trial databases to 26th May 2015. Selection criteria RCTs including patients with long-term bone marrow failure disorders that require allogeneic blood transfusion, who are not being actively treated with a haematopoietic stem cell transplant, or intensive chemotherapy. Data collection and analysis We used standard Cochrane review methodology. One author initially screened all references, and excluded any that were clearly irrelevant or duplicates. Two authors then independently screened all abstracts of articles, identified by the review search strategy, for relevancy. Two authors independently assessed the full text of all potentially relevant articles for eligibility, completed the data extraction and assessed the studies for risk of bias using The Cochrane Collaboration’s ’Risk of bias’ tool. Main results We included one trial (13 participants) and identified three ongoing trials that assess RBC
Musallam, Khaled M.; Rivella, Stefano; Vichinsky, Elliott; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A.
Non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias include a variety of phenotypes that, unlike patients with beta (β)-thalassemia major, do not require regular transfusion therapy for survival. The most commonly investigated forms are β-thalassemia intermedia, hemoglobin E/β-thalassemia, and α-thalassemia intermedia (hemoglobin H disease). However, transfusion-independence in such patients is not without side effects. Ineffective erythropoiesis and peripheral hemolysis, the hallmarks of disease process, lead to a variety of subsequent pathophysiologies including iron overload and hypercoagulability that ultimately lead to a number of serious clinical morbidities. Thus, prompt and accurate diagnosis of non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia is essential to ensure early intervention. Although several management options are currently available, the need to develop more novel therapeutics is justified by recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of disease. Such efforts require wide international collaboration, especially since non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias are no longer bound to low- and middle-income countries but have spread to large multiethnic cities in Europe and the Americas due to continued migration. PMID:23729725
Allogeneic red blood cells transfusion is always an immunological challenge and the choice of the blood products is crucial for the patient safety. But this choice may be hampered by the quality or the quantity of the available supply. In the end, the lack of transfusion may be more harmful than transfusion. The balance between patients' needs and blood centres supplying is always delicate. The conditions are not the same for all blood groups. Things are easier for the KEL1 phenotype, where the supply must ensure only 92.5% of KEL: -1 red blood cells instead of the 91% expected. More complicated is the situation for group O red blood cells with 47 versus 43%. But the major problem concerns RH: -1 red blood cells, for which the needs reach 20.1 versus 15%. These challenges require a lot of efforts from blood centres staffs to influence blood donors' recruitment and appointments. A justified and carefully selected blood products issuing may be of great help, especially for group O RH: -1 red blood cells. Therefore, hospital blood banks must have ad hoc procedures and a trained staff to put them into practice.
Most adverse blood transfusion (BT) events are immune-mediated and in the majority of severe reactions antibodies can be identified as causal factors. Alloimmunization not only causes symptomatic reactions, transfused cells can also be (silently) destroyed. Immunization by BT can contribute to hemolytic disease of the newborn as well as to allograft rejection after transplantation. Reversely, pregnancy and transplantation may evoke immunity hampering transfusion therapy. Besides causing mortality and morbidity, alloimmunization has a huge economic impact. Transfusion reactions prolong hospital stay, require diagnostic tests and complex donor selection procedures and create the need for typed donor registries. In the 1970s, Opeltz and colleagues described that pre-transplantation BT impaired rejection of renal transplants. Leukocytes were essential for this immunosuppressive BT effect that raised concern about negative effects on cancer growth and resistance against infections. Studies on the mechanism were however preliminary abandoned when calcineurin inhibitors for prevention of graft rejection became available and since all blood products underwent leukoreduction in most countries as precautionary measure against transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease. Whether current leukoreduced BT are immunosuppressive and for which patients or circumstances this may contribute to worse outcome, is unknown. The last decades of the previous century, leukoreduction of cellular blood products for leukemia patients significantly reduced the incidence of immunological platelet transfusion refractoriness. The first decade of this century the avoidance of plasma- and platelet-products from females, that may contain donor-derived leukocyte antibodies, decreased transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) by more than 30%. These were major achievements. Challenge for the near future is to further reduce alloimmunization in particular against red blood cells (RBC) as a
... especially in the joints (knees, ankles, and elbows). Plasma Transfusions Plasma is the liquid part of your blood. It's ... or a severe infection, you may need a plasma transfusion. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: January 30, ...
Vamvakas, Eleftherios C
The combination of patient blood management (PBM) modalities and multicomponent apheresis permits us to administer even safer transfusions than those using the "safer-than-ever" blood components distributed in the beginning of the 21st century. PBM identifies a patient at risk of transfusion and formulates a multidisciplinary and multimodal-yet individualized-plan for reducing the need for allogeneic transfusion. Multicomponent apheresis can collect any combination of red blood cells, platelets, and plasma from the same donor during the same donation, and it should eventually reserve all components harvested from the same donation for transfusion to the same recipient. Together, PBM and multicomponent apheresis represent a new paradigm-the patient-centric paradigm-of transfusion medicine whose purpose is to reduce the transfusion risk for each individual patient to the level of the ALARA (as-low-as-reasonably-achievable) risk. PBM and multicomponent apheresis can meet a patient's transfusion needs with at least twofold fewer allogeneic donor exposures, thereby reducing the risk of infectious and immunologic complications of transfusion by at least twofold. The reduction in risk includes the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality (transfusion-related acute lung injury) and the cardinal threat to transfusion safety (the next "HIV-like" pathogen to emerge in the future). Once it is determined that PBM and multicomponent apheresis can replace the current blood-procurement system at a "reasonable" cost and without jeopardizing the supply of blood and components, the patient-centric paradigm should replace the current, component-centric paradigm of transfusion medicine to reduce the transfusion risk to the level of the ALARA risk.
de Carvalho, Ricardo Vilas Freire; Brener, Stela; Ferreira, Angela Melgaço; do Valle, Marcele Cunha Ribeiro; Moraes-Souza, Helio
Objective This study aimed to verify the performance of blood transfusion committees in transfusion services linked to the public blood bank network of the state of Minas Gerais. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted between 2007 and 2008 using questionnaires and proficiency tests to evaluate the reporting and investigation of transfusion reactions comparing transfusion services with and without transfusion committees in the public transfusion services of the state of Minas Gerais. Results Nineteen of Hemominas own transfusion services and 207 that contracted the services of the foundation located in 178 municipalities were visited between 2007 and 2008. Established transfusion committees were present in 63.4% of the services visited. Transfusion incidents were reported by 53 (36.8%) transfusion services with transfusion committees and by eight (9.6%) without transfusion committees (p < 0.001) with 543 (97.5%) and 14 (2.5%) notifications, respectively. Of the reported transfusion incidents, 40 (75.5%) transfusion services with transfusion committees and only two (25%) of those without transfusion committees investigated the causes. Conclusion The incidence of notification and investigation of the causes of transfusion reactions was higher in transfusion services where a transfusion committee was present. Despite these results, the performance of these committees was found to be incipient and a better organization and more effective operation are required. PMID:23323064
Santoso, J T; Lin, D W; Miller, D S
Obstetricians and Gynecologists care for many patients with conditions potentially requiring blood transfusions. Cesarean section and hysterectomy are the two surgeries performed most frequently and both have the potential for blood loss requiring transfusion. Other examples include postpartum hemorrhage, placenta previa, and ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Obstetricians and gynecologists need to become knowledgeable about the ever-changing aspects of blood transfusion and apply it in their clinical practice. This review intends to update obstetricians and gynecologists and other health care professionals about the basic as well as the latest technologies of blood transfusion. The different types of blood components are discussed including their preparation, indications, risks, and benefits. The complications of blood transfusion and their management are reviewed, including infections, noninfectious, and immunological etiologies. HIV and hepatitis are explored, these being the most serious infectious risks of transfusion. Autologous blood transfusion, an underutilized option, is examined. Hemodilution and intraoperative blood salvage, other techniques for using the patient's own blood, are discussed. Finally, synthetic agents such as erythropoietin, granulocyte colony-stimulating factors, factors, desmopressin acetate, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, and new products are introduced as potential replacements to blood transfusion in the future.
Folléa, Gilles; Garraud, Olivier; Tiberghien, Pierre
As any therapeutic means, blood transfusion requires regular evaluation, particularly for its indications, effectiveness and risks. The availability of randomized clinical trials, the evolution of the quality of blood components, and the economic constraints shared by all countries, all lead to rethink both transfusion therapy as a whole and the organization of the transfusion chain from donor to recipient. The main tools available to improve transfusion and the transfusion chain management are the following: programs of patient blood management (PBM) to optimize the use of blood products with a patient centred approach, blood supply management tools to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the transfusion chain, donor management tools to adapt donor collections to the patients' needs in compliance with safety requirements for patients and donors, and coordination of these activities. A better understanding of these tools and their implementation will certainly be major challenges for transfusion medicine in the near future. Integrating these evolutions in regulations through the revision of the European Directives on blood and blood components (the review process is expected to be launched in 2015) should enroll them in the long term, for the benefit of patients, donors and all other stakeholders involved in the transfusion chain.
Goodnough, Lawrence Tim; Panigrahi, Anil K
Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) is a balance between providing benefit for patients while avoiding risks of transfusion. Randomized, controlled trials of restrictive RBC transfusion practices have shown equivalent patient outcomes compared with liberal transfusion practices, and meta-analyses have shown improved in-hospital mortality, reduced cardiac events, and reduced bacterial infections. This body of level 1 evidence has led to substantial, improved blood utilization and reduction of inappropriate blood transfusions with implementation of clinical decision support via electronic medical records, along with accompanying educational initiatives.
Liumbruno, G M; Vaglio, S; Grazzini, G; Spahn, D R; Biancofiore, G
The overall use of allogeneic blood transfusions in clinical practice remains relatively high and still varies widely among centres and practitioners. Moreover, allogeneic blood transfusions have historically been linked with risks and complications: some of them (e.g. transfusion reactions and transmission of pathogens) have been largely mitigated through advancements in blood banking whereas some others (e.g. immunomodulation and transfusion-related acute lung injury) appear to have more subtle etiologies and are more difficult to tackle. Furthermore, blood transfusions are costly and the supply of blood is limited. Finally, evidence indicates that a great number of the critically ill patients who are being transfused today may not be having tangible benefits from the transfusion. Patient blood management is an evidence-based, multidisciplinary, multimodal, and patient-tailored approach aimed at reducing or eliminating the need for allogeneic transfusion by managing anaemia, perioperative blood conservation, surgical haemostasis, and blood as well as plasma-derivative drug use. From this point of view, the reduction of allogeneic blood usage is not an end in itself but a tool to achieve better patient clinical outcome. This article focuses on the three-pillar matrix of patient blood management where the understanding of basic physiology and pathophysiology is at the core of evidence-based approaches to optimizing erythropoiesis, minimising bleeding and tolerating anemia. Anesthesiologists and critical care physicians clearly have a key role in patient blood management programmes are and should incorporate its principles into clinical practice-based initiatives that improve patient safety and clinical outcomes.
Coffe, C; Bardiaux, L; Couteret, Y; Devillers, M; Leroy, M; Morel, P; Pouthier-Stein, F; Hervé, P
Surgery, after hematology, is the biggest consumer of homologous platelet concentrates. Platelet transfusion is indicated to prevent or control bleeding associated with deficiencies in platelet number or function. In surgery, general patterns (in function of pre-surgery platelet count) can be adopted in most of the indications for platelets. In emergency situations, and in some particular cases (related to the patient, the type of operation, etc.), the transfusion procedure depends on the team's experience, the results of the available clinical and biological tests, and the drugs. Strict monitoring is required during the transfusion procedure. The efficacy of the transfusion must be controlled 1 h and 24 hours after the transfusion, and a number of factors must be assessed, namely the immunological impact of the transfusion (on red blood cells, leukocytes and platelets) and the occurrence of infectious diseases transmitted via transfusion. In addition, for a possible future transfusion, a strategy must be proposed.
Whyte, Robin K; Jefferies, Ann L
Red blood cell transfusion is an important and frequent component of neonatal intensive care. The present position statement addresses the methods and indications for red blood cell transfusion of the newborn, based on a review of the current literature. The most frequent indications for blood transfusion in the newborn are the acute treatment of perinatal hemorrhagic shock and the recurrent correction of anemia of prematurity. Perinatal hemorrhagic shock requires immediate treatment with large quantities of red blood cells; the effects of massive transfusion on other blood components must be considered. Some guidelines are now available from clinical trials investigating transfusion in anemia of prematurity; however, considerable uncertainty remains. There is weak evidence that cognitive impairment may be more severe at follow-up in extremely low birth weight infants transfused at lower hemoglobin thresholds; therefore, these thresholds should be maintained by transfusion therapy. Although the risks of transfusion have declined considerably in recent years, they can be minimized further by carefully restricting neonatal blood sampling. PMID:24855419
Jaspers, Aurélie; Baron, Frédéric; Willems, Evelyne; Seidel, Laurence; Hafraoui, Kaoutar; Vanstraelen, Gaetan; Bonnet, Christophe; Beguin, Yves
We conducted a prospective randomized trial to assess hemoglobin (Hb) response to recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) therapy after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Patients (N = 131) were randomized (1:1) between no treatment (control arm) or erythropoietin at 500 U/kg per week (EPO arm). Patients were also stratified into 3 cohorts: patients undergoing myeloablative HCT with rhEPO to start on day (D)28, patients given nonmyeloablative HCT (NMHCT) with rhEPO to start on D28, and patients also given NMHCT but with rhEPO to start on D0. The proportion of complete correctors (ie, Hb ≥13 g/dL) before D126 posttransplant was 8.1% in the control arm (median not reached) and 63.1% in the EPO arm (median, 90 days) (P < .001). Hb levels were higher and transfusion requirements decreased (P < .001) in the EPO arm, but not during the first month in the nonmyeloablative cohort starting rhEPO on D0. There was no difference in rates of thromboembolic events or other complications between the 2 arms. This is the first randomized trial to demonstrate that rhEPO therapy hastens erythroid recovery and decreases transfusion requirements when started one month after allogeneic HCT. There was no benefit to start rhEPO earlier after NMHCT.
Nigam, A; Prakash, A; Saxena, P
Transfusion of blood and blood components is a common practice in obstetric wards but it is not without risk. The incidence of transfusion reactions varies from 4 in every hundred transfusions for non-haemolytic reactions to one in every 40,000 for haemolytic transfusion reactions. The physiological basis of blood transfusion is outlined in this article. Most of the donated blood is processed into components: packed red cells (PRBCs), platelets, and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or cryoprecipitate. Various alternatives to blood transfusion exist and include autotransfusion, pre-autologous blood storage, use of oxygen carrying blood substitutes and intraoperative cell salvage. Despite the risks associated with transfusions, obstetricians are frequently too aggressive in transfusing blood and blood products to their patients. Acute blood loss in obstetrics is usually due to placenta praevia, postpartum blood loss and surgery related. An early involvement of a consultant obstetrician, anaesthetist, haematologist and the blood bank is essential. There are no established criteria for initiating red cell transfusions and the decision is purely based on clinical and haematological parameters, which have been discussed along with the general principles of blood transfusion in obstetrics and some practical guidelines.
Weinberg, Jordan A; MacLennan, Paul A; Vandromme-Cusick, Marianne J; Angotti, Jonathan M; Magnotti, Louis J; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Rue, Loring W; Barnum, Scott R; Patel, Rakesh P
Trauma patients are often transfused allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs) in an effort to augment tissue oxygen delivery. However, the effect of RBC transfusion on microvascular perfusion in this patient population is not well understood. To this end, we investigated the effect of RBC transfusion on sublingual microvascular perfusion in trauma patients. Sublingual microcirculation was imaged at bedside with a sidestream dark-field illumination microscope before and after transfusion of one RBC unit in hemodynamically stable, anemic trauma patients. The perfused proportion of capillaries (PPC) before and after transfusion was determined, and the percent change in capillary perfusion following transfusion (ΔPPC) calculated. Sublingual microcirculation was observed in 30 patients. Mean age was 47 (SD, 21) years, mean Injury Severity Score was 29 (SD, 16), and mean pretransfusion hemoglobin was 7.5 (SD, 0.9) g/dL. No patients had a mean arterial pressure of less than 65 mmHg (mean, 89 [SD, 17] mmHg) or lactate of greater than 2.5 mmol/L (mean, 1.1 [SD, 0.3] mmol/L). Following transfusion, ΔPPC ranged from +68% to -36% and was found to inversely correlate significantly with pretransfusion PPC (Spearman r = -0.63, P = 0.0002). Pretransfusion PPC may be selectively deranged in otherwise stable trauma patients. Patients with relatively altered baseline PPC tend to demonstrate improvement in perfusion following transfusion, whereas those with relatively normal perfusion at baseline tend to demonstrate either no change or, in fact, a decline in PPC. Bedside sublingual imaging may have the potential to detect subtle perfusion defects and ultimately inform clinical decision making with respect to transfusion.
Hofmann, Axel; Ozawa, Sherri; Farrugia, Albert; Farmer, Shannon L; Shander, Aryeh
In times of escalating health-care cost, it is of great importance to carefully assess the cost-effectiveness and appropriateness of the most resource-consuming health interventions. A long-standing and common clinical practice that has been underestimated in cost and overestimated in effectiveness is the transfusion of allogeneic blood products. Studies show that this intervention comes with largely underestimated service cost and unacceptably high utilisation variability for matched patients, thus adding billions of unnecessary dollars to the health-care expenditure each year. Moreover, a large and increasing body of literature points to a dose-dependent increase of morbidity and mortality and adverse long-term outcomes associated with transfusion whereas published evidence for benefit is extremely limited. This means that transfusion may be a generator for increased hospital stay and possible re-admissions, resulting in additional billions in unnecessary expenditure for the health system. In contrast to this, there are evidence-based and cost-effective treatment options available to pre-empt and reduce allogeneic transfusions. The patient-specific rather than a product-centred application of these multiple modalities is termed patient blood management (PBM). From a health-economic perspective, the expeditious implementation of PBM programmes is clearly indicated. Both patients and payers could benefit from this concept that has recently been endorsed through the World Health Assembly resolution WHA63.12.
Rizos, Christos V; Milionis, Haralampos J; Elisaf, Moses S
Patients with gastrointestinal bleeding often require large volume blood transfusion. Among the various side effects of blood transfusion, the increase of potassium levels is a serious one which is often overlooked. We report a case of severe hyperkalemia in a patient with gastric bleeding after large volume transfusion of packed red blood cells. The patient had hyperkalemia at baseline associated with his receiving medication as well as acute renal failure following hypovolemia. The baseline hyperkalemia was further aggravated after massive transfusions of packed red blood cells in a short period of time. The associated pathogenetic mechanisms resulting in the increase of potassium levels are presented. A number of risk factors which increase the risk of hyperkalemia after blood transfusion are discussed. Moreover, appropriate management strategies for the prevention of blood transfusion associated hyperkalemia are also presented. Physicians should always keep in mind the possibility of hyperkalemia in cases of blood transfusion. PMID:28101452
... or saved by collecting it with a special machine and giving it back into the patient. Giving a person back his or her own blood is called an autologous transfusion. It cuts down on the need for transfusions from other donors. But some studies have found tumor ... Information, ...
Murthi, Sarah B; Dutton, Richard P; Edelman, Bennett B; Scalea, Thomas M; Hess, John R
Injured patients stress the transfusion service with frequent demands for uncrossmatched red cells and plasma, occasional requirements for large amounts of blood products and the need for new and better blood products. Transfusion services stress trauma centers with demands for strict accountability for individual blood component units and adherence to indications in a clinical field where research has been difficult, and guidance opinion-based. New data suggest that the most severely injured patients arrive at the trauma center already coagulopathic and that these patients benefit from prompt, specific, corrective treatment. This research is clarifying trauma system requirements for new blood products and blood-product usage patterns, but the inability to obtain informed consent from severely injured patients remains an obstacle to further research. PMID:21083009
A number of factors have combined to drive the interest in developing blood substitutes. These include the time-dependent decrement in stored blood biochemistry, the general shortage of the blood supply, and public awareness of the risks associated with allogeneic transfusions. Current literature on different blood substitutes was reviewed. The aim of this article is to help the reader understand the necessity of blood substitutes and to briefly describe blood substitutes that are in clinical trials. The need for oxygen-carrying blood substitutes is the driving force in multiple clinical trials. More research is needed to develop alteratives to allogeneic blood transfusion that are free of complications.
Tanaka, Takashi; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Takuya; Fuji, Shigeo; Okinaka, Keiji; Kurosawa, Saiko; Kim, Sung-Won; Tanosaki, Ryuji; Fukuda, Takahiro
Persistent thrombocytopenia is a common complication after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Eltrombopag is an oral thrombopoietin receptor agonist whose efficacy against persistent thrombocytopenia after allogeneic HCT has not been well characterized. This retrospective study evaluated the safety and efficacy of eltrombopag in 12 consecutive patients with persistent thrombocytopenia after allogeneic HCT. Eltrombopag was started at 12.5 mg once daily and the dose was increased by 12.5 mg daily every week until platelet counts exceeded 50,000/μL. Five patients had prolonged isolated thrombocytopenia (PIT) and 7 patients had secondary failure of platelet recovery (SFPR). The cumulative incidence rate of successful platelet recovery to ≥50,000/μL without transfusion support was 60% in PIT patients and 71% in SFPR patients. No patients discontinued the drug because of adverse events or intolerability. Notably, the rate of platelet recovery was higher (100% versus 58%; P = .0017) and recovery was faster (median, 33 days versus 137 days; P = .0078) in patients with normal numbers of bone marrow megakaryocytes before starting eltrombopag than in those with decreased numbers of megakaryocytes. Eltrombopag is a promising treatment for both PIT and SFPR after allogeneic HCT. The number of megakaryocytes in bone marrow before eltrombopag treatment may predict the response to eltrombopag.
Taher, A T; Radwan, A; Viprakasit, V
Non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT) refers to all thalassaemia disease phenotypes that do not require regular blood transfusions for survival. Thalassaemia disorders were traditionally concentrated along the tropical belt stretching from sub-Saharan Africa through the Mediterranean region and the Middle East to South and South-East Asia, but global migration has led to increased incidence in North America and Northern Europe. Transfusionists may be familiar with β-thalassaemia major because of the lifelong transfusions needed by these patients. Although patients with NTDT do not require regular transfusions for survival, they may require transfusions in some instances such as pregnancy, infection or growth failure. The complications associated with NTDT can be severe if not properly managed, and many are directly related to chronic anaemia. Awareness of NTDT is important, and this review will outline the factors that should be taken into consideration when deciding whether to initiate and properly plan for transfusion therapy in these patients in terms of transfusion interval and duration of treatment.
Bernasinski, M; Mertes, P-M; Carlier, M; Dupont, H; Girard, M; Gette, S; Just, B; Malinovsky, J-M
Respiratory complications of blood transfusion have several possible causes. Transfusion-Associated Circulatory Overload (TACO) is often the first mentioned. Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI), better defined since the consensus conference of Toronto in 2004, is rarely mentioned. French incidence is low. Non-hemolytic febrile reactions, allergies, infections and pulmonary embolism are also reported. The objective of this work was to determine the statistical importance of the different respiratory complications of blood transfusion. This work was conducted retrospectively on transfusion accidents in six health centers in Champagne-Ardenne, reported to Hemovigilance between 2000 and 2009 and having respiratory symptoms. The analysis of data was conducted by an expert committee. Eighty-three cases of respiratory complications are found (316,864 blood products). We have counted 26 TACO, 12 TRALI (only 6 cases were identified in the original investigation of Hemovigilance), 18 non-hemolytic febrile reactions, 16 cases of allergies, 5 transfusions transmitted bacterial infections and 2 pulmonary embolisms. Six new TRALI were diagnosed previously labeled TACO for 2 of them, allergy and infection in 2 other cases and diagnosis considered unknown for the last 2. Our study found an incidence of TRALI 2 times higher than that reported previously. Interpretation of the data by a multidisciplinary committee amended 20% of diagnoses. This study shows the imperfections of our system for reporting accidents of blood transfusion when a single observer analyses the medical records.
Ramakrishnan, V Trichur; Cattamanchi, Srihari
Resuscitation of a severely traumatised patient with the administration of crystalloids, or colloids along with blood products is a common transfusion practice in trauma patients. The determination of this review article is to update on current transfusion practices in trauma. A search of PubMed, Google Scholar, and bibliographies of published studies were conducted using a combination of key-words. Recent articles addressing the transfusion practises in trauma from 2000 to 2014 were identified and reviewed. Trauma induced consumption and dilution of clotting factors, acidosis and hypothermia in a severely injured patient commonly causes trauma-induced coagulopathy. Early infusion of blood products and early control of bleeding decreases trauma-induced coagulopathy. Hypothermia and dilutional coagulopathy are associated with infusion of large volumes of crystalloids. Hence, the predominant focus is on damage control resuscitation, which is a combination of permissive hypotension, haemorrhage control and haemostatic resuscitation. Massive transfusion protocols improve survival in severely injured patients. Early recognition that the patient will need massive blood transfusion will limit the use of crystalloids. Initially during resuscitation, fresh frozen plasma, packed red blood cells (PRBCs) and platelets should be transfused in the ratio of 1:1:1 in severely injured patients. Fresh whole blood can be an alternative in patients who need a transfusion of 1:1:1 thawed plasma, PRBCs and platelets. Close monitoring of bleeding and point of care coagulation tests are employed, to allow goal-directed plasma, PRBCs and platelets transfusions, in order to decrease the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury. PMID:25535424
... receiving the blood transfusion. To keep blood safe, blood banks carefully screen donated blood. The risk of catching ... one or more times before the surgery. A blood bank will store your blood for your use. NIH: ...
Bihl, Florian; Castelli, Damiano; Marincola, Francesco; Dodd, Roger Y; Brander, Christian
Although the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections today is lower than ever, the supply of safe blood products remains subject to contamination with known and yet to be identified human pathogens. Only continuous improvement and implementation of donor selection, sensitive screening tests and effective inactivation procedures can ensure the elimination, or at least reduction, of the risk of acquiring transfusion transmitted infections. In addition, ongoing education and up-to-date information regarding infectious agents that are potentially transmitted via blood components is necessary to promote the reporting of adverse events, an important component of transfusion transmitted disease surveillance. Thus, the collaboration of all parties involved in transfusion medicine, including national haemovigilance systems, is crucial for protecting a secure blood product supply from known and emerging blood-borne pathogens. PMID:17553144
AuBuchon, James P; Linauts, Sandra; Vaughan, Mimi; Wagner, Jeffrey; Delaney, Meghan; Nester, Theresa
The metropolitan Seattle area has utilized a centralized transfusion service model throughout the modern era of blood banking. This approach has used four laboratories to serve over 20 hospitals and clinics, providing greater capabilities for all at a lower consumption of resources than if each depended on its own laboratory and staff for these functions. In addition, this centralized model has facilitated wider use of the medical capabilities of the blood center's physicians, and a county-wide network of transfusion safety officers is now being developed to increase the impact of the blood center's transfusion expertise at the patient's bedside. Medical expectations and traffic have led the blood center to evolve the centralized model to include on-site laboratories at facilities with complex transfusion requirements (e.g., a children's hospital) and to implement in all the others a system of remote allocation. This new capability places a refrigerator stocked with uncrossmatched units in the hospital but retains control over the dispensing of these through the blood center's computer system; the correct unit can be electronically cross-matched and released on demand, obviating the need for transportation to the hospital and thus speeding transfusion. This centralized transfusion model has withstood the test of time and continues to evolve to meet new situations and ensure optimal patient care.
by currently used labora- tory values.4,9 Because it is known which blood components are responsible for the phases of clot formation, irregularity in...a specific portion of the TEG serves a diagnostic purpose. These values may direct transfusion of appropriate blood components and drugs, including...in the first 24 hours after admission included all blood components (units of packed red blood cells fresh frozen plasma fresh whole blood). Fresh
Antigen recognition. V. Requirement for histocompatibility between antigen-presenting cell and B cell in the response to a thymus- dependent antigen, and lack of allogeneic restriction between T and B cells
The restrictions imposed by the major histocompatibility complex on T-B- antigen-presenting cell (APC) interactions were studied with an in vivo adoptive transfer system, using mutually tolerant T and B cells taken from one-way fetal liver chimeras. It was found that the B cells and adoptive recipient (which provides APC function) have to share determinants encoded by the left-hand end of the H-2 complex for cooperation, whereas there is apparently no such requirement for T-B cell syngeneicity. Suppression arising from allogeneic effects between the host and the transferred T or B cells was excluded by the use of tolerant as well as normal adoptive recipients; both were functionally equivalent. We conclude that under experimental conditions, unrestricted helper T cell function and concurrent APC-B cell genetic restriction can be demonstrated in vivo. PMID:7276826
Gombotz, Hans; Schreier, Günter; Neubauer, Sandra; Kastner, Peter; Hofmann, Axel
Objectives A post hoc gender comparison of transfusion-related modifiable risk factors among patients undergoing elective surgery. Settings 23 Austrian centres randomly selected and stratified by region and level of care. Participants We consecutively enrolled in total 6530 patients (3465 women and 3065 men); 1491 underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, 2570 primary unilateral total hip replacement (THR) and 2469 primary unilateral total knee replacement (TKR). Main outcome measures Primary outcome measures were the number of allogeneic and autologous red blood cell (RBC) units transfused (postoperative day 5 included) and differences in intraoperative and postoperative transfusion rate between men and women. Secondary outcomes included perioperative blood loss in transfused and non-transfused patients, volume of RBCs transfused, perioperative haemoglobin values and circulating red blood volume on postoperative day 5. Results In all surgical groups, the transfusion rate was significantly higher in women than in men (CABG 81 vs 49%, THR 46 vs 24% and TKR 37 vs 23%). In transfused patients, the absolute blood loss was higher among men in all surgical categories while the relative blood loss was higher among women in the CABG group (52.8 vs 47.8%) but comparable in orthopaedic surgery. The relative RBC volume transfused was significantly higher among women in all categories (CABG 40.0 vs 22.3; TKR 25.2 vs 20.2; THR 26.4 vs 20.8%). On postoperative day 5, the relative haemoglobin values and the relative circulating RBC volume were higher in women in all surgical categories. Conclusions The higher transfusion rate and volume in women when compared with men in elective surgery can be explained by clinicians applying the same absolute transfusion thresholds irrespective of a patient's gender. This, together with the common use of a liberal transfusion strategy, leads to further overtransfusion in women. PMID:27965248
Sone, Shinji; Tsuno, Hirokazu; Okazaki, Hitoshi
Massive transfusion (hemorrhage) is defined as blood transfusion exceeding the circulatory blood volume within 24 hours. Here, we investigated cases of massive transfusion, defined as transfusion of more than 21 units of red blood cells within 24 hours, in our institution in the period from August 2005 to March 2013. Massive transfusion accounted for approximately 1% of all blood transfusions in our institution, and the majority were cardiac surgery cases (75%), with 80% of the cases receiving blood transfusion irtfhe operating theater. Brain-dead heart and liver transplantations were started in our hospital in 2006. Due to the revision of the Organ Transplantation Law in July 2010, brain-dead organ donations increased in Japan. Massive transfusion was required in approximately 47% of heart and 41% of liver transplants, with 44% of the transplants being conducted on holidays, and 47% at night. Therefore, the implementation of a 24-hour duty system for medical technologists, including holidays, is essential for the prompt testing and supply of blood products. For improvement of the safety of blood supply, a computer network system, connecting the blood control system of the blood transfusion service, the anesthetic system of the operating theater, and the hospital general medical system, was implemented in our hospital in March 2007. In the operating theater, anesthetists can request blood products, order new blood products, cross-check the provided blood products, and register their use, using this system. At the blood transfusion service, the blood products to be provided are cross- checked against the anesthetists' requests. Through this system, the anesthetists and blood transfusion service staff can check the list of blood products available for the surgical patient as well as those already transfused, on a real-time basis. For analysis of the improvements achieved, we compared the number of non-used blood units, i.e., the number of those provided minus the
Vusse, Lisa K. Vande; Madtes, David K.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Gernsheimer, Terry B.; Curtis, J. Randall; Watkins, Timothy R.
BACKGROUND Blood transfusions are common during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and may contribute to lung injury. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS This study examined the associations between red blood cell (RBC) and platelet (PLT) transfusions and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) among 914 individuals who underwent myeloablative allogeneic HSCT between 1997 and 2001. Patients received allogeneic blood transfusions at their physicians' discretion. RBCs, PLTs, and a composite of “other” transfusions were quantified as the sum of units received each 7-day period from 6 days before transplant until IPS onset, death, or Posttransplant Day 120. RBC and PLT transfusions were modeled as separate time-varying exposures in proportional hazards models adjusted for IPS risk factors (age, baseline disease, irradiation dose) and other transfusions. Timing of PLT transfusion relative to myeloid engraftment and PLT ABO blood group (match vs. mismatch) were included as potential interaction terms. RESULTS Patients received a median of 9 PLT and 10 RBC units. There were 77 IPS cases (8.4%). Each additional PLT unit transfused in the prior week was associated with 16% higher IPS risk (hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.09–1.23; p < 0.001). Recent RBC and PLT transfusions were each significantly associated with greater risk of IPS when examined without the other; only PLT transfusions retained significance when both exposures were included in the model. The PLT association was not modified by engraftment or ABO mismatch. CONCLUSION PLT transfusions are associated with greater risk of IPS after myeloablative HSCT. RBCs may also contribute; however, these findings need confirmation. PMID:24033082
Blajchman, Morris A; Goldman, Mindy; Baeza, Federico
Despite the increased application of aseptic techniques for blood collection and the preparation of platelet concentrates, morbidity and mortality arising from the transfusion of bacterially contaminated allogeneic platelet products persist. This problem exists because stored platelet concentrates represent a nearly ideal growth medium for bacteria and because they are stored at temperatures (22 degrees +/- 2 degrees C) that facilitate bacterial growth. The presence of bacteria in blood components including platelets has been a problem for many decades and currently is the most common microbiological cause of transfusion-associated morbidity and mortality. A variety of strategies have been devised and/or proposed in an attempt to try to reduce the risk of transfusion-associated sepsis. These include pretransfusion bacterial detection, efforts to reduce the likelihood of bacterial contamination, the optimization of blood product processing and storage, reducing recipient exposure, and the introduction of pathogen inactivation methodology. With regard to doing bacterial detection, a number of automated detection systems have become available to test for contaminated platelet components, but their utility to some extent is restricted by the time they take to indicate the presence of bacteria and/or their lack of sensitivity to detect initially low bacterial loads. A variety of other approaches has been shown to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination and include filtration to remove leukocytes and bacteria, diversion of the initial aliquot of blood during donation, and improved donor skin disinfection. Platelet pathogen inactivation methods under investigation include the addition of L-carnitine, gamma-irradiation, riboflavin plus UVA irradiation, and amotosalen HCl plus UVA irradiation. The latter process is licensed for clinical use with platelets in some countries in Europe. All of these approaches, either collectively or individually, hold considerable promise
Aung, Fleur M; Lichtiger, Benjamin; Rondon, Gabriela; Yin, C Cameron; Alousi, Amin; Ahmed, Sairah; Andersson, Borje S; Bashir, Qaiser; Ciurea, Stefan O; Hosing, Chitra; Jones, Roy; Kebriaei, Partow; Khouri, Issa; Nieto, Yago; Oran, Betul; Parmar, Simrit; Qazilbash, Muzaffar; Shah, Nina; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Champlin, Richard E; Popat, Uday
In major ABO-mismatched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) persistence of antidonor isohemagglutinins leads to pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). To investigate severe pancytopenia noted in a previous study of PRCA, we analyzed all major ABO-mismatched HSCT between January 2003 and December 2012. Of 83 PRCA patients, 13 (16%) had severe pancytopenia. Severe pancytopenia was defined as an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) < 1.5 K/μL or requiring granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, platelets < 50 K/μL or transfusion dependent, and PRCA with RBC transfusion dependence at post-transplant day 90. In 6 patients (46%) severe pancytopenia resolved after PRCA resolution. Two patients (15%) received a second transplant because of persistent pancytopenia/secondary graft failure, 1 (8%) died from secondary graft failure despite a stem cell boost, 1 (8%) did not recover his platelet counts despite RBC/ANC recovery, and 3 patients (23%) died from disease relapse. We found that severe pancytopenia is frequently associated with PRCA in 16% of major ABO-incompatible HSCT with a higher incidence in males and pancytopenia resolved with resolution of PRCA in 46% of patients.
Brunker, Patricia AR
Transfusion therapy is complicated by the production of alloantibodies to antigens present in the donor and lacking in the recipient through the poorly-understood but likely multi-factorial process of alloimmunization. The low prevalence of alloimmunization in transfused patients (6.1%)1 suggests that processes central to immunologic tolerance may be operating in the vast majority of transfused patients who do not produce alloantibodies. Using RhD as a prototype, evidence is reviewed that the ability to make antibodies to red blood cell (RBC) antigens may result in part from immunologic tolerance acquired in utero. These ideas are extended to other examples of maternal microchimerism (MMc) of other non-inherited maternal antigens (NIMA). An evolutionary argument is offered that multi-generational immunity supports the hypothesis that MMc may partly explain the “non-responder” phenotype in RBC alloimmunization. PMID:24196285
Izaguirre Avila, Raúl; de Micheli, Alfredo
The idea of transfusing blood of an animal to another or from an animal to a man or from one to another man, is very ancient. When the doctrine of blood circulation was diffused, in the first third of the XVII century, this idea was give fresh impetus. On began also to inject some substance into the blood, wich will permit to introduce medicaments intravenously. It is worthy to be remembered that in the same year when the Harveyan monography De motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus was published (1628), the Paduan professor Giovanni Colle suggested a procedure for blood transfusions. Later (1645) the Tuscan physician Francesco Folli showed another procedure, in the presence of the great duke of Toscana, Ferdinando II de Medici. On his side, the surgeon Giovanni Guglielmo Riva realized blood transfusions from animals to men in 1668. Transfusions were already carried out by Richard Lower in London and by Jean-Baptiste Denis in Paris. During the XVIII century, blood transfusions were not effectuated because of some failure occurred in the formed century and of the proscription by civil and religious authorities. Nevertheless these were renewed during the first third of the XIX century in England as well as in the continental Europe. In Mexico the first blood transfusion was effectuated in 1845 by the physician Matias D. Beistegui. At the time persisted the problem of blood coagulation, which could be resolved during the XX century in North America (Crile, 1906) as well as in Latin America (Luis Agote, 1914). Moreover the blood groups were described in 1900 by the Austrian physician Karl Landsteiner, who identified later the Rh factor. It seems completely justified the inscription shining on the façade of the National Archive in Washington: "The past is only prologue".
Sandler, S G
Patients who are transfused on multiple occasions with red cells or platelets may develop platelet-reactive alloantibodies and experience decreased clinical responsiveness to platelet transfusion. This situation, conventionally described as "refractoriness to platelet transfusions," is defined by an unsatisfactory low post-transfusion platelet count increment. If antibodies to HLAs are detected, improved clinical outcomes may result from transfusions of HLA-matched or donor-recipient cross-matched platelets. Because refractoriness is an expected, frequently occurring phenomenon, prevention of HLA alloimmunization is an important management strategy. Prevention strategies include efforts to decrease the number of transfusions, filtration of cellular components to reduce the number of HLA-bearing leukocytes, or pretransfusion ultraviolet B irradiation of cellular components to decrease their immunogenicity. Other investigational approaches include reducing the expression of HLAs on transfused platelets, inducing a transient reticuloendothelial system blockade by infusions of specialized immunoglobulin products, or transfusing semisynthetic platelet substitutes (thromboerythrocytes, thrombospheres) or modified platelets (infusible platelet membranes, lyophilized platelets).
Obara, Hideaki; Kisu, Iori; Kato, Yojiro; Yamada, Yohei; Matsubara, Kentaro; Emoto, Katsura; Adachi, Masataka; Matoba, Yusuke; Umene, Kiyoko; Nogami, Yuya; Banno, Kouji; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Itagaki, Iori; Kawamoto, Ikuo; Nakagawa, Takahiro; Ishigaki, Hirohito; Itoh, Yasushi; Ogasawara, Kazumasa; Saiki, Yoko; Sato, Shin-ichi; Nakagawa, Kenshi; Shiina, Takashi; Aoki, Daisuke; Kitagawa, Yuko
No study has reported an animal model of uterus transplantation (UTx) using cynomolgus macaques. We aimed to establish a surgical technique of allogeneic UTx assuming the recovery of a uterus from a deceased donor in cynomolgus macaques. Four allogeneic UTxs were performed in female cynomolgus macaques. Donor surgeries comprised en bloc recovery of organs with iliac vessels on both sides, and/or abdominal aorta/vena cava after sufficient perfusion from one femoral artery or external iliac artery. Before perfusion, 150 mL of whole blood was obtained from the donor for subsequent blood transfusion to the recipient. Four uterine grafts were orthotopically transplanted to recipients. End-to-side anastomosis was performed to the iliac vessels on one side in case 1 and iliac vessels on both sides in case 2; aorto-aorto/cavo-caval anastomosis was performed in cases 3 and 4. Arterial blood flow of the uterine grafts was determined by intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) angiography. ICG angiography results showed sufficient blood flow to all uterine grafts, and anaemia did not progress. Under appropriate immune suppression, all recipients survived for more than 90 days post-transplantation, without any surgical complications. We describe a surgical technique for allogeneic UTx in cynomolgus macaques. PMID:27786258
Goubran, Hadi A.; Elemary, Mohamed; Radosevich, Miryana; Seghatchian, Jerard; El-Ekiaby, Magdy; Burnouf, Thierry
For many years, transfusion of allogeneic red blood cells, platelet concentrates, and plasma units has been part of the standard therapeutic arsenal used along the surgical and nonsurgical treatment of patients with malignancies. Although the benefits of these blood products are not a matter of debate in specific pathological conditions associated with life-threatening low blood cell counts or bleeding, increasing clinical evidence is nevertheless suggesting that deliberate transfusion of these blood components may actually lead to negative clinical outcomes by affecting patient’s immune defense, stimulating tumor growth, tethering, and dissemination. Rigorous preclinical and clinical studies are needed to dimension the clinical relevance, benefits, and risks of transfusion of blood components in cancer patients and understand the amplitude of problems. There is also a need to consider validating preparation methods of blood components for so far ignored biological markers, such as microparticles and biological response modifiers. Meanwhile, blood component transfusions should be regarded as a personalized medicine, taking into careful consideration the status and specificities of the patient, rather than as a routine hospital procedure. PMID:27006592
dos Santos, Antônio Alceu; Sousa, Alexandre Gonçalves; Piotto, Raquel Ferrari; Pedroso, Juan Carlos Montano
Introduction Transfusions of one or more packed red blood cells is a widely strategy used in cardiac surgery, even after several evidences of increased morbidity and mortality. The world's blood shortage is also already evident. Objective To assess whether the risk of mortality is dose-de>pendent on the number of packed red blood cells transfused after coronary artery bypass graft. Methods Between June 2009 and July 2010, were analyzed 3010 patients: transfused and non-transfused. Transfused patients were divided into six groups according to the number of packed red blood cells received: one, two, three, four, five, six or more units, then we assess the mortality risk in each group after a year of coronary artery bypass graft. To calculate the odds ratio was used the multivariate logistic regression model. Results The increasing number of allogeneic packed red blood cells transfused results in an increasing risk of mortality, highlighting a dose-dependent relation. The odds ratio values increase with the increased number of packed red blood cells transfused. The death's gross odds ratio was 1.42 (P=0.165), 1.94 (P=0.005), 4.17; 4.22, 8.70, 33.33 (P<0.001) and the adjusted death's odds ratio was 1.22 (P=0.43), 1.52 (P=0.08); 2.85; 2.86; 4.91 and 17.61 (P<0.001), as they received one, two, three, four, five, six or more packed red blood cells, respectively. Conclusion The mortality risk is directly proportional to the number of packed red blood cells transfused in coronary artery bypass graft. The greater the amount of allogeneic blood transfused the greater the risk of mortality. The current transfusion practice needs to be reevaluated. PMID:24598957
... two tests will be done before the transfusion: Blood typing. To confirm your child's blood type, a nurse ... blood bank lab, where technicians test it for blood type. Cross-matching. Once typing is complete, a compatible donor blood is chosen. ...
Tagariello, Giuseppe; Sartori, Roberto; Radossi, Paolo; Risato, Renzo; Roveroni, Giovanni; Tassinari, Cristina; Giuffrida, Annachiara; Gandini, Giorgio; Franchini, Massimo
Introduction Acquired haemophilia is a rare autoimmune disorder caused by autoantibodies directed in the majority of the cases against clotting factor VIII. This disorder is characterised by the sudden onset of bleeding that not rarely may be life-threatening and need transfusion support. Most reports on this condition describe the need for blood transfusions during the acute, haemorrhagic phase, but the number of transfused red cell units is often unknown. Patients and methods In the last 5 years, 14 patients with acquired haemophilia A were identified in the transfusion and haemophilia centres of Verona and Castelfranco Veneto. The transfusion support for these 14 patients was analyzed in this retrospective survey. Results The 14 patients required a total of 183 red cell units. The average transfusion requirement was 13 red cells units/patient, with a range from 0 to 38 units. Conclusions Eleven of the 14 patients studied needed strong transfusion support to enable any further management of the haemorrhages, as well as for eradication treatment of the autoantibodies to factor VIII. A relevant part of the management of haemorrhagic symptoms as well as the first choice for any further treatment (bleeding or the cure of the underlying disease) is transfusion of red blood cells. PMID:18661918
Storb, R.; Weiden, P.L.
Researchers have reviewed the role of blood transfusions in renal and marrow graft recipients. Striking contrasts are evident: while transfusions may promote successful kidney grafting, any transfusions before initiation of the transplant conditioning regimen may jeopardize the treatment of severe aplastic anemia by marrow transplantation. Researchers have suggested guidelines for the transfusion support of transplant candidates before transplantation and for marrow graft recipients after transplantation. It is important to recognize that after conditioning for marrow transplantation, all patients will be profoundly pancytopenic for a limited period of time, and intensive transfusion support is vital to patient survival.
Alam, Asim; Lin, Yulia; Lima, Ana; Hansen, Mark; Callum, Jeannie L
Transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) is an important and potentially injurious complication of transfusion that is underappreciated by clinicians. Risk factors for TACO include being at an extreme of age, having preexisting cardiac and/or (potentially) renal dysfunction, acute myocardial infarction, and individuals receiving plasma. Keys to preventing TACO, aside from identifying high-risk individuals, should be multifaceted. We advocate for the widespread use of pretransfusion checklists and implementation of nonemergent transfusion protocols. We suggest the regular use of pretransfusion diuretics in high-risk individuals. When a transfusion is required, we believe that "critical" nursing supervision and leadership are instrumental in the coordination of slow transfusion rates on computerized infusion pumps and ensuring patients are appropriately monitored. We believe that using these methodologies on a global scale will prevent many TACO events and minimize the severity when it does occur.
Katheria, Anup C.; Brown, Melissa K.; Rich, Wade; Arnell, Kathy
Over the past decade, there have been several studies and reviews on the importance of providing a placental transfusion to the newborn. Allowing a placental transfusion to occur by delaying the clamping of the umbilical cord is an extremely effective method of enhancing arterial oxygen content, increasing cardiac output, and improving oxygen delivery. However, premature and term newborns who require resuscitation have impaired transitional hemodynamics and may warrant different methods to actively provide a placental transfusion while still allowing for resuscitation. In this review, we will provide evidence for providing a placental transfusion in these circumstances and methods for implementation. Several factors including cord clamping time, uterine contractions, umbilical blood flow, respirations, and gravity play an important role in determining placental transfusion volumes. Finally, while many practitioners agree that a placental transfusion is beneficial, it is not always straightforward to implement and can be performed using different methods, making this basic procedure important to discuss. We will review three placental transfusion techniques: delayed cord clamping, intact umbilical cord milking, and cut-umbilical cord milking. We will also review resuscitation with an intact cord and the evidence in term and preterm newborns supporting this practice. We will discuss perceived risks versus benefits of these procedures. Finally, we will provide key straightforward concepts and implementation strategies to ensure that placental-to-newborn transfusion can become routine practice at any institution. PMID:28180126
Cushing, M; Shaz, B H
Massive transfusion is an essential part of resuscitation efforts in acute trauma patients. The goal is to quickly correct trauma-induced coagulopathy and replace red blood cell (RBC) mass with the minimal number as well as the appropriate choice of blood components to minimize the possible adverse effects of transfusions. Early trauma induced coagulopathy (ETIC) is present in about 20% of patients upon hospital admission and predicts for decreased survival. The mechanism of ETIC is still being elucidated; however, most theories of ETIC's pathophysiology justify the early use of plasma. Most massive transfusion protocol (MTP) ratios deliver blood products in a ratio of 1:1:1 for RBCs:plasma:platelets, which is supported by the majority of the literature demonstrating improved patient survival with higher ratios (>1 plasma and platelet for every 2 RBCs transfused). Indeed, formula-driven MTPs allow trauma services to react quickly to ETIC and provide coagulation factors and platelets in these ratios without having to wait for the results of coagulation assays while the patient's coagulopathy worsens. New MTPs are being created which are adjusted according to an individual's coagulation laboratory values based on point-of-care laboratory tests, such as thromboelastography. When creating an MTP, product wastage due to inappropriate activation and improper product storage should be considered and closely monitored. Another area of discussion regarding transfusion in trauma includes the potential association of prolonged storage of RBCs and adverse outcomes, which has yet to be confirmed. Significant progress has been made in the transfusion management of trauma patients, but further studies are required to optimize patient care and outcomes.
Xu, Lu-Hong; Fang, Jian-Pei; Weng, Wen-Jun; Xu, Hong-Gui
Objective: Humoral immunity has been clearly implicated in solid organ transplantation, but little is known about the relationship between humoral immunity and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This study was designed to investigate that relationship. Materials and Methods: Sensitized serum was obtained from a sensitized murine model established by allogeneic splenocyte transfusion. Sensitized serum was incubated with allogeneic bone marrow cells (BMCs) in vitro and the cytotoxicity was evaluated by the complement-dependent cytotoxicity method. Mice were transplanted with allogeneic BMCs incubated with sensitized serum after lethal irradiation. The engraftment was assayed by hematopoietic recovery and chimera analysis. Moreover, mice received passive transfer of sensitized serum 1 day prior to transplantation. Mortality was scored daily after bone marrow transplantation. Results: The in vitro experiments showed that sensitized serum was capable of impairing allogeneic BMCs through the complement-dependent cytotoxicity pathway. The animal studies showed that BMCs incubated with sensitized serum failed to rescue mice from lethal irradiation. The engraftment assay showed that the allogeneic BMCs incubated with sensitized serum were rejected with time in the recipients. Furthermore, the mice died of marrow graft rejection by transfer of sensitized serum prior to transplantation. Conclusion: Taken together, our results indicated that sensitized serum played a critical role in graft rejection during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:25330519
Dzik, Walter H
Hemovigilance programs from around the world document that the greatest risk to recipients of blood transfusion is human error, resulting in transfusion of the incorrect blood component. Errors in transfusion care have strong parallels with errors in medication administration. Errors often result from 'lapse' or 'slip' mistakes in which details of patient identification are overlooked. Three areas of transfusion are focal points for improved care: the labelling of the patient's pre-transfusion sample, the decision to transfuse and the final bedside check designed to prevent mis-transfusion. Both barcodes and radio-frequency identification technology, each ideally suited to matching alpha-numeric identifiers, are being implemented in order to improve performance sample labelling and the bedside check. The decision to transfuse should ultimately be enhanced through the use of nanotechnology sensors, computerised order entry and decision support systems. Obstacles to the deployment of new technology include resistance to change, confusion regarding the best technology, and uncertainty regarding the return-on-investment. By focusing on overall transfusion safety, deploying validated systems appropriate for both medication and blood administration, thoughtful integration of technology into bedside practice and demonstration of improved performance, the application of new technologies will improve care for patients in need of transfusion therapy.
Beeram, M. R.; Krauss, D. R.; Riggs, M. W.
The purposes of this study are (1) to evaluate the practice of red blood cell transfusions in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (between 501 to 1500 g) during the postsurfactant era of the 1990s; and (2) to evaluate if there is a decreasing trend in red cell transfusions in the 1990s. Database and medical records of VLBW infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) between January 1990 and December 1995 at Scott & White Clinic, Temple, Texas, were reviewed. Five hundred twenty-seven infants were admitted to the NICU, excluding 5 infants that were transferred out for possible cardiac surgery or for other reasons. Fifty one (9.7%) of these infants died prior to discharge. Hence, data from 476 survivors were reviewed for red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Transfusions were given at the discretion of the attending neonatologist. None of the infants received erythropoietin. Of the 476 infants, 289 (61%) received RBC transfusions during the hospital stay, with 2.7+/-3.6 transfusions per infant with a volume of 40.5+/-50.4 mL/kg. Smaller infants required significantly more transfusions compared to larger infants when divided into 250-g subgroups. No statistically significant difference was noted in the number of RBC transfusions per infant or number of infants transfused during the 6-year period from year to year. We conclude that VLBW infants in the 1990s postsurfactant era required 2.7 RBC transfusions per infant, on average, with the smallest infants requiring the most transfusions. These data will be helpful to counsel mothers in preterm labor regarding the need of transfusions for each birth weight category. Red cell transfusion practice has not changed over this 6-year period in the 1990s. Additional measures such as erythropoietin or even stricter transfusion criteria may be necessary to decrease transfusions further. However, safety of such measures should be carefully evaluated. PMID:11688921
Jin, Seok-Joon; Kim, Sun-Key; Choi, Seong-Soo; Kang, Keum Nae; Rhyu, Chang Joon; Hwang, Shin; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Namgoong, Jung-Man; Kim, Young-Kug
Background: Pediatric liver transplantation (LT) is strongly associated with increased intraoperative blood transfusion requirement and postoperative morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we aimed to assess the risk factors associated with massive transfusion in pediatric LT, and examined the effect of massive transfusion on the postoperative outcomes. Methods: We enrolled pediatric patients who underwent LT between December 1994 and June 2015. Massive transfusion was defined as the administration of red blood cells ≥100% of the total blood volume during LT. The cases of pediatric LT were assigned to the massive transfusion or no-massive transfusion (administration of red blood cells <100% of the total blood volume during LT) group. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the risk factors associated with massive transfusion in pediatric LT. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, with the log rank test, was used to compare graft and patient survival within 6 months after pediatric LT between the 2 groups. Results: The total number of LT was 112 (45.0%) and 137 (55.0%) in the no-massive transfusion and massive transfusion groups, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that high white blood cell (WBC) count, low platelet count, and cadaveric donors were significant predictive factors of massive transfusion during pediatric LT. The graft failure rate within 6 months in the massive transfusion group tended to be higher than that in the no-massive transfusion group (6.6% vs. 1.8%, P = 0.068). However, the patient mortality rate within 6 months did not differ significantly between the massive transfusion and no-massive transfusion groups (7.3% vs. 7.1%, P = 0.964). Conclusion: Massive transfusion during pediatric LT is significantly associated with a high WBC count, low platelet count, and cadaveric donor. This finding can provide a better understanding of perioperative blood transfusion management
Mendez-Picon, G.; McGeorge, M.
Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has been shown to have a strong immunosuppressive effect both experimentally and clinically. Pretransplant blood transfusions have also been shown to have a strong beneficial effect in the outcome of organ transplantation. A study was made of the effect of TLI and pretransplant blood transfusions, alone and in combination, as an immunosuppressive modality in the isolated pancreatic islet transplant in the rat model. Donor rats (Fischer RT1v1) were kept on a 50% DL-ethionine supplemented diet for 4-6 weeks prior to pancreas removal. Recipient rats (Lewis RT1) were made diabetics prior to transplantation by iv injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg). Transfusion protocol consisted of a biweekly transfusion of 2 ml of either donor specific or third party transfusions. Total lymphoid irradiation was carried out by daily administration of 200 rads during one week prior to transplantation. Transplantation of the isolated islets was performed by intraportal injection. Syngeneic transplant of one and a half donor pancreata in each recipient reverted the diabetic condition indefinitely (greater than 100 days). Untreated allogenic grafts had a mean survival time (MST) of 5.2 days. Total lymphoid irradiation in dosages of 800, 1000, and 1200 rads, as the only immunosuppressive regimen, prolonged the MST of allografts to 15.3, 16.5, and 21.8 days, respectively (P less than .05). Pretransplant third party blood transfusion had no effect on allograft survival (MST 6.0). When donor specific blood transfusions were given, the MST was prolonged to 25.3 days (P less than .05). When TLI was administered to recipients of donor specific transfusions, the MST of the allografts did not show any statistical significant difference when compared with untreated animals. This abrogation of the beneficial effect of specific blood transfusion was observed in all dosages of TLI employed: 800 rad (MST 3.0), 1000 rad (MST 8.0), 1200 rad (MST 5.18).
Nollet, Kenneth E; Komazawa, Tomoko; Ohto, Hitoshi
The Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 provoked tsunami waves with inland penetration up to 5 km and run-up heights to 40 m. More than 400 km(2) were flooded, mainly along the northeast coast of Japan's largest island, Honshu. Nearly 20,000 human lives were abruptly taken by this natural disaster. Four coastal nuclear facilities went into automatic shutdown; at one, Fukushima Daiichi, cooling system failures resulted in the meltdown of three reactor cores, accompanied by explosive release of radioisotopes. Essentials of modern blood banking and transfusion medicine were lost: roads, vehicles, blood collection venues, and facilities for blood testing and processing. Normal channels of communication were interrupted, not only by physical damage but also due to circuit overload as mobile phone users sought information and tried to exchange messages about their own and others' health, welfare, and whereabouts. The Japanese Red Cross, as a monopoly supplier of allogeneic blood, responded with a nationally coordinated effort that met the transfusion demands of a disaster characterized by immediate mass fatality rather than mass injury. Japan's routine transfusion demands are also met by hospital-based autologous blood programs, which could be pressed into service for emergency allogeneic collections. Herein we report institutional and personal experience in anticipation of future disasters, in which transfusion needs might differ from routine demand.
Summary Platelet transfusions play a central role in therapeutic regimens for patients with hematologic/oncologic diseases who develop severe thrombocytopenia either in the course of their disease or following cytostatic therapy. Like other blood components, platelet transfusions have achieved a high degree of safety as far as transmission of viral diseases is concerned. However, transfusion of platelet concentrates is accompanied by a high frequency of febrile and anaphylactoid reactions. In rare cases, recipients of platelet concentrates are threatened by severe reactions as septic complications due to bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates, transfusion-related acute lung injury and severe anaphylactic episodes. PMID:21512624
The past is prologue. Reviewing the history of transfusion tells us how far we have come, but also where we need to go. The past has been filled with innovation and important discoveries, but is also fraught with stumbling blocks and unintended side effects. Although much has been achieved and transfusion is safer today than ever, nonetheless we are recognizing new potential concerns with transfusion and we are undergoing a paradigm shift in our attitudes, approach and patient management in regard to blood transfusion.
Arnold, E; Lane, S
Transfusion medicine research has traditionally employed quantitative methods to answer clinical research questions. Increasingly, qualitative research methods are being used in the field to address a wide variety of research questions in areas such as blood donation, transfusion practices and policy development. This article describes the key characteristics, methodologies and methods of qualitative research and draws on examples to show how qualitative research approaches have been applied in the field of transfusion medicine. It is hoped that this overview will inform and encourage the application of qualitative research in the field of transfusion medicine.
Storb, Rainer; Sandmaier, Brenda M.
Most hematological malignancies occur in older patients. Until recently these patients and those with comorbidities were not candidates for treatment with allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation because they were unable to tolerate the heretofore used high-dose conditioning regimens. The finding that many of the cures achieved with allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation were due to graft-versus-tumor effects led to the development of less toxic and well-tolerated reduced intensity and nonmyeloablative regimens. These regimens enabled allogeneic engraftment, thereby setting the stage for graft-versus-tumor effects. This review summarizes the encouraging early results seen with the new regimens and discusses the two hurdles that need to be overcome for achieving even greater success, disease relapse and graft-versus-host disease. PMID:27132278
Ambriz Fernández, Raúl
The problems that exist in our country in the security of the transfusion chain affect every step in the recruitment, donor selection, and aseptic collection, screening tests, production of blood components, storage, transportation and transfusion to recipient. Some of which can lead to fatal cases or moving slowly because of the fragmentation of our health system.With the principles of ethics, we must move towards a unified national blood system overcoming the conflicts of interest that affect the impact on administrative certifications; decrease the irrational use of resources, optimize costs and achieve a transfusion medicine security system and haemovigilance of the at the hospital. There has to be some regional blood banks well-coordinated in health institutions, with central management systems of quality and more specialized procedures,the latter can be achieved with more than 150 public blood banks, transforming them into positions of blood collection of voluntary donation of repetition. The resources would be released equip regional banks. Also required to provide education and legislation ad hoc for goals in voluntary blood donation and focused mainly the university population and centralize information for haemovigilance based computer systems specific hospitals, that reduce errors and restrict risk blood components involved in fatal cases, and reduce the possibility of punitive actions. It has international advice of the whole transfusion chain.
Schweisfurth, H; Sopivnik, I; Moog, R
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is primarily caused by transfusion of fresh frozen plasma or platelet concentrates and occurs by definition within 6 hours after transfusion with acute shortness of breath, hypoxemia and radiographically detectable bilateral infiltrates of the lung. Mostly leucocyte antibodies in the plasma of the blood donor (immunogenic TRALI) are responsible. Apart from antibodies, other substances such as biologically active lipids, mainly arising from the storage of platelet and red blood cell concentrates, can activate neutrophilic granulocytes and trigger a non-immunogenic TRALI. Pathophysiologically, granulocytes in the capillaries of the lung vessels release oxygen radicals and enzymes which damage the endothelial cells and cause pulmonary edema. Therapeutically, nasal oxygen administration may be sufficient. In severe cases, mechanical ventilation, invasive hemodynamic monitoring and fluid intake are required. Diuretics should be avoided. The administration of glucocorticoids is controversial. Antibody-related TRALI reactions occurred mainly after transfusion of fresh frozen plasma, which had been obtained from womenimmunized during pregnancy against leukocyte antigens. Therefore, in Germany, since 2009 only plasma from female donors without a history of prior or current pregnancy or negative testing for antibodies against HLA I, II or HNA has been used with the result that since then no TRALI-related death has been registered.
Flesch, B K; Petershofen, E K; Bux, J
Antibodies against human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) have long been associated with transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). In contrast to febrile transfusion reactions and refractoriness to platelet transfusions in immunized patients, the causative antibodies in TRALI are present in the transfused blood component, i.e. they are formed by the blood donor and not by the recipient. Consequently, blood components with high plasma volume are particularly associated with TRALI. In addition to antibodies against HLAs, antibodies directed against human neutrophil antigens (HNAs) present in the plasma of predominantly multiparous female blood donors can induce severe TRALI reactions. Especially, antibodies to HLA class II and HNA-3a antigens can induce severe or even fatal ALI in critically ill patients. Over the last decade, the clinical importance of TRALI as major cause for severe transfusion-related morbidities has led to the establishment of new guidelines aimed at preventing this condition, including routine testing for HLA and -HNA antibodies for plasma donors with a history of allogeneic sensitization. This, in turn, poses new challenges for close collaboration between blood transfusion centers and histocompatibility and immunogenetics laboratories, for sensitive and specific detection of the relevant antibodies.
Bolton-Maggs, P H B
The Annual SHOT Report for incidents reported in 2015 was published on 7 July at the SHOT symposium. Once again, the majority of reports (77·7%) were associated with mistakes ('human factors'). Pressures and stress in the hospital environment contributed to several error reports. There were 26 deaths where transfusion played a part, one due to haemolysis from anti-Wr(a) (units issued electronically). The incidence of haemolysis due to this antibody has increased in recent years. Transfusion-associated circulatory overload is the most common contributor to death and major morbidity. Reports of delays to transfusion have increased, some caused by the failure of correct patient identification. There were seven ABO-incompatible red cell transfusions (one death) with an additional six to allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. Near-miss reporting and analysis is useful and demonstrated nearly 300 instances of wrong blood in tube, which could have resulted in ABO-incompatible transfusion had the error not been detected. Errors with anti-D immunoglobulin continue, and preliminary data from the new survey of new anti-D found in pregnancy has shown that sensitisation occurs in some women even with apparently 'ideal' care. For the first time, the SHOT report now incorporates a chapter on donor events.
Brooks, Jay P
Efforts to make blood transfusion as safe as possible have focused on making the blood in the bag as disease-free as possible. The results have been dramatic, and the costs have been correspondingly high. Although blood services will have to continue to deal with emerging pathogens, efforts to reduce the transfusion of infectious agents presently posing a risk will require high incremental costs and result in only improvements of a small magnitude. The other aspect of safe blood transfusion, the actual transfusion process performed primarily in hospitals, has been accorded considerably less interest. We should turn our attention to enhancing overall blood safety by focusing on improving the process of blood transfusion. Errors involving patient, specimen, and blood product identification put transfused patients at risk, increasing the mortality risk for some. Solutions that could improve the transfusion process are discussed as a focus of this article.
Durand, M; Rossi-Blancher, M; Poquet, C
Cardiac surgery frequently requires blood transfusion. The use of transfusion should be restricted due to side effects. Blood transfusion via the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit is easy and allows a fast transfusion. The administration of packed red cells is relatively frequent because of the CPB-induced hemodilution and of the higher rate of postoperative complications when the haematocrit during CPB decreases below 20%. This transfusion of packed red cells does not seem to be associated with complications during CPB. Platelet transfusion during bypass is illogical because of the destruction of platelets during CPB and must be avoided. Fresh frozen plasma transfusion during CPB is seldom indicated but is possible. It could reverse heparin resistance.
Sirolimus for Refractory Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Report and Literature Review of the Treatment of Post-Transplant Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia.
Park, Jeong A; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Kwon, Hyun-Seop; Baik, Chung-Ryul; Song, Sae-Am; Lee, Jung Nye
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) may occur after any type of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT), even ABO-matched transplantation. It tends to be refractory to standard corticosteroid treatment and requires multiple transfusions. Though, there is no consensus regarding the optimal treatment for post-transplant severe AIHA. We present a pediatric patient with refractory AIHA after umbilical cord blood transplantation. She developed severe AIHA at 3months after transplantation and was unresponsive to multiple treatment modalities, including corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, plasma exchange and rituximab, resulting in persistent transfusion dependency. Sirolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, was started on day 67 after the onset of AIHA, and this patient was successfully rescued without any complications. Sirolimus induces apoptosis in autoreactive lymphocytes, increases regulatory T cells and has been reported to have a positive effect on AIHA following solid organ transplantation (SOT). We reviewed the literature regarding post-transplant AIHA in the PubMed database and evaluated the treatment outcome of sirolimus in AIHA after SOT.
Gilliss, Brian M; Looney, Mark R; Gropper, Michael A
As screening for transfusion-associated infections has improved, noninfectious complications of transfusion now cause the majority of morbidity and mortality associated with transfusion in the United States. For example, transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion-associated circulatory overload, and hemolytic transfusion-reactions are the first, second, and third leading causes of death from transfusion, respectively. These complications and others are reviewed, and several controversial methods for prevention of noninfectious complications of transfusion are discussed, including universal leukoreduction of erythrocyte units, use of male-only plasma, and restriction of erythrocyte storage age.
Bundy, K L; Foss, M L; Stubbs, J R
The Mayo Clinic, in Rochester, Minnesota, recently set forth a directive to develop a Mayo Emergency Incident Command System (MEICS) plan to respond to major disasters. The MEICS plan that was developed interfaces with national response plans to ensure effective communication and coordination between our institution and local, state, and federal agencies to establish a common language and communication structure. The MEICS plan addresses multiple aspects of dealing with resource needs during a crisis, including the need for blood and transfusion medicine services. The MEICS plan was developed to supplement our current local emergency preparedness procedures and provide a mechanism for responding to the escalating severity of an emergency to deal with situations of a magnitude that is outside the normal experience. A plan was developed to interface the existing Transfusion Medicine disaster plan standard operating procedures (SOP) with the institutional and Department of Laboratory Medicine (DLMP) MEICS plans. The first step in developing this interface was defining MEICS. Other major steps were defining the chain of command, developing a method for visually indicating who is "in charge," planning communication, defining the actions to be taken, assessing resource needs, developing flowcharts and updating SOPs, and developing a blood rationing team to deal with anticipated blood shortages. Several key features of the interface and updated disaster plan that were developed are calling trees for response personnel, plans for relocating leadership to alternative command centers, and action sheets to assist with resource assessment. The action sheets also provide documentation of key actions by response personnel.
Ali, Zulfiqar; Hassan, Nelofar; Syed, Sumaya
Neuroanaesthesia practice is associated with risk of significant blood loss resulting in anaemia in the intraoperative and postoperative period. The transfusion triggers in a neurologically injured brain are not clearly defined. Both a low haematocrit and a high haematocrit have not shown any improvement in the outcome. Transfusion of red blood cells may improve the cerebral oxygenation on neurophysiological monitors. However, these benefits have not been translated into clinical practice. Transfusion in subarachnoid haemorrhage leads to increased incidence of vasospasm and a poor outcome. Restrictive transfusion strategy is seen to have a lower incidence of pneumonia, urinary tract infection, bacteremia and septic shock in severe head injury. Current evidence suggests that a haemoglobin (Hb) level of <7 g/dl may be deleterious to the neurosurgical population. Target Hb of 8-9 g/dl may be desirable intraoperatively. Different transfusion triggers may hold true for different neurosurgical pathologies. PMID:25535426
Ahmad, Saqib Qayyum; Iqbal, Mudassar; Wahla, Madiha Saeed; Tarrar, Aimel Munir
Thalassaemia intermedia includes thalassaemias with clinical severity intermediate between asymptomatic thalassaemia minor and transfusion dependent thalassaemia major. By definition patients of thalassaemia intermedia maintain a haemoglobin level of 7-10 g/dl and do not, or only occasionally, require blood transfusion. An eight-year-old girl who was a known case of thalassaemia intermedia and had been occasionally transfused presented with fever, pain and swelling over the wrists, ankles and above the right knee joint. Radiographs showed medullary widening, cortical thinning and; multiple, recent and old, partially healed fractures of metadiaphseal regions of long bones. Her fractures have been immobilized by means of back slabs. In view of her recurrent fractures and growth retardation we advised a regular transfusion-chelation regimen to our patient to suppress her ineffective dyserythropoiesis. The treatment is expected to prevent further bone fragility and fractures, as well as improve her life quality.
Tissot, J-D; Garraud, O; Danic, B; Cabaud, J-J; Lefrère, J-J
Blood donation is an act of solidarity. Most often, this act is done on a volunteer basis and, depending on countries and circumstances, is not remunerated. The increase in need, the always-greater number of deferral criteria, the safety issues and the changes in the structures of our societies are among the many subjects for ethical debates. Taking these into account, the actors of the transfusion must analyze certain parameters: the value of a donation, the meaning of volunteering, the appropriateness of remunerating the act of giving a part of one's self, no longer as a donation or an expression of altruism and solidarity, but as a commercial act regimented by economic laws.
Payandeh, Mehrdad; Zare, Mohammad Erfan; Kansestani, Atefeh Nasir; Pakdel, Shirin Falah; Jahanpour, Firuzeh; Yousefi, Hoshang; Soleimanian, Farzaneh
Background Transfusion services rely on transfusion reaction reporting to provide patient care and protect the blood supply. Unnecessary discontinuation of blood is a major wastage of scarce blood, as well as man, hours and funds. The aim of the present study was to describe the main characteristics of acute transfusion reactions reported in the 4 hospital of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS), Kermanshah, Iran. Material and Methods The study was carried out at 4 teaching hospital of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran, over18 months from April 2010. All adult patients on admission in the hospitals who required blood transfusion and had establish diagnosis and consented were included in the study. Results In the year 2010 until 2012, a total of 6238 units of blood components were transfused. A total of 59 (0.94%) cases of transfusion reaction were reported within this 3 years period. The commonest were allergic reactions which presented with various skin manifestations such as urticarial, rashes and pruritus (49.2%), followed by increase in body temperature of > 1°C from baseline which was reported as febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction (37.2%). pain at the transfusion site (6.8%) and hypotension (6.8%). Conclusion It is important that each transfusion of blood components to be monitor carefully. Many transfusion reactions are not recognized, because signs and symptoms mimic other clinical conditions. Any unexpected symptoms in a transfusion recipient should at least be considered as a possible transfusion reaction and be evaluated. Prompt recognition and treatment of acute transfusion reaction are crucial and would help in decreasing transfusion related morbidity and mortality, but prevention is preferable. PMID:24505522
Shinde, Abhishek; Sobti, Anshul; Maniar, Shriji; Mishra, Amit; Gite, Raju; Shetty, Vivek
Introduction: For quite a few years, tranexamic acid (TEA) has been used during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to reduce blood loss. However, no consensus exits regarding its timing and doses. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized double-blinded study of 56 patients in the Indian population undergoing TKA from 2011 to 2012. A dose of 10 mg/kg body weight of TEA (three doses) was given in one group and normal saline was administered in the other. Results: The mean blood loss in the TEA unilateral group was 295 mL ± 218 mL and in the placebo group was 482 mL ± 186 mL (P < 0.005). In the bilateral TEA group, the mean blood loss was 596 mL ± 235 mL and in the placebo group was 1349 mL ± 41 mL (P < 0.005). Conclusion: The number of patients requiring blood transfusion reduced substantially. There was no increase in the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism. TEA reduces intraoperative and postoperative blood loss and thus reduces the need of allogenic blood transfusion. PMID:26420938
concentration of 10 to 12 g/dl. Human recombinant erythropoietin is also recommended for the reduction of allogeneic blood transfusions in surgical...patients. Human recombinant erythropoietin is recommended for anemic patients with hemoglobin concentrations of ■, greater than 10 g/dl and less than 13...with recombinant erythropoietin also reduces the defects in platelet adhesion and aggregation caused by uremic plasma. Thromb. Haemost. 1991;66:638
The increasing pressure on healthcare resources affects blood donation and transfusion. We attempted a survey of the efficiency of different strategies, actual or proposed to improve the management of blood products. We found an important disconnect between the cost effectiveness ratio of strategies and their uptake by policy makers. In other words, the least efficient strategies are those which increase transfusion safety by increasing the number of biological markers and are those preferred by health authorities in developed countries. Other more efficient strategies are more slowly implemented and included a systematic use of transfusion guidelines, reducing blood losses or increasing pre operative blood levels in elective surgeries.
Transfusion-transmitted Chagas' disease has been recognized since 1952. Until recently, no cases were reported outside of Latin America. However, emigration during the past 20 years expanded its transfusional geographic borders to North America. Trypanosoma cruzi-infected donors usually are asymptomatic, often for a lifetime. This situation complicates donor screening, particularly in regions where blood bank personnel are not familiar with the risk factors and natural history of this transfusion-transmitted infection. This review addresses the main aspects of epidemiology, risks of infection, clinical symptoms in donors and recipients, preventive measures, and blood donor screening to prevent transfusion-transmitted Chagas' disease.
Imashuku, Yasuhiko; Kitagawa, Hirotoshi; Mizuno, Takayoshi; Fukushima, Yutaka
We report a case of transient hyperkalemia during hysterectomy after cesarean section, due to preoperatively undiagnosed placenta accreta that caused unforeseen massive hemorrhage and required rapid red cell transfusion. Hyperkalemia-induced by rapid red cell transfusion is a well-known severe complication of transfusion; however, in patients with sudden massive hemorrhage, rapid red cell transfusion is necessary to save their life. In such cases, it is extremely important to monitor serum potassium levels. For an emergency situation, a system should be developed to ensure sufficient preparation for immediate transfusion and laboratory tests. Furthermore, sufficient stock of preparations to treat hyperkalemia, such as calcium preparations, diuretics, glucose, and insulin is required. Moreover, a transfusion filter that absorbs potassium has been developed and is now available for clinical use in Japan. The filter is easy to use and beneficial, and should be prepared when it is available. PMID:28217070
Benson, Alexander B; Moss, Marc; Silliman, Christopher C
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality world-wide. Although first described in 1983, it took two decades to develop consensus definitions, which remain controversial. The pathogenesis of TRALI is related to the infusion of donor antibodies that recognize leucocyte antigens in the transfused host or the infusion of lipids and other biological response modifiers that accumulate during the storage or processing of blood components. TRALI appears to be the result of at least two sequential events and treatment is supportive. This review demonstrates that critically ill patients are more susceptible to TRALI and require special attention by critical care specialists, haematologists and transfusion medicine experts. Further research is required into TRALI and its pathogenesis so that transfusions are safer and administered appropriately. Avoidance including male-only transfusion practises, the use of leucoreduced components, fresher blood/blood components and solvent detergent plasma are also discussed.
Introduction The massive-transfusion concept was introduced to recognize the dilutional complications resulting from large volumes of packed red blood cells (PRBCs). Definitions of massive transfusion vary and lack supporting clinical evidence. Damage-control resuscitation regimens of modern trauma care are targeted to the early correction of acute traumatic coagulopathy. The aim of this study was to identify a clinically relevant definition of trauma massive transfusion based on clinical outcomes. We also examined whether the concept was useful in that early prediction of massive transfusion requirements could allow early activation of blood bank protocols. Methods Datasets on trauma admissions over a 1 or 2-year period were obtained from the trauma registries of five large trauma research networks. A fractional polynomial was used to model the transfusion-associated probability of death. A logistic regression model for the prediction of massive transfusion, defined as 10 or more units of red cell transfusions, was developed. Results In total, 5,693 patient records were available for analysis. Mortality increased as transfusion requirements increased, but the model indicated no threshold effect. Mortality was 9% in patients who received none to five PRBC units, 22% in patients receiving six to nine PRBC units, and 42% in patients receiving 10 or more units. A logistic model for prediction of massive transfusion was developed and validated at multiple sites but achieved only moderate performance. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.81, with specificity of only 50% at a sensitivity of 90% for the prediction of 10 or more PRBC units. Performance varied widely at different trauma centers, with specificity varying from 48% to 91%. Conclusions No threshold for definition exists at which a massive transfusion specifically results in worse outcomes. Even with a large sample size across multiple trauma datasets, it was not possible to develop a
Sheth, Mansi; Kulkarni, Sujit; Dhanireddy, Kiran; Perez, Alexander; Selby, Rick
Red blood cell and component transfusions are a frequent and widely accepted accompaniment of surgical procedures. Although the risk of specific disease transmission via allogeneic blood transfusions (ABT) is very low, the occurrence of transfusion related immune modulation (TRIM) still remains a ubiquitous concern. Recent studies have shown that ABT are linked to increased morbidity and mortality across various specialties, with negative outcomes directly correlated to number of transfusions. Blood conservation methods are therefore necessary to reduce ABT. Acute normo-volemic hemodilution (ANH) along with pre-operative blood augmentation and intraoperative cell salvage are blood conservation techniques utilized in tertiary and even quaternary (transplantation) surgery in Jehovah's Witnesses with excellent outcomes. The many hematologic complications such as anemia, thrombocytopenia and coagulopathies that occur with liver transplantation present a significant barrier when trying to avoid ABT. Despite this, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been successfully performed in a transfusion-free environment, providing valuable insight into the possibilities of limiting ABT and its associated risks in all patients.
Theusinger, Oliver M.; Kind, Stephanie L.; Seifert, Burkhardt; Borgeat, lain; Gerber, Christian; Spahn, Donat R.
Background The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the introduction of a Patient Blood Management (PBM) programme in elective orthopaedic surgery on immediate pre-operative anaemia, red blood cell (RBC) mass loss, and transfusion. Materials and methods Orthopaedic operations (hip, n=3,062; knee, n=2,953; and spine, n=2,856) performed between 2008 and 2011 were analysed. Period 1 (2008), was before the introduction of the PBM programme and period 2 (2009 to 2011) the time after its introduction. Immediate pre-operative anaemia, RBC mass loss, and transfusion rates in the two periods were compared. Results In hip surgery, the percentage of patients with immediate pre-operative anaemia decreased from 17.6% to 12.9% (p<0.001) and RBC mass loss was unchanged, being 626±434 vs 635±450 mL (p=0.974). Transfusion rate was significantly reduced from 21.8% to 15.7% (p<0.001). The number of RBC units transfused remained unchanged (p=0.761). In knee surgery the prevalence of immediate pre-operative anaemia decreased from 15.5% to 7.8% (p<0.001) and RBC mass loss reduced from 573±355 to 476±365 mL (p<0.001). The transfusion rate dropped from 19.3% to 4.9% (p<0.001). RBC transfusions decreased from 0.53±1.27 to 0.16±0.90 units (p<0.001). In spine surgery the prevalence of immediate pre-operative anaemia remained unchanged (p=0.113), RBC mass loss dropped from 551±421 to 404±337 mL (p<0.001), the transfusion rate was reduced from 18.6 to 8.6% (p<0.001) and RBC transfusions decreased from 0.66±1.80 to 0.22±0.89 units (p=0.008). Discussion Detection and treatment of pre-operative anaemia, meticulous surgical technique, optimal surgical blood-saving techniques, and standardised transfusion triggers in the context of PBM programme resulted in a lower incidence of immediate pre-operative anaemia, reduction in RBC mass loss, and a lower transfusion rate. PMID:24931841
Flausino, Gustavo de Freitas; Nunes, Flávio Ferreira; Cioffi, Júnia Guimarães Mourão; Proietti, Anna Bárbara de Freitas Carneiro
The current curricula in medical schools and hospital residence worldwide lack exposure to blood transfusion medicine, and require the reformulation of academic programs. In many countries, training in blood transfusion is not currently offered to medical students or during residency. Clinical evidence indicates that blood transfusions occur more frequently than recommended, contributing to increased risk due to this procedure. Therefore, the rational use of blood and its components is essential, due to the frequent undesirable reactions, to the increasing demand of blood products and the cost of the process. Significant improvements in knowledge of and skills in transfusion medicine are needed by both students and residents. Improvements are needed in both background knowledge and the practical application of this knowledge to improve safety. Studies prove that hemovigilance has an impact on transfusion safety and helps to prevent the occurrence of transfusion-related adverse effects. To ensure that all these aspects of blood transfusion are being properly addressed, many countries have instituted hospital transfusion committees. From this perspective, the interventions performed during the formation of medical students and residents, even the simplest, have proven effective in the acquisition of knowledge and medical training, thereby leading to a reduction in inappropriate use of blood. Therefore, we would like to emphasize the importance of the exposure of medical students and residents to blood services and transfusion medicine in order for them to acquire adequate medical training, as well as to discuss some changes in the current medical curricula regarding transfusion medicine that we judge critical. PMID:25638770
Transfusion of blood components is one of the most common medical treatments, and in spite of the time that has evolved since we started to transfuse blood routinely in the 1930s, there are issues associated with its use that we are still trying to improve. Issues such as when to transfuse and adverse effects associated with the transfusion are fields where new evidence is being generated that ideally should help us to indicate when and what to transfuse to the patients. The recognition that the evidence generated in randomized control trials was not widely applied to guide the indication of the transfusion of blood components has provoked the development of initiatives that try to reduce its unnecessary usage. Those initiatives, grouped under the name of patient blood management, have represented a significant paradigm change, and a growing number of activities in this field are performed in health-care facilities around the world. This article tries to summarize the latest publications in those fields. PMID:25580259
Apelseth, Torunn Oveland; Molnar, Laura; Arnold, Emmy; Heddle, Nancy M
Benchmarking is as a structured continuous collaborative process in which comparisons for selected indicators are used to identify factors that, when implemented, will improve transfusion practices. This study aimed to identify transfusion medicine studies reporting on benchmarking, summarize the benchmarking approaches used, and identify important considerations to move the concept of benchmarking forward in the field of transfusion medicine. A systematic review of published literature was performed to identify transfusion medicine-related studies that compared at least 2 separate institutions or regions with the intention of benchmarking focusing on 4 areas: blood utilization, safety, operational aspects, and blood donation. Forty-five studies were included: blood utilization (n = 35), safety (n = 5), operational aspects of transfusion medicine (n = 5), and blood donation (n = 0). Based on predefined criteria, 7 publications were classified as benchmarking, 2 as trending, and 36 as single-event studies. Three models of benchmarking are described: (1) a regional benchmarking program that collects and links relevant data from existing electronic sources, (2) a sentinel site model where data from a limited number of sites are collected, and (3) an institutional-initiated model where a site identifies indicators of interest and approaches other institutions. Benchmarking approaches are needed in the field of transfusion medicine. Major challenges include defining best practices and developing cost-effective methods of data collection. For those interested in initiating a benchmarking program, the sentinel site model may be most effective and sustainable as a starting point, although the regional model would be the ideal goal.
Jones, Allison R; Frazier, Susan K
Transfusion of blood components is often required in resuscitation of patients with major trauma. Packed red blood cells and platelets break down and undergo chemical changes during storage (known as the storage lesion) that lead to an inflammatory response once the blood components are transfused to patients. Although some evidence supports a detrimental association between transfusion and a patient's outcome, the mechanisms connecting transfusion of stored components to outcomes remain unclear. The purpose of this review is to provide critical care nurses with a conceptual model to facilitate understanding of the relationship between the storage lesion and patients' outcomes after trauma; outcomes related to trauma, hemorrhage, and blood component transfusion are grouped according to those occurring in the short-term (≤30 days) and the long-term (>30 days). Complete understanding of these clinical implications is critical for practitioners in evaluating and treating patients given transfusions after traumatic injury.
Maetani, S; Nishikawa, T; Tobe, T; Hirakawa, A
Using multivariate probit analysis, the data of 565 patients who underwent major abdominal surgery were retrospectively analyzed, and the etiologic role of blood transfusion in organ system failure (OSF), which includes respiratory failure, gastrointestinal stress bleeding, renal failure, nonobstructive, nonhepatitic jaundice, and coagulopathy, was studied. Apart from the amount of blood transfusion, the following factors were included in the analysis as possible contributors to OSF: age, preoperative hematocrit, organ failure risk (diffuse peritonitis, obstructive cholangitis, liver cirrhosis, terminal cancer, and hemorrhagic shock), operative time, blood loss, and postoperative highest hematocrit. The results showed that, except for preoperative hematocrit, all the factors are statistically significant contributors, blood transfusion being the most significant. There was no statistically significant interaction between blood transfusion and organ failure risk. It is concluded that blood transfusion is an important, independent factor contributing to OSF, and its contribution cannot be attributed to the underlying conditions that require blood transfusion. PMID:3485412
Chang, Tsung-Yen; Jaing, Tang-Her; Wen, Yu-Chuan; Huang, I-Anne; Chen, Shih-Hsiang; Tsay, Pei-Kwei
Abstract Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a clinically relevant complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Currently, there is no established consensus regarding the optimal therapeutic approach. Whether AIHA contributes to increased mortality is still somewhat controversial. We investigated the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of post-transplant AIHA in 265 consecutive pediatric patients undergoing allo-HSCT over a 17-year period. Onset of AIHA was calculated from the first documented detection of AIHA by either clinical symptoms or positive direct agglutinin test. Resolution of AIHA was defined as normalization of hemoglobin and biochemical markers of hemolysis with sustained transfusion independence. We identified 15 cases of AIHA after allo-HSCT (incidence rate, 6%). Ten (67%) of these patients had a positive direct antiglobulin test. Data were obtained for 9 boys and 6 girls after a median follow-up of 53 months (range 4–102). The median age was 5.1 years (range 0.5–15.4) at the time of HSCT and the median time to emergence was 149 days (range 42–273). No significant risk factor for post-transplant AIHA has emerged from our data to date. In the majority (14 of 15; 93%) of AIHA patients, multiple agents for treatment were required, with 12 of 15 (80%) patients achieving complete resolution of AIHA. No splenectomy was performed in any of our patients. For various reasons, post-transplantation AIHA poses an extraordinary challenge to transplant physicians. Despite the advancements in diagnostic tools, therapeutic challenges remain due to the myriad interacting pathways in AIHA. PMID:27861376
Chang, Tsung-Yen; Jaing, Tang-Her; Wen, Yu-Chuan; Huang, I-Anne; Chen, Shih-Hsiang; Tsay, Pei-Kwei
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a clinically relevant complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Currently, there is no established consensus regarding the optimal therapeutic approach. Whether AIHA contributes to increased mortality is still somewhat controversial.We investigated the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of post-transplant AIHA in 265 consecutive pediatric patients undergoing allo-HSCT over a 17-year period. Onset of AIHA was calculated from the first documented detection of AIHA by either clinical symptoms or positive direct agglutinin test. Resolution of AIHA was defined as normalization of hemoglobin and biochemical markers of hemolysis with sustained transfusion independence.We identified 15 cases of AIHA after allo-HSCT (incidence rate, 6%). Ten (67%) of these patients had a positive direct antiglobulin test. Data were obtained for 9 boys and 6 girls after a median follow-up of 53 months (range 4-102). The median age was 5.1 years (range 0.5-15.4) at the time of HSCT and the median time to emergence was 149 days (range 42-273). No significant risk factor for post-transplant AIHA has emerged from our data to date. In the majority (14 of 15; 93%) of AIHA patients, multiple agents for treatment were required, with 12 of 15 (80%) patients achieving complete resolution of AIHA. No splenectomy was performed in any of our patients.For various reasons, post-transplantation AIHA poses an extraordinary challenge to transplant physicians. Despite the advancements in diagnostic tools, therapeutic challenges remain due to the myriad interacting pathways in AIHA.
Ray, V L; Chaudhary, R K; Choudhury, N
The AIDS pandemic has brought into focus the importance of safe blood transfusion. The management of an effective transfusion service is an expensive endeavour even in the most developed countries, and is therefore a monumental challenge for developing countries with limited budgets and other priorities. HIV prevalence in the Indian population has shown a steady rise from 0.5% in 1990 to 1.2% in 1997 with the highest prevalence in cities. When the HIV infection was discovered in India in 1986, the health authorities set up the National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) with a primary focus on ensuring a safe blood supply. NACO was funded by the World Bank and technically supported by WHO. The supreme Court of India has also taken up the issue of blood safety by banning paid donations by the end of 1997 and established the autonomous National Blood Transfusion Council and the State Transfusion Councils. The Drugs Controller of India and State F.D.A. have issued licences to all blood banks to streamline them after all requirements are met. However, there are a number of blood banks which are operating without licences. While India collects three million units of blood, barely 10% is available as blood components, and only a percentage of the blood is being screened for infectious markers. Nevertheless, there is a general recognition that an improved transfusion service is required in India.
Desborough, Michael; Estcourt, Lise J; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally; Stanworth, Simon J; Murphy, Michael F
not yet been published (trial completion dates: April 2012 to February 2017). Therefore, the review included 10 trials in eight references with 554 participants. Six trials (336 participants) only included participants with acute myeloid leukaemia undergoing intensive chemotherapy, two trials (38 participants) included participants with lymphoma undergoing intensive chemotherapy and two trials (180 participants) reported participants undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Men and women were equally well represented in the trials. The age range of participants included in the trials was from 16 years to 81 years. All trials took place in high-income countries. The manufacturers of the agent sponsored eight trials that were under investigation, and two trials did not report their source of funding. No trials assessed artificial platelet substitutes, fibrinogen concentrate, recombinant activated factor VII or desmopressin. Nine trials compared a TPO mimetic to placebo or standard care; seven of these used pegylated recombinant human megakaryocyte growth and differentiation factor (PEG-rHuMGDF) and two used recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO). One trial compared platelet-poor plasma to platelet transfusion. We considered that all the trials included in this review were at high risk of bias and meta-analysis was not possible in seven trials due to problems with the way data were reported. We are very uncertain whether TPO mimetics reduce the number of participants with any bleeding episode (odds ratio (OR) 0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10 to 1.62, one trial, 120 participants, very low quality evidence). We are very uncertain whether TPO mimetics reduce the risk of a life-threatening bleed after 30 days (OR 1.46, 95% CI 0.06 to 33.14, three trials, 209 participants, very low quality evidence); or after 90 days (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.06 to 16.37, one trial, 120 participants, very low quality evidence). We are very uncertain whether TPO mimetics reduce
Lamb, Jodie L.; Thieman Mankin, Kelley M.; Levine, Gwendolyn J.; Thompson, James
This study reports electrolyte and acid/base disturbances observed in clinical cases receiving autologous transfusion of blood processed by a cell salvage device. The records of 12 client-owned dogs that received an autologous transfusion via a cell salvage device with pre- and post-autologous transfusion blood work available were reviewed. Blood work from the 12 case dogs was compared to blood work from 12 control dogs with similar diseases. Control dogs received similar surgical treatment and were administered a similar volume per kg of packed red blood cells as case dogs, but did not undergo autologous transfusion. Case dogs that received autologous transfusion via a cell salvage device were significantly more likely to experience a decrease in ionized calcium and magnesium levels post-transfusion than were control dogs. Calcium and magnesium levels should be closely monitored during and after autologous transfusion. Calcium and/or magnesium supplementation may be required. PMID:26345136
Atay, Didem; Erbey, Fatih; Akcay, Arzu; Ozturk, Gulyuz
The ABO incompatibility between donor and recipient is not considered a barrier to successful allogeneic HSCT. Nevertheless, conflicting data still exist about the influence of ABO incompatibility on transplant outcome in pediatric patients with thalassemia. Fifty-one children with beta-thalassemia major who underwent allogeneic HSCT were enrolled this study. Twenty-three of them (45%) received an ABO-incompatible transplant [minor ABO mismatch: six (26%), major ABO mismatch: fourteen (61%), and bidirectional mismatch: three (13%)]. In this study, ABO incompatibility did not significantly impair GVHD, VOD, neutrophil and platelet engraftment, TRM, OS and TFS. Particularly in major and bidirectional ABO-mismatched patients, a delayed erythroid recovery was recorded as compared to the group receiving an ABO-compatible graft (median time, 31 and 38 days vs. 19.5 days; p: 0.02 and p: 0.03). Median time to red cell transfusion independence was significantly longer in major ABO-incompatible patients (median time, 87 days vs. 32 days; p: 0.001). Therefore, whenever feasible, major ABO-mismatched donors should be avoided in HSCT recipients, to prevent delayed erythroid recovery with prolonged RBC transfusion needs and impaired quality of life.
Roberts, George H
Transfusion is an inevitable event in the life of many individuals. Transfusion medicine personnel attempt to provide blood products that will result in a safe and harmless transfusion. However, this is not always possible since no laboratory test gives totally accurate and reliable results all the time and testing in routine transfusion services is devoted primarily to the identification of red blood cell problems. Thus, when patients are transfused, several possible adverse effects may occur in the transfused patient even though quality testing indicates no potential problem. These adverse events include infectious complications, hemolytic reactions, anaphylaxis, urticaria, circulatory overload, transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease, chills and fever, immunomodulation, and transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI).
Kaminitz, Ayelet; Mizrahi, Keren; Yaniv, Isaac; Farkas, Daniel L; Stein, Jerry; Askenasy, Nadir
The relative efficiencies of allogeneic and syngeneic bone marrow transplantation and the threshold levels of donor chimerism required to control autoimmune insulitis were evaluated in prediabetic NOD mice. Male and female NOD mice were conditioned by radiation and grafted with bone marrow cells from allogeneic and syngeneic sex-mismatched donors. Establishment of full allogeneic chimerism in peripheral blood reversed insulitis and restored glucose tolerance despite persistence of residual host immune cells. By contrast, sublethal total body irradiation (with or without syngeneic transplant) reduced the incidence and delayed the onset of diabetes. The latter pattern was also seen in mice that rejected the bone marrow allografts. Low levels of stable allogeneic hematopoietic chimerism (>1%) were sufficient to prevent the evolution of diabetes following allogeneic transplantation. The data indicate that immunomodulation attained at low levels of allogeneic, but not syngeneic, hematopoietic chimerism is effective in resolution of islet inflammation at even relatively late stages in the evolution of the prediabetic state in a preclinical model. However, our data question the efficacy and rationale behind syngeneic (autologous-like) immuno-hematopoietic reconstitution in type 1 diabetes.
Acquired hemoglobin variants and exposure to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient red blood cell units during exchange transfusion for sickle cell disease in a patient requiring antigen-matched blood.
Raciti, Patricia M; Francis, Richard O; Spitalnik, Patrice F; Schwartz, Joseph; Jhang, Jeffrey S
Red blood cell exchange (RBCEx) is frequently used in the management of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and acute chest syndrome or stroke, or to maintain target hemoglobin S (HbS) levels. In these settings, RBCEx is a category I or II recommendation according to guidelines on the use of therapeutic apheresis published by the American Society for Apheresis. Matching donor red blood cells (RBCs) to recipient phenotypes (e.g., C, E, K-antigen negative) can decrease the risk of alloimmunization in patients with multi-transfused SCD. However, this may select for donors with a higher prevalence of RBC disorders for which screening is not performed. This report describes a patient with SCD treated with RBCEx using five units negative for C, E, K, Fya, Fyb (prospectively matched), four of which were from donors with hemoglobin variants and/or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Pre-RBCEx HbS quantification by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) demonstrated 49.3% HbS and 2.8% hemoglobin C, presumably from transfusion of a hemoglobin C-containing RBC unit during a previous RBCEx. Post-RBCEx HPLC showed the appearance of hemoglobin G-Philadelphia. Two units were G6PD-deficient. The patient did well, but the consequences of transfusing RBC units that are G6PD-deficient and contain hemoglobin variants are unknown. Additional studies are needed to investigate effects on storage, in-vivo RBC recovery and survival, and physiological effects following transfusion of these units. Post-RBCEx HPLC can monitor RBCEx efficiency and detect the presence of abnormal transfused units.
Gharwan, Helen; Neary, Nicola M.; Link, Mary; Hsieh, Matthew M.; Fitzhugh, Courtney D.; Sherins, Richard J.; Tisdale, John F.
Objective Myeloablative conditioning regimens given prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) frequently cause permanent sterility in men. In patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) we use a nonmyeloablative regimen with sirolimus, alemtuzumab, and low-dose total-body irradiation (300 centigrays) with gonadal shielding preceding allogeneic HSCT. We report here the restoration of azoospermia in a patient with SCD after allogeneic HSCT. We discuss the impact of our patient’s underlying chronic medical conditions and the therapies he had received (frequent blood transfusions, iron chelating drugs, ribavirin, hydroxyurea, opioids), as well as the impact of the nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen on male gonadal function, and we review the literature on this topic. Methods We determined the patient’s reproductive hormonal values and his semen parameters before, during, and after HSCT and infertility treatment. In addition, we routinely measured his serum laboratory parameters pertinent to SCD and infertility, such as iron and ferritin levels. A karyotype analysis was performed to assess the potential presence of Klinefelter syndrome. Finally, imaging studies of the patient’s brain and testes were done to rule out further underlying pathology. Results A 42-year-old man with SCD, transfusional iron overload, and hepatitis C underwent a nonmyeloablative allogeneic HSCT. One year later he desired to father a child but was found to be azoospermic in the context of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Restoration of fertility was attempted with human chorionic gonadotropin (2,000 IU) plus human menopausal gonadotropin (75 IU follicle-stimulating hormone) injected subcutaneously 3 times weekly. Within 6 months of treatment, the patient’s serum calculated free testosterone value normalized, and his sperm count and sperm motility improved. After 10 months, he successfully initiated a pregnancy through intercourse. The pregnancy was uncomplicated, and a healthy
Fedotenkov, A G; Danilova, L A; Ignasheva, L P
Experiments made in vivo and vitro have demonstrated that conservation of allogeneic hemopoietic tissue with glycerin brings about a decrease in transplatation, homologous activity of T lymphocytes. Allogeneic bone marrow conserved with glycerin compares very favourably with freshly prepared allogeneic bone marrow since the transplant-versus-host reaction is attenuated under the effect of glycerin. Moreover, it shows a higher proliferative activity. The glycerin-induced reduction of the inactivating effect of lymphocytes against non-syngeneic colony-forming units enables the conserved bone marrow to be transplanted from several donors.
... its parts) or, more often, as individual parts. Blood Types Every person has one of the following blood types: A, B, AB, or O. Also, every person's ... used in a transfusion must work with your blood type. If it doesn't, antibodies (proteins) in your ...
... stick together and plug up the cut blood vessel so that no more blood will flow out. Red blood cells, plasma, and platelets are commonly used in transfusions. Red blood cells help people who have lost a lot of blood or are anemic. Doctors ...
Ngo, Ly Thi; Bruhn, Roberta; Custer, Brian
Despite improvements in blood safety making transfusion a much safer clinical procedure, the general public still perceives it as risky. We systematically reviewed available literature to examine evidence regarding the reasons and causes behind this perception. Electronic databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE for literature dating back to the 1980s were searched. Eligible studies collected information on blood recipients' demographics, measures of risk domains (sets of values that risks encompass), and general knowledge of blood transfusion in terms of risks and benefits. Each study was assessed for quality of data, research method, and relevant findings. A scoring system was used to subjectively rate the overall quality of each study. Each study was reviewed for its method of data collection and information abstracted on hazards and conceptual dimensions used to measure risk. Risk perception between blood transfusion and other hazards including alternatives to transfusion were compared. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria, all of which were conducted outside the United States, with most of the studies published more than 10 years ago and conducted by only 3 research groups. Five studies were rated as being very good, four good, five fair, and one of poor quality. The finding of the studies consistently show that objective or raw knowledge is not correlated with risk perception, but subjective or calibrated knowledge is. Thus, it is what people think they know rather than what they actually do know that influences risk perception of transfusion. Of the 3 common conceptual domains-dread, unknown risk, and benefits-blood transfusion was found to be of intermediate dread, intermediate unknown risk, and most beneficial compared with other hazards. Donated blood was found to have lower perceived risk than all other alternatives to transfusion, except for use of autologous blood. There is a lack of recent studies on allogeneic transfusion
van Gemert, Martin J. C.; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Lopriore, Enrico; Pasman, Suzanne A.; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.
Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monozygotic (identical) twin fetuses sharing one single (monochorionic) placenta. TTTS is caused by a net inter-twin transfusion of blood through placental anastomoses, from one twin (the donor) to the other (the recipient), which link the two feto-placental circulations. Currently, the only reliable method to measure the net inter-twin transfusion clinically is when incomplete laser therapy of TTTS occurs and one of the twins becomes anemic and requires an intra-uterine transfusion of adult red blood cells. Then, differences between adult hemoglobin concentrations measured during the transfusion and at birth relate not only to the net inter-twin transfusion but also to the finite lifetime of the adult red blood cells. We have analyzed this situation, derived the differential equations of adult hemoglobin in the donor and recipient twins, given the solutions and given expressions relating the net inter-twin flow with clinically measured parameters. We have included single and multiple intra-uterine transfusions. In conclusion, because incomplete laser therapy occurs frequently, and some cases require an intra-uterine transfusion, this method may allow collecting a wealth of net inter-twin flow data from clinicians involved in laser therapy of TTTS. To aid to the widespread use of this method, we have presented the equations as clearly as possible in tables for easy use by others.
Kooby, David A.; Stockman, Jennifer; Ben-Porat, Leah; Gonen, Mithat; Jarnagin, William R.; Dematteo, Ronald P.; Tuorto, Scott; Wuest, David; Blumgart, Leslie H.; Fong, Yuman
Objective To determine if transfusion affected perioperative and long-term outcome in patients undergoing liver resection for metastatic colorectal cancer. Summary Background Data Blood transfusion produces host immunosuppression and has been postulated to result in adverse outcome for patients undergoing surgical resection of malignancies. Methods Blood transfusion records and clinical outcomes for 1,351 patients undergoing liver resection at a tertiary cancer referral center were analyzed. Results Blood transfusion was associated with adverse outcome after liver resection. The greatest effect was in the perioperative course, where transfusion was an independent predictor of operative mortality, complications, major complications, and length of hospital stay. This effect was dose-related. Patients receiving one or two units or more than two units had an operative mortality of 2.5% and 11.1%, respectively, compared to 1.2% for patients not requiring transfusions. Transfusion was also associated with adverse long-term survival by univariate analysis, but this factor was not significant on multivariate analysis. Even patients receiving only one or two units had a more adverse outcome. Conclusions Perioperative blood transfusion is a risk factor for poor outcome after liver resection. Blood conservation methods should be used to avoid transfusion, especially in patents currently requiring limited amounts of transfused blood products. PMID:12796583
Grosse-Wilde, H.; Krumbacher, K.; Schuening, F.D.; Doxiadis, I.; Mahmoud, H.K.; Emde, C.; Schmidt-Weinmar, A.; Schaefer, U.W.
Transfer of immunity occurring with bone marrow grafting was studied using the dog as a preclinical model. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was performed between DLA-identical beagle litter-mates. The donors were immunized with tetanus toxoid (TT) or sheep red blood cells (SRBC), and their humoral response was monitored by hemagglutination. The recipients of bone marrow from TT-immunized donors showed a marked increase of antibody titer one week posttransplantation, while in the recipients of marrow from SRBC immunized donors the antibody titers were considerably lower. Within the following 60 days the antibody titers in both groups diminished gradually to pregrafting levels. Control experiments in which cell-free plasma from donors immunized with TT and SRBC respectively was transfused indicated that the initial rise of specific antibody titers after marrow grafting is likely to be due to a passive transfer of humoral immunity. A single challenge of these marrow graft recipients with the respective antigen 15-18 weeks posttransplantation led to a secondary type of humoral immune response. It could be demonstrated that transfer of memory against TT or SRBC was independent from the actual antibody titer and the time of vaccination of the donor. One dog was immunized with TT after serving as marrow donor. When the donor had shown an antibody response, a peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) transfusion was given to his chimera. Subsequent challenge of the latter resulted in a secondary type of specific antibody response. This indicates that specific cellular-bound immunological memory can be transferred after BMT from the donor to his allogeneic bone marrow chimera by transfusion of peripheral blood leukocytes. The data may be of importance in clinical BMT to protect patients during the phase of reduced immune reactivity by transfer of memory cells.
Yalinkaya, Ahmet; Evsen, Mehmet Sıddık; Celik, Yusuf; Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Soydinc, Hatice Ender; Taner, Mehmet Zeki
The aim of our study was to evaluate the middle cerebral artery velocimetry before and after intrauterine blood transfusion in immune hydrops fetalis. The current study was conducted in a tertiary research hospital, from February 2009 to January 2011. Nineteen intrauterine blood transfusions performed during the study period. The factors recorded were age of the mothers, gestational weeks, pre-transfusion fetal hematocrit and post-transfusion fetal hematocrit, and also middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocimetry (MCA-PSV) was detected and recorded before and after intrauterine transfusion. A control group of twenty two cases for normal MCA doppler velocimetry was also included to the study. During the study, a total of eleven rhesus isoimmunized pregnancies underwent intrauterine blood transfusions at our perinatal diagnose unit. Before transfusion seventeen severe and two moderate anemias were detected and mean MoM of MCA-PSV was 1.76±0.38 MoM. Post transfusion mean MoM of MCA-PSV in the patient group and control group were 1.08±0.22 MoM and 0.96±0.21 MoM, respectively. The mean MCA-PSV values were higher in RI fetuses than post transfusion and control group. In current study, we found that MCA-PSV is a valuable parameter in detecting fetal anemia requiring intrauterine transfusion and mean MCA-PSV values is higher than 1.5 MoM in fetuses with anemia. And also decrease in MCA-PSV just after transfusion in anemic fetuses showed the quick response of the fetus to correction of anemia. PMID:22364302
Kleczynski, Pawel; Dziewierz, Artur; Bagienski, Maciej; Rzeszutko, Lukasz; Sorysz, Danuta; Trebacz, Jaroslaw; Sobczynski, Robert; Tomala, Marek; Stapor, Maciej; Dudek, Dariusz
Blood transfusions are considered as an important predictor of adverse outcome in patients with severe aortic (AS) undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). We sought to investigate the association between blood transfusions and mortality after TAVI. We enrolled 101 consecutive patients with severe AS undergoing TAVI. Patients who required transfusion were defined as patients in whom at least one unit of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) was transfused in the perioperative period. Twelve-month outcomes were assessed based on Valve Academic Research Consortium definitions. A total of 28 (27.7%) patients required blood transfusion after TAVI. Baseline characteristics of the patients with and without a transfusion were similar. Median amount of PRBCs was 2 (interquartile range, 2-4). Twelvemonth all-cause mortality was higher in patients with than without a blood transfusion (39.3% versus 9.6%; P = 0.001). Importantly, the need for a blood transfusion after TAVI was an independent predictor of higher mortality rates after 12 months (hazard ratio (HR) 2.84 95%CI (1.06-7.63); P = 0.039; (HR for incomplete coronary revascularization 10.86, 95%CI 3.72-31.73; P < 0.001; HR for a history of stroke/TIA 3.93, 95%CI 1.39-11.07; P < 0.001). The duration of inhospital stay was longer in patients requiring transfusion (16.0 (14.0-22.0) versus 7.0 (7.0-11.5) days; P = 0.014). In conclusion, blood transfusions after TAVI were associated with higher mortality rates after 12 months, longer in-hospital stay, and were identified as an independent predictor of impaired clinical outcome.
Kim, M Y; Chaudhary, P; Shulman, I A; Pullarkat, V
A 49-year-old white man with blood group AB, D+ was found to have alloanti-Jk(a) and -K when he developed a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Given that his stem cell donor was blood group O, D+, Jk(a+), K-, rituximab was added to his conditioning regimen of fludarabine and melphalan to prevent hemolysis of engrafting Jk(a+) donor red blood cells. The patient proceeded to receive a peripheral blood stem cell transplant from a matched unrelated donor with no adverse events. To our knowledge, this is the first case of successful management of major non-ABO incompatibility caused by anti-Jk(a) in a patient receiving an allogeneic HSCT reported in the literature.
Takeuchi, Yasuo; Ito, Hiroshi; Kurtz, Josef; Wekerle, Thomas; Ho, Leon; Sykes, Megan
Treatment with a single injection of anti-CD40L (CD154) monoclonal antibody (mAb) and fully mismatched allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) allows rapid tolerization of CD4+ T cells to the donor. The addition of in vivo CD8 T-cell depletion leads to permanent mixed hematopoietic chimerism and tolerance. We now describe two approaches that obviate the requirement for CD8 T-cell depletion by rapidly tolerizing recipient CD8 T cells in addition to CD4 cells. Administration of donor-specific transfusion (DST) to mice receiving 3 Gy total body irradiation (TBI), BMT and anti-CD40L mAb on day 0 uniformly led to permanent mixed chimerism and tolerance, compared with only 40% of mice receiving similar treatment without DST. In the absence of DST, moving the timing of 3 Gy TBI to day -1 or day -2 instead of day 0 led to rapid (by 2 weeks) induction of CD8+ cell tolerance, and also permitted uniform achievement of permanent mixed chimerism and donor-specific tolerance in recipients of anti-CD40L and BMT on day 0. These nontoxic regimens overcome CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell-mediated alloresistance without requiring host T-cell depletion, permitting the induction of permanent mixed chimerism and tolerance.
Ogunlesi, Tinuade; Fetuga, Bolanle; Olowonyo, Michael; Adekoya, Adesola; Adetola, Oluseyi; Ajetunmobi, Adebimpe
This study aimed to describe the pattern and immediate outcome of severe childhood anaemia requiring blood transfusion at a secondary level of care in Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of children hospitalized in a secondary health facility in Ogun State, Nigeria, with packed cell volume <20% and who received blood transfusion was done. Of the 253 children admitted between March 2013 and June 2014, 79 (31.2%) had severe anaemia and were transfused with blood. Two-thirds had multiple transfusions. Higher rates of blood transfusion were obtained among underweight children. Fever (98.7%), hypoglycaemia (65.8%) and tender liver (54.4%) were the leading co-morbidities. The case fatality rate was 21.5%. Respiratory distress, convulsions and altered sensorium were significantly associated with mortality. In conclusion, severe anaemia was associated with major morbidities and mortality at the secondary level of paediatric care in Nigeria.
Yazer, Mark; Eder, Anne F; Land, Kevin J
The growing use of group AB plasma in the United States in recent years poses unique challenges to blood centers and transfusion services. Blood centers must collect sufficient plasma components from a limited pool of group AB donors while taking steps to improve transfusion safety that further restricts the available supply. Transfusion services, on the other hand, must use the finite resource in the most conscientious and medically appropriate manner. Recently, many investigations have challenged long-held beliefs about transfusion practice and appropriate indications for blood components across a variety of specialties. Balancing supply and demand of group AB plasma requires collaboration between blood suppliers and transfusion services, and opportunities for improvement exist on both sides of the equation.
Summary Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative option for a variety of malignant and non-malignant hematological and congenital diseases. Due to the fact that the human leukocyte antigen system is inherited independently of the blood group system, approximately 40-50% of all HSCTs are performed across the ABO blood group barrier. The expected immune-hematological consequences after transplantation of an ABO-mismatched stem cell graft are immediate and delayed hemolytic complications due to presence of isohemagglutinins or passenger lymphocyte syndrome. The risks of these complications can partially be prevented by graft manipulation and appropriate transfusion support. Dependent on the kind of ABO mismatch, different effects on engraftment have been observed, e.g. delayed red blood cell recovery and pure red cell aplasia. Data on incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), non-relapse mortality, relapse, and overall survival are inconsistent as most studies include limited patient numbers, various graft sources, and different conditioning and GVHD prophylaxis regimens. This makes it difficult to detect a consistent effect of ABO-mismatched transplantation in the literature. However, knowledge of expectable complications and close monitoring of patients helps to detect problems early and to treat patients efficiently, thus reducing the number of fatal or life-threatening events caused by ABO-mismatched HSCT. PMID:27022317
Okamura, Hiroshi; Nakane, Takahiko; Fujino, Keizo; Koh, Shiro; Yoshimura, Takuro; Nishimoto, Mitsutaka; Hayashi, Yoshiki; Koh, Hideo; Nakao, Yoshitaka; Nakamae, Hirohisa; Hino, Masayuki
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is known to often be complicated by a range of autoimmune diseases. We herein present a case with MDS complicated by cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia (cold AIHA). The patient was a 51-year-old woman. She was diagnosed with MDS (refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia) in May 2009. In January 2010, she underwent unrelated allogeneic bone marrow transplantation but was re-admitted in October 2010 for treatment of relapsed MDS. Despite daily transfusions of red blood cells, her anemia failed to improve. Her laboratory examinations showed a low haptoglobin level and elevation of indirect bilirubin and LDH. The direct Coombs test was positive at a low and at room temperature and cold agglutinin was negative. After confirming the diagnosis of cold AIHA, all transfusion fluids were warmed but her anemia still failed to improve. In addition to the warmed transfusion fluids, we administered corticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin infusions. This management strategy ameliorated the patient's hemolytic anemia. To our knowledge, MDS cases complicated by cold AIHA are rare. Our patient thus provides a valuable contribution to medical knowledge.
The creation of the Etablissement Français du Sang (EFS) was mentioned in the Law of July 1, 1998, pertaining to sanitary safety. The EFS is the sole operator of blood transfusion. With a unique legal status, supervised by the Ministry in charge of Health, the EFS organizes the activities involved in the transfusion chain over the whole territory, it promotes research activities and take part in international scientific cooperation. Its activities include medical biology as well as cell and gene therapy. As part of the new 2000-2004 territorial transfusion scheme, the EFS network comprises 18 centers (versus 43 in the previous plan), 14 of which are located in the French territory and the other 4 overseas. The network includes 18 technical platforms for the biological qualification of blood products, while 27 are dedicated to their preparation, transformation and storage. The activities of collection and distribution, which comply with the principle of proximity to both donors and patients, are ensured by 220 sites spread over the whole territory. For the future, the EFS wants to focus its efforts on reducing residual infectious risks (using molecular biology tools), preventing immunological risks, drawing up an education program aiming at teaching transfusion medicine differently. Despite the advances achieved in biotechnologies, the development of substitution products to replace blood transfusion will still require a lot of time. The EFS wishes to focus its action following three different axes: transfusion medicine, medical biology and cell engineering. With its 18 centers and its 8,200 persons, the EFS must face the challengers of the 2000s, relying on the advances in biotechnologies.
Engelbrecht, Sunelle; Wood, Erica M; Cole-Sinclair, Merrole F
Blood transfusion is not without risk. Although the risks of HIV and hepatitis transmission have diminished, haemovigilance programs highlight that other significant transfusion hazards remain. Sepsis from bacterial contamination is the most common residual infectious hazard in developed countries, and events due to clerical error are problematic. Unnecessary transfusions should be avoided. New national guidelines on patient blood management (PBM) emphasise holistic approaches, including strategies to reduce transfusion requirements. Perioperative PBM should incorporate preoperative haemoglobin and medication optimisation, intraoperative blood conservation, and consideration of restrictive postoperative transfusion and cell-salvage techniques. When massive transfusion is required, hospitals should implement massive transfusion protocols. These protocols reduce mortality, improve communication and facilitate adequate provision of blood products. They should include multidisciplinary team involvement and guidelines for use of blood components and adjunctive agents. Although fresh frozen plasma to red blood cell and platelet to red blood cell ratios of ≥ 1 : 2 appear to reduce mortality in trauma patients who receive massive transfusion, there is insufficient evidence to recommend specific ratios. Systematic reviews have found no significant benefit of recombinant activated factor VII in critical bleeding, and an increase in thromboembolic events; specialist haematology advice is therefore recommended when considering use of this agent. The National Safety and Quality Health Service Standards address use of blood and blood products, and provide important transfusion principles for adoption by all clinicians. Storage of red cells in additive solution results in changes, known as the "storage lesion", and studies to determine the clinical effect of the age of blood at transfusion are ongoing.
Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Fox, Erin E.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Cotton, Bryan A.; Podbielski, Jeanette M.; Matijevic, Nena; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Zhang, Jiajie; Mirhaji, Parsa; Duran, Sarah; Reynolds, Robert J.; Benjamin-Garner, Ruby; Holcomb, John B.
Aim Early death due to hemorrhage is a major consequence of traumatic injury. Transfusion practices differ among hospitals and it is unknown which transfusion practices improve survival. This report describes the experience of the PRospective Observational Multicenter Major Trauma Transfusion (PROMMTT) Study Data Coordination Center in designing and coordinating a study to examine transfusion practices at ten Level 1 trauma centers in the U.S. Methods PROMMTT was a multisite prospective observational study of severely injured transfused trauma patients. The clinical sites collected real-time information on the timing and amounts of blood product infusions as well as colloids and crystalloids, vital signs, initial diagnostic and clinical laboratory tests, life saving interventions and other clinical care data. Results Between July 2009 and October 2010, PROMMTT screened 12,561 trauma admissions and enrolled 1,245 patients who received one or more blood transfusions within 6 hours of ED admission. A total of 297 massive transfusions were observed over the course of the study at a combined rate of 5.0 massive transfusion patients/week. Conclusion PROMMTT is the first multisite study to collect real-time prospective data on trauma patients requiring transfusion. Support from the Department of Defense and collaborative expertise from the ten participating centers helped to demonstrate the feasibility of prospective trauma transfusion studies. The observational data collected from this study will be an invaluable resource for research in trauma surgery and it will guide the design and conduct of future randomized trials. PMID:22001613
Park, Jeong A; Lim, Yeon Jung; Park, Hyeon Jin; Kong, Sun Young; Park, Byung Kiu; Ghim, Thad T
We describe a girl with Diamond-Blackfan anemia with accompanying red cell enolase deficiency. At the age of 9 yr old, the patient received allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from her HLA-identical sister who had normal red cell enolase activity. While the post transplant DNA analysis with short tandem repeat has continuously demonstrated a stable mixed chimerism on follow-up, the patient remains transfusion independent and continues to show a steady increase in red cell enolase activity for over two and a half years following bone marrow transplantation.
Singh, Gagandeep; Sehgal, Rakesh
The transmission of parasitic organisms through transfusion is relatively rare. Of the major transfusion-transmitted diseases, malaria is a major cause of TTIP in tropical countries whereas babesiosis and Chagas’ disease pose the greatest threat to donors in the USA In both cases, this is due to the increased number of potentially infected donors. There are no reliable serologic tests available to screen donors for any of these organisms and the focus for prevention remains on adherence to donor screening guidelines that address travel history and previous infection with the etiologic agent. One goal is the development of tests that are able to screen for and identify donors potentially infectious for parasitic infections without causing the deferral of a large number of non-infectious donors or significantly increasing costs. Ideally, methods to inactivate the infectious organism will provide an element of added safety to the blood supply. PMID:20859503
Singh, Gagandeep; Sehgal, Rakesh
The transmission of parasitic organisms through transfusion is relatively rare. Of the major transfusion-transmitted diseases, malaria is a major cause of TTIP in tropical countries whereas babesiosis and Chagas' disease pose the greatest threat to donors in the USA In both cases, this is due to the increased number of potentially infected donors. There are no reliable serologic tests available to screen donors for any of these organisms and the focus for prevention remains on adherence to donor screening guidelines that address travel history and previous infection with the etiologic agent. One goal is the development of tests that are able to screen for and identify donors potentially infectious for parasitic infections without causing the deferral of a large number of non-infectious donors or significantly increasing costs. Ideally, methods to inactivate the infectious organism will provide an element of added safety to the blood supply.
Durán-Nah, Jaime Jesús; Pastelín-Ruiz, Sofía Elisa; Miam-Viana, Emilio de Jesús
Introducción: el objetivo es identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a la hemotransfusión alogénica en pacientes con cirugía de cadera realizada en un hospital general citadino, durante 2008 y 2009. Métodos: fueron considerados como casos 118 pacientes que recibieron sangre alogénica en el pre, el trans o en el postquirúrgico inmediato, y como controles 138 pacientes que tuvieron el mismo tipo de cirugía, pero no fueron hemotransfundidos. La relación entre variables se investigó utilizando un modelo de regresión logística del que se obtuvieron la razón de momios (RM) y los intervalos de confianza (IC) de 95 %. Resultados: se identificaron como factores de riesgo: el sangrado transquirúrgico mayor o igual a 400 ml (frente a < 400 ml, RM 5.68, IC 95 % 2.5 a 12.9, p = 0.007) y la concentración prequirúrgica de hemoglobina < 11 g/dL (frente a = 11 g/dL, RM 2.86, IC 95 % 1.5 a 5.6; p = 0.001); pero no la duración de la cirugía, el segmento femoral intervenido, la técnica quirúrgica ni la Hb postquirúrgica. Conclusiones: el sangrado transquirúrgico mayor o igual a 400 ml y la Hb prequirúrgica < 11 g/dL incrementaron el riesgo de hemotransfusión alogénica.
Lassale, B; Besse-Moreau, M; Aullen, J-P
Blood transfusion is currently a delegated medical act in patient care services. Following severe adverse events, hemovigilance now disposes of a dense regulation. Data collection and analysis in the national hemovigilance "e-FIT" database allow detection of errors or malfunctions in the transfusion act. Blood transfusion safety depends on the strict respect of processes from the prescription of blood products and required patient immuno-hematology exams to the administration of blood products and follow-up of the patient. In the circular relative to the transfusion act, many steps of the transfusion process, less explicit, can be interpreted differently by health care professionals and thus lead to errors or severe adverse events. Standardization of procedures for the transfusion act and its surveillance would increase their safety and avoid potential risks for the patient.
Weinberg, Jordan A.; MacLennan, Paul A.; Vandromme–Cusick, Marianne J.; Magnotti, Louis J.; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Rue, Loring W.; Angotti, Jonathan M.; Garrett, Cristen A.; Hendrick, Leah E.; Croce, Martin A.; Fabian, Timothy C.; Barnum, Scott R.; Patel, Rakesh P.
Background The transfusion of relatively older red blood cells (RBCs) has been associated with both morbidity and mortality in trauma patients in observational studies. Although the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain unclear, alterations in the microcirculation as a result of the transfusion of relatively older blood may be a causative factor. To assess this hypothesis, we evaluated microvascular perfusion in trauma patients during RBC transfusion. Methods Anemic but otherwise stable trauma ICU patients with orders for transfusion were identified. Thenar muscle tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) was measured continuously by near infrared spectroscopy during the course of transfusion of one RBC unit. Sublingual microcirculation was observed by sidestream dark field illumination microscopy before and after transfusion of one RBC unit. Thenar muscle StO2 was recorded over the course of transfusion. Pre- and post-transfusion perfused capillary vascular density (PCD) was determined by semi-quantitative image analysis. Changes in StO2 and PCD relative to age of RBC unit were evaluated using mixed models that adjusted for baseline StO2 and Spearman's correlation, respectively. Results Overall, 93 patients were recruited for study participation, 69% were male and average Injury Severity Score was 26.4. Average pre-transfusion hemoglobin was 7.5 mg/dL and the average age of RBC unit transfused was 29.4 days. Average peri-transfusion StO2 was negatively associated with increasing RBC age (slope -0.11, p = 0.0014). Change in PCD from pre- to post-transfusion was found to correlate negatively with RBC storage age (Spearman correlation = -0.27, p = 0.037). Conclusions The transfusion of relatively older RBC units was associated with a decline in both StO2 and PCD. Collectively, these observations demonstrate that transfusions of older RBC units are associated with the inhibition of regional microvascular perfusion. In patients requiring multiple units of RBCs
Sahu, Sandeep; Hemlata; Verma, Anupam
The acute blood transfusion reactions are responsible for causing most serious adverse events. Awareness about various clinical features of acute and delayed transfusion reactions with an ability to assess the serious reactions on time can lead to a better prognosis. Evidence-based medicine has changed today's scenario of clinical practice to decrease adverse transfusion reactions. New evidence-based algorithms of transfusion and improved haemovigilance lead to avoidance of unnecessary transfusions perioperatively. The recognition of adverse events under anaesthesia is always challenging. The unnecessary blood transfusions can be avoided with better blood conservation techniques during surgery and with anaesthesia techniques that reduce blood loss. Better and newer blood screening methods have decreased the infectious complications to almost negligible levels. With universal leukoreduction of red blood cells (RBCs), selection of potential donors such as use of male donors only plasma and restriction of RBC storage, most of the non-infectious complications can be avoided.
Fastag, Eduardo; Varon, Joseph; Sternbach, George
Millions of blood transfusions are performed yearly worldwide. With respect to its historical origins, this practice began in the 17(th) century with an English physician. In 1666, Richard Lower reported the first successful transfusion between animals. The first transfusion in a human patient was performed the following year by Jean Baptiste Denis, a French physician. That same year, Lower transfused blood from a lamb into the bloodstream of a clergyman named Arthur Coga. However, the practice was subsequently abandoned for hundreds of years. Safe transfusion awaited the recognition of blood types and cross-matching, and did not occur until early in the 20(th) century. A number of other advances in transfusion therapy have followed, and more are in development.
Popovsky, Mark A
Transfusion-related acute lung injury and transfusion-associated circulatory overload are important, life-threatening complications of transfusion. Each adversely impact hospital length of stay and cost of healthcare. TRALI is clinically indistinguishable from the adult respiratory distress syndrome but it has a more favorable prognosis. Approximately 10% of TRALI patients die from this complication. The at-risk patient for TRALI has not been identified. The most commonly cited incidence is 1:5000 plasma-containing blood component transfusions. Although several pathways may lead to TRALI, passive transfusion of leukocyte antibodies is currently the most important association. TACO occurs in 1-8% of patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty. It is precipitated by positive fluid balance and high transfusion flow rates. TACO is characterized by respiratory distress and acute pulmonary edema.
Colombatti, Raffaella; Sainati, Laura; Trevisanuto, Daniele
Neonatal anemia is a frequent occurrence in neonatal intensive care units. Red blood cell transfusion criteria in case of blood loss are clearly defined but optimal hemoglobin or hematocrit thresholds of transfusion for anemia due to decreased production or increased destruction are less evident. This review focuses on the causes of anemia in the newborn period and the most recent evidence-based treatment options, including transfusion and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents.
Li, Hai-Yan; Zhou, Yan; Shen, Wei-Dong
CD36 is a transmembrane glycoprotein, a multi-ligand receptor, possesses various biological functions. CD36 deficiency may stimulate the body to produce anti-CD36 alloimmune antibodies through the several pathways, such as blood transfusion, pregnancy or organ transplantation and so on, leading to the refractoriness of immune platelet transfusion and other diseases. The recent research advances of CD36 deficiency and its molecular biological basis, platelet transfusion and CD36 antibody detection are summarized briefey in this review.
packed red blood cells [PRBC] within 24 hours of admission). Mortality was evaluated according to 4 apheresis platelet (aPLT):PRBC ratios: Low ratio (1...a massive transfusion, as the apheresis platelet -to-red cell ratio increased, a stepwise improvement in survival was seen. Prospective evaluation of...6.6 9.9 5.5 9.6 0.001 *FFP:PRBC ratio (%) (units FFP/units PRBC) 100. aPLT, apheresis platelets ; FFP, fresh frozen plasma; PRBC, packed red
Chow, M P; Yung, C H; Hu, H Y; Tzeng, C H
An 18 year old girl, with acute myeloid leukemia, developed progressive hemolysis after receiving multiple transfusions with ABO-incompatible platelets. It was caused by passive transfusion of anti-A and -B isoagglutinin from the donor plasma. Her hemoglobin level returned to normal after giving group compatible or pooled and reduced volume platelet concentrates. Transfusing group-incompatible platelets is not contraindicated, but donor plasma reduction should be considered for those patients who need prolonged platelet support. Testing for isoagglutinin titer in group O donors is an alternate method to reduce the incidence of plasma-induced hemolysis in group-incompatible platelet transfusions.
Renaudier, P; Rebibo, D; Waller, C; Schlanger, S; Vo Mai, M-P; Ounnoughene, N; Breton, P; Cheze, S; Girard, A; Hauser, L; Legras, J-F; Saillol, A; Willaert, B; Caldani, C
Pulmonary oedemas occurring during or after a blood transfusion appear as the most frequent serious immediate incidents in the French hemovigilance database. They include transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) and transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). TACO are a major cause of transfusion-related death in France. TRALI are more and more recognized and notified. In no case, pooled fresh frozen plasma (100 donations) treated with solvent-detergent were involved in French TRALI cases. A logigrame will allow hemovigilance officers to better classify pulmonary oedemas in e-fit, the French hemovigilance database.
Chairman to the French Institutional Review Board, Professor Didier Sicard raises blood donation issues from an ethical standpoint. The contaminated blood scandal focused on the necessity of reducing transfusion risks and regarded blood safety as an ethical mandatory requirement, a debatable subject to deal with. The author proposes to reconsider the nature of unpaid blood donations while advising not to scorn the remunerated gift when such is the case. As for the use of blood, he questions the solutions based on a zero risk perspective, in particular an excessive auto-transfusional practice or a restrictive use of blood, lately regarded as essential. Starting from the blood donation concern this article leads us to think over both our society's fears and the precautionary principle abuses.
Erber, Wendy N
Massive haemorrhage in elective surgery can be either anticipated (e.g. organ transplantation) or unexpected. Management requires early recognition, securing haemostasis and maintenance of normovolaemia. Transfusion management involves the transfusion of packed red cells, platelet concentrates and plasma (fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate). Blood product support should be based on clinical judgment and be guided by repeated laboratory tests of coagulation. Although coagulation tests may not provide a true representation of in vivo haemostasis, they do assist in management of haemostatic factors. Below critical levels (prothrombin time or activated partial thromboplastin time >1.8; fibrinogen <1.0 g/l; platelet count < 80 x 10(9) 1(-1)) it is difficult to achieve haemostasis. Despite seemingly adequate blood component therapy there remain situations where haemorrhage is uncontrollable. In this setting, alternative approaches must be considered. These include the use of other blood products (e.g. prothrombin complex concentrates; fresh whole blood; fibrin glue) and pharmacological agents (e.g. aprotinin). Complications of massive transfusion result in significant morbidity and mortality. These may be secondary to the storage lesion of the transfused blood products, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hypothermia or hypovolaemic shock. The use of fresh blood products and leucocyte-reduced packed red cells and platelets, may minimise some of the adverse clinical sequelae.
Sousa, Rejane Santos; Minervino, Antonio Humberto Hamad; Araújo, Carolina Akiko Sato Cabral; Rodrigues, Frederico Augusto Mazzocca Lopes; Oliveira, Francisco Leonardo Costa; Zaminhan, Janaina Larissa Rodrigues; Moreira, Thiago Rocha; Sousa, Isadora Karolina Freitas; Ortolani, Enrico Lippi; Barrêto Júnior, Raimundo Alves
Studies in relation to blood conservation and responses to transfusion are scarce for ruminants. We evaluated the clinical manifestations of sheep that received a single homologous transfusion of whole blood, focusing on transfusion reactions. Eighteen adult sheep were subjected to a single phlebotomy to withdraw 40% of the total blood volume, which was placed into CPDA-1 bags and then divided into G0, animals that received fresh blood, and G15 and G35, animals that received blood stored for 15 or 35 days, respectively. Clinical observations were recorded throughout the transfusion, whereas heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature were assessed at the following times: 24 hours after phlebotomy and before transfusion; 30 minutes, six, twelve, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours and eight and 16 days after transfusion. All groups presented transfusion reactions, among which hyperthermia was the most frequent (50% of animals). Tachycardia occurred most frequently in the G35 animals (50% of them). During transfusion G35 animals presented more clinical manifestation (P < 0.05). Transfusion of fresh or stored total blood improved the blood volume, but transfusion reactions occurred, demonstrating that a single transfusion of fresh or stored blood can cause inflammatory and febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions in sheep. PMID:25544959
Sullivan, Spencer K.; Fuentes, Rudy; French, Deborah L.; Poncz, Mortimer
Platelet transfusions are often a life-saving intervention, and the use of platelet transfusions has been increasing. Donor-derived platelet availability can be challenging. Compounding this concern are additional limitations of donor-derived platelets, including variability in product unit quality and quantity, limited shelf life and the risks of product bacterial contamination, other transfusion-transmitted infections, and immunologic reactions. Because of these issues, there has been an effort to develop strategies to generate platelets from exogenously generated precursor cells. If successful, such platelets have the potential to be a safer, more consistent platelet product, while reducing the necessity for human donations. Moreover, ex vivo–generated autologous platelets or precursors may be beneficial for patients who are refractory to allogeneic platelets. For patients with inherited platelet disorders, ex vivo–generated platelets offer the promise of a treatment via the generation of autologous gene-corrected platelets. Theoretically, ex vivo–generated platelets also offer targeted delivery of ectopic proteins to sites of vascular injury. This review summarizes the current, state-of-the-art methodologies in delivering a clinically relevant ex vivo–derived platelet product, and it discusses significant challenges that must be overcome for this approach to become a clinical reality. PMID:23321255
Davenport, Robertson D
Hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTR) are systemic reactions provoked by immunologic red blood cell (RBC) incompatibility. Clinical and experimental observations of such reactions indicate that they proceed through phases of humoral immune reaction, activation of phagocytes, productions of cytokine mediators, and wide-ranging cellular responses. HTR have many features in common with the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Knowledge of the pathophysiologic mechanisms in HTR suggest that newer biological agents that target complement intermediates or proinflammatory cytokines may be effective agents in the treatment of severe HTRs.
Andreu, G.; Boccaccio, C.; Lecrubier, C.; Fretault, J.; Coursaget, J.; LeGuen, J.P.; Oleggini, M.; Fournel, J.J.; Samama, M. )
Ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation abolishes lymphocyte functions (the ability to respond and to stimulate) in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC). This effect may have practical application in the prevention or reduction of transfusion-induced alloimmunization against HLA class I antigens. To study this, platelet concentrates (PCs) were obtained with a cell separator, suspended in autologous plasma in a final volume of 400 mL, and transferred into a large (22 X 30 cm) cell culture bag. This plastic showed a good transmittance of UV-B rays at 310 nm (54%). PCs were placed between two quartz plates (surface of irradiation = 25 X 37 cm), and the two sides were irradiated simultaneously. Energy delivered to the surface of the plastic bag was automatically monitored. The ability to respond (in MLC and to phytohemagglutinin) and to stimulate allogeneic lymphocytes was completely abolished with energy of 0.75 J per cm2 (irradiation time less than 3 min). The temperature increase during irradiation was negligible. Platelet aggregation (collagen, adrenalin, ADP, arachidonic acid, ristocetin) was not impaired if UV-B energy was below 3 J per cm2. Recovery and survival of autologous 111In-labeled platelets were studied in four volunteers; no differences were found between UV-B-treated (1.5 J/cm2) platelets and untreated platelets. These results show that a large-scale clinical trial using UV-B-irradiated PCs to prevent HLA alloimmunization is feasible.
Frey, N V; Lazarus, H M; Goldstein, S C
Donor stem cells for allogeneic transplant traditionally are collected and transfused 'fresh' into the recipient on the day of transplant; alternatively such cells can be collected in advance and cryopreserved until needed. Most centers favor the former approach based on theoretical concerns that cryopreservation and thawing may worsen clinical outcomes. Limited published data from single institution retrospective studies show no significant impairment of engraftment or reduced day 100 survival for cryopreserved bone marrow recipients. There are no reported outcomes for recipients of cryopreserved peripheral blood allografts. Use of cryopreserved stem cells is associated with a higher incidence of adverse events (transfusion reactions, bacterial graft contamination and collection of grafts which are not utilized). Conversely, use of cryopreserved grafts introduces a greater flexibility into a stressed healthcare system and results in a more streamlined experience for the donor. Some data suggest that transplantation with a cryopreserved product may lower the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease. We compare the pros and cons of using 'fresh' versus cryopreserved stem cell products for allogeneic transplantation and suggest that the current standard of using 'fresh' products may not be warranted. We also suggest future areas of exploration to better elucidate this issue.
Desmarets, Maxime; Cadwell, Chantel M; Peterson, Kenneth R; Neades, Renee; Zimring, James C
When successful, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched bone marrow transplantation with reduced-intensity conditioning is a cure for several nonmalignant hematologic disorders that require chronic transfusion, such as sickle cell disease and aplastic anemia. However, there are unusually high bone marrow transplant (BMT) rejection rates in these patients. Rejection correlates with the number of transfusions before bone marrow transplantation, and it has been hypothesized that preimmunization to antigens on transfused blood may prime BMT rejection. Using a novel mouse model of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and major histocompatibility complex-matched bone marrow transplantation, we report that transfusion of RBC products induced BMT rejection across minor histocompatibility antigen (mHA) barriers. It has been proposed that contaminating leukocytes are responsible for transfusion-induced BMT rejection; however, filter leukoreduction did not prevent rejection in the current studies. Moreover, we generated a novel transgenic mouse with RBC-specific expression of a model mHA and demonstrated that transfusion of RBCs induced a CD8(+) T-cell response. Together, these data suggest that mHAs on RBCs themselves are capable of inducing BMT rejection. Cellular immunization to mHAs is neither monitored nor managed by current transfusion medicine practice; however, the current data suggest that mHAs on RBCs may represent an unappreciated and significant consequence of RBC transfusion.
Raghuwanshi, Babita; Pehlajani, NK; Sinha, Mithilesh K; Tripathy, Swagata
Background and Aims: Excessive requests for cross matching blood which is more than the blood required for transfusion are usually based on worst case assumptions leading to overestimation of blood usage. We investigated the blood ordering pattern and transfusion practices so as to incorporate a blood ordering schedule for streamlining the use of blood in various hospital departments. Methods: The study was conducted over a period of 19 months in a 350 bedded tertiary teaching hospital. Source of data was blood bank requisition forms and blood bank registers of patients who underwent elective or emergency procedures in the hospital, for which blood was ordered. Data were entered in MS Excel and analysed using SPSS version 20. Results: The blood bank was requested to prepare 10,594 units of blood for 2556 patients. The blood utilised was 16.04% of total cross matched blood, leaving 83.9% of units cross matched but not transfused to patient for whom it was prepared, i.e., wasted. The surgery department had the highest number of units cross matched and transfused. The least number of units cross matched and wasted due to non-transfusion were from the Department of Oncology. Conclusion: The current deficiency of explicit maximum blood order schedule in our hospital is the major factor responsible for high cross match: transfusion ratio. Therefore, a maximal surgical blood order schedule has been suggested to the hospital transfusion committee to implement maximum surgical blood order schedules for selected procedures. PMID:28216700
Arewa, O P; Akinola, N O; Salawu, L
The immuno-haematological safety of blood remains an important and recurring issue in blood transfusion practice. Data concerning morbidity and mortality from blood transfusion is sparse in Nigeria however and while the current efforts at reduction in the incidence of adverse consequence of blood transfusion is encapsulated in the concept of Haemovigilance, the Nigerian blood transfusion service is yet to institute the practice. A prospective study of 462 transfusions at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital was done to evaluate the incidence and pattern of transfusion reactions in the hospital. The overall incidence of transfusion reactions is 8.7% (40 cases), with febrile nonhaemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTR) constituting 65% of these. The incidence of adverse reaction is significantly related to a positive history of previous transfusion (p = 0.0039). Efforts must be sustained at evolving a system to minimize the incidence and consequences. The development of a haemovigilance system in which data regarding all transfusions carried out in Nigerian hospitals is collated and analyzed is necessary. The advent of the National Blood Transfusion Service (N.B.T.S) in Nigeria with Zonal centres in the six geopolitical zones of the country offers an opportunity for setting up a national haemovigilance programme.
Gilliss, Brian M.; Looney, Mark R.; Gropper, Michael A.
Summary As screening for transfusion-associated infections has improved, non-infectious complications of transfusion now cause the majority of morbidity and mortality associated with transfusion in the United States. For example, transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion-associated circulatory overload, and hemolytic transfusion-reactions are the first, second, and third leading causes of death from transfusion respectively. These complications and others are reviewed here and several controversial methods for prevention of non-infectious complications of transfusion are discussed; universal leukoreduction of red cell units, use of male-only plasma, and restriction of red cell storage age. PMID:21792054
Benjamin, Richard J
In this issue of Blood, Hong et al advocate for use of additional US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved safety measures for transfusion. Most patients transfused with contaminated platelets do not show immediate clinical signs. Active surveillance suggests patient risk 10- to 40-fold higher than passive hemovigilance.
In this issue of Blood, Hjalgrim et al used the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT2) database, which includes comprehensive information on donors and recipients of >20 million blood products handled by the Danish and Swedish blood banks between 1968 and 2010, to address the clinically relevant question of whether chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is transmitted through blood transfusions.
Rouger, P; Noizat-Pirenne, F; Le Pennec, P Y
The risks associated to red cell and platelet transfusions are essentially bound to the polymorphism of blood group antigens and to transfusion transmitted agents including virus, bacterias.... In France, the haemovigilance system and several investigations allowed to measure these different kinds of risks. We also developed analysis of failures in order to prevent errors and accidents to increase blood safety.
Engelstad, B.; Luk, S.S.; Hattner, R.S.
Gallium-67 citrate studies from four patients who received multiple red blood cell transfusions were reviewed. Increased kidney, bladder, or bone localization was associated with decreased liver and colon activity. The findings suggest altered distribution due to competition with iron for receptor binding. Identification of inflammatory disease in two patients was possible. However, the effect of transfusions on detection of inflammatory or neoplastic diseases requires further evaluation.
Engelstad, B.; Luk, S.S.; Hattner, R.S.
Gallium-67 citrate studies from four patients who received multiple red blood cell transfusions were reviewed. Increased kidney, bladder or bone localization was associated with decreased liver and colon activity. The findings suggest altered distribution due to competition with iron for receptor binding. Identification of inflammatory disease in two patients was possible. However, the effect of transfusions on detection of inflammatory or neoplastic diseases requires further evaluation.
Fujimi, Akihito; Kamihara, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Akari; Kanisawa, Yuji; Nakajima, Chisa; Hayasaka, Naotaka; Yamada, Shota; Okuda, Toshinori; Minami, Shinya; Ono, Kaoru; Iyama, Satoshi; Kato, Junji
A 55-year-old female with stage IVA follicular lymphoma in third complete remission underwent allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Neutrophil engraftment was achieved on day +18; however, platelet counts remained below 10 × 10(3)/µL, necessitating transfusions twice a week for more than 3 months. Bone marrow showed a decreased number of megakaryocytes with hypolobulated nuclei. No graft versus host disease, viral infection, or disease relapse was observed. Furthermore, severe thrombocytopenia below 5.0 × 10(3)/µL refractory to transfusion appeared on day +240 after influenza virus infection. Treatments with intravenous immunoglobulin, romiplostim, and rituximab were administered without any recovery. Subsequently, eltrombopag was initiated on day +443, after which platelet counts rose gradually and continued to rise above 20 × 10(3)/µL after 10 weeks of administration. The serum thrombopoietin (TPO) level was markedly elevated, and anti-TPO receptor (TPOR) antibody was detected in the patient's serum. Anti-TPOR antibody may play an important role in some cases of prolonged thrombocytopenia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with unknown etiology, and eltrombopag could be a novel therapeutic option for such cases.
Aster, Richard H
The discovery of citrate anticoagulant in the 1920s and the development of plastic packs for blood collection in the 1960s laid the groundwork for platelet transfusion therapy on a scale not previously possible. A major limitation, however, was the finding that platelet concentrates prepared from blood anticoagulated with citrate were unsuitable for transfusion because of platelet clumping. We found that this could be prevented by simply reducing the pH of platelet-rich plasma to about 6.5 prior to centrifugation. We used this approach to characterize platelet kinetics and sites of platelet sequestration in normal and pathologic states and to define the influence of variables such as anticoagulant and ABO incompatibility on post-transfusion platelet recovery. The "acidification" approach enabled much wider use of platelet transfusion therapy until alternative means of producing concentrates suitable for transfusion became available.
Repa, A; Mayerhofer, M; Cardona, F; Worel, N; Deindl, P; Pollak, A; Berger, A; Haiden, N
Blood transfusions are required by the majority of extremely premature infants. Packed red blood cells (PRBCs) are usually applied via simple peripheral cannulas. In situations where no peripheral venous access is achievable, 27 Gauge (G) neonatal PICC lines - that are ideally exclusively dedicated to application of parenteral nutrition - may represent a useful alternative access for PRBC transfusions. However, transfusion via small scaled catheters may damage PRBCs and lead to hemolysis. We here evaluate whether transfusion of irradiated PRBCs via 27 G PICC lines leads to hemolysis in vitro.Experimental transfusions of gamma-irradiated PRBCs were performed at increasing velocities (2.5, 3.7, 5 ml/h; full force manual push approximating 30 ml/h) via 27 G PICC lines of 20 and 30 cm length. Parameters of hemolysis (lactate dehydrogenase, potassium and free hemoglobin) were measured from the supernatants of transfused PRBCs and the percentage of hemolysis was calculated.Potassium and lactate dehydrogenase after transfusion at increasing velocities did not differ significantly from negative controls. Free hemoglobin levels showed a small but significant increase at the slowest transfusion speed (2.5 ml/h) using the 30 cm 27 G PICC line, with a relative hemolysis of only 0.13%. A manual push (approximating 30 ml/h) showed no significant changes of parameters from baseline.We conclude that transfusion of gamma-irradiated PRBCs using a 27 G neonatal PICC line does not cause clinically relevant hemolysis in vitro. Clinical studies are needed to confirm the feasibility and safety of the approach in vivo.
Adeyemo, Wasiu L.; Ogunlewe, Mobolanle O.; Desalu, Ibironke; Ladeinde, Akinola L.; Adeyemo, Titilope A.; Mofikoya, Bolaji O.; Hassan, Olakunle O.; Akanmu, Alani S.
Aim: The study aims to determine the frequency of homologous blood transfusion in patientsundergoing cleft lip and palate surgery at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Setting and Design: A prospective study of transfusion rate in cleft surgery conducted at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Material and Methods: One hundred consecutive patients who required cleft lip and palate surgery were recruited into the study. Data collected included age, sex and weight of patients, type of cleft defects, type of surgery done, preoperative haematocrit, duration of surgery, amount of blood loss during surgery, the number of units of blood cross-matched and those used. Each patient was made to donate a unit of homologous blood prior to surgery. Results: There were 52 females and 48 males with a mean age of 64.4 ± 101.1 months (range, 3-420 months). The most common cleft defect was isolated cleft palate (45%) followed by unilateral cleft lip (28%). Cleft palate repair was the most common procedure (45%) followed by unilateral cleft lip repair (41%). The mean estimated blood loss was 95.8 ± 144.9 ml (range, 2-800ml). Ten (10%) patients (CL=2; CP=5, BCL=1; CLP=2) were transfused but only two of these were deemed appropriate based on percentage blood volume loss. The mean blood transfused was 131.5 ± 135.4ml (range, 35-500ml). Six (60%) of those transfused had a preoperative PCV of < 30%. Only 4.9% of patients who had unilateral cleft lip surgery were transfused as compared with 50% for CLP surgery, 11% for CP surgery, and 10% for bilateral cleft lip surgery. Conclusions: The frequency of blood transfusion in cleft lip and palate surgery was 10% with a cross-match: transfusion ratio of 10 and transfusion index of 0.1. A "type and screen" policy is advocated for cleft lip and palate surgery. PMID:20924451
Bennardello, Francesco; Fidone, Carmelo; Spadola, Vincenzo; Cabibbo, Sergio; Travali, Simone; Garozzo, Giovanni; Antolino, Agostino; Tavolino, Giuseppe; Falla, Cadigia; Bonomo, Pietro
Background Transfusion therapy remains the main treatment for patients with severe haemoglobinopathies, but can cause adverse reactions which may be classified as immediate or delayed. The use of targeted prevention with drugs and treatments of blood components in selected patients can contribute to reducing the development of some reactions. The aim of our study was to develop an algorithm capable of guiding behaviours to adopt in order to reduce the incidence of immediate transfusion reactions. Materials and methods Immediate transfusion reactions occurring over a 7-year period in 81 patients with transfusion-dependent haemoglobinopathies were recorded. The patients received transfusions with red cell concentrates that had been filtered prestorage. Various measures were undertaken to prevent transfusion reactions: leucoreduction, washing the red blood cells, prophylactic administration of an antihistamine (loratidine 10 mg tablet) or an antipyretic (paracetamol 500 mg tablet). Results Over the study period 20,668 red cell concentrates were transfused and 64 adverse transfusion reactions were recorded in 36 patients. The mean incidence of reactions in the 7 years of observation was 3.1‰. Over the years the incidence gradually decreased from 6.8‰ in 2004 to 0.9‰ in 2010. Discussion Preventive measures are not required for patients who have an occasional reaction, because the probability that such a type of reaction recurs is very low. In contrast, the targeted use of drugs such as loratidine or paracetamol, sometimes combined with washing and/or double filtration of red blood cells, can reduce the rate of recurrent (allergic) reactions to about 0.9‰. The system for detecting adverse reactions and training staff involved in transfusion therapy are critical points for reliable collection of data and standardisation of the detection system is recommended for those wanting to monitor the incidence of all adverse reactions, including minor ones. PMID:23736930
Wang, Hao; Umejiego, Johnbosco; Robinson, Richard D.; Schrader, Chet D.; Leuck, JoAnna; Barra, Michael; Buca, Stefan; Shedd, Andrew; Bui, Andrew; Zenarosa, Nestor R.
Background There is no existing adequate blood transfusion needs determination tool that Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel can use for prehospital blood transfusion initiation. In this study, a simple and pragmatic prehospital blood transfusion needs scoring system was derived and validated. Methods Local trauma registry data were reviewed retrospectively from 2004 through 2013. Patients were randomly assigned to derivation and validation cohorts. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the independent approachable risks associated with early blood transfusion needs in the derivation cohort in which a scoring system was derived. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operational characteristic (AUC) were calculated and compared using both the derivation and validation data. Results A total of 24,303 patients were included with 12,151 patients in the derivation and 12,152 patients in the validation cohorts. Age, penetrating injury, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) were risks predictive of early blood transfusion needs. An early blood transfusion needs score was derived. A score > 5 indicated risk of early blood transfusion need with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 80%. A sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 80% were also found in the validation study and their AUC showed no statistically significant difference (AUC of the derivation = 0.87 versus AUC of the validation = 0.86, P > 0.05). Conclusions An early blood transfusion scoring system was derived and internally validated to predict severe trauma patients requiring blood transfusion during prehospital or initial emergency department resuscitation. PMID:27429680
Cho, Jooyoung; Choi, Seung Jun; Kim, Sinyoung; Alghamdi, Essam
Background Although transfusion is a paramount life-saving therapy, there are multiple potential significant risks. Therefore, all adverse transfusion reaction (ATR) episodes require close monitoring. Using the computerized reporting system, we assessed the frequency and pattern of non-infectious ATRs. Methods We analyzed two-year transfusion data from electronic medical records retrospectively. From March 2013 to February 2015, 364,569 units of blood were transfused. Of them, 334,582 (91.8%) records were identified from electronic nursing records. For the confirmation of ATRs by blood bank physicians, patients' electronic medical records were further evaluated. Results According to the nursing records, the frequency of all possible transfusion-related events was 3.1%. After the blood bank physicians' review, the frequency was found to be 1.2%. The overall frequency of febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs) to red blood cells (RBCs), platelet (PLT) components, and fresh frozen plasmas (FFPs) were 0.9%, 0.3%, and 0.2%, respectively, and allergic reactions represented 0.3% (RBCs), 0.9% (PLTs), and 0.9% (FFPs), respectively. The pre-storage leukocyte reduction significantly decreased the frequency of FNHTRs during the transfusion of RBCs (P<0.01) or PLTs (P≒0.01). Conclusions The frequency of FNHTRs, allergic reactions, and "no reactions" were 22.0%, 17.0%, and 60.7%, respectively. Leukocyte-reduction was associated with a lower rate of FNHTRs, but not with that of allergic reactions. The development of an effective electronic reporting system of ATRs is important in quantifying transfusion-related adverse events. This type of reporting system can also accurately identify the underlying problems and risk factors to further the quality of transfusion care for patients. PMID:26522757
Hallet, Julie; Hanif, Asad; Callum, Jeannie; Pronina, Ioulia; Wallace, David; Yohanathan, Lavanya; McLeod, Robin; Coburn, Natalie
Perioperative anemia is common, yet detrimental, in surgical patients. However, red blood cell transfusions (RBCTs) used to treat anemia are associated with significant postoperative risks and worse oncologic outcomes. Perioperative iron has been suggested to mitigate perioperative anemia. This meta-analysis examined the impact of perioperative iron compared to no intervention on the need for RBCT in gastrointestinal surgery. We systematically searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Central, and Scopus to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized studies (NRSs). We excluded studies investigating autologous RBCT or erythropoietin. Two independent reviewers selected the studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane tool and Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Primary outcomes were proportion of patients getting allogeneic RBCT and number of transfused patient. Secondary outcomes were hemoglobin change, 30-day postoperative morbidity and mortality, length of stay, and oncologic outcomes. A meta-analysis using random effects models was performed. The review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42013004805). From 883 citations, we included 2 RCTs and 2 NRSs (n = 325 patients), all pertaining to colorectal cancer surgery. Randomized controlled trials were at high risk for bias and underpowered. One RCT and 1 NRS using preoperative oral iron reported a decreased proportion of patients needing RBCT. One RCT on preoperative intravenous iron and 1 NRS on postoperative PO iron did not observe a difference. Only 1 study revealed a difference in number of transfused patients. One RCT reported significantly increased postintervention hemoglobin. Among 3 studies reporting length of stay, none observed a difference. Other secondary outcomes were not reported. Meta-analysis revealed a trend toward fewer patients requiring RBCT with iron supplementation (risk ratio, 0.66 [0.42, 1.02]), but no benefit on the number of RBCT per
Blanchette, Christopher M; Wang, Peter F; Joshi, Ashish V; Asmussen, Mikael; Saunders, William; Kruse, Peter
The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with the utilization and cost of blood transfusion during and post-spinal fusion surgery. A retrospective, observational study of 42,029 inpatients undergoing spinal fusion surgery in United States hospitals participating in the Perspective( Comparative Database for inpatient use was conducted. Descriptive analysis, logistic regression, and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression were used to describe the factors associated with the use and cost of allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT). Hospitalization costs were $18,690 (SD=14,159) per patient, erythropoietin costs were $85.25 (SD=3,691.66) per patient, and topical sealant costs were $414.34 (SD=1,020.06) per patient. Sub-analysis of ABT restricted to users revealed ABT costs ranged from $312.24 (SD=543.35) per patient with whole blood to $2,520 (SD=3,033.49) per patient with fresh frozen plasma. Patients that received hypotensive anesthesia (OR,1.61; 95% CI, 1.47-1.77), a volume expander (OR,1.95; 95% CI, 1.75-2.18), autologous blood (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.71-2.42), or an erythropoietic agent (OR=1.64; 95% CI, 1.27-2.12) had a higher risk of ABT. Patients that received cell salvage had a lower risk of transfusion (OR=0.40; 95% CI, 0.32-0.50). Most blood avoidance techniques have low utilization or do not reduce the burden of transfusion associated with spinal fusion.
Bolton-Maggs, Paula H B; Cohen, Hannah
Summary The Serious Hazards of Transfusion (SHOT) UK confidential haemovigilance reporting scheme began in 1996. Over the 16 years of reporting, the evidence gathered has prompted changes in transfusion practice from the selection and management of donors to changes in hospital practice, particularly better education and training. However, half or more reports relate to errors in the transfusion process despite the introduction of several measures to improve practice. Transfusion in the UK is very safe: 2·9 million components were issued in 2012, and very few deaths are related to transfusion. The risk of death from transfusion as estimated from SHOT data in 2012 is 1 in 322 580 components issued and for major morbidity, 1 in 21 413 components issued; the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection is much lower. Acute transfusion reactions and transfusion-associated circulatory overload carry the highest risk for morbidity and death. The high rate of participation in SHOT by National Health Service organizations, 99·5%, is encouraging. Despite the very useful information gained about transfusion reactions, the main risks remain human factors. The recommendations on reduction of errors through a ‘back to basics’ approach from the first annual SHOT report remain absolutely relevant today. PMID:24032719
Cordier, P Y; Eve, O; Dehan, C; Topin, F; Menguy, P; Bertani, A; Massoure, P L; Kaiser, E
Hemorrhagic shock requires early aggressive treatment, including transfusion of packed red blood cells and hemostatic resuscitation. In austere environments, when component therapy is not available, warm fresh whole-blood transfusion is a convenient treatment. It provides red blood cells, clotting factors, and functional platelets. Therefore it is commonly used in military practice to treat hemorrhagic shock in combat casualties. At Bouffard Hospital Center in Djibouti, the supply of packed red blood cells is limited, and apheresis platelets are unavailable. We used whole blood transfusion in two civilian patients with life-threatening non-traumatic hemorrhages. One had massive bleeding caused by disseminated intravascular coagulation due to septic shock; the second was a 39 year-old pregnant woman with uterine rupture. In both cases, whole blood transfusion (twelve and ten 500 mL bags respectively), combined with etiological treatment, enabled coagulopathy correction, hemorrhage control, and satisfactory recovery.
The Associação Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia (ABHH), through its Board of Directors, hosted a national symposium called "Forum: The Transfusion Medicine we want", to discuss proposed policies and techniques related to the area. This meeting was held in São Paulo on August 19 and 20, 2010, with the participation of experts, authorities and representatives of organized groups of patients and users. The discussions were organized around three specific issues selected from over 100 suggestions sent to the ABHH through public consultation on the web: 1. Strategies; 2. Financing; 3. Blood products. A plenary session, held at the end of the meeting, adopted recommendations that are relevant to the different discussion topics. This document contains actions proposed by the ABHH to meet the demands discussed. PMID:23284248
Choudhury, Lincoln P; Tetali, Shailaja
The National Blood Policy of India, 2002, advocates the disclosure of results of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) to blood donors. However, in the absence of well-defined notification processes, and in order to avoid serious consequences resulting from unguided disclosure, blood bank personnel discard blood that is TTI-positive. We report on a survey of 105 voluntary blood donors in Kerala. Only two out of three participants had filled the donor form in the last year. Only half were aware that the blood bank was supposed to inform them if they tested positive for TTI. Fifty-seven per cent of donors wanted to be informed every time they donated blood, irrespective of a positive or negative result.
The Associação Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia (ABHH), through its Board of Directors, hosted a national symposium called "Forum: The Transfusion Medicine we want", to discuss proposed policies and techniques related to the area. This meeting was held in São Paulo on August 19 and 20, 2010, with the participation of experts, authorities and representatives of organized groups of patients and users. The discussions were organized around three specific issues selected from over 100 suggestions sent to the ABHH through public consultation on the web: 1. Strategies; 2. Financing; 3. Blood products. A plenary session, held at the end of the meeting, adopted recommendations that are relevant to the different discussion topics.This document contains actions proposed by the ABHH to meet the demands discussed.
Horvath, Keith A; Acker, Michael A; Chang, Helena; Bagiella, Emilia; Smith, Peter K; Iribarne, Alexander; Kron, Irving L; Lackner, Pamela; Argenziano, Michael; Ascheim, Deborah D; Gelijns, Annetine C; Michler, Robert E; Van Patten, Danielle; Puskas, John D; O'Sullivan, Karen; Kliniewski, Dorothy; Jeffries, Neal O; O'Gara, Patrick T; Moskowitz, Alan J; Blackstone, Eugene H
Cardiac surgery is the largest consumer of blood products in medicine; although believed life saving, transfusion carries substantial adverse risks. This study characterizes the relationship between transfusion and risk of major infection after cardiac surgery. In all, 5,158 adults were prospectively enrolled to assess infections after cardiac surgery. The most common procedures were isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery (31%) and isolated valve surgery (30%); 19% were reoperations. Infections were adjudicated by independent infectious disease experts. Multivariable Cox modeling was used to assess the independent effect of blood and platelet transfusions on major infections within 60 ± 5 days of surgery. Red blood cells (RBC) and platelets were transfused in 48% and 31% of patients, respectively. Each RBC unit transfused was associated with a 29% increase in crude risk of major infection (p < 0.001). Among RBC recipients, the most common infections were pneumonia (3.6%) and bloodstream infections (2%). Risk factors for infection included postoperative RBC units transfused, longer duration of surgery, and transplant or ventricular assist device implantation, in addition to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, and elevated preoperative creatinine. Platelet transfusion decreased the risk of infection (p = 0.02). Greater attention to management practices that limit RBC use, including cell salvage, small priming volumes, vacuum-assisted venous return with rapid autologous priming, and ultrafiltration, and preoperative and intraoperative measures to elevate hematocrit could potentially reduce occurrence of major postoperative infections.
Andréoletti, Olivier; Litaise, Claire; Simmons, Hugh; Corbière, Fabien; Lugan, Séverine; Costes, Pierrette; Schelcher, François; Vilette, Didier; Grassi, Jacques; Lacroux, Caroline
It is now clearly established that the transfusion of blood from variant CJD (v-CJD) infected individuals can transmit the disease. Since the number of asymptomatic infected donors remains unresolved, inter-individual v-CJD transmission through blood and blood derived products is a major public health concern. Current risk assessments for transmission of v-CJD by blood and blood derived products by transfusion rely on infectious titers measured in rodent models of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE) using intra-cerebral (IC) inoculation of blood components. To address the biological relevance of this approach, we compared the efficiency of TSE transmission by blood and blood components when administrated either through transfusion in sheep or by intra-cerebral inoculation (IC) in transgenic mice (tg338) over-expressing ovine PrP. Transfusion of 200 µL of blood from asymptomatic infected donor sheep transmitted prion disease with 100% efficiency thereby displaying greater virulence than the transfusion of 200 mL of normal blood spiked with brain homogenate material containing 103ID50 as measured by intracerebral inoculation of tg338 mice (ID50 IC in tg338). This was consistent with a whole blood titer greater than 103.6 ID50 IC in tg338 per mL. However, when the same blood samples were assayed by IC inoculation into tg338 the infectious titers were less than 32 ID per mL. Whereas the transfusion of crude plasma to sheep transmitted the disease with limited efficacy, White Blood Cells (WBC) displayed a similar ability to whole blood to infect recipients. Strikingly, fixation of WBC with paraformaldehyde did not affect the infectivity titer as measured in tg338 but dramatically impaired disease transmission by transfusion in sheep. These results demonstrate that TSE transmission by blood transfusion can be highly efficient and that this efficiency is more dependent on the viability of transfused cells than the level of infectivity measured by IC
Zagol, Kelley; Lake, Douglas E.; Vergales, Brooke; Moorman, Marion E.; Paget-Brown, Alix; Lee, Hoshik; Rusin, Craig G.; Delos, John B.; Clark, Matthew T.; Moorman, J. Randall; Kattwinkel, John
Objective To compare the frequency and severity of apneic events in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants before and after blood transfusions using continuous electronic waveform analysis. Study design We continuously collected waveform, heart rate, and oxygen saturation data from patients in all 45 neonatal intensive care unit beds at the University of Virginia for 120 weeks. Central apneas were detected using continuous computer processing of chest impedance, electrocardiographic, and oximetry signals. Apnea was defined as respiratory pauses of >10, >20, and >30 seconds when accompanied by bradycardia (<100 beats per minute) and hypoxemia (<80% oxyhemoglobin saturation as detected by pulse oximetry). Times of packed red blood cell transfusions were determined from bedside charts. Two cohorts were analyzed. In the transfusion cohort, waveforms were analyzed for 3 days before and after the transfusion for all VLBW infants who received a blood transfusion while also breathing spontaneously. Mean apnea rates for the previous 12 hours were quantified and differences for 12 hours before and after transfusion were compared. In the hematocrit cohort, 1453 hematocrit values from all VLBW infants admitted and breathing spontaneously during the time period were retrieved, and the association of hematocrit and apnea in the next 12 hours was tested using logistic regression. Results Sixty-seven infants had 110 blood transfusions during times when complete monitoring data were available. Transfusion was associated with fewer computer-detected apneic events (P < .01). Probability of future apnea occurring within 12 hours increased with decreasing hematocrit values (P < .001). Conclusions Blood transfusions are associated with decreased apnea in VLBW infants, and apneas are less frequent at higher hematocrits. PMID:22494873
Kramer, Koen; Zaaijer, Hans L; Verweij, Marcel F
Tolerance for blood transfusion risks is very low, as evidenced by the implementation of expensive blood tests and the rejection of gay men as blood donors. Is this low risk tolerance supported by the precautionary principle, as defenders of such policies claim? We discuss three constraints on applying (any version of) the precautionary principle and show that respecting these implies tolerating certain risks. Consistency means that the precautionary principle cannot prescribe precautions that it must simultaneously forbid taking, considering the harms they might cause. Avoiding counterproductivity requires rejecting precautions that cause more harm than they prevent. Proportionality forbids taking precautions that are more harmful than adequate alternatives. When applying these constraints, we argue, attention should not be restricted to harms that are human caused or that affect human health or the environment. Tolerating transfusion risks can be justified if available precautions have serious side effects, such as high social or economic costs.
Smith, Garett S.
Introduction. A paraoesophageal hernia (PH) may be one reason for iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) but is often overlooked as a cause. We aimed to assess the incidence and resolution of transfusion-dependent IDA in patients presenting for hiatal hernia surgery. Methods. We analysed a prospective database of patients undergoing laparoscopic hiatal repair in order to identify patients with severe IDA requiring red cell/iron transfusion. Results. Of 138 patients with PH managed over a 4-year period, 7 patients (5.1%; M : F 2 : 5; median age 62 yrs (range 57–82)) with IDA requiring red cell/iron transfusion were identified. Preoperatively, 3/7 patients underwent repetitive and unnecessary diagnostic endoscopic investigations prior to surgery. Only 2/7 ever demonstrated gastric mucosal erosions (Cameron ulcers). All patients were cured from anaemia postoperatively. Discussion. PH is an important differential diagnosis in patients with IDA, even those with marked anaemia and no endoscopically identifiable mucosal lesions. Early recognition can avoid unnecessary additional diagnostic endoscopies. Laparoscopic repair is associated with low morbidity and results in resolution of anaemia. PMID:27379280
Baptista González, Héctor
The management model based on risk prevention has become a major influence in shaping policies for transfusion safety. There are approximately sixty interactions between the health worker and the patient during the transfusion process,representing the number of times where you have the opportunity to make a mistake.We present an analysis of the weaknesses of the National Blood System, with particular attention to the haemovigilance donor and patient. The proposals include the implementation of the National Blood containing the need to establish from the National Blood Safety, significant changes in the regulatory framework and the internal regulations of the Ministry of Health, the CNTS and COFEPRIS. Is required to promote and coordinate the collection of accurate information from the committees of transfusion medicine, which will be accompanied by an initial diagnosis from the National Survey of Blood. Requires notice to other forms of funding to ensure the viability of the projects operating blood bank. Finally, as a strategic resource, the blood is of public, so access should not be restricted.
Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Palomba, Stefano; Serio, Bianca; Sessa, Mariarosaria; Giudice, Valentina; Ferrara, Idalucia; Tauchmanovà, Libuse; Colao, Annamaria; Selleri, Carmine
Early and late endocrine disorders are among the most common complications in survivors after hematopoietic allogeneic- (allo-) and autologous- (auto-) stem cell transplant (HSCT). This review summarizes main endocrine disorders reported in literature and observed in our center as consequence of auto- and allo-HSCT and outlines current options for their management. Gonadal impairment has been found early in approximately two-thirds of auto- and allo-HSCT patients: 90–99% of women and 60–90% of men. Dysfunctions of the hypothalamus-pituitary-growth hormone/insulin growth factor-I axis, hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis were documented as later complicances, occurring in about 10, 30, and 40–50% of transplanted patients, respectively. Moreover, overt or subclinical thyroid complications (including persistent low-T3 syndrome, chronic thyroiditis, subclinical hypo- or hyperthyroidism, and thyroid carcinoma), gonadal failure, and adrenal insufficiency may persist many years after HSCT. Our analysis further provides evidence that main recognized risk factors for endocrine complications after HSCT are the underlying disease, previous pretransplant therapies, the age at HSCT, gender, total body irradiation, posttransplant derangement of immune system, and in the allogeneic setting, the presence of graft-versus-host disease requiring prolonged steroid treatment. Early identification of endocrine complications can greatly improve the quality of life of long-term survivors after HSCT. PMID:24883377
Quaranta, Jean-François; Caldani, Cyril; Cabaud, Jean-Jacques; Chavarin, Patricia; Rochette-Eribon, Sandrine
The level of safety attained in blood transfusion now makes this a discipline better managed care activities. This was achieved both by scientific advances and policy decisions regulating and supervising the activity, as well as by the quality system, which we recall that affects the entire organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources in place to achieve quality management. So, an effective quality system provides a framework within which activities are established, performed in a quality-focused way and continuously monitored to improve outcomes. This system quality has to irrigate all the actors of the transfusion, just as much the establishments of blood transfusion than the health establishments.
Despite the publication of several consensus guidelines that set forth recommendations for the transfusion of red cells, actual clinical practice continues to vary widely. Animal data and studies in human volunteers and patients support a red cell transfusion threshold of 7 to 8 g/dl in most patients. However, conflicting data, particularly in cardiac patients and in the elderly, suggest that it may be impossible to define a single red cell "trigger" for all patients. A well-designed, randomized, controlled trial is still needed to establish a safe threshold for red cell transfusion in adults with coronary artery disease.
Felts, W. Michael; Glascoff, Mary A.
Presents a primer for health educators about blood donation and transfusion, examining the nature of human blood, the background of blood transfusion, blood donation criteria, risks related to homologous blood transfusion, directed blood donation, potential alternatives to homologous transfusion, and resources for education on the subject. (SM)
Platelet concentrates are given to patients suffering with severe thrombocytopenia usually by a gravity transfusion procedure. Increasing patient numbers that are in need of this treatment increase the pressure on hospital staff and space. In order to combat time issues, the use of medical devices such as intravenous infusion pumps are thought to be beneficial for time and simultaneously for safety in transfusion practices. By using infusion pumps, platelet concentrates can be transfused in less time and provide accurate volume measurements. Manufacturers of infusion pumps claim that these devices are safe to be used for blood products including platelet concentrates. However, published studies were performed on older models and newer devices are on the market now. The purpose of this study is to evaluate infusion pumps, which are claimed to be suitable for blood products and to investigate the impact the pumps had on platelets. Furthermore, the study revealed if the intravenous infusion pumps are safe to be used for platelet transfusion as claimed by manufacturers. A simulated transfusion was performed using the Carefusion Alaris GP Plus volumetric pump and Fresenius Kabi Volumat Agilia infusion pump. Samples were taken from expired platelet concentrates before and after passage through the pump. All samples were investigated for full blood count that included platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW) and a plateletcrit (PCT). The samples were then centrifuged to achieve platelet-poor plasma and then tested for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). A power calculation performed on the statistical power analysis program G*power indicated a requirement of 82 samples for a power of 80%. Statistical analysis was performed with the IBM SPSS statistic software. A paired sample t-test was used to calculate mean, standard deviation and P values for the infusion pumps used. The Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was used to evaluate results that had a non
EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level III. KEY WORDS: Apheresis platelets ; resuscitation; massive transfusion; combat trauma. S ince Damage Control surgery...patient mor- tality associated with increased transfusion of apheresis pla- telets (aPLT) led the United States Army Surgeon General to mandate platelet ...4. Perkins JG, Cap AP, Spinella PC, et al. An evaluation of the impact of apheresis platelets used in the setting of massively transfused trauma
Klein, Harvey G.
The beginning of the modern era of blood transfusion coincided with World War II and the resultant need for massive blood replacement. Soon thereafter, the hazards of transfusion, particularly hepatitis and hemolytic transfusion reactions, became increasingly evident. The past half century has seen the near eradication of transfusion-associated hepatitis as well as the emergence of multiple new pathogens, most notably HIV. Specific donor screening assays and other interventions have minimized, but not eliminated, infectious disease transmission. Other transfusion hazards persist, including human error resulting in the inadvertent transfusion of incompatible blood, acute and delayed transfusion reactions, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD), and transfusion-induced immunomodulation. These infectious and noninfectious hazards are reviewed briefly in the context of their historical evolution. PMID:18809775
West, Brad C; Bentley, Richard; Place, Ronald J
Injuries on the battlefield can occur far from the nearest medical treatment facility. This is especially likely for downed pilots and special operations personnel. Some of these injuries lead to significant blood loss requiring transfusion. We present two cases of injured coalition force members during Operation Enduring Freedom that illustrate the potential need for a transfusion capability at the site of injury to prevent death. Consideration should be given to augmenting transfusion capabilities in military environments with predictably long evacuation times.
Cacic, Daniel Limi; Hervig, Tor; Seghatchian, Jerard
Blood doping in sports has been a hot topic of present. Longitudinal follow up of hematological parameters in different endurance sports, during the 1990s and early 2000s, has provided considerable suspicions about extensive blood manipulation, with performance enhancing effects. Recent doping revelations in the media also prove that blood doping is not an anticipated myth but it is, in fact, real. Erythropoiesis stimulating agents and autologous blood transfusions are used in synergy with substantial effect on the maximum oxygen uptake and delivery to muscles. Whilst both methods of blood manipulation represent a potential health hazard, in the context of an elevated hematocrit, nevertheless despite a number of suspicious deaths amongst athletes, this has not yet been fully documented. A reliable test for detection of recombinant human erythropoietin was implemented in 2000, but this is probably circumvented by microdose regimens. The Athlete's Biological Passport represents the progeny of the idea of an indirect approach based on long term monitoring of hematological parameters, thus making it possible to detect autologous blood doping and erythropoietin use after the substance is excreted. Nevertheless with advances in anti-doping measures it is possible that the levels of excretion of substances used can be masked. Clearly more sensitive and specific diagnostic tools and research/development in these areas of major concern are warranted, which, combined with changes in the athlete's attitude, will help in reaching the vision of fair play.
Wardle, S; Garr, R; Yoxall, C; Weindling, A
or retinopathy of prematurity. Conclusions: FOE measurements failed to identify many infants felt by clinicians to require blood transfusion. This may have been because clinicians relied on conventional indicators of transfusion that are vague and non-specific, or a peripheral FOE of 0.47 alone may not be a sensitive enough predictor of the need for transfusion. This requires further study. PMID:11815543
Fatkhudinov, T Kh; Bol'shakova, G B; Komissarova, S V; Arutyunyan, I V; Rzhaninova, A A; Goldstein, D V
Neoangiogenesis after transplantation of auto- and allogenic mononuclears and multipotent stromal cells from the bone marrow was studied on the model of inflammatory angiogenesis. Transplanted auto- and allogenic cells stimulate the formation of new blood vessels in the granulation tissue, this manifesting in an increase in the quantity and volume density of blood vessels. The most pronounced angiogenesis was observed after transplantation of allogenic mononuclears and multipotent stromal cells. It was associated with intense inflammatory infiltration, with less numerous and mature collagen fibers in the granulation tissue. Injection of allogenic cells led to stimulation and chronization of inflammation, infiltration with inflammatory and poorly differentiated cells, and more pronounced and lasting angiogenesis. However, neither auto-, nor allogenic transplanted labeled cells were detected in the walls of new blood vessels. Hence, it seems that bone marrow mononuclears and multipotent stromal cells stimulated angiogenesis mainly at the expense of production of angiogenic factors, and after transplantation of allogenic cells also by stimulating the inflammation.
Yang, Jiang-Cun; Sun, Yang; Xu, Cui-Xiang; Dang, Qian-Li; Li, Ling; Xu, Yong-Gang; Song, Yao-Jun; Yan, Hong
The variations in the coagulation indices of patients receiving massive blood transfusion were investigated across 20 large‑scale general hospitals in China. The data of 1,601 surgical inpatients receiving massive transfusion were retrospectively collected and the trends in the platelet counts and coagulation indices prior to and at 16 different time points during packed red blood cell (pRBC; after 2‑40 units of pRBC) transfusion were evaluated by linear regression analysis. Temporal variations in the means of prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and fibrinogen (FIB) concentration were also assessed and the theoretical estimates and actual measurements of the platelet count were compared. The results demonstrated that the platelet count decreased linearly with an increase in the number of pRBC units transfused (Y=150.460‑3.041X; R2 linear=0.775). Following transfusion of 18 units of pRBC (0.3 units of pRBC transfused per kilogram of body weight), the average platelet count decreased to 71x10(9)/l (<75x10(9)/l). Furthermore, variations in the means of PT, INR, APTT and FIB did not demonstrate any pronounced trends and actual platelet counts were markedly higher than the theoretical estimates. In conclusion, no variations in the means of traditional coagulation indices were identified, however, the platelet count demonstrated a significant linear decrease with an increase in the number of pRBC units transfused. Furthermore, actual platelet counts were higher than theoretical estimates, indicating the requirement for close monitoring of actual platelet counts during massive pRBC transfusion.
Solves, Pilar; Carpio, Nelly; Moscardo, Federico; Lancharro, Aima; Cano, Isabel; Moya, Angel; López-Andujar, Rafael; Sanz, Miguel Ángel
Summary Objective Liver transplantation (LT) has traditionally been associated with major blood loss and consequently high blood transfusion requirements. Our objective was to analyze transfusion management and incidence of immunohematologic complications in patients undergoing LT at our institution. Methods A retrospective analysis of immunohematologic events and transfusion outcomes was carried out at La Fe University Hospital in Valencia. Data from 654 patients were reviewed: 654 underwent only one LT while 36 underwent second LT. Results Patients received a median of 3 red blood cell (RBC) concentrates, 2 platelets concentrates (PCs) and 2 fresh frozen plasma units (FFPs). Variables significantly influencing RBC transfusions were: the MELD score, hemoglobin levels, and the platelet counts before LT. 27 patients (4.1%) had a positive antibody screening before transplant. Immunohematologic events occurred in 8% of the patients, mostly in the first month after LT, and involved hemolysis in 13 cases. Mortality was significantly higher in patients developing immunohematologic disorders (42.8 vs. 18.3%; p < 0.001). In the multivariable analysis, only ABO minor incompatibility between donor and recipient significantly increased the appearance of immunohematologic incidences (OR 4.92, 95% CI 2.31–10.50; p < 0.001). Conclusion Transfusion management of patients that underwent LT can be complicated by immunohematologic problems. Blood banks should implement the DAT test in each transfusion to detect them. PMID:25960710
This article presents thromboelastography (TEG) as an important assay to incorporate into anesthesia practice for development of evidence-based therapy of trauma patients receiving blood transfusions. The leading cause of death worldwide results from trauma. Hemorrhage is responsible for 30% to 40% of trauma mortality and accounts for almost 50% of the deaths occurring in the initial 24 hours following the traumatic incident. On admission, 25% to 35% of trauma patients present with coagulopathy, which is associated with a sevenfold increase in morbidity and mortality. The literature supports that routine plasma-based routine coagulation tests, such as prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and international normalized ratio, are inadequate for monitoring coagulopathy and guided transfusion therapy in trauma patients. A potential solution is incorporating the use of the TEG assay into the care of trauma patients to render evidence-based therapy for patients requiring massive blood transfusions. Analysis with TEG provides a complete picture of hemostasis, which is far superior to isolated, static conventional tests. The result is a fast, well-designed, and precise diagnosis enabling more cost-effective treatment, improved clinical outcome, accurate use of blood products, and pharmaceutical therapies at the point of care.
Timpani, Giuseppina; Foti, Francesca; Nicolò, Antonino; Nicotina, Pier Antonio; Nicastro, Emanuele; Iorio, Raffaele
Neonatal hemochromatosis is a rare congenital disorder of the liver associated to a poor prognosis. Liver transplantation is often required, since no effective medical treatment has been found. Despite mounting evidence of an alloimmune etiology of this condition, exchange transfusion has never been proposed as a specific treatment for neonatal hemochromatosis. Here we describe two siblings affected by neonatal hemochromatosis. The first, a female, died at 18 days of severe coagulopathy and acute renal failure, diagnosed as affected by neonatal hemochromatosis only when the second sibling was suspected as being affected by the same disease. The second child showed a rapidly worsening coagulopathy which was treated with two exchange transfusions, followed by rapid clinical and laboratory improvement, before reaching a definite diagnosis of neonatal hemochromatosis. He is healthy at present after a follow-up of 12 months. Although exchange transfusion has never been considered as treatment for neonatal hemochromatosis, this case suggests that it could be a feasible treatment option for children affected by this disease, as for other alloimmune conditions.
Marson, B A; Shah, J; Deglurkar, M
Total hip and knee replacements (THR and TKR) are a common procedure. Transfusion rates have fallen in the literature over the past decade, and this study aimed to quantify the transfusion rates and identify the clinical transfusion threshold in our centre, which uses a multimodal enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programme. A retrospective review of case notes from a 12-month period identified 997 patients undergoing primary THR or TKR. 4.1 % of the patients undergoing THR and 1.4 % of patients undergoing TKR required blood transfusion. 61 % of patients receiving blood transfusions had pre-transfusion haemoglobin levels >80 gl(-1). One patient required blood on the day of surgery. With the ERAS programme, transfusion rates are low and very rarely blood is required on the day of surgery. We would suggest that routine pre-operative group and save or cross-match testing may no longer be essential, as long as there is a stock of O- blood for the rare emergency issues.
Estcourt, Lise J; Fortin, Patricia M; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally
Background Sickle cell disease is one of the commonest severe monogenic disorders in the world, due to the inheritance of two abnormal haemoglobin (beta globin) genes. Sickle cell disease can cause severe pain, significant end-organ damage, pulmonary complications, and premature death. Surgical interventions are more common in people with sickle cell disease, and occur at much younger ages than in the general population. Blood transfusions are frequently used prior to surgery and several regimens are used but there is no consensus over the best method or the necessity of transfusion in specific surgical cases. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2001. Objectives To determine whether there is evidence that preoperative blood transfusion in people with sickle cell disease undergoing elective or emergency surgery reduces mortality and perioperative or sickle cell-related serious adverse events. To compare the effectiveness of different transfusion regimens (aggressive or conservative) if preoperative transfusions are indicated in people with sickle cell disease. Search methods We searched for relevant trials in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1980), and ongoing trial databases; all searches current to 23 March 2016. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register: 18 January 2016. Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing preoperative blood transfusion regimens to different regimens or no transfusion in people with sickle cell disease undergoing elective or emergency surgery. There was no restriction by outcomes examined, language or publication status. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and the risk of bias and extracted data. Main results Three trials with 990 participants were eligible for inclusion in the review. There were no
Savage, William J.; Tobian, Aaron A.R.; Savage, Jessica H.; Hamilton, Robert G.; Borge, P. Dayand; Kaufman, Richard M.; Ness, Paul M.
Background Transfusion-related characteristics have been hypothesized to cause allergic transfusion reactions (ATRs) but they have not been thoroughly studied. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the associations of infusion rate, infusion volume, ABO mismatching, component age, and premedication with the incidence and severity of ATRs. A secondary objective is to compare the risk of these attributes relative to the previously reported risk factor for aeroallergen sensitization in transfusion recipients, as measured by an aeroallergen-specific IgE antibody screen. Study Design and Methods Clinical and transfusion-related data were collected on subjects with reported ATRs and uneventful (control) apheresis platelet transfusions over a combined 21 month period at two academic medical centers. Control transfusions were selected as the next uneventful transfusion after an ATR was reported. Logistic regression, Mann-Whitney and t tests were used to assess associations with ATRs. Previously reported aeroallergen-specific IgE screening data was incorporated into a multivariable logistic regression. Results 143 ATRs and 61 control transfusions were evaluated among 168 subjects, ages 2-86 years. Infusion rate, infusion volume, ABO mismatching, component age, and premedication showed no statistically significant association with ATRs (P>0.05). Neither infusion rate nor infusion volume increased the risk of anaphylaxis vs. mucocutaneous only ATRs. Aeroallergen sensitization has previously been associated with ATRs. After controlling for transfusion-related covariates, aeroallergen sensitization remained statistically significantly associated with ATRs (OR 2.68, 95%CI: 1.26-5.69). Conclusions Transfusion and component-specific attributes are not associated with ATRs. An allergic predisposition in transfusion recipients is associated most strongly with ATR risk. PMID:25209730
Excess of veno-occlusive disease in a randomized clinical trial on a higher trigger for red blood cell transfusion after bone marrow transplantation: a canadian blood and marrow transplant group trial.
Robitaille, Nancy; Lacroix, Jacques; Alexandrov, Lubomir; Clayton, Lucy; Cortier, Marion; Schultz, Kirk R; Bittencourt, Henrique; Duval, Michel
Previous studies have shown that maintaining high hemoglobin levels in patients after chemotherapy reduced the length of neutropenia. Thus, we undertook a randomized, controlled, clinical trial in children undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation after receiving a myeloablative conditioning regimen to compare 2 hemoglobin thresholds as triggers for red blood cell transfusion: 120 g/L in the experimental arm and 70 g/L in the control arm. The Data and Safety Monitoring Board closed the study after enrollment of the sixth patient because 3 patients in the experimental arm contracted veno-occlusive disease, but none in the control arm did (P = .05). Ascites was present in all 3 patients, pleura effusion in 2, and portal vein thrombosis in 2. One patient experienced hepatic failure and required treatment with the molecular adsorbent recycling system. Another patient required hemodialysis for renal failure. No major imbalance between groups was seen with regard to risk factors for veno-occlusive disease. Therefore, maintaining the hemoglobin at higher levels should be avoided after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Goldaracena, Nicolás; Méndez, Patricio; Quiñonez, Emilio; Devetach, Gustavo; Koo, Lucio; Jeanes, Carlos; Anders, Margarita; Orozco, Federico; Comignani, Pablo D.; Mastai, Ricardo C.; McCormack, Lucas
Background. Significant amounts of red blood cells (RBCs) transfusions are associated with poor outcome after liver transplantation (LT). We report our series of LT without perioperative RBC (P-RBC) transfusions to evaluate its influence on early and long-term outcomes following LT. Methods. A consecutive series of LT between 2006 and 2011 was analyzed. P-RBC transfusion was defined as one or more RBC units administrated during or ≤48 hours after LT. We divided the cohort in “No-Transfusion” and “Yes-Transfusion.” Preoperative status, graft quality, and intra- and postoperative variables were compared to assess P-RBC transfusion risk factors and postoperative outcome. Results. LT was performed in 127 patients (“No-Transfusion” = 39 versus “Yes-Transfusion” = 88). While median MELD was significantly higher in Yes-Transfusion (11 versus 21; P = 0.0001) group, platelet count, prothrombin time, and hemoglobin were significantly lower. On multivariate analysis, the unique independent risk factor associated with P-RBC transfusions was preoperative hemoglobin (P < 0.001). Incidence of postoperative bacterial infections (10 versus 27%; P = 0.03), median ICU (2 versus 3 days; P = 0.03), and hospital stay (7.5 versus 9 days; P = 0.01) were negatively influenced by P-RBC transfusions. However, 30-day mortality (10 versus 15%) and one- (86 versus 70%) and 3-year (77 versus 66%) survival were equivalent in both groups. Conclusions. Recipient MELD score was not a predictive factor for P-RBC transfusion. Patients requiring P-RBC transfusions had worse postoperative outcome. Therefore, maximum efforts must be focused on improving hemoglobin levels during waiting list time to prevent using P-RBC in LT recipients. PMID:24455193
In recent years, much attention has been paid to respiratory complications of transfusion. Transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) is defined as an acute lung injury that is temporally associated with blood transfusion. TRALI is one of the leading causes of mortality. Although the etiology of TRALI is not fully understood, one of its main causes is thought to be anti-leukocyte antibodies, such as HLA antibody or HNA antibody. A precautionary male-predominant plasma strategy has been implemented in many developed countries, which has resulted in considerable achievements in reducing the incidence of TRALI. Meanwhile, transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) has emerged as a major differential diagnosis of TRALI. TACO is a well-known complication of transfusion, which has been considered not as a side effect of transfusion but a result of erroneous medical practice. It has long been an under-reported complication of transfusion and has not been investigated scientifically. Recent data on transfusion mortality from the Food and Drug Administration revealed that TACO was the second highest cause of death in the United States. Our data also suggested a steep increase in the reported cases of TACO in Japan. Precautionary measures should also be implemented for this emerging complication.
Bayer, W L; Bodensteiner, D C; Tilzer, L L; Adams, M E
The need for blood components for oncology patients is small compared with the need for patients with hematologic malignancies. Appropriate use of blood components is necessary, not only medically, but also because of limited supply and availability. Agreement on when to use components is extremely important. In fact, at the time of this writing, the Transfusion Practices Committee of the AABB is conducting an extensive survey on the use of platelets in the oncology and hematology cancer patients (Questionnaire on Institutional Policy on Platelet Transfusion Practice for Hematology/Oncology Patients). The results will, it is hoped, provide a consensus on the proper times and counts that require prophylactic use of components for these patients. Since these patients use the vast majority of components (see Table 15), their proper use is imperative to maintaining an adequate platelet and frozen plasma supply. Transfusion support in cancer patients is vital for their survival. Platelets, in particular, are necessary to prevent serious bleeding. However, refractoriness to platelet transfusions can develop. It must be appreciated that refractoriness is not a general problem and need not require the expensiveness of a universal decision for handling all platelet transfusions in the same manner. Total refractoriness probably occurs in 15 to 20% of patients frequently transfused. In patients in whom frequent platelet transfusion is anticipated, that is, bone marrow transplantation, the development of platelet refractoriness may be reduced by using SDPC and administering them through leukocyte filters. Patients who become refractory to either random or SDPC can either be cross-matched for single-donor platelets that are compatible or can be given HLA-A,B matched platelets. Certainly, the success of platelet transfusion in leukemic patients cannot be denied, since only a small number of these patients now die because of bleeding due to platelet refractoriness. Most of the
Sugiura, Tokio; Kouwaki, Masanori; Goto, Kenji; Endo, Takeshi; Ito, Koichi; Koyama, Norihisa; Togari, Hajime
To study the effect of exchange transfusion on cytokine profiles in a patient with necrotizing enterocolitis, the levels of 12 cytokines and serum calprotectin were measured among exchange transfusion. A male extremely low birth weight infant was in non-compensated shock and diagnosed stage 3 necrotizing enterocolitis. Exchange transfusion was performed for critical condition, refractory hypotension and disseminated intravascular coagulation. After exchange transfusion, the patient's blood pressure increased and stabilized. Then an enterostomy was performed and revealed necrosis of the ascending colon. Of the cytokines examined, interleukin-8 and serum calprotectin were high before exchange transfusion and decreased after exchange transfusion.
Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno
The representation of blood transfusion and donation of blood in the comic strip has never been studied. The comic strip, which is a relatively recent art, emerged in the 19th century before becoming a mass medium during the 20th century. We have sought, by calling on collectors and using the resources of Internet, comic strips devoted, wholly or in part, to the themes of transfusion and blood donation. We present some of them here in chronologic order, indicating the title, country of origin, year of publication, and names of authors. The theme of the superhero using transfusion to transmit his virtues or his powers is repeated throughout the 20th century in North American comic strips. More recently, comic strips have been conceived from the outset with a promotional aim. They perpetuate positive images and are directed toward a young readership, wielding humor to reduce the fear of venipuncture. Few comic strips denounce the abuse of the commercialization of products derived from the human body. The image of transfusion and blood donation given by the comic strips is not to be underestimated because their readership is primarily children, some of whom will become blood donors. Furthermore, if some readers are transfused during their lives, the impact of a memory more or less conscious of these childhood readings may resurface, both in hopes and in fears.
White, Marissa J; Hazard, Sprague W; Frank, Steven M; Boyd, Joan S; Wick, Elizabeth C; Ness, Paul M; Tobian, Aaron A R
The evolution of modern anesthesia and surgical practices has been accompanied by enhanced supportive procedures in blood banking and transfusion medicine. There is increased focus on the preparation and the use of blood components including, but not limited to, preventing unnecessary type and screen/crossmatch orders, decreasing the time required to provide compatible red blood cells (RBCs), and reducing the waste of limited blood and personnel resources. The aim of this review is to help the anesthesiologist and surgical staff identify patients at highest risk for surgical bleeding. In addition, this review examines how anesthesia and transfusion medicine can efficiently and safely allocate blood components for surgical patients who require transfusions. The following databases were searched: PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library from January 1970 through March 2014. Subsequent reference searches of retrieved articles were also assessed. Several innovations have drastically changed the procedures by which blood is ordered, inventoried, and the speed in which blood is delivered for patient care. Before entering an operating room, patient blood management provides guidance to clinicians about when and how to treat preoperative anemia and intra- and postoperative strategies to limit the patient's exposure to blood components. Timely updates of the recommendations for blood orders (maximum surgical blood ordering schedule) have enhanced preoperative decision making regarding the appropriateness of the type and screen versus the type and crossmatch order. The updated maximum surgical blood ordering schedule reflects modern practices, such as laparoscopy, improved surgical techniques, and use of hemostatic agents resulting in a more streamlined process for ordering and obtaining RBCs. The electronic (computer) crossmatch and electronic remote blood issue have also dramatically reduced the amount of time required to obtain crossmatch-compatible RBCs
Rovira Tarrats, Montserrat; Puig de la Bellacasa, Jorge
Invasive aspergillosis has become the leading cause of death after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This is partially due to the lack of a prompt diagnosis. Recently the detection of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen by means an ELISA technique in serum has been described. The objective of this study was to validate its usefulness in the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation setting.
Lacroix, Jacques; Demaret, Pierre; Tucci, Marisa
The results of the Transfusion Requirements in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit study suggest that a red blood cell transfusion is not required in stable or stabilized pediatric intensive care unit children as long as their hemoglobin level is >7 g/dL. Subgroup analyses suggest that this recommendation is also adequate for stable critically ill children with a high severity of illness, respiratory dysfunction, acute lung injury, sepsis, neurological dysfunction, severe head trauma, or severe trauma, and during the postoperative period, for noncyanotic patients older than 28 days. A small randomized clinical trial suggests that a hemoglobin level of 9 g/dL is safe in the postoperative care of children with single-ventricle physiology undergoing cavopulmonary connection. Although there is consensus that blood is clearly indicated for the treatment of hemorrhagic shock, the clinical determinants that should prompt pediatric intensivists to prescribe a red blood cell transfusion to unstable PICU children are not well characterized.
Joy, PJ; Bennet, SJ
INTRODUCTION A significant proportion of all red cell transfusions are given to patients undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery. Concern over transfusion safety and cost, coupled with evidence showing that restrictive transfusion policies benefit patients, prompted us to audit our blood prescribing practice at Gloucestershire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust in order to assess the appropriateness of every transfusion episode following elective primary total hip replacement. METHODS All patients undergoing a primary total hip replacement in our department over a six-month period were included in the study. Data were collected retrospectively using case note examination and transfusion service data. Standards were dictated by the British Orthopaedic Association guidelines on blood conservation in elective orthopaedic surgery. RESULTS Twenty-seven per cent of patients (39/143) were transfused. Forty-six per cent of these (18/39) were transfused inappropriately and twenty-three per cent (9/39) appropriately. Thirteen per cent (5/39) had a valid indication for transfusion but were over-transfused and in eighteen per cent (7/39) the quality of documentation did not allow an assessment to be made. Fifty-two per cent of patients who had surgical drains (29/56) were transfused. Reaudit following staff education and amendments to the local transfusion policy did not demonstrate a reduction in transfusion rates. CONCLUSIONS This audit showed that significant potential exists for reducing transfusion rates based on optimising prescribing practice alone. It also demonstrated that changing local practice based on audit data can be challenging. PMID:22507728
Solves, Pilar; Carpio, Nelly; Balaguer, Aitana; Romero, Samuel; Iacoboni, Gloria; Gómez, Inés; Lorenzo, Ignacio; Moscardó, Federico; Sanz, Jaime; Lopez, Francisca; Martin, Guillermo; Jarque, Isidro; Montesinos, Pau; de la Rubia, Javier; Sanz, Guillermo; Sanz, Miguel A.
Background There are ABO antigens on the surface of platelets, but whether ABO compatible platelets are necessary for transfusions is a matter of ongoing debate. We retrospectively reviewed the ABO matching of platelet transfusions in a subset of patients undergoing autologous haematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation during a 14-year period. Our aim was to analyse the characteristics and outcomes of patients who received platelet transfusions that were or were not ABO identical. Material and methods We analysed 529 consecutive patients with various haematological and non-haematological diseases who underwent 553 autologous progenitor stem cell transplants at the University Hospital la Fe between January 2000 and December 2013. We retrospectively analysed and compared transfusion and clinical outcomes of patients according to the ABO match of the platelet transfusions received. The period analysed was the time from transplantation until discharge. Results The patients received a total of 2,772 platelet concentrates, of which 2,053 (74.0%) were ABO identical and 719 (26.0%) ABO non-identical; of these latter 309 were compatible and 410 incompatible with the patients’ plasma. Considering all transplants, 36 (6.5%) did not require any platelet transfusions, while in 246 (44.5%) cases, the patients were exclusively transfused with ABO identical platelets and in 47 (8.5%) cases they received only ABO non-identical platelet transfusions. The group of patients who received both ABO identical and ABO non-identical platelet transfusions had higher transfusion needs and worse clinical outcomes compared to patients who received only ABO identical or ABO non-identical platelets. Discussion In our hospital, patients undergoing autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation who received ABO identical or ABO non-identical platelet transfusions had similar transfusion and clinical outcomes. The isolated fact of receiving ABO non-identical platelets did not influence
Estcourt, Lise J; Desborough, Michael; Hopewell, Sally; Doree, Carolyn; Stanworth, Simon J
Background Patients with a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) often require the insertion of central lines (central venous catheters (CVCs)). CVCs have a number of uses; these include: administration of chemotherapy; intensive monitoring and treatment of critically-ill patients; administration of total parenteral nutrition; and long-term intermittent intravenous access for patients requiring repeated treatments. Current practice in many countries is to correct thrombocytopenia with platelet transfusions prior to CVC insertion, in order to mitigate the risk of serious procedure-related bleeding. However, the platelet count threshold recommended prior to CVC insertion varies significantly from country to country. This indicates significant uncertainty among clinicians of the correct management of these patients. The risk of bleeding after a central line insertion appears to be low if an ultrasound-guided technique is used. Patients may therefore be exposed to the risks of a platelet transfusion without any obvious clinical benefit. Objectives To assess the effects of different platelet transfusion thresholds prior to the insertion of a central line in patients with thrombocytopenia (low platelet count). Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 2), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1950) and ongoing trial databases to 23 February 2015. Selection criteria We included RCTs involving transfusions of platelet concentrates, prepared either from individual units of whole blood or by apheresis, and given to prevent bleeding in patients of any age with thrombocytopenia requiring insertion of a CVC. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Main results One RCT was identified that compared different platelet transfusion thresholds prior to insertion of a CVC in people with chronic liver
Henseler, O; Heiden, M; Haschberger, B; Hesse, J; Seitz, R
-sufficiency is made difficult because of the influence of imports and exports; however, the results show no deficit for plasma derivatives. Due to the fact that manufacturing capacities are still lacking in Germany, recombinant factors need to be imported in their entirety. Since 2003, Germany has by far been the leader in Europe with more than 20 liters of fractionation plasma collected per 1,000 inhabitants. Furthermore, regarding the manufacturing figures of red blood cell concentrates, platelet concentrates, and therapeutic single plasma, Germany is in the top third for all these products compared with other European countries. The manufacture of allogeneic stem cell products for hematopoietic reconstitution, obtained by apheresis, has continuously risen to 4,700 in the reporting year. A large portion of this, 1,810 transplants could be exported while only a small number, 179 preparations, had to be imported. The manufacture of autologous stem cell preparations from cord blood also rose drastically compared with 2006, to more than 10,000 in 2007. It must be emphasized that these products were entirely placed into stock; none were transplanted in the reporting year. The interest in the figures collected in compliance with Section 21, Transfusion Act remains high both in Germany and at the international level. Reliable data are available thanks to the evaluations of trends over years, above all on the availability of blood components for transfusion. In addition, the Paul Ehrlich Institute will continue to strive to meet the demands for high-quality information on the supply situation in the future.
Desai, Payal C; Deal, Allison M; Pfaff, Emily R; Qaqish, Bahjat; Hebden, Leyna M; Park, Yara A; Ataga, Kenneth I
Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization is a significant clinical complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). It can lead to difficulty with cross-matching for future transfusions and may sometimes trigger life-threatening delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions. We conducted a retrospective study to explore the association of clinical complications and age of RBC with alloimmunization in patients with SCD followed at a single institution from 2005 to 2012. One hundred and sixty six patients with a total of 488 RBC transfusions were evaluated. Nineteen patients (11%) developed new alloantibodies following blood transfusions during the period of review. The median age of RBC units was 20 days (interquartile range: 14-27 days). RBC antibody formation was significantly associated with the age of RBC units (P = 0.002), with a hazard ratio of 3.5 (95% CI: 1.71-7.11) for a RBC unit that was 7 days old and 9.8 (95% CI: 2.66-35.97) for a unit that was 35 days old, 28 days after the blood transfusion. No association was observed between RBC alloimmunization and acute vaso-occlusive complications. Although increased echocardiography-derived tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV) was associated with the presence of RBC alloantibodies (P = 0.02), TRV was not significantly associated with alloimmunization when adjusted for patient age and number of transfused RBC units. Our study suggests that RBC antibody formation is significantly associated with older age of RBCs at the time of transfusion. Prospective studies in patients with SCD are required to confirm this finding.
Salunkhe, Vishal; van der Meer, Pieter F; de Korte, Dirk; Seghatchian, Jerard; Gutiérrez, Laura
Transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI) have been greatly reduced in numbers due to the strict donor selection and screening procedures, i.e. the availability of technologies to test donors for endemic infections, and routine vigilance of regulatory authorities in every step of the blood supply chain (collection, processing and storage). However, safety improvement is still a matter of concern because infection zero-risk in transfusion medicine is non-existent. Alternatives are required to assure the safety of the transfusion product and to provide a substitution to systematic blood screening tests, especially in less-developed countries or at the war-field. Furthermore, the increasing mobility of the population due to traveling poses a new challenge in the endemic screening tests routinely used, because non-endemic pathogens might emerge in a specific population. Pathogen reduction treatments sum a plethora of active approaches to eliminate or reduce potential threatening pathogen load from blood transfusion products. Despite the success of pathogen reduction treatments applied to plasma products, there is still a long way to develop and deploy pathogen reduction treatments to cellular transfusion products (such as platelets, RBCs or even to whole blood) and there is divergence on its acceptance worldwide. While the use of pathogen reduction treatments in platelets is performed routinely in a fair number of European blood banks, most of these treatments are not (or just) licensed in the USA or elsewhere in the world. The development of pathogen reduction treatments for RBC and whole blood is still in its infancy and under clinical trials. In this review, we discuss the available and emerging pathogen reduction treatments and their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of characterizing standard transfusion products with current and emerging approaches (OMICS) and clinical outcome, and integrating this information on a database
Gelderman, Monique P.; Baek, Jin Hyen; Yalamanoglu, Ayla; Puglia, Michele; Vallelian, Florence; Burla, Bo; Vostal, Jaroslav; Schaer, Dominik J.; Buehler, Paul W.
Intermediate beta-thalassemia has a broad spectrum of sequelae and affected subjects may require occasional blood transfusions over their lifetime to correct anemia. Iron overload in intermediate beta-thalassemia results from a paradoxical intestinal absorption, iron release from macrophages and hepatocytes, and sporadic transfusions. Pathological iron accumulation in parenchyma is caused by chronic exposure to non-transferrin bound iron in plasma. The iron scavenger and transport protein transferrin is a potential treatment being studied for correction of anemia. However, transferrin may also function to prevent or reduce iron loading of tissues when exposure to non-transferrin bound iron increases. Here we evaluate the effects of apotransferrin administration on tissue iron loading and early tissue pathology in non-transfused and transfused Hbbth3/+ mice. Mice with the Hbbth3/+ phenotype have mild to moderate anemia and consistent tissue iron accumulation in the spleen, liver, kidneys and myocardium. Chronic apotransferrin administration resulted in normalization of the anemia. Furthermore, it normalized tissue iron content in the liver, kidney and heart and attenuated early tissue changes in non-transfused Hbbth3/+ mice. Apotransferrin treatment was also found to attenuate transfusion-mediated increases in plasma non-transferrin bound iron and associated excess tissue iron loading. These therapeutic effects were associated with normalization of transferrin saturation and suppressed plasma non-transferrin bound iron. Apotransferrin treatment modulated a fundamental iron regulatory pathway, as evidenced by decreased erythroid Fam132b gene (erythroferrone) expression, increased liver hepcidin gene expression and plasma hepcidin-25 levels and consequently reduced intestinal ferroportin-1 in apotransferrin-treated thalassemic mice. PMID:25616571
Bittencourt, Maura K. W.; Barros, Michele A.; Martins, João Flávio P.; Vasconcellos, Jose Paulo C.; Morais, Bruna P.; Pompeia, Celine; Bittencourt, Matheus Domingues; Evangelho, Karine dos Santos; Kerkis, Irina; Wenceslau, Cristiane V.
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is a dysfunction in tear production associated with clinical signs, which include conjunctival hyperemia, ocular discharge, discomfort, pain, and, eventually, corneal vascularization and pigmentation. Immunosuppressive drugs are routinely administrated for long periods to treat KCS but with side effects and limited results. Evaluation of the clinical benefits of intralacrimal transplantation of allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in dogs with mild–moderate and severe KCS was done. A total of 24 eyes with KCS from 15 dogs of different breeds were enrolled in the present study. A single transplantation of MSCs (1 × 106) directly into lacrimal glands (dorsal and third eyelid) was performed. The Schirmer tear tests (STTs) and ocular surface improvements were used to assess short- and long-term effects of these cells. The STTs were carried out on day 0 (before MSCs transplantation) and on days 7, 14, 21, and 28, as well as 6 and 12 months after MSC transplantation. Our data demonstrate that allogeneic MSC transplantation in KCS dogs is safe since no adverse effects were observed immediately after transplantation and in short- and long-term follow-ups. A statistically significant increase in the STT and ocular surface improvements was found in all eyes studied. In all the eyes with mild–moderate KCS, STT values reverted to those of healthy eyes, while in eyes with severe KCS, although complete reversion was not found, there was improvement in tear production and in other clinical signs. Our study shows that a single dose of a low number of MSCs can be used to treat KCS in dogs. In contrast to immunosuppressive drug use, MSC transplantation has an effect over a long period (up to 12 months), even after a single administration, and does not require daily drug administration. PMID:28003932
... will have a reaction after the transfusion. Iron Overload Getting many blood transfusions can cause too much iron to build up in your blood (iron overload). People who have a blood disorder like thalassemia , ...
Hergon, E; Rouger, P; Garnerin, P
The methods of system reliability analysis represent an interesting set of tools used to follow the so-called "transfusion process", defined as all the steps from donors sensitization to recipients follow-up. FMECA, (Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis), can be used as a prevention tool, independently of any dysfunction in the process. Of course, it can equally be used following a failure, in order to analyse the causes and to apply the specific corrections. Quality insurance, system reliability analysis, epidemiologic surveillance and safety monitoring operate in synergy. These three issues pertaining to transfusion safety constitute a dynamic system.
Savage, William J; Tobian, Aaron AR; Savage, Jessica H; Wood, Robert A; Schroeder, John T; Ness, Paul M
Allergic transfusion reactions (ATRs) are a spectrum of hypersensitivity reactions that are the most common adverse reaction to platelets and plasma, occurring in up to 2% of transfusions. Despite the ubiquity of these reactions, little is known about their mechanism. In a small subset of severe reactions, specific antibody has been implicated as causal, although this mechanism does not explain all ATRs. Evidence suggests that donor, product, and recipient factors are involved, and it is possible that many ATRs are multi-factorial. Further understanding of the mechanisms of ATRs is necessary so that rationally designed and cost-effective prevention measures can be developed. PMID:22998777
Higgins, Martha J; Blackall, Douglas P
Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is well recognized as an uncommon, but frequently fatal, adverse effect of blood component therapy. In this disorder, viable donor lymphocytes transfused to a vulnerable patient orchestrate a devastating attack on the recipient's tissues. In contrast to the striking reduction in infectious risks of blood transfusion, a significant residual risk of TA-GVHD remains. This article reviews the pathogenesis and mechanism of TA-GVHD, which provide the foundation for a prevention strategy. A review of selected recent cases illustrates the challenges faced in the identification, prevention, and treatment of this frustrating disorder.
Chandrashekar, Shivaram; Kantharaj, Ambuja
Legal issues play a vital role in providing a framework for the Indian blood transfusion service (BTS), while ethical issues pave the way for quality. Despite licensing of all blood banks, failure to revamp the Drugs and Cosmetic Act (D and C Act) is impeding quality. Newer techniques like chemiluminescence or nucleic acid testing (NAT) find no mention in the D and C Act. Specialised products like pooled platelet concentrates or modified whole blood, therapeutic procedures like erythropheresis, plasma exchange, stem cell collection and processing technologies like leukoreduction and irradiation are not a part of the D and C Act. A highly fragmented BTS comprising of over 2500 blood banks, coupled with a slow and tedious process of dual licensing (state and centre) is a hindrance to smooth functioning of blood banks. Small size of blood banks compromises blood safety. New blood banks are opened in India by hospitals to meet requirements of insurance providers or by medical colleges as this a Medical Council of India (MCI) requirement. Hospital based blood banks opt for replacement donation as they are barred by law from holding camps. Demand for fresh blood, lack of components, and lack of guidelines for safe transfusion leads to continued abuse of blood. Differential pricing of blood components is difficult to explain scientifically or ethically. Accreditation of blood banks along with establishment of regional testing centres could pave the way to blood safety. National Aids Control Organisation (NACO) and National Blood Transfusion Council (NBTC) deserve a more proactive role in the licensing process. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) needs to clarify that procedures or tests meant for enhancement of blood safety are not illegal. PMID:25535417
Pommerening, Matthew J.; Goodman, Michael D.; Holcomb, John B.; Wade, Charles E.; Fox, Erin E.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Brasel, Karen J.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Cohen, Mitch J.; Alarcon, Louis H.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Myers, John G.; Phelan, Herb A.; Muskat, Peter; Rahbar, Mohammad; Cotton, Bryan A.
Introduction Early recognition and treatment of trauma patients requiring massive transfusion (MT) has been shown to reduce mortality. While many risk factors predicting MT have been demonstrated, there is no universally accepted method or algorithm to identify these patients. We hypothesized that even among experienced trauma surgeons, the clinical gestalt of identifying patients who will require MT is unreliable. Methods Transfusion and mortality outcomes after trauma were observed at 10 U.S. Level-1 trauma centers in patients who survived ≥30 minutes after admission and received ≥1 unit of RBC within 6 hours of arrival. Subjects who received ≥ 10 units within 24 hours of admission were classified as MT patients. Trauma surgeons were asked the clinical gestalt question “Is the patient likely to be massively transfused?” ten minutes after the patients arrival. The performance of clinical gestalt to predict MT was assessed using chi-square tests and ROC analysis to compare gestalt to previously described scoring systems. Results Of the 1,245 patients enrolled, 966 met inclusion criteria and 221 (23%) patients received MT. 415 (43%) were predicted to have a MT and 551(57%) were predicted to not have MT. Patients predicted to have MT were younger, more often sustained penetrating trauma, had higher ISS scores, higher heart rates, and lower systolic blood pressures (all p < 0.05). Gestalt sensitivity was 65.6% and specificity was 63.8%. PPV and NPV were 34.9% and 86.2% respectively. Conclusion Data from this large multicenter trial demonstrates that predicting the need for MT continues to be a challenge. Because of the increased mortality associated with delayed therapy, a more reliable algorithm is needed to identify and treat these severely injured patients earlier. Level of Evidence II; Diagnostic study - Development of diagnostic criteria on basis of consecutive patients (with universally applied reference standard) PMID:25682314
Khawar, Nayaab; Kulpa, Jolanta; Bellin, Anne; Proteasa, Simona; Sundaram, Revathy
In Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) patient blood transfusions are an important part of treatment for stroke and its prevention. However, blood transfusions can also lead to complications such as Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (RPLS). This brief report highlights two cases of SCA who developed such neurological complications after a blood transfusion. RLPS should be considered as the cause of neurologic finding in patients with SCA and hypertension following a blood transfusion. PMID:28127478
Friedman, D F; Kwittken, P; Cizman, B; Argyris, E; Kearns, J; Yang, S Y; Zmijewski, C; Bunin, N; Douglas, S D; Monos, D
Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TAGVHD) is a rare and usually fatal complication of blood transfusion which can arise when immunocompetent lymphocytes from the donor of a cellular blood product are transfused into a severely immunocompromised recipient. We describe the case of an 8-month-old male with a severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome who developed TAGVHD after receiving an unirradiated transfusion. Serologic HLA typing of the parents, the patient, and the blood donor demonstrated the foreign origin of circulating lymphocytes, confirming the diagnosis of TAGVHD. The manifestations of TAGVHD did not respond to medical immunosuppressive therapy, and bone marrow transplantation was planned to treat the underlying immunodeficiency as well as the TAGVHD. By using DNA-based class I and class II HLA typing, the child's HLA type was determined from nonhematopoietic tissues. This information proved critical in selecting the bone marrow donor. The child received immunosuppression, myeloablation, and a T-depleted, maternal bone marrow graft mismatched at one HLA class II allele. Trilineage hematopoietic engraftment occurred within 3 weeks, and the child remains clinically stable with no evidence of TAGVHD more than 2 years after the transplant. This case illustrates that TAGVHD can be successfully treated by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and that DNA-based HLA typing can play a unique role in the diagnosis and management of TAGVHD. PMID:8556506
Cuthbert, R J; Shepherd, J D; Nantel, S H; Barnett, M J; Reece, D E; Klingemann, H G; Chan, K W; Spinelli, J J; Sutherland, H J; Phillips, G L
We report a retrospective analysis of the experience of a single centre in treating severe aplastic anemia (SAA) with allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT). Between 1982 and 1992, we transplanted 21 patients with SAA (14 males, 7 females); median age at BMT was 15 y (range 2-40 y); median time from diagnosis of SAA to BMT was 29 d (range 6 d-5.5 y). Thirteen patients had received multiple transfusions before BMT. Patients were conditioned with cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg for 4 d, +/- total body irradiation 300-500 cGy as a single fraction; 1 patient received total nodal irradiation (750 cGy) plus antithymocyte globulin. Sixteen patients received bone marrow from human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-identical siblings, 3 from haplo-identical parents, and 2 from unrelated volunteer donors; graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was variable. Three patients failed to fully engraft following BMT; 2 achieved successful engraftment following a second BMT. Six of 20 evaluable patients (30%) developed grade II-IV acute GVHD, of whom 3 died; 3 patients developed limited and 5 patients (31%) developed extensive chronic GVHD, of whom 1 died. Fourteen patients (67%) are alive and well following BMT with a median follow-up of 6 y (range 2.1-11 y). Survival was superior in patients receiving sibling-donor BMT (75%) compared with those receiving parent- or unrelated-donor BMT (40%). We conclude that allogeneic BMT remains an important mode of treatment for SAA, but long-term survival remains limited by graft failure and GVHD.
Litton, E; Xiao, J; Allen, C T; Ho, K M
Intravenous (IV) iron can decrease transfusion requirements in selected patients with low, normal and moderately elevated ferritin. Whether the syndrome of iron-restricted erythropoiesis (IRE), diagnosed by iron studies, identifies critically ill patients at risk for subsequent red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, and hence, provides a simple method to determine response to IV iron therapy, is uncertain. We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients with IRE on admission to intensive care and determine the optimal variables to identify patients at risk of RBC transfusion who may benefit from early administration of IV iron. The study included 201 consecutive ICU admissions from a single 23-bed combined medical/surgical ICU. The prevalence of IRE on admission to ICU, defined according to ferritin <300 µg/l and transferrin saturation <20%, was 26.2% (95% CI 19.9 to 32.4). The proportion of patients with IRE subsequently receiving RBC transfusion was significantly lower than the proportion of patients without IRE receiving RBC transfusion (absolute mean difference 18.9% [95% CI 4.7 to 33.1, P <0.001]). IRE was not independently associated with risk of transfusion on multivariate analysis, however, a prognostic model with three risk factors (RBC transfusion prior to ICU admission, Hb <100 g/l and ICU length of stay >3 days), had good discrimination and calibration for predicting transfusion (receiver operator curve area under the curve 0.87 [95% CI 0.79 to 0.94, P=0.88], Hosmer-Lemeshow 6.21; P=0.1). Excluding iron overload and using simple prognostic criteria to identify patients at high risk of RBC transfusion may be a preferable strategy for identifying critically ill patients who may benefit from IV iron.
Mito, Toshiaki; Nemoto, Masaaki; Kwansa, Herman; Sampei, Kenji; Habeeb, Murtuza; Murphy, Stephanie J.; Bucci, Enrico; Koehler, Raymond C.
Background and Purpose Transfusion of large polymers of hemoglobin avoids the peripheral extravasation and hypertension associated with crosslinked tetrameric hemoglobin transfusion and may be more effective in rescuing brain from focal ischemia. Effects of transfusion of high-oxygen affinity, bovine hemoglobin polymers of different weight ranges were determined. Methods Hypervolemic exchange transfusion was performed during two hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice. Results Compared to transfusion with a 5% albumin solution or no transfusion, infarct volume was reduced 40% by transfusion of a 6% solution containing hemoglobin polymers in the nominal range 500–14000 kDa. Infarct volume was not significantly reduced by transfusion of a lower concentration of 2–3% of this size range of polymers, 6% hemoglobin solutions without removal of polymers <500 kDa or >14000 kDa, or crosslinked hemoglobin tetramers with normal oxygen affinity. Exchange transfusion with the 6% solution of the 500–14000 kDa hemoglobin polymers did not improve the distribution of cerebral blood flow during focal ischemia and, in mice without ischemia, did not affect flow to brain or other major organs. Conclusion An intermediate size range of polymerized bovine hemoglobin possessing high oxygen affinity appears optimal for rescuing mouse brain from transient focal cerebral ischemia. A minimum concentration of a 6% solution is required, the rescue is superior to that obtained with crosslinked tetrameric hemoglobin possessing normal oxygen affinity, and tissue salvage is not associated with increased blood flow. This polymer solution avoids the adverse effects of severe renal and splanchnic vasoconstriction seen with crosslinked tetrameric hemoglobin. PMID:18988905
Govande, Vinayak P.; Shetty, Ashita; Beeram, Madhava R.
This double-blinded, randomized, crossover study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of 20 mL/kg aliquots of packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions versus 15 mL/kg aliquot transfusions in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with anemia. The study enrolled 22 hemodynamically stable VLBW infants requiring PRBC transfusions, with a mean gestational age of 25.7 ± 2.2 weeks and birth weight of 804 ± 261 g. Each infant was randomized to receive one of two treatment sequences: 15 mL/kg followed by 20 mL/kg or 20 mL/kg followed by 15 mL/kg. The infants were monitored during and after transfusions, and the efficacy and safety of the treatments were evaluated. Infants had higher posttransfusion hemoglobin (13.2 g/dL vs 11.8 g/dL, P < 0.01) and hematocrit levels (38.6 g/dL vs 34.4 g/dL, P < 0.01) following 20 mL/kg PRBC transfusions when compared to 15 mL/kg transfusions. There were no differences in the incidence of tachypnea, hepatomegaly, edema, hypoxia, necrotizing enterocolitis, or vital sign instability between groups. In conclusion, high-volume PRBC transfusions (20 mL/kg) were associated with higher posttransfusion hemoglobin and hematocrit levels but no adverse effects. Higher-volume transfusions may reduce the need for multiple transfusions and therefore the number of donors the infant is exposed to. PMID:27034542
Arias-Morales, Carlos E; Stoicea, Nicoleta; Gonzalez-Zacarias, Alicia A; Slawski, Diana; Bhandary, Sujatha P.; Saranteas, Theodosios; Kaminiotis, Eva; Papadimos, Thomas J
In the United States, cardiac surgery-related blood transfusion rates reached new highs in 2010, with 34% of patients receiving blood products. Patients undergoing both complex (coronary artery bypass grafting [CABG] plus valve repair or replacement) and non-complex (isolated CABG) cardiac surgeries are likely to have comorbidities such as anemia. Furthermore, the majority of patients undergoing isolated CABG have a history of myocardial infarction. These characteristics may increase the risk of complications and blood transfusion requirement. It becomes difficult to demonstrate the association between transfusions and mortality because of the fact that most patients undergoing cardiac surgery are also critically ill. Transfusion rates remain high despite the advances in perioperative blood conservation, such as the intraoperative use of cell saver in cardiac surgery. Some recent prospective studies have suggested that the use of blood products, even in low-risk patients, may adversely affect clinical outcomes. In light of this information, we reviewed the literature to assess the clinical outcomes in terms of 30-day and 1-year morbidity and mortality in transfused patients who underwent uncomplicated CABG surgery. PMID:28299184
Ning, Jing; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Choi, Sangbum; Piao, Jin; Hong, Chuan; Del Junco, Deborah J; Rahbar, Elaheh; Fox, Erin E; Holcomb, John B; Wang, Mei-Cheng
In comparative effectiveness studies of multicomponent, sequential interventions like blood product transfusion (plasma, platelets, red blood cells) for trauma and critical care patients, the timing and dynamics of treatment relative to the fragility of a patient's condition is often overlooked and underappreciated. While many hospitals have established massive transfusion protocols to ensure that physiologically optimal combinations of blood products are rapidly available, the period of time required to achieve a specified massive transfusion standard (e.g. a 1:1 or 1:2 ratio of plasma or platelets:red blood cells) has been ignored. To account for the time-varying characteristics of transfusions, we use semiparametric rate models for multivariate recurrent events to estimate blood product ratios. We use latent variables to account for multiple sources of informative censoring (early surgical or endovascular hemorrhage control procedures or death). The major advantage is that the distributions of latent variables and the dependence structure between the multivariate recurrent events and informative censoring need not be specified. Thus, our approach is robust to complex model assumptions. We establish asymptotic properties and evaluate finite sample performance through simulations, and apply the method to data from the PRospective Observational Multicenter Major Trauma Transfusion study.
Arias-Morales, Carlos E; Stoicea, Nicoleta; Gonzalez-Zacarias, Alicia A; Slawski, Diana; Bhandary, Sujatha P; Saranteas, Theodosios; Kaminiotis, Eva; Papadimos, Thomas J
In the United States, cardiac surgery-related blood transfusion rates reached new highs in 2010, with 34% of patients receiving blood products. Patients undergoing both complex (coronary artery bypass grafting [CABG] plus valve repair or replacement) and non-complex (isolated CABG) cardiac surgeries are likely to have comorbidities such as anemia. Furthermore, the majority of patients undergoing isolated CABG have a history of myocardial infarction. These characteristics may increase the risk of complications and blood transfusion requirement. It becomes difficult to demonstrate the association between transfusions and mortality because of the fact that most patients undergoing cardiac surgery are also critically ill. Transfusion rates remain high despite the advances in perioperative blood conservation, such as the intraoperative use of cell saver in cardiac surgery. Some recent prospective studies have suggested that the use of blood products, even in low-risk patients, may adversely affect clinical outcomes. In light of this information, we reviewed the literature to assess the clinical outcomes in terms of 30-day and 1-year morbidity and mortality in transfused patients who underwent uncomplicated CABG surgery.
Marano, Giuseppe; Pupella, Simonetta; Vaglio, Stefania; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M; Grazzini, Giuliano
In the last few years, the transfusion medicine community has been paying special attention to emerging vector-borne diseases transmitted by arboviruses. Zika virus is the latest of these pathogens and is responsible for major outbreaks in Africa, Asia and, more recently, in previously infection-naïve territories of the Pacific area. Many issues regarding this emerging pathogen remain unclear and require further investigation. National health authorities have adopted different prevention strategies. The aim of this review article is to discuss the currently available, though limited, information and the potential impact of this virus on transfusion medicine.
Colligan, David; McGowan, Neil; Seghatchian, Jerard
A modern successful Blood service is reliant on numerous elements to continually improve. With the constant increments in regulatory and quality management legislation the backbone to the service requires the implementation and maintenance of a modern Quality management system. It also relies on successful relationships between the various arms of the organisation in driving the service forward, and finally it is dependent on a relationship between its donor base and the staff. It is vital that those involved with transfusion appreciate the impact that they are having on the donors and patients, and it is important to appreciate and engage with donors without whom there would be no transfusion or transplantation. As a reflection of this the Scotblood 2014 programme was focused on service improvement and people centred transfusion. This commentary comprises summaries of the presentations, based in part on the abstracts provided by the speakers.
Cheraghali, A M; Sanei Moghaddam, E; Masoud, A; Faisal, H
Afghanistan is a country with population of over 28 million. The long term conflicts have devastated country's qualified resources including human resources. ANBSTS was established by MoPH as the country national blood service. Currently in addition to central and regional blood centers of ANBSTS many other hospitals have their own transfusion services. Blood donation in Afghanistan mainly depends on replacement donors. Donor selection and donor interview are not very efficient. Most of the blood in Afghanistan is administered as fresh whole blood. Although blood transfusion services in Afghanistan require more efforts to be fully efficient, based on recent improvements in working procedures of ANBSTS a promising future for blood transfusion services in Afghanistan is predicted.
and tremor appear. 2. During the second state (30-60 minutes after the be- ginning of the transfusion) sudden chills appear, which last 10-30 minutes...by increased muscular rigidity. 4. The fourth phase is of shock, disappearance of vasomotor regulation, strong orthostatic hypotension with peripheral
Yao, C; Wang, W W; Chung, Y M; Su, Y L; Liu, C Y; Chen, Y M
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can be transmitted through blood transfusion. The first transfusion-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient in Taiwan was a 46-year-old woman who received two units of whole blood during a hysterectomy at a provincial hospital in 1985. In 1991, she experienced a herpes zoster infection. In March 1993, she had extensive herpetic gingivostomatitis and another herpes zoster attack, and was treated at the same hospital. Two months later, she had oral candidiasis and was treated at a medical center. She was not tested for HIV-1 infection until she developed Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in June 1993. In February 1994, and developed cytomegalovirus retinitis and died 6 months later. Donor blood given to the patients during the hysterectomy was HIV-1 positive. The donor's HIV infection was discovered in 1991 and he died of AIDS in 1993. As blood centers in Taiwan did not start screening for HIV-1 until January 1988, it is urgently recommended that any individual who received a blood transfusion between 1984 and 1987 in Taiwan and who currently experiences repeated episodes of opportunistic infections have an HIV-1 blood test. The receipt of a blood transfusion between 1984 and 1987 should be listed by the Department of Health as an indication for HIV-1 screening.
... the transfused blood after it is collected. In addition to an increase in temperature, the person has chills and sometimes headache or back pain. Sometimes the person also has symptoms of an allergic reaction such as itching or a rash. Usually, acetaminophen ...
Klein, Harvey G; Spahn, Donat R; Carson, Jeffrey L
Every year, about 75 million units of blood are collected worldwide. Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is one of the few treatments that adequately restore tissue oxygenation when oxygen demand exceeds supply. Although the respiratory function of blood has been studied intensively, the trigger for RBC transfusion remains controversial, and doctors rely primarily on clinical experience. Laboratory assays that indicate failing tissue oxygenation would be ideal to guide the need for transfusion, but none has proved easy, reproducible, and sensitive to regional tissue hypoxia. The clinical importance of the RBCs storage lesion (ie, the time-dependent metabolic, biochemical, and molecular changes that stored blood cells undergo) is poorly understood. RBCs can be filtered, washed, frozen, or irradiated for specific indications. Donor screening and testing have dramatically reduced infectious risks in the developed world, but infection remains a major hazard in developing countries, where 13 million units of blood are not tested for HIV or hepatitis viruses. Pathogen inactivation techniques are in clinical trials for RBCs, but none is available for use. Despite serious immunological and non-immunological complications, RBC transfusion holds a therapeutic index that exceeds that of many common medications.
The use of therapeutic plasma has increased in France by more than 40% since 2002. This growth may be explained by the improvement in transfusion safety, the diminution of the risk of transmission of pathogens and the regained confidence of the physicians in blood products. Therapeutic plasma also benefits from additional procedures to reduce infectious (securisation) or immunological risks (selection of blood donors). Its application in massive transfusions has undergone a significant evolution over the last few years. A proactive attitude favouring early and important use of plasma on the basis of pre-established protocols is advocated henceforth. The prescription of therapeutic plasma for other indications must be guided by the results of biological tests and an evaluation of the haemorrhagic risk. Despite regular updating of the guidelines for good transfusion practice, plasma is still sometimes prescribed for prophylactic purposes in situations where the biological and/or clinical criteria do not justify it. Moreover, it is not recommended to use fresh frozen plasma in cases of deficiency of coagulation factors if the specific concentrates are available as intravenous fluids. Complementary clinical studies will be necessary to evaluate, in certain indications, the real benefits of the transfusion of plasma and the interest of replacing it by concentrates of coagulant factors (fibrinogen, prothrombin complex).
Peña, Jeremy Ryan Andrew; Dzik, Walter Sunny
The scope of activity of the Blood Transfusion Service (BTS) makes it unique among the clinical laboratories. The combination of therapeutic and diagnostic roles necessitates a multi-faceted approach to utilization management in the BTS. We present our experience in utilization management in large academic medical center.
Massaro, A L; Alba, E; Ragonesi, G; Colla, F; Barbini, V; Corvetto, L; D'Addato, F
The transfusion of blood or hemoderivatives is a medical procedure that necessarily involves the possibility of danger or damage, given that, even with maximum prudence, diligence and expertise, it is impossible to avoid severe risks of infections, transfusional reactions, alloimmunisation, undesired immunomodulating effects, etc. Article 19 of Ministerial Decree 15/01/1991 makes it obligatory to obtain informed consent , understood as the free expression of the acceptance of treatment provided after being fully informed of the nature, possibility, risks and collateral effects of the procedure. Consent to blood transfusion can only be given by a person with full mental faculties, whereas transfusion treatment can be proposed for a minor, for a prisoner or for a person who is temporarily incapacitated by their physical conditions. The authors examine a number of problems regarding the following questions: what happens if consent is withheld? What can happen if consent is not requested or if the transfusion is performed when consent has been denied? In conclusion, it is difficult to offer operating schemes that are easy to apply: much depends on the patient's conditions, his reactions, his concerns, his trust in the doctor and the latter's communication skills.
Hong, Hong; Xiao, Wenbin; Lazarus, Hillard M; Good, Caryn E; Maitta, Robert W; Jacobs, Michael R
Septic transfusion reactions (STRs) resulting from transfusion of bacterially contaminated platelets are a major hazard of platelet transfusion despite recent interventions. Active and passive surveillance for bacterially contaminated platelets was performed over 7 years (2007-2013) by culture of platelet aliquots at time of transfusion and review of reported transfusion reactions. All platelet units had been cultured 24 hours after collection and released as negative. Five sets of STR criteria were evaluated, including recent AABB criteria; sensitivity and specificity of these criteria, as well as detection by active and passive surveillance, were determined. Twenty of 51,440 platelet units transfused (0.004%; 389 per million) were bacterially contaminated by active surveillance and resulted in 5 STRs occurring 9 to 24 hours posttransfusion; none of these STRs had been reported by passive surveillance. STR occurred only in neutropenic patients transfused with high bacterial loads. A total of 284 transfusion reactions (0.55%) were reported by passive surveillance. None of these patients had received contaminated platelets. However, 6 to 93 (2.1%-32.7%) of these 284 reactions met 1 or more STR criteria, and sensitivity of STR criteria varied from 5.1% to 45.5%. These results document the continued occurrence of bacterial contamination of platelets resulting in STR in neutropenic patients, failure of passive surveillance to detect STR, and lack of specificity of STR criteria. These findings highlight the limitations of reported national STR data based on passive surveillance and the need to implement further measures to address this problem such as secondary testing or use of pathogen reduction technologies.
Thomas, Julius; Ayieko, Philip; Ogero, Morris; Gachau, Susan; Makone, Boniface; Nyachiro, Wycliffe; Mbevi, George; Chepkirui, Mercy; Malla, Lucas; Oliwa, Jacquie; Irimu, Grace; English, Mike
Severe anemia is a leading indication for blood transfusion and a major cause of hospital admission and mortality in African children. Failure to initiate blood transfusion rapidly enough contributes to anemia deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. This article examines delays in accessing blood and outcomes in transfused children in Kenyan hospitals. Children admitted with nonsurgical conditions in 10 Kenyan county hospitals participating in the Clinical Information Network who had blood transfusion ordered from September 2013 to March 2016 were studied. The delay in blood transfusion was calculated from the date when blood transfusion was prescribed to date of actual transfusion. Five percent (2,875/53,174) of admissions had blood transfusion ordered. Approximately half (45%, 1,295/2,875) of children who had blood transfusion ordered at admission had a documented hemoglobin < 5 g/dl and 36% (2,232/6,198) of all children admitted with a diagnosis of anemia were reported to have hemoglobin < 5 g/dL. Of all the ordered transfusions, 82% were administered and documented in clinical records, and three-quarters of these (75%, 1,760/2,352) were given on the same day as ordered but these proportions varied from 71% to 100% across the 10 hospitals. Children who had a transfusion ordered but did not receive the prescribed transfusion had a mortality of 20%, compared with 12% among those transfused. Malaria-associated anemia remains the leading indication for blood transfusion in acute childhood illness admissions. Delays in transfusion are common and associated with poor outcomes. Variance in delay across hospitals may be a useful indicator of health system performance. PMID:27920394
Critically ill children in pediatric intensive care units are commonly indicated for blood transfusion due to many reasons. Children are quite different from adults during growth and development, and that should be taken into consideration. It is very difficult to establish a universal transfusion guideline for critically ill children, especially preterm neonates. Treating underlying disease and targeted replacement therapy are the most effective approaches. Red blood cells are the first choice for replacement therapy in decompensated anemic patients. The critical hemoglobin concentration may be higher in critically ill children for many reasons. Whole blood is used only in the following conditions or diseases: (1) exchange transfusion; (2) after cardiopulmonary bypass; (3) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; (4) massive transfusion, especially in multiple component deficiency. The characteristics of hemorrhagic diseases are so varied that their therapy should depend on the specific needs associated with the underlying disease. In general, platelet transfusion is not needed when a patient has platelet count greater than 10,000/mm3 and is without active bleeding, platelet functional deficiency or other risk factors such as sepsis. Patients with risk factors or age less than 4 months should be taken into special consideration, and the critical thrombocyte level will be raised. Platelet transfusion is not recommended in patients with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia or thrombocytopenia due to acceleration of platelet destruction without active bleeding or life-threatening hemorrhage. There are many kinds of plasma-derived products, and recombinant factors are commonly used for hemorrhagic patients due to coagulation factor deficiency depending on the characteristics of the diseases. The most effective way to correct disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is to treat the underlying disease. Anticoagulant therapy is very important; heparin is the most common
Hohberger, Clive; Davis, Rodeina; Briggs, Lynne; Gutierrez, Alfonso; Veeramani, Dhamaraj
ISO/IEC 18000-3 mode 1 standard 13.56 MHz RFID tags have been accepted by the International Society for Blood Transfusion (ISBT) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as data carriers to integrate with and augment ISBT 128 barcode data carried on blood products. The use of 13.56 MHz RFID carrying ISBT 128 data structures allows the global deployment and use of RFID, supporting both international transfer of blood and international disaster relief. The deployment in process at the BloodCenter of Wisconsin and testing at the University of Iowa Health Center is the first FDA-permitted implementation of RFID throughout in all phases of blood banking, donation through transfusion. RFID technology and equipment selection will be discussed along with FDA-required RF safety testing; integration with the blood enterprise computing system and required RFID tag performance. Tag design and survivability is an issue due to blood bag centrifugation and irradiation. Deployment issues will be discussed. Use of RFID results in significant return on investment over the use of barcodes in the blood center operations through labor savings and error reduction.
Prognostic pre-transplant factors in myelodysplastic syndromes primarily treated by high dose allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a retrospective study of the MDS subcommittee of the CMWP of the EBMT.
Cremers, E M P; van Biezen, A; de Wreede, L C; Scholten, M; Vitek, A; Finke, J; Platzbecker, U; Beelen, D; Schwerdtfeger, R; Volin, L; Harhalakis, N; Blijlevens, N; Nagler, A; Kröger, N; de Witte, T
Many pre-transplant factors are known to influence the outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) treatment in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, patient cohorts are often heterogeneous by disease stage and treatment modalities, which complicates interpretation of the results. This study aimed to obtain a homogeneous patient cohort by including only de novo MDS patients who received upfront allogeneic SCT after standard high dose myelo-ablative conditioning. The effect of pre-transplant factors such as age, disease stage, transfusions, iron parameters and comorbidity on overall survival (OS), non-relapse mortality (NRM), and relapse incidence (RI) was evaluated in 201 patients. In this cohort, characterized by low comorbidity and a short interval between diagnosis and transplantation, NRM was the most determinant factor for survival after SCT (47 % after 2-year follow-up). WHO classification and transfusion burden were the only modalities with a significant impact on overall survival after SCT. Estimated hazard ratios (HR) showed a strongly increased risk of death, NRM and RI, in patients with a high transfusion-burden (HR 1.99; P = 0.006, HR of 1.89; P = 0.03 and HR 2.67; P = 0.03). The HR's for ferritin level and comorbidity were not significantly increased.
Undergoing Nonemergent Cardiac Surgery; Central Venous Catheter on the Superior Vena Cava (to Perform ScVO2 Measure); Anemia (<9g/dL) Requiring Blood Transfusion; Hemodynamic and Respiratory Stability; Bleeding Graded as Insignificant, Mild, Moderate of Universal Definition of Perioperative Bleeding
Gómez, Raquel Gómez; Muñoz, Eva Ma Martínez; Montañés, Ma Carmen Surroca
The authors describe the characteristics of the Bellovac ABT drainage recuperation -blood auto transfusion device along with its proper handling and the required nurses' care in order to minimize the risks and to provide optimum safety for patients. The authors also explain the potential complications and they discuss the main advantages and inconveniences this type of drainage has.
Oge, Tufan; Kilic, Cemil Hakan; Kilic, Gokhan Sami
Blood transfusions may be lifesaving, but they inherit their own risks. Risk of transfusion to benefit is a delicate balance. In addition, blood product transfusions purchases are one of the largest line items among the hospital and laboratory charges. In this review, we aimed to discuss the transfusion strategies and share our transfusion protocol as well as the steps for hospitals to build-up a blood management program while all these factors weight in. Moreover, we evaluate the financial burden to the health care system.
Unique risks of red blood cell transfusions in very-low-birth-weight neonates: associations between early transfusion and intraventricular hemorrhage and between late transfusion and necrotizing enterocolitis.
Christensen, Robert D; Baer, Vickie L; Del Vecchio, Antonio; Henry, Erick
Red blood cell transfusions can be life-saving for neonates with severe anemia or active hemorrhage. However, risks of transfusions exist and should always be weighed against potential benefits. At least two transfusion risks are unique to very low birth weight neonates. The first is an association between transfusions given in the first days after birth and the subsequent occurrence of a grade 3 or 4 intraventricular hemorrhage. The second is an association between "late" RBC transfusions and the subsequent occurrence of necrotizing enterocolitis. Much remains to be discovered about the pathogenesis of these two outcomes. Moreover, work is needed to clearly establish whether transfusions are causatively-associated with these outcomes or are co-variables. This review will provide basic data establishing these associations and propose mechanistic explanations.
van der Linden, C.J.; Buurman, W.A.; Vegt, P.A.; Greep, J.M.; Jeekel, J.
In this study significantly prolonged canine renal allograft survival has been demonstrated after transfusion of 100 ml of third-party whole blood given peroperatively. Peroperative transfusions of third-party leukocyte-free blood or pure lymphocyte cell suspensions did not influence graft survival. Furthermore, no improvement in graft survival has been found after a peroperative transfusion of irradiated whole blood (2500 rad). These data suggest that delayed graft rejection after blood transfusions can only be expected after the administration of whole blood. The role of competent lymphocytes in whole blood is questionable, since a transfusion or irradiated whole blood in combination with nonirradiated lymphocytes did not lead to prolonged graft survival. Immunosuppression of the recipient directly after transfusion seems to be essential to induce the beneficial effect of blood transfusions. This has been demonstrated for a transfusion of whole blood 14 days before transplantation. A single transfusion of 100 ml of whole blood 14 days before transplantation could effectively prolong graft survival if immunosuppression with azathioprine and prednisone was started on the day of transfusion. No improvement in graft survival has been found with such a transfusion if preoperative immunosuppression has been omitted.
Hillyer, Christopher D; Blumberg, Neil; Glynn, Simone A; Ness, Paul M
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) supports major research programs related to the field of transfusion medicine, which encompass blood banking, the practice of transfusion medicine itself, and cellular therapies. Specific programmatic elements have included 1) the Transfusion Medicine/Hemostasis Clinical Trials Network (TMH CTN) charged with conducting clinical trials in transfusion medicine and hemostasis; 2) the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II), which includes domestic and international efforts dedicated to blood donor safety and blood availability issues; 3) the Specialized Centers of Clinically Oriented Research (SCCOR) in Transfusion Biology and Medicine that include two major projects, the Biologic and Immunologic Aspects of Transfusion Medicine Program and the Transfusion and Lung Injury Program, and 4) the Transfusion Therapy Trial for Functional Outcomes in Cardiovascular Patients Undergoing Surgical Hip Fracture Repair (FOCUS), a Phase III clinical trial that has as its major goal to determine whether a more aggressive transfusion strategy in surgery patients with cardiovascular disease (or risk factors) is associated with improved functional recovery and decreased risk of adverse postoperative outcomes. Notably, none of these programs supports epidemiologic and clinical outcomes research focused on transfusion recipients. Thus, on October 31, 2007, a Working Group on Transfusion Recipient Epidemiology and Outcomes Research was convened by the NHLBI. This group was asked to discuss the current status of the field, identify critical research needs, and make recommendations to the NHLBI program staff.
dos Reis, Valesca Nunes; Paixão, Isabella Bertolin; Perrone, Ana Carolina Amaral de São José; Monteiro, Maria Inês; dos Santos, Kelli Borges
ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the process of recording transfusion monitoring at a public teaching hospital. Methods A descriptive and retrospective study with a quantitative approach, analyzing the instruments to record transfusion monitoring at a public hospital in a city in the State of Minas Gerais (MG). Data were collected on the correct completion of the instrument, time elapsed from transfusions, records of vital signs, type of blood component more frequently transfused, and hospital unit where transfusion was performed. Results A total of 1,012 records were analyzed, and 53.4% of them had errors in filling in the instruments, 6% of transfusions started after the recommended time, and 9.3% of patients had no vital signs registered. Conclusion Failures were identified in the process of recording transfusion monitoring, and they could result in more adverse events related to the administration of blood components. Planning and implementing strategies to enhance recording and to improve care delivered are challenging. PMID:27074233
Diefenbeck, Michael; Nerlich, Andreas; Schneeberger, Stefan; Wagner, Frithjof; Hofmann, Gunther O
Composite tissue allotransplantation represents a new discipline in reconstructive surgery. Over the past 10 years, we have performed six human vascularized allogeneic knee transplantations. All of these grafts have been lost within the first 56 months. A histomorphologic assessment of the latest case resulted in the detection of diffuse concentric fibrous intimal thickening and occlusion of graft vessels. Findings are comparable with cardiac allograft vasculopathy. The lack of adequate tools for monitoring graft rejection might have allowed multiple untreated episodes of acute rejection, triggering myointimal proliferation and occlusion of graft vessels. Graft vasculopathy represents an obstacle to long-term vascularized bone and joint allograft survival, and adequate tools for monitoring need to be developed.
Vasquez, Amber M; Sapiano, Mathew R P; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Kuehnert, Matthew J; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda
Since November 2015, Puerto Rico has reported active mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus. Because of the potential for Zika virus to be transmitted through transfusion of blood components, and because a high percentage of persons infected with Zika virus are asymptomatic, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended that blood collections cease in areas of the United States affected by active vector-borne transmission of Zika virus until laboratory screening of blood donations or pathogen reduction technology (PRT) for treatment of blood components can be implemented. To inform efforts to maintain the safety and availability of the blood supply in Puerto Rico, CDC, in collaboration with the Puerto Rico Department of Health, conducted a rapid assessment of blood collection and use on the island. A total of 139,369 allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) units, 45,243 platelet units, and 56,466 plasma units were collected in or imported to Puerto Rico during 2015, and 135,966 allogeneic RBC units, 13,526 therapeutic platelet units, and 25,775 plasma units were transfused. Because of the potential for local Zika virus transmission in areas with a competent mosquito vector, other areas of the United States should develop plans to ensure local blood safety and adequacy. Blood collection organizations and public health agencies should collaborate to maintain the safety and availability of local blood supplies in accordance with FDA guidance.
Uncontrolled hemorrhage is the most common cause of potentially preventable death in massive trauma. In addition to the early identification of potential bleeding sources and angiographic embolisation or surgical bleeding control, in-hospital management will aim at maintain tissue oxygenation with volume replacement using crystalloids, colloids and RBC. In general, RBC transfusion is recommended to maintain hemoglobin between 7-10g/dL. The complex combination of clotting factors and platelets consumption, loss and dilution, shock, hypothermia, acidosis and colloid-induced hemostatic alterations leads to coagulopathic bleeding. Most guidelines recommend the use of FFP in significant bleeding complicated by coagulopathy (PT, aPTT >1.5 times control). Platelets should be administered to maintain a platelet count above 50 x 10(9)/L (100 x 10(9)/L in patients with traumatic brain injury). However, standard laboratory tests have poor correlation with in vivo coagulopathy and the test results are not rapidly available. Empiric guidelines derived from mathematical hemodilution models developed in elective surgery settings may not be appropriate for trauma settings where significant bleeding may have already occurred. Moreover, coagulopathy is frequently present on admission in severely injured patients. Recent litterature suggests that FFP and platelets should be given early and more often to injured patients requiring massive transfusion. The place of adjunctive hemostatic therapy is discussed.
Kabinda Maotela, J; Ramazani, S Y; Misingi, P; Dramaix-Wilmet, M
The authors trace the history of blood transfusion in the Democratic Republic of Congo, as inherited through the colonial organization of the health system. The current configuration of transfusion system begins with the drafting of the national blood transfusion policy and the establishment of a national technical office within the Ministry of Health to coordinate transfusion activities and of its agents in each province. Despite countless difficulties, several positive points were noted. These involve essentially the drafting of all the necessary documents and standards and the integration of the blood safety system into the country's health system. Initially, the blood transfusion system applied a vertical approach, but with the reform of the country's health system, the performance of blood safety became transversal. In the 12 years from 2001 to 2012, it mobilized 112,882 volunteer blood donors; more than 80% of blood products were checked for safety and covered all blood needs; and 81,806 HIV infections were avoided by routine testing of blood products. During the same period, 7560 people were trained in blood transfusion. The prevalence of viral markers among donors has diminished sharply. Thus, HIV prevalence decreased from 4.7% to 2.1% between 2001 and 2012 that of hepatitis B dropped from 7.1% to 3.5% during the same period, and hepatitis C from 11.8% to 2.3% from 2004 to 2012. Despite this performance, enormous efforts are still required, for the organization of blood safety monitoring, the establishment of a safe supply of reagents and supplies, for sustaining the dynamics of voluntary associations of blood donors, and finally for providing stable funding for these blood safety activities.
Tay, Jason; Allan, David; Beattie, Sara; Bredeson, Christopher; Fergusson, Dean; Maze, Dawn; Sabloff, Mitchell; Thavorn, Kednapa; Tinmouth, Alan
Introduction In patients with transient thrombocytopenia being treated with high-dose chemotherapy followed by stem cell rescue—haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), prophylactic transfusions are standard therapy to prevent bleeding. However, a recent multicentre trial suggests that prophylactic platelet transfusions in HSCT may not be necessary. Additionally, the potential overuse of platelet products places a burden on a scarce healthcare resource. Moreover, the benefit of prophylactic platelet transfusions to prevent clinically relevant haemorrhage is debatable. Current randomised data compare different thresholds for administering prophylactic platelets or prophylactic versus therapeutic platelet transfusions. An alternative strategy involves prescribing prophylactic antifibrinolytic agents such as tranexamic acid to prevent bleeding. Methods and analysis This report describes the design of an open-labelled randomised pilot study comparing the prophylactic use of oral tranexamic acid with platelet transfusions in the setting of autologous HSCT. In 3–5 centres, 100 patients undergoing autologous HSCT will be randomly assigned to either a prophylactic tranexamic acid or prophylactic platelets bleeding prevention strategy-based daily platelet values up to 30 days post-transplant. The study will be stratified by centre and type of transplant. The primary goal is to demonstrate study feasibility while collecting clinical outcomes on (1) WHO and Bleeding Severity Measurement Scale (BSMS), (2) transplant-related mortality, (3) quality of life, (4) length of hospital stay, (5) intensive care unit admission rates, (6) Bearman toxicity scores, (7) incidence of infections, (8) transfusion requirements, (9) adverse reactions and (10) economic analyses. Ethics and dissemination This study is funded by a peer-reviewed grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (201 503) and is registered on Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02650791. It has been approved by
CCR5 in particular) closely correlated with vitamin D levels (Ganetsky et al. Vitamin D Deficiency Predicts Acute Cutaneous Graft- Versus-Host...Frey NV, Vonderheide RH, Porter DL, Reshef R: Vitamin D Deficiency Predicts Acute Cutaneous Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Reduced-Intensity Allogeneic...effect of vitamin D levels on T-cell function by conducting functional assays and gene expression profiling of day-30 T-cells from allogeneic HSCT
Lucarelli, G; Gaziev, J; Isgrò, A; Sodani, P; Paciaroni, K; Alfieri, C; De Angelis, G; Marziali, M; Simone, M D; Gallucci, C; Roveda, A; Saltarelli, F; Torelli, F; Andreani, M
Many patients with thalassemia have been cured with BMT since the first successful transplant in 1981. Allogeneic stem cell gene therapy is the only treatment option for patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA). A total of 11 patients with a median age of 12 years (range, 2-16), affected by SCA, received hematopoietic SCT from HLA-identical, related donors following a myeloablative-conditioning regimen. Indications for transplantation were vaso-occlusive crisis, acute chest syndrome, avascular bone necrosis, chronic RBC transfusions, or hemorrhagic stroke. All patients had sustained engraftment. One patient became a stable mixed chimera with 25% of donor cells at 4 years after transplantation. One patient died at 1 year after transplantation. The probability of survival, SCA-free survival and TRM at 5 years after transplant were 90, 90 and 10%, respectively. All 10 surviving patients remained free of any SCA-related events after transplantation. In conclusion, these data confirm SCT from a suitable HLA-matched, related donor should become the primary option for curing children with SCA. There is an excellent survival rate and a return to normal life, free of SCA-related events.
Zhu, Kang-Er; Xu, Yang; Wu, Dong; Zhong, Juan
Six out of 20 patients undergoing a major ABO-incompatible allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) developed pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), which did not show any effects on granulocyte and platelet engraftment, and incidence of grade II-IV aGVHD. All the 6 cases of PRCA were in blood group O recipients of grafts from blood group A donors (n = 5) or blood group B donor (n = 1), suggesting that donor/recipient pair (A/O) is associated with a high risk of PRCA after major ABO-incompatible allo-HSCT. Erythroid engraftment occurred spontaneously in four cases without specific intervention other than the RBC transfusion, which coincided with the decrease of isoagglutinin titers below 8, and the remaining 2 patients with prolonged erythroid aplasia( > 300 days) despite therapy with erythropoietin (EPO) were successfully treated by plasma exchange with donor-type plasma replacement. Cyclosporine did not appear to have played any role in causing PRCA in our patients, however, the occurrence of GVHD may facilitate the recovery of erythropoiesis.
Nannya, Yasuhito; Shinohara, Akihito; Ichikawa, Motoshi; Kurokawa, Mineo
Currently, we utilize vitamins and trace elements formulations that are not prepared specifically for patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and adequacy of this strategy has not been evaluated. We prospectively measured blood level of vitamins and trace elements in 15 patients once per week at 6 time points around the acute phase of allogeneic HSCT. We provided standard nutrition support, including administration of parenteral nutrition with vitamin and trace elements formulation in case of impairment of oral intake. Most patients had vitamin B1 deficiency from the start of preparative regimens. Vitamin C deficiency was prominent throughout the acute phase of HSCT and this was significantly associated with high inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein and ferritin. Remarkable vitamin K overload associated with administration of parenteral supplementation and ferritin overload caused by repeated transfusions was observed. Moderate deficiency of zinc was at least partially linked to gastrointestinal loss by diarrhea. We revealed several features of vitamin and trace element status in the acute phase of HSCT and provided a basis for attempts to improve the nutritional condition in HSCT recipients.
Kaur, Paramjit; Kaur, Gagandeep
Dengue fever has emerged as a global public health problem in the recent decades. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranges from dengue fever to dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. The disease is characterized by increased capillary permeability, thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. Thrombocytopenia with hemorrhagic manifestations warrants platelet transfusions. There is lack of evidence-based guidelines for transfusion support in patients with dengue fever. This contributes to inappropriate use of blood components and blood centers constantly face the challenge of inventory management during dengue outbreaks. The current review is aimed to highlight the role of platelets and other blood components in the management of dengue. The review was performed after searching relevant published literature in PubMed, Science Direct, Google scholar and various text books and journal articles.
Ben-Hur, Ehud; Margolis-Nunno, H.; Gottlieb, P.; Lustigman, S.; Horowitz, Bernard
Currently transfused cellular components of blood are not available in a sterile form and carry a small risk of transmitting viral and parasite diseases. Using phthalocyanines and red light, lipid enveloped viruses, e.g., HIV-1, can be inactivated in red blood cell concentrates (RBCC). Under conditions leading to virus sterilization the blood borne parasites Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease) and Plasmodium falciparum (malaria) could be eliminated to undetectable levels (> 4 log10 kill). RBC damage during treatment could be avoided by increasing the light fluence rate to 80 mW/cm2, and by including the free radical scavenger glutathione and the vitamin E derivative Trolox during light exposure. Similar sterilization of platelet concentrates was achieved with the psoralen derivative AMT and UVA light. Platelet damage due to PUVA treatment was avoided by including the plant flavonoid rutin during irradiation. It is concluded that elimination of the risk of transmitting pathogens during blood transfusion is feasible with photochemical treatments.
Neonatal immune thrombocytopenia represent less than 5% of cases of early thrombocytopenia (early-onset<72hours post-delivery). As in adults, thrombocytopenia in neonates is defined as a platelet count less than 150G/L. They are either auto- or allo-immune. Thrombocytopenia resulting from transplacental passage of maternal antibodies directed to platelet membrane glycoproteins can be severe. The major complication of severe thrombocytopenia is bleeding and particularly intra-cranial haemorrhage and neurologic sequelea following. However, auto- and allo-immune thrombocytopenia have very different characteristics including the treatment management. In fact, this treatment is based on platelet transfusion associated or not to intravenous immunoglobulin administration. The purpose of this article is to remind platelet transfusion's place in neonatal immune thrombocytopenia in terms of recently published French guidelines and international practices.
Muzamil, Javvid; Shiekh, Aejaz Aziz; Bhat, Gull Mohammad; Lone, Abdul Rashid; Bhat, Shuaeb; Nabi, Firdousa
Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a known entity in clinical medicine. Patients are often transfusion dependent for their whole life. Ascertaining its etiology is always a herculean task. We received a similar transfusion-dependent patient, who on evaluation was found to have thymoma as an etiological factor. Thymoma presenting as PRCA is seen in 2%–5% patients and evaluating PRCA for thymoma is seen in 5%–13% patient. As per the WHO histopathological classification, thymoma has six types and Type A is associated with PRCA and Type B is associated with myasthenia gravis. This correlation was not seen in our patient, who had Type B thymoma. Surgical resection of thymus improves 30% of PRCA and rest needs immunosuppression. Our patient was not the surgical candidate, and hence he was put on chemotherapy. PMID:28144099
Approximately one person in 5,000 will experience an episode of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) in conjunction with the transfusion of whole blood or blood components. Its hallmarks include hypoxemia, dyspnea, fever, hypotension, and bilateral pulmonary edema (noncardiogenic). The mortality for reported cases is 16.3%. The incidence and mortality may be even higher than estimated because of under-recognition and under-reporting. Although TRALI was identified as a clinical entity in the 1980s, a lack of consensus regarding a definition was present until 2004. An exact cause has yet to be identified; however, there are two theories regarding the etiology: the "antibody" and the "two-hit" theories. These theories involve both donor and recipient factors. Further education and research are needed to assist in the development of strategies for the prevention and treatment of TRALI.
Cremer, Malte; Sallmon, Hannes; Kling, Pamela J; Bührer, Christoph; Dame, Christof
Neonatal thrombocytopenia is widespread in preterm and term neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care units, with up to one-third of infants demonstrating platelet counts <150 × 10(9)/L. Thrombocytopenia may arise from maternal, placental or fetal/neonatal origins featuring decreased platelet production, increased consumption, or both mechanisms. Over the past years, innovations in managing neonatal thrombocytopenia were achieved from prospectively obtained clinical data on thrombocytopenia and bleeding events, animal studies on platelet life span and production rate and clinical use of fully automated measurement of reticulated platelets (immature platelet fraction). This review summarizes the pathophysiology of neonatal thrombocytopenia, current management including platelet transfusion thresholds and recent developments in megakaryopoietic agents. Furthermore, we propose a novel index score for bleeding risk in thrombocytopenic neonates to facilitate clinician's decision-making when to transfuse platelets.
Dehnavieh, Reza; Ebrahimipour, Hossein; Molavi-Taleghani, Yasamin; Vafaee-Najar, Ali; Hekmat, Somayeh Noori; Esmailzdeh, Hamid
Introduction: Pediatric emergency has been considered as a high risk area, and blood transfusion is known as a unique clinical measure, therefore this study was conducted with the purpose of assessing the proactive risk assessment of blood transfusion process in Pediatric Emergency of Qaem education- treatment center in Mashhad, by the Healthcare Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (HFMEA) methodology. Methodology: This cross-sectional study analyzed the failure mode and effects of blood transfusion process by a mixture of quantitative-qualitative method. The proactive HFMEA was used to identify and analyze the potential failures of the process. The information of the items in HFMEA forms was collected after obtaining a consensus of experts’ panel views via the interview and focus group discussion sessions. Results: The Number of 77 failure modes were identified for 24 sub-processes enlisted in 8 processes of blood transfusion. Totally 13 failure modes were identified as non-acceptable risk (a hazard score above 8) in the blood transfusion process and were transferred to the decision tree. Root causes of high risk modes were discussed in cause-effect meetings and were classified based on the UK national health system (NHS) approved classifications model. Action types were classified in the form of acceptance (11.6%), control (74.2%) and elimination (14.2%). Recommendations were placed in 7 categories using TRIZ (“Theory of Inventive Problem Solving.”) Conclusion: The re-engineering process for the required changes, standardizing and updating the blood transfusion procedure, root cause analysis of blood transfusion catastrophic events, patient identification bracelet, training classes and educational pamphlets for raising awareness of personnel, and monthly gathering of transfusion medicine committee have all been considered as executive strategies in work agenda in pediatric emergency. PMID:25560332
Boral, Leonard I.; Staubach, Zane G.; de Leeuw, Reny; MacIvor, Duncan C.; Kryscio, Richard; Bada, Henrietta S.
Background At some institutions all babies requiring red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) receive group O RBCs. Although transfused O plasma is minimized in packed RBCs, small amounts of residual anti-A, anti-B and anti-A, B in group O packed RBCs may bind to the corresponding A and B antigens of non-group O RBCs, possibly hemolyzing their native RBCs and thereby releasing free hemoglobin theoretically resulting in hypercoagulability and promoting bacterial growth from free iron. Study Design and Methods Transfused group O and non- group O premature infants in the University of Kentucky Children’s Hospital NICU database were compared for a number of severity markers to determine if transfused non-group O patients had worse outcomes than those of group O. Results 724 neonates in this sample of NICU babies received at least one blood component. There were no significant differences between group O and non-group O babies with regard to final disposition or complications. Conclusions This reassuring finding validates the longstanding neonatal transfusion practice of using group O packed red cells for NICU babies of all blood groups. However, because a recent study shows increased mortality from NEC in AB neonates receiving only group O RBC and suggests a change in neonatal transfusion practice to ABO group specific red cells, more studies may be warranted PMID:24225743
Ezzeldin, Hussein; Menis, Mikhail; McKean, Stephen; Izurieta, Hector; Anderson, Steven A.; Forshee, Richard A.
Background Although some studies have suggested that transfusion recipients may have better medical outcomes if transfused with red blood cell units stored for a short time, the overall body of evidence shows mixed results. It is important to understand how using fresher stored red blood cell units for certain patient groups may affect blood availability. Methods Based on the Stock-and-Flow simulation model of the US blood supply developed by Simonetti et al. 2014, we evaluated a newly implemented allocation method of preferentially transfusing fresher stored red blood cell units to a subset of high-risk group of critically ill patients and its potential impact on supply. Results Simulation results showed that, depending on the scenario, the US blood total supply might be reduced between 2-42%, when compared to the standard of care in transfusion medicine practice. Among our simulated scenarios, we observed that the number of expired red blood cell units modulated the supply levels. The age threshold of the required red blood cell units was inversely correlated with both the supply levels and the number of transfused units that failed to meet that age threshold. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study represents the first attempt to develop a comprehensive framework to evaluate the impact of preferentially transfusing fresher stored red blood cells to the higher-risk critically ill patients on supply. Model results show the difficulties to identify an optimal scenario. PMID:28319164
Van Der Linden, C.J.; Buurman, W.A.; Vegt, P.A.; Greep, J.M.; Jeekel, J.
In this study significantly prolonged canine renal allograft survival has been demonstrated after transfusion of 100 ml of third-party whole blood given peroperatively. Peroperative transfusions of third-party leukocyte-free blood or pure lymphocyte cell suspensions did not influence graft survival. Futhermore, no improvement in graft survival has been found after a peroperative transfuson of irradiated whole blood (2500 rad). These data suggest that delayed graft rejection after blood transfusions can only be expected after the administration of whole blood. The role of competent lymphocytes in whole blood is questionable, since a transfusion of irradiated whole blood in combination with nonirradiated lymphocytes did not lead to prolonged graft survival. Immunosuppression of the recipient directly after transfusion seems to be essential to induce the beneficial effect of blood transfusions. This has been demonstrated for a transfusion of whole blood 14 days before transplantation. A single transfusion of 100 ml of whole blood 14 days before transplantation could effectively prolong graft survival if immunosuppression with azathioprine and prednisone was started on the day of transfusion. No improvement in graft survival has been found with such a transfusion if preoperative immunosuppression has been omitted.
Hunt, T.K. )
This editorial discusses the situation of administering blood to patients prior to radiotherapy in an attempt to increase tissue/tumor oxygen tension. The author believes that since the rate at which tumor cells consume oxygen is highly variable, the aim of achieving high cellular oxygen tension may be met better by maintaining a high blood perfusion rate. Blood volume can be maintained without relying on transfusion, and safer alternatives are available.
Carr, R; Hutton, J L; Jenkins, J A; Lucas, G F; Amphlett, N W
Forty-three consecutive patients previously unexposed to platelets and undergoing treatment for acute leukaemia or autografting for relapsed Hodgkin's lymphoma were randomized to receive transfused platelets of either their own ABO group (OG) or of a major mismatched group (MMG). The 26 evaluable patients were equally distributed between the two study groups. Nine of 13 (69%) MMG patients became refractory with a median onset at transfusion 7 (15 d), compared with only one of 13 (8%) OG patients (P = 0.001). Refractoriness was associated with the formation of high titre isoagglutinins, anti-HLA and platelet specific antibodies. In one patient refractoriness appeared to be due to high titre isoagglutinins alone. Six other patients developed an increase in isoagglutinin titre sufficient to adversely affect platelet increments. Patients receiving ABO-mismatched platelets had a higher incidence of anti-HLA antibodies (5 v. 1) and platelet specific antibodies (4 v. 1). ABO-mismatched platelets transfused prior to the onset of refractoriness resulted in increments similar to those achieved by ABO-matched platelets. The study demonstrates that ABO-mismatched platelets are as effective as matched platelets in patients with low titre isoagglutinins requiring only few transfusions. However, the greater incidence of early refractoriness induced in MMG patients indicates that ABO-mismatched platelets should not be given to patients with marrow failure requiring long-term support.
Franklin, I M
Blood transfusion safety has had a chequered history, and there are current and future challenges. Internationally, there is no clear consensus for many aspects of the provision of safe blood, although pan-national legislation does provide a baseline framework in the European Union. Costs are rising, and new safety measures can appear expensive, especially when tested against some other medical interventions, such as cancer treatment and vaccination programmes. In this article, it is proposed that a comprehensive approach is taken to the issue of blood transfusion safety that considers all aspects of the process rather than considering only new measures. The need for an agreed level of safety for specified and unknown risks is also suggested. The importance of providing care and support for those inadvertently injured as a result of transfusion problems is also made. Given that the current blood safety decision process often uses a utilitarian principle for decision making--through the calculation of Quality Adjusted Life Years--an alternative philosophy is proposed. A social contract for blood safety, based on the principles of 'justice as fairness' developed by John Rawls, is recommended as a means of providing an agreed level of safety, containing costs and providing support for any adverse outcomes.
Roussel, P; Pujol-Rey, A; Arzur, C
To reduce seriousness and frequency of iatrogenic risk implies prevention policies and efficient operational systems for vigilance. This risk management implies definition of precise organizations and procedures able to locate and to notify quickly undesirable events. This is the case about single use medical devices (SUMD) used in blood transfusion. This article is a contribution to the organisation of the implemented material vigilance in blood transfusion, collectively carried out with actors concerned (users, manufacturers, National Commission for Material Vigilance). It presents a lot of tools and methods to favour practices harmonization, as well as preventive a curative (specifications before purchase, main part of the quality contract between customer and supplier; internal control plan; index for medical device used in transfusion; illustrated glossaries for three main families of medical devices; index about symptomatic events; definitions of seriousness levels with their operational consequences; methods to manage a single use medical device judged as defective; tool for the review of incidents according to reference and batch). Then, the management of incidents about SUMD is presented within a material vigilance system integrated into the quality system of the institution, for user as for manufacturer. This is done in a chronological order with successively description of the incident, the assessment of the impact, the management of the associated risk, the periodical review of incidents and management of matters in dispute.
Sapatnekar, Suneeti; Sharma, Girish; Downes, Katharine A; Wiersma, Susan; McGrath, Claire; Yomtovían, Roslyn
The practice of transfusing ABO-incompatible platelets, driven primarily by concerns about inventory management, has been considered generally safe because the accompanying plasma is usually diluted in the recipient's total blood volume. However, if the platelet product contains a large volume of plasma or a high concentration of incompatible isoagglutinin, there may be hemolysis of the recipient's red cells. Patients with a small blood volume, such as babies and children, are considered to be at particular risk for such a complication. We describe the case of a baby who suffered massive hemolysis of her group A red cells after transfusion of group O Apheresis Platelets containing a high-titered anti-A isoagglutinin. We also offer a review of the literature on this subject and recommendations to avoid acute hemolytic reactions as a result of platelet transfusion.
Bagwe, Shefali; Chung, Lawrance K; Lagman, Carlito; Voth, Brittany L; Barnette, Natalie E; Elhajjmoussa, Lekaa; Yang, Isaac
Neurosurgical procedures can be complicated by significant blood losses that have the potential to decrease tissue perfusion to critical brain tissue. Red blood cell transfusion is used in a variety of capacities both inside, and outside, of the operating room to prevent untoward neurologic damage. However, evidence-based guidelines concerning thresholds and indications for transfusion in neurosurgery remain limited. Consequently, transfusion practices in neurosurgical patients are highly variable and based on institutional experiences. Recently, a paradigm shift has occurred in neurocritical intensive care units, whereby restrictive transfusion is increasingly favored over liberal transfusion but the ideal strategy remains in clinical equipoise. The authors of this study perform a systematic review of the literature with the objective of capturing the changing landscape of blood transfusion indications in neurosurgical patients.
Stolla, Moritz; Refaai, Majed A; Heal, Joanna M; Spinelli, Sherry L; Garraud, Olivier; Phipps, Richard P; Blumberg, Neil
Platelet transfusion has been a vital therapeutic approach in patients with hematologic malignancies for close to half a century. Randomized trials show that prophylactic platelet transfusions mitigate bleeding in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. However, even with prophylactic transfusions, as many as 75% of patients, experience hemorrhage. While platelet transfusion efficacy is modest, questions and concerns have arisen about the risks of platelet transfusion therapy. The acknowledged serious risks of platelet transfusion include viral transmission, bacterial sepsis, and acute lung injury. Less serious adverse effects include allergic and non-hemolytic febrile reactions. Rare hemolytic reactions have occurred due to a common policy of transfusing without regard to ABO type. In the last decade or so, new concerns have arisen; platelet-derived lipids are implicated in transfusion-related acute lung injury after transfusion. With the recognition that platelets are immune cells came the discoveries that supernatant IL-6, IL-27 sCD40L, and OX40L are closely linked to febrile reactions and sCD40L with acute lung injury. Platelet transfusions are pro-inflammatory, and may be pro-thrombotic. Anti-A and anti-B can bind to incompatible recipient or donor platelets and soluble antigens, impair hemostasis and thus increase bleeding. Finally, stored platelet supernatants contain biological mediators such as VEGF and TGF-β1 that may compromise the host versus tumor response. This is particularly of concern in patients receiving many platelet transfusions, as for acute leukemia. New evidence suggests that removing stored supernatant will improve clinical outcomes. This new view of platelets as pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agents suggests that innovative approaches to improving platelet storage and pre-transfusion manipulations to reduce toxicity could substantially improve the efficacy and safety of this long-employed therapy.
outcomes in patient populations with massive bleeding. Later the discoveries that blood transfusion could transmit hepatitis B and C and HIV made a great...risks of TTD and transfusion reactions in relation with the potential benefit of transfusion. In Norway, the serocon- version rate (HIV and hepatitis B ...blood group O negative or positive and potential donors, they will then be screened for HIV and hepatitis B and C using rapid tests. RCCL medical teams
Stolla, Moritz; Refaai, Majed A.; Heal, Joanna M.; Spinelli, Sherry L.; Garraud, Olivier; Phipps, Richard P.; Blumberg, Neil
Platelet transfusion has been a vital therapeutic approach in patients with hematologic malignancies for close to half a century. Randomized trials show that prophylactic platelet transfusions mitigate bleeding in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. However, even with prophylactic transfusions, as many as 75% of patients, experience hemorrhage. While platelet transfusion efficacy is modest, questions and concerns have arisen about the risks of platelet transfusion therapy. The acknowledged serious risks of platelet transfusion include viral transmission, bacterial sepsis, and acute lung injury. Less serious adverse effects include allergic and non-hemolytic febrile reactions. Rare hemolytic reactions have occurred due to a common policy of transfusing without regard to ABO type. In the last decade or so, new concerns have arisen; platelet-derived lipids are implicated in transfusion-related acute lung injury after transfusion. With the recognition that platelets are immune cells came the discoveries that supernatant IL-6, IL-27 sCD40L, and OX40L are closely linked to febrile reactions and sCD40L with acute lung injury. Platelet transfusions are pro-inflammatory, and may be pro-thrombotic. Anti-A and anti-B can bind to incompatible recipient or donor platelets and soluble antigens, impair hemostasis and thus increase bleeding. Finally, stored platelet supernatants contain biological mediators such as VEGF and TGF-β1 that may compromise the host versus tumor response. This is particularly of concern in patients receiving many platelet transfusions, as for acute leukemia. New evidence suggests that removing stored supernatant will improve clinical outcomes. This new view of platelets as pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agents suggests that innovative approaches to improving platelet storage and pre-transfusion manipulations to reduce toxicity could substantially improve the efficacy and safety of this long-employed therapy. PMID:25699046
Menitove, Jay E
Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury, or TRALI, denotes the most frequently reported fatal complication of blood transfusion. TRALI accounted for 34% of transfusion associated mortalities reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2005. TRALI caused more deaths than those attributed to hemolytic reactions following incorrect blood administration or sepsis resulting from bacterial contamination of platelet and red cell components. (Holness, Leslie. Food and Drug Administration. Personal Communication, 2006) This paper reviews TRALI for the clinical physician.
Rogers, Thomas S; Fung, Mark K; Harm, Sarah K
The spectrum of adverse reactions to blood product transfusion ranges from a benign clinical course to serious morbidity and mortality. There have been many advances in technologies and transfusion strategies to decrease the risk of adverse reactions. Our aim is to address a few of the advancements in increasing the safety of the blood supply, specifically pathogen reduction technologies, bacterial contamination risk reduction, and transfusion associated acute lung injury risk mitigation strategies. PMID:27081471
Callcut, Rachael A.; Cripps, Michael W.; Nelson, Mary F.; Conroy, Amanda S.; Robinson, Bryce B.R.; Cohen, Mitchell J.
Introduction Prior work proposed a massive transfusion score [MTS] calculated from values obtained in the emergency department to predict likelihood of MT (massive transfusion). We hypothesized the MTS could be utilized at hour 6 to differentiate who continues to require balanced resuscitation in hour 7–24 and to predict death at 28 days. Methods We prospectively enrolled patients in whom the MT protocol (MTP) was initiated from 2005 to 2011. Data including timing of blood products were determined at hour 0, 6, 12, and 24. For each patient, transfusion needs were defined based upon either an inappropriately low hemoglobin response to transfusion or a hemoglobin decrease of > 1gm/dL if no transfusion. Timing and cause of death were utilized to account for survivor bias. Multivariate logistic regression was utilized to determine independent predictors of outcome. Results 190 MTP activations were included and by hour 6, 61% required >=10 units of PRBCs. Calculated at initial presentation, a Revised MTS (SBP<90mmHg, BD>=−6, Temp<35.5 C, INR>1.5, Hgb <11g/dL) was superior to the original MTS (including HR>=120bpm, FAST status, mechanism) or the ABC score for predicting MT (AUC MT at 6 hours 0.68, 95% CI 0.57–0.79; at 24 hour 0.72, 0.61–0.83; p<0.05); p<0.05). For those alive at hour 6, the Revised MTS was predictive of future PRBC need (AUC 0.87) in hour 7 to 12, 24-hour mortality (AUC 0.95), and 28-day mortality (AUC 0.77). For each additional positive trigger of the MTS at hour 6, the odds of death at 24 hours and 28 days was substantially increased (24 hours OR 4.6, 95% CI 2.3–9.3; 28 days OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5–3.2, p<0.0001). Conclusion Early end points of resuscitation adopted from the components of the Revised MTS are predictive of on-going transfusion. Failure to normalize these components by hour 6 portends a particularly poor prognosis. PMID:26517786
Begic, Dzenana; Mujicic, Ermina; Coric, Jozo; Zunic, Lejla
Introduction: The hospital blood bank (HBB) need to timely provide adequate amounts of blood and blood products for surgeries. For various surgical programs are performed assessments of the average number of blood doses needed for surgery. By using two types of requisitions BT/AB (blood type/antibody) and BT/AB/MT (blood type/antibody/match test) for pretransfusion immunohaematological testing in General Hospital “Prim. Dr. Abdulah Nakas” is achieved more rational consumption of blood and blood derivatives and financial savings through reduced number of matching tests (MT). Goal: To determine the total amount of pre-operative requisitions (BT/AB and BT/AB/MT) for blood and blood products at surgical departments of the General Hospital “Prim. Dr. Abdulah Nakas” in the period from June 1, 2014 – December 31, 2014 and analyze the consumption/return of blood in reserve in relation to the surgical disciplines, the total number of savings in MT. Conduct assessments MSBOS (Maximum Surgical Blood Ordering Schedule). Results: The total amount of preoperative requisitions for blood and blood products in surgical wards was 927 requests from which 623 demands or 67.2% is tested by BT/MT, while 304 or 32.8% was tested by BT/AB/MT. Transfused in total was 617 units of blood and blood products, 275 units were not transfused. Probability of transfusions for surgery was 51.3, the highest in the case of surgical intensive care 70.4 and the lowest for the department of general surgery 37.2%. Assessment of indicators of efficient resource management indicates they are the best at the delivery ward 0.89, while a total for surgical wards is 0.69. In total for surgery on the average were required 2.1 units of blood. By using two types of requisitions for pretransfusion immunohaematological testing (BT/AB and CG/AB/MT) is achieved more rational use of MT. In 623 requests for BT/AB only 61 MT were performed. Average of blood units issued in accordance with these requirements is 0
Henseler, O; Heiden, M; Haschberger, B; Hesse, J; Seitz, R
This report contains the data collected in 2008 and 2009, pursuant to Section 21 of the German Transfusion Act (Transfusionsgesetz), as well as an overview of the supply situation during the last 10 years. In 2009, blood donation services reported a total of 7.5 million donations--the largest amount since 2000. At the same time, more than 4.7 million red blood cell concentrates and more than 500,000 platelet concentrates were available. The number of therapeutic single plasma units decreased to 1.1 million units in 2009. The loss rate for red blood cell concentrates is still between 3% and 4% for the users, while for the manufacturers, it has decreased slightly to 1.4%. The loss rate, for platelet concentrates, on the other hand, increased in 2009, and--what is noteworthy--especially for manufacturers of pooled platelet concentrates. The loss rate for apheresis platelet concentrates accounted for 5.2% compared to 17.5% for pooled platelet concentrates. As far as the users were concerned, loss rates for platelet concentrates largely remained unchanged with rates between 5% and 6%. Based on the data collected, the supply of blood components for transfusion can be regarded as assured. Nearly 2.9 million liters of plasma for fractionation were collected in Germany in 2009. According to reports from the pharmaceutical industry, of these, 2.6 million liters remained on the German market, of which only 56% were fractionated in this country; no statement can be made on the use of the remaining amount. Many plasma derivatives are not manufactured in Germany, despite the large amount of plasma collected. The supply with these products, however, is assured by imports. Overall, 16,409 autologous and 9,435 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell preparations were manufactured in 2009, of which 3,382 allogeneic preparations were exported. A total of 3,181 autologous and 2,374 allogeneic preparations were transplanted; 187 of these products from imports. The large number of exported
Kranenburg, Floris J; Arbous, M S Sesmu; So-Osman, Cynthia; van der Bom, Johanna G
Increasing evidence on the limited usefulness and the adverse consequences of erythrocyte transfusion has led to a large drop in the number of blood transfusions over the last 20 years. The results of randomised studies suggest that in most haemodynamically stable patients with acute anaemia an Hb transfusion threshold of 4.4 mmol/l for blood transfusion has the same outcomes as a higher transfusion threshold. The effect of blood transfusion in patients with anaemia is not only dependent on their Hb level, but also on other clinical factors that play a role in the balance between oxygen supply and its consumption. The Dutch '4-5-6' rule for indication for blood transfusion takes a number of important clinical factors into account, however, results of recent research suggest that the strict application of this rule will lead to unnecessary transfusions. New research in this area is focused on the quantification of the effect of blood transfusion in various combinations of relevant patient characteristics.
Dzik, Walter Sunny; Kyeyune, Dorothy; Otekat, Grace; Natukunda, Bernard; Hume, Heather; Kasirye, Phillip G; Ddungu, Henry; Kajja, Isaac; Dhabangi, Aggrey; Mugyenyi, Godfrey R; Seguin, Claire; Barnes, Linda; Delaney, Meghan
In November 2014, a 3-day conference devoted to transfusion medicine in sub-Saharan Africa was held in Kampala, Uganda. Faculty from academic institutions in Uganda provided a broad overview of issues pertinent to transfusion medicine in Africa. The conference consisted of lectures, demonstrations, and discussions followed by 5 small group workshops held at the Uganda Blood Transfusion Service Laboratories, the Ugandan Cancer Institute, and the Mulago National Referral Hospital. Highlighted topics included the challenges posed by increasing clinical demands for blood, the need for better patient identification at the time of transfusion, inadequate application of the antiglobulin reagent during pretransfusion testing, concern regarding proper recognition and evaluation of transfusion reactions, the expanded role for nurse leadership as a means to improve patient outcomes, and the need for an epidemiologic map of blood usage in Africa. Specialty areas of focus included the potential for broader application of transcranial Doppler and hydroxyurea therapy in sickle cell disease, African-specific guidelines for transfusion support of cancer patients, the challenges of transfusion support in trauma, and the importance of African-centered clinical research in pediatric and obstetric transfusion medicine. The course concluded by summarizing the benefits derived from an organized quality program that extended from the donor to the recipient. As an educational tool, the slide-audio presentation of the lectures will be made freely available at the International Society of Blood Transfusion Academy Web site: http://www.isbtweb.org/academy/.
Roussel, P; Lassale, B
Incidents and accidents analysis is one part of risk management in healthcare organisations. It is based on methods such as healthcare process analysis and the Association of Litigation and Risk Management (ALARM) method, to understand not only immediate causes but also root causes. The goal is to implement relevant remedial and preventive actions to secure healthcare processes. The hospital's risk management unit has to be involved in the methodological analysis of every grade zero transfusion incident. The system is based on a retrospective analysis process in compliance with the French National Authority for Health's ongoing requirements for risk reactive approach, allowing to identify failures and start relevant actions. Healthcare teams should overcome difficulties in order to be totally involved in the process. Human factors recognition, establishment of clear and effective communication between individuals and critical points of control should provide optimum quality care services that are safe and free of unnecessary risks.
Fesnak, Andrew; Lin, ChieYu; Siegel, Don L; Maus, Marcela V
The use of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancies has generated significant excitement over the last several years. From a transfusion medicine perspective, the implementation of CAR-T therapy as a potential mainstay treatment for not only hematologic but also solid-organ malignancies represents a significant opportunity for growth and expansion. In this review, we will describe the rationale for the development of genetically redirected T cells as a cancer therapeutic, the different elements that are required to engineer these cells, as well as an overview of the process by which patient cells are harvested and processed to create and subsequently validate CAR-T cells. Finally, we will briefly describe some of the toxicities and clinical efficacy of CAR-T cells in the setting of patients with advanced malignancy.
Iijima, Takehiko; Okazai, Hitoshi
It is only 20 years since TRALI was clinically recognized. As it is gradually recognized among Japanese medical community, the number of cases reported is increasing gradually. In the past nine years (1997-2005), Japanese Red Cross confirmed 118 TRALI cases and 38 possible TRALI cases in Japan. Twelve TRALI cases among them occurred during or after anesthesia on the day of operation. Since acute lung injury is caused by multiple pathological factors, it is difficult to identify its main cause as transfusion. Therefore, TRALI has been underdiagnosed and underreported. Several mechanisms have been proposed. Although anti-HLA antibody, anti-HNA antibody, or other immunoreactive substances appear to be involved in developing TRALI, underlying conditions like systemic inflammation may be required for igniting TRALI Although TRALI developed in the operating theater seems to be a small fraction of whole TRALI cases, anesthesiologists should be aware of TRALI, and remember it as one of the causes of acute lung injury.
Dutcher, J.P.; Schiffer, C.A.; Johnston, G.S.; Papenburg, D.; Daly, P.A.; Aisner, J.; Wiernik, P.H.
111In-labeled granulocytes were used to study the effects of histocompatibility factors on the migration of transfused granulocytes to infected sites. Fourteen alloimmunized and 20 nonalloimmunized patients received approximately 10(8) 111In-labeled granulocytes from ABO-compatible, non-HLA-matched donors, and scans were performed over known infected sites. All 14 alloimmunized patients had lymphocytotoxic antibody (LCTAb) and required HLA-matched platelet transfusions. Of the nonalloimmunized patients, 20/20 had positive scans at sites of infection. None of the 20 had LCTAb, 0/17 had a positive lymphocytotoxic crossmatch (LCTXM) with the donor, and 3/18 had a positive leukoagglutinin crossmatch (LAXM). Thus, histocompatibility testing was not found to be important in nonalloimmunized patients. In contrast, only 3/14 alloimmunized patients had positive scans at sites of infection (p . 0.00001 compared to nonalloimmunized patients). One of 3 had a positive LCTXM and 2/3 had a positive LAXM. Of the alloimmunized patients, 10/11 with negative scans had a positive LCTXM and 8/11 had a positive LAXM. Labeled granulocytes failed to reach sites of infection in 11/14 (78%) alloimmunized patients, demonstrating that histocompatibility factors can be of major importance in affecting the outcome of granulocyte transfusions. Granulocytes from random donors are unlikely to be effective in alloimmunized patients. The lack of an adequate crossmatching technique is a major problem limiting the ability to provide granulocyte transfusions for alloimmunized patients.
Silvergleid, A J
Although there is documentation in the literature of the safety and effectiveness of predeposit autologous transfusions among adult patients contemplating surgery, there are no comparable data for preteen and teenage children. We report our experience with 180 children between the ages of 8 and 18 years participating in a community blood center-based predeposit autologous transfusion program. Children as young as 8 years old and weighing as little as 27 kg predonated a prescribed amount of blood prior to elective orthopedic (169) or plastic (11) surgery. Only four children experienced a donor reaction; none of them was severe. No child was unable to donate the prescribed number of units. Eighty-eight percent of the children were able to supply their complete blood requirements, thus avoiding exposure to homologous blood. Our experience documents both the safety and effectiveness of predeposit autologous transfusions in preteen and adolescent children and should encourage existing predeposit autologous transfusion programs to extend participation to thousands of children for whom the opportunity to use their own blood is currently denied.
Francis, Richard O.; Jhang, Jeffrey S.; Pham, Huy P.; Hod, Eldad A.; Zimring, James C.; Spitalnik, Steven L.
The hallmark of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is red blood cell (RBC) destruction in response to oxidative stress. Patients requiring RBC transfusions may simultaneously receive oxidative medications or have concurrent infections, both of which can induce hemolysis in G6PD-deficient RBCs. Although it is not routine practice to screen healthy blood donors for G6PD deficiency, case reports identified transfusion of G6PD-deficient RBCs as causing hemolysis and other adverse events. In addition, some patient populations may be more at risk for complications associated with transfusions of G6PD-deficient RBCs because they receive RBCs from donors who are more likely to have G6PD deficiency. This review discusses G6PD deficiency, its importance in transfusion medicine, changes in the RBC antioxidant system (of which G6PD is essential) during refrigerated storage, and mechanisms of hemolysis. In addition, as yet unanswered questions that could be addressed by translational and clinical studies are identified and discussed. PMID:23815264
Francis, R O; Jhang, J S; Pham, H P; Hod, E A; Zimring, J C; Spitalnik, S L
The hallmark of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is red blood cell (RBC) destruction in response to oxidative stress. Patients requiring RBC transfusions may simultaneously receive oxidative medications or have concurrent infections, both of which can induce haemolysis in G6PD-deficient RBCs. Although it is not routine practice to screen healthy blood donors for G6PD deficiency, case reports identified transfusion of G6PD-deficient RBCs as causing haemolysis and other adverse events. In addition, some patient populations may be more at risk for complications associated with transfusions of G6PD-deficient RBCs because they receive RBCs from donors who are more likely to have G6PD deficiency. This review discusses G6PD deficiency, its importance in transfusion medicine, changes in the RBC antioxidant system (of which G6PD is essential) during refrigerated storage and mechanisms of haemolysis. In addition, as yet unanswered questions that could be addressed by translational and clinical studies are identified and discussed.
products (RBC, FFP, cryoprecipitate, recombinant FVIIa [rFVIIa], apheresis platelet [aPLT], and fresh whole blood [FWB] units) administered within 24...RBC units transfused was calculated as the number of both stored RBC and FWB units transfused and plasma as FFP plus FWB units. One apheresis platelet ...calculation of apheresis platelet units transfused, though FWB has previously been shown to be as effective as 10 units of platelet concentrate.33 The
Rapaport, F.T.; Bachvaroff, R.J.; Akiyama, N.; Sato, T.
Supralethally irradiated dogs were reconstituted wth their own stored bone marrow and were challenged at various time intervals with a kidney allograft. The data suggest that transplanted bone marrow cells may participate directly in the events leading to allogenic unresponsiveness. The time interval between marrow cell replacement and kidney allotransplantation required for optimal results suggest that at least one cycle of cell turnover by the replaced stem cells is needed in order to produce unresponsiveness. Host irradiation and reconstitution with stored autologous marrow may be useful in the treatment of certain forms of cancer.
Fuzaylov, G; Anderson, R; Lee, J; Slesarenko, S; Nagaychuk, V; Grigorieva, T; Kozinec, G
One focus of improvement of burn care in Ukraine was the management of blood loss and blood transfusions in burn patients. The aim of this project was to analyze blood transfusion triggers in burn patients and outcomes at eleven major burn centers in Ukraine. This multicenter retrospective study reviewed four years of data on blood-transfused burn patients admitted to eleven major burn centers in Ukraine. Data analyzed included: demographics, characteristics of the burns, complications of burn injury, triggers for blood transfusions and outcomes. A total of 928 burn patients who received 2,693 blood transfusions from 11 major burn centers over a four-year period, were studied. Regardless of the total body surface area (TBSA) that was burned, blood transfusions were administered with a hemoglobin (Hb) trigger value of around 9 g/dL. Roughly one third (30.5%) of all transfusions were given in patients with a TBSA ≤ 10%. We demonstrated that Ukrainian doctors were using the same Hb trigger for blood transfusions for all Ukrainian burn patients, which suggested a need to change blood transfusion policy.
This article summarizes the remarkable development in the science and practice of blood transfusion during the 20 years either side of 1900, progressing through the challenges of surgical vascular access, the propensity of shed blood to clot and the more mysterious apparently arbitrary acute reactions (later revealed as due to blood group incompatibility), to describe in more detail, the developments at the Western Front, then giving a précis of the advances in the interwar years through to the mid-twentieth-century 'blood-banking'.
Maitan, Jacek; Haley, Rebecca
This project is aimed at developing a cost-effective working environment for the transfusion medicine specialists of American Red Cross (ARC). In this project we are developing a multimedia-based consultation environment that uses Internet and teleconferencing to increase the quality of services and to replace currently used 800 telephone lines. Through the use of Internet/LAN/ISDN the physicians can share information and references while they discuss patient cases. A multimedia interface allows the physician to access data from the office and from the house. This paper discusses the approach, current status of the project and future plans to extend the approach to other areas of medicine.
Smethurst, Peter A
A goal of platelet storage is to maintain the quality of platelets from the point of donation to the point of transfusion - to suspend the aging process. This effort is judged by clinical and laboratory measures with varying degrees of success. Recent work gives encouragement that platelets can be maintained ex vivo beyond the current 5 -7 day shelf life whilst maintaining their quality, as measured by posttransfusion recovery and survival. However, additional measures are needed to validate the development of technologies that may further reduce the aging of stored platelets, or enhance their hemostatic properties.
Schneider, William H
The adequacy and safety of blood transfusion in sub-Saharan Africa is the subject of much concern, yet there have been very few studies of its history. An overview of that record finds that transfusions were first reported in Africa (sub-Saharan and excluding South Africa) in the early 1920s, and organized transfusion practices were established before the Second World War. Blood transfusion grew rapidly after 1945, along with the construction of new hospitals and expanded health services in Africa. Significant differences existed between colonial powers in the organization of transfusion services, but these converged after independence as their use continued to grow and decentralized and hospital-based practices were adopted. It was only after the oil crisis in the mid-1970s that health spending declined and the collection, testing, and transfusion of blood began to level off. Thus, when the AIDS crisis hit transfusion services, they were already struggling to meet the needs of patients. At this time, foreign assistance as well as the World Health Organization and the League of Red Cross Societies helped respond to both the immediate problem of testing blood, and for some countries, support existed for the broader reorganization of transfusion. Overall, the history shows that transfusion was adopted widely and quickly, limited mainly by the availability of knowledgeable doctors and hospital facilities. There was less resistance than expected by Africans to receive transfusions, and the record shows a remarkable flexibility in obtaining blood. The dangers of disease transmission were recognized from an early date but were balanced against the potential lifesaving benefits of transfusion.
Incidence, Predictors, and Postoperative Complications of Blood Transfusion in Thoracic and Lumbar Fusion Surgery: An Analysis of 13,695 Patients from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Database.
Aoude, Ahmed; Nooh, Anas; Fortin, Maryse; Aldebeyan, Sultan; Jarzem, Peter; Ouellet, Jean; Weber, Michael H
Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Objective To identify predictive factors for blood transfusion and associated complications in lumbar and thoracic fusion surgeries. Methods The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database was used to identify patients who underwent lumbar or thoracic fusion from 2010 to 2013. Multivariate analysis was used to determine predictive factors and postoperative complications associated with transfusion. Results Out of 13,695 patients, 13,170 had lumbar fusion and 525 had thoracic fusion. The prevalence of transfusion was 31.8% for thoracic and 17.0% for lumbar fusion. The multivariate analysis showed that age between 50 and 60, age between 61 and 70, age > 70, dyspnea, American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3, bleeding disease, multilevel surgery, extended surgical time, return to operation room, and higher preoperative blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were predictors of blood transfusion for lumbar fusion. Multilevel surgery, preoperative BUN, and extended surgical time were predictors of transfusion for thoracic fusion. Patients receiving transfusions who underwent lumbar fusion were more likely to develop wound infection, venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, and myocardial infarction and had longer hospital stay. Patients receiving transfusions who underwent thoracic fusion were more likely to have extended hospital stay. Conclusion This study characterizes incidence, predictors, and postoperative complications associated with blood transfusion in thoracic and lumbar fusion. Pre- and postoperative planning for patients deemed to be at high risk of requiring blood transfusion might reduce postoperative complications in this population.
Goldberg, Joel S
Red blood cells from patients with sickle cell disease will sickle under conditions of hypoxemia and acidosis which is a similar milieu found in malignant tumors. While control of tumor angiogenesis has long been a goal of cancer therapy, selective occlusion of tumor blood supply may be achieved by transfusion of sickle cells into patients who suffer metastatic cancer. Although this potential therapy has not been previously reported in the medical literature, the concept may have been elusive to medical mainstream thinking because it requires transfusion of diseased cells. For this therapy to be effective, other environmental factors may need to be manipulated such inducing mild hypoxemia or hypercarbia (respiratory acidosis) to induce red cell sickling. Preliminary evidence supportive of this therapeutic approach to cancer treatment is provided by case evidence that sickle cell occlusion of a malignant brain tumor (glioma) produced tumor necrosis. Also sickle cells have been successfully transfused into primates. Furthermore, donor blood is crossmatched and transfused into patients suffering from sickle cell disease regularly in clinics and this procedure is associated with acceptable morbidity. Most importantly, animal models of sickle cell disease and cancer currently exist, and this theory could be tried with available technologies including ultrasound detection of vaso-occlusion. While the proposed therapy may not cure metastatic cancer, this treatment could prove useful for decreasing the size and perhaps the pain from metastatic tumor burden. Therefore, it is hypothesized that ABO Rh compatible crossmatched sickle cells transfused into patients who suffer metastatic cancer under controlled conditions of blood oxygenation and pH will selectively produce vaso-occlusive infarcts in malignant tumors and be a useful therapy. The author hopes for further investigations.
Kumar, Ramesh; Sedky, Mohammed Jaber; Varghese, Sunny Joseph; Sharawy, Osama Ebrahim
Transfusion related acute Lung injury (TRALI) though a serious blood transfusion reaction with a fatality rate of 5-25 % presents with acute respiratory distress with hypoxaemia and noncardiac pulmonary oedema within 6 h of transfusion. In non fatal cases, it may resolve within 72 h or earlier. Although reported with an incidence of 1:5000, its true occurrence is rather unknown. Pathogenesis is believed to be related to sequestration and adhesion of neutrophils to the pulmonary capillary endothelium and its activation leading to its destruction and leaks. The patient's underlying condition, anti-neutrophil antibody in the transfused donor plasma and certain lipids that accumulate in routinely stores blood and components are important in its aetiopathogenesis. Patient's predisposing conditions include haematological malignancy, major surgery (especially cardiac), trauma and infections. The more commonly incriminated products include fresh frozen plasma (FFP), platelets (whole blood derived and apheresis), whole blood and Packed RBC. Occasional cases involving cryoprecipitate and Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVig) have also been reported. We present a 15 year single institution experience of TRALI, during which we observed 9 cases among 170,871 transfusions, giving an incidence of 1:19,000. We did not encounter cases of haematological malignancy or cardiac surgery in our TRALI patients. Among the blood products, that could be related to TRALI in our patients included solitary cases receiving cryoprecipitate, IVIg, and recombinant Factor VII apart from platelets and FFP. All patients were treated with oxygen support. Six patients required mechanical ventilation. Off label hydrocortisone was given to all patients. There were no cases of fatality among our patients.
Anderson, L J
An increased awareness of the potential to be harmed by blood transfusions has come with the AIDS crisis. Patients and health care providers alike are concerned with the complications of a transfusion, and various alternatives to traditional transfusion therapy have emerged. They include autologous transfusions, directed donations, and outright refusals of transfusion therapy. This article examines the medical-legal considerations that accompany a decision to transfuse. Various legal theories used in cases where persons injured by transfusions have sought legal redress and the outcomes of those cases will be examined. The question of whether directed donations are a reasonable alternative to traditional transfusion therapy will also be explored.
Lum, Lucy Chai See; Abdel-Latif, Mohammad El-Amin; Goh, Adrian Yu Teik; Chan, Patrick Wai Keong; Lam, Sai Kit
We compared 53 patients with Dengue shock syndrome (DSS) who received preventive transfusions with 53 who did not. Significant differences in the development of pulmonary edema and length of hospitalization (P<.05) and none in hemorrhage (P=.136) were observed. Preventive transfusions did not produce sustained improvements in the coagulation status in DSS.
Diabetes mellitus is one of the commonest medical conditions affecting humans. However, knowledge of diabetes mellitus in the context of blood transfusion is lacking. In this article, the eligibility of people with diabetes as donors, issues faced during blood component transfusion to diabetics and impaired glucose tolerance among chronic blood recipients will be discussed, along with discussion of the present state of evidence.
Smit-Sibinga, C T
Quality management is an ongoing development resulting in consistency products and services and ever increasing customer satisfaction. The ultimum is Total Quality Management. Quality systems and quality management in transfusion medicine have gained considerable attention since the outbreak of the AIDS epidemic. Where product orientation has long been applied through quality control, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) principles were introduced, shifting the developments in the direction of process orientation. Globally, and particularly in the more industrialised world people and system orientation has come along with the introduction of the ISO9001 concept. Harmonisation and a degree of uniformity are needed to implement a universally applicable Quality System and related Quality Management. Where the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) is the professional organisation with the most extensive experience in quality systems in blood transfusion, the European Union and the Council of Europe now are in the process to design a quality system and management applicable to a larger variety of countries, based on a hybrid of current GMP and ISO9001 principles. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies has developed a more universally to implement Quality Manual, with a pilot project in Honduras. It is recommendable to harmonise the various designs and bring the approaches under one common denominator.
Nydegger, Urs E; Luginbühl, Martin; Risch, Martin
In this review the different mechanisms of aging and frailty such as DNA defects due to impaired DNA repair, inflammatory processes, disturbances of oxidative phosphorylation are discussed together with mechanisms of cell repair. Components of blood plasma, such as the growth-differentiation protein GDF11, were shown to enhance neurogenesis and to improve the vasculature in the animal cortex and to rejuvenate muscle tissue. Advances in laboratory assays allow to identify plasma proteins that may affect tissue regeneration. This new knowledge from animal research might affect transfusion practice in geriatric patients in the future. Provided it can be translated and confirmed in human research, blood products might no longer be considered only as oxygen carriers or drugs to improve hemostasis. In the present time blood transfusion (RBCs, plasma or platelets) should be directed by differentiated guidelines considering not only cut-off values of hemoglobin, platelet count or coagulation but also old age-specific biologic variation, comorbidities and the clinical context e.g. of bleeding.
Sharma, Gaurav; Parwani, Anil V.; Raval, Jay S.; Triulzi, Darrell J.; Benjamin, Richard J.; Pantanowitz, Liron
The Transfusion Medicine Service (TMS) covers diverse clinical and laboratory-based services that must be delivered with accuracy, efficiency and reliability. TMS oversight is shared by multiple regulatory agencies that cover product manufacturing and validation standards geared toward patient safety. These demands present significant informatics challenges. Over the past few decades, TMS information systems have improved to better handle blood product manufacturing, inventory, delivery, tracking and documentation. Audit trails and access to electronic databases have greatly facilitated product traceability and biovigilance efforts. Modern blood bank computing has enabled novel applications such as the electronic crossmatch, kiosk-based blood product delivery systems, and self-administered computerized blood donor interview and eligibility determination. With increasing use of barcoding technology, there has been a marked improvement in patient and specimen identification. Moreover, the emergence of national and international labeling standards such as ISBT 128 have facilitated the availability, movement and tracking of blood products across national and international boundaries. TMS has only recently begun to leverage the electronic medical record to address quality issues in transfusion practice and promote standardized documentation within institutions. With improved technology, future growth is expected in blood bank automation and product labeling with applications such as radio frequency identification devices. This article reviews several of these key informatics issues relevant to the contemporary practice of TMS. PMID:21383927
Chand, N Kiran; Subramanya, H Bala; Rao, G Venkateswara
A small group of people belonging to a certain religion, called Jehovah's witness do not accept blood transfusion or blood products, based on biblical readings. When such group of people are in need of health care, their faith and belief is an obstacle for their proper treatment, and poses legal, ethical and medical challenges for attending health care provider. Due to the rapid growth in the membership of this group worldwide, physicians attending hospitals should be prepared to manage such patients. Appropriate management of such patients entails understanding of ethical and legal issues involved, providing meticulous medical management, use of prohaemostatic agents, essential interventions and techniques to reduce blood loss and hence, reduce the risk of subsequent need for blood transfusion. An extensive literature search was performed using search engines such as Google scholar, PubMed, MEDLINE, science journals and textbooks using keywords like ‘Jehovah's witness’, ‘blood haemodilution’, ‘blood salvage’ and ‘blood substitutes’. PMID:25535432
Massenet, D; Bouh, A
Blood transfusion in Djibouti is organized with reference to relevant French regulation and the recommendations of the World Health Organization. The system is basically family donor system operating on the principle of one tested unit of blood for every two untested units donated. Spontaneous donations mainly from the police and army personnel account for only 20% of the 2500 units collected each year. The principle blood products are adult whole blood, adult red cells, and fresh frozen plasma. Products are distributed after viral and microbial testing for infectious disease. Overall the percentage of blood products that are not released due to detection of infectious agents is 17.5%. This rate is well correlated with the incidence of hepatitis B (15.5%), HIV infection (3.4%), hepatitis C (1.5%) and syphilis (0.4%) in Djibouti. The greatest demand for whole blood comes from medical departments where indigent people are treated for anemia due to dietary deficiency. Contamination by HIV present at undetectable levels at the time of testing is a serious problem. Measures should be taken to prevent anemia due to dietary deficiency and develop the use of autologous transfusion.
Takata, Y; Kurokawa, H; Fukuda, J
Transfusion transmitted virus (TTV) is a new DNA virus found in patients with post-transfusion hepatitis. The prevalence of this virus among dental patients has not been reported, therefore, the prevalence of TTV infection in consecutive dental inpatients was evaluated. TTV DNA was assayed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 441 dental inpatients with oral cancer (n=192) or oral cysts (n=249). The serum HBs antigen and HCV antibody as well as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GTP) concentrations were also measured. Of 441 subjects, 137 were infected with TTV (31.1%). This prevalence of TTV was much higher than that of HBV or HCV (HBV 1.2%; HCV 6.0%) in these dental patients. There was no gender or age difference in the prevalence of TTV infection. Of the 192 patients with oral cancer, 57 subjects had TTV in their sera, while 80 of 249 with oral cystic disease had TTV. The prevalence of TTV was similar between the two different disease groups. Neither the serum ALT nor serum AST concentrations were different between the subjects positive and negative for TTV DNA. In hospitalized dental patients, 31.1% were infected with TTV. The prevalence of TTV was much higher than that of HBV or HCV. There was no difference in the prevalence of TTV between subjects with cancer and cysts. Dentists should maintain high standards of infection control when treating any dental patient.
Suzuki, M.M.; Cooper, E.L.; Eyambe, G.S.; Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Venables, B.J. |
Coelomocytes of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris caused significant spontaneous allogeneic cytotoxicity in a 24-h trypan blue assay, but not in an assay using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Allogeneic cytotoxicity assays using cells from worms exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) suggest that PCBs can suppress a natural killing (NK-like) reaction. The implications of this work are twofold: understanding the evolution of natural killing (NK-like) activity and providing preliminary information on how spontaneous killing, a component of cellular immunity, may be compromised by pollutants.
Hardie, Ian D; Rooney, Catherine
The Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service (SNBTS) originated in Edinburgh in the 1920's by dentist Jack Copland. Since that time the scope of Transfusion Medicine has broadened significantly to accommodate advances in technologies such as cell isolation, culture and manipulation. Many transfusion services, including SNBTS, now provide expertise both in the traditional field of blood transfusion and the newer, wider field of human cell (including 'adult' and embryonic stem cells) and tissue procurement and culture - in all the new science of "regenerative medicine". This paper describes the importance of Intellectual Property in the provision of Transfusion Medicine today and provides guidance on the management of Intellectual Property so that advances in the field have the best chance of successful translation into clinical practice.
Patients who have had blood transfusions whilst in hospital must have this information communicated to their General Practitioner at discharge. Audit demonstrated that just 50% of patients (n=15) under medical specialties who had undergone a blood transfusion had this information included in their discharge letter. To improve this, a section was specifically designated on the e-discharge pro-forma for the documentation of blood transfusion events, and focused teaching was delivered to all new FY1 doctors at their induction. Post intervention, 80% of blood transfusions occurring in medical patients were documented on the e-discharge, with an improvement in how detailed this documentation was (n=40). This simple intervention is an easily reproducible, cost neutral method of ensuring that more blood transfusion events are communicated to patients' GPs; improving care and reducing risk.
Murphree, Dennis; Ngufor, Che; Upadhyaya, Sudhindra; Madde, Nagesh; Clifford, Leanne; Kor, Daryl J.; Pathak, Jyotishman
Of the 21 million blood components transfused in the United States during 2011, approximately 1 in 414 resulted in complication . Two complications in particular, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), are especially concerning. These two alone accounted for 62% of reported transfusion-related fatalities in 2013 . We have previously developed a set of machine learning base models for predicting the likelihood of these adverse reactions, with a goal towards better informing the clinician prior to a transfusion decision. Here we describe recent work incorporating ensemble learning approaches to predicting TACO/TRALI. In particular we describe combining base models via majority voting, stacking of model sets with varying diversity, as well as a resampling/boosting combination algorithm called RUSBoost. We find that while the performance of many models is very good, the ensemble models do not yield significantly better performance in terms of AUC. PMID:26737958
Colebunders, R; Greenberg, A E; Francis, H; Kabote, N; Izaley, L; Nguyen-Dinh, P; Quinn, T C; Van der Groen, G; Curran, J W; Piot, P
Three children are described in whom pre-transfusion samples were HIV-seronegative and post-transfusional samples, obtained within 1 week after transfusion, were HIV-seropositive. Two of them developed a transient fever within 1 week of receiving the blood transfusion, and a transient generalized skin eruption which lasted for about 2 weeks. All three developed persistent generalized lymphadenopathy. One child developed a lumbar herpes zoster 7 months after transfusion. IgM Western blots demonstrated the presence of antibodies to protein bands p17, p24 and p55 in all three children. These three case reports suggest that children who receive a seropositive blood transfusion are at high risk for developing acute manifestations of HIV infection.
Hirani, Rena; Balogh, Zsolt J; Lott, Natalie J; Hsu, Jeremy M; Irving, David O
Despite the introduction of leukodepleted blood components, it has been shown that donor leukocyte engraftment (microchimerism) remains a long-term consequence of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. The incidence of microchimerism may be affected by international disparities in blood processing methods or variations in transfusion practices. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of microchimerism in Australian trauma patients. A secondary aim was to examine whether any patient complications correlated to the incidence of microchimerism. Australian trauma patients (n = 86) who had been transfused with red blood cell (RBC) units between 2000 and 2012 with an injury severity score (ISS) of greater than 15 were recruited. The prevalence of microchimerism was determined using genetic screening with a panel of insertion/deletion biallelic polymorphisms. The mean storage age of the transfused RBC units was 20 ± 8 days and the mean length of stay (LOS) in hospital was 40 ± 39 days. There were no significant associations in this study sample to bias for patient age, gender, number of transfused RBC units or ISS. Nine of the 55 (16.3%) patients transfused with non-leukodepleted blood components displayed an incidence of microchimerism. Of the 31 patients transfused with leukodepleted RBC units, 3 (9.6%) displayed an incidence of microchimerism. Therefore, despite the universal introduction of leukodepleted blood components in Australia, the prevalence of transfusion-associated microchimerism was found to be unchanged. Furthermore, half of the patients exhibiting microchimerism were recorded to have had splenic injury or required splenectomy at the time of transfusion.
Hirani, Rena; Balogh, Zsolt J; Lott, Natalie J; Hsu, Jeremy M; Irving, David O
Despite the introduction of leukodepleted blood components, it has been shown that donor leukocyte engraftment (microchimerism) remains a long-term consequence of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. The incidence of microchimerism may be affected by international disparities in blood processing methods or variations in transfusion practices. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of microchimerism in Australian trauma patients. A secondary aim was to examine whether any patient complications correlated to the incidence of microchimerism. Australian trauma patients (n = 86) who had been transfused with red blood cell (RBC) units between 2000 and 2012 with an injury severity score (ISS) of greater than 15 were recruited. The prevalence of microchimerism was determined using genetic screening with a panel of insertion/deletion biallelic polymorphisms. The mean storage age of the transfused RBC units was 20 ± 8 days and the mean length of stay (LOS) in hospital was 40 ± 39 days. There were no significant associations in this study sample to bias for patient age, gender, number of transfused RBC units or ISS. Nine of the 55 (16.3%) patients transfused with non-leukodepleted blood components displayed an incidence of microchimerism. Of the 31 patients transfused with leukodepleted RBC units, 3 (9.6%) displayed an incidence of microchimerism. Therefore, despite the universal introduction of leukodepleted blood components in Australia, the prevalence of transfusion-associated microchimerism was found to be unchanged. Furthermore, half of the patients exhibiting microchimerism were recorded to have had splenic injury or required splenectomy at the time of transfusion. PMID:26252809
Aydin, Cemalettin; Ince, Volkan; Otan, Emrah; Akbulut, Sami; Koc, Cemalettin; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai
Allogeneic vascular grafts are often required for vascular reconstruction during living donor liver transplantation. Such grafts are obtained prior to use, making storage conditions a critical issue for maintaining the integrity of the tissue to ensure a successful transplantation. This study describes an optimized storage protocol currently in use at a high-volume liver transplant center. Twenty-nine allogeneic vascular graft tissues obtained during cardiovascular surgery or from cadaveric donors were stored respectively in sterile 50 mL of Ringer lactate solution, without any preservation solutions or antimicrobials, at −22°C for a maximum of 3 months. Prior to use in vascular reconstruction, grafts were thawed in 0.9% NaCl solution at 37°C, and 1 × 0.5-cm2 tissue samples were collected for microbial culturing and viral serology. ABO compatibility was not performed for any patients receiving vascular grafts. During this prospective study, all 29 allogeneic vascular grafts were used for back-table vascular reconstruction in living donor liver transplantation procedures. A total of 16 grafts were from the saphenous vein, 10 were from the iliac vein, and 3 were from the iliac artery. Bacterial growth was not detected in any tissue samples taken from the stored grafts. No vascular graft-related complications occurred during the 5 months of follow-up. The successful vascular reconstructions achieved with all 29 study grafts demonstrate that the simple, inexpensive storage method described herein is feasible and safe. Randomized, controlled studies should be carried out to further optimize and standardize the technique. PMID:23701155
Aydin, Cemalettin; Ince, Volkan; Otan, Emrah; Akbulut, Sami; Koc, Cemalettin; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai
Allogeneic vascular grafts are often required for vascular reconstruction during living donor liver transplantation. Such grafts are obtained prior to use, making storage conditions a critical issue for maintaining the integrity of the tissue to ensure a successful transplantation. This study describes an optimized storage protocol currently in use at a high-volume liver transplant center. Twenty-nine allogeneic vascular graft tissues obtained during cardiovascular surgery or from cadaveric donors were stored respectively in sterile 50 mL of Ringer lactate solution, without any preservation solutions or antimicrobials, at -22°C for a maximum of 3 months. Prior to use in vascular reconstruction, grafts were thawed in 0.9% NaCl solution at 37°C, and 1 × 0.5-cm(2) tissue samples were collected for microbial culturing and viral serology. ABO compatibility was not performed for any patients receiving vascular grafts. During this prospective study, all 29 allogeneic vascular grafts were used for back-table vascular reconstruction in living donor liver transplantation procedures. A total of 16 grafts were from the saphenous vein, 10 were from the iliac vein, and 3 were from the iliac artery. Bacterial growth was not detected in any tissue samples taken from the stored grafts. No vascular graft-related complications occurred during the 5 months of follow-up. The successful vascular reconstructions achieved with all 29 study grafts demonstrate that the simple, inexpensive storage method described herein is feasible and safe. Randomized, controlled studies should be carried out to further optimize and standardize the technique.
Peranteau, William H; Hayashi, Satoshi; Abdulmalik, Osheiza; Chen, Qiukan; Merchant, Aziz; Asakura, Toshio; Flake, Alan W
Sickle cell disease (SCD) and thalassemias (Thal) are common congenital disorders, which can be diagnosed early in gestation and result in significant morbidity and mortality. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the only curative therapy for SCD and Thal, is limited by the absence of matched donors and treatment-related toxicities. In utero hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (IUHCT) is a novel nonmyeloablative transplant approach that takes advantage of the immunologic immaturity and normal developmental properties of the fetus to achieve mixed allogeneic chimerism and donor-specific tolerance (DST). We hypothesized that a combined strategy of IUHCT to induce DST, followed by postnatal nonmyeloablative same donor "booster" bone marrow (BM) transplants in murine models of SCD and Thal would result in high levels of allogeneic engraftment and donor hemoglobin (Hb) expression with subsequent phenotypic correction of SCD and Thal. Our results show that: (1) IUHCT is associated with DST and low levels of allogeneic engraftment in the murine SCD and Thal models; (2) low-level chimerism following IUHCT can be enhanced to high-level chimerism and near complete Hb replacement with normal donor Hb with this postnatal "boosting" strategy; and (3) high-level chimerism following IUHCT and postnatal "boosting" results in phenotypic correction in the murine Thal and SCD models. This study supports the potential of IUHCT, combined with a postnatal nonmyelablative "boosting" strategy, to cure Thal and SCD without the toxic conditioning currently required for postnatal transplant regimens while expanding the eligible transplant patient population due to the lack of a restricted donor pool.
Valton, Julien; Guyot, Valérie; Marechal, Alan; Filhol, Jean-Marie; Juillerat, Alexandre; Duclert, Aymeric; Duchateau, Philippe; Poirot, Laurent
The adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell represents a highly promising strategy to fight against multiple cancers. The clinical outcome of such therapies is intimately linked to the ability of effector cells to engraft, proliferate, and specifically kill tumor cells within patients. When allogeneic CAR T-cell infusion is considered, host versus graft and graft versus host reactions must be avoided to prevent rejection of adoptively transferred cells, host tissue damages and to elicit significant antitumoral outcome. This work proposes to address these three requirements through the development of multidrug-resistant T cell receptor αβ-deficient CAR T cells. We demonstrate that these engineered T cells displayed efficient antitumor activity and proliferated in the presence of purine and pyrimidine nucleoside analogues, currently used in clinic as preconditioning lymphodepleting regimens. The absence of TCRαβ at their cell surface along with their purine nucleotide analogues-resistance properties could prevent their alloreactivity and enable them to resist to lymphodepleting regimens that may be required to avoid their ablation via HvG reaction. By providing a basic framework to develop a universal T cell compatible with allogeneic adoptive transfer, this work is laying the foundation stone of the large-scale utilization of CAR T-cell immunotherapies. PMID:26061646
Prevalence and risk factors vary by geographic location and by the specific TTI (including HIV-1, HBV, HCV and HTLV -I) Objective To determine the prevalence... HTLV -I infection HIV infection was associated only with total number of traxlsfuslon units received Conclusions High prevalences of HBV and HCV...Multi-transfused, HIV-1, HBV, HCV, HTLV -I, Epldemmlogy 1. Introduction The worldwide dlstnbunon of hepanns C wrus (HCV) mfecnon includes 170 mflhon
Nash, Richard A.; McSweeney, Peter A.; Nelson, J. Lee; Wener, Mark; Georges, George E.; Langston, Amelia A.; Shulman, Howard; Sullivan, Keith M.; Lee, Julie; Henstorf, Gretchen; Storb, Rainer; Furst, Daniel E.
Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) after myeloablative conditioning in patients with severe systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods Eligibility criteria for the study included SSc patients with features indicative of a poor prognosis. The myeloablative conditioning regimen included busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and antithymocyte globulin. Prophylaxis for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) consisted of cyclosporine and methotrexate. Bone marrow was transplanted from HLA-identical siblings. Results Two patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc and lung involvement who were refractory to conventional immunosuppressive treatment were enrolled in the study. In patient 1, there were no complications related to the conditioning regimen, and GVHD did not develop after transplantation. At 5 years after HCT, there was nearly complete resolution of the scleroderma and marked improvement in physical functioning. Internal organ function improved (lung) or remained stable. On examination of serial skin biopsy samples, there was resolution of the dermal fibrosis. Patient 2 experienced skin toxicity from the conditioning regimen and hypertensive crisis that was likely related to high-dose corticosteroids given for treatment of GVHD. Although this patient experienced an improvement in scleroderma and overall functioning, a fatal opportunistic infection developed 17 months after HCT. Conclusion Allogeneic HCT may result in sustained remission of SSc. GVHD and opportunistic infections are the major risks associated with allogeneic HCT for SSc, as for allogeneic HCT in general. PMID:16732546
Díaz-García, César; Akhi, Shamima N; Wallin, Ann; Pellicer, Antonio; Brännström, Mats
Uterus transplantation may become the first available treatment for uterine factor infertility, which is due to the absence or malfunction of the uterus. Here we describe for the first time pregnancy after allogeneic uterus transplantation, as a proof of concept of uterine function in a transplanted uterus in a standardized animal model (rat) under immunosuppression.
after allogeneic HSCT without compromising the graft-versus- leukemia (GVL) effect. Using deep sequencing of the T-cell receptor beta chain (TCRB...application was funded - “The role of surface NKG2D expression by NK cells in the graft-versus- leukemia response”. In addition I recently participated as
Bulanov, A Iu
Acute transfusion-associated lung injury (TRALI) is an acute lung injury associated with and develops within 6 hours after the transfusion of components and blood preparations. Today there are no uniform views on the pathogenesis of TRALI. The discussion of immune and non-immune mechanisms is relevant. The key link of the former is that the presence of anti-leukocytic antibodies in a donor or a recipient and their interaction during transfusion with the leukocytes of the recipient or the donor, respectively; that of the latter link is the accumulation of biologically active substances in the transfusion media during storage and their passive administration to the recipient during transfusion. In both cases, the total link is drastic increased pulmonary capillary permeability. The clinical presentation of TRALI is nonspecific and generally similar to that of the adult respiratory distress syndrome and lung injuries of another genesis. It is necessary to make its differential diagnosis with allergic reactions, the transfusion of bacterially contaminated media and mainly with circulatory overload. Specific treatments for transfusion-associated lung injury are unavailable. Diferent variants of respiratory therapy are effective. Prevention of TRALI is mainly based on its immune mechanism. The leading direction of its prevention is to select donors.
Piaia, Marcelo; Bub, Carolina Bonet; Succi, Guilherme de Menezes; Torres, Margareth; Costa, Thiago Henrique; Pinheiro, Fabricio Costa; Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique
According to the Brazilian Association of Organ Transplants, in 2015, 19,408 bone transplants were performed in Brazil, over 90% by Dental Surgeons. The surgical technique itself has a respectable number of reports regarding its clinical efficacy, as measured by long-term survival of dental implants in grafted areas. Uncertainty remains, however, as to whether fresh frozen grafts from human bone donors remain immunologically innocuous in the body of the host. Six male with no previous medical history of note, including systemic diseases, surgery or blood transfusion were selected. These patients underwent reconstructive procedures (sinus lifting) using fresh frozen human bone from a tissue bank. All patients had venous blood samples collected prior to surgery and 6 months after the procedure. Anti-HLA analysis for the detection of HLA (human leukocyte antigen) antibodies was performed using methods such as the LABScreen PRA Class I and Class II, LABScreen Single Antigen Class I and Class II, Luminex Platform. Reactive individuals to the screening tests (LABScreen PRA) were further investigated to determine the specificity of the antibodies detected (LABScreen Single Antigen) with a cutoff value of median fluorescence intensity ≥500. As a result, it was observed that two patients (33%) were positive in screening tests, one presenting with anti-HLA Class I and II sensitization and the other with anti-HLA class II. The specificity analysis showed that the patients sensitized to HLA class II presented 4 specificities, 3 of which immunologically relevant. In the second individual, 23 specificities were identified, 6 of which immunologically important for HLA class I and 4 specificities for HLA class II, 3 of these were immunologically important. All specificities detected had average fluorescence. These findings are suggestive that sinus-lifting procedures with allogeneic bone can induce immunological sensitization.
Kröger, Nicolaus; Zabelina, Tatjana; Alchalby, Haefaa; Stübig, Thomas; Wolschke, Christine; Ayuk, Francis; von Hünerbein, Natascha; Kvasnicka, Hans-Michael; Thiele, Jürgen; Kreipe, Hans-Heinrich; Büsche, Guntram
We correlate regression of bone marrow fibrosis (BMF) on day 30 and 100 after dose- reduced allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) in 57 patients with primary or post-essential thrombocythemia/polycythemia vera myelofibrosis with graft function and survival. The distribution of International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) risk score categories was 1 patient with low risk, 5 patients with intermediate-1 risk, 18 patients with intermediate-2 risk, and 33 patients with high risk. Before allo-SCT, 41 patients (72%) were classified as XXX [myclofibrosis (MF)]-3 and 16 (28%) were classified as MF-2 according to the World Health Organization criteria. At postengraftment day +30 (±10 days), 21% of the patients had near-complete or complete regression of BMF (MF-0/-1), and on day +100 (±20 days), 54% were MF-0/-1. The 5-year overall survival rate at day +100 was 96% in patients with MF-0/-1 and 57% for those with MF-2/-3 (P = .04). There was no difference in BMF regression at day +100 between IPSS high-risk and low/intermediate-risk patients. Complete donor cell chimerism at day +100 was seen in 81% of patients with MF-0/-1 and in 31% of those with MF-2/-3. Patients with MF-2/-3 at day +100 were more likely to be transfusion-dependent for either RBCs (P = .014) or platelets (P = .018). Rapid BMF regression after reduced-intensity conditioning allo-SCT resulted in a favorable survival independent of IPSS risk score at transplantation.
Kaufman, Richard M.; Assmann, Susan F.; Triulzi, Darrell J.; Strauss, Ronald G.; Ness, Paul; Granger, Suzanne; Slichter, Sherrill J.
BACKGROUND How platelet (PLT) product characteristics such as dose, source (whole blood-derived (WBD) vs. apheresis), storage duration, and ABO matching status affect the risks of transfusion-related adverse events (TRAEs) is unclear. Similarly, more information is needed to define how recipient characteristics affect the frequency of TRAEs following PLT transfusion. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS In the multicenter Platelet Dose (“PLADO”) study, pediatric and adult hematology-oncology patients with hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia were randomized to receive low-dose (LD), medium-dose (MD), or high-dose (HD) PLT prophylaxis for a pre-transfusion PLT count ≤10,000/μL. All PLT units (apheresis or WBD) were leukoreduced. Post hoc analyses of PLADO data were performed using multi-predictor models. RESULTS 5034 PLT transfusions to 1102 patients were analyzed. A TRAE occurred with 501 PLT transfusions (10.0%). The most common TRAEs were fever (6.6% of transfusions), allergic/hypersensitivity reactions (1.9%), and sinus tachycardia (1.8%). Patients assigned HD PLTs were more likely than LD or MD patients to experience any TRAE (OR for HD vs. MD 1.50, 95% CI (1.10, 2.05), three-group comparison p=0.02). PLT source and ABO matching status were not significantly related to overall TRAE risk. Compared to a patient’s first PLT transfusion, subsequent PLT transfusions were less likely to have a TRAE reported, primarily due to a lower risk of allergic/hypersensitivity reactions. CONCLUSION The most important PLT unit characteristic associated with TRAEs was PLT dose per transfusion. HD PLTs may increase the risk of TRAEs, and LD PLTs may reduce the risk. PMID:25065959
Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Hassall, Oliver; Faragher, Brian E.; Kajja, Isaac; Mvere, David A.; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus
Background There are limited published data on the characteristics of blood transfusion recipients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the demographic characteristics of blood transfusion recipients and patterns of blood and blood component use in Zimbabwe. Materials and methods Data on the characteristics of the blood transfusion recipients (age, sex, blood group), blood components received (type, quantity), discharge diagnoses and outcomes following transfusion (discharge status, duration of stay in hospital), were retrospectively collected from four major hospitals for the period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012. Diagnoses were grouped into broad categories according to the disease headings of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Surgical procedures were grouped into broad categories according to organ system using ICD-9. Results Most of the 1,793 transfusion recipients studied were female (63.2%) and in the reproductive age group, i.e. 15–49 years (65.3%). The median age of the recipients was 33 years (range, 0–93). The majority of these recipients (n=1,642; 91.6%) received a red blood cell transfusion. The majority of the patients were diagnosed with conditions related to pregnancy and childbirth (22.3%), and diseases of blood and blood-forming organs (17.7%). The median time spent in hospital was 8 days (range, 0–214) and in-hospital mortality was 15.4%. Discussion Our sample of blood transfusion recipients were fairly young and most of them received red blood cell transfusions. The majority of patients in the reproductive age group received blood transfusions for pregnancy and childbirth-related diagnoses. PMID:26192782
Chan, Kwok Ying; Leung, Rock Yuk Yan; Cheung, Ka Chi; Lam, Clarence; Koo, Eleanor; Ng, Sylvia
Objectives: It is quite common to have advanced cancer or end-stage renal disease patients for regular or even frequent blood transfusion in palliative care. However, due to geographical reason in some hospice centers, blood transfusion is sometimes difficult if blood bank is closed during non-office hour or not available. Methods: Here, we reported a new blood releasing system, that is, remote blood releasing system, that could be used safely by nursing staff alone when the blood bank was closed during the night time and holiday. Results: On-call nursing staff could collect red cells successful in these two cases. Conclusion: The new blood releasing system seems useful. However, larger sample sizes and longer period of study are required to estimate its efficacy and safety. The provision of antibody-positive red cells and platelet remained a limitation of this system. PMID:27489720
Lemyre, Brigitte; Sample, Megan; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry
Reducing blood loss and the need for blood transfusions in extremely preterm infants is part of effective care. Delayed cord clamping is well supported by the evidence and is recommended for infants who do not immediately require resuscitation. Cord milking may be an alternative to delayed cord clamping; however, more research is needed to support its use. In view of concerns regarding the increased risk for cognitive delay, clinicians should avoid using hemoglobin transfusion thresholds lower than those tested in clinical trials. Higher transfusion volumes (15 mL/kg to 20 mL/kg) may decrease exposure to multiple donors. Erythropoietin is not recommended for routine use due to concerns about retinopathy of prematurity. Elemental iron supplementation (2 mg/kg/day to 3 mg/kg/day once full oral feeds are achieved) is recommended to prevent later iron deficiency anemia. Noninvasive monitoring (eg, for carbon dioxide, bilirubin) and point-of-care testing reduce the need for blood sampling. Clinicians should strive to order the minimal amount of blood sampling required for safe patient care, and cluster samplings to avoid unnecessary skin breaks. PMID:26744559
Shah, Siddharth; Huang, Xiaosong; Cheng, Linzhao
Blood transfusion is a common procedure in modern medicine, and it is practiced throughout the world; however, many countries report a less than sufficient blood supply. Even in developed countries where the supply is currently adequate, projected demographics predict an insufficient supply as early as 2050. The blood supply is also strained during occasional widespread disasters and crises. Transfusion of blood components such as red blood cells (RBCs), platelets, or neutrophils is increasingly used from the same blood unit for multiple purposes and to reduce alloimmune responses. Even for RBCs and platelets lacking nuclei and many antigenic cell-surface molecules, alloimmunity could occur, especially in patients with chronic transfusion requirements. Once alloimmunization occurs, such patients require RBCs from donors with a different blood group antigen combination, making it a challenge to find donors after every successive episode of alloimmunization. Alternative blood substitutes such as synthetic oxygen carriers have so far proven unsuccessful. In this review, we focus on current research and technologies that permit RBC production ex vivo from hematopoietic stem cells, pluripotent stem cells, and immortalized erythroid precursors.
Roberts, David J; Field, Stephen; Delaney, Meghan; Bates, Imelda
A safe supply of blood and the knowledge, skill, and resources for the appropriate use of blood are essential for medical services. Many problems are faced in the development of transfusion services in low- or medium-income countries (LMICs). Unfortunately, in many countries, providing safe blood is made more difficult by a lack of blood donors and the high frequency of transfusion-transmissible infections. The problems are compounded by the frequent need for urgent life-saving transfusions. This article examines the problems in supply, safety, and use of blood and how they are being addressed in LMICs, predominantly focusing on sub-Saharan Africa.
Rappeport, J.M. )
The clinical pathologic syndrome of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is usually a sequela of bone marrow transplantation. This disorder occurs as a result of recognition by engrafted donor-derived lymphocytes of foreign recipient transplantation antigens. GVHD may also result from engraftment of lymphocytes from other sources, including (1) transfusion of lymphocytes containing blood components, (2) transplacental maternal fetal transfusion, and (3) passive transfer of lymphocytes in solid organ transplantation. The recipients are usually severely immunodeficient and thus incapable of rejecting the transfused lymphocytes. This syndrome may, however, also develop in immunologically competent patients receiving blood products from individuals with histocompatibility antigens not recognized as foreign. 58 refs.
Pisani, Giulio; Cristiano, Karen; Pupella, Simonetta; Liumbruno, Giancarlo Maria
Summary West Nile virus (WNV) has become an increasing issue in the transfusion setting since 2002, when it was firstly shown in the USA that it can be transmitted through blood transfusion. Since then, several precautionary measures have been introduced in Europe in order to reduce the possible risk of transmission via transfusion/solid organ transplantation. In addition, the epidemiological surveillance has been tightened and the network for communication of human WNV cases strengthened. This review will focus on WNV circulation and the safety of blood in Europe. PMID:27403087
Fastman, Barbara Rabin; Kaplan, Harold S
The phrase "patient safety" represents freedom from accidental or preventable harm due to events occurring in the healthcare setting. Practitioners aim to reduce, if not prevent, medical errors and adverse outcomes. Yet studies performed from many perspectives show that medical error constitutes a serious worldwide problem. Transfusion medicine, with its interdisciplinary intricacies and the danger of fatal outcomes, serves as an exemplar of lessons learned. Opportunity for error in complex systems is vast, and although errors are traditionally blamed on humans, they are often set up by preexisting factors. Transfusion has inherent hazards such as clinical vulnerabilities (eg, contracting an infectious agent or experiencing a transfusion reaction), but there also exists the possibility of hazards associated with process errors. Sample collection errors, or preanalytic errors, may occur when samples are drawn from donors during blood donation, as well as when drawn from patients prior to transfusion-related testing, and account for approximately one-third of events in transfusion. Errors in the analytic phase of the transfusion chain, slips and errors in the laboratory, comprise close to one-third of patient safety-related transfusion events. As many as 40% of mistransfusions are due to errors in the postanalytic phase: often failures in the final check of the right blood and the right patient at the bedside. Bar-code labels, radiofrequency identification tags, and even palm vein-scanning technology are increasingly being utilized in patient identification. The last phase of transfusion, careful monitoring of the recipient for adverse signs or symptoms, when performed diligently can help prevent or manage a potentially fatal reaction caused by an earlier process error or an unavoidable physiologic condition. Ways in which we can and do deal with potential hazards of transfusion are discussed, including a method of hazard reduction termed inherently safer design
Hydrostatic pulmonary edema is a frequent and severe complication of blood transfusion. Recent epidemiological studies open the way for a better prevention of Transfusion-Associated Circulatory Overload. Preventive measures rely solely on the medical and nursing staff. Mitigation strategies include a careful identification of patients and conditions at-risk, a single-unit transfusion policy in patients with chronic anemia, the use of slow infusion rates, the careful monitoring of patient vital signs (particularly systemic arterial blood pressure). Peritransfusion IV diuretics use is likely to be helpful, although optimal prescribing patterns have not been defined.
Haunstrup, Thure Mors; Baech, John; Varming, Kim; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen; Nielsen, Kaspar René
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is recognized as the most frequent cause of transfusion-related severe morbidity and mortality. TRALI is characterized by post-transfusional respiratory distress, hypoxaemia and radiographic verified lung infiltration, in the absence of sign of circulatory overload. TRALI is predominantly triggered by human leukocyte antigen or human neutrophil antigen (HNA) antibodies from the transfused blood component. Particularly antibodies against the HNA-3a are involved in severe and fatal TRALI cases. The serological investigation is important to trace and exclude blood donors with TRALI antibodies.
Cermáková, Z; Simetka, O; Kořístka, M
TRALI is a major cause of serious morbidity and mortality associated with a blood transfusion. It is clinically manifested by acute respiratory distress within 6 hours of completion of transfusion. Neutrophils have the key role in the pathogenesis. They are activated mostly with leukocyte antibodies (HLA and granulocyte) that are present mainly in plasma containing blood products. TRALI is a clinical diagnosis based on hypoxemia and positive finding on lung X-ray examination. The treatment is only supportive and the mortality is about 5% to 10%. The major preventive measure is transfusing blood products from donors without leukocyte antibodies.
Takahashi, Satoshi; Lai, Chen-Yi; Nojima, Masanori; Yamamoto, Ryo; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Higashihara, Masaaki; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu
Cord blood (CB) is a valuable donor source in hematopoietic cell transplantation. However, the initial time to engraftment in CB transplantation (CBT) is often delayed because of low graft cell numbers. This limits the use of CB. To overcome this cell dose barrier, we modeled an insufficient dose CBT setting in lethally irradiated mice and then added hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs/HPCs; HSPCs) derived from four mouse allogeneic strains. The mixture of HSPCs rescued recipients and significantly accelerated hematopoietic recovery. Including T cells from one strain favored single-donor chimerism through graft versus graft reactions, with early hematopoietic recovery unaffected. Furthermore, using clinically relevant procedures, we successfully isolated a mixture of CD34+ cells from multiple frozen CB units at one time regardless of HLA-type disparities. These CD34+ cells in combination proved transplantable into immunodeficient mice. This work provides proof of concept that when circumstances require support of hematopoiesis, combined multiple units of allogeneic HSPCs are capable of early hematopoietic reconstitution while allowing single-donor hematopoiesis by a principal graft. PMID:27503070
Torchia, M G; Aitken, R M; Thliveris, A
Many studies have demonstrated that allograft tolerance can be achieved in inbred rats and mice following intrathymic injection of donor cells or antigen and treatment with antilymphocyte serum (ALS). In outbred dogs, xenografts, and inbred rat strains with major MHC antigen difference, tolerance has not similarly been induced. The focus of this study was to determine whether allogeneic thyroid graft tolerance could be achieved in outbred rabbits. In the experimental group (n = 5), recipients received an intrathymic injection of donor lymphocytes and a single treatment of ALS. Controls (n = 5) received intrathymic cell culture medium and ALS treatment. Donor-recipient allogenicity was monitored with mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) over 18 weeks. Donor thyroid tissue was placed into recipient gluteal muscle fibres one week following the last MLC measurement. A third group of rabbits (n = 4) received thyroid autografts without any other treatment. There were no differences in MLC stimulation indices (SI) between the control and experimental group nor did MLC (SI) change within groups. All thyroid autografts survived the two week monitoring period and demonstrated normal appearing thyroid follicles on histologic examination. All thyroid allografts showed severe acute rejection reactions on biopsy within one week. Further studies using outbred animals to examine the role of thymic inoculation are required to determine whether similar techniques might be successful in the human.
Lengliné, E; Chevret, S; Moreau, A-S; Pène, F; Blot, F; Bourhis, J-H; Buzyn, A; Schlemmer, B; Socié, G; Azoulay, E
Intensive care unit (ICU) admission is associated with high mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Whether mortality has decreased recently is unknown. The 497 adult allogeneic HSCT recipients admitted to three ICUs between 1997 and 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. Two hundred and nine patients admitted between 1997 and 2003 were compared with the 288 patients admitted from 2004 to 2011. Factors associated with 90-day mortality were identified. The recent cohort was characterized by older age, lower conditioning intensity, and greater use of peripheral blood or unrelated-donor graft. In the recent cohort, ICU was used more often for patients in hematological remission (67% vs 44%; P<0.0001) and without GVHD (73% vs 48%; P<0.0001) or invasive fungal infection (85% vs 73%; P=0.0003) despite a stable admission rate (21.7%). These changes were associated with significantly better 90-day survival (49% vs 31%). Independent predictors of hospital mortality were GVHD, mechanical ventilation (MV) and renal replacement therapy (RRT). Among patients who required MV or RRT, survival was 29% and 18%, respectively, but dropped to 18% and 6% in those with GVHD. The use of ICU admission has changed and translated into improved survival, but advanced life support in patients with GVHD usually provides no benefits.
Radov, L A; Sussdorf, D H; McCann, R L
In nude mice back-crossed a minimum of five times to BALB/c, solid thymus grafts from C57Bl donors 3 days of age or younger restored both the humoral immune response against sheep erythrocytes and cellular immunity as tested by rejection of CBA skin grafts. Donor thymus placed under the renal capsule at a dose of 0-5 mg/g of recipient resulted in normal humoral immunity, while a minimum dose of 1-5 mg/g was required to reconstitute cellular competence. None of the various amounts of allogeneic thymus tissue transplanted affected the immunological status of nude recipients when grafts were obtained from donors 4 days of age or older. Histological findings correlated with the humoral and cellular responses observed. In nudes grafted with neonatal tissue, the thymus implant proliferated and developed normal architecture. The density of lymphocytes in thymus-dependent regions of peripheral lymphoid organs was near normal. On the other hand, most grafts from older (3-week-old) donors were resorbed by 90 days after implantation. In a number of cases, however, Russell bodies and numerous blast and plasma cells were seen in the graft site. Our observations suggest a possible cytotoxic rejection of implants from older allogeneic donors, while the survival and restorative capacity of transplants from 3-day-old or younger donors may have been due to a tolerogenic effect of the graft on the nude recipient.
Andersson, Jennie; Cromvik, Julia; Ingelsten, Madeleine; Lingblom, Christine; Andersson, Kerstin; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Wennerås, Christine
Eosinophilia has been associated with less severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), but the underlying mechanism is unknown. We hypothesized that eosinophils diminish allogeneic T cell activation in patients with chronic GVHD. The capacity of eosinophils derived from healthy subjects and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant recipients, with or without chronic GVHD, to reduce allogeneic T cell proliferation was evaluated using a mixed leukocyte reaction. Eosinophil-mediated inhibition of proliferation was observed for the eosinophils of both healthy subjects and patients who underwent HSC transplantation. Eosinophils from patients with and without chronic GVHD were equally suppressive. Healthy eosinophils required cell-to-cell contact for their suppressive capacity, which was directed against CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells. Neither eosinophilic cationic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, or increased numbers of regulatory T cells could account for the suppressive effect of healthy eosinophils. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed significantly increased mRNA levels of the immunoregulatory protein galectin-10 in the eosinophils of both chronic GVHD patients and patients without GVHD, as compared with those from healthy subjects. The upregulation of galectin-10 expression in eosinophils from patients suggests a stimulatory effect of HSC transplantation in itself on eosinophilic galectin-10 expression, regardless of chronic GVHD status. To conclude, eosinophils from HSC transplant recipients and healthy subjects have a T cell suppressive capacity.
Atilla, Erden; Ataca Atilla, Pınar; Demirer, Taner
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT) is a curative treatment option for both malignant and some benign hematological diseases. During the last decade, many of the newer high-dose regimens in different intensity have been developed specifically for patients with hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Today there are three main approaches used prior to allogeneic transplantation: Myeloablative (MA), Reduced Intensity Conditioning (RIC) and Non-MA (NMA) regimens. MA regimens cause irreversible cytopenia and there is a requirement for stem cell support. Patients who receive NMA regimen have minimal cytopenia and this type of regimen can be given without stem cell support. RIC regimens do not fit the criteria of MA and NMA: the cytopenia is reversible and the stem cell support is necessary. NMA/RIC for Allo-HSCT has opened a new era for treating elderly patients and those with comorbidities. The RIC conditioning was used for 40% of all Allo-HSCT and this trend continue to increase. In this paper, we will review these regimens in the setting of especially allogeneic HSCT and our aim is to describe the history, features and impact of these conditioning regimens on specific diseases. PMID:28251017
Rebulla, Paolo; Pupella, Simonetta; Santodirocco, Michele; Greppi, Noemi; Villanova, Ida; Buzzi, Marina; De Fazio, Nicola; Grazzini, Giuliano
Background In addition to a largely prevalent use for bleeding prophylaxis, platelet concentrates from adult blood have also been used for many years to prepare platelet gels for the repair of topical skin ulcers. Platelet gel can be obtained by activation of fresh, cryopreserved, autologous or allogeneic platelet concentrates with calcium gluconate, thrombin and/or batroxobin. The high content of tissue regenerative factors in cord blood platelets and the widespread availability of allogeneic cord blood units generously donated for haematopoietic transplant but unsuitable for this use solely because of low haematopoietic stem cell content prompted us to develop a national programme to standardise the production of allogeneic cryopreserved cord blood platelet concentrates (CBPC) suitable for later preparation of clinical-grade cord blood platelet gel. Materials and methods Cord blood units collected at public banks with total nucleated cell counts <1.5×109, platelet count >150×109/L and volume >50 mL, underwent soft centrifugation within 48 hours of collection. Platelet-rich plasma was centrifuged at high speed to obtain a CBPC with target platelet concentration of 800–1,200×109/L, which was cryopreserved, without cryoprotectant, below −40 °C. Results During 14 months, 13 banks produced 1,080 CBPC with mean (± standard deviation) volume of 11.4±4.4 mL and platelet concentration of 1,003±229×109/L. Total platelet count per CBPC was 11.3±4.9×109. Platelet recovery from cord blood was 47.7±17.8%. About one-third of cord blood units donated for haematopoietic transplant could meet the requirements for preparation of CBPC. The cost of preparation was € 160.92/CBPC. About 2 hours were needed for one technician to prepare four CBPC. Discussion This study yielded valuable scientific and operational information regarding the development of clinical trials using allogeneic CBPC. PMID:26509822
Bidolegui, Fernando; Arce, Guillermo; Lugones, Alfonso; Pereira, Sebastián; Vindver, Gabriel
Introduction : Blood loss during and after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can lead to substantial morbidity and the need for blood transfusions. There are several methods to minimize blood loss and to decrease transfusion rates in patients undergoing TKA. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent with known efficacy for achieving these goals. Currently, many surgeons are performing TKA without the use of tourniquet. Consequently, the aim of the study is to evaluate whether tranexamic acid reduces blood loss during and after TKA without the adjunctive use of above-the-knee tourniquet. Methods : We performed a prospective randomized controlled trial (1:1 fashion) on the use of tranexamic acid versus placebo in 50 patients undergoing TKA (without tourniquet). The treatment group received two (preoperative and postoperative) 15 mg/kg doses. The primary endpoint was blood transfusion rate. We collected data about demographic and procedural characteristics, hemoglobin and hematocrit values, drain blood loss at 24 hours as well as adverse events. Results : There were no transfusions in the treatment group, whereas 32% of the control group required transfusion (p<0.01). The treatment group had higher hematocrit and hemoglobin levels at 24, 48 and 72 hours after surgery (all p<0.01) and lower drain loss at 24hours (363.4±141 vs 626±260ml, p=<0,001). There were no in-hospital or six-month thromboembolic complications. Discussion : A double-dose of tranexamic acid was safe and effective, reducing blood loss and preventing the need of blood transfusion in patients undergoing TKA without above-the-need tourniquet. PMID:25132872
Brecher, G.; Lawce, H.; Tjio, J.H.
Transfusion of syngeneic marrow into normal, nonirradiated recipients results only in minimal proliferation of donor cells. However, irradiated recipients, restored to hematologic normalcy by an initial marrow transfusion, subsequently sustain proliferation which replaces approximately 10% of endogenous marrow after a single transfusion of 4 x 10/sup 7/ marrow cells of the same strain as the host. Cells from histoincompatible donors proliferate only rarely or minimally in the marrows of these irradiated, but hematologically normal recipients without reirradiation. Syngeneic male donor cells proliferate in irradiated and restored female mice, while female donor cells fail to proliferate in the marrow of syngeneic male recipients. A possible explanation is that transfused female cells respond immunologically to the abundant H-Y antigen in the male environment and are eliminated as a result.
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Katus, M C; Szczepiorkowski, Z M; Dumont, L J; Dunbar, N M
Platelet components became routinely available to many institutions in the late 1960s and since then utilization has steadily increased. Platelets are produced by three principal methods and their manufacturing process is regulated by multiple agencies. As the field of platelet transfusion has evolved, a broad array of strategies to improve platelet safety has developed. This review will explore the evolution of modern platelet component therapy, highlight the various risks associated with platelet transfusion and describe risk reduction strategies that have been implemented to improve platelet transfusion safety. In closing, the reader will be briefly introduced to select investigational platelet and platelet-mimetic products that have the potential to enhance platelet transfusion safety in the near future.
Chin, Jun Liong; Hisamuddin, Syafiah Hanis; O'Sullivan, Aoife; Chan, Grace; McCormick, P Aiden
Thrombocytopenia affects patients undergoing liver transplantation. Intraoperative platelet transfusion has been shown to independently influence survival after liver transplantation at 1 and 5 years. We examined the impact of thrombocytopenia and intraoperative platelet transfusion on short-term graft and overall survival after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). A total of 399 patients undergoing first OLT were studied. Graft and overall survival in patients with different degrees of thrombocytopenia and with or without intraoperative platelet transfusion were described. The degree of thrombocytopenia prior to OLT did not affect graft or overall survival after transplant. However, graft survival in patients receiving platelets was significantly reduced at 1 year (P= .023) but not at 90 days (P= .093). Overall survival was significantly reduced at both 90 days (P= .040) and 1 year (P= .037) in patients receiving platelets. We conclude that a consistently lower graft and overall survival were observed in patients receiving intraoperative platelet transfusion.
Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Te-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Li; Dai, Ming-Shen; Ho, Ching-Liang; Kao, Chia-Hung
Abstract Based on the mechanism of pathophysiology, thalassemia major or transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients may have an increased risk of developing organic erectile dysfunction resulting from hypogonadism. However, there have been few studies investigating the association between erectile dysfunction and transfusion-naive thalassemia populations. We constructed a population-based cohort study to elucidate the association between transfusion-naive thalassemia populations and organic erectile dysfunction This nationwide population-based cohort study involved analyzing data from 1998 to 2010 obtained from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database, with a follow-up period extending to the end of 2011. We identified men with transfusion-naive thalassemia and selected a comparison cohort that was frequency-matched with these according to age, and year of diagnosis thalassemia at a ratio of 1 thalassemia man to 4 control men. We analyzed the risks for transfusion-naive thalassemia men and organic erectile dysfunction by using Cox proportional hazards regression models. In this study, 588 transfusion-naive thalassemia men and 2337 controls were included. Total 12 patients were identified within the thalassaemia group and 10 within the control group. The overall risks for developing organic erectile dysfunction were 4.56-fold in patients with transfusion-naive thalassemia men compared with the comparison cohort after we adjusted for age and comorbidities. Our long-term cohort study results showed that in transfusion-naive thalassemia men, there was a higher risk for the development of organic erectile dysfunction, particularly in those patients with comorbidities. PMID:25837766
feared being transfusion-related acute lung injury ( TRALI ), and infectious. Infectious complications are exceedingly rare with the greatest risk being...hepatitis B virus infection at 1:63,000.33 Noninfectious complications are more common.34,35 Although TRALI remains the most feared, its incidence is...10 –15. 36. Wallis JP, Lubenko A, Wells AW, Chapman CE. Single hospital experience of TRALI . Transfusion. 2003;43:1053–1059. 37. Toy P, Lowell C
Cairo, M.S.; Rucker, R.; Bennetts, G.A.; Hicks, D.; Worcester, C.; Amlie, R.; Johnson, S.; Katz, J.
To determine the role of polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte transfusions in neonates with sepsis, 23 consecutive newborns were prospectively randomly selected during an 18-month period in a treatment plan to receive polymorphonuclear leukocyte transfusions with supportive care or supportive care alone. Thirteen neonates received transfusions every 12 hours for a total of five transfusions. Each transfusion consisting of 15 mL/kg of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was subjected to 1,500 rads of radiation. The polymorphonuclear leukocytes were obtained by continuous-flow centrifugation leukapheresis and contained 0.5 to 1.0 X 10(9) granulocytes per 15 mL with less than 10% lymphocytes. Positive findings on blood cultures were obtained in 14/23 patients and seven were randomly selected for each treatment group. Absolute granulocyte counts were less than 1,500/microL in 13 patients but tibial bone marrow examinations revealed that the neutrophil supply pool was depleted in only three patients. The survival was significantly greater in the treatment group compared with the group that did not receive transfusions.
Lei, Chong; Xiong, Li-Ze
Objective: Blood transfusion saves lives but may also increase the risk of injury. The objective of this review was to evaluate the possible adverse effects related to transfusion of red blood cell (RBC) concentrates stored for prolonged periods. Data Sources: The data used in this review were mainly from PubMed articles published in English up to February 2015. Study Selection: Clinical and basic research articles were selected according to their relevance to this topic. Results: The ex vivo changes to RBC that occur during storage are collectively called storage lesion. It is still inconclusive if transfusion of RBC with storage lesion has clinical relevance. Multiple ongoing prospective randomized controlled trials are aimed to clarify this clinical issue. It was observed that the adverse events related to stored RBC transfusion were prominent in certain patient populations, including trauma, critical care, pediatric, and cardiac surgery patients, which leads to the investigation of underlying mechanisms. It is demonstrated that free hemoglobin toxicity, decreasing of nitric oxide bioavailability, and free iron-induced increasing of inflammation may play an important role in this process. Conclusion: It is still unclear whether transfusion of older RBC has adverse effects, and if so, which factors determine such clinical effects. However, considering the magnitude of transfusion and the widespread medical significance, potential preventive strategies should be considered, especially for the susceptible recipients. PMID:26315088
Pozzetto, B; Garraud, O
Viral safety remains a major concern in transfusion of blood products. Over years, the control measures applied to blood products were made more and more sophisticated; however, the number of infectious agents, and notably of viruses, that can be transmitted by transfusion is increasing continuously. The aim of this review paper is to actualize that published in the same journal by the same authors in 2011 with more details on some of actual vs virtual viral threats that were identified recently in the field of blood transfusion. The main subjects that are covered successively concern the transmission via transfusion of hepatitis E virus, the frequency of transfusion transmitted arboviruses, transfusion at the time of the Ebola epidemics in West Africa, the debated role of Marseillevirus (giant viruses infecting amoebae and suspected to infect human blood latently), and, finally, the recent report of the identification in blood donors of a new member of the Flaviviridae family. The addition of these new viral risks to those already identified-partially controlled or not-pleads for the urgent need to move forward to considering inactivation of infectious agents in blood products.
Lee, Jong Oh; Kim, Dong Won; Jeong, Mi Ae; Lee, Hee Jong; Kim, Kyu Nam
Backgrounds/Aims Although perioperative therapies have improved greatly, pancreatectomies still often need blood transfusions. However, the morbidity from blood transfusions, the poor prognosis of blood transfused patients, high cost, and decreasing supply of blood products is accelerating transfusion-free (TF) surgery in the patients who have pacreatectomies. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of TF pancreatectomies for patients who are Jehovah's Witness. Methods We investigated the possibility of TF pancreatectomies for the Jehovah's Witness patients undergoing pancreatectomies between January 2007 and Februay 2014. There were 4 cases of Whipple's operation, 4 of pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy, 2 of radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy and 1 of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy. All were performed by one surgeon. Results Most of the TF pancreatecomies patients received perioperative blood augmentation and intraoperative acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH). They received no blood transfusions at any time during their hospitalization, and pre- and intra-operative data and outcomes were acceptably favorable. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first successful consecutive pancreatectomy program for Jehovah's Witness not involving blood transfusion. TF pancreatectomy can be performed successfully in selected Jehovah's Witness. Postoperative prognosis and outcomes should be confirmed in follow up studies. PMID:27621749
Aneke, John C.; Okocha, Chide E.
The attainment of blood transfusion safety in Nigeria (and probably the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa) remains an uphill task due to a number of factors, ranging from shortage of blood, poor implementation of blood transfusion guidelines, infrastructural deficits to high prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs), particularly hepatitis and human immune deficiency viruses. We reviewed available data on blood transfusion practices and safety in Nigeria using the PubMed, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, and African Index Medicus search engines, through a combination of word and phrases relevant to the subject. The World Health Organization has been in the forefront of efforts to establish safe, available, and affordable blood transfusion services in most parts of Africa through encouraging adequate blood donor recruitment, donor blood testing, and collection as well developing strategies for the rational use of blood. Even though modest improvement has been recorded, particularly with regards to donor blood screening for common TTIs, considerable efforts are needed in the form of robust public enlightenment campaigns (on blood donation) and continuous system improvement to drive the current transfusion practices in the country toward safety and self-sustenance. PMID:28316432
Cid, Joan; Harm, Sarah K.; Yazer, Mark H.
Summary Many modern therapies depend on platelet (PLT) transfusion support. PLTs have a 4- to 7-day shelf life and are frequently in short supply. In order to optimize the inventory PLTs are often transfused to adults without regard for ABO compatibility. Hemolytic reactions are infrequent despite the presence of ‘high titer’ anti-A and anti-B antibodies in some of the units. Despite the low risk for hemolysis, some centers provide only ABO identical PLTs to their recipients; this practice might have other beneficial outcomes that remain to be proven. Strategies to mitigate the risk of hemolysis and the clinical and laboratory outcomes following ABO-matched and mismatched transfusions will be discussed. Although the PLTs themselves do not carry the D antigen, a small number of RBCs are also transfused with every PLT dose. The quantity of RBCs varies by the type of PLT preparation, and even a small quantity of D+ RBCs can alloimmunize a susceptible D− host. Thus PLT units are labeled as D+/–, and most transfusion services try to prevent the transfusion of D+ PLTs to D– females of childbearing age. A similar policy for patients with hematological diseases is controversial, and the elements and mechanisms of anti-D alloimmunization will be discussed. PMID:23922541
Fasano, Ross M; Chou, Stella T
Since the discovery of the ABO blood group in the early 20th century, more than 300 blood group antigens have been categorized among 35 blood group systems. The molecular basis for most blood group antigens has been determined and demonstrates tremendous genetic diversity, particularly in the ABO and Rh systems. Several blood group genotyping assays have been developed, and 1 platform has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a "test of record," such that no phenotype confirmation with antisera is required. DNA-based red blood cell (RBC) phenotyping can overcome certain limitations of hemagglutination assays and is beneficial in many transfusion settings. Genotyping can be used to determine RBC antigen phenotypes in patients recently transfused or with interfering allo- or autoantibodies, to resolve discrepant serologic typing, and/or when typing antisera are not readily available. Molecular RBC antigen typing can facilitate complex antibody evaluations and guide RBC selection for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), thalassemia, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. High-resolution RH genotyping can identify variant RHD and RHCE in patients with SCD, which have been associated with alloimmunization. In the future, broader access to cost-efficient, high-resolution RBC genotyping technology for both patient and donor populations may be transformative for the field of transfusion medicine.
Devlin, Breige; Agnew, Audrey
Marie Curie Cancer Care is a national charitable organisation that provides specialist palliative care services to patients with cancer and other life-limiting illnesses. Marie Curie Nursing Service (MCNS) provides nursing services to patients in their own homes. The administration of blood transfusions to palliative care patients is required to improve symptom management and quality of life; however, this procedure often results in unnecessary hospital admissions. Recognising that the majority of patients wish to be cared for and die in their own home, and with national guidance recommending that specialist palliative care services should be provided to patients in their preferred place of care, a recent service initiative by MCNS was domiciliary blood transfusions. While this is not a new service within domiciliary care, this pilot project aimed to capture patient views to evaluate this service initiative. Telephone interviews were conducted, using a questionnaire, with 11 patients who had received the service. Findings indicated positive evaluation of the service. Domiciliary blood transfusions helped to avoid unnecessary hospital admissions, the quality of life of patients and their families was improved in the palliative phase of illness and they received the service in their preferred place of care.
Pahwa, R N; Fleischer, A; Than, S; Good, R A
Cord blood, a potent source of hematopoietic stem cells, has been shown to successfully reconstitute hematopoiesis following allogeneic transplantation in a variety of disorders. A major drawback of cord blood has been the risk of transfusion reactions in ABO blood group incompatibility and drastic reduction in the stem cell pool if the cord blood is manipulated to remove red cells prior to cryopreservation or after thawing. This report describes an erythrocyte depletion method employing 3% gelatin-induced erythrocyte sedimentation for the selective removal of red cells from cord blood. The red cell-depleted fraction was shown to be enriched in progenitor cells and in cells secreting hematopoietic cytokines interleukin 3, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin 6; a major source for cytokines was from cord T cells. This preparative technique was employed to separate out red cells from cord blood of an infant delivered by cesarean section who had an 8-year-old sibling with leukemia. Histocompatibility testing of cord cells revealed complete matching with the patient. A cord cell transplant of cryopreserved and thawed cells consisting of 4 x 10(7) nucleated cells per kg was administered to the patient following myeloablative chemotherapy. The patient's quick hematologic recovery and 9-month disease-free period to date suggest that 3% gelatin separation of erythrocytes is a simple method that can be successfully used for transplanting cord cells for malignant/nonmalignant diseases. PMID:8183934
Acker, Shannon N; Hall, Brianne; Hill, Lauren; Partrick, David A; Bensard, Denis D
Introduction In the adult population, assessment of blood consumption (ABC) score [penetrating mechanism, positive focused assessment sonography for trauma (FAST), systolic blood pressure < 90, and heart rate (HR) > 120] ≥2 identifies trauma patients who require massive transfusion (MT) with sensitivity and specificity of 75 and 86%. We hypothesized that the adult criteria cannot be applied to children, as the vital sign cut-offs are not age-adjusted. We aimed to determine if the use of a shock index, pediatric age-adjusted (SIPA) would improve the discriminate ability of the ABC score in children. Materials and Methods A retrospective review of children age 4 to 15 who received a packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion during admission for trauma between 2008 and 2014 was performed. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of ABC score ≥ 2, elevated SIPA, and age-adjusted ABC score (ABC-S) utilizing SIPA in place of HR and BP, to determine the need for MT. Results A total of 50 children were included, 31 received PRBC transfusion within 6 hours of injury, 7 children had a positive FAST, and 3 suffered penetrating trauma, all in the early transfusion group. ABC score ≥ 2 is 29% sensitive and 100% specific at predicting need for MT while ABC-S score ≥ 1 is 65% sensitive and 84% specific. Conclusions Adult-based criteria for activation of MT perform poorly in the pediatric population. The use of SIPA modestly improves the sensitivity of the ABC score in children; however, the sensitivity and specificity of this score are still worse than when used in an adult population. This suggests the need to develop a new score that takes into account the low rate of penetrating trauma and positive FAST in the pediatric population.
Goldberg, Andrew D; Kor, Daryl J
Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality in most developed countries. Despite this fact, well-designed investigations on specific management strategies for TRALI are lacking. Indeed, current recommendations are primarily based on data extrapolated from trials of the histo-pathologically similar Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndromes. The cornerstone of TRALI management is supportive care with oxygen supplementation and ventilatory assistance when needed. When mechanical ventilation is required, attenuating additional ventilator-induced lung injury through the avoidance of high tidal volumes and elevated airway pressures, with additional measures such as positive end-expiratory pressure to prevent low-volume shear stress injury, are recommended. The literature is not currently sufficient to support either corticosteroids or statins as effective therapies in TRALI. Conservative fluid practices are desirable, provided care is taken to avoid hypotension. Preventative strategies have shown the most promise in mitigating this transfusion-related pulmonary complication. Specifically, conservative transfusion practices and deferral of high-plasma component donors who have, or at high risk of having, anti-human leukocyte antigen and/or anti-human neutrophil antigen antibodies have meaningfully impacted the incidence of TRALI. Future considerations for patients who are at increased risk for developing TRALI may include therapies such as anti-platelet agents and alternatives to traditional blood components such as prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC). However, these potential TRALI prevention strategies are insufficiently studied, have unclear risk/benefit profiles and cannot be currently recommended.
Background To report a case of disseminated fusariosis with endogenous endophthalmitis in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Transfusion-associated immune modulation secondary to platelet transfusion could play an important role in the pathophysiology of this case. Case Presentation A 9 year-old male with acute lymphoblastic leukemia complicated by pancytopenia and disseminated Intravascular coagulation was given platelet transfusion. He developed disseminated fusariosis and was referred to the ophthalmology team for right endogenous endophthalmitis. The infection was controlled with aggressive systemic and intravitreal antifungals. Conclusion Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are predisposed to endogenous fungal endophthalmitis. Transfusion-associated immune modulation may further increase host susceptibility to such opportunistic infections. PMID:22044440
Flavell, D J; Wright, D H
The properties of rosettes formed between the Hodgkin's cell lines, L428 and L591, and allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations have been investigated. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that the majority of adherent cells were T-cells of both the CD4 and CD8 subsets. Only relatively few B-cells and monocytes were seen to adhere. However, when peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations were fractionated, it was found that monocytes were as good as T-cells at forming rosettes with both L428 and L591, though B-cells were shown to be poor at forming such associations. Treatment of both L428 and L591 with neuraminidase resulted in a significant reduction (P less than 0.01) in the mean number of adherent lymphocytes and in the numbers of Hodgkin's tumour cells which formed rosettes. Smaller, less significant effects were observed for Cytochalasin B and trypsin. EDTA (10(-2) M) at pH 7.2 had no significant effect on rosetting for L428 or L591. Adherence of allogeneic lymphocytes to L428 or L591 was pH dependent but did not appear to correlate with cell surface charge. Treatment of L428 cells with Fab fragments prepared from the IgG fraction of a hyperimmune rabbit anti-L428 antiserum, significantly (P less than 0.05) inhibited the adherence of allogeneic lymphocytes, but only when used at high concentration. The binding requirements of the Hodgkin's cell lines with allogeneic peripheral blood lymphocytes, as described in this study, appear to be quite different from those described for freshly isolated Hodgkin's tumour cells with autologous intratumoral lymphocytes. This suggests that the two phenomena may be unrelated. There would appear to be an absolute requirement for cell surface sialic acid for allogeneic lymphocyte attachment to the HD cell lines. This might suggest that the receptor-ligand system involved contains sialic acid as an integral part of the cell surface receptor structure involved in recognition of the appropriate ligand.
Oertel, J; Samii, M; Walter, G F
Experimental transplantation trials of fetal cells in Parkinson's and Huntington's disease or multiple sclerosis still require allogeneic graft material and raise questions of graft rejection and immunosuppression. Alternatively to the striatum, the lateral ventricles have been discussed as grafting site in Parkinson's and Huntington's disease although little is known of the specific immunology of the ventricular system. To address this question, 28 adult female LEW1.W rats received intraventricular allogeneic dopaminergic cell suspension grafts from E14 DA rat fetuses. Twelve animals with syngeneic grafts served as control. Immunohistochemical examination was performed with staining for MHC expression, microglia-macrophages, various lymphocyte subsets, dopaminergic neurons and astrocytes at 4 days, and 1, 3, 6, and 12 weeks after transplantation. In all animals, intraventricular transplants were found, which showed maturation and integration in the host parenchyma at the later time points. Animals with allogeneic grafts developed a vivid immune response with strong MHC class I expression and dense lymphocyte infiltrates. Surprisingly, this immune response subsided at 12 weeks and healthy grafts remained. These results indicate (1) that, in contrast to intraparenchymal grafts, a strong immune response to allogeneic fetal cell suspension grafts can be elicited by intraventricular grafting, (2) that a peculiar immunological role of the ventricular system has to be considered in further studies, and (3) that a vivid immune response to allografts in the brain may subside without graft destruction.
Ramakrishnaiah, Pushpa Kodipalya; Lakshman, Archana; Aradhya, Sacchidanand Sarvajnamurthy; Veerabhadrappa, Nataraja Holavanahally
Chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) is a less frequently seen disease that occurs post solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. Chronic GVHD occurring post blood transfusion is an even more uncommon disease. It can present either as a lichenoid disease or as a sclerodermatous disease involving multiple systems. In this article, we report a case of chronic graft versus host reaction occurring in skin secondary to blood transfusion.
Ramakrishnaiah, Pushpa Kodipalya; Lakshman, Archana; Aradhya, Sacchidanand Sarvajnamurthy; Veerabhadrappa, Nataraja Holavanahally
Chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) is a less frequently seen disease that occurs post solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. Chronic GVHD occurring post blood transfusion is an even more uncommon disease. It can present either as a lichenoid disease or as a sclerodermatous disease involving multiple systems. In this article, we report a case of chronic graft versus host reaction occurring in skin secondary to blood transfusion. PMID:26538747
Pino Y Torres, J.L.; Bross, D.S.; Lam, W.C.; Wharam, M.D.; Santos, G.W.; Order, S.E.
Total body irradiation is part of the preparatory regimen for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation because of its cytotoxic and immunosuppressive properties. A major toxicity of bone marrow transplantation has been interstitial pneumonitis, which may be, in part, related to the lung irradiation. One hundred and sixty-one consecutive patients receiving allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for leukemia and aplastic anemia at Johns Hopkins Hospital (1968-1979) were retrospectively studied. The present study demonstrated that lung shielding to 600 rad maximum in single dose total body irradiation, fractionation of total body irradiation in comparison to single dose total body irradiation, and absence of graft versus host disease in the leukemia patients, each reduced the risk of interstitial pneumonitis. Total body irradiation significantly reduced the leukemia recurrence rate and/or the failure of remission induction.
Hosseinpour Sakha, Seddigheh; Gharehbaghi, Manizheh Mostafa
Our goal was to determine the indications for exchange transfusion (ECT) and the rates of ECT-related adverse events in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. We reviewed retrospectively the medical charts of all newborns that had undergone ECT over three years from January 2006 to December 2008. Causes of jaundice, demographic data of the patients, and details of ECT and ECT-related adverse events were recorded. A total of 176 ECT procedures were performed in 150 neonates in the three-year study period. The mean total serum bilirubin before ECT was 29.59 +/- 6.88 mg/dl. Those infants requiring more than one ECT had higher total serum bilirubin than neonates with single ECT, but the difference was not significant (35.66 +/- 12.21 vs. 29.12 +/- 6.30 mg/dl, p = 0.09). The most common cause of ECT was ABO incompatibility (49.3%), Rh disease (7.3%) and idiopathic (28%). Among the adverse events related to ECT, thrombocytopenia (36.4%), hypocalcemia (25.5%), apnea (20%), and infection (10.9%) were noted commonly. No case of ECT-related mortality was observed. All of the adverse events resolved completely before discharge. ABO isoimmunization was the most common cause of ECT in this study. The majority of adverse events associated with ECT are asymptomatic and reversible.
Khera, Nandita; Chang, Yu-hui; Hashmi, Shahrukh; Slack, James; Beebe, Timothy; Roy, Vivek; Noel, Pierre; Fauble, Veena; Sproat, Lisa; Tilburt, Jon; Leis, Jose F; Mikhael, Joseph
Although allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an expensive treatment for hematological disorders, little is known about the financial consequences for the patients who undergo this procedure. We analyzed factors associated with its financial burden and its impact on health behaviors of allogeneic HCT recipients. A questionnaire was retrospectively mailed to 482 patients who underwent allogeneic HCT from January 2006 to June 2012 at the Mayo Clinic, to collect information regarding current financial concerns, household income, employment, insurance, out-of-pocket expenses, and health and functional status. A multivariable logistic regression analysis identified factors associated with financial burden and treatment nonadherence. Of the 268 respondents (56% response rate), 73% reported that their sickness had hurt them financially. All patients for whom the insurance information was available (missing, n = 13) were insured. Forty-seven percent of respondents experienced financial burden, such as household income decreased by >50%, selling/mortgaging home, or withdrawing money from retirement accounts. Three percent declared bankruptcy. Younger age and poor current mental and physical functioning increased the likelihood of financial burden. Thirty-five percent of patients reported deleterious health behaviors because of financial constraints. These patients were likely to be younger, have lower education, and with a longer time since HCT. Being employed decreased the likelihood of experiencing financial burden and treatment nonadherence due to concern about costs. A significant proportion of allogeneic HCT survivors experience financial hardship despite insurance coverage. Future research should investigate potential interventions to help at-risk patients and prevent adverse financial outcomes after this life-saving procedure.
Balashova, Elena E.
Recently it was demonstrated that tumors induce specific changes to the surface of human endothelial cells thereby providing the basis for designing endothelial cell-based vaccines that directly target antigens expressed by the tumor endothelium. The present report extends these studies in vitro by investigating the efficacy of allogeneic antigens with regard to their ability to target immune responses against the tumor vasculature since alloantigens simplify vaccine development and implementation in clinical practice. We demonstrated that allogeneic SANTAVAC (Set of All Natural Target Antigens for Vaccination Against Cancer), which presents a specifically prepared composition of cell surface antigens from tumor-stimulated endothelial cells, allows targeting of the tumor vasculature with efficacy of 17, where efficacy represents the killing rate of target cells before normal cells are adversely affected, and efficacy of 60, where efficacy represents the fold decrease in the number of target cells and directly relates to tumor growth arrest. These data suggest that allogeneic SANTAVAC may be considered an antigenic composition that following administration in the presence of respective adjuvants may be clinically tested as a therapeutic or prophylactic universal cancer vaccine without adverse side effects to the normal vasculature. PMID:27781211
Background. It is unknown whether horses that receive allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) injections develop specific humoral immune response. Our goal was to develop and validate a flow cytometric MSC crossmatch procedure and to determine if horses that received allogeneic MSCs in a clinical setting developed measurable antibodies following MSC administration. Methods. Serum was collected from a total of 19 horses enrolled in 3 different research projects. Horses in the 3 studies all received unmatched allogeneic MSCs. Bone marrow (BM) or adipose tissue derived MSCs (ad-MSCs) were administered via intravenous, intra-arterial, intratendon, or intraocular routes. Anti-MSCs and anti-bovine serum albumin antibodies were detected via flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. Results. Overall, anti-MSC antibodies were detected in 37% of the horses. The majority of horses (89%) were positive for anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA) antibodies prior to and after MSC injection. Finally, there was no correlation between the amount of anti-BSA antibody and the development of anti-MSC antibodies. Conclusion. Anti allo-MSC antibody development was common; however, the significance of these antibodies is unknown. There was no correlation between either the presence or absence of antibodies and the percent antibody binding to MSCs and any adverse reaction to a MSC injection. PMID:27648075
Islet cell transplantation is categorized as a β-cell replacement therapy for diabetic patients who lack the ability to secrete insulin. Allogeneic islet cell transplantation is for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, and autologous islet cell transplantation is for the prevention of surgical diabetes after a total pancreatectomy. The issues of allogeneic islet cell transplantation include poor efficacy of islet isolation, the need for multiple donor pancreata, difficulty maintaining insulin independence and undesirable side effects of immunosuppressive drugs. Those issues have been solved step by step and allogeneic islet cell transplantation is almost ready to be the standard therapy. The donor shortage will be the next issue and marginal and/or living donor islet cell transplantation might alleviate the issue. Xeno-islet cell transplantation, β-cell regeneration from human stem cells and gene induction of the naïve pancreas represent the next generation of β-cell replacement therapy. Autologous islet cell transplantation after total pancreatectomy for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis with severe abdominal pain is the standard therapy, even though only limited centers are able to perform this treatment. Remote center autologous islet cell transplantation is an attractive option for hospitals performing total pancreatectomies without the proper islet isolation facilities. PMID:21785738
Sadani, D T; Urbaniak, S J; Bruce, M; Tighe, J E
A 65-year-old woman, blood group A RhD positive, who had completed her first course of induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia was transfused with apheresis platelets over a number of days. On three occasions she received group O RhD positive units, which had been screened and found not to contain high-titre anti-A,B isoagglutinins. Following the third unit, she developed a haemolytic transfusion reaction and died soon thereafter. This has led to change in policy of the supplying centre in testing for high-titre anti-A,B isoagglutinins. Blood group O apheresis platelets and fresh-frozen plasma units are now labelled as high titre with a cut-off of 1/50 as compared to the previous cut-off of 1/100 for anti-A,B isoagglutinins. A universal approach to testing donations for high-titre anti-A,B isoagglutinins, better compliance of guidelines and monitoring of patients is necessary.
In the pig thymus, the proportion of allogeneic (or autologous) erythrocyte rosette forming cells (P-RFC) is always lower than that of sheep erythrocyte (non-allogeneic) rosette forming cells (S-RFC) even under saturated RBC/lymphocyte ratios and optimal dextran concentration. This difference accounted for lymphocytes rosetting with sheep erythrocytes and not with pig erythrocytes (P-S+ cells), as opposed to those lymphocytes which are able to bind both types of erythrocytes (P+S+ cells). Since formation of both sheep and pig erythrocyte rosettes is inhibited similarly by anti-T receptor serum, is inhibited reciprocally by sheep and pig erythrocyte membrane fragment and is similarly trypsin sensitive, it was concluded that the same receptor was responsible for both sheep and pig rosette formation. Furthermore it was found that P+S+ cells had a higher avidity for sheep erythrocytes (and lower for pig erythrocytes) than the other subset which did not bind pig erythrocytes. PMID:6180852
Singh, Karanbir; Gupta, Rajesh; Kamal, Haris; Silvestri, Nicholas J; Wolfe, Gil I
The appearance of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) after blood transfusion is rare and has only been reported in three patients to our knowledge. We report a fourth patient with PRES secondary to blood transfusion. A 36-year-old woman with a history of menorrhagia presented to the emergency department with severe fatigue. She had a hemoglobin of 1.7 g/dl and received four units of red blood cells over 15 hours. On day 6 post-transfusion she returned with confusion, headache and a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. The MRI of her brain was consistent with PRES. The following day her confusion worsened, repeat MRI of the brain showed new T2-weighted lesions. Over next 10 days her mental status gradually improved close to her baseline. A repeat MRI of the brain showed resolution of the T2-weighted lesions. The clinical presentation, radiological findings and disease progression in our patient was consistent with PRES. Other than the blood transfusions, there were no apparent risk factors for PRES. The prior three patients with post-transfusion PRES have been reported in middle-aged women with uterine fibroids. It is suspected that these patients have a subacute to chronic anemic state due to ongoing menorrhagia. It is interesting to note that no cases of PRES post-transfusion have been reported in the setting of acute blood loss, such as from trauma. It is postulated that an abrupt increase in hemoglobin causes a rapid rise in blood viscosity and loss of hypoxic vasodilation. Subsequent endothelial damage and brain capillary leakage results in PRES. This constellation of changes may not occur after transfusion in patients with more acute blood loss.
Rapido, Francesca; Brittenham, Gary M.; Bandyopadhyay, Sheila; La Carpia, Francesca; L’Acqua, Camilla; McMahon, Donald J.; Rebbaa, Abdelhadi; Wojczyk, Boguslaw S.; Netterwald, Jane; Wang, Hangli; Schwartz, Joseph; Eisenberger, Andrew; Soffing, Mark; Yeh, Randy; Divgi, Chaitanya; Ginzburg, Yelena Z.; Shaz, Beth H.; Sheth, Sujit; Francis, Richard O.; Spitalnik, Steven L.; Hod, Eldad A.
BACKGROUND. Some countries have limited the maximum allowable storage duration for red cells to 5 weeks before transfusion. In the US, red blood cells can be stored for up to 6 weeks, but randomized trials have not assessed the effects of this final week of storage on clinical outcomes. METHODS. Sixty healthy adult volunteers were randomized to a single standard, autologous, leukoreduced, packed red cell transfusion after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 weeks of storage (n = 10 per group). 51-Chromium posttransfusion red cell recovery studies were performed and laboratory parameters measured before and at defined times after transfusion. RESULTS. Extravascular hemolysis after transfusion progressively increased with increasing storage time (P < 0.001 for linear trend in the AUC of serum indirect bilirubin and iron levels). Longer storage duration was associated with decreasing posttransfusion red cell recovery (P = 0.002), decreasing elevations in hematocrit (P = 0.02), and increasing serum ferritin (P < 0.0001). After 6 weeks of refrigerated storage, transfusion was followed by increases in AUC for serum iron (P < 0.01), transferrin saturation (P < 0.001), and nontransferrin-bound iron (P < 0.001) as compared with transfusion after 1 to 5 weeks of storage. CONCLUSIONS. After 6 weeks of refrigerated storage, transfusion of autologous red cells to healthy human volunteers increased extravascular hemolysis, saturated serum transferrin, and produced circulating nontransferrin-bound iron. These outcomes, associated with increased risks of harm, provide evidence that the maximal allowable red cell storage duration should be reduced to the minimum sustainable by the blood supply, with 35 days as an attainable goal. REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02087514. FUNDING. NIH grant HL115557 and UL1 TR000040. PMID:27941245
Mahieu-Caputo, Dominique; Dommergues, Marc; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Lacoste, Mireille; Cai, Yi; Narcy, Françoise; Jolly, Dominique; Gonzales, Marie; Dumez, Yves; Gubler, Marie-Claire
The twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTS) results from an unbalanced blood supply through placental anastomoses in monochorionic twins. It induces growth restriction, renal tubular dysgenesis, and oliguria in the donor and visceromegaly and polyuria in the recipient. A better understanding of its pathophysiology could contribute to improving the management of TTS, which still carries a high perinatal mortality in both twins. As well as several other candidates, the renin-angiotensin system might be involved in TTS. To evaluate its role in the pathogenesis of the syndrome, we studied the kidneys of 21 twin pairs who died from TTS at 19 to 30 weeks, compared with 39 individuals in a control group, using light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. The overexpression of the renin protein and transcript with frequent evidence of renin synthesis by mesangial cells was observed in the donor kidneys, presumably as a consequence of chronic renal hypoperfusion. This upregulation of renin synthesis might be beneficial to restore euvolemia. In severe cases of TTS, however, angiotensin-II-induced vasoconstriction acts as an additional deleterious factor by further reducing the renal blood flow in donors. In recipients, renin expression was virtually absent, possibly because it was down-regulated by hypervolemia. However, in addition to congestion and hemorrhagic infarction, there were severe glomerular and arterial lesions resembling those observed in polycythemia- or hypertension-induced microangiopathy. We speculate that fetal hypertension in the recipient might be partly mediated by the transfer of circulating renin produced by the donor, through the placental vascular shunts. PMID:10666392
Estcourt, Lise J; Ingram, Callum; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Stanworth, Simon J
Background People with a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) often require lumbar punctures or an epidural anaesthetic. Lumbar punctures can be diagnostic (haematological malignancies, epidural haematoma, meningitis) or therapeutic (spinal anaesthetic, administration of chemotherapy). Epidural catheters are placed for administration of epidural anaesthetic. Current practice in many countries is to correct thrombocytopenia with platelet transfusions prior to lumbar punctures and epidural anaesthesia, in order to mitigate the risk of serious procedure-related bleeding. However, the platelet count threshold recommended prior to these procedures varies significantly from country to country. This indicates significant uncertainty among clinicians of the correct management of these patients. The risk of bleeding appears to be low but if bleeding occurs it can be very serious (spinal haematoma). Therefore, people may be exposed to the risks of a platelet transfusion without any obvious clinical benefit. Objectives To assess the effects of different platelet transfusion thresholds prior to a lumbar puncture or epidural anaesthesia in people with thrombocytopenia (low platelet count). Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1950) and ongoing trial databases to 3 March 2016. Selection criteria We included RCTs involving transfusions of platelet concentrates, prepared either from individual units of whole blood or by apheresis, and given to prevent bleeding in people of any age with thrombocytopenia requiring insertion of a lumbar puncture needle or epidural catheter. We only included RCTs published in English. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Main results We identified no completed or ongoing RCTs in English. We did not exclude any completed or ongoing RCTs
Tichit, R; Saumet, L; Marchandin, H; Haouy, S; Latry, P; Sirvent, N
The bacterial transfusion risk is currently the greatest infectious risk of blood transfusion. We report the case of a child with postchemotherapy febrile neutropenia who presented septic shock following platelet transfusion contaminated with Citrobacter koseri. The life-threatening development could have been avoided by strict compliance with good clinical practice. The stability of mortality rates due to adverse effects of bacterial proliferation during platelet transfusions in France since 1994 calls for optimization of all preventive measures throughout the transfusion chain and perfect knowledge of transfusion rules by medical staff and care givers.
Blauel, Emily R; Grossmann, Lily T; Vissa, Madhav; Miller, Scott T
In a patient with sickle cell disease receiving chronic transfusion, exacerbation of anemia with reticulocytopenia must prompt consideration of a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction with hyperhemolysis, as further transfusion may worsen this condition; definitive diagnosis is sometimes difficult. Anemia evolving during parvovirus B19-induced erythroid hypoplasia (transient aplastic crisis) should be attenuated in chronic transfusion patients due to superior survival of transfused over endogenous red blood cells. A 16-year-old with sickle cell disease receiving chronic transfusion of modified intensity (goal to maintain hemoglobin S<50%) who developed symptomatic anemia with reticulocytopenia was later shown to have had transient aplastic crisis.
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) induced by donor-derived anti-HLA antibodies in aplastic anemia: possible priming effect of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) on the recipient neutrophils.
Hishizawa, Masakatsu; Mitsuhashi, Ryuichi; Ohno, Tatsuharu
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is currently the leading cause of transfusion-related death. A 67-year-old man with severe aplastic anemia developed TRALI, consisting of acute respiratory insufficiency with severe hypoxia and diffuse pulmonary infiltration 2 hours after the transfusion of platelet concentrates. Although he required intensive respiratory support, he promptly recovered within 4 days. The presence of anti-HLA antibody (anti-HLA B52) in the donated blood product was demonstrated, and a lymphocytotoxicity test disclosed antibody-mediated cytotoxicity against the patient's cells. Furthermore, administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor was suggested to predispose the patient to TRALI by priming the neutrophils.
Rapaport, F.T.; Bachvaroff, R.J.; Waltzer, W.C.; Sato, T.; Asari, H.; Chanana, A.D.; Cronkite, E.P.
At present, the state of allogeneic unresponsiveness produced in adult dogs by total body irradiation (TBI) and autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT), followed by host exposure to a renal allograft appears to be specific for the kidney donor; it exhibits a degree of organ specificity and appears to be mediated by the retransplanted marrow stem cells. The successful induction of unresponsiveness requires at least one cycle of cell generation in the microenvironment of the irradiated host. One new approach to boosting unresponsiveness involves the exposure of the circulating blood cells of the recipient to extracorporeal irradiation. Neck vessels of dogs were exposed, through an arterio-venous shunt, to radioactive cesium for a cumulative dose of 22-40 thousand rads over 4-5 weeks. Following TBI, ABMT and renal allograft, bilateral nephrectomy was performed. Eight of ten animals thus treated have remained unresponsive to their renal allografts for more than 250 days. Other approaches are also described. (JMT)
Sato, Miyuki; Sato, Ken
Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is generally observed in many eukaryotes. Sperm-derived paternal mitochondria and their mtDNA enter the oocyte cytoplasm upon fertilization and then normally disappear during early embryogenesis. However, the mechanism underlying this clearance of paternal mitochondria has remained largely unknown. Recently, we showed that autophagy is required for the elimination of paternal mitochondria in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Shortly after fertilization, autophagosomes are induced locally around the penetrated sperm components. These autophagosomes engulf paternal mitochondria, resulting in their lysosomal degradation during early embryogenesis. In autophagy-defective zygotes, paternal mitochondria and their genomes remain even in the larval stage. Therefore, maternal inheritance of mtDNA is accomplished by autophagic degradation of paternal mitochondria. We also found that another kind of sperm-derived structure, called the membranous organelle, is degraded by zygotic autophagy as well. We thus propose to term this allogeneic (nonself) organelle autophagy as allophagy.
Autologous blood transfusions (ABTs) has been used by athletes for approximately 4 decades to enhance their performance. Although the method was prohibited by the International Olympic Committee in the mid 1980s, no direct detection method has yet been developed and implemented by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Several indirect methods have been proposed with the majority relying on changes in erythropoiesis-sensitive blood markers. Compared with the first methods developed in 1987, the sensitivity of subsequent tests has not improved the detection of blood doping. Nevertheless, the use of sophisticated statistical algorithms has assured a higher level of specificity in subsequent detection models, which is a crucial aspect of antidoping testing particularly to avoid "false positives." Today, the testing markers with the best sensitivity/specificity ratio are the Hbmr model (an algorithm based on the total amount of circulating hemoglobin level [hemoglobin level mass] and percentage of reticulocytes, 4.51·ln(Hbmass)-√%ret) and the OFF-hr model (algorithm based on hemoglobin level concentration and percentage of reticulocytes, Hb(g/L)-60·√%ret). Only the OFF-hr model is currently approved by WADA. Recently, alternative indirect strategies for detecting blood doping have been proposed. One method is based upon a transfusion-induced immune-response resulting in specific changes in gene expression related to leukocytes such as T lymphocytes. Another method relies on detecting increased plasticizer metabolite levels in the urine caused by the leakage of plasticizers from the blood bags used during the blood storage. These methods need further development and validation across different types of transfusion regimes before they can be implemented. In addition, several research projects have been funded by WADA in recent years and are now under development including "Detection of Autologous Blood Transfusions Using Activated Red Blood Cells (the red blood cells
Kumar, Praveen; Thapliyal, Rakesh; Coshic, Poonam; Chatterjee, Kabita
Background: The goal of hemovigilance is to increase the safety and quality of blood transfusion. Identification of the adverse reactions will help in taking appropriate steps to reduce their incidence and make blood transfusion process as safe as possible. Aims: To determine the frequency and type of transfusion reactions (TRs) occurring in patients, reported to the blood bank at our institute. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of all TRs reported to the blood bank at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, between December 2007 and April 2012 was done. All the TRs were evaluated in the blood bank and classified using standard definitions. Results: During the study period a total of 380,658 bloods and blood components were issued by our blood bank. Out of the total 196 adverse reactions reported under the hemovigilance system, the most common type of reaction observed was allergic 55.1% (n = 108), followed by febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction (FNHTR) 35.7% (n = 70). Other less frequently observed reactions were Anaphylactoid reactions 5.1% (n = 10), Acute non-immune HTRs 2.6% (n = 5), Circulatory overload 0.5% (n = 1), Transfusion related acute lung injury 0.5% (n = 1), Delayed HTRs 0.5% (n = 1). Not a single case of bacterial contamination was observed. Conclusion: The frequency of TRs in our patients was found to be 0.05% (196 out of 380,658). This can be an underestimation of the true incidence because of under reporting. It should be the responsibility of the blood transfusion consultant to create awareness amongst their clinical counterpart about safe transfusion practices so that proper hemovigilance system can be achieved to provide better patient care. PMID:24014939
Fayed, Nirmeen A; Abdallah, Ayat R; Khalil, Magdy K; Marwan, Ibraheem K
Platelet transfusion (PTx) has been identified as an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation (LTx). Our aim was to evaluate the safety of therapeutic rather than prophylactic PTx policy in severe thrombocytopenic patients undergoing LTx. Recipients of LTx were divided into two groups: group I (GI) (n = 76) platelet count (PC) ≥ 50 × 10(9)/l and group II (GII) PC < 50 × 109/l (n = 76). Platelets were transfused following a thromboelastometry protocol and clinical signs of diffuse bleeding. Both groups were compared regarding hemoglobin (Hb), international normalized ratio (INR), fibrinogen level, blood loss (BL), blood products required, percentage of bloodless surgery, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay, and vascular complications. Each group was further subdivided according to PTx into (GI NPTx and GII NPTx) with no platelet transfusion (NPTx) and (GI PTx and GII PTx) received PTx. These subgroups were further compared for some variables. Base line Hb was significantly higher while INR was significantly lower in GI.75% avoided PTx in GII. Comparisons of BL, packed red blood cells (PRBCs), and cryoprecipitate transfusion were insignificant. Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion was higher and the percentage of bloodless surgery was lower in GII. In GII, PC increased after start of surgery. Two cases of hepatic artery thrombosis in GI and one in GII were recorded. Recovery of platelets was quicker, and duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay was shorter in NPTx patients regardless the base line PC. Cut-off values of PC 30 × 10(9)/l (with sensitivity 73.7% and specificity 78.8%, p < 0.01), BL of 3750 ml in GI (sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 69%, p < 0.01) and of 3250 ml in GII (sensitivity of 84.2% and specificity of 87.7% (p < 0.01)) could indicate the need of PTx. With therapeutic approach, 75% of patients in GII could avoid unnecessary PTx with its
Najafi, Mahdi; Faraoni, David
Although red blood cells (RBCs) transfusion is sometimes associated with adverse reactions, anemia could also lead to increased morbidity and mortality in high-risk patients. For these reasons, the definition of perioperative strategies that aims to detect and treat preoperative anemia, prevent excessive blood loss, and define "optimal" transfusion algorithms is crucial. Although the treatment with preoperative iron and erythropoietin has been recommended in some specific conditions, several controversies exist regarding the benefit-to-risk balance associated with these treatments. Further studies are needed to better define the indications, dosage, and route of administration for preoperative iron with or without erythropoietin supplementation. Although restrictive transfusion strategies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery have been shown to effectively reduce the incidence and the amount of RBCs transfusion without increase in side effects, some high-risk patients (e.g., symptomatic acute coronary syndrome) could benefit from higher hemoglobin concentrations. Despite all efforts made last decade, a significant amount of work remains to be done to improve hemoglobin optimization and transfusion strategies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
Lannan, Katie L; Refaai, Majed A; Ture, Sara K; Morrell, Craig N; Blumberg, Neil; Phipps, Richard P; Spinelli, Sherry L
Stored platelets undergo biochemical, structural and functional changes that lead to decreased efficacy and safety of platelet transfusions. Not only do platelets acquire markers of activation during storage, but they also fail to respond normally to agonists post-storage. We hypothesized that resveratrol, a cardioprotective antioxidant, could act as a novel platelet storage additive to safely prevent unwanted platelet activation during storage, while simultaneously preserving normal haemostatic function. Human platelets treated with resveratrol and stored for 5 d released less thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin E2 compared to control platelets. Resveratrol preserved the ability of platelets to aggregate, spread and respond to thrombin, suggesting an improved ability to activate post-storage. Utilizing an in vitro model of transfusion and thromboelastography, clot strength was improved with resveratrol treatment compared to conventionally stored platelets. The mechanism of resveratrol's beneficial actions on stored platelets was partly mediated through decreased platelet apoptosis in storage, resulting in a longer half-life following transfusion. Lastly, an in vivo mouse model of transfusion demonstrated that stored platelets are prothrombotic and that resveratrol delayed vessel occlusion time to a level similar to transfusion with fresh platelets. We show resveratrol has a dual ability to reduce unwanted platelet activation during storage, while preserving critical haemostatic function.
Looney, Mark R; Gropper, Michael A; Matthay, Michael A
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is an underreported complication of transfusion therapy, and it is the third most common cause of transfusion-associated death. TRALI is defined as noncardiogenic pulmonary edema temporally related to transfusion therapy. The diagnosis of TRALI relies on excluding other diagnoses such as sepsis, volume overload, and cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Supportive diagnostic evidence includes identifying neutrophil or human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in the donor or recipient plasma. All plasma-containing blood products have been implicated in TRALI, with the majority of cases linked to whole blood, packed RBCs, platelets, and fresh-frozen plasma. The pathogenesis of TRALI may be explained by a "two-hit" hypothesis, with the first "hit" being a predisposing inflammatory condition commonly present in the operating room or ICU. The second hit may involve the passive transfer of neutrophil or HLA antibodies from the donor or the transfusion of biologically active lipids from older, cellular blood products. Treatment is supportive, with a prognosis substantially better than most causes of clinical acute lung injury.
Thomas, Mary Laudon
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of complex diseases of the myeloid stem cell that result in chronic cytopenias. In some instances, these disorders may progress to acute myeloid leukemia. Patients with MDS frequently experience chronic, symptomatic anemia, and many become dependent on chronic transfusions of packed red blood cells. However, long-term transfusion dependence has clinical and economic consequences, including a potentially negative impact on patients' quality of life (QOL). Recently, studies have investigated various strategies to reduce or eliminate transfusion needs in MDS patients. Supportive measures with hematopoietic growth factors such as erythropoietin are often less effective in MDS-associated anemia than in anemia from other causes, but some patients may benefit from this approach. Treatment with other agents, such as antithymocyte globulin, azacitidine, decitabine, thalidomide, and lenalidomide, has resulted in transfusion independence in some subsets of MDS patients. Nurses who care for patients with MDS should be aware of the impact of transfusion dependence on the patient's QOL, as well as the benefits and risks of the various other treatment options available to these patients. Such knowledge will enable the nurse to provide accurate, relevant information, so that patients can make informed choices regarding treatment options for MDS.
Acute lung injury (ALI) has been recognized as a consequence of blood transfusion (BT) since 1978; the Food and Drug Administration, has classified it as the third BT mortality issue, in 2004, and in first place related with ALI. It can be mainly detected as: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO) and transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI). The clinical onset is: severe dyspnea, bilateral lung infiltration and low oxygen saturation. In USA, ARDS has an incidence of three to 22.4 cases/100 000 inhabitants, with 58.3 % mortality. TACO and TRALI are less frequent; they have been reported according to the number of transfusions: one in 1275 to 6000 for TRALI and one in 356 transfusions for TACO. Mortality is reported from two to 20 % in TRALI and 20 % in TACO. Antileukocyte antibodies in blood donors plasma, caused TRALI in 89 % of cases; also it has been found antigen specificity against leukocyte blood receptor in 59 %. The UCI patients who received a BT have ALI as a complication in 40 % of cases. The capillary pulmonary endothelia is the target of leukocyte antibodies and also plasma biologic modifiers of the stored plasma, most probable like a Sanarelli-Shwar-tzman phenomenon.
Schmidt, Amy E; Adamski, Jill
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a serious condition characterized by respiratory distress, hypoxia, and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, which occur within 6 hours of transfusion. Several theories have been proposed to explain the underlying pathologic mechanisms of TRALI. Immune-mediated TRALI accounts for over 80% of reported cases and is mediated by donor antibodies to HLAs and/or human neutrophil antigens (HNA). Immune-mediated TRALI is most commonly associated with donor plasma transfusion or other blood products from multiparous women, which has led many countries to reduce or exclude women from donating high-volume plasma products. This policy change has resulted in a decrease in the incidence of TRALI and highlighted the importance of nonimmune-mediated TRALI, which is thought to be caused by bioreactive lipids and other biologic response modifiers that accumulate during storage of blood products. When TRALI is suspected, clinical consultation with a transfusion medicine specialist helps differentiate it from other transfusion reactions with similar characteristics.
Bux, Jürgen; Sachs, Ulrich J H
In recent years, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) has developed from an almost unknown transfusion reaction to the most common cause of transfusion-related major morbidities and fatalities. A clinical definition of TRALI was established in 2004, based on acute respiratory distress, non-cardiogenic lung oedema temporal association with transfusion and hypoxaemia. Histological findings reveal lung oedema, capillary leucostasis and neutrophil extravasation. However, the pathogenesis of TRALI remains controversial. Leucocyte antibodies, present in fresh frozen plasma and platelet concentrates from multiparous donors, and neutrophil priming agents released in stored cellular blood components have been considered to be causative. As neutrophils and endothelial cells are pivotal in the pathogenesis of TRALI, a threshold model was established to try to unify the various reported findings on pathogenesis. This model comprises the priming of neutrophils and/or endothelium by the patient's co-morbidity, neutrophil and/or endothelial cell activation by the transfused blood component, and the severity of the TRALI reaction.
Lannan, Katie L; Refaai, Majed A; Ture, Sara K; Morrell, Craig N; Blumberg, Neil; Phipps, Richard P; Spinelli, Sherry L
Summary Stored platelets undergo biochemical, structural and functional changes that lead to decreased efficacy and safety of platelet transfusions. Not only do platelets acquire markers of activation during storage, but they also fail to respond normally to agonists post-storage. We hypothesized that resveratrol, a cardioprotective antioxidant, could act as a novel platelet storage additive to safely prevent unwanted platelet activation during storage, while simultaneously preserving normal haemostatic function. Human platelets treated with resveratrol and stored for five days released less thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin E2 compared to control platelets. Resveratrol preserved the ability of platelets to aggregate, spread and respond to thrombin, suggesting an improved ability to activate post-storage. Utilizing an in vitro model of transfusion and thromboelastography, clot strength was improved with resveratrol treatment compared to conventionally stored platelets. The mechanism of resveratrol’s beneficial actions on stored platelets was partly mediated through decreased platelet apoptosis in storage, resulting in a longer half-life following transfusion. Lastly, an in vivo mouse model of transfusion demonstrated that stored platelets are prothrombotic and that resveratrol delayed vessel occlusion time to a level similar to transfusion with fresh platelets. We show resveratrol has a dual ability to reduce unwanted platelet activation during storage, while preserving critical haemostatic function. PMID:26683619
da Silva, Marilene Neves; Vieira-Damiani, Gislaine; Ericson, Marna Elise; Gupta, Kalpna; Gilioli, Rovilson; de Almeida, Amanda Roberta; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; de Almeida Lins, Karina; Soares, Tania Cristina Benetti; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira
BACKGROUND Bartonella spp. are neglected fastidious Gram-negative bacilli. We isolated Bartonella henselae from 1.2% of 500 studied blood donors and demonstrated that the bacteria remain viable in red blood cell units after 35 days of experimental infection. Now, we aim to evaluate the possibility of B. henselae transmission by blood transfusion in a mouse model. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Eight BALB/c mice were intraperitoneal inoculated with a 30μLof suspension with 104 CFU/mL of B. henselae and a second group of eight mice were inoculated with saline solution and used as control. After 96 hours of inoculation, the animals were euthanized. We collected blood and tissue samples from skin, liver, and spleen. Thirty microliters of blood from four Bartonella-inoculated animals were transfused into a new group (n=4). Another group received blood from the control animals. B. henselae infection was investigated by conventional and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS Blood samples from all 24 mice were negative by molecular tests though half of the tissue samples were positive by nested PCR in the intraperitoneal Bartonella-investigated animals. Tissues from two of the four mice that received blood transfusions from Bartonella-inoculated animals were also nested PCR positives. CONCLUSIONS Transmission of B. henselae by transfusion is possible in mice even when donor animals have undetectable bloodstream infection. The impact of human Bartonella sp. transmission through blood transfusion recipients must be evaluated. PMID:26968530