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Sample records for allogenic transfusion requirement

  1. Cell salvage for minimising perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Carless, Paul A; Henry, David A; Moxey, Annette J; O’Connell, Dianne; Brown, Tamara; Fergusson, Dean A

    2014-01-01

    Background Concerns regarding the safety of transfused blood have prompted reconsideration of the use of allogeneic (from an unrelated donor) red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, and a range of techniques to minimise transfusion requirements. Objectives To examine the evidence for the efficacy of cell salvage in reducing allogeneic blood transfusion and the evidence for any effect on clinical outcomes. Search methods We identified studies by searching CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1950 to June 2009), EMBASE (1980 to June 2009), the internet (to August 2009) and bibliographies of published articles. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials with a concurrent control group in which adult patients, scheduled for non-urgent surgery, were randomised to cell salvage (autotransfusion) or to a control group who did not receive the intervention. Data collection and analysis Data were independently extracted and the risk of bias assessed. Relative risks (RR) and weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. The primary outcomes were the number of patients exposed to allogeneic red cell transfusion and the amount of blood transfused. Other clinical outcomes are detailed in the review. Main results A total of 75 trials were included. Overall, the use of cell salvage reduced the rate of exposure to allogeneic RBC transfusion by a relative 38% (RR 0.62; 95% CI 0.55 to 0.70). The absolute reduction in risk (ARR) of receiving an allogeneic RBC transfusion was 21% (95% CI 15% to 26%). In orthopaedic procedures the RR of exposure to RBC transfusion was 0.46 (95% CI 0.37 to 0.57) compared to 0.77 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.86) for cardiac procedures. The use of cell salvage resulted in an average saving of 0.68 units of allogeneic RBC per patient (WMD −0.68; 95% CI −0.88 to −0.49). Cell salvage did not appear to impact adversely on clinical outcomes. Authors’ conclusions

  2. Perioperative blood transfusion: the role of allogenous and autologous transfusions, and pharmacological agents.

    PubMed

    Chimutengwende-Gordon, Mukai; Khan, Wasim S; Maruthainar, Nimalan

    2010-08-01

    The decision to transfuse patients perioperatively is made on an individual basis and should consider factors such as duration and severity of anaemia, symptoms, physiological parameters and comorbidities. Autologous blood transfusion has the benefit of avoiding some of the immunological and infective complications associated with allogenic blood transfusion. Pharmacological agents as well as anaesthetic and surgical techniques have a role in avoiding the need for blood transfusion.

  3. Early autologous fresh whole blood transfusion leads to less allogeneic transfusions and is safe.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Peter; Inaba, Kenji; Pandit, Viraj; Khalil, Mazhar; Siboni, Stefano; Vercruysse, Gary; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Tang, Andrew; Asif, Anum; O'Keeffe, Terence; Joseph, Bellal

    2015-04-01

    requirements (p = 0.01). Cost of transfusions (p = 0.01) was significantly lower in the AT group compared with the No-AT group. The autologous transfusion of the patient's shed blood collected through chest tubes for hemothorax was found to be safe without complications in this study. It also reduced the need for allogeneic transfusions and decreased hospital costs. This study demonstrates safety data that would help in designing larger prospective multicenter studies to determine whether this practice is truly safe and effective. Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level III.

  4. Allogeneic versus autologous blood transfusion and survival after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chalfin, Heather J.; Frank, Steven M.; Feng, Zhaoyong; Trock, Bruce J.; Drake, Charles G.; Partin, Alan W.; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Ness, Paul M.; Jeong, Byong C.; Lee, Seung B.; Han, Misop

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Potential adverse effects of blood transfusion (BT) remain controversial, especially for clinical outcomes after curative cancer surgery. Some postulate that immune modulation after allogeneic BT predisposes to recurrence and death, but autologous superiority is not established. This study assessed whether BT is associated with long-term prostate cancer recurrence and survival a large single-institutional radical prostatectomy (RP) database. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Between 1994 and 2012, a total of 11,680 patients had RP with available outcome and transfusion data. A total of 7443 (64%) had complete covariate data. Clinical variables associated with biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were identified with Cox proportional hazards models for three groups: no BT (reference, 27.7%, n = 2061), autologous BT only (68.8%, n = 5124), and any allogeneic BT (with or without autologous, 3.5%, n = 258). RESULTS Median (range) follow-up was 6 (1–18) years. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly decreased OS (but not BRFS or PCSS) in the allogeneic group versus autologous and no BT groups (p = 0.006). With univariate analysis, any allogeneic BT had a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.29 (range, 1.52–3.46; p < 0.0001) for OS, whereas autologous BT was not significant (HR, 1.04 [range, 0.82–1.32], p = 0.752). In multivariable models, neither autologous nor allogeneic BT was independently associated with BRFS, CSS, or OS, and a dose response was not observed for allogeneic units and BRFS. CONCLUSION Although allogeneic but not autologous BT was associated with decreased long-term OS, after adjustment for confounding clinical variables, BT was not independently associated with OS, BRFS, or CSS regardless of transfusion type. Notably, no association was observed between allogeneic BT and cancer recurrence. Observed differences in OS may reflect confounding. PMID:24601996

  5. Autologous versus allogeneic transfusion: patients' perceptions and experiences

    PubMed Central

    Graham, I D; Fergusson, D; Dokainish, H; Biggs, J; McAuley, L; Laupacis, A

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative autologous donation is one way to decrease a patient's exposure to allogeneic blood transfusion. This study was designed to determine patients' perceptions about the autologous blood donation process and their experiences with transfusion. METHODS: To assess patient perception, a questionnaire was administered a few days before surgery to patients undergoing elective cardiac and orthopedic surgery in a Canadian teaching hospital. All patients attending the preoperative autologous donation clinic during a 10-month period were eligible. A convenience sample of patients undergoing the same types of surgery who had not predonated blood were selected from preadmission clinics. Patient charts were reviewed retrospectively to assess actual transfusion practice in all cases. RESULTS: A total of 80 patients underwent cardiac surgery (40 autologous donors, 40 nondonors) and 73 underwent orthopedic surgery (38 autologous donors, 35 nondonors). Of the autologous donors, 75 (96%) attended all scheduled donation appointments, 73 (93%) said that they were "very likely" or "likely" to predonate again, and 75 (96%) said that they would recommend autologous donation to others. There was little difference in preoperative symptoms between the autologous donors and the nondonors, although the former were more likely than the latter to report that their overall health had remained the same during the month before surgery (30 [75%] v. 21 [52%] for the cardiac surgery patients and 30 [79%] v. 18 [51%] for the orthopedic surgery patients). When the autologous donors were asked what they felt their chances would have been of receiving at least one allogeneic blood transfusion had they not predonated, the median response was 80%. When they were asked what their chances were after predonating their own blood, the median response was 0%. The autologous donors were significantly less likely to receive allogeneic blood transfusions (6 [15%] for cardiac surgery and 3 [8

  6. Reducing transfusion requirements in liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Donohue, Ciara I; Mallett, Susan V

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) was historically associated with massive blood loss and transfusion. Over the past two decades transfusion requirements have reduced dramatically and increasingly transfusion-free transplantation is a reality. Both bleeding and transfusion are associated with adverse outcomes in LT. Minimising bleeding and reducing unnecessary transfusions are therefore key goals in the perioperative period. As the understanding of the causes of bleeding has evolved so too have techniques to minimize or reduce the impact of blood loss. Surgical “piggyback” techniques, anaesthetic low central venous pressure and haemodilution strategies and the use of autologous cell salvage, point of care monitoring and targeted correction of coagulopathy, particularly through use of factor concentrates, have all contributed to declining reliance on allogenic blood products. Pre-emptive management of preoperative anaemia and adoption of more restrictive transfusion thresholds is increasingly common as patient blood management (PBM) gains momentum. Despite progress, increasing use of marginal grafts and transplantation of sicker recipients will continue to present new challenges in bleeding and transfusion management. Variation in practice across different centres and within the literature demonstrates the current lack of clear transfusion guidance. In this article we summarise the causes and predictors of bleeding and present the evidence for a variety of PBM strategies in LT. PMID:26722645

  7. Anti-fibrinolytic use for minimising perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Henry, David A; Carless, Paul A; Moxey, Annette J; O’Connell, Dianne; Stokes, Barrie J; Fergusson, Dean A; Ker, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    the head-to-head trials suggest an advantage of aprotinin over the lysine analogues TXA and EACA in terms of reducing perioperative blood loss, but the differences were small. Compared to control, aprotinin reduced the probability of requiring RBC transfusion by a relative 34% (relative risk [RR] 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60 to 0.72). The RR for RBC transfusion with TXA was 0.61 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.70) and was 0.81 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.99) with EACA. When the pooled estimates from the head-to-head trials of the two lysine analogues were combined and compared to aprotinin alone, aprotinin appeared more effective in reducing the need for RBC transfusion (RR 0.90; 95% CI 0.81 to 0.99). Aprotinin reduced the need for re-operation due to bleeding by a relative 54% (RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.62). This translates into an absolute risk reduction of 2% and a number needed-to-treat (NNT) of 50 (95% CI 33 to 100). A similar trend was seen with EACA (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.99) but not TXA (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.17). The blood transfusion data were heterogeneous and funnel plots indicate that trials of aprotinin and the lysine analogues may be subject to publication bias. When compared with no treatment aprotinin did not increase the risk of myocardial infarction (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.11), stroke (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.52), renal dysfunction (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.54) or overall mortality (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.06). Similar trends were seen with the lysine analogues, but data were sparse. These data conflict with the results of recently published non-randomised studies, which found increased risk of cardiovascular complications and death with aprotinin. There are concerns about the adequacy of reporting of uncommon events in the small clinical trials included in this review. When aprotinin was compared directly with either, or both, of the two lysine analogues it resulted in a significant increase in the risk of death (RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.02, 1.89), and

  8. Effectiveness of acute normovolemic hemodilution to minimize allogeneic blood transfusion in major liver resections.

    PubMed

    Matot, Idit; Scheinin, Olga; Jurim, Oded; Eid, Ahmed

    2002-10-01

    Liver resection is a major operation for which, even with the improvements in surgical and anesthetic techniques, the reported rate of blood transfusion was rarely less than 30%. About 60% of transfused patients require only 1 or 2 units of blood, a blood requirement that may be accommodated by the use of acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH). The efficacy, hemodynamic effects, and safety of ANH were investigated in a randomized, active-control study in patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists status I-II who were undergoing major liver resection with fentanyl-nitrous oxide-isoflurane anesthesia. Patients were randomized to the ANH (n = 39) or control group (n = 39). Patients in the ANH group underwent hemodilution to a target hematocrit of 24%. The indication for blood transfusion was standardized. In both groups transfusion was started at a hematocrit of 20%. The primary efficacy endpoint was the avoidance of allogeneic blood transfusion in the intraoperative period and first 72 h after surgery. Various laboratory and hemodynamic parameters as well as postoperative morbidity were monitored to define the safety of ANH in this patient population. During the perioperative period, 14 control patients (36%) received at least one unit of allogeneic blood compared with 4 patients (10%) in the ANH group ( < 0.05). The hemodilution process was not associated with significant changes in patients' hemodynamics. Morbidity was similar between the control and the ANH groups. Postoperative hematocrit levels and biochemical liver, renal, and standard coagulation test results were similar in both groups. Acute normovolemic hemodilution in patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists status I-II undergoing major liver resection may allow a significant number of patients to avoid exposure to allogeneic blood.

  9. Costs associated with blood transfusions in Sweden--the societal cost of autologous, allogeneic and perioperative RBC transfusion.

    PubMed

    Glenngård, A H; Persson, U; Söderman, C

    2005-08-01

    Anaemia is characterised by an insufficient number of red blood cells (RBCs) and might occur for different reasons, e.g. surgical procedures are often with associated blood loss. Patients who suffer from anaemia have the option of treatment with blood transfusion or medical treatment. In this study, the societal cost, for the case of Sweden, of RBC transfusion using three different techniques, i.e. allogeneic, autologous and intraoperative transfusion, was estimated. The analysis was based on information from interviews with hospital staff at large Swedish hospitals and from published data. The average cost for a 2 units transfusion was found to be Swedish kronor (SEK) 6330 (702 Euro) for filtered allogeneic RBCs and SEK 5394 (598 Euro) for autologous RBCs for surgery patients. Transfusion reactions accounted for almost 35 per cent of the costs of allogeneic RBC transfusions. The administration cost was found to be much higher for autologous transfusions compared with allogeneic transfusions. The cost of intraoperative erythrocyte salvage was calculated to be SEK 2567 (285 Euro) per transfusion (>4 units).

  10. Risk Factors for the Postoperative Transfusion of Allogeneic Blood in Orthopedics Patients With Intraoperative Blood Salvage

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jia-Hua; Lyu, Yi; Cheng, Li-Ming; Li, Ying-Chuan; Gou, Da-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to explore the risk factors affecting the postoperative transfusion of allogeneic blood in patients undergoing orthopedics surgery with intraoperative blood salvage (IBS). A retrospective study of 279 patients undergoing orthopedic surgeries with IBS from May 2013 to May 2015 was enrolled. The binary logistic regression was used to find out the risk factors associated with postoperative transfusion of allogeneic blood in orthopedics patients with IBS, and then receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to determine the optimal threshold of the regression model. Single factor analysis showed that age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade, preoperative hemoglobin, operation time, received autologous blood, the laying time of autologous blood, bleeding volume, and postoperative drainage volume had significant effects on postoperative allogeneic blood transfusion. In binary logistic regression analysis, the independent factors predicting orthopedic patients with IBS need to transfuse allogeneic blood after surgeries were age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.415, P = 0.006), ASA grade (OR = 2.393, P = 0.035), preoperative hemoglobin (OR = 0.532, P = 0.022), and postoperative drainage volume (OR = 4.279, P = 0.000). The area under ROC curve was 0.79 and the predicted accuracy rate of the model was 81.58%. After operation, the orthopedic patients with IBS still have a high allogeneic blood transfusion rate, and IBS is not a perfect blood protection method. The logistic regression model of our study provides a reliable prediction for postoperative transfusion of allogeneic blood in orthopedic patients with IBS, which have a certain reference value. PMID:26937919

  11. Platelet and Red Blood Cell Utilization and Transfusion Independence in Umbilical Cord Blood and Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Hematopoietic Cell Transplants

    PubMed Central

    Solh, Melhem; Brunstein, Claudio; Morgan, Shanna; Weisdorf, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients have substantial transfusion requirements. Factors associated with increased transfusions and the extent of blood product use in umbilical cord blood (UCB) recipients are uncertain. We reviewed blood product use in 229 consecutive adult recipients of allogeneic HCT at the University of Minnesota: 147 with leukemia, 82 lymphoma or myeloma; 58% received unrelated UCB and 43% sibling donor peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) grafts. Although neutrophil recovery was prompt (UCB median 17, range 2–45 days, and PBSC 14, range 3–34 days), only 135 of 229 (59% cumulative incidence, CI) achieved RBC independence and 157 (69%) achieved platelet independence by 6 months. Time to platelet independence was prolonged in UCB recipients (median UCB 41 vs. PBSC 14 days) and in patients who had received a prior transplant (median 48 vs. 32 days). Patients who received UCB grafts required more RBC through day 60 post HCT (mean UCB 7.8 (95% CI 6.7–8.9) vs. PBSC 5.2 (3.7–6.7) transfusions, p=0.04), and more platelet transfusions (mean 25.2 (95% CI 22.1–28.2) vs. 12.9 (9.4–16.4), p<0.01) compared to PBSC recipients. Patient receiving myeloablative (MA) conditioning required more RBC and platelet transfusions during the first 2 months post HCT compared to reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) (7.4 vs. 6.2, p=0.3 for RBC; 23.2 vs 17.5, p=0.07 for platelets). Despite prompt neutrophil engraftment, UCB recipients had delayed platelet recovery as well as more prolonged and costly blood product requirements. Enhanced approaches to accelerate multilineage engraftment could limit the transfusion-associated morbidity and costs accompanying UCB allotransplantation. PMID:20813199

  12. Platelet and red blood cell utilization and transfusion independence in umbilical cord blood and allogeneic peripheral blood hematopoietic cell transplants.

    PubMed

    Solh, Melhem; Brunstein, Claudio; Morgan, Shanna; Weisdorf, Daniel

    2011-05-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients have substantial transfusion requirements. Factors associated with increased transfusions and the extent of blood product use in umbilical cord blood (UCB) recipients are uncertain. We reviewed blood product use in 229 consecutive adult recipients of allogeneic HCT at the University of Minnesota: 147 with leukemia, 82 lymphoma or myeloma; 58% received unrelated UCB and 43% sibling donor peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) grafts. Although neutrophil recovery was prompt (UCB median 17, range: 2-45 days, and PBSC 14, range: 3-34 days), only 135 of 229 (59% cumulative incidence) achieved red blood cell (RBC) independence and 157 (69%) achieved platelet independence by 6 months. Time to platelet independence was prolonged in UCB recipients (median UCB 41 versus PBSC 14 days) and in patients who had received a prior transplant (median 48 versus 32 days). Patients who received UCB grafts required more RBC through day 60 post-HCT (mean UCB 7.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.7-8.9) versus PBSC 5.2 (3.7-6.7) transfusions, P = .04), and more platelet transfusions (mean 25.2 (95% CI 22.1-28.2) versus 12.9 (9.4-16.4), P < .01) compared to PBSC recipients. Patients receiving myeloablative (MA) conditioning required more RBC and platelet transfusions during the first 2 months post-HCT compared to reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) (7.4 versus 6.2, P = .30 for RBC; 23.2 versus 17.5, P = .07 for platelets). Despite prompt neutrophil engraftment, UCB recipients had delayed platelet recovery as well as more prolonged and costly blood product requirements. Enhanced approaches to accelerate multilineage engraftment could limit the transfusion-associated morbidity and costs accompanying UCB allotransplantation.

  13. Blood still kills: six strategies to further reduce allogeneic blood transfusion-related mortality.

    PubMed

    Vamvakas, Eleftherios C; Blajchman, Morris A

    2010-04-01

    After reviewing the relative frequency of the causes of allogeneic blood transfusion-related mortality in the United States today, we present 6 possible strategies for further reducing such transfusion-related mortality. These are (1) avoidance of unnecessary transfusions through the use of evidence-based transfusion guidelines, to reduce potentially fatal (infectious as well as noninfectious) transfusion complications; (2) reduction in the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury in recipients of platelet transfusions through the use of single-donor platelets collected from male donors, or female donors without a history of pregnancy or who have been shown not to have white blood cell (WBC) antibodies; (3) prevention of hemolytic transfusion reactions through the augmentation of patient identification procedures by the addition of information technologies, as well as through the prevention of additional red blood cell alloantibody formation in patients who are likely to need multiple transfusions in the future; (4) avoidance of pooled blood products (such as pooled whole blood-derived platelets) to reduce the risk of transmission of emerging transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) and the residual risk from known TTIs (especially transfusion-associated sepsis [TAS]); (5) WBC reduction of cellular blood components administered in cardiac surgery to prevent the poorly understood increased mortality seen in cardiac surgery patients in association with the receipt of non-WBC-reduced (compared with WBC-reduced) transfusion; and (6) pathogen reduction of platelet and plasma components to prevent the transfusion transmission of most emerging, potentially fatal TTIs and the residual risk of known TTIs (especially TAS).

  14. Antibody and complement mediated injury in transplants following sensitization by allogeneic blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhiping; Lee, Chih-Yuan; Murata, Kazunori; Liu, Jinhuan; Fox-Talbot, Karen; Wasowska, Barbara A; Baldwin, William M

    2006-10-15

    Many patients on the waiting list for transplants are sensitized from previous blood transfusions, pregnancy, or transplants. We investigated the role of complement in acute and chronic pathology in hearts transplanted to sensitized rats. Blood was transfused from allogeneic PVG.R8 rats or control isogeneic PVG.1U rats to C6-sufficient and -deficient PVG.1U rats. Three weeks later hearts were transplanted from PVG.R8 donors and low-dose cyclosporin A was initiated. Allogeneic but not isogeneic blood transfusion elicited strong immunoglobulin (Ig) M, IgG1 and IgG2b alloantibody responses. Sensitization caused accelerated acute rejection of cardiac allografts by C6-sufficient recipients (4 days). In contrast, allografts functioned over 40 days in all C6-deficient recipients, but sensitization caused increased interstitial fibrosis and chronic vasculopathy. Circulating alloantibodies were associated with deposits of C4d on the vascular endothelium together with pericapillary accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages in the grafts. In contrast, T cells accumulated in periarterial lymphatics that did not have C4d deposits. Presensitization by allogeneic blood transfusion causes accelerated acute graft rejection in the presence of the complete complement cascade. In the absence of C6, macrophages colocalized with deposits of C4d and T cells accumulated in the periarterial lymphatics.

  15. Red blood cell transfusion-dependence and outcome after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with de novo myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)

    PubMed Central

    Platzbecker, Uwe; Bornhäuser, Martin; Germing, Ulrich; Stumpf, Julian; Scott, Bart L.; Kröger, Nicolaus; Schwerdtfeger, Rainer; Böhm, Alexandra; Kobbe, Guido; Theuser, Catrin; Rabitsch, Werner; Valent, Peter; Sorror, Mohamed L.; Ehninger, Gerhard; Deeg, H.Joachim

    2009-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with de novo myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), who are red blood cell transfusion-dependent (TD) and receive supportive care is inferior to that of patients not requiring transfusions. It is unknown, whether TD also affects outcome after allogeneic transplantation. We therefore analyzed in 172 de novo MDS patients, median age 51 years, the impact of TD on outcome after high-dose conditioning and allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). With a median follow-up of 37 months the probability of 3-year overall survival (OS) did not differ significantly between patients who were or were not TD before PBSCT (p=0.1). However, transfusion burden, as reflected by ferritin levels, correlated with a higher probability of severe acute graft versus host disease (p=0.03) and a higher comorbidity index (p=0.01), and OS was inferior among patients with ferritin levels >1000µg/l before PBSCT (p=0.03). In multivariate analysis only marrow myeloblast count (p=0.01) and comorbidity index (p=0.001) had a significant impact on OS. Thus, these data did not identify TD as an independent negative prognostic factor for outcome after allogeneic PBSCT. However, iron overload, presumably transfusion-related, may contribute to inferior transplant success by adding to the overall comorbidities. Whether clinical intervention in the form of iron chelation would improve results of allogeneic PBSCT in TD patients with MDS remains to be determined. PMID:18940675

  16. Forum for debate: Safety of allogeneic blood transfusion alternatives in the surgical/critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Gómez, M; Bisbe Vives, E; Basora Macaya, M; García Erce, J A; Gómez Luque, A; Leal-Noval, S R; Colomina, M J; Comin Colet, J; Contreras Barbeta, E; Cuenca Espiérrez, J; Garcia de Lorenzo Y Mateos, A; Gomollón García, F; Izuel Ramí, M; Moral García, M V; Montoro Ronsano, J B; Páramo Fernández, J A; Pereira Saavedra, A; Quintana Diaz, M; Remacha Sevilla, Á; Salinas Argente, R; Sánchez Pérez, C; Tirado Anglés, G; Torrabadella de Reinoso, P

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, several safety alerts have questioned or restricted the use of some pharmacological alternatives to allogeneic blood transfusion in established indications. In contrast, there seems to be a promotion of other alternatives, based on blood products and/or antifibrinolytic drugs, which lack a solid scientific basis. The Multidisciplinary Autotransfusion Study Group and the Anemia Working Group España convened a multidisciplinary panel of 23 experts belonging to different healthcare areas in a forum for debate to: 1) analyze the different safety alerts referred to certain transfusion alternatives; 2) study the background leading to such alternatives, the evidence supporting them, and their consequences for everyday clinical practice, and 3) issue a weighted statement on the safety of each questioned transfusion alternative, according to its clinical use. The members of the forum maintained telematics contact for the exchange of information and the distribution of tasks, and a joint meeting was held where the conclusions on each of the items examined were presented and discussed. A first version of the document was drafted, and subjected to 4 rounds of review and updating until consensus was reached (unanimously in most cases). We present the final version of the document, approved by all panel members, and hope it will be useful for our colleagues.

  17. Clinical and Surgical Strategies for Avoiding or Reducing Allogeneic Blood Transfusions

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Antonio Alceu; Baumgratz, Jose Francisco; Vila, Jose Henrique Andrade; Castro, Rodrigo Moreira; Bezerra, Rodrigo Freire

    2016-01-01

    Blood transfusions have still been used as a standard therapy to treat severe anemia. Current evidences point to both excessive allogeneic blood consumption and decreased donations, which result in reduced stocks in blood banks. Several studies have increasingly suggested a more restrictive transfusion practice for blood products. Currently, a number of autologous blood conservation protocols in surgeries have been noted. We report a case of severe anemia with 2.9 g/dL hemoglobin, which was successfully handled without using the standard therapy to treat anemia with hemotransfusions. Such a case of severe anemia condition resulted after the patient was submitted to ascending aortic aneurism repair, valvar aortic replacement, reimplantation of right coronary ostium, followed by a coronary artery bypass grafting and several postoperative complications. The main clinical and surgical strategies used in this case to avoid blood transfusions were acute normovolemic hemodilution, intraoperative blood cell salvage, and meticulous hemostasis, beyond epsilon-aminocaproic acid, desmopressin, prothrombin complex concentrate, human fibrinogen concentrate, factor VIIa recombinant, erythropoietin and hyperoxic ventilation. PMID:28197273

  18. [The 2013 Seville Consensus Document on alternatives to allogenic blood transfusion. An update on the Seville Document].

    PubMed

    Leal-Noval, S R; Muñoz, M; Asuero, M; Contreras, E; García-Erce, J A; Llau, J V; Moral, V; Páramo, J A; Quintana, M; Basora, M; Bautista-Paloma, F J; Bisbe, E; Bóveda, J L; Castillo-Muñoz, A; Colomina, M J; Fernández, C; Fernández-Mondéjar, E; Ferrándiz, C; García de Lorenzo, A; Gomar, C; Gómez-Luque, A; Izuel, M; Jiménez-Yuste, V; López-Briz, E; López-Fernández, M L; Martín-Conde, J A; Montoro-Ronsano, B; Paniagua, C; Romero-Garrido, J A; Ruiz, J C; Salinas-Argente, R; Sánchez, C; Torrabadella, P; Arellano, V; Candela, A; Fernández, J A; Fernández-Hinojosa, E; Puppo, A

    2013-05-01

    Since allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT) is not harmless, multiple alternatives to ABT (AABT) have emerged, though there is great variability in their indications and appropriate use. This variability results from the interaction of a number of factors, including the specialty of the physician, knowledge and preferences, the degree of anemia, transfusion policy, and AABT availability. Since AABTs are not harmless and may not meet cost-effectiveness criteria, such variability is unacceptable. The Spanish Societies of Anesthesiology (SEDAR), Hematology and Hemotherapy (SEHH), Hospital Pharmacy (SEFH), Critical Care Medicine (SEMICYUC), Thrombosis and Hemostasis (SETH) and Blood Transfusion (SETS) have developed a Consensus Document for the proper use of AABTs. A panel of experts convened by these 6 Societies have conducted a systematic review of the medical literature and have developed the 2013 Seville Consensus Document on Alternatives to Allogeneic Blood Transfusion, which only considers those AABT aimed at decreasing the transfusion of packed red cells. AABTs are defined as any pharmacological or non-pharmacological measure aimed at decreasing the transfusion of red blood cell concentrates, while preserving patient safety. For each AABT, the main question formulated, positively or negatively, is: "Does this particular AABT reduce the transfusion rate or not?" All the recommendations on the use of AABTs were formulated according to the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. [The 2013 Seville Consensus Document on alternatives to allogenic blood transfusion. An update on the Seville Document].

    PubMed

    Leal-Noval, S R; Muñoz, M; Asuero, M; Contreras, E; García-Erce, J A; Llau, J V; Moral, V; Páramo, J A; Quintana, M; Basora, M; Bautista-Paloma, F J; Bisbe, E; Bóveda, J L; Castillo-Muñoz, A; Colomina, M J; Fernández, C; Fernández-Mondéjar, E; Ferrándiz, C; García de Lorenzo, A; Gomar, C; Gómez-Luque, A; Izuel, M; Jiménez-Yuste, V; López-Briz, E; López-Fernández, M L; Martín-Conde, J A; Montoro-Ronsano, B; Paniagua, C; Romero-Garrido, J A; Ruiz, J C; Salinas-Argente, R; Sánchez, C; Torrabadella, P; Arellano, V; Candela, A; Fernández, J A; Fernández-Hinojosa, E; Puppo, A

    2013-05-01

    Since allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT) is not harmless, multiple alternatives to ABT (AABT) have emerged, though there is great variability in their indications and appropriate use. This variability results from the interaction of a number of factors, including the specialty of the physician, knowledge and preferences, the degree of anemia, transfusion policy, and AABT availability. Since AABTs are not harmless and may not meet cost-effectiveness criteria, such variability is unacceptable. The Spanish Societies of Anesthesiology (SEDAR), Hematology and Hemotherapy (SEHH), Hospital Pharmacy (SEFH), Critical Care Medicine (SEMICYUC), Thrombosis and Hemostasis (SETH) and Blood Transfusion (SETS) have developed a Consensus Document for the proper use of AABTs. A panel of experts convened by these 6 Societies have conducted a systematic review of the medical literature and have developed the 2013 Seville Consensus Document on Alternatives to Allogeneic Blood Transfusion, which only considers those AABT aimed at decreasing the transfusion of packed red cells. AABTs are defined as any pharmacological or non-pharmacological measure aimed at decreasing the transfusion of red blood cell concentrates, while preserving patient safety. For each AABT, the main question formulated, positively or negatively, is: « Does this particular AABT reduce the transfusion rate or not?» All the recommendations on the use of AABTs were formulated according to the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology.

  20. [Modern coagulation management reduces the transfusion rate of allogenic blood products].

    PubMed

    Weber, Christian Friedrich

    2012-06-01

    Evaluating the patient's individual bleeding history with a standardized questionnaire, using "point-of-care" - methods for coagulation analyses and providing autologous transfusion techniques are preconditions of a modern coagulation management. Therapy of coagulopathic patients should be based on structured hemotherapy algorithms. Surgical haemostasis and the maintenance of the basic conditions for haemostasis are elementary requirements for an effective therapy. In cases of diffuse bleeding, early antifibrinolytic therapy should be considered. Coagulation factor deficiencies should be corrected "goal-directed" using coagulation factor concentrates. Transfusion of fresh frozen plasma is only indicated in the clinical setting of massive transfusions. DDAVP and transfusion of platelet concentrates are options to optimize primary haemostasis. In cases of on-going bleeding, recombinant activated coagulation factor VII represents an option for "ultima-ratio" therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Peri-operative allogeneic blood transfusion and outcomes after radical cystectomy: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Siemens, D Robert; Jaeger, Melanie T; Wei, Xuejiao; Vera-Badillo, Francisco; Booth, Christopher M

    2017-02-17

    To describe factors associated with peri-operative blood transfusion (PBT) at radical cystectomy (RC) for patients with bladder cancer and evaluate its association on both early and late outcomes. Electronic records of treatment and surgical pathology reports were linked to the population-based Ontario Cancer Registry to identify all patients who underwent RC between 2000 and 2008. Modified Poisson regression model was used to determine the factors associated with PBT. A Cox-proportional hazards regression model was used to explore the association between PBT and overall (OS) and cancer-specific (CSS) survival. Among 2593 patients identified, 62% received an allogeneic red blood cell transfusion. The frequency of PBT decreased over the study period (from 68 to 54%, p < 0.001). Factors associated with PBT included age, sex, greater co-morbidity, stage, and surgeon volume. PBT was associated with inferior outcomes, including median length of stay (11 vs. 9 days, p < 0.001), 90-day re-admission rate (38 vs. 29%, p < 0.001), and mortality (11 vs. 4%, p < 0.001). OS and CSS at 5 years were lower among patients with PBT on multivariate analysis (OS HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.20-1.48; CSS HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.23-1.56). Although rates are decreasing, these data suggest a very high utilization rate of PBT at time of RC in routine clinical practice. PBT is associated with substantially worse early outcomes and long-term survival. This association persists despite adjustment for disease-, patient-, and provider-related factors, suggesting that PBT is an important indicator of surgical care of RC.

  2. Autologous Infant and Allogeneic Adult Red Cells Demonstrate Similar Concurrent Post-Transfusion Survival in Very Low Birth Weight Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Widness, John A.; Kuruvilla, Denison J.; Mock, Donald M.; Matthews, Nell I.; Nalbant, Demet; Cress, Gretchen A.; Schmidt, Robert L.; Strauss, Ronald G.; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective Based on the hypothesis that neonatal autologous red blood cell (RBC) survival (RCS) is substantially shorter than adult RBC, we concurrently tracked the survival of transfused biotin-labeled autologous neonatal and allogeneic adult RBC into ventilated, very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Study design RBC aliquots from the first clinically ordered, allogeneic adult RBC transfusion and from autologous infant blood were labeled at separate biotin densities (BioRBC) and transfused. Survival of these BioRBCs populations were concurrently followed over weeks by flow cytometric enumeration using leftover blood. Relative tracking of infant autologous and adult allogeneic BioRBC was analyzed by linear mixed modeling of batched weekly data. When possible, Kidd antigen (Jka and Jkb) mismatches between infant and donor RBCs were also used to track these two populations. Results Contrary to our hypothesis, concurrent tracking curves of RCS of neonatal and adult BioRBC in 15 study infants did not differ until week 7, after which neonatal RBC survival became shortened to 59% to 79% of adult enumeration values for uncertain reasons. Analysis of mismatched Kidd antigen RBC showed similar results, thus confirming that BioRBC tracking is not perturbed by biotin RBC labeling. Conclusions This study illustrates the utility of multi-density BioRBC labeling for concurrent measurement of RCS of multiple RBC populations in vivo. The similar RCS results observed for neonatal and adult BioRBCs transfused into VLBW infants provides strong evidence that the circulatory environment of the newborn infant—not intrinsic infant-adult RBC differences—is the primary determinant of erythrocyte survival. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT 00731588. PMID:26363547

  3. Autologous Infant and Allogeneic Adult Red Cells Demonstrate Similar Concurrent Post-Transfusion Survival in Very Low Birth Weight Neonates.

    PubMed

    Widness, John A; Kuruvilla, Denison J; Mock, Donald M; Matthews, Nell I; Nalbant, Demet; Cress, Gretchen A; Schmidt, Robert L; Strauss, Ronald G; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Based on the hypothesis that neonatal autologous red blood cell (RBC) survival (RCS) is substantially shorter than adult RBC, we concurrently tracked the survival of transfused biotin-labeled autologous neonatal and allogeneic adult RBC into ventilated, very low birth weight infants. RBC aliquots from the first clinically ordered, allogeneic adult RBC transfusion and from autologous infant blood were labeled at separate biotin densities (biotin-labeled RBC [BioRBC]) and transfused. Survival of these BioRBCs populations were concurrently followed over weeks by flow cytometric enumeration using leftover blood. Relative tracking of infant autologous and adult allogeneic BioRBC was analyzed by linear mixed modeling of batched weekly data. When possible, Kidd antigen (Jka and Jkb) mismatches between infant and donor RBCs were also used to track these 2 populations. Contrary to our hypothesis, concurrent tracking curves of RCS of neonatal and adult BioRBC in 15 study infants did not differ until week 7, after which neonatal RCS became shortened to 59%-79% of adult enumeration values for uncertain reasons. Analysis of mismatched Kidd antigen RBC showed similar results, thus, confirming that BioRBC tracking is not perturbed by biotin RBC labeling. This study illustrates the utility of multidensity BioRBC labeling for concurrent measurement of RCS of multiple RBC populations in vivo. The similar RCS results observed for neonatal and adult BioRBCs transfused into very low birth weight infants provides strong evidence that the circulatory environment of the newborn infant, not intrinsic infant-adult RBC differences, is the primary determinant of erythrocyte survival. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00731588. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Decreased transfusion requirements in patients given stem cell allografts using a non-myeloablative conditioning regimen: a single institution experience.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo J; López-Martínez, Briceida; Gómez-Rangel, David; Estrada, Erick; Marín-López, Antonio; Bravo-Hernández, Gerardo; Manuel Hernández, Juan

    2003-06-01

    We report our experience of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation using non-myeloablative conditioning regimens delivered and supported on an outpatient basis. A group of 44 patients underwent 47 allograft procedures using peripheral blood stem cells. Approximately one third of the individuals did not require red blood cells transfusions: the median of transfused red blood cells units was 1 (range 0-10). In addition one out of three did not require platelet transfusions either, the median of platelet transfusions being 1 (range 0-6). In fourteen allografts (30%) neither red blood cells nor platelet transfusions were used. An inverse correlation was found between the number of CD34 cells infused and the PRBC and PLT transfusion requirements, those patients receiving high numbers of CD34 cells needing fewer transfusions of both PRBC and platelets. The possibility of conducting allografts without transfusion of blood products in some patients may result in a decrease in both cost and the risks stemming from exposure to human blood derivatives.

  5. Reduced platelet transfusions and earlier platelet engraftment using alemtuzumab-based conditioning regimen in allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Thomas; Schneidewind, Laila; Thiele, Thomas; Schulze, Meike; Klenner, Anne F; Busemann, Christoph; Pink, Daniel; Greinacher, Andreas; Dölken, Gottfried; Krüger, William H

    2016-05-01

    In patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation, conditioning regimens containing alemtuzumab instead of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) may result in an earlier platelet engraftment and a reduced number of platelet transfusions. We performed a retrospective, single-center, case-control study analyzing time to engraftment and transfusion needs using alemtuzumab in comparison with ATG as part of conditioning protocol. Median values for time to platelet engraftment, number of transfused platelet concentrates and number of transfused red cell concentrates were 12 versus 19.5 days (p < 0.001), 2 versus 14 (p < 0.001) and 6 versus 14.5 (p = 0.003) in the alemtuzumab and ATG group. Time to leukocyte engraftment did not differ with median 15 days in both groups. Patients in the ATG group showed a significant higher decrease in platelet count during conditioning (68 vs. 29 %, p = 0.001), leading to significant lower median platelet counts at the day of stem cell infusion (38 vs. 95.5 Gpt/l, p = 0.008), and higher values for median C-reactive protein after first antibody infusion (69.0 vs. 43.6 mg/l, p = 0.001) compared with alemtuzumab group. Test for significance was done by using Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Subgroup analysis considering the type of ATG used (Thymoglobulin vs. ATG Fresenius) revealed that differences between alemtuzumab and ATG group were more due to effects of ATG Fresenius than Thymoglobulin. The use of alemtuzumab in comparison with ATG as part of the conditioning regimen may be an approach to reduce the number of transfused platelet and red cell concentrates after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

  6. Therapeutic options to minimize allogeneic blood transfusions and their adverse effects in cardiac surgery: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Antônio Alceu; da Silva, José Pedro; da Silva, Luciana da Fonseca; de Sousa, Alexandre Gonçalves; Piotto, Raquel Ferrari; Baumgratz, José Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Introdution Allogeneic blood is an exhaustible therapeutic resource. New evidence indicates that blood consumption is excessive and that donations have decreased, resulting in reduced blood supplies worldwide. Blood transfusions are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as higher hospital costs. This makes it necessary to seek out new treatment options. Such options exist but are still virtually unknown and are rarely utilized. Objective To gather and describe in a systematic, objective, and practical way all clinical and surgical strategies as effective therapeutic options to minimize or avoid allogeneic blood transfusions and their adverse effects in surgical cardiac patients. Methods A bibliographic search was conducted using the MeSH term “Blood Transfusion” and the terms “Cardiac Surgery” and “Blood Management.” Studies with titles not directly related to this research or that did not contain information related to it in their abstracts as well as older studies reporting on the same strategies were not included. Results Treating anemia and thrombocytopenia, suspending anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, reducing routine phlebotomies, utilizing less traumatic surgical techniques with moderate hypothermia and hypotension, meticulous hemostasis, use of topical and systemic hemostatic agents, acute normovolemic hemodilution, cell salvage, anemia tolerance (supplementary oxygen and normothermia), as well as various other therapeutic options have proved to be effective strategies for reducing allogeneic blood transfusions. Conclusion There are a number of clinical and surgical strategies that can be used to optimize erythrocyte mass and coagulation status, minimize blood loss, and improve anemia tolerance. In order to decrease the consumption of blood components, diminish morbidity and mortality, and reduce hospital costs, these treatment strategies should be incorporated into medical practice worldwide. PMID:25714216

  7. MHC II on Transfused Murine Blood is Not Required for Alloimmunization Against MHC I

    PubMed Central

    Gilson, Christopher R.; Cadwell, Chantel M.; Smith, Nicole H.; Hendrickson, Jeanne E.; Zimring, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives Transfusion of allogeneic platelet products can result in antibodies against donor MHC I antigens, leading to a refractory state to subsequent platelet transfusions. However, there is disagreement in the field regarding the molecular mechanisms of humoral alloimmunization. One hypothesis states that donor MHC II is a requirement for alloimmunization. However, other studies have suggested that donor MHC I is alone sufficient and MHC II is not required. Materials and Methods We utilized a mouse model of anti-MHC I alloimmunization to transfused blood, which employed donors with a complete deletion of all MHC II genes. BALB/c (H-2d) recipients were transfused with blood from either C57BL/6 (H-2b) or MHC II null donors on a C57BL/6 background. Anti-MHC I alloimmunization was monitored by indirect immunofluorescence. Results Recipients of either wild type or MHC II null blood produced equivalent humoral responses against donor MHC I antigens. However, there was variation in the relative amounts of IgG subclasses. Conclusion These data reject the hypothesis that donor MHC II expression is required for alloimmunization to MHC I antigens. PMID:20546207

  8. The hospital cost (fiscal year 1991/1992) of a simple perioperative allogeneic red blood cell transfusion during elective surgery at Duke University.

    PubMed

    Lubarsky, D A; Hahn, C; Bennett, D H; Smith, L R; Bredehoeft, S J; Klein, H G; Reves, J G

    1994-10-01

    We sought to determine the actual cost to Duke University Medical Center of a perioperative red blood cell transfusion. A recent audit at Duke University Medical Center determined the base average direct and indirect hospital costs for providing a unit of red blood cells. The Transfusion Service's base cost for providing an allogeneic unit of red blood cells was $113.58. To obtain the actual hospital cost of transfusing a unit of red blood cells in the perioperative period, associated costs were calculated and added to the Transfusion Service's base cost. These associated costs included compatibility tests on multiple units per each unit transfused in the perioperative period, performing ABO and Rh typing and antibody screening on samples from patients who were not subsequently transfused, compatibility tests on units not issued, handling costs of units issued but not used, physically administering the blood, and the cost of the recipient contracting an infectious disease or developing a transfusion reaction. These associated costs increased the cost of transfusing an allogeneic unit of red blood cells in the perioperative period to $151.20. Perhaps the techniques described in the study can be used to quantify cost/benefit ratios associated with future changes in transfusion practice.

  9. Role of parenteral iron in transfusion requirements after total hip replacement. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, M; Naveira, E; Seara, J; Palmer, J H; Cuenca, J; García-Erce, J A

    2006-04-01

    An important percentage of patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR) receive allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT) to avoid the risks of acute anaemia. However, concerns about the risks of ABT have led to the search for alternatives, such as stimulation of erythropoiesis. We prospectively investigated the effect of postoperative administration of 300 mg of intravenous iron sucrose on ABT requirements in THR patients (group 2; n = 24). A previous series of 22 THR patients served as the control group (group 1). All patients were operated on by the same surgeon, using the same implant, and a set of clinical data was gathered. No adverse reactions to iron administration were observed. The group-given iron showed a trend to a lower transfusion rate (46 vs. 73%; P = 0.067) and lower transfusion index (0.96 vs. 1.68 units/patient; P = 0.038). Moreover, amongst the non-transfused patients, admission haemoglobin levels were lower in those coming from the iron group than those from the control group (12.7 +/- 0.9 vs. 14.0 +/- 1.2 g dL(-1), respectively; P = 0.017). Postoperative parenteral iron administration could be a safe and effective way to reduce ABT requirements in the THR patients. A large, randomized controlled trial to confirm these results is warranted.

  10. Significant reduction of red blood cell transfusion requirements by changing from a double-unit to a single-unit transfusion policy in patients receiving intensive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Martin David; Gerber, Bernhard; Arn, Kornelius; Senn, Oliver; Schanz, Urs; Stussi, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditionally, single-unit red blood cell transfusions were believed to be insufficient to treat anemia, but recent data suggest that they may lead to a safe reduction of transfusion requirements. We tested this hypothesis by changing from a double- to a single-unit red blood cell transfusion policy. Design and Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study in patients with hematologic malignancies receiving intensive chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The major end-points were the reduction in the total number of red blood cell units per therapy cycle and per day of aplasia. The study comprised 139 patients who received 272 therapy cycles. Overall 2212 red blood cell units were administered in 1548 transfusions. Results During the periods of the double- and single-unit policies, one red blood cell unit was transfused in 25% and 84% of the cases and the median number of red blood cell units per transfusion was two and one, respectively. Single-unit transfusion led to a 25% reduction of red blood cell usage per therapy cycle and 24% per aplasia day, but was not associated with a higher out-patient transfusion frequency. In multivariate analysis, single-unit transfusion resulted in a reduction of 2.7 red blood cell units per treatment cycle (P=0.001). The pre-transfusion hemoglobin levels were lower during the single-unit period (median 61 g/L versus 64 g/L) and more transfusions were administered to patients with hemoglobin values of 60 gl/L or less (47% versus 26%). There was no evidence of more severe bleeding or more platelet transfusions during the single-unit period and the overall survival was similar in both cohorts. Conclusions Implementing a single-unit transfusion policy saves 25% of red blood cell units and, thereby, reduces the risks associated with allogeneic blood transfusions. PMID:21933858

  11. Intraoperative plateletpheresis and autologous platelet gel do not reduce chest tube drainage or allogeneic blood transfusion after reoperative coronary artery bypass graft.

    PubMed

    Wajon, P; Gibson, J; Calcroft, R; Hughes, C; Thrift, B

    2001-09-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is postulated to decrease postoperative mediastinal chest tube drainage (MCTD) and allogeneic blood transfusions (ABT) after surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. However, recent metaanalysis of the literature reveals that few good quality (therapeutic yield) trials that show a benefit have been published. The potential hemodynamic instability caused by plateletpheresis has not been emphasized. We studied the effect of plateletpheresis on MCTD, ABT, and hemodynamic stability in reoperative coronary artery bypass graft patients, a group perceived to be at high risk for ABT. Ninety patients were randomly assigned to Pheresis or Control groups. epsilon-Aminocaproic acid was given to all patients. Hemodynamic instability was assessed by degree of volume and inotrope resuscitation required. Part of the sequestered platelet volume was used to make autologous platelet gel, which was applied as a wound sealant. Mean pheresis yield was 30% +/- 7% of the circulating platelet mass or 6.4 +/- 2.2 allogeneic platelet unit equivalents. Total MCTD did not differ between the groups. There were no differences in mean packed red blood cell, platelet, and plasma transfusion rates. Overall, 52% of the Pheresis group received ABT, versus 55% of the Control group. Fifty-three percent of the Pheresis group patients exhibited significant hemodynamic instability, versus 27% of the Control group (P < 0.05). This study was unable to show any reduction in MCTD or ABT, although the plateletpheresis technique may offset platelet dysfunction caused by aspirin or increased blood exposure to nonbiologic surfaces, or it may compensate for lack of antifibrinolytic use. The significantly increased incidence of hemodynamic instability in the Pheresis group means that the risk/benefit ratio must be determined for individual cardiac surgical units.

  12. Assessing the impact of fracture pattern on transfusion requirements in hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Morris, R; Rethnam, U; Russ, B; Topliss, C

    2017-06-01

    Hip fractures in the elderly represent a major source of morbidity and mortality, with allogeneic blood transfusions (ABTs) associated with increased mortality. This study assesses the ABT requirements between the most common patterns of hip fracture; intertrochanteric (IT) and intracapsular (IC). The impact of operation type on transfusion rates was also assessed. A retrospective study was performed for all patients entered on the national hip fracture database over 1 year in a teaching hospital. Records of 559 patients were reviewed and, following exclusion criteria, 474 were evaluated (198 IT, 276 IC). Baseline haematological parameters and ABTs were identified using hospital systems. Analysis was performed in SPSS, using independent samples t tests, one-way ANOVAs and Chi square tests. Patient groups were matched on gender, anaesthetic type, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) grade, cognitive score and coagulation parameters. A significantly greater proportion of IT patients required an ABT during admission (39.4 vs. 22.5 %, p < 0.001). For IT fractures a greater proportion of patients required an ABT when undergoing an intramedullary nail operation compared with those requiring a dynamic hip screw (67.4 vs. 32.0 %, p < 0.001). Similarly, for IC fractures transfusion rates in patients undergoing an internal fixation were significantly lower than those undergoing hemiarthroplasty or arthroplasty (9.4 vs. 26.4 vs. 20.8 %, p = 0.033). Patients with IT hip fractures are significantly more likely to require an ABT than those with IC hip fractures. Patients undergoing an intramedullary nail for IT fractures have significantly higher transfusion rates than for other types of operation.

  13. Hospital variation in allogeneic transfusion and extended length of stay in primary elective hip and knee arthroplasty: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Voorn, Veronique M A; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J; van der Hout, Anja; So-Osman, Cynthia; van den Akker–van Marle, M Elske; Koopman–van Gemert, Ankie W M M; Dahan, Albert; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P M; Nelissen, Rob G H H; van Bodegom-Vos, Leti

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Outcomes in total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA), such as allogeneic transfusions or extended length of stay (LoS), can be used to compare the performance of hospitals. However, there is much variation in these outcomes. This study aims to rank hospitals and to assess hospital differences of two outcomes in THA and TKA: allogeneic transfusions and extended LoS, and to additionally identify factors associated with these differences. Design Cross-sectional medical record review study. Setting Data were gathered in 23 Dutch hospitals. Participants 1163 THA and 986 TKA patient admissions. Outcomes Hospitals were ranked based on their observed/expected (O/E) ratios regarding allogeneic transfusion and extended LoS percentages (extended LoS was defined by postoperative stay >4 days). To assess the reliability of these rankings, we calculated which percentage of the existing variation was based on differences between hospitals as compared with random variation (after adjustment for variation in patient characteristics). Associations between hospital-specific factors and O/E ratios were used to explore potential sources of differences. Results The variation in O/E ratios between hospitals ranged from 0 to 4.4 for allogeneic transfusion, and from 0.08 to 2.7 for extended LoS. Variation in transfusion could in 21% be explained by hospital differences in THA and 34% in TKA. For extended LoS this was 71% in THA and 78% in TKA. Better performance (low O/E ratios) in transfusion was associated with more frequent tranexamic acid (TXA) use in TKA (R=−0.43, p=0.04). Better performance in extended LoS was associated with more frequent TXA use in THA (R=−0.45, p=0.03) and TKA (R=−0.65, p<0.001) and local infiltration analgesia (LIA) in TKA (R=−0.60, p=0.002). Conclusions Ranking hospitals based on allogeneic transfusion is unreliable due to small percentages of variation explained by hospital differences. Ranking based on extended LoS is more reliable

  14. Hospital variation in allogeneic transfusion and extended length of stay in primary elective hip and knee arthroplasty: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Voorn, Veronique M A; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J; van der Hout, Anja; So-Osman, Cynthia; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske; Koopman-van Gemert, Ankie W M M; Dahan, Albert; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P M; Nelissen, Rob G H H; van Bodegom-Vos, Leti

    2017-07-20

    Outcomes in total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA), such as allogeneic transfusions or extended length of stay (LoS), can be used to compare the performance of hospitals. However, there is much variation in these outcomes. This study aims to rank hospitals and to assess hospital differences of two outcomes in THA and TKA: allogeneic transfusions and extended LoS, and to additionally identify factors associated with these differences. Cross-sectional medical record review study. Data were gathered in 23 Dutch hospitals. 1163 THA and 986 TKA patient admissions. Hospitals were ranked based on their observed/expected (O/E) ratios regarding allogeneic transfusion and extended LoS percentages (extended LoS was defined by postoperative stay >4 days). To assess the reliability of these rankings, we calculated which percentage of the existing variation was based on differences between hospitals as compared with random variation (after adjustment for variation in patient characteristics). Associations between hospital-specific factors and O/E ratios were used to explore potential sources of differences. The variation in O/E ratios between hospitals ranged from 0 to 4.4 for allogeneic transfusion, and from 0.08 to 2.7 for extended LoS. Variation in transfusion could in 21% be explained by hospital differences in THA and 34% in TKA. For extended LoS this was 71% in THA and 78% in TKA. Better performance (low O/E ratios) in transfusion was associated with more frequent tranexamic acid (TXA) use in TKA (R=-0.43, p=0.04). Better performance in extended LoS was associated with more frequent TXA use in THA (R=-0.45, p=0.03) and TKA (R=-0.65, p<0.001) and local infiltration analgesia (LIA) in TKA (R=-0.60, p=0.002). Ranking hospitals based on allogeneic transfusion is unreliable due to small percentages of variation explained by hospital differences. Ranking based on extended LoS is more reliable. Hospitals using TXA and LIA have relatively fewer patients with transfusions

  15. Prognostic impact of pre-transplantation transfusion history and secondary iron overload in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation: a GITMO study

    PubMed Central

    Alessandrino, Emilio Paolo; Porta, Matteo Giovanni Della; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Malcovati, Luca; Angelucci, Emanuele; Van Lint, Maria Teresa; Falda, Michele; Onida, Francesco; Bernardi, Massimo; Guidi, Stefano; Lucarelli, Barbarella; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Cerretti, Raffaella; Marenco, Paola; Pioltelli, Pietro; Pascutto, Cristiana; Oneto, Rosi; Pirolini, Laura; Fanin, Renato; Bosi, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Background Transfusion-dependency affects the natural history of myelodysplastic syndromes. Secondary iron overload may concur to this effect. The relative impact of these factors on the outcome of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome receiving allogeneic stem-cell transplantation remains to be clarified. Design and Methods We retrospectively evaluated the prognostic effect of transfusion history and iron overload on the post-transplantation outcome of 357 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome reported to the Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Midollo Osseo (GITMO) registry between 1997 and 2007. Results Transfusion-dependency was independently associated with reduced overall survival (hazard ratio=1.48, P=0.017) and increased non-relapse mortality (hazard ratio=1.68, P=0.024). The impact of transfusion-dependency was noted only in patients receiving myeloablative conditioning (overall survival: hazard ratio=1.76, P=0.003; non-relapse mortality: hazard ratio=1.70, P=0.02). There was an inverse relationship between transfusion burden and overall survival after transplantation (P=0.022); the outcome was significantly worse in subjects receiving more than 20 red cell units. In multivariate analysis, transfusion-dependency was found to be a risk factor for acute graft-versus-host disease (P=0.04). Among transfusion-dependent patients undergoing myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation, pre-transplantation serum ferritin level had a significant effect on overall survival (P=0.01) and non-relapse mortality (P=0.03). This effect was maintained after adjusting for transfusion burden and duration, suggesting that the negative effect of transfusion history on outcome might be determined at least in part by iron overload. Conclusions Pre-transplantation transfusion history and serum ferritin have significant prognostic value in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome undergoing myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation, inducing a significant increase of non

  16. Storage time of intraoperative transfused allogeneic red blood cells is not associated with new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation in cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jiwei; Skals, Regitze Kuhr; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Jakobsen, Carl-Johan; Bæch, John; Petersen, Mikkel Steen

    2017-01-01

    Background Allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion has been associated with new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) following cardiac surgery. Prolonged storage time of RBC may increase the risk. The primary aim of the study was to evaluate whether the storage time of RBC is associated with development of POAF. Materials and methods Pre-, per- and postoperative data were retrieved from the Western Denmark Heart Registry and local blood banks regarding patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery, valve surgery or combined procedures in Aalborg or Aarhus University Hospital during 2010–2014. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the risk of POAF according to transfusion of RBC on the day of surgery. Furthermore, we determined trend in storage time of RBC according to risk of POAF using restricted cubic splines. Patients with a history of preoperative atrial fibrillation, patients who received transfusions preoperative and patients who died at the day of surgery were among excluded patients. Results A total of 2,978 patients with a mean age of 66.4 years were included and 609 patients (21%) received RBC transfusion on the day of surgery. POAF developed in 752 patients (25%) and transfused patients were at an increased risk compared with non-transfused patients (adjusted Odds Ratios for patients receiving RBC: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.11–1.69, P-value = 0.004). However, RBC transfusion was not necessarily the cause of POAF and may only be a marker for development of POAF. There was no significant association between storage time of RBC and POAF. Conclusions In contrast to intraoperative allogeneic RBC transfusion in general, increased storage time of RBC is not associated with development of POAF in cardiac surgery. PMID:28225837

  17. [Study on serological blood group conversion rule and clinical blood transfusion in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhong-qing; Gao, Zhi-feng; Li, Hui-yu

    2012-08-01

    To explore the conversion rule of serological blood group and blood group substance after successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and to provide theory for clinical special blood type identification and blood transfusion. The growth cycle of recipient WBC and RBC, RBC chimera, blood group antibody production and remaining in full transition were observed. Conversion rule of blood group substance, contradiction between cells typing and sera typing were detected by saline medium tube method and microcolumn gel method after stem cells transplantation. The average time of engraftment in 21 recipients was about 18.6 days, RBC growth cycle in 8 major blood type incompatibility was 56.6 days, 25.9 days in 9 minor blood type incompatibility, 67 days in 4 bidirectional blood type incompatibility (P < 0.01). The ratio of RBC chimeric growth was 1:9, gradually converse to donor's blood group. Residue of recipient anti-A(B) was left after conditioning regimen, disappeared after full transformation, and recipient anti-A(B) was converse to donor's blood type in major blood type incompatibility. 5 A blood type recipient donated by O blood type blood generated anti-B instead of anti-A, 3 B blood type recipient generated only anti-A instead of B in minor blood type incompatibility, and 1 AB blood type recipient donated by A did not generate anti-B. Among 4 bidirectional blood type incompatibility, 2 B blood type recipient donated by A blood type blood did not generate anti-B, 2 A recipient by B could not produce anti-A. Recipient blood group substance helped original ABO blood type substance remain unchanged. Among patient with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, recipient's ABO and RBC blood type can be converse to donor's, but there is significant difference between patients of serological blood group and of normal people (P < 0.01). Recipient blood group substance helps original ABO blood type substance remain unchanged (P > 0.01).

  18. Blood transfusion requirements in elective breast reconstruction surgery.

    PubMed

    Al-Benna, Sammy; Rajgarhia, Prachi

    2010-12-01

    Excess-ordering of cross-matched blood in preparation for elective surgery is expensive with associated blood shortages and time-expired wastage. Although, the maximum surgical blood order schedule (MSBOS) for breast reconstruction recommends pre-operative cross-match of 2-6 units of red cell concentrate, there is no data confirming whether this guideline is observed in practice or whether compliance results in improved outcome. The aim of this study was to examine the utility of this MSBOS in clinical practice by assessing its performance in a validation set of patients. Over a three year period, 49 patients undergoing 50 consecutive elective breast reconstruction surgery were assessed for demographic data, surgical information and hematological/transfusion data to compare the number of units of blood cross-matched with those subsequently transfused for elective breast reconstruction surgery. This was in lieu of updating the current maximal surgical blood order schedule of cross-matching 2-6 units pre-operatively. Fifty elective operations were undertaken during the study period with a zero peri-operative blood transfusion requirement and a 8% post-operative blood transfusion requirement. Pre-operative cross-match to transfusion ratio was unacceptably high with a time-expired blood wastage of 8.7%. These data thus indicate that adoption of a type and screen policy is satisfactory for haemorrhage risk management of elective breast reconstruction. The MSBOS is not designed to predict post-surgery blood needs and a requirement based blood ordering protocol will optimise blood utilisation efficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Flow Cytometric Panel-Reactive Antibody Results and the Ability to Find Transfusion-Compatible Platelets after Antibody-Desensitization for Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Eric R; Pandey, Soumya; Harville, Terry O; Drobena, Gina A; Cottler-Fox, Michele

    2016-12-01

    Panel reactive antibody (PRA) reduction protocols are used to decrease anti-HLA antibodies with concomitant PRA monitoring as a measure of successful treatment prior to organ and haploidentical blood and marrow transplant (BMT). We hypothesized that the more sensitive flow cytometry (FC) based assays for PRA [FlowPRA(®) and Luminex(®) based Single Antigen Bead (SAB)] would also correlate with the ability to find compatible platelets for allosensitized recipients. A female patient with myelodysplastic syndrome and a high HLA class I PRA [>90% PRA and cPRA by complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) assay and Flow PRA] required allogeneic BMT. Baseline HLA Class I and class II antigen typing was performed and a matched sibling donor was identified. Although baseline anti-HLA class I and class II antibodies measured by FC and CDC revealed no donor specific antibodies (DSA), the decision was made to attempt antibody desensitization to facilitate platelet transfusion during BMT. FC and CDC assays were performed to determine anti-HLA class I antibodies and cPRA/%PRA prior to starting desensitization and at the end of desensitization. Over the course of desensitization and BMT, a total of 194 apheresis platelet units underwent cross-match (XM) using Capture-P(®). We compared temporally-related PRA results with platelet XM results. High PRA by FC or CDC assays correlates with a high % of XM-positive (incompatible) platelet units. When the CDC PRA fell to 2% after desensitization, platelet XM incompatibility fell from 100% to 63% positive (incompatible). When the FC PRA fell to 5% the positive platelet XM fell to 5%. Antibody desensitization facilitated platelet transfusion. PRA determination by FC appeared better correlated than determination by CDC with the ability to find XM-compatible platelets. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  20. Cytogenetic studies in dogs after total body irradiation and allogeneic transfusion with cryopreserved blood mononuclear cells: observations in long-term chimeras

    SciTech Connect

    Carbonell, F.; Calvo, W.; Fliedner, T.M.; Kratt, E.; Gerhartz, H.; Koerbling, M.; Nothdurft, W.; Ross, W.M.

    1984-03-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed on two dog groups after total body irradiation and allogeneic transfusion with cryopreserved blood mononuclear cells. The first group of dogs was transfused with unseparated leukocytes and suffered from graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Cytogenetic studies demonstrated only cells of donor origin in all dogs of this group. The second group of animals was transfused with fraction 2 of a discontinuous albumin gradient. The dogs of this group did not develop GvHD, and the cytogenetic studies showed the presence of a mosaic of cells from donor and recipient origin in all of them. These results suggest that the GvHD may suppress autochthonous regeneration.

  1. 42 CFR 493.1103 - Standard: Requirements for transfusion services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of transfusion reactions on a continuous basis through a CLIA-certified laboratory or a laboratory... transfusion reactions. The facility must have procedures for preventing transfusion reactions and when necessary, promptly identify, investigate, and report blood and blood product transfusion reactions to...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1103 - Standard: Requirements for transfusion services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of transfusion reactions on a continuous basis through a CLIA-certified laboratory or a laboratory... transfusion reactions. The facility must have procedures for preventing transfusion reactions and when necessary, promptly identify, investigate, and report blood and blood product transfusion reactions to...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1103 - Standard: Requirements for transfusion services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of transfusion reactions on a continuous basis through a CLIA-certified laboratory or a laboratory... transfusion reactions. The facility must have procedures for preventing transfusion reactions and when necessary, promptly identify, investigate, and report blood and blood product transfusion reactions to...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1103 - Standard: Requirements for transfusion services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of transfusion reactions on a continuous basis through a CLIA-certified laboratory or a laboratory... transfusion reactions. The facility must have procedures for preventing transfusion reactions and when necessary, promptly identify, investigate, and report blood and blood product transfusion reactions to...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1103 - Standard: Requirements for transfusion services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of transfusion reactions on a continuous basis through a CLIA-certified laboratory or a laboratory... transfusion reactions. The facility must have procedures for preventing transfusion reactions and when necessary, promptly identify, investigate, and report blood and blood product transfusion reactions to...

  6. Perioperative Allogeneic Blood Transfusion Is Associated With Surgical Site Infection After Abdominoperineal Resection—a Space for the Implementation of Patient Blood Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Kensuke; Kawai, Kazushige; Tsuno, Nelson H.; Ishihara, Soichiro; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Sunami, Eiji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT) has been reported as a major risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI) in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. However, the association of ABT with SSI in patients undergoing abdominoperineal resection (APR) and total pelvic exenteration (TPE) still remains to be evaluated. Here, we aim to elucidate this association. The medical records of all patients undergoing APR and TPE at our institution in the period between January 2000 and December 2012 were reviewed. Patients without SSI (no SSI group) were compared with patients who developed SSI (SSI group), in terms of clinicopathologic features, including ABT. In addition, data for 262 patients who underwent transabdominal rectal resection at our institution in the same period were also enrolled, and their data on differential leukocyte counts were evaluated. Multivariate analysis showed that intraoperative transfusion was an independent predictive factor for SSI after APR and TPE (P = 0.004). In addition, the first–operative day lymphocyte count of patients undergoing APR, TPE, and transabdominal rectal resection was significantly higher in nontransfusion patients compared with transfusion ones (P = 0.026). ABT in the perioperative period of APR and TPE may have an important immunomodulatory effect, leading to an increased incidence of SSI. This fact should be carefully considered, and efforts to avoid allogeneic blood exposure while still achieving adequate patient blood management would be very important for patients undergoing APR and TPE as well. PMID:26011197

  7. Perioperative Allogeneic Blood Transfusion Is Associated With Surgical Site Infection After Abdominoperineal Resection-a Space for the Implementation of Patient Blood Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kensuke; Kawai, Kazushige; Tsuno, Nelson H; Ishihara, Soichiro; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Sunami, Eiji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-05-01

    Allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT) has been reported as a major risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI) in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. However, the association of ABT with SSI in patients undergoing abdominoperineal resection (APR) and total pelvic exenteration (TPE) still remains to be evaluated. Here, we aim to elucidate this association. The medical records of all patients undergoing APR and TPE at our institution in the period between January 2000 and December 2012 were reviewed. Patients without SSI (no SSI group) were compared with patients who developed SSI (SSI group), in terms of clinicopathologic features, including ABT. In addition, data for 262 patients who underwent transabdominal rectal resection at our institution in the same period were also enrolled, and their data on differential leukocyte counts were evaluated. Multivariate analysis showed that intraoperative transfusion was an independent predictive factor for SSI after APR and TPE (P = 0.004). In addition, the first-operative day lymphocyte count of patients undergoing APR, TPE, and transabdominal rectal resection was significantly higher in nontransfusion patients compared with transfusion ones (P = 0.026). ABT in the perioperative period of APR and TPE may have an important immunomodulatory effect, leading to an increased incidence of SSI. This fact should be carefully considered, and efforts to avoid allogeneic blood exposure while still achieving adequate patient blood management would be very important for patients undergoing APR and TPE as well.

  8. Which type of placenta previa requires blood transfusion more frequently? A new concept of indiscernible edge total previa.

    PubMed

    Baba, Yosuke; Takahashi, Hironori; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Usui, Rie; Matsubara, Shigeki

    2016-11-01

    During cesarean section (CS) for placenta previa (PP), the size/area/portion of the lower uterine segment occupied by the placenta may affect the bleeding amount and the subsequent need for a blood transfusion (BT). We propose a new concept, indiscernible edge total PP (IEPP), when vaginal ultrasound does not discern the lower placental edge because the placenta covers the visible lower segment. We characterized IEPP, focusing on its allogeneic BT requirement. We classified PP (n = 307) into four types: marginal, partial, discernible edge total PP (DEPP) and IEPP: internal ostium (os)-placental edge distance measurable or unmeasurable on vaginal ultrasound in DEPP or IEPP, respectively. We determined the clinical characteristics according to the four types; the relationship between the intraoperative blood loss and os-edge distance in DEPP; and risk factors for allogeneic BT. The following were significantly higher/larger in cases of IEPP: previous CS; anterior placentation; lacunae; elective cesarean hysterectomy; intraoperative blood loss; autologous BT; allogeneic BT; intensive care unit admission; and an abnormally invasive placenta (AIP). In DEPP, the os-edge distance was weakly correlated with the bleeding amount (r = 0.214). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that previous CS, lacunae, AIP and IEPP were independent risk factors for allogeneic BT (odds ratios 3.8, 3.1, 13.8 and 4.6, respectively). After excluding patients undergoing hemostatic procedures during CS, IEPP remained the only independent risk factor for allogeneic BT (odds ratio 5.2). The new concept of IEPP may be useful for predicting BT in CS for patients with PP. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Allogeneic peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: guidelines for red blood cell immuno-hematological assessment and transfusion practice.Société Française de Greffe de Moelle.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, V; Kuentz, M; Tiberghien, P

    2000-03-01

    Allogeneic peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) is presently being evaluated in a French randomized study comparing peripheral blood vs bone marrow. Cases of potentially lethal acute hemolysis have recently been reported after allogeneic PBSCT in the presence of a 'minor' ABO incompatibility. Patients were frequently transfused with recipient-compatible and donor-incompatible RBC and usually did not receive methotrexate in addition to cyclosporin A for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. In order to homogenize immuno-hematological (IH) assessment and transfusion practices within our protocol, we made proposals to 25 allo-transplant French centers on the following aspects: pre-inclusion IH assessment, IH exclusion criteria, transfusion rules, post-transplant IH surveillance and treatment of hemolysis. Analysis of responses to our proposals led to the elaboration of guidelines which were approved and implemented by the French Bone Marrow Transplantation Society (SFGM). Pre-inclusion IH testing includes mandatory detection and titration of anti-RBC allo-Ab, as well as titration of anti-A and anti-B Ab. The presence in the donor of an anti-A (group A or AB recipients), anti-B (group B or AB recipients) Ab with a titer >1/32 or the presence of allo-Ab against Rh, Kell, Fya, Fyb, Jka, Jkb, Ss Ag present on recipient RBC is an exclusion criterion for the protocol. ABO and RhD compatibility of RBC blood products with both HSC donor and recipient is mandatory. A similar compatibility is also required for Rh (other than D) and Kell Ag. If not possible, compatibility of RBC blood products with the HSC donor is mandatory. Lastly, guidelines regarding post-transplantation IH follow-up as well as acute hemolysis treatment have been elaborated. The implementation of these guidelines should contribute to enhancing the quality of transfusion practice after PBSCT. Such an approach will be applied to other aspects of transfusion medicine in the

  10. Association between Allogeneic or Autologous Blood Transfusion and Survival in Patients after Radical Prostatectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiao-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Background A number of studies have investigated the effect of perioperative blood transfusion (PBT) for patients after radical prostatectomy (RP), with some reporting conflicting results. A systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis were conducted to explore the association between PBT (autologous or allogeneic) and biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS), overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients undergoing RP. Methods The PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases were searched for published controlled clinical studies on perioperative allogeneic or autologous blood transfusion (BT) and patient survival after RP. STATA software version 12.0 was used for data analysis. We used hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to test the correlation between BT and patient survival after RP. Results Data from a total of 26,698 patients in ten published studies were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis results showed that autologous BT was not associated with BRFS (HR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.96–1.18; Z = 1.17; P = 0.24), OS (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.71–1.04; Z = 1.58; P = 0.11), or CSS (HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.49–1.96; Z = 0.05; P = 0.96). Allogeneic BT exhibited a significant association with worse BRFS (HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01–1.16; Z = 2.37; P = 0.02), OS (HR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.24–1.64; Z = 4.95; P<0.01) and CSS (HR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.18–2.56; Z = 2.81; P = 0.005). Conclusion Our data showed an association between allogeneic BT and reduced BRFS, OS and CSS in patients after RP. These findings indicate that perioperative blood conservation strategies are important for decreasing the allogeneic BT rate. PMID:28135341

  11. Preoperative Thromboelastometry as a Predictor of Transfusion Requirements during Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Fayed, Nirmeen; Mourad, Wessam; Yassen, Khaled; Görlinger, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability to predict transfusion requirements may improve perioperative bleeding management as an integral part of a patient blood management program. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate preoperative thromboelastometry as a predictor of transfusion requirements for adult living donor liver transplant recipients. Methods The correlation between preoperative thromboelastometry variables in 100 adult living donor liver transplant recipients and intraoperative blood transfusion requirements was examined by univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. Thresholds of thromboelastometric parameters for prediction of packed red blood cells (PRBCs), fresh frozen plasma (FFP), platelets, and cryoprecipitate transfusion requirements were determined with receiver operating characteristics analysis. The attending anesthetists were blinded to the preoperative thromboelastometric analysis. However, a thromboelastometry-guided transfusion algorithm with predefined trigger values was used intraoperatively. The transfusion triggers in this algorithm did not change during the study period. Results Univariate analysis confirmed significant correlations between PRBCs, FFP, platelets or cryoprecipitate transfusion requirements and most thromboelastometric variables. Backward stepwise logistic regression indicated that EXTEM coagulation time (CT), maximum clot firmness (MCF) and INTEM CT, clot formation time (CFT) and MCF are independent predictors for PRBC transfusion. EXTEM CT, CFT and FIBTEM MCF are independent predictors for FFP transfusion. Only EXTEM and INTEM MCF were independent predictors of platelet transfusion. EXTEM CFT and MCF, INTEM CT, CFT and MCF as well as FIBTEM MCF are independent predictors for cryoprecipitate transfusion. Thromboelastometry-based regression equation accounted for 63% of PRBC, 83% of FFP, 61% of cryoprecipitate, and 44% of platelet transfusion requirements. Conclusion Preoperative thromboelastometric analysis is

  12. Preoperative Thromboelastometry as a Predictor of Transfusion Requirements during Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fayed, Nirmeen; Mourad, Wessam; Yassen, Khaled; Görlinger, Klaus

    2015-03-01

    The ability to predict transfusion requirements may improve perioperative bleeding management as an integral part of a patient blood management program. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate preoperative thromboelastometry as a predictor of transfusion requirements for adult living donor liver transplant recipients. The correlation between preoperative thromboelastometry variables in 100 adult living donor liver transplant recipients and intraoperative blood transfusion requirements was examined by univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. Thresholds of thromboelastometric parameters for prediction of packed red blood cells (PRBCs), fresh frozen plasma (FFP), platelets, and cryoprecipitate transfusion requirements were determined with receiver operating characteristics analysis. The attending anesthetists were blinded to the preoperative thromboelastometric analysis. However, a thromboelastometry-guided transfusion algorithm with predefined trigger values was used intraoperatively. The transfusion triggers in this algorithm did not change during the study period. Univariate analysis confirmed significant correlations between PRBCs, FFP, platelets or cryoprecipitate transfusion requirements and most thromboelastometric variables. Backward stepwise logistic regression indicated that EXTEM coagulation time (CT), maximum clot firmness (MCF) and INTEM CT, clot formation time (CFT) and MCF are independent predictors for PRBC transfusion. EXTEM CT, CFT and FIBTEM MCF are independent predictors for FFP transfusion. Only EXTEM and INTEM MCF were independent predictors of platelet transfusion. EXTEM CFT and MCF, INTEM CT, CFT and MCF as well as FIBTEM MCF are independent predictors for cryoprecipitate transfusion. Thromboelastometry-based regression equation accounted for 63% of PRBC, 83% of FFP, 61% of cryoprecipitate, and 44% of platelet transfusion requirements. Preoperative thromboelastometric analysis is helpful to predict transfusion

  13. Bipolar Sealer Device Reduces Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirements in Posterior Spinal Fusion for Degenerative Lumbar Scoliosis: A Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuesong; Sun, Gang; Sun, Ruifu; Ba, Chenglei; Gong, Xiaojin; Liu, Weibo; Zhai, Rui

    2016-03-01

    A prospective, randomized, controlled clinical study. To determine the efficacy of bipolar sealer device in reducing perioperative blood loss and transfusions in degenerative lumbar scoliosis patients undergoing primary posterior spinal fusion. It has recently been used successfully in pediatric spine surgery, particularly in idiopathic and neuromuscular deformities. However, there is a dearth of literature on prospective study of the efficacy of bipolar sealer device in reducing perioperative blood loss and transfusions in patients undergoing degenerative lumbar scoliosis surgery. A total of 100 consecutive degenerative lumbar scoliosis patients who had undergone primary decompression and posterior spinal fusion with segmental spinal instrumentation between June 2010 and June 2012 were prospectively randomized into 1 of 2 groups according to whether bipolar sealer device for intraoperative/postoperative blood management was used or not. Demographic distribution, perioperative blood loss, blood transfusion rate, the length of stay, and postoperative complications were analyzed. The operation time was significantly shorter in the study group than in the control group, 223.4 versus 248.9 minutes (P=0.026). There was significantly lower intraoperative estimated blood loss in the bipolar sealer group, 407 versus 696 mL (P=0.000). Of the patients with the use of bipolar sealer device, the mean red blood cell transfusion requirement during hospitalization was significantly less than the control group, 0.4 versus 1.1 U/patient (P=0.003). Furthermore, significant difference existed in allogenic blood transfusion rate between the 2 cohorts. Within the study group (with the use of bipolar sealer device), the entire perioperative allogenic blood transfusion rate was 18.0% compared with 40.0% of the control group (P=0.015). There were no complications related directly to the use of the bipolar sealer. Utilization of a bipolar sealer during correction of lumbar degenerative

  14. Blood Transfusion Requirements for Patients With Sarcomas Undergoing Combined Radio- and Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Earl, Helena M.; Whitehead, Lynne; Jefferies, Sarah J.; Burnet, Neil G.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with bony and soft tissue sarcomas may require intensive treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which often leads to a fall in haemoglobin levels, requiring blood transfusion. There may be advantages in predicting which patients will require transfusion, partly because anaemia and hypoxia may worsen the response of tumours to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Between 1997 and 2003, a total of 26 patients who received intensive treatment with curative intent were identified. Transfusions were given to maintain the haemoglobin at 10g/dl or above during chemotherapy, and at 12 g/dl or above during radiotherapy. Eighteen (69%) required a transfusion, the majority as a result of both the chemotherapy and RT criteria. There were 78 transfusion episodes, and 181 units of blood given. In the 18 patients who required transfusion, the average number of units was 10.1, but seven patients required more blood than this. The most significant factor influencing blood transfusion was choice of intensive chemotherapy. Intensive chemotherapy and presenting Hb less than 11.6 g/dl identified 13 out of 18 patients who needed transfusion. Adding a drop in haemoglobin of greater than 1.7 g/dl after one cycle of chemotherapy identified 16 out of 18 patients who required transfusion. The seven patients who had heavy transfusion requirements were identified by age 32 or less, intensive chemotherapy and a presenting Hb of 12 g/dl or less. Erythropoietin might be a useful alternative to transfusion in selected patient groups, especially those with heavy transfusion requirements. PMID:18521418

  15. Impact of Plasma Transfusion in Trauma Patients Who Do Not Require Massive Transfusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    apheresis platelets and cryoprecipitate transfused during their hospital stay was 0.7 2.2 U and 1.0 4.0 U, respectively. Patients who received...different, and for the volume of packed red blood cells, platelets , and cryoprecipitate transfused. For the unmatched cohorts, p values for categorical...7.2; 4 (1–66) 2.1 4.8; 0 (0–31) 0.001 Mean units of platelets received 0.7 2.2; 0 (0–34) 0.7 1.4; 0 (0–10) 0.7 2.8; 0 (0–34) 0.99 Mean units

  16. Transfusion in CMV seronegative T-depleted allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients with CMV-unselected blood components results in zero CMV transmissions in the era of universal leukocyte reduction: a U.K. dual centre experience.

    PubMed

    Hall, S; Danby, R; Osman, H; Peniket, A; Rocha, V; Craddock, C; Murphy, M; Chaganti, S

    2015-12-01

    To establish rates of cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission with use of CMV-unselected (CMV-U), leukocyte-reduced blood components transfused to CMV-seronegative patient/CMV-seronegative donor (CMV neg/neg) allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) recipients including those receiving T-depleted grafts. CMV infection remains a major cause of morbidity following SCT. CMV-seronegative SCT recipients are particularly at risk of transfusion transmitted CMV (TT-CMV) and until recently they have received blood components from CMV-seronegative donors with significant resource implications. Although leukocyte reduction of blood components is reported to minimise risk of TT-CMV, its efficacy in high-risk situations, such as in T-depleted transplant recipients, is unknown. We retrospectively analysed the incidence of TT-CMV in CMV neg/neg allogeneic SCT recipients transfused with CMV-U, leukocyte-reduced blood components in two transplantation centres in the UK. Patients were monitored for CMV infection by weekly CMV polymerase chain reaction testing. Leukocyte reduction of blood components was in accordance with current UK standards. Among 76 patients, including 59 receiving in vivo T-depletion, no episodes of CMV infection were detected. Patients were transfused with 1442 CMV-unselected, leukocyte-reduced components, equating to 1862 donor exposures. Our findings confirm the safety of leukocyte reduction as a strategy in preventing TT-CMV in high-risk allogeneic SCT recipients. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  17. Point-of-care washing of allogeneic red blood cells for the prevention of transfusion-related respiratory complications (WAR-PRC): a protocol for a multicenter randomised clinical trial in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Warner, Matthew A; Welsby, Ian J; Norris, Phillip J; Silliman, Christopher C; Armour, Sarah; Wittwer, Erica D; Santrach, Paula J; Meade, Laurie A; Liedl, Lavonne M; Nieuwenkamp, Chelsea M; Douthit, Brian; van Buskirk, Camille M; Schulte, Phillip J; Carter, Rickey E; Kor, Daryl J

    2017-08-18

    The transfusion-related respiratory complications, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), are leading causes of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality. At present, there are no effective preventive strategies with red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Although mechanisms remain incompletely defined, soluble biological response modifiers (BRMs) within the RBC storage solution may play an important role. Point-of-care (POC) washing of allogeneic RBCs may remove these BRMs, thereby mitigating their impact on post-transfusion respiratory complications. This is a multicenter randomised clinical trial of standard allogeneic versus washed allogeneic RBC transfusion for adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery testing the hypothesis that POC RBC washing is feasible, safe, and efficacious and will reduce recipient immune and physiologic responses associated with transfusion-related respiratory complications. Relevant clinical outcomes will also be assessed. This investigation will enrol 170 patients at two hospitals in the USA. Simon's two-stage design will be used to assess the feasibility of POC RBC washing. The primary safety outcomes will be assessed using Wilcoxon Rank-Sum tests for continuous variables and Pearson chi-square test for categorical variables. Standard mixed modelling practices will be employed to test for changes in biomarkers of lung injury following transfusion. Linear regression will assess relationships between randomised group and post-transfusion physiologic measures. Safety oversight will be conducted under the direction of an independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB). Approval of the protocol was obtained by the DSMB as well as the institutional review boards at each institution prior to enrolling the first study participant. This study aims to provide important information regarding the feasibility of POC washing of allogeneic RBCs and its potential impact on ameliorating

  18. Platelet count and transfusion requirements during moderate or severe postpartum haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Jones, R M; de Lloyd, L; Kealaher, E J; Lilley, G J; Precious, E; Burckett St Laurent, D; Hamlyn, V; Collis, R E; Collins, P W

    2016-06-01

    Limited data exist on platelet transfusion during postpartum haemorrhage. We retrospectively analysed a consecutive cohort from a single centre of 347 women with moderate or severe postpartum haemorrhage, transfused according to national guidelines. Twelve (3%) women required a platelet transfusion. There were no differences between women who did and did not receive platelets with respect to age, mode of initiation of labour or mode of delivery. Women receiving a platelet transfusion had a lower median (IQR [range]) platelet count at study entry than women who did not receive platelets before haemorrhage (135 (97-175 [26-259])×10(9) .l(-1) vs 224 (186-274 [91-1006])×10(9) .l(-1) ), respectively), and at diagnosis of postpartum haemorrhage (median 114 (78-153 [58-238])×10(9) .l(-1) vs 193 (155-243 [78-762])×10(9) .l(-1) respectively). Six women were thrombocytopenic pre-delivery. The cause of haemorrhage that was associated with the highest rate of platelet transfusion was placental abruption, with three of 14 women being transfused. If antenatal thrombocytopenia or consumptive coagulopathy were not present, platelets were only required for haemorrhage > 5000 ml. Early formulaic platelet transfusion would have resulted in many women receiving platelets unnecessarily. Using current guidelines, the need for platelet transfusion is uncommon without antenatal thrombocytopenia, consumptive coagulopathy or haemorrhage > 5000 ml. We found no evidence to support early fixed-ratio platelet transfusion.

  19. Point-of-care haemostasis monitoring during liver transplantation reduces transfusion requirements and improves patient outcome.

    PubMed

    Leon-Justel, Antonio; Noval-Padillo, Jose A; Alvarez-Rios, Ana I; Mellado, Patricia; Gomez-Bravo, Miguel A; Álamo, Jose M; Porras, Manuel; Barrero, Lydia; Hinojosa, Rafael; Carmona, Magdalena; Vilches-Arenas, Angel; Guerrero, Juan M

    2015-06-15

    Optimal haemostasis management can improve patient outcomes and reduce blood loss and transfusion volume in orthotopic-liver-transplant (OLT). We performed a prospective study including 200 consecutive OLTs. The first 100 patients were treated according to the clinic's standards and the next 100 patients were treated using the new point-of-care (POC)-based haemostasis management strategy. Transfusion parameters and other outcomes were compared between groups. Transfusion requirements were reduced in the POC group. The median and IQR of red-blood-cells (RBC) transfusion units were reduced from 5 [2-8] to 3 [0-5] (p < 0.001), plasma from 2 [0-4] to 0 (p < 0.001), and platelets from 1 [0-4] to 0 [0-1] (p < 0.001), into the POC group only four patients received tranexamic acid and fibrinogen transfusion rate was 1.13 ± 1.44 g (p = 0.001). We also improved the incidence of transfusion avoidance, 5% vs. 24% (p < 0.001) and reduced the incidence of massive transfusion (defined as the transfusion of more than 10 RBC units), 13% vs. 2% (p = 0.005). We also observed a relationship between RBC transfusion requirements and preoperative haemoglobin, and between platelet transfusion and preoperative fibrinogen levels. The incidence of postoperative complications, such as, reoperation for bleeding, acute-kidney-failure or haemodynamic instability was significantly lower (13.0% vs. 5%, p = 0.048, 17% vs. 2%, p < 0.001, and 29% vs. 16%, p = 0.028). Overall, blood product transfusion was associated with increased risk of postoperative complications. A haemostatic therapy algorithm based on POC monitoring reduced transfusion and improved outcome in OLT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [2013: The Seville document on consensus on the alternatives to allogenic blood transfusion. Update to the Seville document. Spanish Societies of Anaesthesiology (SEDAR), Haematology and Haemotherapy (SEHH), Hospital Pharmacy (SEFH), Critical Care Medicine (SEMICYUC), Thrombosis and Haemostasis (SETH) and Blood Transfusion (SETS)].

    PubMed

    Leal-Noval, S R; Muñoz, M; Asuero, M; Contreras, E; García-Erce, J A; Llau, J V; Moral, V; Páramo, J A; Quintana, M

    2013-01-01

    As allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT) is not harmless, multiple alternatives to TSA (AABT) have emerged, but there is a huge variability with respect to their indications and appropriate use. This variability results from the interplay of a number of factors, which include physicians specialty, knowledge and preferences, degree of anaemia, transfusion policy, and AABT availability. Since the ABBT are not harmless and may not meet costeffectiveness criteria, such avariability is unacceptable. The Spanish Societies of Anaesthesiology (SEDAR), Haematology and Haemotherapy (SEHH), Hospital Pharmacy (SEFH), Critical Care Medicine (SEMICYUC), Thrombosis and Haemostasis (SETH) and Blood Transfusion (SETS) have developed a Consensus Document for the proper use of AABTs. A panel of experts convened by these six Societies have conducted a systematic review of the medical literature and developed the «2013. Seville Document of Consensus on Alternatives to Allogeneic Blood Transfusion», which only considers those AABT aimed to decrease the transfusion of packed red cells. The AABTs are defined as any pharmacological and non-pharmacological measure aimed to decrease the transfusion of of red blood cell concentrates, while preserving the patient safety. For each AABT, the main question is formulated, positively or negatively, as: «Does or does not this particular AABT reduce the transfusion rate?» All the recommendations on the use of AABTs were formulated according to the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology.

  1. The pre-operative levels of haemoglobin in the blood can be used to predict the risk of allogenic blood transfusion after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Maempel, J F; Wickramasinghe, N R; Clement, N D; Brenkel, I J; Walmsley, P J

    2016-04-01

    The pre-operative level of haemoglobin is the strongest predictor of the peri-operative requirement for blood transfusion after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). There are, however, no studies reporting a value that could be considered to be appropriate pre-operatively. This study aimed to identify threshold pre-operative levels of haemoglobin that would predict the requirement for blood transfusion in patients who undergo TKA. Analysis of receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves of 2284 consecutive patients undergoing unilateral TKA was used to determine gender specific thresholds predicting peri-operative transfusion with the highest combined sensitivity and specificity (area under ROC curve 0.79 for males; 0.78 for females). Threshold levels of 13.75 g/dl for males and 12.75 g/dl for females were identified. The rates of transfusion in males and females, respectively above these levels were 3.37% and 7.11%, while below these levels, they were 16.13% and 28.17%. Pre-operative anaemia increased the rate of transfusion by 6.38 times in males and 6.27 times in females. Blood transfusion was associated with an increased incidence of early post-operative confusion (odds ratio (OR) = 3.44), cardiac arrhythmia (OR = 5.90), urinary catheterisation (OR = 1.60), the incidence of deep infection (OR = 4.03) and mortality (OR = 2.35) one year post-operatively, and increased length of stay (eight days vs six days, p < 0.001). Uncorrected low pre-operative levels of haemoglobin put patients at potentially modifiable risk and attempts should be made to correct this before TKA. Target thresholds for the levels of haemoglobin pre-operatively in males and females are proposed. Low pre-operative haemoglobin levels put patients at unnecessary risk and should be corrected prior to surgery. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  2. Anticipated Transfusion Requirements and Mortality in Patients with Orthopedic and Solid Organ Injuries.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Devon S; Ashman, Zane; Kim, Dennis Y; Plurad, David S

    2016-10-01

    Long bone fractures are cited as an etiology for significant blood loss; however, there is scant supporting literature. We examined the relationship between long bone fractures, blood transfusions, and solid organ injuries. We hypothesize that transfusions are rare with long bone fractures in the absence of a liver or splenic injury. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients admitted with femur, tibia, and humerus fractures. Outcomes included transfusion requirements and mortality. A total of 1837 patients were included. There were 182 patients with at least one solid organ injury. A greater portion of patients with femur fractures and a lower proportion of patients with tibia fractures required transfusion. Adjusting for solid organ injuries, there was no difference in transfusions for any patient with these fractures compared with the group, or when grouped by organ injury severity. A solid organ injury significantly increases the risk of death among patients with long bone fractures. Blood loss requiring transfusion in patients with orthopedic and solid organ injuries should not be attributed to the presence of fractures alone. The need for transfusions in these patients should lower the threshold for reimaging or intervention for the solid organ injury. Further study is warranted to quantify blood loss by fracture type with or without solid organ.

  3. Donor testing and risk: current prevalence, incidence, and residual risk of transfusion-transmissible agents in US allogeneic donations.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shimian; Stramer, Susan L; Dodd, Roger Y

    2012-04-01

    Over the past 20 years, there has been a major increase in the safety of the blood supply, as demonstrated by declining rates of posttransfusion infection and reductions in estimated residual risk for such infections. Reliable estimates of residual risk have been possible within the American Red Cross system because of the availability of a large amount of reliable and consistent data on donations and infectious disease testing results. Among allogeneic blood donations, the prevalence rates of infection markers for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus have decreased over time, although rates for markers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus did not. The incidence (/100 000 person-years) of HIV and HCV among repeat donors showed apparent increases from 1.55 and 1.89 in 2000 through 2001 to 2.16 and 2.98 in 2007 through 2008. These observed fluctuations confirm the need for continuous monitoring and evaluation. The residual risk of HIV, HCV, and human T-cell lymphotropic virus among all allogeneic donations is currently below 1 per 1 million donations, and that of hepatitis B surface antigen is close to 1 per 300 000 donations.

  4. Predictors of allogeneic blood transfusion in spinal fusion for pediatric patients with idiopathic scoliosis in the United States, 2004-2009.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Hiroyuki; Yoneoka, Daisuke

    2014-10-15

    Analysis of population-based National Hospital Discharge Survey data collected for the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. To examine the predictors of allogeneic blood transfusion (ALBT) in spinal fusion for pediatric patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Spinal fusion for pediatric patients with idiopathic scoliosis is associated with major blood loss and often necessitates ALBT. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pediatric patients with idiopathic scoliosis who underwent spinal fusion from 2004 to 2009, using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Then, patients who received ALBT were identified using the appropriate International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code. Patient demographics, surgical variables, and hospital characteristics were retrieved. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of ALBT in spinal fusion for pediatric patients with idiopathic scoliosis. The odds ratio (OR) increased with increasing Elixhauser Comorbidity Score (score 1: OR, 1.55; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.23-1.97; score 2: OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.69-2.93; score 3: OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.6-4.66; score≥4: OR, 4.18; 95% CI, 1.93-9.06). Patients who underwent posterior approach or anterior and posterior approach surgical procedures were more likely to receive ALBT compared with those who underwent anterior approach surgery (posterior: OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.22-4.08; anterior and posterior: OR, 3.35; 95% CI, 1.69-6.63). Patients with a spinal fusion of 9 or more levels were more likely to receive ALBT compared with those with a spinal fusion of 4 to 8 levels (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.05-1.85). There was no difference between patients with or without autologous-related blood transfusion (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.59-1.43). This study identified significant predictors of ALBT in spinal fusion for pediatric patients with idiopathic scoliosis. These factors need to

  5. Factors affecting transfusion requirement after hip fracture: Can we reduce the need for blood?

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sagar J.; Wood, Kristi S.; Marsh, Jackie; Bryant, Dianne; Abdo, Hussein; Lawendy, Abdel-Rahman; Sanders, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hip fractures are common injuries that result in blood loss and frequently require the transfusion of blood products. We sought to identify risk factors leading to increased blood transfusion in patients presenting with hip fractures, especially those factors that are modifiable. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the cases of all patients who had fixation of their hip fractures between October 2005 and February 2010. The need for transfusion was correlated with potential risk factors, including age, sex, preoperative hemoglobin, fracture type, fixation method and more. Results A total of 835 patients had fixation of their hip fractures during the study period; 631 met the inclusion criteria and 249 of them (39.5%) were transfused. We found an association between need for blood transfusion and female sex (p = 0.018), lower preoperative hemoglobin (p < 0.001), fracture type (p < 0.001) and fixation method (p < 0.001). Compared with femoral neck fractures, there was a 2.37 times greater risk of blood transfusion in patients with intertrochanteric fractures (p < 0.001) and a 4.03 times greater risk in those with subtrochanteric fractures (p < 0.001). Dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation decreased the risk of transfusion by about half compared with intramedullary nail or hemiarthroplasty. We found no association with age, delay to operation (p = 0.17) or duration of surgery (p = 0.30). Conclusion The only modifiable risk factor identified was fixation method. When considering blood transfusion requirements in isolation, we suggest a potential benefit in using a DHS for intertrochanteric and femoral neck fractures amenable to DHS fixation. PMID:25265109

  6. Transfusion requirements in surgical oncology patients: a prospective, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Juliano Pinheiro; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; de Almeida, Elisangela Pinto Marinho; Fukushima, Julia T; Osawa, Eduardo A; Bergamin, Fabricio; Park, Clarice Lee; Nakamura, Rosana Ely; Fonseca, Silvia M R; Cutait, Guilherme; Alves, Joseane Inacio; Bazan, Mellik; Vieira, Silvia; Sandrini, Ana C Vieira; Palomba, Henrique; Ribeiro, Ulysses; Crippa, Alexandre; Dalloglio, Marcos; Diz, Maria del Pilar Estevez; Kalil Filho, Roberto; Auler, Jose Otavio Costa; Rhodes, Andrew; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahao

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that a restrictive erythrocyte transfusion strategy is as safe as a liberal one in critically ill patients, but there is no clear evidence to support the superiority of any perioperative transfusion strategy in patients with cancer. In a randomized, controlled, parallel-group, double-blind (patients and outcome assessors) superiority trial in the intensive care unit of a tertiary oncology hospital, the authors evaluated whether a restrictive strategy of erythrocyte transfusion (transfusion when hemoglobin concentration <7 g/dl) was superior to a liberal one (transfusion when hemoglobin concentration <9 g/dl) for reducing mortality and severe clinical complications among patients having major cancer surgery. All adult patients with cancer having major abdominal surgery who required postoperative intensive care were included and randomly allocated to treatment with the liberal or the restrictive erythrocyte transfusion strategy. The primary outcome was a composite endpoint of mortality and morbidity. A total of 198 patients were included as follows: 101 in the restrictive group and 97 in the liberal group. The primary composite endpoint occurred in 19.6% (95% CI, 12.9 to 28.6%) of patients in the liberal-strategy group and in 35.6% (27.0 to 45.4%) of patients in the restrictive-strategy group (P = 0.012). Compared with the restrictive strategy, the liberal transfusion strategy was associated with an absolute risk reduction for the composite outcome of 16% (3.8 to 28.2%) and a number needed to treat of 6.2 (3.5 to 26.5). A liberal erythrocyte transfusion strategy with a hemoglobin trigger of 9 g/dl was associated with fewer major postoperative complications in patients having major cancer surgery compared with a restrictive strategy.

  7. [The "Seville" Consensus Document on Alternatives to Allogenic Blood Transfusion. Sociedades españolas de Anestesiología (SEDAR), Medicina Intensiva (SEMICYUC), Hematología y Hemoterapia (AEHH), Transfusión sanguínea (SETS) Trombosis y Hemostasia (SETH)].

    PubMed

    Alberca, Ignacio; Asuero, Ma Soledad; Bóveda, José L; Carpio, Nelly; Contreras, Enric; Fernández-Mondéjar, Enrique; Forteza, Alejandro; García-Erce, José A; García de Lorenzo, Abelardo; Gomar, Carmen; Gómez, Aurelio; Llau, Juan V; López-Fernández, María F; Moral, Victoria; Muñoz, Manuel; Páramo, José A; Torrabadella, Pablo; Quintana, Manuel; Sánchez, Calixto

    2006-07-18

    The Consensus Document on Alternatives to Allogenic Blood Transfusion (AABT) has been drawn up by a panel of experts from 5 scientific societies. The Spanish Societies of Anesthesiology (SEDAR), Critical Care Medicine and Coronary Units (SEMICYUC), Hematology and Hemotherapy (AEHH), Blood Transfusion (SETS) and Thrombosis and Hemostasis (SETH) have sponsored and participated in this Consensus Document. Alternatives to blood transfusion have been divided into pharmacological and non-pharmacological, with 4 modules and 12 topics. The main objective variable was the reduction of allogenic blood transfusions and/or the number of transfused patients. The extent to which this objective was achieved by each AABT was evaluated using the Delphi method, which classifies the grade of recommendation from A (supported by controlled studies) to E (non-controlled studies and expert opinion). The experts concluded that most of the indications for AABT were based on middle or low grades of recommendation, "C", "D", or "E", thus indicating the need for further controlled studies.

  8. Adenosine reduces postbypass transfusion requirements in humans after heart surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Mentzer, R M; Rahko, P S; Canver, C C; Chopra, P S; Love, R B; Cook, T D; Hegge, M O; Lasley, R D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effect, if any, of adenosine blood cardioplegia on blood component usage after heart surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The most common cause of nonsurgical postcardiopulmonary bypass bleeding is platelet dysfunction. For this reason, pharmacologic agents are under investigation in an effort to reduce the need for transfusion in this setting. METHODS: A posthoc analysis of blood product usage was performed in data obtained from a Phase I, single center, open label, randomized study performed in 63 patients. The trial was designed to test the safety and tolerance of adenosine when added to blood cardioplegia in increasing doses to enhance myocardial protection. The database provided information regarding the effect of adenosine cardioplegia on venous plasma adenosine concentrations, the amount of platelets, fresh frozen plasma and packed erythrocytes used, and the association between the adenosine dose and postoperative thoracic drainage. RESULTS: The postoperative thoracic drainage at 6 hours, 24 hours, and at the time of chest tube removal in the high-dose adenosine cardioplegia group was 68%, 76%, and 75% of the placebo and low-dose adenosine cardioplegia group (p < 0.05). The highest dose of adenosine studied increased baseline adenosine venous plasma levels 360-fold, from 0.17 +/- 0.09 mumol/L to 42.30 +/- 11.20 mumol/L (p < 0.05). This marked increase was associated with a 68%, 56%, and 58% reduction in platelet, fresh frozen plasma, and packed erythrocyte usage, respectively (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In addition to enhancing the heart's tolerance to ischemia, adenosine-supplemented cardioplegic solution also may reduce bleeding after cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:8857856

  9. Implementation of a two-specimen requirement for verification of ABO/Rh for blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Goodnough, Lawrence T; Viele, Maurene; Fontaine, Magali J; Jurado, Christine; Stone, Nancy; Quach, Peter; Chua, Lee; Chin, Mei-Ling; Scott, Robert; Tokareva, Irina; Tabb, Kevin; Sharek, Paul J

    2009-07-01

    This study presents our implementation of a two-specimen requirement with no prior record of ABO/Rh to verify patients' blood type before transfusion. Blood type verification was introduced, discussed, approved, and implemented over a 12-month period (May 2007 to May 2008). Potential barriers and impact on benchmark indicators were identified and tracked. Inpatient identification and/or specimen labeling for nursing and laboratory phlebotomists baseline corrected error rates were 1:467 and 1:5555, respectively. This study therefore sought and obtained approval to initiate a new policy of blood type verification before blood transfusion. Compliance in turnaround time (TAT) before and after implementation for completion of STAT type and screen/crossmatch within 60 minutes worsened marginally, from 90% to 80%. The impact on use of O-, uncrossmatched blood was found to be manageable. Seven (of 25 total) recorded electronic complaints were received after implementation. The corrected error rate for nurse phlebotomy draws after implementation was 1:630. Despite the lack of an instigating event, verification of blood type before blood transfusion was successfully implemented. An impact on resources and benchmark indicators such as TAT can be anticipated and managed. Further process improvement efforts will be needed to ensure safety (e.g., at time of blood transfusion) for patients receiving blood transfusions. ABO/Rh verification may be necessary even after future implementation of bar coding and/or RFID chips, because human errors continue to occur even with systems improvements.

  10. Reduced transfusion requirement with use of fresh whole blood in pediatric cardiac surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Jobes, David R; Sesok-Pizzini, Deborah; Friedman, David

    2015-05-01

    Pediatric patients undergoing cardiac operations are at high risk for blood loss and transfusion. A practice intended to reduce transfusion using a standard order of 2 units fresh whole blood (< 48 hours from donation) for elective cardiac operations in patients younger than 2 years of age was in place from 1995 to 2010. The objective of this study was to describe blood use in this population and to compare the results with those in published reports describing the use of blood components exclusively for transfusion. Retrospective data from a surgical registry and blood bank records for 15 consecutive years were analyzed. Transfusion requirements were identified as donor exposures for the day of operation and the next postoperative day. Transfusions were fresh whole blood, packed red blood cells, platelets, and cryoprecipitate. Donor exposures for subgroups according to procedure and age were compared with those in published reports. The cohort consisted of 4,111 patients with a median age of 94 days and a median weight of 4.4 kg. The median donor exposure was 2 (range, 0 to 28). Younger patients having complex procedures had the most donor exposures. Fewer donor exposures were incurred in all subgroups compared with reports of component use in the literature. The use of fresh whole blood for cardiac operations in children younger than 2 years old reduces donor exposures compared with published reports of component use. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A retrospective comparison of blood transfusion requirements during cardiopulmonary bypass with two different small adult oxygenators.

    PubMed

    Lahanas, A; Argerakis, P W; Johnson, K A; Burdan, M L; Ozdirik, J E

    2013-11-01

    A low haematocrit during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with adverse outcomes and often results in homologous blood transfusions. Oxygenators with improved venous reservoir designs aid in reducing the priming volume. Recently, we changed our small adult oxygenator model from the D905 EOS oxygenator (Dideco, Mirandola, Italy) to the Capiox FX1540 (Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). We conducted a retrospective study of 42 patents to evaluate the impact of the Capiox FX 1540 on blood transfusion requirements in small patients (body surface area (BSA) up to 1.8 m(2)). The D905 EOS group had a lower minimum intraoperative haematocrit than the FX1540 group (20 ± 3 v 22 ± 4, p = 0.029) with 73% of the patients receiving intraoperative blood transfusions compared with 30% in the FX 1540 group (p = 0.012). Patients in the D905 EOS group received one blood transfusion more during CPB than the FX 1540 patients (p = 0.002). The haematocrits at the end of CPB and in the early postoperative period were identical in both groups. The postoperative ventilation time, length of stay in the intensive care unit and postoperative chest drain bleeding were similar in both groups. In conclusion, the Capiox FX1540 was effective in reducing intraoperative packed red cell transfusions.

  12. [Intra-Articular Application of Tranexamic Acid Significantly Reduces Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirement in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Lošťák, J; Gallo, J; Špička, J; Langová, K

    2016-01-01

    .0001), including hidden blood loss (p = 0.030). The TXA patients had significantly fewer requirements for allogeneic blood transfusion (p < 0.0004), higher post-operative haemoglobin levels (p = 0.014), lower incidence of haematomas (p = 0.0003), and a significantly higher flexion degree on discharge from hospital (p < 0.0001). No higher volume of wound drainage was found (p = 1.000). Only one patient of the TXA group underwent revision surgery due to wound healing disturbance. The total costs of blood transfusion requirements were significantly lower in the TXA group than in the control group (p = 0.0004). DISCUSSION Topical administration allows the antifibrinolytic effect of TXA to act directly at a bleeding site. Its advantages involve easy application, maximum TXA concentration at the site of application, no danger associated with administration of a higher TXA dose and minimal TXA resorption into the circulation. On the other hand, there are no exact instructions for an effective and safe topical application of TXA and some authors are concerned that a coagulum arising after TXA application might affect soft tissue behaviour (healing, swelling, rehabilitation) or result in infection. CONCLUSIONS The study showed the efficacy and safety of topical TXA administration resulting in lower peri-operative bleeding, fewer blood transfusion requirements and higher haemoglobin levels after TKA. The patients treated with TXA had less knee swelling, lower incidence of haematomas and used fewer analgesic drugs in the early post-operative period. The economic benefit is also worth considering. In agreement with the recent literature, it is suggested to add topical TXA application to the recommended procedures for TKA surgery. Key words: tranexamic acid, Exacyl, topical application, intra-articular application, blood loss, hidden blood loss, total knee arthroplasty, complications.

  13. First-line therapy with coagulation factor concentrates combined with point-of-care coagulation testing is associated with decreased allogeneic blood transfusion in cardiovascular surgery: a retrospective, single-center cohort study.

    PubMed

    Görlinger, Klaus; Dirkmann, Daniel; Hanke, Alexander A; Kamler, Markus; Kottenberg, Eva; Thielmann, Matthias; Jakob, Heinz; Peters, Jürgen

    2011-12-01

    Blood transfusion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We developed and implemented an algorithm for coagulation management in cardiovascular surgery based on first-line administration of coagulation factor concentrates combined with point-of-care thromboelastometry/impedance aggregometry. In a retrospective cohort study including 3,865 patients, we analyzed the incidence of intraoperative allogeneic blood transfusions (primary endpoints) before and after algorithm implementation. Following algorithm implementation, the incidence of any allogeneic blood transfusion (52.5 vs. 42.2%; P < 0.0001), packed red blood cells (49.7 vs. 40.4%; P < 0.0001), and fresh frozen plasma (19.4 vs. 1.1%; P < 0.0001) decreased, whereas platelet transfusion increased (10.1 vs. 13.0%; P = 0.0041). Yearly transfusion of packed red blood cells (3,276 vs. 2,959 units; P < 0.0001) and fresh frozen plasma (1986 vs. 102 units; P < 0.0001) decreased, as did the median number of packed red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma per patient. The incidence of fibrinogen concentrate (3.73 vs. 10.01%; P < 0.0001) and prothrombin complex concentrate administration (4.42 vs. 8.9%; P < 0.0001) increased, as did their amount administered per year (179 vs. 702 g; P = 0.0008 and 162 × 10³ U vs. 388 × 10³ U; P = 0.0184, respectively). Despite a switch from aprotinin to tranexamic acid, an increase in use of dual antiplatelet therapy (2.7 vs. 13.7%; P < 0.0001), patients' age, proportion of females, emergency cases, and more complex surgery, the incidence of massive transfusion [(≥10 units packed red blood cells), (2.5 vs. 1.26%; P = 0.0057)] and unplanned reexploration (4.19 vs. 2.24%; P = 0.0007) decreased. Composite thrombotic/thromboembolic events (3.19 vs. 1.77%; P = 0.0115) decreased, but in-hospital mortality did not change (5.24 vs. 5.22%; P = 0.98). First-line administration of coagulation factor concentrates combined with point-of-care testing was associated with decreased

  14. Haematological profile and malarial parasitaemia in Nigerian children requiring emergency blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Adediran, I A; Adejuyigbe, E A; Oninla, S O

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the haematological profile and malarial parasitaemia of children requiring emergency blood transfusion. This prospective study was carried out from 1st August to 30th of November, 1999 at the Children Emergency Ward (CHEW) of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital (OAUTH) Ile-Ife, Nigeria. All children requiring emergency blood transfusion seen at the CHEW were included in the study. Blood samples were taken on admission for haematocrit, white cell count and differentials, thin and thick blood films. Other data recorded include age, sex, clinical impression on admission. Four hundred children were admitted into the CHEW during the study period and 173(43%) required emergency blood transfusion. One hundred and forty-five (84%) of the children who required emergency transfusion were below the age of five years. There was no sex predilection. Although, clinical impression of malaria was made either singly or in combination with other diseases in almost all the patients, malaria parasitaemia was confirmed in 86 (50%) of the patients. The mean haematocrit was 0.14 L/L. In 60% of the children, there were mixed microcytic hypochromic and macrocytic red bloodcells. We conclude that severe anaemia requiring emergency blood transfusion is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in under five children. We also confirm that malaria and nutritional deficiencies are the major cause of severe anaemia in Nigerian children. We therefore recommend urgent need for prevention and prompt treatment of malaria in children under the age of five years. We also recommend the need for improvement in the nutritional intake of children under the age of five.

  15. Thyroid hormone alterations in trauma patients requiring massive transfusion: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Hifumi, Toru; Okada, Ichiro; Kiriu, Nobuaki; Hasegawa, Eiju; Ogasawara, Tomoko; Kato, Hiroshi; Koido, Yuichi; Inoue, Junichi; Abe, Yuko; Kawakita, Kenya; Hagiike, Masanobu; Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Although non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is considered a negative prognostic factor, the alterations in free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels in trauma patients requiring massive transfusion have not been reported. A prospective observational study comparing 2 groups of trauma patients was conducted. Group M comprised trauma patients requiring massive transfusions (>10 units of packed red blood cells) within 24 hours of emergency admission. Group C comprised patients with an injury severity score >9 but not requiring massive transfusions. Levels of fT3, free thyroxine (fT4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were evaluated on admission and on days 1, 2, and 7 after admission. The clinical backgrounds and variables measured including total transfusion amounts were compared and the inter-group prognosis was evaluated. Results are presented as mean±standard deviation. Nineteen patients were enrolled in each group. In both groups, 32 were men, and the mean age was 50±24 years. In group C one patient died from respiratory failure. The initial fT3 levels in group M (1.95±0.37 pg/mL) were significantly lower than those in group C (2.49±0.72 pg/mL; P<0.01) and remained low until 1 week after admission. Initial inter-group fT4 and TSH levels were not significantly different. TSH levels at 1 week (1.99±1.64 µIU/mL) were higher than at admission (1.48±0.5 µIU/mL) in group C (P<0.05). Typical NTIS was observed in trauma patients requiring massive transfusions. When initial resuscitation achieved circulatory stabilization, prognosis was not strongly associated with NTIS.

  16. Thyroid hormone alterations in trauma patients requiring massive transfusion: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Hifumi, Toru; Okada, Ichiro; Kiriu, Nobuaki; Hasegawa, Eiju; Ogasawara, Tomoko; Kato, Hiroshi; Koido, Yuichi; Inoue, Junichi; Abe, Yuko; Kawakita, Kenya; Hagiike, Masanobu; Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is considered a negative prognostic factor, the alterations in free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels in trauma patients requiring massive transfusion have not been reported. METHODS: A prospective observational study comparing 2 groups of trauma patients was conducted. Group M comprised trauma patients requiring massive transfusions (>10 units of packed red blood cells) within 24 hours of emergency admission. Group C comprised patients with an injury severity score >9 but not requiring massive transfusions. Levels of fT3, free thyroxine (fT4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were evaluated on admission and on days 1, 2, and 7 after admission. The clinical backgrounds and variables measured including total transfusion amounts were compared and the inter-group prognosis was evaluated. Results are presented as mean±standard deviation. RESULTS: Nineteen patients were enrolled in each group. In both groups, 32 were men, and the mean age was 50±24 years. In group C one patient died from respiratory failure. The initial fT3 levels in group M (1.95±0.37 pg/mL) were significantly lower than those in group C (2.49±0.72 pg/mL; P<0.01) and remained low until 1 week after admission. Initial inter-group fT4 and TSH levels were not significantly different. TSH levels at 1 week (1.99±1.64 µIU/mL) were higher than at admission (1.48±0.5 µIU/mL) in group C (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Typical NTIS was observed in trauma patients requiring massive transfusions. When initial resuscitation achieved circulatory stabilization, prognosis was not strongly associated with NTIS. PMID:25548600

  17. Low Rates of Blood Transfusion in Elective Resections of Neurofibromas in a Cohort Study: Neurofibroma Length as a Predictor of Transfusion Requirement.

    PubMed

    Hivelin, Mikael; Plaud, Benoit; Hemery, Francois; Boulat, Claire; Ortonne, Nicolas; Valleyrie-Allanore, Laurence; Wolkenstein, Pierre; Lantieri, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Neurofibromas in neurofibromatosis type 1 induce aesthetic and functional morbidity. Perioperative bleeding has been reported as an obstacle to neurofibroma resections. The authors studied the requirement for blood transfusion during surgical treatment of neurofibromatosis type 1. Six hundred twenty-two procedures performed on 390 neurofibromatosis type 1 patients at the national referral center from 1995 to 2011 were analyzed in two chronologic sets of patients: set 1 (February of 1995 to September of 2007), in which only one surgeon operated; and set 2 (October of 2007 to January of 2011), in which two additional surgeons were involved. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, reconstructive procedures, and spontaneous hemorrhages were excluded from the analysis. Age, sex, preoperative hemoglobin concentration, location, length, estimated volume and histologic features of the largest neurofibroma (cumulative values for multiple neurofibromas), and procedure duration were studied as potential predictors of blood transfusion that were measured in terms of units of packed red blood cells. Seventy reconstructive procedures, two cases of spontaneous hemorrhage, and 32 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor resections were excluded. Among 516 procedures (318 and 198 in sets 1 and 2, respectively), 17 (2.7 percent) required blood transfusions. The requirement for transfusion was associated with neurofibroma length in both sets, with an optimal cutoff value of 13 cm in both sets. Contrary to the literature, the requirement for blood transfusion was found to be low (2.7 percent of the cases) during elective resection of neurofibromas in neurofibromatosis type 1. Elective resections of benign neurofibromas less than 13 cm in length were not associated with a requirement for blood transfusion. Risk, III.

  18. Performance of the PEdiatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 score in critically ill children requiring plasma transfusions.

    PubMed

    Karam, Oliver; Demaret, Pierre; Duhamel, Alain; Shefler, Alison; Spinella, Philip C; Stanworth, Simon J; Tucci, Marisa; Leteurtre, Stéphane

    2016-12-01

    Organ dysfunction scores, based on physiological parameters, have been created to describe organ failure. In a general pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) population, the PEdiatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 score (PELOD-2) score had both a good discrimination and calibration, allowing to describe the clinical outcome of critically ill children throughout their stay. This score is increasingly used in clinical trials in specific subpopulation. Our objective was to assess the performance of the PELOD-2 score in a subpopulation of critically ill children requiring plasma transfusions. This was an ancillary study of a prospective observational study on plasma transfusions over a 6-week period, in 101 PICUs in 21 countries. All critically ill children who received at least one plasma transfusion during the observation period were included. PELOD-2 scores were measured on days 1, 2, 5, 8, and 12 after plasma transfusion. Performance of the score was assessed by the determination of the discrimination (area under the ROC curve: AUC) and the calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow test). Four hundred and forty-three patients were enrolled in the study (median age and weight: 1 year and 9.1 kg, respectively). Observed mortality rate was 26.9 % (119/443). For PELOD-2 on day 1, the AUC was 0.76 (95 % CI 0.71-0.81) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test was p = 0.76. The serial evaluation of the changes in the daily PELOD-2 scores from day 1 demonstrated a significant association with death, adjusted for the PELOD-2 score on day 1. In a subpopulation of critically ill children requiring plasma transfusion, the PELOD-2 score has a lower but acceptable discrimination than in an entire population. This score should therefore be used cautiously in this specific subpopulation.

  19. Does tranexamic acid reduce blood transfusion cost for primary total hip arthroplasty? A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ryan N; Moskal, Joseph T; Capps, Susan G

    2015-02-01

    Peri-operative tranexamic acid (TXA) significantly reduces the need for allogeneic blood transfusion in total hip arthroplasty (THA) and thus hospital costs are reduced. Before employing TXA in primary THA at our institution, facility costs were $286.90/THA for blood transfusion and required 0.45 man-hours/THA (transfusion rate 19.87%). After incorporating TXA, the cost for intravenous application was $123.38/THA for blood transfusion and TXA medication and 0.07 man-hours/THA (transfusion rate 4.39%) and the cost for topical application was $132.41/THA for blood transfusion and TXA and 0.14 man-hours/THA (transfusion rate 12.86%). TXA has the potential to reduce the facility cost per THA and the man-hours/THA from blood transfusions.

  20. Effects of prehospital hypothermia on transfusion requirements and outcomes: a retrospective observatory trial

    PubMed Central

    Klauke, Nora; Gräff, Ingo; Fleischer, Andreas; Boehm, Olaf; Guttenthaler, Vera; Baumgarten, Georg; Meybohm, Patrick; Wittmann, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Prehospital hypothermia is defined as a core temperature <36.0°C and has been shown to be an independent risk factor for early death in patients with trauma. In a retrospective study, a possible correlation between the body temperature at the time of admission to the emergency room and subsequent in-hospital transfusion requirements and the in-hospital mortality rate was explored. Setting This is a retrospective single-centre study at a primary care hospital in Germany. Participants 15 895 patients were included in this study. Patients were classified by admission temperature and transfusion rate. Excluded were ambulant patients and patients with missing data. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome values were length of stay (LOS) in days, in-hospital mortality, the transferred amount of packed red blood cells (PRBCs), and admission to an intensive care unit. Secondary influencing variables were the patient's age and the Glasgow Coma Scale. Results In 22.85% of the patients, hypothermia was documented. Hypothermic patients died earlier in the course of their hospital stay than non-hypothermic patients (p<0.001). The administration of 1–3 PRBC increased the LOS significantly (p<0.001) and transfused patients had an increased risk of death (p<0.001). Prehospital hypothermia could be an independent risk factor for mortality (adjusted OR 8.521; p=0.001) and increases the relative risk for transfusion by factor 2.0 (OR 2.007; p=0.002). Conclusions Low body temperature at hospital admission is associated with a higher risk of transfusion and death. Hence, a greater awareness of prehospital temperature management should be established. PMID:27029772

  1. Tranexamic acid as an aid to reducing blood transfusion requirements in gastric and duodenal bleeding.

    PubMed Central

    von Holstein, C C; Eriksson, S B; Källén, R

    1987-01-01

    A prospective randomised double blind study examined the effect of the antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid compared with placebo in 154 patients bleeding from verified benign lesions in the stomach or duodenum or both. Three out of 72 patients receiving tranexamic acid underwent emergency surgery compared with 15 out of 82 given placebo (p = 0.010). Nineteen patients receiving placebo rebled during their admission as compared with 10 in the active treatment group (p = 0.097). Blood transfusion requirements were significantly reduced by tranexamic acid (p = 0.018). Side effects occurred in six patients, of which an uncomplicated deep venous thrombosis was the most severe. Tranexamic acid reduces the blood transfusion requirement and need for emergency surgery in patients bleeding from a benign gastric or duodenal lesion. PMID:3101804

  2. The Efficacy and Safety of Autologous Transfusion in Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Moon-Jib; Ryu, Jee-Won; Kim, Jeong-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although allogeneic blood transfusion is the most common method of transfusion in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), there are reports showing significant decrease in the amount of allogeneic transfusion and incidence of side effects after combined use of autologous transfusion. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of using an autologous transfusion device in TKA. Materials and Methods Patients who underwent TKA at our institution from January 2003 to January 2014 were divided into two groups: group A (n=127) who received allogeneic transfusion only in TKA and group B (n=118) who received autologous transfusion via an autologous transfusion device and allogeneic transfusion. In both groups, the patients were transfused when the hemoglobin level was below 9 g/dL. In group B, blood collected by the autologous transfusion device was transfused only once after surgery. The total blood loss volume, total transfusion volume, and the presence of side effects were assessed based on medical records. Results Group A received 294.6 mL more allogeneic transfusion than group B (p<0.001). There were no significant differences with regard to the development of side effects between groups. Conclusions Application of an autologous transfusion device during TKA can be effective in reducing the allogeneic transfusion volume. Moreover, allogeneic transfusion was not necessary after autologous transfusion in some patients. PMID:26389070

  3. Intraoperative transfusion practices in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Meier, J.; Filipescu, D.; Kozek-Langenecker, S.; Llau Pitarch, J.; Mallett, S.; Martus, P.; Matot, I.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transfusion of allogeneic blood influences outcome after surgery. Despite widespread availability of transfusion guidelines, transfusion practices might vary among physicians, departments, hospitals and countries. Our aim was to determine the amount of packed red blood cells (pRBC) and blood products transfused intraoperatively, and to describe factors determining transfusion throughout Europe. Methods. We did a prospective observational cohort study enrolling 5803 patients in 126 European centres that received at least one pRBC unit intraoperatively, during a continuous three month period in 2013. Results. The overall intraoperative transfusion rate was 1.8%; 59% of transfusions were at least partially initiated as a result of a physiological transfusion trigger- mostly because of hypotension (55.4%) and/or tachycardia (30.7%). Haemoglobin (Hb)- based transfusion trigger alone initiated only 8.5% of transfusions. The Hb concentration [mean (sd)] just before transfusion was 8.1 (1.7) g dl−1 and increased to 9.8 (1.8) g dl−1 after transfusion. The mean number of intraoperatively transfused pRBC units was 2.5 (2.7) units (median 2). Conclusion. Although European Society of Anaesthesiology transfusion guidelines are moderately implemented in Europe with respect to Hb threshold for transfusion (7–9 g dl−1), there is still an urgent need for further educational efforts that focus on the number of pRBC units to be transfused at this threshold. Clinical trial registration. NCT 01604083. PMID:26787795

  4. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED RED BLOOD CELLS TRANSFUSION REQUIREMENTS IN PATIENTS WITH HODGKIN AND NON-HODGKIN LYMPHOMA.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sheeraz; Ali, Mussadique; Badar, Farhana; Basit, Abdul; Hameed, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Anaemia is a common feature of lympho-proliferative disorders and is an important cause of poor quality of life in these patients. When indicated, packed red blood cells (PRBC) units are transfused to treat anaemia. Objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with PRBC transfusions in lymphoma patients. This was a retrospective study done on Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients who had PRBC transfusions during chemotherapy. Information regarding gender, type of lymphoma, stage, baseline haemoglobin, marrow involvement and total number of PRBC units transfused was collected. A total of 481 patients with diagnosis of HL and NHL were registered during one year period. Out of these, 108 (22.4%) had PRBC transfusions during treatment. HL and NHL patients were 30 (27.8%) and 78 (72.2%) respectively. NHL patients were older than HL (37 vs. 32 years), (p=0.03). HL patients had lower mean haemoglobin 9.3 +/- 2.56 g/dl as compared to NHL 11.33 +/- 2.42 g/dl, (p<0.05). There was significant difference in number of PRBC units transfused based on lymphoma type (NHL 6.74 +/- 5.69 vs. HL 3.97 +/- 3.0 units, p<0.05). Bone marrow involvement resulted in increased transfusion requirements (7.84 +/- 4.36 vs. 5.26 +/- 5.49 units, p<0.05) while stage of disease didn't affected significantly (I/II--4.88 +/- 4.85 and III/IV 6.30 +/- 5.33 units p=0.2). A significant number of lymphoma patients need PRBC transfusions during chemotherapy. NHL patients and bone marrow involvement makes patients at higher risk for transfusions. In places, where blood bank support is not adequate, patients should be informed right from beginning to arrange donors for possible transfusions during chemotherapy.

  5. Perioperative red blood cell transfusion requirement for various surgical procedures in dogs: 207 cases (2004-2013).

    PubMed

    Haley, Adrienne L; Mann, F A; Middleton, John; Nelson, Courtney A

    2015-07-01

    To compare perioperative RBC transfusion among dogs undergoing liver lobectomy, splenectomy, partial gastrectomy, rhinotomy, thyroidectomy, perineal herniorrhaphy, and intrathoracic surgery. Retrospective case series. 207 client-owned dogs that underwent various surgeries. Medical records were reviewed for dogs that had undergone liver lobectomy, splenectomy, partial gastrectomy, rhinotomy, neoplastic thyroidectomy, perineal herniorrhaphy, or intrathoracic surgery. Transfusion requirement (packed RBC, whole blood, and bovine hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier) and survival rate at 2 weeks after surgery were compared among dogs undergoing the various surgeries. Patients undergoing splenectomy and liver lobectomy were significantly more likely to receive RBC transfusion when each was compared with patients undergoing all other procedures. A significant association was found between body weight and perioperative RBC transfusion, with greater odds of transfusion as body weight increased. Dogs receiving perioperative RBC transfusions were significantly less likely to survive to 2 weeks after surgery. Results indicated that dogs undergoing splenectomy and liver lobectomy may require RBC transfusion perioperatively. Veterinarians who perform these procedures should plan accordingly and have packed RBCs or whole blood donors readily available.

  6. The haematological features and transfusion management of women who required massive transfusion for major obstetric haemorrhage in the UK: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Green, Laura; Knight, Marian; Seeney, Frances; Hopkinson, Cathy; Collins, Peter W; Collis, Rachel E; Simpson, Nigel A B; Weeks, Andrew; Stanworth, Simon J

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the coagulopathy of major-obstetric-haemorrhage (MOH) that leads to massive-transfusion (MT) is fundamental to improving outcomes. This study reports on the haematological features and transfusion management of women experiencing MT [defined as transfusion of ≥8 units of red blood cells (RBC) within 24 h of delivery]. One hundred and eighty-one cases [median (interquartile range; IQR) age 33 years (29-36)] were identified from all UK hospitals, using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System between July 2012 and June 2013. The median (IQR) estimated blood loss was 6 l (4·5-8). At presentation, the median platelet count was lowest for placenta accreta, compared with other causes, while the median prothrombin time and fibrinogen were <1·5 × mean normal and <3 g/l, respectively for all aetiologies. Median platelet count and fibrinogen fell to <75 × 10(9) /l and <2 g/l, respectively for all causes during bleeding, except for trauma. The median (IQR) units of RBC, fresh-frozen-plasma (FFP) and cryoprecipitate transfused were 10 (8-14), 6 (4-8) and 2 (2-4), respectively. The median time from the onset of bleeding to delivery of the first RBC unit was significantly shorter for women who delivered via elective caesarean section, compared with others. The coagulopathy of MT during MOH differs significantly depending on its cause, suggesting that more targeted transfusion strategies are required.

  7. [Managing of platelet transfusion refractoriness of haematological malignancies. Experience IPC-EFSAM].

    PubMed

    Dettori, I; Ladaique, P

    2014-11-01

    The platelet refractoriness is a complication of transfusion treatments potentially dramatic in onco-haematology. Chemo-treatment of haematological malignancies or packs of allogeneic bone marrow transplants require iterative platelet transfusion requirements. The discovery of a platelet refractoriness along with its support should be the most reactive as possible but also adapted to the cause. In the case of allo-immunization, it may be expected. The purpose of this presentation is to recall the different etiologies and perform a feedback on the support transfusion platelet of onco-haematology adult patients at Institut Paoli-Calmettes (IPC) in partnership with the EFSAM.

  8. Intraoperative core temperature patterns, transfusion requirement, and hospital duration in patients warmed with forced air.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhuo; Honar, Hooman; Sessler, Daniel I; Dalton, Jarrod E; Yang, Dongsheng; Panjasawatwong, Krit; Deroee, Armin F; Salmasi, Vafi; Saager, Leif; Kurz, Andrea

    2015-02-01

    Core temperature patterns in patients warmed with forced air remain poorly characterized. Also unknown is the extent to which transient and mild intraoperative hypothermia contributes to adverse outcomes in broad populations. We evaluated esophageal (core) temperatures in 58,814 adults having surgery lasting >60 min who were warmed with forced air. Independent associations between hypothermic exposure and transfusion requirement and duration of hospitalization were evaluated. In every percentile subgroup, core temperature decreased during the first hour and subsequently increased. The mean lowest core temperature during the first hour was 35.7 ± 0.6°C. Sixty-four percent of the patients reached a core temperature threshold of <36°C 45 min after induction; 29% reached a core temperature threshold of <35.5°C. Nearly half the patients had continuous core temperatures <36°C for more than an hour, and 20% of the patients were <35.5°C for more than an hour. Twenty percent of patients had continuous core temperatures <36°C for more than 2 h, and 8% of the patients were below 35.5°C for more than 2 h. Hypothermia was independently associated with both transfusions and duration of hospitalization, although the prolongation of hospitalization was small. Even in actively warmed patients, hypothermia is routine during the first hour of anesthesia. Thereafter, average core temperatures progressively increase. Nonetheless, intraoperative hypothermia was common, and often prolonged. Hypothermia was associated with increased transfusion requirement, which is consistent with numerous randomized trials.

  9. Development of anemia, phlebotomy practices, and blood transfusion requirements in 45 critically ill cats (2009-2011).

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Anusha; Drobatz, Kenneth J; Reineke, Erica L

    2016-05-01

    To describe the incidence of the development of anemia, the number of phlebotomies performed daily, the approximate volume of blood withdrawn, the transfusion requirements and their association with duration of hospitalization and survival to discharge in critically ill cats. Retrospective study from January 2009 to January 2011. University teaching hospital. Cats hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) for >48 hours. None. Medical records of cats hospitalized for >48 hours in the ICU were examined. Of the 45 cats included, 60% (27/45) were not anemic upon admission to the ICU. Of these, 74.1% (20/27) developed anemia during their ICU stay. Development of anemia was associated with a longer duration of hospitalization (P = 0.002) but not with survival (P = 0.46). Fourteen cats (31.1%; 14/45) received one or more packed red blood cell transfusions and had significantly longer ICU stays (P < 0.001). Transfusion requirements were not associated with survival (P = 0.66). The median number of phlebotomies per day for all cats in the ICU was 3 (range 1-6). This was significantly associated with the development of anemia (P = 0.0011) and higher transfusion requirements (P = 0.16) in the 14 cats that received a transfusion. The estimated volume phlebotomized was significantly (P < 0.001) greater in cats that required a transfusion (median volume 3.32 mL/kg/ICU stay) compared to cats that did not require a transfusion (median volume 1.11 mL/kg/ICU stay) but was not associated with survival to discharge (P = 0.84). Development of anemia necessitating blood transfusions is common in critically ill cats and leads to significantly longer duration of ICU hospitalization. Iatrogenic anemia from frequent phlebotomies is an important cause for increased transfusion requirement. Fewer phlebotomies and other blood conserving strategies in these patients may help reduce the incidence of anemia and decrease transfusion requirements, as well as result in shorter hospital stays.

  10. Massive transfusion and massive transfusion protocol

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vijaya; Shetmahajan, Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    Haemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Rapid transfusion of large volumes of blood products is required in patients with haemorrhagic shock which may lead to a unique set of complications. Recently, protocol based management of these patients using massive transfusion protocol have shown improved outcomes. This section discusses in detail both management and complications of massive blood transfusion. PMID:25535421

  11. [Decreased transfusion requirements in acquired severe bleeding with recombinant activated factor VII].

    PubMed

    Lecumberri, Ramón; Páramo, José A; Hidalgo, Francisco; Feliu, Jesús; Iglesias, Rebeca; Rocha, Eduardo

    2005-09-03

    Patients with severe and persistent bleeding have high mortality rates despite standard therapy, including blood transfusion support. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of rFVIIa in the management of severe bleeding, refractory to other treatments. All cases with severe bleeding and failure of previous treatments who received rFVIIa (n = 21) at one single center were retrospectively included in the study. A response after the administration of rFVIIa was reported in 16 of 21 patients (76.2%). Hemorrhage was completely halted in 14 cases, and 12 patients (57.1%) were alive 30 days after treatment. The use of rFVIIa was associated with a normalization of coagulation tests, especially the prothrombin time (p = 0.001). A marked reduction in blood requirements, red cell units (p = 0.003), fresh frozen plasma (p = 0.009) and platelets (p = 0.017) was also observed. rFVIIa may have an important role in the achievement of an adequate hemostasis and reduces blood requirements in patients with severe bleeding, emerging as an alternative to blood transfusion.

  12. Persistent reduced oxygen requirement following blood transfusion during recovery from hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Haouzi, Philippe; Van de Louw, Andry

    2015-08-15

    Our study intended to determine the effects on oxygen uptake (VO2) of restoring a normal rate of O2 delivery following blood transfusion (BT) after a severe hemorrhage (H). Spontaneously breathing urethane anesthetized rats were bled by removing 20 ml/kg of blood over 30 min. Rats were then infused with their own shed blood 15 min after the end of H. At mid-perfusion, half of the rats received a unique infusion of the decoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP, 6 mg/kg). VO2 and arterial blood pressure (ABP) were continuously measured throughout the study, along with serial determination of blood lactate concentration [La]. Animals were euthanized 45 min after the end of reperfusion; liver and lungs were further analyzed for early expression of oxidative stress gene using RT-PCR. Our bleeding protocol induced a significant decrease in ABP and increase in [La], while VO2 dropped by half. The O2 deficit progressively accumulated during the period of bleeding reached -114 ± 53 ml/kg, just before blood transfusion. Despite the transfusion of blood, a significant O2 deficit persisted (-82 ± 59 ml/kg) 45 min after reperfusion. This slow recovery of VO2 was sped up by DNP injection, leading to a fast recovery of O2 deficit after reperfusion, becoming positive (+460 ± 132 ml/kg) by the end of the protocol, supporting the view that O2 supply is not the main controller of VO2 dynamics after BT. Of note is that DNP also enhanced oxidative stress gene expression (up-regulation of NADPH oxidase 4 in the lung for instance). The mechanism of slow recovery of O2 requirement/demand following BT and the resulting effects on tissues exposed to relatively high O2 partial pressure are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased bacterial infections after transfusion of leukoreduced non-irradiated blood products in recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplants after reduced-intensity conditioning.

    PubMed

    Jaime-Pérez, José C; Villarreal-Villarreal, César D; Salazar-Riojas, Rosario; Méndez-Ramírez, Nereida; Vázquez-Garza, Eduardo; Gómez-Almaguer, David

    2015-03-01

    Blood components transfused to hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are irradiated to prevent transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD). The effect of transfusing non-irradiated blood products in HSCT outcome, including incidence of transplant complications, bacterial infections, acute and chronic GVHD presentation, and characteristics, has not been documented. Clinical records as well as blood bank and electronic databases of HSCT patients grafted after reduced-intensity conditioning who received irradiated versus non-irradiated blood products, after blood irradiation became unavailable at our center, were scrutinized for transplant outcome, clinical evolution, engraftment characteristics including days to neutrophil and platelet recovery, acute and chronic GVHD, rate and type of infections, and additional transplant-related comorbidities. All transfused blood products were leukoreduced. A total of 156 HSCT recipients was studied, 73 received irradiated and 83 non-irradiated blood components. Bacterial infections were significantly more frequent in patients transfused with non-irradiated blood products, P = .04. Clinically relevant increased rates of fever and neutropenia and mucositis were also documented in these patients. No cases of TA-GVHD occurred. Classical GVHD developed in 37 patients (50.7%) who received irradiated blood products and 36 (43.9%) who received non-irradiated blood products, P = .42. Acute GVHD developed in 28 patients (38.4%) in the blood-irradiated and 33 patients (39.8%) in the non-irradiation group, P = .87. The 2-year GVHD-free survival rate was 40% in the irradiated versus 40.6% in the non-irradiation group, P = .071. Increased bacterial infections were found in HSCT recipients transfused with non-irradiated blood products, which ideally must always be irradiated.

  14. The Use of Splenectomy to Manage Platelet Transfusion Refractoriness due to Anti-Human Leukocyte Antibodies in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Margherita; Camoglio, Francesco; Piccoli, Pierluigi; De Bortoli, Massimiliano; Balter, Rita; Pegoraro, Anna; Cesaro, Simone

    2016-01-01

    In patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), refractoriness to platelet transfusion has been associated with graft failure, delayed engraftment, early mortality and decreased overall survival. Therapeutic strategies include plasma exchange, immunoglobulins, rituximab, and splenectomy. We describe here three patients with refractoriness to platelet transfusion due to anti-human leukocyte antibodies who were splenectomized before HSCT (two cases) and after HSCT (one case) due to the lack of efficacy of other therapies. Splenectomy was uneventful. All three patients achieved a full donor engraftment. We suggest that splenectomy is feasible and effective in HSCT patients to reduce the risk of graft failure or delayed engraftment. PMID:27114815

  15. The Use of Splenectomy to Manage Platelet Transfusion Refractoriness due to Anti-Human Leukocyte Antibodies in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Margherita; Camoglio, Francesco; Piccoli, Pierluigi; De Bortoli, Massimiliano; Balter, Rita; Pegoraro, Anna; Cesaro, Simone

    2016-03-31

    In patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), refractoriness to platelet transfusion has been associated with graft failure, delayed engraftment, early mortality and decreased overall survival. Therapeutic strategies include plasma exchange, immunoglobulins, rituximab, and splenectomy. We describe here three patients with refractoriness to platelet transfusion due to anti-human leukocyte antibodies who were splenectomized before HSCT (two cases) and after HSCT (one case) due to the lack of efficacy of other therapies. Splenectomy was uneventful. All three patients achieved a full donor engraftment. We suggest that splenectomy is feasible and effective in HSCT patients to reduce the risk of graft failure or delayed engraftment.

  16. Reduction of allogeneic red blood cell usage during cardiac surgery by an integrated intra- and postoperative blood salvage strategy: results of a randomized comparison.

    PubMed

    Weltert, Luca; Nardella, Saverio; Rondinelli, Maria Beatrice; Pierelli, Luca; De Paulis, Ruggero

    2013-04-01

    The amount of allogeneic blood transfusion may relate to worse outcome in cardiac surgery. The reinfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) lost by patients, including those of chest drains, is a promising strategy to minimize allogeneic transfusions. To verify this hypotheis, 1047 cardiac surgery patients were randomly assigned to either traditional intraoperative blood salvage followed by chest drain insertion or intra- and postoperative strategy with the Haemonetics cardioPAT system. Allogeneic RBC transfusion rate (primary endpoint) and postoperative complications (secondary endpoint) were recorded at the time of discharge from the hospital and at first month follow-up visit, respectively. The cardioPAT arm received 1.20 units of allogeneic RBCs per patient, whereas the control group required 2.11 units per patient, and this difference proved to be highly significant (p=0.02). We observed a comparable 45-day mortality rate but a lower rate of deep vein thrombosis (p=0.04) and atrial fibrillation (p=0.04) in the cardioPAT arm. A significant reduction in patient exposure to allogeneic RBCs was observed in the cardioPAT system arm. Complications were slightly less frequent in the cardioPAT group. The use of the cardioPAT is a safe and effective strategy to reduce allogeneic RBC transfusions in cardiac surgery. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  17. Detection of IgG anti-A/B must be essential for safe transfusion support in patients undergoing ABO incompatible allogeneic HSCT.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Li, Guining; Mao, Xiaolu; Hu, Lihua

    2011-04-01

    Recipients of ABO incompatible allogeneic HSCT present with unusual ABO groups and crossmatch problems accompanied by change of the ABO group from that of the host to the donor. We report on a patient undergoing major ABO incompatible allogeneic HSCT (donor/recipient: A/O) whose blood group was wrongly established to have completely switched to blood group A when using a routine tube method and micro gel column blood grouping card on the 68th day post transplantation. The major crossmatch test with added antiglobulin and blood group A red cells was still positive. After further investigation, an explanation was found because we could not detect IgG anti-A in the serum. At the same time, anti-A coated the patient's RBCs and could be identified using a heat elution method although the DAT was negative. We also found an obvious mixed field with the LISS-IAT gel card. Hence, routine methods of ABO grouping are unfit for ABO incompatible allogeneic HSCT patients and a micro column neutral gel card is recommended for forward typing especially to detect mixed fields and a LISS-IAT gel card or IAT tube method for detecting IgG anti-A/B in reverse typing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Predicting blood transfusion in patients undergoing minimally invasive oesophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Crispin; Boddy, Alex P; Fukuta, Junaid; Groom, William D; Streets, Christopher G

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate predictors of allogenic blood transfusion requirements in patients undergoing minimal invasive oesophagectomy at a tertiary high volume centre for oesophago-gastric surgery. Retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing minimal access oesophagectomy in our department between January 2010 and December 2011. Patients were divided into two groups depending on whether they required a blood transfusion at any time during their index admission. Factors that have been shown to influence perioperative blood transfusion requirements in major surgery were included in the analysis. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the impact of patient and perioperative characteristics on transfusion requirements during the index admission. A total of 80 patients underwent minimal access oesophagectomy, of which 61 patients had a laparoscopic assisted oesophagectomy and 19 patients had a minimal invasive oesophagectomy. Perioperative blood transfusion was required in 28 patients at any time during hospital admission. On binary logistic regression analysis, a lower preoperative haemoglobin concentration (p < 0.01), suffering a significant complication (p < 0.005) and laparoscopic assisted oesophagectomy (p < 0.05) were independent predictors of blood transfusion requirements. It has been reported that requirement for blood transfusion can affect long-term outcomes in oesophageal cancer resection. Two factors which could be addressed preoperatively; haemoglobin concentration and type of oesophageal resection, may be valuable in predicting blood transfusions in patients undergoing minimally invasive oesophagectomy. Our analysis revealed that preoperative haemoglobin concentration, occurrence of significant complications and type of minimal access oesophagectomy predicted blood transfusion requirements in the patient population examined. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimating blood transfusion requirements in preparation for a major earthquake: the Tehran, Iran study.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaie, Morteza; Ardalan, Ali; Abolghasemi, Hassan; Holakouie Naieni, Kourosh; Pourmalek, Farshad; Ahmadi, Batool; Shokouhi, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    Tehran, Iran, with a population of approximately seven million people, is at a very high risk for a devastating earthquake. This study aims to estimate the number of units of blood required at the time of such an earthquake. To assume the damage of an earthquake in Tehran, the researchers applied the Centre for Earthquake and Environmental Studies of Tehran/Japan International Cooperation Agency (CEST/JICA) fault-activation scenarios, and accordingly estimated the injury-to-death ratio (IDR), hospital admission rate (HAR), and blood transfusion rate (BTR). The data were based on Iran's major earthquakes during last two decades. The following values were considered for the analysis: (1) IDR = 1, 2, and 3; (2) HAR = 0.25 and 0.35; and (3) BTR = 0.05, 0.07, and 0.10. The American Association of Blood Banks' formula was adapted to calculate total required numbers of Type- O red blood cell (RBC) units. Calculations relied on the following assumptions: (1) no change in Tehran's vulnerability from CEST/JICA study time; (2) no functional damage to Tehran Blood Transfusion Post; and (3) standards of blood safety are secure during the disaster responses. Surge capacity was estimated based on the Bam earthquake experience. The maximum, optimum, and minimum blood deficits were calculated accordingly. No deficit was estimated in case of the Mosha fault activation and the optimum scenario of North Tehran fault. The maximum blood deficit was estimated from the activation of the Ray fault, requiring up to 107,293 and 95,127 units for the 0-24 hour and the 24-72 hour periods after the earthquake, respectively. The optimum deficit was estimated up to 46,824 and 16,528 units for 0-24 hour and 24-72 hour period after the earthquake, respectively. In most Tehran earthquake scenarios, a shortage of blood was estimated to surge the capacity of all blood transfusion posts around the country within first three days, as it might ask for a 2-8 times more than what the system had produced

  20. Red Blood Cell Transfusion Risks in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tanhehco, Yvette C.; Berns, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO), red blood cell (RBC) transfusions were frequently required when iron and anabolic steroids failed to improve the clinical symptoms of anemia associated with hemoglobin (Hb) levels that were commonly less than 7 g/dL. After the approval of EPO in the US in 1989, the Hb levels of patients on hemodialysis dramatically improved and the need for RBC transfusions decreased significantly. The need for RBC transfusion remains for patients who require an immediate increase in their RBC mass due to symptomatic anemia and is likely to increase due to changes in the management of anemia in dialysis patients resulting from clinical trials data, regulatory changes, and new reimbursement policies for EPO. The safety of the blood supply has greatly improved over the last few decades and the risk of transfusion-transmitted diseases has now been dramatically reduced. Non-infectious complications of transfusion currently cause the majority of morbidity and mortality associated with transfusion in the US. Transfusion also brings a risk of alloimmunization, a particular concern for dialysis patients waiting for kidney transplantation. Knowledge of the risks of RBC transfusions will help clinicians better assess the risks and benefits of transfusing patients with ESRD. This article reviews the modern day infectious and non-infectious risks of allogeneic RBC transfusions. PMID:22686519

  1. Red blood cell transfusion risks in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Tanhehco, Yvette C; Berns, Jeffrey S

    2012-01-01

    Prior to the introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO), red blood cell (RBC) transfusions were frequently required when iron and anabolic steroids failed to improve the clinical symptoms of anemia associated with hemoglobin (Hb) levels that were commonly less than 7 g/dl. After the approval of EPO in the United States in 1989, the Hb levels of patients on hemodialysis dramatically improved and the need for RBC transfusions decreased significantly. The need for RBC transfusion remains for patients who require an immediate increase in their RBC mass due to symptomatic anemia and is likely to increase due to changes in the management of anemia in dialysis patients resulting from clinical trials data, regulatory changes, and new reimbursement policies for EPO. The safety of the blood supply has greatly improved over the last few decades, and the risk of transfusion-transmitted diseases has now been dramatically reduced. Noninfectious complications of transfusion currently cause the majority of morbidity and mortality associated with transfusion in the United States. Transfusion also brings a risk of alloimmunization, a particular concern for dialysis patients waiting for kidney transplantation. Knowledge of the risks of RBC transfusions will help clinicians better assess the risks and benefits of transfusing patients with ESRD. This article reviews the modern day infectious and noninfectious risks of allogeneic RBC transfusions. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Pure red cell aplasia after ABO major-mismatched allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation successfully treated with plasma exchange and low-dose steroid: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hui-Jen; Lin, Sheng-Fung; Liu, Ta-Chih; Chang, Chao-Sung; Hsiao, Hui-Hua; Chen, Tyen-Po

    2004-03-01

    Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a complication of ABO-incompatible allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The mechanism is not well known, although the isoagglutinin titer before transplantation or cyclosporine use is considered to be the cause. Patients with this complication require more blood transfusions than those without it. There is no standard treatment. We report two cases of PRCA after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation that were successfully treated with plasma exchange and low-dose steroid.

  3. Hematologic Disorders: Blood Transfusion Products.

    PubMed

    Baltierra, David; Harper, Tiffany; Jones, Matthew Page; Nau, Konrad C

    2015-06-01

    Until the 1980s, liberal blood transfusion criteria with limited evidence were used regardless of the patient's clinical condition. However, blood transfusion products are associated with several risks, such as infection, acute lung injury, circulatory overload, and hemolytic transfusion reactions. More restrictive transfusion criteria and patient monitoring can decrease the need for transfusions, as well as decrease morbidity and mortality rates and costs. The national supply of blood products continues to decline with more stringent blood donor criteria. Preoperative autologous blood donation has fallen out of favor in patients without antibodies to high-incidence antigens because of increased rates of transfusion, waste of predonated units, and significant costs. Instead, preoperative erythropoietin plus iron therapy in patients who are at high risk of postoperative anemia as well as intraoperative techniques, such as use of antifibrinolytics and cell salvage, can prevent the need for allogeneic blood transfusion. Artificial blood products remain problematic and are not used in the United States.

  4. Young-Burgess classification of pelvic ring fractures: does it predict mortality, transfusion requirements, and non-orthopaedic injuries?

    PubMed

    Manson, Theodore; O'Toole, Robert V; Whitney, Augusta; Duggan, Brian; Sciadini, Marcus; Nascone, Jason

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the ability of the Young-Burgess classification system to predict mortality, transfusion requirements, and nonorthopaedic injuries in patients with pelvic ring fractures and to determine whether mortality rates after pelvic fractures have changed over time. Retrospective review. Level I trauma center. One thousand two hundred forty-eight patients with pelvic fractures during a 7-year period. None. Mortality at index admission, transfusion requirement during first 24 hours, and presence of nonorthopaedic injuries as a function of Young-Burgess pelvic classification type. Mortality compared with historic controls. Despite a relatively large sample size, the ability of the Young-Burgess system to predict mortality only approached statistical significance (P = 0.07, Kruskal-Wallis). The Young-Burgess system differentiated transfusion requirements--lateral compression Type 3 (LC3) and anteroposterior compression Types 2 (APC2) and 3 (APC3) fractures had higher transfusion requirements than did lateral compression Type 1 (LC1), anteroposterior compression Type 1 (APC1), and vertical shear (VS) (P < 0.05)--but was not as useful at predicting head, chest, or abdomen injuries. Dividing fractures into stable and unstable types allowed the system to predict mortality rates, abdomen injury rates, and transfusion requirements. Overall mortality in the study group was 9.1%, unchanged from original Young-Burgess studies 15 years previously (P = 0.3). The Young-Burgess system is useful for predicting transfusion requirements. For the system to predict mortality or nonorthopaedic injuries, fractures must be divided into stable (APC1, LC1) and unstable (APC2, APC3, LC2, LC3, VS, combined mechanism of injury) types. LC1 injuries are very common and not always benign (overall mortality rate, 8.2%).

  5. A Giant Brunneroma Causing Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Severe Anemia Requiring Transfusion and Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Laclé, Miangela M.; Borel Rinkes, Inne H. M.

    2017-01-01

    Brunner's gland hamartoma, also called hyperplasia, adenoma, and Brunneroma, is an extremely rare benign proliferative lesion of Brunner's glands in the duodenum. While being mostly small and asymptomatic, they can result in gastrointestinal bleeding and obstruction. We report the case of a 54-year-old man presenting with melena and severe anemia requiring blood transfusion. CT scans showed a large mass of 8 cm in diameter, presumably arising in the duodenum. Endoscopic biopsies were not conclusive. As we were unable to determine the nature of the mass preoperatively and due to the severe symptoms, its size, and the uncertain malignant potential, a classic Whipple procedure was performed. The resected specimen showed extensive proliferation of Brunner's glands without signs of malignancy. PMID:28299229

  6. A Giant Brunneroma Causing Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Severe Anemia Requiring Transfusion and Surgery.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Nicola C; Laclé, Miangela M; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Molenaar, Izaak Q; Hagendoorn, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Brunner's gland hamartoma, also called hyperplasia, adenoma, and Brunneroma, is an extremely rare benign proliferative lesion of Brunner's glands in the duodenum. While being mostly small and asymptomatic, they can result in gastrointestinal bleeding and obstruction. We report the case of a 54-year-old man presenting with melena and severe anemia requiring blood transfusion. CT scans showed a large mass of 8 cm in diameter, presumably arising in the duodenum. Endoscopic biopsies were not conclusive. As we were unable to determine the nature of the mass preoperatively and due to the severe symptoms, its size, and the uncertain malignant potential, a classic Whipple procedure was performed. The resected specimen showed extensive proliferation of Brunner's glands without signs of malignancy.

  7. SHOCK VOLUME: A PATIENT-SPECIFIC INDEX THAT PREDICTS TRANSFUSION REQUIREMENTS AND ORGAN DYSFUNCTION IN MULTIPLY INJURED PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Todd O; McCarroll, Tyler; Gaski, Greg E; Frantz, Travis L; Zarzaur, Ben L; Terry, Colin; Steenburg, Scott D

    2016-02-01

    Multiply injured patients (MIPs) in hemorrhagic shock develop oxygen debt which causes organ dysfunction and can lead to death. We developed a noninvasive patient-specific index, Shock Volume (SV), to quantify the magnitude of hypoperfusion. SV integrates the magnitude and duration that incremental shock index values are elevated above known thresholds of hypoperfusion using serial individual vital sign data. SV can be monitored in real time to assess ongoing hypoperfusion. The goal of this study was to determine how SV corresponded to transfusion requirements and organ dysfunction in a retrospective cohort of 74 MIPs. We measured SV in 6-h increments for 48 h after injury in multiply injured adults (18-65; Injury Severity Score ≥18). Patients who had accumulated 40 units of SV within 6 h of injury and 100 units of SV within 12 h of injury were at high risk for requiring massive transfusion or multiple critical administration transfusions. SV measurements were equally sensitive and specific as compared with base deficit values in predicting transfusions. SV measurements at 6 h after injury stratified patients at risk for multiple organ failure determined by Denver scores. In addition, SV values corresponded to the magnitude of organ failure determined by Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores. SV is a patient-specific index that can be quantified in real time in critically injured patients. It is a surrogate for cumulative hypoperfusion and it predicts high-volume transfusions and organ dysfunction.

  8. The effects of balanced blood component resuscitation and crystalloid administration in pediatric trauma patients requiring transfusion in Afghanistan and Iraq 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Mary J; Lustik, Michael B; Clark, Margaret E; Creamer, Kevin M; Tuggle, David

    2015-02-01

    Component balanced resuscitation and avoidance of crystalloids in traumatically injured adults requiring massive transfusion are beneficial. Evidence for children is lacking. After institutional review board approval was obtained, the Department of Defense Trauma Database identified 1,311 injured children 14 years or younger requiring transfusion after an injury and admitted to a deployed US military hospital from 2002 to 2012. Logistic regression determined risk factors for high-volume (≥40 mL/kg) or massive (≥70 mL/kg) transfusions. The effects of crystalloid and balanced component resuscitation in the first 24 hours were assessed. Nine hundred seven patients had recorded data sufficient for analysis. Two hundred twenty-four children received high-volume transfusion, and 77 received massive transfusions. Mortality was significantly higher for massive transfusions and high-volume transfusions than others (25% vs. 10% and 19% vs. 9%, respectively). Age of less than 4 years, penetrating injury, and Injury Severity Score (ISS) greater than 15 were associated with high-volume transfusions; an ISS greater than 15 and penetrating injury were associated with massive transfusions. Increased crystalloid administration showed a significant positive association with hospital days and intensive care unit days for both massive and high-volume transfusions, as well as a significant positive association with increased ventilator days in patients with high-volume transfusions. Balanced component resuscitation was not associated with improved measured outcomes and was independently associated with a higher mortality when all transfused patients were considered. In this cohort, heavy reliance on crystalloid for resuscitation had an adverse effect on outcomes. Balanced component resuscitation did not improve outcomes and was associated with higher mortality when all transfused patients were considered. Further study is needed regarding efficacy and clinical triggers for the

  9. Requirements for blood and blood components intended for transfusion or for further manufacturing use. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-05-22

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulations applicable to blood and blood components, including Source Plasma, to make the donor eligibility and testing requirements more consistent with current practices in the blood industry, to more closely align the regulations with current FDA recommendations, and to provide flexibility to accommodate advancing technology. In order to better assure the safety of the nation's blood supply and to help protect donor health, FDA is revising the requirements for blood establishments to test donors for infectious disease, and to determine that donors are eligible to donate and that donations are suitable for transfusion or further manufacture. FDA is also requiring establishments to evaluate donors for factors that may adversely affect the safety, purity, and potency of blood and blood components or the health of a donor during the donation process. Accordingly, these regulations establish requirements for donor education, donor history, and donor testing. These regulations also implement a flexible framework to help both FDA and industry to more effectively respond to new or emerging infectious agents that may affect blood product safety.

  10. Chronic persistent parvovirus B19 bone marrow infection resulting in transfusion-dependent pure red cell aplasia in multiple myeloma after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and severe graft versus host disease.

    PubMed

    Karrasch, Matthias; Schmidt, Volker; Hammer, Andreas; Hochhaus, Andreas; Rosée, Paul La; Petersen, Iver; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Baier, Michael; Sayer, Herbert G; Hermann, Beate

    2017-03-01

    We report a chronic persistent Parvovirus B19 (PVB19) infection despite long-term immunoglobulin substitution intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and tapering of immune-suppressive therapy in a 41-year-old patient after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) and long-term immune-suppressive therapy due to a steroid-refractory graft versus host disease (GvHD). More than 18 month after alloHSCT the patient acquired a de novo transfusion-dependent pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) due to a PVB19 infection. Despite prompt tapering of GvHD-directed therapy and application of various IVIG regimens, transfusion-dependent anaemia (fourerythrocyte concentrates a month) persisted, and a high PVB19 replication is still evident for more than 3.5 years. Virological analysis at different time points showed a very high PVB19 load in the blood (range: 6.79E9-1.56E11), as well as highly elevated PVB19-IgG (range: 1.95-3.34) and -IgM (range: 1.97-9.74) levels in serology testing. Other virological parameters were not significantly elevated. After 30 months, a bone marrow (BM) examination still revealed a highly dysplastic erythropoiesis without any cellular maturation, and a high-grade expression of PVB19 within the dysplastic erythropoietic progenitor cells, consistent with a PRCA due to a PVB19 infection of the BM. We suggest that PRCA was most probably caused by a primary PVB19 infection of unknown source following alloHSCT with a PVB19-negative donor. PRCA due a PVB19 infection of the BM may persist over a long-time, despite prolonged administration of various IVIG regimen and tapering of GvHD-directed therapy. The case emphasizes the importance of PVB19 monitoring in heavily pre-treated haematological patients. Currently, PVB19-directed treatment options are extremely limited and optimized therapeutic strategies are urgently needed.

  11. Transfusion Requirements in Microsurgical Reconstruction in Maxillofacial Surgery: Ethical and Legal Problems of Patients Who Are Jehovah's Witnesses.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lorena Pingarron; Arias-Gallo, Javier; Perez-Chrzanowska, Hanna; Seco, Pilar Ruiz; Moro, Javier Gonzalez M; Burgueño-Garcia, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    Objective To study transfusion requirements in patients with cancer undergoing head and neck reconstructive surgery and to discuss surgical and anesthetic strategies to reduce blood loss when the patient is a Jehovah's Witness. Material and Methods A descriptive study to expose the percentage of blood transfusions performed in patients with cancer undergoing microsurgical reconstructions in the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery of the referred hospital in the past 9 years. Results Two hundred thirty-seven microsurgical reconstructions were performed in head and neck tumors between January 2001 and December 2009. Statistical analysis shows a significant decrease (p = 0.035) in the number of patients needing transfusions patients in recent years. Conclusions The treatment of patients who are Jehovah's Witnesses is an ethical and moral dilemma for the clinician and in particular for surgeons.

  12. Transfusion Requirements in Microsurgical Reconstruction in Maxillofacial Surgery: Ethical and Legal Problems of Patients Who Are Jehovah's Witnesses

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lorena Pingarron; Arias-Gallo, Javier; Perez-Chrzanowska, Hanna; Seco, Pilar Ruiz; Moro, Javier Gonzalez M.; Burgueño-Garcia, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study transfusion requirements in patients with cancer undergoing head and neck reconstructive surgery and to discuss surgical and anesthetic strategies to reduce blood loss when the patient is a Jehovah's Witness. Material and Methods A descriptive study to expose the percentage of blood transfusions performed in patients with cancer undergoing microsurgical reconstructions in the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery of the referred hospital in the past 9 years. Results Two hundred thirty-seven microsurgical reconstructions were performed in head and neck tumors between January 2001 and December 2009. Statistical analysis shows a significant decrease (p = 0.035) in the number of patients needing transfusions patients in recent years. Conclusions The treatment of patients who are Jehovah's Witnesses is an ethical and moral dilemma for the clinician and in particular for surgeons. PMID:24436733

  13. Platelet transfusion refractoriness attributable to HLA antibodies produced by donor-derived cells after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from one HLA-antigen-mismatched mother.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Naoki; Hori, Tsukasa; Yamamoto, Masaki; Inazawa, Natsuko; Iesato, Kotoe; Miyazaki, Toru; Ikeda, Hisami; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2011-12-01

    PTR is a serious problem in patients being treated for hematologic disorders. Two patients with acute leukemia developed PTR after allogeneic BMT from one HLA-antigen-mismatched mother attributable to HLA antibodies, which could not be detected in their serum before BMT. HLA antibodies, whose specificity resembled that of each patient, were detected in each donor's serum. Each donor had probably been immunized during pregnancy by their partner's HLA antigens expressed by the fetus, consequently, transplanted donor-derived cells provoked HLA antibodies in each recipient early after BMT, and those HLA antibodies induced PTR. If the mothers are selected as donors for their children, they should be tested for the presence of HLA antibodies.

  14. Microvesicle phenotypes are associated with transfusion requirements and mortality in subjects with severe injuries

    PubMed Central

    Matijevic, Nena; Wang, Yao-Wei W.; Holcomb, John B.; Kozar, Rosemary; Cardenas, Jessica C.; Wade, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe injury often results in substantial bleeding and mortality. Injury provokes cellular activation and release of extracellular vesicles. Circulating microvesicles (MVs) are predominantly platelet-derived and highly procoagulant. They support hemostasis and vascular function. The roles of MVs in survival after severe injury are largely unknown. We hypothesized that altered MV phenotypes would be associated with transfusion requirements and poor outcomes. Methods This single-centre study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. The study cohort consisted of patients with major trauma requiring blood product transfusion and 26 healthy controls. Plasma samples for MVs were collected upon admission to the emergency department (n=169) and post-resuscitation (n=42), and analysed by flow cytometry for MV counts and cellular origin: platelet (PMV), erythrocyte (RMV), leukocyte (LMV), endothelial (EMV), tissue factor (TFMV), and annexin V (AVMV). Twenty-four hour mortality is the outcome measurement used to classify survivors versus non-survivors. Data were compared over time and analysed with demographic and clinical data. Results The median age was 34 (IQR 23, 51), 72% were male, Injury Severity Score was 29 (IQR 19, 36), and 24 h mortality was 13%. MV levels and phenotypes differed between patients and controls. Elevated admission EMVs were found both in survivors (409/µL) and non-survivors (393/µL) compared to controls (23/µL, p<0.001) and persisted over time. Admission levels of PMV, AVMV, RMV, and TFMV were significantly lower in patients who died compared to survivors, but were not independently associated with the 24 h mortality rate. Patients with low MV levels at admission received the most blood products within the first 24 h. AVMV and PMV levels either increased over time or stabilized in survivors but decreased in non-survivors, resulting in significantly lower levels at intensive care unit admission in non-survivors (1,048 vs. 1

  15. Predicting Factors for Allogeneic Blood Transfusion and Excessive Postoperative Blood Loss after Single Low-Dosage Intra-Articular Tranexamic Acid Application in Total Knee Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Chanplakorn, Pongsthorn; Woratanarat, Patarawan; Kawinwonggowit, Viroj

    2017-01-01

    Background. Recently, intra-articular tranexamic acid (IA-TXA) application has become a popular method for perioperative blood loss (PBL) reduction in total knee replacement (TKR). Nevertheless, through our knowledge, no previous studies had shown the correlation perioperative factors and the risk of excessive PBL or need of blood transfusion (BT) after IA-TXA. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study was conducted in patients underwent 299 primary TKRs, using IA-TXA, during 2-year period (2013-2014). Patient's characteristic and perioperative data were reviewed and collected. PBL was measured as total hemoglobin loss (THL), estimated total blood loss (ETBL), and drainage volume per kg (DV/kg). Excessive PBL was defined as PBL that exceeded 90th percentile. Results. From multivariate analysis, low preoperative hemoglobin (Hb) level and body mass index (BMI) were the significant predictors of postoperative BT (p < 0.0001 and 0.003, resp.). Excessive THL significant associated with preoperative Hb (p < 0.0001). Excessive ETBL significantly associated with preoperative Hb, height, preoperative range-of-motion, and creatinine clearance (p < 0.05 all). Low BMI and large prosthesis size were the significant predictors of excessive DV/kg (p = 0.0001 and 0.002, resp.). Conclusions. Low preoperative Hb and BMI were the significant risks of postoperative transfusion after TKR with IA-TXA. Moreover, multiple perioperative factors could result in higher PBL. PMID:28331851

  16. Prophylactic Plasma Transfusion Is Not Associated With Decreased Red Blood Cell Requirements in Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Warner, Matthew A; Chandran, Arun; Jenkins, Gregory; Kor, Daryl J

    2017-05-01

    Critically ill patients frequently receive plasma transfusion under the assumptions that abnormal coagulation test results confer increased risk of bleeding and that plasma transfusion will decrease this risk. However, the effect of prophylactic plasma transfusion remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between prophylactic plasma transfusion and bleeding complications in critically ill patients. This is a retrospective cohort study of adults admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at a single academic institution between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. Inclusion criteria included age ≥18 years and an international normalized ratio measured during ICU admission. Multivariable propensity-matched analyses were used to evaluate associations between prophylactic plasma transfusion and outcomes of interest with a primary outcome of red blood cell transfusion in the ensuing 24 hours and secondary outcomes of hospital- and ICU-free days and mortality within 30 days of ICU discharge. A total of 27,561 patients were included in the investigation with 2472 (9.0%) receiving plasma therapy and 1105 (44.7%) for which plasma transfusion was prophylactic in nature. In multivariable propensity-matched analyses, patients receiving plasma had higher rates of red blood cell transfusion (odds ratio: 4.3 [95% confidence interval: 3.3-5.7], P < .001) and fewer hospital-free days (estimated % increase: -11.0% [95% confidence interval: -11.4, -10.6%], P < .001). There were no significant differences in ICU-free days or mortality. These findings appeared robust, persisting in multiple predefined sensitivity analyses. Prophylactic administration of plasma in the critically ill was not associated with improved clinical outcomes. Further investigation examining the utility of plasma transfusion in this population is warranted.

  17. Intraoperative transfusion practices in Europe.

    PubMed

    Meier, J; Filipescu, D; Kozek-Langenecker, S; Llau Pitarch, J; Mallett, S; Martus, P; Matot, I

    2016-02-01

    Transfusion of allogeneic blood influences outcome after surgery. Despite widespread availability of transfusion guidelines, transfusion practices might vary among physicians, departments, hospitals and countries. Our aim was to determine the amount of packed red blood cells (pRBC) and blood products transfused intraoperatively, and to describe factors determining transfusion throughout Europe. We did a prospective observational cohort study enrolling 5803 patients in 126 European centres that received at least one pRBC unit intraoperatively, during a continuous three month period in 2013. The overall intraoperative transfusion rate was 1.8%; 59% of transfusions were at least partially initiated as a result of a physiological transfusion trigger- mostly because of hypotension (55.4%) and/or tachycardia (30.7%). Haemoglobin (Hb)- based transfusion trigger alone initiated only 8.5% of transfusions. The Hb concentration [mean (sd)] just before transfusion was 8.1 (1.7) g dl(-1) and increased to 9.8 (1.8) g dl(-1) after transfusion. The mean number of intraoperatively transfused pRBC units was 2.5 (2.7) units (median 2). Although European Society of Anaesthesiology transfusion guidelines are moderately implemented in Europe with respect to Hb threshold for transfusion (7-9 g dl(-1)), there is still an urgent need for further educational efforts that focus on the number of pRBC units to be transfused at this threshold. NCT 01604083. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia.

  18. Anemia, Blood Transfusion Requirements and Mortality Risk in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Adults Requiring Acute Medical Admission to Hospital in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhoff, Andrew D.; Lawn, Stephen D.; Schutz, Charlotte; Burton, Rosie; Boulle, Andrew; Cobelens, Frank J.; Meintjes, Graeme

    2015-01-01

    Background. Morbidity and mortality remain high among hospitalized patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in sub-Saharan Africa despite widespread availability of antiretroviral therapy. Severe anemia is likely one important driver, and some evidence suggests that blood transfusions may accelerate HIV progression and paradoxically increase short-term mortality. We investigated the relationship between anemia, blood transfusions, and mortality in a South African district hospital. Methods. Unselected consecutive HIV-infected adults requiring acute medical admission to a Cape Town township district hospital were recruited. Admission hemoglobin concentrations were used to classify anemia severity according to World Health Organization/AIDS Clinical Trials Group criteria. Vital status was determined at 90 days, and Cox regression analyses were used to determine independent predictors of mortality. Results. Of 585 HIV-infected patients enrolled, 578 (98.8%) were included in the analysis. Anemia was detected in 84.8% of patients and was severe (hemoglobin, 6.5–7.9 g/dL) or life-threatening (hemoglobin, <6.5 g/dL) in 17.3% and 13.3%, respectively. Within 90 days of the date of admission, 13.5% (n = 78) patients received at least 1 blood transfusion with red cell concentrate and 77 (13.3%) patients died. In univariable analysis, baseline hemoglobin and receipt of blood transfusion were associated with increased mortality risk. However, in multivariable analysis, neither hemoglobin nor receipt of a blood transfusion were independently associated with greater mortality risk. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome-defining illnesses other than tuberculosis and impaired renal function independently predicted mortality. Conclusions. Newly admitted HIV-infected adults had a high prevalence of severe or life-threatening anemia and blood transfusions were frequently required. However, after adjustment for confounders, blood transfusions did not confer an

  19. Pediatric orthotopic heart transplant requiring perioperative exchange transfusion: a case report.

    PubMed

    McNeer, Brian; Dickason, Brent; Niles, Scott; Ploessl, Jay

    2004-12-01

    An 11-month-old patient with idiopathic cardiomyopathy was scheduled for orthotopic heart transplantation. A perioperative exchange transfusion was performed because of elevated panel reactive antibody levels. This process was accomplished in the operating room prior to instituting cardiopulmonary bypass using a modified cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. In preparation for the procedure, the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit was primed with washed leukocyte-filtered banked packed red blood cells, fresh-frozen plasma, albumin, and heparin. Pump prime laboratory values were normalized prior to beginning the exchange transfusion. The patient's blood was downloaded from the venous line just proximal to the venous reservoir while simultaneously transfusing the normalized prime at normothermia. Approximately 125% of the patients calculated blood volume was exchanged. This technique greatly reduces the likelihood of hyperacute rejection. The exchange transfusion process, in addition to the patient immature immune system, provides additional options in orthotopic heart transplantation for patients that may otherwise not be considered suitable candidates.

  20. Perioperative use of allogenic blood components in live-related donor orthotopic liver transplantation: A cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Prashant; Tiwari, Aseem K; Sharma, Jyoti; Srivastava, Divyajyoti; Dixit, Surbhi; Raina, Vimarsh

    2013-01-01

    In spite of many improvements that have reduced the blood component requirements, substantial numbers of transfusions are still needed in liver transplantation. The objective of the present study was to analyze the perioperative usage of allogenic blood components and predict the preoperative factors as predictors of red cell transfusion in live-related donor liver transplant recipients. The retrospective data on utilization of allogenic blood components were analyzed for a total of 150 liver transplant procedures. The data on utilization of blood components during surgery and till 48 hours of ICU stay was collected from the blood bank record and hospital information system (HIS). Red cell concentrate was commonest blood component used in liver transplant recipient and most of the transfusion took place during surgery. During intraoperative period 92.7% (N = 139) of the cases utilized red cell components with the median number of five whereas in postoperative period only 38% (N = 57) of patients received blood with the median number of one. This study demonstrates that the preoperative hemoglobin and platelet count are the predictors of utilization of red cell concentrates during surgery. There were a total of 11 (7.3%) recipients who didn't receive allogeneic blood transfusion in any form. Utilization of blood components was negligible among organ donors. Our study demonstrates the pattern and predictors of usage of allogeneic blood components in liver transplant recipients at a tertiary healthcare center in India.

  1. Bridging channel dendritic cells induce immunity to transfused red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Calabro, Samuele; Gallman, Antonia; Gowthaman, Uthaman; Liu, Dong; Chen, Pei; Liu, Jingchun; Krishnaswamy, Jayendra Kumar; Nascimento, Manuela Sales L.; Xu, Lan; Patel, Seema R.; Williams, Adam; Tormey, Christopher A.; Hod, Eldad A.; Spitalnik, Steven L.; Zimring, James C.; Hendrickson, Jeanne E.; Stowell, Sean R.

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a life-saving therapeutic tool. However, a major complication in transfusion recipients is the generation of antibodies against non-ABO alloantigens on donor RBCs, potentially resulting in hemolysis and renal failure. Long-lived antibody responses typically require CD4+ T cell help and, in murine transfusion models, alloimmunization requires a spleen. Yet, it is not known how RBC-derived antigens are presented to naive T cells in the spleen. We sought to answer whether splenic dendritic cells (DCs) were essential for T cell priming to RBC alloantigens. Transient deletion of conventional DCs at the time of transfusion or splenic DC preactivation before RBC transfusion abrogated T and B cell responses to allogeneic RBCs, even though transfused RBCs persisted in the circulation for weeks. Although all splenic DCs phagocytosed RBCs and activated RBC-specific CD4+ T cells in vitro, only bridging channel 33D1+ DCs were required for alloimmunization in vivo. In contrast, deletion of XCR1+CD8+ DCs did not alter the immune response to RBCs. Our work suggests that blocking the function of one DC subset during a narrow window of time during RBC transfusion could potentially prevent the detrimental immune response that occurs in patients who require lifelong RBC transfusion support. PMID:27185856

  2. Fresh Frozen Plasma Should be Given Earlier to Patients Requiring Massive Transfusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    early uncorrected coagulopathy is predictive of mortality. METHODS High-risk patients who were admitted to the Shock Trauma ICU at Memorial Hermann ...2000;48:637–642. 15. Ketchum L, Hess JR, Hiippala S. Indications for early FFP, cryoprecipitate and platelet transfusions in trauma. J Trauma. 2006; 60...fractures. Ann Surg. 2001;233:843–850. 20. Holcomb JB, Hess JR (eds.). Early massive transfusion: state of the art—Conference Proceedings. US Army

  3. Adrenal insufficiency is prevalent in HbE/β-thalassaemia paediatric patients irrespective of their clinical severity and transfusion requirement.

    PubMed

    Nakavachara, Pairunyar; Viprakasit, Vip

    2013-12-01

    Transfusion dependency is known to cause endocrinopathies in patients with thalassaemia such as adrenal insufficiency, because transfusion-related iron overload is injurious to endocrine organs. Children with HbE/ß-thalassaemia vary greatly in red cell transfusion requirement and some are transfusion dependent (TD), whereas others are nontransfusion dependent (NTD). Because iron overload is thought to be the primary cause of adrenal insufficiency, TD children with HbE/ß-thalassaemia are considered likely candidates for the development of adrenal insufficiency, while the adrenal function of NTD children is generally considered to be normal. As yet, the prevalence of adrenal insufficiency among children with NTD HbE/β-thalassaemia is not known. The present study was performed to (i) assess the prevalence of adrenal insufficiency in children with both TD and NTD HbE/β-thalassaemia and to evaluate whether there is any difference in the prevalence of adrenal insufficiency between both groups and (ii) determine the type of adrenal insufficiency (primary or secondary). We investigated the prevalence of adrenal insufficiency among TD (n = 42) and NTD (n = 43) children with HbE/β-thalassaemia by assessing morning serum cortisol levels, and we distinguished between primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency by assessing the cortisol responses following the 1- and 250-μg ACTH stimulation tests. The prevalence of adrenal insufficiency among TD and NTD children with HbE/β-thalassaemia was 50% and 53·5%, respectively. By using the 250-μg ACTH stimulation test, at least 39% and 23·5% were diagnosed with adrenal gland hypofunction in TD and NTD children, respectively. This is the first study to show that adrenal insufficiency is common among all children with HbE/β-thalassaemia, irrespective of their transfusion history or requirement. Our findings have important implications for the clinical management of these children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cost minimization analysis of preoperative erythropoietin vs autologous and allogeneic blood donation in total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Green, William Scott; Toy, Pearl; Bozic, Kevin J

    2010-01-01

    Autologous blood donation and erythropoietin (EPO) have been shown to be effective in reducing allogeneic blood transfusion, but the cost-effectiveness of these interventions remains unclear. A cost minimization analysis was performed, comparing the total costs of allogeneic blood transfusion strategy and autologous and allogeneic blood transfusion strategy for 161 primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and 195 total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients. An EPO cost minimization model was constructed using a previously published algorithm for blood management after total joint arthroplasty. The least costly strategy was autologous blood donation in combination with allogeneic blood for THA and TKA patients at $856 and $892 per patient, respectively. The most costly strategy was allogeneic only at $1769 and $1352 per THA and TKA patient, respectively. The EPO strategy model predicted costs similar to the autologous and allogeneic. A strategy that combines autologous blood donation with EPO for patients who cannot donate autologous blood may provide the greatest cost savings and minimize allogeneic blood transfusion.

  5. Blood transfusions and local tumor recurrence in colorectal cancer. Evidence of a noncausal relationship.

    PubMed Central

    Busch, O R; Hop, W C; Marquet, R L; Jeekel, J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The authors analyzed the effect of blood transfusions on the pattern of colorectal cancer recurrence. BACKGROUND. Retrospective studies suggest that blood transfusions are associated with a poor prognosis in patients who undergo operations for colorectal malignancies. In a previously published, randomized trial, it was investigated whether autologous blood transfusions could overcome this putative detrimental effect. However, this did not appear to be the case. METHODS. In the current study, the authors analyzed the patterns of recurrence in 420 patients who underwent curative operations for colorectal cancer. RESULTS. Patients who did not require transfusions (N = 143) had significantly better disease-free survival than those who did need transfusions (N = 277); percentages at 4 years were 73% and 59%, respectively (p = 0.001). No difference was found between both groups in comparing cumulative percentages of patients having metastases; percentages at 4 years were 25% in the group that did not undergo transfusion and 27% in the transfused group. The percentage of cases having local recurrence, however, was significantly increased (p = 0.0006) in the transfused group as compared with the group that did not undergo transfusion; percentages at 4 years were 20% and 3%, respectively. The groups of patients receiving only allogeneic, only autologous, or both types of transfusions all had a significantly higher incidence of local recurrence than the patients who did not receive transfusions, but no differences were found between these three groups. CONCLUSIONS. These findings suggest that the association between blood transfusions and prognosis in colorectal cancer is a result of the circumstances that necessitate transfusions, leading to the development of local recurrences, but not of distant metastases. PMID:7986147

  6. Bim is required for T-cell allogeneic responses and graft-versus-host disease in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yu; Yu, Jing; Iclozan, Cristina; Kaosaard, Kane; Anasetti, Claudio; Yu, Xue-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Bim, a BH3-only Bcl-2-family protein, is essential for T-cell negative selection in the thymus as well as for the death of activated T cells in the periphery. The role of Bim has been extensively studied in T-cell responses to self-antigens and viral infections. Recent findings on Bim in autoimmunity triggered our interest in investigating whether Bim may play a role in another disease with inflammatory symptoms as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Here we report that Bim is required for optimal T-cell responses to alloantigens in vivo and for the development of GVHD. Using murine models of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT), we found that donor T cells deficient for Bim are impaired in the induction of GVHD primarily due to a significant defect in T cell activation and expansion in vivo. Upon TCR engagement, Bim-/- T cells exhibited selective defects in CD69 expression and phosphorylation of PLCγ1. Our studies uncover a novel aspect of Bim function in T-cell activation with important implications in understanding the mechanisms of T-cell activation and tolerance under allogeneic transplantation. PMID:22432091

  7. Bim is required for T-cell allogeneic responses and graft-versus-host disease in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yu; Yu, Jing; Iclozan, Cristina; Kaosaard, Kane; Anasetti, Claudio; Yu, Xue-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Bim, a BH3-only Bcl-2-family protein, is essential for T-cell negative selection in the thymus as well as for the death of activated T cells in the periphery. The role of Bim has been extensively studied in T-cell responses to self-antigens and viral infections. Recent findings on Bim in autoimmunity triggered our interest in investigating whether Bim may play a role in another disease with inflammatory symptoms as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Here we report that Bim is required for optimal T-cell responses to alloantigens in vivo and for the development of GVHD. Using murine models of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT), we found that donor T cells deficient for Bim are impaired in the induction of GVHD primarily due to a significant defect in T cell activation and expansion in vivo. Upon TCR engagement, Bim(-/-) T cells exhibited selective defects in CD69 expression and phosphorylation of PLCγ1. Our studies uncover a novel aspect of Bim function in T-cell activation with important implications in understanding the mechanisms of T-cell activation and tolerance under allogeneic transplantation.

  8. Alternatives to blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Spahn, Donat R; Goodnough, Lawrence T

    2013-05-25

    The use of alternatives to allogeneic blood continues to rest on the principles that blood transfusions have inherent risks, associated costs, and affect the blood inventory available for health-care delivery. Increasing evidence exists of a fall in the use of blood because of associated costs and adverse outcomes, and suggests that the challenge for the use of alternatives to blood components will similarly be driven by costs and patient outcomes. Additionally, the risk-benefit profiles of alternatives to blood transfusion such as autologous blood procurement, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, and haemostatic agents are under investigation. Nevertheless, the inherent risks of blood, along with the continued rise in blood costs are likely to favour the continued development and use of alternatives to blood transfusion. We summarise the current roles of alternatives to blood in the management of medical and surgical anaemias.

  9. [Surveillance and side-effects of transfusions].

    PubMed

    Rezaei Kalantari, H

    2002-06-01

    Allogenic blood transfusion may be required for the treatment of anemia due to a hematologic disease, the consequences of chemotherapy or other circumstances, such as haemorrage and/or surgery. Transfusion becomes indispensable to prevent the side effects of anemia, such as hypoxia, palpitations, tachycardia, cardiac ischemia and fatigue. However, frequent transfusions can cause several acute problems such as hemolysis, anaphylactic shock and septic shock but also chronic problems such as iron overload (hemochromatosis), alloimmunisation and metabolic disturbances. Each of these complications can produce serious consequences and could even be sometimes fatal. Therefore we should recognise, prevent and if necessary treat all these hazards. Our article emphasises the potential chronic problems. For hemochromatosis, an iron chelator (deferoxamine) should be administered. In the presence of allo-immunisation the more compatible ABO blood group must be chosen and blood products be eliminated by filtration, when there has been blood reaction. When an allo-graft of hematopoitic tissues is considered an irradiation of blood products is necessary. Research is being carried out to develop substitute products for transfusion (haemoglobine solutions) or molecules acting on the syntheses of haemoglobine (butyrate arginine). The efficacy of erythropoitine, (EPO) is well recognised for stimulation of haemoglobine syntheses in renal failure and oncology.

  10. A strategy for reducing blood-transfusion requirements in elective orthopaedic surgery. Audit of an algorithm for arthroplasty of the lower limb.

    PubMed

    Helm, A T; Karski, M T; Parsons, S J; Sampath, J S; Bale, R S

    2003-05-01

    We prospectively audited 79 patients undergoing primary knee or hip arthroplasty (38 knees, 41 hips) and found that 66% (58% of knees, 73% of hips) had at least one unit of blood transfused postoperatively, with a mean transfusion requirement of 13 units per patient (1.1 for knees, 0 to 6; 1.5 for hips, 0 to 4). We then established a new protocol for postoperative blood transfusion. This requires the calculation of the maximum allowable blood loss (MABL) that each individual patient can safely lose based upon their weight and preoperative haematocrit. The total blood loss up to this volume is replaced with colloid. When a patient's total blood loss reaches their MABL their haematocrit is measured at the bedside using the Microspin system (Bayer plc, Newbury, UK). If their haematocrit is low (< 0.30 for men, < 0.27 for women), blood is transfused. As a safety net all patients have their haemoglobin formally checked on days 1, 2, and 3 after surgery and have a transfusion if the haemoglobin levels are less than 8.5 g/dl. We conducted a further audit of 82 patients (35 knees, 47 hips) after the introduction of this protocol. Under the new protocol only 24% of patients required blood (11% of knees, 34% of hips) with a mean transfusion requirement of 0.56 units per patient (0.26 for knees, 0 to 4; 0.79 for hips, 0 to 4). The use of clinical audit and the introduction of strict guidelines for transfusion can change transfusion practice and result in improved patient care. Our transfusion protocol is a simple and effective method of keeping transfusion to a minimum and is particularly useful in departments which do not have the facility to use autologous blood or reinfusion drains for relective orthopaedic surgery.

  11. Transfusion-associated bacterial sepsis.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, S J; Friedman, L I; Dodd, R Y

    1994-01-01

    The incidence of sepsis caused by transfusion of bacterially contaminated blood components is similar to or less than that of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis C virus infection, yet significantly exceeds those currently estimated for transfusion-associated human immunodeficiency and hepatitis B viruses. Outcomes are serious and may be fatal. In addition, transfusion of sterile allogenic blood can have generalized immunosuppressive effects on recipients, resulting in increased susceptibility to postoperative infection. This review examines the frequency of occurrence of transfusion-associated sepsis, the organisms implicated, and potential sources of bacteria. Approaches to minimize the frequency of sepsis are discussed, including the benefits and disadvantages of altering the storage conditions for blood. In addition, the impact of high levels of bacteria on the gross characteristics of erythrocyte and platelet concentrates is described. The potentials and limitations of current tests for detecting bacteria in blood are also discussed. PMID:7923050

  12. Incompatible type A plasma transfusion in patients requiring massive transfusion protocol: Outcomes of an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Stevens, W Tait; Morse, Bryan C; Bernard, Andrew; Davenport, Daniel L; Sams, Valerie G; Goodman, Michael D; Dumire, Russell; Carrick, Matthew M; McCarthy, Patrick; Stubbs, James R; Pritts, Timothy A; Dente, Christopher J; Luo-Owen, Xian; Gregory, Jason A; Turay, David; Gomaa, Dina; Quispe, Juan C; Fitzgerald, Caitlin A; Haddad, Nadeem N; Choudhry, Asad; Quesada, Jose F; Zielinski, Martin D

    2017-07-01

    With a relative shortage of type AB plasma, many centers have converted to type A plasma for resuscitation of patients whose blood type is unknown. The goal of this study is to determine outcomes for trauma patients who received incompatible plasma transfusions as part of a massive transfusion protocol (MTP). As part of an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multi-institutional trial, registry and blood bank data were collected from eight trauma centers for trauma patients (age, ≥ 15 years) receiving emergency release plasma transfusions as part of MTPs from January 2012 to August 2016. Incompatible type A plasma was defined as transfusion to patient blood type B or type AB. Of the 1,536 patients identified, 92% received compatible plasma transfusions and 8% received incompatible type A plasma. Patient characteristics were similar except for greater penetrating injuries (48% vs 36%; p = 0.01) in the incompatible group. In the incompatible group, patients were transfused more plasma units at 4 hours (median, 9 vs. 5; p < 0.001) and overall for stay (11 vs. 9; p = 0.03). No hemolytic transfusion reactions were reported. Two transfusion-related acute lung injury events were reported in the compatible group. Between incompatible and compatible groups, there was no difference in the rates of acute respiratory distress syndrome (6% vs. 8%; p = 0.589), thromboembolic events (9% vs. 7%; p = 0.464), sepsis (6% vs. 8%; p = 0.589), or acute renal failure (8% vs. 8%, p = 0.860). Mortality at 6 (17% vs. 15%, p = 0.775) and 24 hours (25% vs. 23%, p = 0.544) and at 28 days or discharge (38% vs. 35%, p = 0.486) were similar between groups. Multivariate regression demonstrated that Injury Severity Score, older age and more red blood cell transfusion at 4 hours were independently associated with death at 28 days or discharge; Injury Severity Score and more red blood cell transfusion at 4 hours were predictors for morbidity. Incompatible transfusion was not an independent

  13. Efficiency and Cost Analysis of Cell Saver Auto Transfusion System in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bilgili, Mustafa Gökhan; Erçin, Ersin; Peker, Gökhan; Kural, Cemal; Başaran, Serdar Hakan; Duramaz, Altuğ; Avkan, Cevdet

    2014-01-01

    Background: Blood loss and replacement is still a controversial issue in major orthopaedic surgery. Allogenic blood transfusion may cause legal problems and concerns regarding the transmission of transfusion-related diseases. Cellsaver Systems (CSS) were developed as an alternative to allogenic transfusion but CSS transfusion may cause coagulation, infection and haemodynamic instability. Aims: Our aim was to analyse the efficiency and cost analysis of a cell saver auto-transfusion system in the total knee arthroplasty procedure. Study Design: Retrospective comparative study. Methods: Those patients who were operated on by unilateral, cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were retrospectively evaluated. Group 1 included 37 patients who were treated using the cell saver system, and Group 2 involved 39 patients who were treated by allogenic blood transfusion. The groups were compared in terms of preoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels, blood loss and transfusion amount, whether allogenic transfusion was made, degree of deformity, body mass index and cost. Results: No significant results could be obtained in the statistical comparisons made in terms of the demographic properties, deformity properties, preoperative laboratory values, transfusion amount and length of hospital stay of the groups. Average blood loss was calculated to be less in Group 1 (p<0.05) and cost was higher in Group 1 (p<0.05). Conclusion: Cell saver systems do not decrease the amount of allogenic blood transfusion and costs more. Therefore, the routine usage of the auto-transfusion systems is a controversial issue. Cell saver system usage does not affect allogenic blood transfusion incidence or allogenic blood transfusion volume. It was found that preoperative haemoglobin and body mass index rates may affect allogenic blood transfusion. Therefore, it is foreseen that auto-transfusion systems could be useful in patients with low haemoglobin level and body mass index. PMID:25207187

  14. Admission base excess as a predictor of transfusion requirement and mortality in dogs with blunt trauma: 52 cases (2007-2009).

    PubMed

    Stillion, Jenefer R; Fletcher, Daniel J

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the ability of admission base excess (ABE) to predict blood transfusion requirement and mortality in dogs following blunt trauma. Retrospective study 2007-2009. University Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Fifty-two dogs admitted to the intensive care unit for treatment following blunt trauma. Animals requiring red blood cell transfusion (N = 8) had significantly lower ABE than those not requiring transfusion (N = 44; median base excess [BE] = -8.4 versus -4.7, P = .0034), while there was no difference in admission packed cell volume (PCV) or age. Animals that died or were euthanized due to progression of signs (N = 5) had lower median ABE than those that survived (N = 47; median BE = -7.3 versus -4.9, P = 0.018). Admission PCV and age were not significantly different between survivors and nonsurvivors. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed an ABE cutoff of -6.6 was 88% sensitive and 73% specific for transfusion requirement (P < 0.001), and a cutoff of -7.3 was 81% sensitive and 80% specific for survival (P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that ABE was a predictor of transfusion requirement that was independent of overall severity of injury as measured by the Animal Triage Trauma (ATT) score, but a similar analysis showed that only ATT was an independent predictor of survival. The ABE in dogs with blunt trauma was a predictor of mortality and blood transfusion requirement within 24 hours. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  15. Transfusion requirements in septic shock (TRISS) trial - comparing the effects and safety of liberal versus restrictive red blood cell transfusion in septic shock patients in the ICU: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Holst, Lars B; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn; Wernerman, Jan; Aneman, Anders; Guttormsen, Anne B; Johansson, Pär I; Karlsson, Sari; Klemenzson, Gudmundur; Winding, Robert; Nebrich, Lars; Albeck, Carsten; Vang, Marianne L; Bülow, Hans-Henrik; Elkjær, Jeanie M; Nielsen, Jane S; Kirkegaard, Peter; Nibro, Helle; Lindhardt, Anne; Strange, Ditte; Thormar, Katrin; Poulsen, Lone M; Berezowicz, Pawel; Bådstøløkken, Per M; Strand, Kristian; Cronhjort, Maria; Haunstrup, Elsebeth; Rian, Omar; Oldner, Anders; Bendtsen, Asger; Iversen, Susanne; Langva, Jørn-Åge; Johansen, Rasmus B; Nielsen, Niklas; Pettilä, Ville; Reinikainen, Matti; Keld, Dorte; Leivdal, Siv; Breider, Jan-Michael; Tjäder, Inga; Reiter, Nanna; Gøttrup, Ulf; White, Jonathan; Wiis, Jørgen; Andersen, Lasse Høgh; Steensen, Morten; Perner, Anders

    2013-05-23

    Transfusion of red blood cells (RBC) is recommended in septic shock and the majority of these patients receive RBC transfusion in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, benefit and harm of RBCs have not been established in this group of high-risk patients. The Transfusion Requirements in Septic Shock (TRISS) trial is a multicenter trial with assessor-blinded outcome assessment, randomising 1,000 patients with septic shock in 30 Scandinavian ICUs to receive transfusion with pre-storage leuko-depleted RBC suspended in saline-adenine-glucose and mannitol (SAGM) at haemoglobin level (Hb) of 7 g/dl or 9 g/dl, stratified by the presence of haematological malignancy and centre. The primary outcome measure is 90-day mortality. Secondary outcome measures are organ failure, ischaemic events, severe adverse reactions (SARs: anaphylactic reaction, acute haemolytic reaction and transfusion-related circulatory overload, and acute lung injury) and mortality at 28 days, 6 months and 1 year.The sample size will enable us to detect a 9% absolute difference in 90-day mortality assuming a 45% event rate with a type 1 error rate of 5% and power of 80%. An interim analysis will be performed after 500 patients, and the Data Monitoring and Safety Committee will recommend the trial be stopped if a group difference in 90-day mortality with P ≤0.001 is present at this point. The TRISS trial may bridge the gap between clinical practice and the lack of efficacy and safety data on RBC transfusion in septic shock patients. The effect of restrictive versus liberal RBC transfusion strategy on mortality, organ failure, ischaemic events and SARs will be evaluated.

  16. Transfusion requirements in septic shock (TRISS) trial - comparing the effects and safety of liberal versus restrictive red blood cell transfusion in septic shock patients in the ICU: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transfusion of red blood cells (RBC) is recommended in septic shock and the majority of these patients receive RBC transfusion in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, benefit and harm of RBCs have not been established in this group of high-risk patients. Methods/Design The Transfusion Requirements in Septic Shock (TRISS) trial is a multicenter trial with assessor-blinded outcome assessment, randomising 1,000 patients with septic shock in 30 Scandinavian ICUs to receive transfusion with pre-storage leuko-depleted RBC suspended in saline-adenine-glucose and mannitol (SAGM) at haemoglobin level (Hb) of 7 g/dl or 9 g/dl, stratified by the presence of haematological malignancy and centre. The primary outcome measure is 90-day mortality. Secondary outcome measures are organ failure, ischaemic events, severe adverse reactions (SARs: anaphylactic reaction, acute haemolytic reaction and transfusion-related circulatory overload, and acute lung injury) and mortality at 28 days, 6 months and 1 year. The sample size will enable us to detect a 9% absolute difference in 90-day mortality assuming a 45% event rate with a type 1 error rate of 5% and power of 80%. An interim analysis will be performed after 500 patients, and the Data Monitoring and Safety Committee will recommend the trial be stopped if a group difference in 90-day mortality with P ≤0.001 is present at this point. Discussion The TRISS trial may bridge the gap between clinical practice and the lack of efficacy and safety data on RBC transfusion in septic shock patients. The effect of restrictive versus liberal RBC transfusion strategy on mortality, organ failure, ischaemic events and SARs will be evaluated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01485315. Registration date 30 November 2011. First patient was randomised 3 December 2011. PMID:23702006

  17. Hydroxyurea can eliminate transfusion requirements in children with severe beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Bradai, Mohamed; Abad, Mohand Tayeb; Pissard, Serge; Lamraoui, Fatima; Skopinski, Laurent; de Montalembert, Mariane

    2003-08-15

    Hydroxyurea (HU) enhances fetal hemoglobin (Hb) production. An increase in total Hb level has been repeatedly reported during HU treatment in patients with sickle cell disease and in several patients with beta-thalassemia intermedia. Effects in patients with beta-thalassemia major are controversial. We now report a marked elevation of total Hb levels with HU that permitted regular transfusions to be stopped in 7 children with transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia. The median follow-up was 19 +/- 3 months (range, 13-21 months). We conclude that HU can eliminate transfusional needs in children with beta-thalassemia major, which could be particularly useful in countries such as Algeria, where supplies of blood or chelating agents are limited.

  18. Coagulation management in trauma-associated coagulopathy: allogenic blood products versus coagulation factor concentrates in trauma care.

    PubMed

    Klages, Matthias; Zacharowski, Kai; Weber, Christian Friedrich

    2016-04-01

    Coagulation management by transfusion of allogenic blood products and coagulation factors are competing concepts in current trauma care. Rapid and adequate therapy of trauma-associated coagulopathy is crucial to survival of severely injured patients. Standard coagulation tests such as prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time are commonly used, but these tests are inappropriate for monitoring and guiding therapy in trauma patients. Coagulation factor-based treatment showed promising results, but randomized trials have not yet been performed. In addition, viscoelastic tests are needed to guide therapy, although there is in fact limited evidence for these in tests in trauma care. Regarding transfusion therapy with allogenic blood products, plasma transfusion has been associated with improved survival in trauma patients following massive transfusion. In contrast, patients not requiring massive transfusion seem to be at risk for suffering complications with increasing volumes of plasma transfused. The collective of trauma patients is heterogeneous. Despite the lack of evidence, there are strong arguments for individualized patient treatment with coagulation factors for some indications and to abstain from the use of fresh frozen plasma. In patients with severe trauma and major bleeding, plasma, platelets, and red blood cells should be considered to be administered at a ratio of 1 : 1 : 1.

  19. Symptomatic Diverticular Disease in Patients With Severely Reduced Kidney Function: Higher Rates of Complications and Transfusion Requirement

    PubMed Central

    Dirweesh, Ahmed; Amodu, Afolarin; Khan, Muhammad; Zijoo, Ritika; Ambreen, Bushra; Ibrahim, Mohammad; Ijaz, Muhammad; Nawwar, Abdelhameed; Genena, Kareem; Tahir, Muhammad; Kumar, Naresh; Debari, Vincent A.; Wallach, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Background The prevalence of diverticulosis is increasing with 5-10% of patients developing diverticulitis and 5-15% developing symptomatic bleeding. Diverticulitis can result in abscess, perforation, fistula, or obstruction. Bleeding has combined morbidity and mortality rates of 10-20%. The purpose of this study was to compare diverticulitis-related complications and transfusion requirements for diverticular bleeding in patients with normal to moderately reduced kidney function (glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) and patients with severe renal impairment (GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2), and identify factors associated with these outcomes. Methods We retrospectively reviewed records of all patients with diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding treated at our hospital from January 1, 2011 to July 31, 2016. Patients were evaluated for baseline characteristics, GFR, baseline hemoglobin, medications, comorbidities, length of stay (LOS), presence of perforations or abscesses and the need for transfusion. Results Of the 291 patients included, males were 167 (58%). Perforations and abscesses complicating diverticulitis developed in 31/136 (23%) of patients with GFR ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2, and in 13/26 (50%) of patients with GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (odds ratio (OR): 3.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.423 - 8.06; P = 0.0073). Mean LOS (days) was 6.3 ± 4 in the GFR ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 group and 8.5 ± 4.4 in GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 group (P = 0.0001). Blood transfusion for diverticular bleeding occurred in 11/78 (14%) of patients with GFR ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and in 22/51 (43%) of patients with GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (OR: 4.6; 95% CI: 1.99 - 10.76; P = 0.0004). Among patients who needed transfusion, mean LOS was 8.5 ± 2.5 in GFR ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 group and 9 ± 5 in those with GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P = 0.04). There were no differences in age, gender or race between the study groups. Conclusion There was a significant increase in complicated

  20. Practical recommendations for patient blood management and the reduction of perioperative transfusion in joint replacement surgery.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Warwick; Campbell, David; Daly, David; Isbister, James

    2013-04-01

    Data from the Australian Better Safer Transfusion programme show that about one-third of patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty receive perioperative blood transfusions, placing them at increased risk for adverse clinical outcomes. Other concerns associated with allogeneic blood transfusion include the quality of stored red cell concentrates, the cost of provision of blood and the predicted local demographics, which mean that fewer donors will need to support a greater number of recipients. In view of the multiple challenges associated with allogeneic blood transfusion and its provision, we developed practical management recommendations for perioperative bleeding in joint replacement surgery, based on available evidence and expert consensus opinion, that aim to promote a new, responsible approach to transfusion management. Key recommendations are as follows. Patients' medical health, including haemoglobin and iron levels, needs to be evaluated and optimized preoperatively. Anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy should be stopped if possible, unless indicated for secondary cardiovascular prevention or coronary stent patency, in which case careful consideration is required. If substantial blood loss is anticipated, intraoperative management with antifibrinolytic agents is recommended for bleeding prophylaxis. Normothermia should be maintained. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures are recommended for post-operative thromboprophylaxis. A blood management programme should be instituted for haemodynamically stable patients.

  1. MHC Class I Expression by Donor Hematopoietic Stem Cells Is Required to Prevent NK Cell Attack in Allogeneic, but Not Syngeneic Recipient Mice.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yuichi; Li, Hao-Wei; Takahashi, Kazuko; Ishii, Hiroshi; Sykes, Megan; Fujisaki, Joji

    2015-01-01

    NK cells resist engraftment of syngeneic and allogeneic bone marrow (BM) cells lacking major histocompatibility (MHC) class I molecules, suggesting a critical role for donor MHC class I molecules in preventing NK cell attack against donor hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), and their derivatives. However, using high-resolution in vivo imaging, we demonstrated here that syngeneic MHC class I knockout (KO) donor HSPCs persist with the same survival frequencies as wild-type donor HSPCs. In contrast, syngeneic MHC class I KO differentiated hematopoietic cells and allogeneic MHC class I KO HSPCs were rejected in a manner that was significantly inhibited by NK cell depletion. In vivo time-lapse imaging demonstrated that mice receiving allogeneic MHC class I KO HSPCs showed a significant increase in NK cell motility and proliferation as well as frequencies of NK cell contact with and killing of HSPCs as compared to mice receiving wild-type HSPCs. The data indicate that donor MHC class I molecules are required to prevent NK cell-mediated rejection of syngeneic differentiated cells and allogeneic HSPCs, but not of syngeneic HSPCs.

  2. MHC Class I Expression by Donor Hematopoietic Stem Cells Is Required to Prevent NK Cell Attack in Allogeneic, but Not Syngeneic Recipient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Yuichi; Li, Hao-Wei; Takahashi, Kazuko; Ishii, Hiroshi; Sykes, Megan; Fujisaki, Joji

    2015-01-01

    NK cells resist engraftment of syngeneic and allogeneic bone marrow (BM) cells lacking major histocompatibility (MHC) class I molecules, suggesting a critical role for donor MHC class I molecules in preventing NK cell attack against donor hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), and their derivatives. However, using high-resolution in vivo imaging, we demonstrated here that syngeneic MHC class I knockout (KO) donor HSPCs persist with the same survival frequencies as wild-type donor HSPCs. In contrast, syngeneic MHC class I KO differentiated hematopoietic cells and allogeneic MHC class I KO HSPCs were rejected in a manner that was significantly inhibited by NK cell depletion. In vivo time-lapse imaging demonstrated that mice receiving allogeneic MHC class I KO HSPCs showed a significant increase in NK cell motility and proliferation as well as frequencies of NK cell contact with and killing of HSPCs as compared to mice receiving wild-type HSPCs. The data indicate that donor MHC class I molecules are required to prevent NK cell-mediated rejection of syngeneic differentiated cells and allogeneic HSPCs, but not of syngeneic HSPCs. PMID:26544200

  3. Diverse phenotypes and transfusion requirements due to interaction of β-thalassemias with triplicated α-globin genes.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Pallavi R; Upadhye, Dipti S; Sawant, Pratibha M; Gorivale, Manju S; Nadkarni, Anita H; Shanmukhaiah, Chandrakala; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Colah, Roshan B

    2015-12-01

    Co-inheritance of triplicated α-genes can alter the clinical and hematological phenotypes of β-thalassemias. We evaluated the phenotypic diversity and transfusion requirements in β-thalassemia heterozygotes, homozygotes, and normal individuals with associated α-gene triplication. Clinical and hematological evaluation was done and the β-thalassemia mutations characterized by a covalent reverse dot blot hybridization/amplification refractory mutation system. Alpha-globin gene triplication was assessed by multiplex PCR. During the last 2.5 years, 181 β-thalassemia patients and β-thalassemia carriers with an unusual clinical presentation were referred to us for screening for the presence of associated α-globin gene triplication. Twenty-nine of them had associated α-gene triplication (3 β-thalassemia homozygotes or compound heterozygotes and 26 β-thalassemia heterozygotes). One β-thalassemia compound heterozygote [IVS 1-5 (G → C) + CD 41/42 (-CTTT)] was anemic at birth and required blood transfusions unusually early by 6 weeks of age. The second patient (4.5 years) was also clinically severe and became transfusion dependent in spite of having one mild β-thalassemia mutation [Capsite +1 (A → C)]. The third case (3.5 years) who was homozygous for a mild β-gene mutation [-88 (C → T)] with α gene triplication was untransfused. The 26 β-thalassemia heterozygotes with associated triplicated α-genes presented variably, with a β-thalassemia intermedia-like presentation. While screening the family members of all these cases, we found another 10 β-thalassemia heterozygotes and 9 normal individuals with α-globin gene triplication; however, all of them were asymptomatic. Beta-thalassemia carriers, homozygotes, and compound heterozygotes with an unusual presentation should be screened for the possible presence of associated α-globin gene triplication which could influence the clinical and hematological presentation.

  4. Retrograde Autologous Priming as a Safe and Easy Method to Reduce Hemodilution and Transfusion Requirements during Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Christian; Schiller, Wolfgang; Mellert, Fritz; Halbe, Maximilian; Lorenzen, Henning; Welz, Armin; Probst, Chris

    2015-10-01

    During the last decades many efforts have been made to reduce transfusion requirements and adverse clinical effects during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The minimal extracorporeal circulation (MECC) system and the technique of retrograde autologous priming (RAP) of a conventional CPB circuit have been associated with decreased hemodilution. Our study aimed to compare conventional CPB (cCPB), RAP, and the ROCsafe MECC (Terumo Europe N.V., Leuven, Belgium) system in elective coronary artery bypass patients. Data were retrospectively collected on three cohorts of 30 adult CPB patients. Patients were operated using cCPB, RAP, and the ROCsafe MECC system. The three groups were comparable in demographic data. The priming volume in the ROCsafe and RAP group was significantly less compared with the conventional priming group (p <0.05). The mean time of extracorporeal circulation and aortic cross-clamp time (p <0.05) were significantly shorter in the ROCsafe group. The levels of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) during CPB and postoperatively showed significant differences between the three groups (p < 0.05) and resulted in significantly higher blood transfusion requirements (p < 0.05). Lactate, serum creatinine, troponin, and creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) levels did not differ significantly among the three groups (p >0.05). There was also no statistically significant difference in ventilation time, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, overall hospital stay, and postoperative complications (p >0.05). In conclusion, RAP is compared with cCPB and MECC a safe and low-cost technique in reducing the priming volume of the CPB system, causes less hemodilution, and reduces the need for intra- and postoperative blood transfusion. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. The Coagulative Profile of Cyanotic Children Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: The Role of Whole Blood Preoperative Thromboelastometry on Postoperative Transfusion Requirement.

    PubMed

    Vida, Vladimiro L; Spiezia, Luca; Bortolussi, Giacomo; Marchetti, Marta E; Campello, Elena; Pittarello, Demetrio; Gregori, Dario; Stellin, Giovanni; Simioni, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the preoperative coagulation pattern and its association to postoperative blood products transfusion in children with congenital heart disease (CHD), focusing on cyanotic patients (oxygen saturation, SATO 2  < 85%). From January to August 2014, preoperative standard coagulation tests and rotational thromboelastometry assays were performed on 81 pediatric patients (<16 years old) who underwent surgery for CHD with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass. Sixty patients (74%) were acyanotic and 21 (26%) cyanotic. Mean age at time of surgery was 7.9 months (interquartile range 2.9-43.6 months). Cyanotic patients had a significantly higher hematocrit (P < 0.001), a reduced prothrombin activity (PT) (P = 0.01) level, and a lower platelet count (P = 0.02) than acyanotic patients. An inverse linear association was found between patient's SATO2 and clot formation time (CFT) (INTEM, P = 0.001, and EXTEM, P < 0.0001). A direct linear association was found between patient's SATO2 and maximum clot firmness (MCF) (INTEM, P = 0.04, and EXTEM, P = 0.05). Preoperative cyanosis was also associated with a lower median MCF in FIBTEM (P = 0.02). Cyanotic patients required more frequent postoperative transfusions of fibrinogen (7/21 patients, 33% vs. 4/60 patients, 6.7%, P = 0.01) and fresh frozen plasma (14/21, 67% vs. 25/60, 42%, P = 0.08). Patients with a lower presurgery PT and platelet count subsequently required more fibrinogen transfusion P = 0.02 and P = 0.003, respectively); the same goes for patients with a longer CFT (INTEM, P = 0.01 and EXTEM, P = 0.03) and a reduced MCF (INTEM, P = 0.02 and FIBTEM, P = 0.01) as well. Cyanotic patients showed significant preoperative coagulation anomalies and required a higher postoperative fibrinogen supplementation. The preoperative MCF FIBTEM has become an important factor in our postoperative thromboelastometry-guided transfusion

  6. Blood transfusion and overall quality of life after hip fracture in frail elderly patients--the transfusion requirements in frail elderly randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Merete; Borris, Lars Carl; Damsgaard, Else Marie

    2015-09-01

    We examined possible associations between different red blood cell (RBC) transfusion strategies, overall quality of life (OQoL), and recovery of activities of daily living (ADL) in operated frail elderly hip fracture patients, and the possibility that OQoL was related to ADL recovery. A prospective, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial was carried out among 157 elderly residents (≥65 years) from nursing homes and sheltered housing facilities with Mini-Mental State Examination scores ≥5 points. Patients were assigned to either a restrictive RBC transfusion strategy [hemoglobin (Hb) < 9.7 g/dL, 6 mmol/L] or a liberal strategy (Hb < 11.3 g/dL, 7 mmol/L) during the first 30 days after surgery. An interview-based questionnaire, the depression list (DL) assessing OQoL, and the modified Barthel Index (MBI) assessing ADL performance, were conducted on day 30 and 1 year after hip fracture surgery. Sum-scores of DL, MBI, and their changes from day 30 until 1 year (expressing recovery) were compared between RBC transfusion groups. Possible associations between changes of DL and MBI sum-scores were tested for across total patient population. There was no association between OQoL and RBC transfusion strategies on day 30 or at 1 year. The DL sum-score changes were similar for both groups, (ie, 1.06 points) [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.62, 2.76)] P = .21. The MBI sum-scores increased at 1 year following the liberal transfusion strategy (ie, by 6.86 points) (95% CI 0.41, 13.3) P = .03. Recoveries of OQoL and ADL were associated: β = -0.06 (95% CI -0.11, -0.01) P = .02. According to our Hb threshold criteria, OQoL and RBC transfusion strategies for frail elderly hip fracture patients are not associated. However, for survivors with less severe dementia, ADL recovery after 1 year is greater following a liberal transfusion strategy than a restrictive strategy. OQoL progress and ADL recovery were associated. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The

  7. Survey of experts on therapeutic policies and proposals for the optimal timing for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in transfusion-dependent patients with myelodysplastic syndrome-refractory anemia

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Joon Ho; Lee, Yoo Jin; Park, Sung Woo; Kim, Ji Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Most hypomethylating agent (HMA) responders with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) eventually need allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) because they often acquire resistance to HMAs within two years of treatment. Considering the nature of MDS and the poor outcomes of SCT when performed after confirming the progression of MDS to acute myeloid leukemia (AML), allogeneic SCT should be performed with caution in patients with low-risk MDS. Methods To address low-risk MDS, the Korean AML/MDS working party group designed a survey for 34 MDS experts in Korea on therapeutic HMA and allogeneic SCT policies for low-risk MDS. The level of consensus was defined as the percentage of agreement among the experts. Results With regard to the optimal time for allogeneic SCT for HMA responders with MDS-RA, 76% experts agreed that allogeneic SCT should be performed when a patient has a low platelet count. With regard to the relapse pattern that was most commonly found during HMA treatment in responding patients with MDS-RA, 54% experts agreed that the most common pattern that indicated HMA failure was the gradual worsening of cytopenia. Conclusion The optimal time to perform allogeneic SCT in RA patients who achieved hematologic complete remission during HMA treatment is when the platelet count decreases. However, these suggestions need to be evaluated in larger future studies. Therefore, careful decisions should be taken at each step of allogeneic SCT to maximize the outcomes for patients with MDS-RA and iron overload. PMID:27104191

  8. Predictive Modeling of Massive Transfusion Requirements During Liver Transplantation and Its Potential to Reduce Utilization of Blood Bank Resources.

    PubMed

    Pustavoitau, Aliaksei; Lesley, Maggie; Ariyo, Promise; Latif, Asad; Villamayor, April J; Frank, Steven M; Rizkalla, Nicole; Merritt, William; Cameron, Andrew; Dagher, Nabil; Philosophe, Benjamin; Gurakar, Ahmet; Gottschalk, Allan

    2017-05-01

    Patients undergoing liver transplantation frequently but inconsistently require massive blood transfusion. The ability to predict massive transfusion (MT) could reduce the impact on blood bank resources through customization of the blood order schedule. Current predictive models of MT for blood product utilization during liver transplantation are not generally applicable to individual institutions owing to variability in patient population, intraoperative management, and definitions of MT. Moreover, existing models may be limited by not incorporating cirrhosis stage or thromboelastography (TEG) parameters. This retrospective cohort study included all patients who underwent deceased-donor liver transplantation at the Johns Hopkins Hospital between 2010 and 2014. We defined MT as intraoperative transfusion of > 10 units of packed red blood cells (pRBCs) and developed a multivariable predictive model of MT that incorporated cirrhosis stage and TEG parameters. The accuracy of the model was assessed with the goodness-of-fit test, receiver operating characteristic analysis, and bootstrap resampling. The distribution of correct patient classification was then determined as we varied the model threshold for classifying MT. Finally, the potential impact of these predictions on blood bank resources was examined. Two hundred three patients were included in the study. Sixty (29.6%) patients met the definition for MT and received a median (interquartile range) of 19.0 (14.0-27.0) pRBC units intraoperatively compared with 4.0 units (1.0-6.0) for those who did not satisfy the criterion for MT. The multivariable model for predicting MT included Model for End-stage Liver Disease score, whether simultaneous liver and kidney transplant was performed, cirrhosis stage, hemoglobin concentration, platelet concentration, and TEG R interval and angle. This model demonstrated good calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test P = .45) and good discrimination (c statistic: 0.835; 95

  9. An audit on the blood transfusion requirements for revision hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, S.; Cooper, H.; Ivory, J. P.

    2002-01-01

    The hospital transfusion committee of Swindon and Marlborough NHS Trust had formulated a maximum surgical blood ordering schedule (MSBOS) which included the standard practice of 6 units of blood for revision hip arthroplasty. A retrospective audit of 73 patients who underwent revision hip arthroplasty over a year was undertaken to identify current practice and to ensure that the standard was adequate for patient safety. Information regarding the number of units requested, number of units transfused, pre-operative haemoglobin (Hb), lowest postoperative Hb and number of additional units of blood requested within 3 days postoperatively, was collected from patients' case-notes. Of the 73 patients, 80.3% received less than 6 units, 12.2% received 6 units and 7.5% received more than 6 units. Based on pre-operative Hb, blood usage was analysed. Of cross-matched units, 92.3% were used when pre-operative Hb was < 12 g/dl, 64.4% were used when Hb was between 12.1-13.0 g/dl, 54.3% were used when the Hb was between 13.1-14.0 g/dl, 38.9% were used when Hb was between 14.1-15.0 g/dl and 39.7% used with pre-operative Hb of > 15.0 g/dl. Of the total, 14 patients had a postoperative Hb of < 9 g/dl for whom additional units of blood were ordered and given to achieve a Hb of between 10.1-14.2 g/dl prior to discharge. This audit suggests that in patients with pre-operative Hb of 13 g/dl or more, the cross-match could be 4 units instead of 6 units for revisions. PMID:12215032

  10. An audit on the blood transfusion requirements for revision hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Cooper, H; Ivory, J P

    2002-07-01

    The hospital transfusion committee of Swindon and Marlborough NHS Trust had formulated a maximum surgical blood ordering schedule (MSBOS) which included the standard practice of 6 units of blood for revision hip arthroplasty. A retrospective audit of 73 patients who underwent revision hip arthroplasty over a year was undertaken to identify current practice and to ensure that the standard was adequate for patient safety. Information regarding the number of units requested, number of units transfused, pre-operative haemoglobin (Hb), lowest postoperative Hb and number of additional units of blood requested within 3 days postoperatively, was collected from patients' case-notes. Of the 73 patients, 80.3% received less than 6 units, 12.2% received 6 units and 7.5% received more than 6 units. Based on pre-operative Hb, blood usage was analysed. Of cross-matched units, 92.3% were used when pre-operative Hb was < 12 g/dl, 64.4% were used when Hb was between 12.1-13.0 g/dl, 54.3% were used when the Hb was between 13.1-14.0 g/dl, 38.9% were used when Hb was between 14.1-15.0 g/dl and 39.7% used with pre-operative Hb of > 15.0 g/dl. Of the total, 14 patients had a postoperative Hb of < 9 g/dl for whom additional units of blood were ordered and given to achieve a Hb of between 10.1-14.2 g/dl prior to discharge. This audit suggests that in patients with pre-operative Hb of 13 g/dl or more, the cross-match could be 4 units instead of 6 units for revisions.

  11. Clinical Analysis of Postpartum Hemorrhage Requiring Massive Transfusions at a Tertiary Center

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Yu, Zhu-Ping; Wang, Peng; Shi, Chun-Yan; Yang, Hui-Xia

    2017-01-01

    Background: The reports on massive transfusions (MTs) in obstetrics have recently been an increasing trend. We aimed to define the clinical features, risk factors, main causes, and outcomes of MTs due to severe postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and the frequency trends over the past 10 years. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 3552 PPH patients who were at ≥28 weeks of gestation in the Obstetric Department of Peking University First Hospital from January 2006 to February 2015. The clinical records of patients receiving MT with ≥5 units (approximately 1000 ml) of red blood cells within 24 h of giving birth were included. The Pearson's Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the frequency distributions among the categorical variables of the clinical features. Results: One-hundred six women were identified with MT over the 10-year period. The MT percentage was stable between the first 5-year group (2006–2010) and the second 5-year group (2011–2015) (2.5‰ vs. 2.7‰, χ2 = 154.85, P = 0.25). Although uterine atony remained the main cause of MT, there was a rising trend for placental abnormalities (especially placenta accreta) in the second 5-year group compared with the first 5-year group (34% vs. 23%, χ2 = 188.26, P = 0.03). Twenty-four (23%) women underwent hysterectomy, and among all the causes of PPH, placenta accreta had the highest hysterectomy rate of 70% (17/24). No maternal death was observed. Conclusions: There was a rising trend for placental abnormalities underlying the stable incidence of MT in the PPH cases. Placenta accreta accounted for the highest risk of hysterectomy. It is reasonable to have appropriate blood transfusion backup for high-risk patients, especially those with placenta accreta. PMID:28229990

  12. Efficacy of tranexamic acid in reducing allogeneic blood products in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery.

    PubMed

    Sui, Wen-yuan; Ye, Fang; Yang, Jun-lin

    2016-04-27

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery usually require prolonged operative times with extensive soft tissue dissection and significant perioperative blood loss, and allogeneic blood products are frequently needed. Methods to reduce the requirement for transfusion would have a beneficial effect on these patients. Although many previous studies have revealed the efficacy of tranexamic acid (TXA) in spinal surgery, there is still a lack of agreement concerning the reduction of both blood loss and transfusion requirements of large dose tranexamic acid (TXA) in surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The objective of this study was to elevate the efficacy and safety of a large dose tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing transfusion requirements of allogeneic blood products in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery using a retrospective study designed with historical control group. One hundred thirty seven consecutive AIS patients who underwent surgery treatment with posterior spinal pedicle systems from August 2011 to March 2015 in our scoliosis center were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups, the TXA group and the historical recruited no TXA group (NTXA). Preoperative demographics, radiographic parameters, operative parameters, estimated blood loss (EBL), total irrigation fluid, number of patients requiring blood transfusion, mean drop of Hb (Pre-op Hb-Post-op Hb), haematocrit pre and post-surgery, mean volume of blood transfusion, hospitalization time, and adverse effect were recorded and compared. All the patients were successfully treated with satisfied clinical and radiographic outcomes. There were 71 patients in the TXA group and 66 patients in the NTXA group. The preoperative demographics were homogeneity between two groups (P > 0.05). There were no significant difference in average operative time between two groups (209 min vs 215 min, p >0.05). Number of patients in the TXA group showed a significant decrease in

  13. Effect of hydroxyurea on the transfusion requirements in patients with severe HbE-beta-thalassaemia: a genotypic and phenotypic study.

    PubMed

    Italia, Khushnooma Y; Jijina, Farah F; Merchant, Rashid; Panjwani, Sangeeta; Nadkarni, Anita H; Sawant, Pratibha M; Nair, Sona B; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Colah, Roshan B

    2010-02-01

    Haemoglobin E (HbE)-beta-thalassaemia has a very variable clinical presentation. The management of severe cases that are often transfusion dependent is similar to that of cases of beta-thalassaemia major; however, this is often not possible in India because of its high cost and the lack of availability of safe blood at many places. Thus there was a need for a drug such as hydroxyurea, which is known to reduce the transfusion requirements of patients with thalassaemia intermedia. This study was undertaken to evaluate the response of Indian patients with HbE-beta-thalassaemia to hydroxyurea. 11 patients with HbE-beta-thalassaemia receiving regular transfusion plus two less frequently transfused patients were selected for hydroxyurea therapy. Clinical and haematological evaluation was performed before and after treatment for 2 years. Molecular studies included beta-globin genotype, beta-globin gene haplotype, Xmn I polymorphism and alpha-genotyping. Four clinically severe patients became transfusion independent (responders) after hydroxyurea therapy, four patients showed a reduction in their transfusion requirements (partial responders), and three patients were non-responders. Responders showed a statistically significant increase in Hb, mean corpuscular volume, mean cell Hb, fetal Hb and F cells with a reduction in their transfusion requirements. A reduction in serum ferritin concentration was also seen in responders and non-responders. Genetic markers such as Xmn I polymorphism and alpha-gene deletions were not always beneficial for the response to hydroxyurea therapy. Thus many more markers and a larger cohort need to be studied to predict the response in these patients.

  14. Autologous Blood Transfusion in Sports: Emerging Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Salamin, Olivier; De Angelis, Sara; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Saugy, Martial; Leuenberger, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Despite being prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency, blood doping through erythropoietin injection or blood transfusion is frequently used by athletes to increase oxygen delivery to muscles and enhance performance. In contrast with allogeneic blood transfusion and erythropoietic stimulants, there is presently no direct method of detection for autologous blood transfusion (ABT) doping. Blood reinfusion is currently monitored with individual follow-up of hematological variables via the athlete biological passport, which requires further improvement. Microdosage is undetectable, and suspicious profiles in athletes are often attributed to exposure to altitude, heat stress, or illness. Additional indirect biomarkers may increase the sensitivity and specificity of the longitudinal approach. The emergence of "-omics" strategies provides new opportunities to discover biomarkers for the indirect detection of ABT. With the development of direct quantitative methods, transcriptomics based on microRNA or messenger RNA expression is a promising approach. Because blood donation and blood reinfusion alter iron metabolism, quantification of proteins involved in metal metabolism, such as hepcidin, may be applied in an "ironomics" strategy to improve the detection of ABT. As red blood cell (RBC) storage triggers changes in membrane proteins, proteomic methods have the potential to identify the presence of stored RBCs in blood. Alternatively, urine matrix can be used for the quantification of the plasticizer di(2-ethyhexyl)phthalate and its metabolites that originate from blood storage bags, suggesting recent blood transfusion, and have an important degree of sensitivity and specificity. This review proposes that various indirect biomarkers should be applied in combination with mathematical approaches for longitudinal monitoring aimed at improving ABT detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transfusion strategy in hematological intensive care unit: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chantepie, Sylvain P; Mear, Jean-Baptiste; Guittet, Lydia; Dervaux, Benoît; Marolleau, Jean-Pierre; Jardin, Fabrice; Dutheil, Jean-Jacques; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Vilque, Jean-Pierre; Reman, Oumedaly

    2015-11-23

    Packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion is required in hematology patients treated with chemotherapy for acute leukemia, autologous (auto) or allogeneic (allo) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In certain situations like septic shock, hip surgery, coronary disease or gastrointestinal hemorrhage, a restrictive transfusion strategy is associated with a reduction of infection and death. A transfusion strategy using a single PRBC unit has been retrospectively investigated and showed a safe reduction of PRBC consumption and costs. We therefore designed a study to prospectively demonstrate that the transfusion of a single PRBC unit is safe and not inferior to standard care. The 1versus2 trial is a randomized trial which will determine if a single-unit transfusion policy is not inferior to a double-unit transfusion policy. The primary endpoint is the incidence of severe complication (grade ≥ 3) defined as stroke, transient ischemic attack, acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, elevated troponin level, intensive care unit transfer, death, new pulmonary infiltrates, and transfusion-related infections during hospital stays. The secondary endpoint is the number of PRBC units transfused per patient per hospital stay. Two hundred and thirty patients will be randomized to receive a single unit or double unit every time the hemoglobin level is less than 8 g/dL. All patients admitted for induction remission chemotherapy, auto-HSCT or allo-HSCT in hematology intensive care units will be eligible for inclusion. Sample size calculation has determined that a patient population of 230 will be required to prove that the 1-unit PRBC strategy is non-inferior to the 2-unit PRBC strategy. Hemoglobin threshold for transfusion is below 8 g/dL. Estimated percentage of complication-free hospital stays is 93 %. In a non-inferiority hypothesis, the number of patients to include is 230 with a power of 90 % and an alpha risk of 5 %. 14-128; Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02461264

  16. An audit on the current practice of red blood cell transfusion following elective primary hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ozgönenel, Bülent; Kanhere, Rujuta; O'Malley, Barbara; Balasubramaniam, Mamtha; Eisenbrey, A Bradley

    2007-08-01

    This audit encompassing a six-month period on the current practice of red blood cell transfusion following elective primary total hip arthroplasty showed that the rate of allogeneic blood avoidance was 84.8% for preoperative autologous blood donors and 47.8% for non-donors (p<0.001). Lower preoperative hemoglobin level was associated with an increased allogeneic unit transfusion (p<0.001). The intraoperative use of autologous blood collection and transfusion systems did not reduce the transfusion risk, and the use of the colloid volume expander was associated with a 1.8-fold increased risk of transfusion (p=0.022).

  17. A Jehovah's Witness with Acute Myeloid Leukemia Successfully Treated with an Epigenetic Drug, Azacitidine: A Clue for Development of Anti-AML Therapy Requiring Minimum Blood Transfusions

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yumi; Kawashima, Akihito; Kashiwagi, Eri

    2014-01-01

    Therapy for acute leukemia in Jehovah's Witnesses patients is very challenging because of their refusal to accept blood transfusions, a fundamental supportive therapy for this disease. These patients are often denied treatment for fear of treatment-related death. We present the first Jehovah's Witness patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated successfully with azacitidine. After achieving complete remission (CR) with one course of azacitidine therapy, the patient received conventional postremission chemotherapy and remained in CR. In the case of patients who accept blood transfusions, there are reports indicating the treatment of AML patients with azacitidine. In these reports, azacitidine therapy was less toxic, including hematoxicity, compared with conventional chemotherapy. The CR rate in azacitidine-treated patients was inadequate; however, some characteristics could be useful in predicting azacitidine responders. The present case is useful for treating Jehovah's Witnesses patients with AML and provides a clue for anti-AML therapy requiring minimum blood transfusions. PMID:25371835

  18. Blood transfusion in a random sample of hospitals in France.

    PubMed

    Mathoulin-Pélissier, S; Salmi, L R; Verret, C; Demoures, B

    2000-09-01

    Representative information on blood use is scarce. A large-scale study of blood recipients and blood use in France was conducted. Based on a random sampling, this study was carried out in teaching and other hospitals between March and December 1997. In each hospital, a patient was included if he or she received an allogeneic or an autologous transfusion during the observation period for that hospital. For each recipient, product and patient characteristics for 24 hours after inclusion were collected. From the 175 hospitals that had given a transfusion to at least one patient during the observation period, 3206 patients were included. Most transfusion recipients (57%) were over 65 years old; 42 percent were in teaching hospitals and 53 percent in medical wards. Among the 3044 adults, 91 percent received an allogeneic transfusion. Fifty-three percent of allogeneic units were WBC reduced. The indications most frequently reported for allogeneic transfusion were neoplasms (48%) and those for autologous transfusion were disorders of musculoskeletal (63%) or circulatory (15%) systems. The patients in nonteaching hospitals were more often transfused during surgery and were more likely to be aged and to have a musculoskeletal disorder than were patients in teaching hospitals. General collection of such data, within a system of traceability, could provide relevant denominators from which to interpret adverse-reaction data.

  19. Guidance on platelet transfusion for patients with hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Nahirniak, Susan; Slichter, Sherrill J; Tanael, Susano; Rebulla, Paolo; Pavenski, Katerina; Vassallo, Ralph; Fung, Mark; Duquesnoy, Rene; Saw, Chee-Loong; Stanworth, Simon; Tinmouth, Alan; Hume, Heather; Ponnampalam, Arjuna; Moltzan, Catherine; Berry, Brian; Shehata, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Patients with hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia are at an increased risk for hemorrhage and alloimmunization to platelets. Updated guidance for optimizing platelet transfusion therapy is needed as data from recent pivotal trials have the potential to change practice. This guideline, developed by a large international panel using a systematic search strategy and standardized methods to develop recommendations, incorporates recent trials not available when previous guidelines were developed. We found that prophylactic platelet transfusion for platelet counts less than or equal to 10 × 10(9)/L is the optimal approach to decrease the risk of hemorrhage for patients requiring chemotherapy or undergoing allogeneic or autologous transplantation. A low dose of platelets (1.41 × 10(11)/m2) is hemostatically as effective as higher dose of platelets but requires more frequent platelet transfusions suggesting that low-dose platelets may be used in hospitalized patients. For outpatients, a median dose (2.4 × 10(11)/m2) may be more cost-effective to prevent clinic visits only to receive a transfusion. In terms of platelet products, whole blood-derived platelet concentrates can be used interchangeably with apheresis platelets, and ABO-compatible platelet should be given to improve platelet increments and decrease the rate of refractoriness to platelet transfusion. For RhD-negative female children or women of child-bearing potential who have received RhD-positive platelets, Rh immunoglobulin should probably be given to prevent immunization to the RhD antigen. Providing platelet support for the alloimmunized refractory patients with ABO-matched and HLA-selected or crossmatched products is of some benefit, yet the degree of benefit needs to be assessed in the era of leukoreduction.

  20. Early Versus Late Recombinant Factor VIIa in Combat Trauma Patients Requiring Massive Transfusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, laboratory tests , documented injuries, blood product admin- istration (stored RBC, fresh whole blood [FWB], FFP, cryo...distress syndrome (ARDS), infection, deep ve- nous thrombosis ( DVT ), pulmonary embolism ( PE ), and stroke. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 13.0...difference in requirements for crystalloids. The incidence of late complication including ARDS, infection, and thrombotic events ( DVT , PE , stroke) was not

  1. Blood Transfusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... even years afterward. They include the following: Allergic reaction and hives If you have an allergic reaction ... accompanied by chills and shaking. Acute immune hemolytic reaction This is a very rare but serious transfusion ...

  2. Blood transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this ... several sources of blood which are described below. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most ...

  3. Transfusion and coagulation management in liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Clevenger, Ben; Mallett, Susan V

    2014-01-01

    There is wide variation in the management of coagulation and blood transfusion practice in liver transplantation. The use of blood products intraoperatively is declining and transfusion free transplantations take place ever more frequently. Allogenic blood products have been shown to increase morbidity and mortality. Primary haemostasis, coagulation and fibrinolysis are altered by liver disease. This, combined with intraoperative disturbances of coagulation, increases the risk of bleeding. Meanwhile, the rebalancing of coagulation homeostasis can put patients at risk of hypercoagulability and thrombosis. The application of the principles of patient blood management to transplantation can reduce the risk of transfusion. This includes: preoperative recognition and treatment of anaemia, reduction of perioperative blood loss and the use of restrictive haemoglobin based transfusion triggers. The use of point of care coagulation monitoring using whole blood viscoelastic testing provides a picture of the complete coagulation process by which to guide and direct coagulation management. Pharmacological methods to reduce blood loss include the use of anti-fibrinolytic drugs to reduce fibrinolysis, and rarely, the use of recombinant factor VIIa. Factor concentrates are increasingly used; fibrinogen concentrates to improve clot strength and stability, and prothrombin complex concentrates to improve thrombin generation. Non-pharmacological methods to reduce blood loss include surgical utilisation of the piggyback technique and maintenance of a low central venous pressure. The use of intraoperative cell salvage and normovolaemic haemodilution reduces allogenic blood transfusion. Further research into methods of decreasing blood loss and alternatives to blood transfusion remains necessary to continue to improve outcomes after transplantation. PMID:24876736

  4. Transfusion and coagulation management in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Clevenger, Ben; Mallett, Susan V

    2014-05-28

    There is wide variation in the management of coagulation and blood transfusion practice in liver transplantation. The use of blood products intraoperatively is declining and transfusion free transplantations take place ever more frequently. Allogenic blood products have been shown to increase morbidity and mortality. Primary haemostasis, coagulation and fibrinolysis are altered by liver disease. This, combined with intraoperative disturbances of coagulation, increases the risk of bleeding. Meanwhile, the rebalancing of coagulation homeostasis can put patients at risk of hypercoagulability and thrombosis. The application of the principles of patient blood management to transplantation can reduce the risk of transfusion. This includes: preoperative recognition and treatment of anaemia, reduction of perioperative blood loss and the use of restrictive haemoglobin based transfusion triggers. The use of point of care coagulation monitoring using whole blood viscoelastic testing provides a picture of the complete coagulation process by which to guide and direct coagulation management. Pharmacological methods to reduce blood loss include the use of anti-fibrinolytic drugs to reduce fibrinolysis, and rarely, the use of recombinant factor VIIa. Factor concentrates are increasingly used; fibrinogen concentrates to improve clot strength and stability, and prothrombin complex concentrates to improve thrombin generation. Non-pharmacological methods to reduce blood loss include surgical utilisation of the piggyback technique and maintenance of a low central venous pressure. The use of intraoperative cell salvage and normovolaemic haemodilution reduces allogenic blood transfusion. Further research into methods of decreasing blood loss and alternatives to blood transfusion remains necessary to continue to improve outcomes after transplantation.

  5. What is autologous blood transfusion?

    PubMed

    Sansom, A

    1993-07-01

    The word autologous is Greek in origin. The definition is exact 'autos' means self and 'logus' means relation. Thus, the meaning is 'related to self'. Autologous blood transfusion, which also is referred to frequently but incorrectly and imprecisely as auto transfusion, designates the reinfusion of blood or blood components to the same individual from whom they were taken. Homologous blood is blood or blood components, from another human donor, taken and stored for later transfusion as required.

  6. The Shock Index revisited – a fast guide to transfusion requirement? A retrospective analysis on 21,853 patients derived from the TraumaRegister DGU®

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Isolated vital signs (for example, heart rate or systolic blood pressure) have been shown unreliable in the assessment of hypovolemic shock. In contrast, the Shock Index (SI), defined by the ratio of heart rate to systolic blood pressure, has been advocated to better risk-stratify patients for increased transfusion requirements and early mortality. Recently, our group has developed a novel and clinical reliable classification of hypovolemic shock based upon four classes of worsening base deficit (BD). The objective of this study was to correlate this classification to corresponding strata of SI for the rapid assessment of trauma patients in the absence of laboratory parameters. Methods Between 2002 and 2011, data for 21,853 adult trauma patients were retrieved from the TraumaRegister DGU® database and divided into four strata of worsening SI at emergency department arrival (group I, SI <0.6; group II, SI ≥0.6 to <1.0; group III, SI ≥1.0 to <1.4; and group IV, SI ≥1.4) and were assessed for demographics, injury characteristics, transfusion requirements, fluid resuscitation and outcomes. The four strata of worsening SI were compared with our recently suggested BD-based classification of hypovolemic shock. Results Worsening of SI was associated with increasing injury severity scores from 19.3 (± 12) in group I to 37.3 (± 16.8) in group IV, while mortality increased from 10.9% to 39.8%. Increments in SI paralleled increasing fluid resuscitation, vasopressor use and decreasing hemoglobin, platelet counts and Quick’s values. The number of blood units transfused increased from 1.0 (± 4.8) in group I to 21.4 (± 26.2) in group IV patients. Of patients, 31% in group III and 57% in group IV required ≥10 blood units until ICU admission. The four strata of SI discriminated transfusion requirements and massive transfusion rates equally with our recently introduced BD-based classification of hypovolemic shock. Conclusion SI upon emergency department

  7. Factors associated with excessive postoperative blood loss and hemostatic transfusion requirements: a multivariate analysis in cardiac surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Despotis, G J; Filos, K S; Zoys, T N; Hogue, C W; Spitznagel, E; Lappas, D G

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate whether heparin and protamine doses administered using a standardized protocol based on body weight and activated clotting time values are associated with either transfusion of hemostatic blood products (HBPs) or excessive postoperative bleeding. Analysis using 10 multiple logistic or linear regression models in 487 cardiac surgical patients included perioperative variables that may have an association with either transfusion of HBP and/or excessive postoperative chest tube drainage (CTD). Prolonged duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), lower pre-CPB heparin dose, lower core body temperature in the intensive care unit, combined procedures, older age, repeat procedures, a larger volume of salvaged red cells reinfused intraoperatively and abnormal laboratory coagulation results (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and platelet count) after CPB were associated with both transfusion of HBP and increased CTD. Female gender, lower total heparin dose, preoperative aspirin use and the number of HBPs administered intraoperatively were associated only with increased CTD, whereas a larger total protamine dose was associated only with perioperative transfusion of HBPs. Preoperative use of warfarin or heparin was not associated with excessive blood loss of perioperative transfusion of HBPs. In contrast to previous studies using bovine heparin, data from the present study do not support the use of reduced doses of porcine heparin during CPB.

  8. Transfusion associated graft versus host disease following whole blood transfusion from an unrelated donor in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ketan K; Patel, Atul K; Ranjan, Rajiv R; Shah, Apurva P

    2010-09-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a well-known complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is much less common and nearly uniformly fatal complication of blood transfusion. The risk factors underlying the development of TA- GVHD are incompletely defined, but it is commonly seen in individuals with congenital or acquired immunodeficiency, transfusions from blood relatives, intrauterine transfusions and HLA-matched platelet transfusions. Diagnosis of TA-GVHD may be difficult at a time due to rarity in occurrence and overlapping clinical features with various infections and drug reactions. We describe a case of transfusion-associated GVHD that occurred after transfusion of whole blood from unrelated donor in an immunocompetent patient.

  9. Tisseel does not reduce postoperative drainage, length of stay, and transfusion requirements for lumbar laminectomy with noninstrumented fusion versus laminectomy alone

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Typically, fibrin sealants (FSs) and fibrin glues (FGs) are used to strengthen dural repairs during spinal surgery. In 2014, Epstein demonstrated that one FS/FG, Tisseel (Baxter International Inc., Westlake Village, CA, USA) equalized the average times to drain removal and length of stay (LOS) for patients with versus without excess bleeding (e.g. who did not receive Tisseel) undergoing multilevel laminectomies with 1-2 level noninstrumented fusions (LamF).[6] Methods: Here Tisseel was utilized to promote hemostasis for two populations; 39 patients undergoing average 4.4 level lumbar laminectomies with average 1.3 level noninstrumented fusions (LamF), and 48 patients undergoing average 4.0 level laminectomies alone (Lam). We compared the average operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), postoperative drainage, LOS, and transfusion requirements for the LamF versus Lam groups. Results: The average operative times, EBL, postoperative drainage, LOS, and transfusion requirements were all greater for LamF versus Lam patients; operative times (4.1 vs. 3.0 h), average EBL (192.3 vs. 147.9 cc), drainage (e.g. day 1; 199.6 vs. 167.4 cc; day 2; 172.9 vs. 63.9 cc), average LOS (4.6 vs. 2.5 days), and transfusion requirements (11 LamF patients; 18 Units [U] RBC versus 2 Lam patients; 3 U RBC). Conclusions: Utilizing Tisseel to facilitate hemostasis in LamF versus Lam still resulted in greater operative times, EBL, postoperative average drainage, LOS, and transfusion requirements for patients undergoing the noninstrumented fusions. Although Tisseel decreases back bleeding within the spinal canal, it does not reduce blood loss from LamF decorticated transverse processes. PMID:26005579

  10. Transfusion Support for ABO-Incompatible Progenitor Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kopko, Patricia M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary ABO-incompatible transplants comprise up to 50% of allogeneic progenitor cell transplants. Major, minor and bidirectional ABO-incompatible transplants each have unique complications that can occur, including hemolysis at the time of progenitor cell infusion, hemolysis during donor engraftment, passenger lymphocyte syndrome, delayed red blood cell engraftment, and pure red cell aplasia. Appropriate transfusion support during the different phases of the allogeneic progenitor cell transplant process is an important part of ABO-incompatible transplantation. PMID:27022318

  11. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activity is required for allogeneic T-cell responses after hematopoietic cell transplantation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pareek, Tej K.; Eid, Saada; Ganguly, Sudipto; Tyler, Megan; Huang, Alex Y.; Letterio, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Molecular intermediates in T-cell activation pathways are crucial targets for the therapy and prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). We recently identified an essential role for cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) in T-cell activation and effector function, but the contribution of Cdk5 activity to the development of GVHD has not been explored. Using an established, preclinical, murine, GVHD model, we reveal that Cdk5 activity is increased in key target organs early after allo-HCT. We then generated chimeric mice (Cdk5+/+C or Cdk5−/−C) using hematopoietic progenitors from either embryonic day 16.5 Cdk5+/+ or Cdk5−/− embryos to enable analyses of the role of Cdk5 in GVHD, as germ line Cdk5 gene deletion is embryonically lethal. The immunophenotype of adult Cdk5−/−C mice is identical to control Cdk5+/+C mice. However, transplantation of donor Cdk5−/−C bone marrow and T cells dramatically reduced the severity of systemic and target organ GVHD. This phenotype is attributed to decreased T-cell migration to secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs), reduced in vivo proliferation within these organs, and fewer cytokine-producing donor T cells during GVHD development. Moreover, these defects in Cdk5−/− T-cell function are associated with altered CCR7 signaling following ligation by CCL19, a receptor:ligand interaction critical for T-cell migration into SLOs. Although Cdk5 activity in donor T cells contributed to graft-versus-tumor effects, pharmacologic inhibition of Cdk5 preserved leukemia-free survival. Collectively, our data implicate Cdk5 in allogeneic T-cell responses after HCT and as an important new target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:28064242

  12. The Outcomes of Hypertransfusion in Major ABO Incompatible Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Se Hoon; Lee, Se Hoon; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Park, Jinny; Park, Joon Oh; Kim, Kihyun; Kim, Won Seog; Jung, Chul Won; Im, Young-Hyuk; Kang, Won Ki; Park, Keunchil; Kim, Seon Woo; Lee, Kyoo Hyung; Lee, Je Hwan

    2004-01-01

    Major ABO incompatibility may be potentially associated with immediate or delayed hemolysis and delayed onset of erythropoiesis in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To determine if hemolysis can be prevented by the inhibition of graft erythropoiesis, we performed hypertransfusion and assessed red cell transfusion requirement and independence. Between October 1995 and December 2001, 28 consecutive patients receiving major ABO incompatible HSCT at Samsung Medical Center were hypertransfused to maintain their hemoglobin levels at 15 g/dL or more. We retrospectively compared the outcomes of these patients with those of 47 patients at Asan Medical Center whose target hemoglobin levels were 10 g/dL. Reticulocyte engraftment was significantly delayed in hypertransfused group (51 days vs. 23 days; p=.001). There was no significant difference in the total amount of red cells transfused within 90 days post-HSCT (25 units vs. 26 units; p=.631). No significant difference in the time to red cell transfusion independence was observed between the two groups (63 days vs. 56 days; p=.165). In conclusion, we failed to improve red cell transfusion requirement and independence in major ABO incompatible HSCT with hypertransfusion. PMID:14966346

  13. A randomized controlled pilot trial of modified whole blood versus component therapy in severely injured patients requiring large volume transfusions.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Bryan A; Podbielski, Jeanette; Camp, Elizabeth; Welch, Timothy; del Junco, Deborah; Bai, Yu; Hobbs, Rhonda; Scroggins, Jamie; Hartwell, Beth; Kozar, Rosemary A; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B

    2013-10-01

    To determine whether resuscitation of severely injured patients with modified whole blood (mWB) resulted in fewer overall transfusions compared with component (COMP) therapy. For decades, whole blood (WB) was the primary product for resuscitating patients in hemorrhagic shock. After dramatic advances in blood banking in the 1970s, blood donor centers began supplying hospitals with individual components [red blood cell (RBC), plasma, platelets] and removed WB as an available product. However, no studies of efficacy or hemostatic potential in trauma patients were performed before doing so. Single-center, randomized trial of severely injured patients predicted to large transfusion volume. Pregnant patients, prisoners, those younger than 18 years or with more than 20% total body surface area burns (TBSA) burns were excluded. Patients were randomized to mWB (1 U mWB) or COMP therapy (1 U RBC+ 1 U plasma) immediately on arrival. Each group also received 1 U platelets (apheresis or prepooled random donor) for every 6 U of mWB or 6 U of RBC + 6 U plasma. The study was performed under the Exception From Informed Consent (Food and Drug Administration 21 code of federal regulations [CFR] 50.24). Primary outcome was 24-hour transfusion volumes. A total of 107 patients were randomized (55 mWB, 52 COMP therapy) over 14 months. There were no differences in demographics, arrival vitals or laboratory values, injury severity, or mechanism. Transfusions were similar between groups (intent-to-treat analysis). However, when excluding patients with severe brain injury (sensitivity analysis), WB group received less 24-hour RBC (median 3 vs 6, P = 0.02), plasma (4 vs 6, P = 0.02), platelets (0 vs 3, P = 0.09), and total products (11 vs 16, P = 0.02). Compared with COMP therapy, WB did not reduce transfusion volumes in severely injured patients predicted to receive massive transfusion. However, in the sensitivity analysis (patients without severe brain injuries), use of mWB significantly

  14. Intractable intraoperative bleeding requiring platelet transfusion during emergent cholecystectomy in a patient with dual antiplatelet therapy after drug-eluting coronary stent implantation (with video)

    PubMed Central

    Fujikawa, Takahisa; Noda, Tomohiro; Tada, Seiichiro; Tanaka, Akira

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 76-year-old man, receiving dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and ticlopidine for the past 6 years after implantation of drug-eluting coronary stent, developed a severe hypochondriac pain. After diagnosing severe acute cholecystitis by an enhanced CT, emergent laparotomy under continuation of DAPT was attempted. During the operation, intractable bleeding from the adhesiolysed liver surface was encountered, which required platelet transfusion. Subtotal cholecystectomy with abdominal drainage was performed, and the patient recovered without any postoperative bleeding or thromboembolic complications. Like the present case, the final decision should be made to perform platelet transfusion when life-threatening DAPT-induced intraoperative bleeding occurs during an emergent surgery, despite the elevated risk of stent thrombosis. PMID:23536626

  15. Coagulopathy and transfusion requirements in war related penetrating traumatic brain injury. A single centre study in a French role 3 medical treatment facility in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Bordes, J; Joubert, C; Esnault, P; Montcriol, A; Nguyen, C; Meaudre, E; Dulou, R; Dagain, A

    2017-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury associated coagulopathy is frequent, either in isolated traumatic brain injury in civilian practice and in combat traumatic brain injury. In war zone, it is a matter of concern because head and neck are the second most frequent site of wartime casualty burden. Data focusing on transfusion requirements in patients with war related TBI coagulopathy are limited. A descriptive analysis was conducted of 77 penetrating traumatic brain injuries referred to a French role 3 medical treatment facility in Kabul, Afghanistan, deployed on the Kabul International Airport (KaIA), over a 30 months period. On 77 patients, 23 died during the prehospital phase and were not included in the study. Severe traumatic brain injury represented 50% of patients. Explosions were the most common injury mechanism. Extracranial injuries were present in 72% of patients. Traumatic brain injury coagulopathy was diagnosed in 67% of patients at role 3 admission. Red blood cell units (RBCu) were transfused in 39 (72%) patients, French lyophilized plasma (FLYP) in 41 (76%), and fresh whole blood (FWB) in 17 (31%). The results of this study support previous observations of coagulopathy as a frequent complication of traumatic brain injury. The majority of patients with war related penetrating traumatic brain injury presented with extracranial lesions. Most of them required a high level of transfusion capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The anti-tumor effect of allogeneic bone marrow/stem cell transplant without graft vs. host disease toxicity and without a matched donor requirement?

    PubMed

    Har-Noy, M; Slavin, S

    2008-01-01

    The anti-tumor immune response that occurs in allogeneic bone marrow/stem cell transplant (BMT) settings is capable of eradicating tumors that are resistant to chemotherapy/radiation treatment. This anti-tumor immune response, known as the graft vs. tumor (GVT) effect, is the most effective immunotherapy treatment ever discovered. Unfortunately, the clinical application of GVT is severely limited due to the intimate association of GVT with the extremely toxic and often lethal side-effect known as graft vs. host disease (GVHD). It is a major research focus in the field of BMT to develop methods to separate the beneficial GVT effect from the detrimental GVHD toxicity. However, due to the intimate association of these effects, attempts to limit GVHD also have a tendency to limit the GVT effect. We propose a new concept for harnessing the power of the GVT effect without the toxicity of GVHD. Rather than trying to separate GVT from GVHD, we propose that these naturally coupled effects can 'mirrored' onto the host immune system and maintain their intimate association. The 'mirror' of GVHD is a host rejection of a graft (HVG). As rejection of an allograft would not be toxic, an HVG effect coupled to a host vs. tumor (HVT) effect, the 'mirror' of the GVT effect, would provide the anti-tumor effect of BMT without GVHD toxicity. In the 'mirror' setting, the HVT effect must occur against syngeneic tumors, while in the BMT setting the GVT effect occurs in the allogeneic setting. Previous attempts to elicit syngeneic anti-tumor immunity using therapeutic tumor vaccines have had disappointing results in the clinic due to the influence of tumor immunoavoidance mechanisms. We propose that the 'danger' signals that are released as a result of GVHD in the allogeneic BMT setting serve as an adjuvant to the GVT effect disabling tumor immunoavoidance. The chemotherapy/radiation conditioning prior to transplant is a required initiating event to the coupled GVT/GVHD effects. The

  17. Logistics of massive transfusions.

    PubMed

    DeLoughery, Thomas G

    2010-01-01

    Care of the patient with massive bleeding involves more than aggressive surgery and infusion of large amounts of blood products. The proper management of massive transfusions-whether they are in trauma patients or other bleeding patients-requires coordination of the personnel in the surgical suite or the emergency department, the blood bank, and laboratory.

  18. Efficacy and Safety of Stroke Volume Variation-Guided Fluid Therapy for Reducing Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirements During Radical Cystectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yu-Gyeong; Kim, Ji Yoon; Yu, Jihion; Lim, Jinwook; Hwang, Jai-Hyun; Kim, Young-Kug

    2016-05-01

    Radical cystectomy, which is performed to treat muscle-invasive bladder tumors, is among the most difficult urological surgical procedures and puts patients at risk of intraoperative blood loss and transfusion. Fluid management via stroke volume variation (SVV) is associated with reduced intraoperative blood loss. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of SVV-guided fluid therapy for reducing blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing radical cystectomy.This study included 48 patients who underwent radical cystectomy, and these patients were randomly allocated to the control group and maintained at <10% SVV (n = 24) or allocated to the trial group and maintained at 10% to 20% SVV (n = 24). The primary endpoints were comparisons of the amounts of intraoperative blood loss and transfused red blood cells (RBCs) between the control and trial groups during radical cystectomy. Intraoperative blood loss was evaluated through the estimated blood loss and estimated red cell mass loss. The secondary endpoints were comparisons of the postoperative outcomes between groups.A total of 46 patients were included in the final analysis: 23 patients in the control group and 23 patients in the trial group. The SVV values in the trial group were significantly higher than in the control group. Estimated blood loss, estimated red cell mass loss, and RBC transfusion requirements in the trial group were significantly lower than in the control group (734.3 ± 321.5 mL vs 1096.5 ± 623.9 mL, P = 0.019; 274.1 ± 207.8 mL vs 553.1 ± 298.7 mL, P <0.001; 0.5 ± 0.8 units vs 1.9 ± 2.2 units, P = 0.005). There were no significant differences in postoperative outcomes between the two groups.SVV-guided fluid therapy (SVV maintained at 10%-20%) can reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing radical cystectomy without resulting in adverse outcomes. These findings provide useful information for

  19. Effects of dialysis modality on blood loss, bleeding complications and transfusion requirements in critically ill patients with dialysis-dependent acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Pschowski, R; Briegel, S; Von Haehling, S; Doehner, W; Bender, T O; Pape, U F; Hasper, D; Jörress, A; Schefold, J C

    2015-11-01

    Blood loss and bleeding complications may often be observed in critically ill patients on renal replacement therapies (RRT). Here we investigate procedural (i.e. RRT-related) and non-procedural blood loss as well as transfusion requirements in regard to the chosen mode of dialysis (i.e. intermittent haemodialysis [IHD] versus continuous veno-venous haemofiltration [CVVH]). Two hundred and fifty-two patients (122 CVVH, 159 male; aged 61.5±13.9 years) with dialysis-dependent acute renal failure were analysed in a sub-analysis of the prospective randomised controlled clinical trial-CONVINT-comparing IHD and CVVH. Bleeding complications including severity of bleeding and RRT-related blood loss were assessed. We observed that 3.6% of patients died related to severe bleeding episodes (between group P=0.94). Major all-cause bleeding complications were observed in 23% IHD versus 26% of CVVH group patients (P=0.95). Under CVVH, the rate of RRT-related blood loss events (57.4% versus 30.4%, P=0.01) and mean total blood volume lost was increased (222.3±291.9 versus 112.5±222.7 ml per patient, P <0.001). Overall, transfusion rates did not differ between the study groups. In patients with sepsis, transfusion rates of all blood products were significantly higher when compared to cardiogenic shock (all P <0.01) or other conditions. In conclusion, procedural and non-procedural blood loss may often be observed in critically ill patients on RRT. In CVVH-treated patients, procedural blood loss was increased but overall transfusion rates remained unchanged. Our data show that IHD and CVVH may be regarded as equivalent approaches in critically ill patients with dialysis-dependent acute renal failure in this regard.

  20. Early treatment with erythropoietin beta ameliorates anemia and reduces transfusion requirements in infants with birth weights below 1000 g.

    PubMed

    Maier, Rolf F; Obladen, Michael; Müller-Hansen, Ingo; Kattner, Evelyn; Merz, Ulrich; Arlettaz, Romaine; Groneck, Peter; Hammer, Hannes; Kössel, Hans; Verellen, Gaston; Stock, Gerd-Jürgen; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry; Claris, Olivier; Wagner, Martin; Matis, Jacqueline; Gilberg, Frank

    2002-07-01

    To investigate whether recombinant erythropoietin (rhEPO) reduces the need for transfusion in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants (birth weight 500-999 g) and to determine the optimal time for treatment. In a blinded multicenter trial, 219 ELBW infants were randomized on day 3 to one of 3 groups: early rhEPO group (rhEPO from the first week for 9 weeks, n = 74), late rhEPO group (rhEPO from the fourth week for 6 weeks, n = 74), or control group (no rhEPO, n = 71). All infants received enteral iron (3-9 mg/kg/day) from the first week. The rhEPO beta dose was 750 IU/kg/week. Success was defined as no transfusion and hematocrit levels never below 30%. Success rate was 13% in the early rhEPO group, 11% in the late rhEPO group, and 4% in the control group (P =.026 for early rhEPO versus control group). Median transfusion volume was 0.4 versus 0.5 versus 0.7 mL/kg/day (P =.02) and median donor exposure was 1.0 versus 1.0 versus 2.0 (P =.05) in the early rhEPO group, the late rhEPO group, and the control group, respectively. Infection risk was not increased and weight gain was not delayed with rhEPO beta. Early rhEPO beta treatment effectively reduces the need for transfusion in ELBW infants.

  1. Transfusion medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Murawski, K.; Peetoom, F.

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings contain 24 selections, including papers presented at the conference of American Red Cross held in May 1985, on the Subject of transfusion medicine. Some of the titles are: Fluosol/sup R/-DA in Radiation Therapy; Expression of Cloned Human Factor VIII and the Molecular Basis of Gene Defects that Cause Hemophilia; DNA-Probing Assay in the Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Genome in Human Peripheral Blood Cells; and Monoclonal Antibodies: Convergence of Technology and Application.

  2. Effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss and transfusion requirement in total knee replacement in the Indian population: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Parshotam Lal; Katyal, Sunil; Yamin, Mohammad; Singh, Amandip

    2011-01-01

    Context: Total knee replacement (TKR) is often carried out using a tourniquet to minimize intraoperative blood loss. However, its application enhances local fibrinolysis, resulting in excessive blood loss during the post-operative period. Fibrinolytic profile varies in different regions and races. Tranexamic acid has been shown to reduce post-operative blood loss and the need for transfusion in TKR. However, there is paucity of literature from the Indian population and the efficacy of the agent has not been tested in Indian patients undergoing TKR. Aims: Effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss in TKR surgery in the Indian population. Setting and Design: In this double-blinded study, 40 patients undergoing unilateral TKR were randomly divided into two groups. Methods: All patients were conducted under spinal anaesthesia using injection bupivacaine 0.5% heavy 12-15 mg. The treatment group received 10 mg/kg tranexamic acid, intravenous (IV), half an hour before deflation of the tourniquet, with a second dose of 2 mg/kg administered 3 hours after the first dose. The exact protocol was followed for the placebo group, except that normal saline was used instead of tranexamic acid. Blood loss, blood transfusion details and change in haemoglobin levels were noted. Statistical Analysis: Student's paired ‘t’ test was used in statistical analysis. Results: The mean post-operative blood loss in the tranexamic acid group was 272.5±122.5 ml (mean±SD), and 685±118.2 ml in the placebo group (P<0.001). The total blood loss was lower in the tranexamic acid group than in the placebo group (427.6 ml vs. 911.6 ml; P<0.001). The absolute number of blood transfusions and the number of patients who required transfusions were lower in the tranexamic acid group than in the placebo group. None of the patients had any side or adverse effect. Conclusions: Tranexamic acid significantly decreases post-operative blood loss and reduces the need for blood transfusion in patients undergoing

  3. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and transfusion requirements in primary simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuangang; Yang, Timin; Zeng, Yi; Si, Haibo; Cao, Fei; Shen, Bin

    2017-10-01

    : The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the effectiveness and safety of intravenous application tranexamic acid (TXA) in primary simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We searched electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, the Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and the Google Scholar, for published studies involving the intravenous application TXA in primary simultaneous bilateral TKA. All randomized controlled trials were included. The focus of the meta-analysis was on the outcomes of total blood loss, drainage volume, transfusion requirements and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and/or pulmonary embolism. The relevant data were analyzed using RevMan 5.2. Six high randomized controlled trials were included, with a total sample size of 394 patients. The intravenous application of TXA significantly reduced total blood loss [95% confidence interval (CI), -519.52 to -126.40; P = 0.001], drainage volume (95% CI, -551.76 to -138.57; P = 0.001) and transfusion requirements (risk ratio, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.21-0.68; P = 0.001) compared with the control group. In addition, there were no significant differences in the rate of DVT (P = 1.00) and/or pulmonary embolism between the two groups. Based on the current evidence, this meta-analysis showed that intravenous application of TXA is effective and a well tolerated treatment to reduce total blood loss, drainage volume and transfusion requirements without increasing the risk of DVT and/or pulmonary embolism in primary simultaneous bilateral TKA.

  4. A Predictive Model for Massive Transfusion in Combat Casualty Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Transfusion. 2004; 44:809–813. 9. Malone DL, Dunne J, Tracy JK, Putnam AT, Scalea TM, Napolitano LM. Blood transfusion, independent of shock severity, is...mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med. 2004;32:1817–1824. 15. Dunne JR, Malone DL, Tracy JK, Napolitano LM. Allogenic blood transfusion in the first...infection rates in the critically ill patient. Crit Care Med. 2002;30:2249–2254. 37. Malone D, Kuhls D, Napolitano LM, McCarter R, Scalea T. Blood

  5. [Blood transfusion practices: about transfusions at night].

    PubMed

    Roche, C; Théfenne, H; Hance, P; Garnotel, E

    2013-12-01

    Blood transfusion safety covers all stages from prescription of immuno-haematological examinations until the completion of the transfusion. According to the 05/11/2006 Afssaps' decision on good transfusion practices, transfusions should not be given at night unless the patient is actively bleeding or has some other urgent clinical need. A retrospective study was used to assess the proportion of transfusions at night. Through this professional practice evaluation, we analyze the reasons leading to perform transfusions at late hours, in order to reduce errors and improve safety for patients.

  6. The team focus on improving blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    McMillan, D; Brady, P; Foot, C; Levy, R; Thomson, A

    2011-03-01

    The current literature pertaining to associated morbidity and mortality with homologous blood transfusion in the surgical patient seems to be pointing only in one direction, which is we must start reducing our patients exposure to homologous blood and products. There appears to be ever mounting evidence of increases in infraction, stroke, transfusion related lung injury, infection, and death that authors are associating with transfusion. A number of authors are reporting success in reducing their patients' requirements for homologous transfusion simply by working as a team or what is known as a multidisciplinary approach and following set transfusion protocols and algorithms. At our institution we have taken note of these reports and have taken the first steps in the formation of a Cardiac Surgical Transfusion Management Group where all specialties involved in the decision making process of transfusion in the cardiac surgical patient can have representation and be directly involved in the establishment of protocols, transfusion algorithms, and a transfusion audit system. The main goal of this group is to implement a change in transfusion practice and to assess the impact the change has had on transfusion requirements and make appropriate recommendations to the treating specialists.

  7. Efficacy and Safety of Antifibrinolytic Agents in Reducing Perioperative Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirements in Scoliosis Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Zheng, Xin-Feng; Jiang, Lei-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Routine use of antifibrinolytic agents in spine surgery is still an issue of debate. Objective To gather scientific evidence for the efficacy and safety of antifibrinolytic agents including aprotinin, tranexamic acid (TXA) and epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA, traditionally known as Amicar) in reducing perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in scoliosis surgery. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), retrospective case-control studies, and retrospective cohort studies on the use of antifibrinolytic agents in scoliosis surgery by searching in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Controlled Trials of papers published from January 1980 through July 2014. Safety of the antifibrinolytic agents was evaluated in all included studies, while efficacy was evaluated in RCTs. Results Eighteen papers with a total of 1,158 patients were eligible for inclusion in this study. Among them, 8 RCTs with 450 patients were included for evaluation of pharmacologic efficacy (1 RCT was excluded because of a lack of standard deviation data). Mean blood loss was reduced in patients with perioperative use of antifibrinolytic agents by 409.25 ml intraoperatively (95% confidence interval [CI], 196.57–621.94 ml), 250.30 ml postoperatively (95% CI, 35.31–465.30), and 601.40 ml overall (95% CI, 306.64–896.16 ml). The mean volume of blood transfusion was reduced by 474.98 ml (95% CI, 195.30–754.67 ml). The transfusion rate was 44.6% (108/242) in the patients with antifibrinolytic agents and 68.3% (142/208) in the patients with placebo. (OR 0.38; 95% CI; 0.25–0.58; P<0.00001, I2 = 9%). All studies were included for evaluation of safety, with a total of 8 adverse events reported overall (4 in the experimental group and 4 in the control group). Conclusion The systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that aprotinin, TXA, and EACA all significantly reduced

  8. The Role of ABO Incompatibility in Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Önder; Coşkun, Hasan Şanol; Arat, Mutlu; Soydan, Ender; Özcan, Muhit; Gürman, Günhan; Çelebi, Harika; Demirer, Taner; Akan, Hamdi; İlhan, Osnman; Konuk, Nahide; Uysal, Akın; Berksaç, Meral; Koç, Haluk

    2002-09-05

    ABO incompatibility is not a contraindication for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, but this procedure requires an extra effort for erythrocyte or plasma depletion in certain well established conditions. Some acute or delayed immunohematological complications such as acute or chronic hemolysis and pure red cell aplasia may be encountered. In this study the outcome and transplant related complications of ABO incompatible and identical cases, who have received allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells from their HLA identical siblings were compared with each other. Ninety-one patients (CML 36, AML 37, other 18) were analyzed retrospectively including 51 (60.4%) ABO identical patients and 36 (39.6%) ABO mismatched (MM) patients, who have a bi-directional MM (n= 5), major MM (n= 16), minor MM (n= 9) and Rh MM (n= 6). Median follow up was 13 (0.5-43.0) months. We did not observed any significant differences between two groups (identical vs non-identical) in terms of acute hemolysis preceding stem cell infusion, peritransplant transfusion demand, acute- and chronic graft versus host disease. There was no change in estimated disease free survival and overall survival durations. We did not observed any influence of ABO/Rh incompatibility on short term outcome in allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in our series and did not recommend further manipulation of the infused stem cells.

  9. Evolution of human cytomegalovirus-seronegative donor/-seropositive recipient high-risk combination frequency in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations at Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion during 1995-2014.

    PubMed

    Nemeckova, S; Sroller, V; Stastna-Markova, M

    2016-04-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes lifelong latent infection that can result in severe life-threatening disease in immunosuppressed patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). An HCMV-seropositive transplant recipient who receives a graft from a seronegative donor (R+/D-) is at high risk of recurrent HCMV reactivation. To assess the incidence of R+/D- combination, we retrospectively evaluated HCMV-seronegative donors for 746 allogeneic HSCT treatments carried out at our center during 1995-2014. In our cohort, 20% HCMV-seronegative HSCT recipients, 21% HCMV-seronegative related graft donors, and 52% HCMV-seronegative unrelated graft donors were included. Analyses of the HCMV serostatus of hematopoietic stem cell donors during 2 consecutive calendar periods (1995-2005 and 2006-2014) showed a significant increase in the proportion of seronegative donors (odds ratio [OR] = 1.947). In addition, the number of HSCT treatments using an unrelated donor increased (OR = 2.376). Finally, the use of grafts from countries with a very low HCMV prevalence increased. This increase in HCMV seronegativity in unrelated donors and the increased proportion of unrelated donors were responsible for the increased occurrence of the high-risk combination R+/D- (OR = 1.680). If the reduction in the rate of HCMV-seropositive graft donors continues, an increased frequency of HCMV reactivation events in our transplant recipients can be expected, because of the increasing occurrence of the high-risk R+/D- combination. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Administration of fibrinogen concentrate for refractory bleeding in massively transfused, non-trauma patients with coagulopathy: a retrospective study with comparator group.

    PubMed

    Leal-Noval, Santiago R; Casado, Manuel; Arellano-Orden, Victoria; Dusseck, Reginald; Bautista-Paloma, Javier; Muñoz, Manuel; Naranjo-Izorieta, José; Moreno, Antonio Puppo; Cayuela, Aurelio

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective, single centre study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of fibrinogen concentrate (FBNc) in decreasing blood requirements and reaching optimal fibrinogen level, in non-trauma, massively transfused, bleeding patients with coagulopathy. Over a 3-years period, all patients for whom a massive transfusion protocol was activated and had received ≥ 4 units of allogeneic blood components within a ≤ 4 h period, were included. Patients were classified according to whether they received FBNc or achieved an optimal fibrinogen level of ≥ 2 g/L within 24 h after FBNc administration. Seventy-one patients received 2 [2,4] g of FBNc (FBNc group) and 72 did not (comparator group). FBNc was administered after transfusing 5 [5,9] blood component units, 3 [2,6] hours after massive transfusion protocol activation. Linear regression analysis showed that SOFA (AOR 0.75 [95% CI:0.08-1.43]) and admission fibrinogen level (AOR -2.7 [95% CI:-4.68 - -0.78]), but not FBNc administration, were independently associated with total transfused units. There was a significant inverse relation between both admission and target fibrinogen levels, and total transfused components. Logistic regression showed a direct relationship between admission fibrinogen level and achieving a target level ≥ 2 g/L (AOR 3.29 [95% CI;1.95-5.56]). No thromboembolic events associated with FBNc were observed. In massively transfused, non-trauma patients with coagulopathy and refractory bleeding, late administration of low FBNc dosage was not associated with decreased blood transfusion or increased post-infusion fibrinogen level. Given that both fibrinogen upon admission and target fibrinogen levels were associated with decreased blood transfusion, earlier administration and higher doses of FBNc could be needed.

  11. Determining the volume of blood required for the correction of foetal anaemia by intrauterine transfusion during pregnancies of Rh isoimmunised women

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Mônica Deolindo; de Lima Rezende, Cezar Alencar; Cabral, Antônio Carlos Vieira; Leite, Henrique Vitor; Osanan, Gabriel Costa; Reis, Zilma Silveira Nogueira

    2010-01-01

    Background Severe anaemic foetuses of Rhesus (Rh) isoimmunised mothers are usually treated by intrauterine transfusion (IUT). It is helpful to determine the volume of blood necessary to raise the concentration of haemoglobin by 1.0 g/dL in response to intrauterine transfusions. Methods In this cross-sectional, observational study we evaluated 107 first IUT for the correction of anaemia caused by haemolysis triggered by maternal Rh immunisation. The concentration of foetal haemoglobin was determined in umbilical cord blood before and after the IUT. The variation in foetal concentration of haemoglobin after transfusion was compared between groups of hydropic and non-hydropic foetuses, between groups of foetuses with different degrees of anaemia and with groups of gestational age less than or more than 28 weeks. The t-test for averages and ANOVA were used to compare average differences among the groups. p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Fifty-five (61.4%) foetuses were found to be anaemic while hydrops was observed in 40 (44%) at the time of the IUT. The volume of red blood cell concentrate infused varied from 5 to 90 mL, with 11.2±1.5 mL being necessary to raise the circulating concentration of haemoglobin by 1.0 g/dL. The foetal response was not influenced significantly by either the degree of foetal anaemia (p=0.56) or the presence of hydrops (p=0.17). The foetuses with a gestational age of 28 weeks or less required a smaller volume of red blood cell concentrate than those with a gestational age of more than 28 weeks (9.3±5.4 mL and 13.4±4.8 mL, respectively; p<0.0001) in order to raise their concentration of circulating haemoglobin by 1.0 g/dL. Conclusion The volume of red blood cell concentrate necessary to correct anaemia in pregnancies complicated by Rh isoimmunisation must be considered carefully, since the response to the infusion of blood is peculiar in extremely premature infants. Hydrops and the degree of anaemia

  12. Reduced use of allogeneic platelets through high-yield perioperative autologous plateletpheresis and reinfusion.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Melissa; Bandarenko, Nicholas; Gaca, Jeffrey; Lockhart, Evelyn; Milano, Carmelo; Alexander, Stanlin; Linder, Dean; Lombard, Frederick W; Welsby, Ian J

    2014-05-01

    Intraoperative autologous platelet (PLT) collection as part of a multimodal blood conservation program carries a Class IIa recommendation from the Societies of Thoracic Surgeons and Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, but achieving a suitable PLT yield limits its application. A novel, autologous, intraoperative, high-yield plateletpheresis collection program was established and retrospectively analyzed to identify potential improvements over previously reported plateletpheresis protocols. Targeting complex cardiothoracic surgery patients without recent anti-PLT agents, thrombocytopenia, or severe anemia, the program aimed to achieve a PLT yield of at least one standard apheresis unit (3.0 × 10(11) ) within 60 to 90 minutes and using an automated plateletpheresis device (Trima, Terumo BCT). Anesthetized and invasively monitored patients underwent plateletpheresis via a large-bore, indwelling central line placed for the surgery. Collection-related data for quality control purposes and subsequent PLT transfusion requirements were analyzed and reported. Forty-two patients donated autologous PLTs between 2011 and 2012. PLT yield was 4.5 (3.9-5.0) × 10(11) , which significantly exceeds previously reported yields, and procedure duration was 53.2 (48.4-57.9) minutes. As anticipated, postcollection PLT count decreased from 268 (242-293) × 10(9) to 182 (163-201) × 10(9) /L; hypocalcemia was minimized by infusion of 1 g of CaCl2 . Autologous PLT yield was inversely correlated with allogeneic PLT use, and avoidance of allogeneic PLT transfusion was increased when the autologous yield was the equivalent of 2 or more apheresis units. High-yield, intraoperative autologous PLT collection is achievable using an automated plateletpheresis device. Initial experience shows a reduction in reliance on allogeneic PLTs for complex cardiothoracic surgery. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  13. Inflammatory response, immunosuppression, and cancer recurrence after perioperative blood transfusions

    PubMed Central

    Cata, J. P.; Wang, H.; Gottumukkala, V.; Reuben, J.; Sessler, D. I.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Debate on appropriate triggers for transfusion of allogeneic blood products and their effects on short- and long-term survival in surgical and critically ill patients continue with no definitive evidence or decisive resolution. Although transfusion-related immune modulation (TRIM) is well established, its influence on immune competence in the recipient and its effects on cancer recurrence after a curative resection remains controversial. An association between perioperative transfusion of allogeneic blood products and risk for recurrence has been shown in colorectal cancer in randomized trials; whether the same is true for other types of cancer remains to be determined. This article focuses on the laboratory, animal, and clinical evidence to date on the mechanistic understanding of inflammatory and immune-modulatory effects of blood products and their significance for recurrence in the cancer surgical patient. PMID:23599512

  14. Initial fluconazole prophylaxis may not be required in adults with acute leukemia or myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative disorders after reduced intensity conditioning peripheral blood stem cell allogeneic transplantation.

    PubMed

    Brissot, Eolia; Cahu, Xavier; Guillaume, Thierry; Delaunay, Jacques; Ayari, Sameh; Peterlin, Pierre; Le Bourgeois, Amandine; Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Milpied, Noel; Bene, Marie-Christine; Moreau, Philippe; Mohty, Mohamad; Chevallier, Patrice

    2015-04-01

    In the myeloablative transplant setting, the early use of fluconazole prophylaxis provides a benefit in overall survival. Recent changes in transplantation practices, including the use of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) and/or reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen may have favorably impacted the epidemiology of invasive fungal infections (IFI) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Yet, the impact of removing fluconazole prophylaxis after RIC PBSC allotransplant is ill known. Here, a retrospective analysis was performed comparing patients who received fluconazole as antifungal prophylaxis (n = 53) or not (n = 56) after allo-SCT for acute leukemia or myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative syndrome. Sixteen IFI were documented (14 %) at a median time of 103 days after transplantation, including eight before day +100, at a similar rate, whether the patients received fluconazole prophylaxis (13 %) or not (16 %). IFI were due mainly to Aspergillus species (87 %), and only two Candida-related IFI (13 %) were documented in the non-fluconazole group before day +100. The incidences of IFI (overall, before or after day +100) as well as 3-year overall and disease-free survival, non-relapse mortality, or acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were similar between both groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that fluconazole may not be required at the initial phase of RIC allo-SCT using PBSC. This result has to be confirmed prospectively while Aspergillus prophylaxis should be discussed in this particular setting.

  15. Host-derived CD8+ dendritic cells are required for induction of optimal graft-versus-tumor responses after experimental allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Toubai, Tomomi; Sun, Yaping; Luker, Gary; Liu, Jun; Luker, Kathryn E.; Tawara, Isao; Evers, Rebecca; Liu, Chen; Mathewson, Nathan; Malter, Chelsea; Nieves, Evelyn; Choi, Sung; Murphy, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    The graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) represents an effective form of immunotherapy against many malignancies. Meaningful separation of the potentially curative GVT responses from graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), the most serious toxicity following T-cell replete allo-HCT, has been an elusive goal. GVHD is initiated by alloantigens, although both alloantigens and tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) initiate GVT responses. Emerging data have illuminated a role for antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in inducing alloantigen-specific responses. By using multiple clinically relevant murine models, we show that a specific subset of host-derived APCs—CD8+ dendritic cells (DCs)—enhances TSA responses and is required for optimal induction of GVT. Stimulation of TLR3, which among host hematopoietic APC subsets is predominantly expressed on CD8+ DCs, enhanced GVT without exacerbating GVHD. Thus, strategies that modulate host APC subsets without direct manipulation of donor T cells could augment GVT responses and enhance the efficacy of allo-HCT. PMID:23520337

  16. Transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM): an update.

    PubMed

    Vamvakas, Eleftherios C; Blajchman, Morris A

    2007-11-01

    Allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT)-related immunomodulation (TRIM) encompasses the laboratory immune aberrations that occur after ABT and their established or purported clinical effects. TRIM is a real biologic phenomenon resulting in at least one established beneficial clinical effect in humans, but the existence of deleterious clinical TRIM effects has not yet been confirmed. Initially, TRIM encompassed effects attributable to ABT by immunomodulatory mechanisms (e.g., cancer recurrence, postoperative infection, or virus activation). More recently, TRIM has also included effects attributable to ABT by pro-inflammatory mechanisms (e.g., multiple-organ failure or mortality). TRIM effects may be mediated by: (1) allogeneic mononuclear cells; (2) white-blood-cell (WBC)-derived soluble mediators; and/or (3) soluble HLA peptides circulating in allogeneic plasma. This review categorizes the available randomized controlled trials based on the inference(s) that they permit about possible mediator(s) of TRIM, and examines the strength of the evidence available for relying on WBC reduction or autologous transfusion to prevent TRIM effects.

  17. Current good manufacturing practices for transfusion medicine.

    PubMed

    Sazama, K

    1996-10-01

    Transfusion medicine is most tightly controlled in the US by CGMPs that are written as regulations, guidances, and quality management documents. Because the US regulatory scheme requires that each unit of human blood donated for transfusion (and other purposes) be documented from the moment of donor registration until the last component of that donation is finally disposed of, there is precious little that remains solely within the discretion of the treating physician who orders transfusions for her or his patients. An additional complication for transfusion medicine specialists is that the search for the requirements must extend to all possible areas of information, including the possibly unexpected source within the private sector.

  18. Transfusion Associated Microchimerism: The Hybrid Within

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Evan M; Jackman, Rachael P; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Busch, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    Microchimerism, the coexistence of genetically disparate populations of cells in a receptive host, is well described in both clinical and physiological settings, including transplantation and pregnancy. Microchimerism can also occur following allogeneic blood transfusion in traumatically injured patients, where donor cells have been observed decades after transfusion. To date, transfusion-associated microchimerism (TA-MC) appears confined to this clinical subset, most likely due to the immune perturbations that occur following severe trauma that allow foreign donor cells to survive. TA-MC appears to be unaffected by leukoreduction and has been documented following transfusion with an array of blood products. The only significant predictor of TA-MC to date is the age of red cells, with fresher units associated with higher risk. Thus far, no adverse clinical effect has been observed in limited studies of TA-MC. There are, however, hypothesized links to transfusion-associated graft vs. host disease (TA-GvHD) that may be unrecognized and consequently under-reported. Microchimerism in other settings has gained increasing attention due to a plausible link to autoimmune diseases, as well as its diagnostic and therapeutic potential vis-a-vis ante-natal testing and adoptive immunotherapy, respectively. Furthermore, microchimerism provides a tool to further our understanding of immune tolerance and regulation. PMID:23102759

  19. Microvascular Response to Red Blood Cell Transfusion in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Jordan A.; MacLennan, Paul A.; Vandromme–Cusick, Marianne J.; Angotti, Jonathan M.; Magnotti, Louis J.; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Rue, Loring W.; Barnum, Scott R.; Patel, Rakesh P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Trauma patients are often transfused allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs) in an effort to augment tissue oxygen delivery. However, the effect of RBC transfusion on microvascular perfusion in this patient population is not well understood. To this end, we investigated the effect of RBC transfusion on sublingual microvascular perfusion in trauma patients. Methods Sublingual microcirculation was imaged at bedside with a sidestream dark field illumination microscope before and after transfusion of one RBC unit in hemodynamically stable, anemic trauma patients. The proportion of perfused capillaries (PPC) pre- and post-transfusion was determined, and the percent change in capillary perfusion following transfusion (ΔPPC) calculated. Results Sublingual microcirculation was observed in 30 patients. Mean age was 47 (SD=21), mean ISS was 29 (SD=16), and mean pre-transfusion hemoglobin was 7.5 g/dL (SD=0.9). No patients had MAP < 65 mm Hg (mean 89 mm Hg, SD 17) or lactate > 2.5 mmol/L (mean 1.1 mmol/L, SD 0.3). Following transfusion, ΔPPC ranged from +68% to -36% and was found to inversely correlate significantly with pre-transfusion PPC (Spearman r= -0.63, p=0.0002). Conclusions Pre-transfusion PPC may be selectively deranged in otherwise stable trauma patients. Patients with relatively altered baseline PPC tend to demonstrate improvement in perfusion following transfusion, while those with relatively normal perfusion at baseline tend to demonstrate either no change or, in fact, a decline in PPC. Bedside sublingual imaging may have the potential to detect subtle perfusion defects and ultimately inform clinical decision making with respect to transfusion. PMID:22344313

  20. Diagnosis of transfusion-related acute lung injury: TRALI or not TRALI?

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Magali J; Malone, James; Mullins, Franklin M; Grumet, F Carl

    2006-01-01

    TRALI is a challenging diagnosis for both the transfusion specialist and the clinician. A Canadian consensus panel has recently proposed guidelines to better define TRALI and its implications. The guidelines recommend classifying each suspected case in one of the following 3 categories: (1) "TRALI," (2) "Possible TRALI," or (3) "Not TRALI." We report the clinical presentation, laboratory evaluation, and management of 3 patients with respiratory failure (RF) following allogeneic blood transfusions. These patients all experienced RF within 6 hr post-transfusion. Based on a review of the clinical and laboratory data and applying the Canadian guidelines, the first patient, a 67-yr-old man with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, was diagnosed as "TRALI" due to the sudden onset of RF requiring intensive resuscitation. The second patient, a 55-yr-old man with aplastic anemia, was diagnosed as "Possible TRALI" due to pre-existing RF that worsened after blood transfusion. The third patient, a 1-yr-old male, was diagnosed as transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO) and "Possible TRALI," although his RF improved after treatment with diuretics. In all 3 cases, the blood donor center was informed of the suspected TRALI reactions. The remaining blood products from the donors associated with these reactions were quarantined. After review of the clinical data, the donors associated with cases #1 and #3 were screened by the blood center for granulocyte and HLA antibodies. Using a Luminex flow bead array, the following class I and class II antibodies specific for patient #1 were identified in the respective donor: anti-A25, B8, B18, and anti-DR15, DR 17. Subsequently, donor #1 was permanently deferred. A non-specific IgM anti-granulocyte antibody was identified in the donor associated with case #3, and this donor was subsequently disqualified from plasma and platelet donations. In conclusion, the Canadian guidelines to categorize patients suspected of TRALI provide a useful

  1. Scientific and forensic standards for homologous blood transfusion anti-doping analyses.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Sylvain; Robinson, Neil; Mangin, Patrice; Saugy, Martial

    2008-07-18

    Since the introduction in 2001 of a urine-based detection method for recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEPO), transfusion-doping practices have regained interest. To address this problem, an efficient antidoping test designed to obtain direct proof of allogeneic blood transfusion was developed and validated. This test, based on flow cytometry analysis of red blood cell (RBCs) phenotypes, was used to determine the absence or the presence of numerous RBCs populations in a blood sample. A such, it may constitute a direct proof of an abnormal blood population resulting from homologous transfusion. Single-blind and single-site studies were carried out to validate this method as a forensic quality standard analysis and to allow objective interpretation of real cases. The analysis of 140 blood samples containing different percentages (0-5%) of a minor RBCs population were carried on by four independent analysts. Robustness, sensitivity, specificity, precision and stability were assessed. ISO-accredited controls samples were used to demonstrate that the method was robust, stable and precise. No false positive results were observed, resulting in a 100% specificity of the method. Most samples containing a 1.5% minor RBCs population were unambiguously detected, yielding a 78.1% sensitivity. These samples mimicked blood collected from an athlete 3 months after a homologous blood transfusion event where 10% of the total RBCs present in the recipient originated in the donor. The observed false negative results could be explained by differences in antigen expression between the donor and the recipient. False negatives were more numerous with smaller minor RBCs populations. The method described here fulfils the ISO-17025 accreditation and validation requirements. The controls and the methodology are solid enough to determine with certainty whether a sample contains one or more RBCs populations. This variable is currently the best indicator for homologous blood transfusion doping.

  2. Comparison of a restrictive versus liberal red cell transfusion policy for patients with myelodysplasia, aplastic anaemia, and other congenital bone marrow failure disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yisu; Estcourt, Lise J; Doree, Carolyn; Hopewell, Sally; Vyas, Paresh

    2015-01-01

    Background Bone marrow failure disorders include a heterogenous group of disorders, of which myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), forms the largest subgroup. MDS is predominantly a disease of the elderly, with many elderly people managed conservatively with regular allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions to treat their anaemia. However, RBC transfusions are not without risk. Despite regular transfusions playing a central role in treating such patients, the optimal RBC transfusion strategy (restrictive versus liberal) is currently unclear. Objectives To assess the efficacy and safety of a restrictive versus liberal red blood cell transfusion strategy for patients with myelodysplasia, acquired aplastic anaemia, and other inherited bone marrow failure disorders. Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 4), Ovid MEDLINE (from 1946), Ovid EMBASE (from 1974), EBSCO CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1980) and ongoing trial databases to 26th May 2015. Selection criteria RCTs including patients with long-term bone marrow failure disorders that require allogeneic blood transfusion, who are not being actively treated with a haematopoietic stem cell transplant, or intensive chemotherapy. Data collection and analysis We used standard Cochrane review methodology. One author initially screened all references, and excluded any that were clearly irrelevant or duplicates. Two authors then independently screened all abstracts of articles, identified by the review search strategy, for relevancy. Two authors independently assessed the full text of all potentially relevant articles for eligibility, completed the data extraction and assessed the studies for risk of bias using The Cochrane Collaboration’s ’Risk of bias’ tool. Main results We included one trial (13 participants) and identified three ongoing trials that assess RBC

  3. Non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias

    PubMed Central

    Musallam, Khaled M.; Rivella, Stefano; Vichinsky, Elliott; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A.

    2013-01-01

    Non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias include a variety of phenotypes that, unlike patients with beta (β)-thalassemia major, do not require regular transfusion therapy for survival. The most commonly investigated forms are β-thalassemia intermedia, hemoglobin E/β-thalassemia, and α-thalassemia intermedia (hemoglobin H disease). However, transfusion-independence in such patients is not without side effects. Ineffective erythropoiesis and peripheral hemolysis, the hallmarks of disease process, lead to a variety of subsequent pathophysiologies including iron overload and hypercoagulability that ultimately lead to a number of serious clinical morbidities. Thus, prompt and accurate diagnosis of non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia is essential to ensure early intervention. Although several management options are currently available, the need to develop more novel therapeutics is justified by recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of disease. Such efforts require wide international collaboration, especially since non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias are no longer bound to low- and middle-income countries but have spread to large multiethnic cities in Europe and the Americas due to continued migration. PMID:23729725

  4. Non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias.

    PubMed

    Musallam, Khaled M; Rivella, Stefano; Vichinsky, Elliott; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A

    2013-06-01

    Non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias include a variety of phenotypes that, unlike patients with beta (β)-thalassemia major, do not require regular transfusion therapy for survival. The most commonly investigated forms are β-thalassemia intermedia, hemoglobin E/β-thalassemia, and α-thalassemia intermedia (hemoglobin H disease). However, transfusion-independence in such patients is not without side effects. Ineffective erythropoiesis and peripheral hemolysis, the hallmarks of disease process, lead to a variety of subsequent pathophysiologies including iron overload and hypercoagulability that ultimately lead to a number of serious clinical morbidities. Thus, prompt and accurate diagnosis of non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia is essential to ensure early intervention. Although several management options are currently available, the need to develop more novel therapeutics is justified by recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of disease. Such efforts require wide international collaboration, especially since non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias are no longer bound to low- and middle-income countries but have spread to large multiethnic cities in Europe and the Americas due to continued migration.

  5. [Immunological blood transfusion safety and selection of red blood cells issued from hospital blood banks].

    PubMed

    Py, J-Y

    2010-12-01

    Allogeneic red blood cells transfusion is always an immunological challenge and the choice of the blood products is crucial for the patient safety. But this choice may be hampered by the quality or the quantity of the available supply. In the end, the lack of transfusion may be more harmful than transfusion. The balance between patients' needs and blood centres supplying is always delicate. The conditions are not the same for all blood groups. Things are easier for the KEL1 phenotype, where the supply must ensure only 92.5% of KEL: -1 red blood cells instead of the 91% expected. More complicated is the situation for group O red blood cells with 47 versus 43%. But the major problem concerns RH: -1 red blood cells, for which the needs reach 20.1 versus 15%. These challenges require a lot of efforts from blood centres staffs to influence blood donors' recruitment and appointments. A justified and carefully selected blood products issuing may be of great help, especially for group O RH: -1 red blood cells. Therefore, hospital blood banks must have ad hoc procedures and a trained staff to put them into practice.

  6. A strategy to reduce inappropriate red blood cell transfusion.

    PubMed

    Brandis, K; Richards, B; Ghent, A; Weinstein, S

    1994-06-06

    To evaluate the effectiveness of policies intended to decrease unnecessary packed red cell transfusions. The transfusion records of a 550-bed acute care facility were obtained and two six-month periods, one before and one after the introduction of new transfusion policies, were compared. Meaningful reductions were seen in crossmatch requests, number of units crossmatched and units transfused. After standardising for rising patient numbers, units transfused per 1000 admissions fell by 28.8%. Units crossmatched fell by slightly more than did units transfused, resulting in lower crossmatch-to-transfusion ratios, and indicating more effective use of resources. Total requests fell while "group-and-screen" requests rose, showing a shift toward more appropriate ordering in the face of increasing workload. The transfusion policies have succeeded in curtailing unnecessary transfusion practices. They included the lowering of "transfusion-triggering" haemoglobin levels, registrar or consultant approval of transfusions and enforcement of patient consent and chart documentation of transfusion indications, verified by the laboratory. The surgical blood ordering schedule was reviewed under the overall direction of the transfusion committee. A strong institutional commitment is required to lift the profile of blood transfusion.

  7. Types of Blood Transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... especially in the joints (knees, ankles, and elbows). Plasma Transfusions Plasma is the liquid part of your blood. It's ... or a severe infection, you may need a plasma transfusion. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: January 30, ...

  8. Reasons for moving toward a patient-centric paradigm of clinical transfusion medicine practice.

    PubMed

    Vamvakas, Eleftherios C

    2013-04-01

    The combination of patient blood management (PBM) modalities and multicomponent apheresis permits us to administer even safer transfusions than those using the "safer-than-ever" blood components distributed in the beginning of the 21st century. PBM identifies a patient at risk of transfusion and formulates a multidisciplinary and multimodal-yet individualized-plan for reducing the need for allogeneic transfusion. Multicomponent apheresis can collect any combination of red blood cells, platelets, and plasma from the same donor during the same donation, and it should eventually reserve all components harvested from the same donation for transfusion to the same recipient. Together, PBM and multicomponent apheresis represent a new paradigm-the patient-centric paradigm-of transfusion medicine whose purpose is to reduce the transfusion risk for each individual patient to the level of the ALARA (as-low-as-reasonably-achievable) risk. PBM and multicomponent apheresis can meet a patient's transfusion needs with at least twofold fewer allogeneic donor exposures, thereby reducing the risk of infectious and immunologic complications of transfusion by at least twofold. The reduction in risk includes the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality (transfusion-related acute lung injury) and the cardinal threat to transfusion safety (the next "HIV-like" pathogen to emerge in the future). Once it is determined that PBM and multicomponent apheresis can replace the current blood-procurement system at a "reasonable" cost and without jeopardizing the supply of blood and components, the patient-centric paradigm should replace the current, component-centric paradigm of transfusion medicine to reduce the transfusion risk to the level of the ALARA risk.

  9. Hypotensive resuscitation strategy reduces transfusion requirements and severe postoperative coagulopathy in trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock: preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Morrison, C Anne; Carrick, Matthew M; Norman, Michael A; Scott, Bradford G; Welsh, Francis J; Tsai, Peter; Liscum, Kathleen R; Wall, Matthew J; Mattox, Kenneth L

    2011-03-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of death worldwide and is thus a major public health concern. Previous studies have shown that limiting the amount of fluids given by following a strategy of permissive hypotension during the initial resuscitation period may improve trauma outcomes. This study examines the clinical outcomes from the first 90 patients enrolled in a prospective, randomized controlled trial of hypotensive resuscitation, with the primary aim of assessing the effects of a limited transfusion and intravenous (IV) fluid strategy on 30-day morbidity and mortality. Patients in hemorrhagic shock who required emergent surgery were randomized to one of the two arms of the study for intraoperative resuscitation. Those in the experimental (low mean arterial pressure [LMAP]) arm were managed with a hypotensive resuscitation strategy in which the target mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 50 mm Hg. Those in the control (high MAP [HMAP]) arm were managed with standard fluid resuscitation to a target MAP of 65 mm Hg. Patients were followed up for 30 days. Intraoperative fluid requirements, mortality, postoperative complications, and other clinical data were prospectively gathered and analyzed. Patients in the LMAP group received a significantly less blood products and total i.v. fluids during intraoperative resuscitation than those in the HMAP group. They had significantly lower mortality in the early postoperative period and a nonsignificant trend for lower mortality at 30 days. Patients in the LMAP group were significantly less likely to develop immediate postoperative coagulopathy and less likely to die from postoperatively bleeding associated with coagulopathy. Among those who developed coagulopathy in both groups, patients in the LMAP group had significantly lower international normalized ratio than those in the HMAP group, indicating a less severe coagulopathy. Hypotensive resuscitation is a safe strategy for use in the trauma population and results in a significant

  10. Transfusion Practices Committee of a public blood bank network in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Ricardo Vilas Freire; Brener, Stela; Ferreira, Angela Melgaço; do Valle, Marcele Cunha Ribeiro; Moraes-Souza, Helio

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to verify the performance of blood transfusion committees in transfusion services linked to the public blood bank network of the state of Minas Gerais. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted between 2007 and 2008 using questionnaires and proficiency tests to evaluate the reporting and investigation of transfusion reactions comparing transfusion services with and without transfusion committees in the public transfusion services of the state of Minas Gerais. Results Nineteen of Hemominas own transfusion services and 207 that contracted the services of the foundation located in 178 municipalities were visited between 2007 and 2008. Established transfusion committees were present in 63.4% of the services visited. Transfusion incidents were reported by 53 (36.8%) transfusion services with transfusion committees and by eight (9.6%) without transfusion committees (p < 0.001) with 543 (97.5%) and 14 (2.5%) notifications, respectively. Of the reported transfusion incidents, 40 (75.5%) transfusion services with transfusion committees and only two (25%) of those without transfusion committees investigated the causes. Conclusion The incidence of notification and investigation of the causes of transfusion reactions was higher in transfusion services where a transfusion committee was present. Despite these results, the performance of these committees was found to be incipient and a better organization and more effective operation are required. PMID:23323064

  11. Transfusion medicine in obstetrics and gynecology.

    PubMed

    Santoso, J T; Lin, D W; Miller, D S

    1995-06-01

    Obstetricians and Gynecologists care for many patients with conditions potentially requiring blood transfusions. Cesarean section and hysterectomy are the two surgeries performed most frequently and both have the potential for blood loss requiring transfusion. Other examples include postpartum hemorrhage, placenta previa, and ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Obstetricians and gynecologists need to become knowledgeable about the ever-changing aspects of blood transfusion and apply it in their clinical practice. This review intends to update obstetricians and gynecologists and other health care professionals about the basic as well as the latest technologies of blood transfusion. The different types of blood components are discussed including their preparation, indications, risks, and benefits. The complications of blood transfusion and their management are reviewed, including infections, noninfectious, and immunological etiologies. HIV and hepatitis are explored, these being the most serious infectious risks of transfusion. Autologous blood transfusion, an underutilized option, is examined. Hemodilution and intraoperative blood salvage, other techniques for using the patient's own blood, are discussed. Finally, synthetic agents such as erythropoietin, granulocyte colony-stimulating factors, factors, desmopressin acetate, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, and new products are introduced as potential replacements to blood transfusion in the future.

  12. [Blood transfusion: the challenges for tomorrow?].

    PubMed

    Folléa, Gilles; Garraud, Olivier; Tiberghien, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    As any therapeutic means, blood transfusion requires regular evaluation, particularly for its indications, effectiveness and risks. The availability of randomized clinical trials, the evolution of the quality of blood components, and the economic constraints shared by all countries, all lead to rethink both transfusion therapy as a whole and the organization of the transfusion chain from donor to recipient. The main tools available to improve transfusion and the transfusion chain management are the following: programs of patient blood management (PBM) to optimize the use of blood products with a patient centred approach, blood supply management tools to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the transfusion chain, donor management tools to adapt donor collections to the patients' needs in compliance with safety requirements for patients and donors, and coordination of these activities. A better understanding of these tools and their implementation will certainly be major challenges for transfusion medicine in the near future. Integrating these evolutions in regulations through the revision of the European Directives on blood and blood components (the review process is expected to be launched in 2015) should enroll them in the long term, for the benefit of patients, donors and all other stakeholders involved in the transfusion chain.

  13. Blood Transfusion Therapy.

    PubMed

    Goodnough, Lawrence Tim; Panigrahi, Anil K

    2017-03-01

    Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) is a balance between providing benefit for patients while avoiding risks of transfusion. Randomized, controlled trials of restrictive RBC transfusion practices have shown equivalent patient outcomes compared with liberal transfusion practices, and meta-analyses have shown improved in-hospital mortality, reduced cardiac events, and reduced bacterial infections. This body of level 1 evidence has led to substantial, improved blood utilization and reduction of inappropriate blood transfusions with implementation of clinical decision support via electronic medical records, along with accompanying educational initiatives.

  14. Patient blood management: a fresh look at a fresh approach to blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Liumbruno, G M; Vaglio, S; Grazzini, G; Spahn, D R; Biancofiore, G

    2015-10-01

    The overall use of allogeneic blood transfusions in clinical practice remains relatively high and still varies widely among centres and practitioners. Moreover, allogeneic blood transfusions have historically been linked with risks and complications: some of them (e.g. transfusion reactions and transmission of pathogens) have been largely mitigated through advancements in blood banking whereas some others (e.g. immunomodulation and transfusion-related acute lung injury) appear to have more subtle etiologies and are more difficult to tackle. Furthermore, blood transfusions are costly and the supply of blood is limited. Finally, evidence indicates that a great number of the critically ill patients who are being transfused today may not be having tangible benefits from the transfusion. Patient blood management is an evidence-based, multidisciplinary, multimodal, and patient-tailored approach aimed at reducing or eliminating the need for allogeneic transfusion by managing anaemia, perioperative blood conservation, surgical haemostasis, and blood as well as plasma-derivative drug use. From this point of view, the reduction of allogeneic blood usage is not an end in itself but a tool to achieve better patient clinical outcome. This article focuses on the three-pillar matrix of patient blood management where the understanding of basic physiology and pathophysiology is at the core of evidence-based approaches to optimizing erythropoiesis, minimising bleeding and tolerating anemia. Anesthesiologists and critical care physicians clearly have a key role in patient blood management programmes are and should incorporate its principles into clinical practice-based initiatives that improve patient safety and clinical outcomes.

  15. [Indications and surveillance of platelet transfusions in surgery].

    PubMed

    Coffe, C; Bardiaux, L; Couteret, Y; Devillers, M; Leroy, M; Morel, P; Pouthier-Stein, F; Hervé, P

    1995-01-01

    Surgery, after hematology, is the biggest consumer of homologous platelet concentrates. Platelet transfusion is indicated to prevent or control bleeding associated with deficiencies in platelet number or function. In surgery, general patterns (in function of pre-surgery platelet count) can be adopted in most of the indications for platelets. In emergency situations, and in some particular cases (related to the patient, the type of operation, etc.), the transfusion procedure depends on the team's experience, the results of the available clinical and biological tests, and the drugs. Strict monitoring is required during the transfusion procedure. The efficacy of the transfusion must be controlled 1 h and 24 hours after the transfusion, and a number of factors must be assessed, namely the immunological impact of the transfusion (on red blood cells, leukocytes and platelets) and the occurrence of infectious diseases transmitted via transfusion. In addition, for a possible future transfusion, a strategy must be proposed.

  16. Immune modulation and lack of alloimmunization following transfusion with pathogen-reduced platelets in mice.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Rachael P; Muench, Marcus O; Heitman, John W; Inglis, Heather C; Law, Jacqueline P; Marschner, Susanne; Goodrich, Raymond P; Norris, Philip J

    2013-11-01

    Transfusion of allogeneic blood products can lead to alloimmunization, impacting success of subsequent transfusions and solid organ transplants. Pathogen reduction using riboflavin and ultraviolet B (UVB) light has been shown to eliminate the immunogenicity of white blood cells (WBCs) in vitro through down regulation of surface adhesion molecules, effectively blocking cell-cell conjugation and direct presentation. We sought to determine if this loss of immunogenicity is extended in vivo where indirect presentation of allogeneic antigens can occur. BALB/cJ mice were transfused with either untreated or riboflavin and UVB-treated C57Bl/6J platelet-rich plasma (PRP) containing WBCs. Circulating alloantibody and allospecific splenocyte cytokine responses were measured. Pathogen reduction of allogeneic WBC-enriched PRP using riboflavin and UVB light before transfusion prevented alloimmunization, with a loss of both alloantibody generation and priming of secondary cytokine responses ex vivo. When mice given treated transfusions were subsequently given untreated transfusions, they produced normal levels of alloantibodies but had reduced secondary cytokine responses ex vivo. This immune modulation was antigen specific and was dependent on the presence of WBCs in the treated product. UVB plus riboflavin treatment of WBC-enriched PRP effectively blocks alloimmunization and modulates immune responses to subsequent exposures. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  17. Erythropoietin therapy after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: a prospective, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Aurélie; Baron, Frédéric; Willems, Evelyne; Seidel, Laurence; Hafraoui, Kaoutar; Vanstraelen, Gaetan; Bonnet, Christophe; Beguin, Yves

    2014-07-03

    We conducted a prospective randomized trial to assess hemoglobin (Hb) response to recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) therapy after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Patients (N = 131) were randomized (1:1) between no treatment (control arm) or erythropoietin at 500 U/kg per week (EPO arm). Patients were also stratified into 3 cohorts: patients undergoing myeloablative HCT with rhEPO to start on day (D)28, patients given nonmyeloablative HCT (NMHCT) with rhEPO to start on D28, and patients also given NMHCT but with rhEPO to start on D0. The proportion of complete correctors (ie, Hb ≥13 g/dL) before D126 posttransplant was 8.1% in the control arm (median not reached) and 63.1% in the EPO arm (median, 90 days) (P < .001). Hb levels were higher and transfusion requirements decreased (P < .001) in the EPO arm, but not during the first month in the nonmyeloablative cohort starting rhEPO on D0. There was no difference in rates of thromboembolic events or other complications between the 2 arms. This is the first randomized trial to demonstrate that rhEPO therapy hastens erythroid recovery and decreases transfusion requirements when started one month after allogeneic HCT. There was no benefit to start rhEPO earlier after NMHCT.

  18. The impact of platelet transfusion in massively transfused trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Kenji; Lustenberger, Thomas; Rhee, Peter; Holcomb, John B; Blackbourne, Lorne H; Shulman, Ira; Nelson, Janice; Talving, Peep; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2010-11-01

    The impact of platelet transfusion in trauma patients undergoing a massive transfusion (MT) was evaluated. The Institutional Trauma Registry and Blood Bank Database at a Level I trauma center was used to identify all patients requiring an MT (≥10 packed red blood cells [PRBC] within 24 hours of admission). Mortality was evaluated according to 4 apheresis platelet (aPLT):PRBC ratios: Low ratio (<1:18), medium ratio (≥1:18 and <1:12), high ratio (≥1:12 and <1:6), and highest ratio (≥1:6). Of 32,289 trauma patients, a total of 657 (2.0%) required an MT. At 24 hours, 171 patients (26.0%) received a low ratio, 77 (11.7%) a medium ratio, 249 (37.9%) a high ratio, and 160 (24.4%) the highest ratio of aPLT:PRBC. After correcting for differences between groups, the mortality at 24 hours increased in a stepwise fashion with decreasing aPLT:PRBC ratio. Using the highest ratio group as a reference, the adjusted relative risk of death was 1.67 (adjusted p = 0.054) for the high ratio group, 2.28 (adjusted p = 0.013) for the medium ratio group, and 5.51 (adjusted p < 0.001) for the low ratio group. A similar stepwise increase in mortality with decreasing platelet ratio was observed at 12 hours after admission and for overall survival to discharge. After stepwise logistic regression, a high aPLT:PRBC ratio (adjusted p < 0.001) was independently associated with improved survival at 24 hours. For injured patients requiring a massive transfusion, as the apheresis platelet-to-red cell ratio increased, a stepwise improvement in survival was seen. Prospective evaluation of the role of platelet transfusion in massively transfused patients is warranted. Copyright © 2010 American College of Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  19. Red blood cell transfusion in newborn infants

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Robin K; Jefferies, Ann L

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cell transfusion is an important and frequent component of neonatal intensive care. The present position statement addresses the methods and indications for red blood cell transfusion of the newborn, based on a review of the current literature. The most frequent indications for blood transfusion in the newborn are the acute treatment of perinatal hemorrhagic shock and the recurrent correction of anemia of prematurity. Perinatal hemorrhagic shock requires immediate treatment with large quantities of red blood cells; the effects of massive transfusion on other blood components must be considered. Some guidelines are now available from clinical trials investigating transfusion in anemia of prematurity; however, considerable uncertainty remains. There is weak evidence that cognitive impairment may be more severe at follow-up in extremely low birth weight infants transfused at lower hemoglobin thresholds; therefore, these thresholds should be maintained by transfusion therapy. Although the risks of transfusion have declined considerably in recent years, they can be minimized further by carefully restricting neonatal blood sampling. PMID:24855419

  20. Status of Transfusion Medicine Education in Iran.

    PubMed

    Javadzadeh Shahshahani, Hayedeh

    2016-06-01

    Optimal use of blood and blood components requires theoretical and practical knowledge in transfusion medicine. While the importance of education in transfusion medicine has long been recognized, a vacancy is widely felt in this regard in Iran. In this study, the current status of transfusion medicine education in Iran is evaluated using a review of studies conducted in this field. To access articles related to transfusion medicine education in Iran, an electronic search was performed in databases, including Magiran, SID, IranMedex, Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus and the related articles were evaluated. Knowledge of transfusion medicine was not optimal in various medical groups and there was no effective theoretical and practical education and training for transfusion medicine in medical universities. Almost all the studies concluded that transfusion medicine curricula should be implemented for both undergraduate and postgraduate students, because of its great importance in clinical practice. Educational program of transfusion medicine is a basic need of medical education for medical students, interns, residents, nursing, and midwifery students in Iran. Considering our status and capacities and by using educational programs in the world, curricula are suggested for different educational levels. Implementation of these training programs plays a vital role in improving patients' safety and also reduces the high costs of treatment with blood products.

  1. Blood transfusion in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Nigam, A; Prakash, A; Saxena, P

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion of blood and blood components is a common practice in obstetric wards but it is not without risk. The incidence of transfusion reactions varies from 4 in every hundred transfusions for non-haemolytic reactions to one in every 40,000 for haemolytic transfusion reactions. The physiological basis of blood transfusion is outlined in this article. Most of the donated blood is processed into components: packed red cells (PRBCs), platelets, and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or cryoprecipitate. Various alternatives to blood transfusion exist and include autotransfusion, pre-autologous blood storage, use of oxygen carrying blood substitutes and intraoperative cell salvage. Despite the risks associated with transfusions, obstetricians are frequently too aggressive in transfusing blood and blood products to their patients. Acute blood loss in obstetrics is usually due to placenta praevia, postpartum blood loss and surgery related. An early involvement of a consultant obstetrician, anaesthetist, haematologist and the blood bank is essential. There are no established criteria for initiating red cell transfusions and the decision is purely based on clinical and haematological parameters, which have been discussed along with the general principles of blood transfusion in obstetrics and some practical guidelines.

  2. Red blood cell transfusion in critically ill children: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Istaphanous, George K; Wheeler, Derek S; Lisco, Steven J; Shander, Aryeh

    2011-03-01

    To review the pathophysiology of anemia, as well as transfusion-related complications and indications for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, in critically ill children. Although allogeneic blood has become increasingly safer from infectious agents, mounting evidence indicates that RBC transfusions are associated with complications and unfavorable outcomes. As a result, there has been growing interest and efforts to limit RBC transfusion, and indications are being revisited and revamped. Although a so-called restrictive RBC transfusion strategy has been shown to improve morbidity and mortality in critically ill adults, there have been relatively few studies on RBC transfusion performed in critically ill children. Published literature on transfusion medicine and outcomes of RBC transfusion. STUDY SELECTION, DATA EXTRACTION, AND SYNTHESIS: After a brief overview of physiology of oxygen transportation, anemia compensation, and current transfusion guidelines based on available literature, risks and outcomes of transfusion in general and in critically ill children are summarized in conjunction with studies investigating the safety of restrictive transfusion strategies in this patient population. The available evidence does not support the extensive use of RBC transfusions in general or critically ill patients. Transfusions are still associated with risks, and although their benefits are established in limited situations, the associated negative outcomes in many more patients must be closely addressed. Given the frequency of anemia and its proven negative outcomes, transfusion decisions in the critically ill children should be based on individual patient's characteristics rather than generalized triggers, with consideration of potential risks and benefits, and available blood conservation strategies that can reduce transfusion needs.

  3. Placental transfusion: a review

    PubMed Central

    Katheria, A C; Lakshminrusimha, S; Rabe, H; McAdams, R; Mercer, J S

    2017-01-01

    Recently there have been a number of studies and presentations on the importance of providing a placental transfusion to the newborn. Early cord clamping is an avoidable, unphysiologic intervention that prevents the natural process of placental transfusion. However, placental transfusion, although simple in concept, is affected by multiple factors, is not always straightforward to implement, and can be performed using different methods, making this basic procedure important to discuss. Here, we review three placental transfusion techniques: delayed cord clamping, intact umbilical cord milking and cut-umbilical cord milking, and the evidence in term and preterm newborns supporting this practice. We will also review several factors that influence placental transfusion, and discuss perceived risks versus benefits of this procedure. Finally, we will provide key straightforward concepts and implementation strategies to ensure that placental-to-newborn transfusion can become routine practice at any institution. PMID:27654493

  4. Economic considerations on transfusion medicine and patient blood management.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Axel; Ozawa, Sherri; Farrugia, Albert; Farmer, Shannon L; Shander, Aryeh

    2013-03-01

    In times of escalating health-care cost, it is of great importance to carefully assess the cost-effectiveness and appropriateness of the most resource-consuming health interventions. A long-standing and common clinical practice that has been underestimated in cost and overestimated in effectiveness is the transfusion of allogeneic blood products. Studies show that this intervention comes with largely underestimated service cost and unacceptably high utilisation variability for matched patients, thus adding billions of unnecessary dollars to the health-care expenditure each year. Moreover, a large and increasing body of literature points to a dose-dependent increase of morbidity and mortality and adverse long-term outcomes associated with transfusion whereas published evidence for benefit is extremely limited. This means that transfusion may be a generator for increased hospital stay and possible re-admissions, resulting in additional billions in unnecessary expenditure for the health system. In contrast to this, there are evidence-based and cost-effective treatment options available to pre-empt and reduce allogeneic transfusions. The patient-specific rather than a product-centred application of these multiple modalities is termed patient blood management (PBM). From a health-economic perspective, the expeditious implementation of PBM programmes is clearly indicated. Both patients and payers could benefit from this concept that has recently been endorsed through the World Health Assembly resolution WHA63.12. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimation of the prevalence and rate of acute transfusion reactions occurring in Windhoek, Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Meza, Benjamin P.L.; Lohrke, Britta; Wilkinson, Robert; Pitman, John P.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Bock, Naomi; Lowrance, David W.; Kuehnert, Matthew J.; Mataranyika, Mary; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute transfusion reactions are probably common in sub-Saharan Africa, but transfusion reaction surveillance systems have not been widely established. In 2008, the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia implemented a national acute transfusion reaction surveillance system, but substantial under-reporting was suspected. We estimated the actual prevalence and rate of acute transfusion reactions occurring in Windhoek, Namibia. Methods The percentage of transfusion events resulting in a reported acute transfusion reaction was calculated. Actual percentage and rates of acute transfusion reactions per 1,000 transfused units were estimated by reviewing patients’ records from six hospitals, which transfuse >99% of all blood in Windhoek. Patients’ records for 1,162 transfusion events occurring between 1st January – 31st December 2011 were randomly selected. Clinical and demographic information were abstracted and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network criteria were applied to categorize acute transfusion reactions1. Results From January 1 – December 31, 2011, there were 3,697 transfusion events (involving 10,338 blood units) in the selected hospitals. Eight (0.2%) acute transfusion reactions were reported to the surveillance system. Of the 1,162 transfusion events selected, medical records for 785 transfusion events were analysed, and 28 acute transfusion reactions were detected, of which only one had also been reported to the surveillance system. An estimated 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3–4.4) of transfusion events in Windhoek resulted in an acute transfusion reaction, with an estimated rate of 11.5 (95% CI: 7.6–14.5) acute transfusion reactions per 1,000 transfused units. Conclusion The estimated actual rate of acute transfusion reactions is higher than the rate reported to the national haemovigilance system. Improved surveillance and interventions to reduce transfusion-related morbidity and mortality

  6. Estimation of the prevalence and rate of acute transfusion reactions occurring in Windhoek, Namibia.

    PubMed

    Meza, Benjamin P L; Lohrke, Britta; Wilkinson, Robert; Pitman, John P; Shiraishi, Ray W; Bock, Naomi; Lowrance, David W; Kuehnert, Matthew J; Mataranyika, Mary; Basavaraju, Sridhar V

    2014-07-01

    Acute transfusion reactions are probably common in sub-Saharan Africa, but transfusion reaction surveillance systems have not been widely established. In 2008, the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia implemented a national acute transfusion reaction surveillance system, but substantial under-reporting was suspected. We estimated the actual prevalence and rate of acute transfusion reactions occurring in Windhoek, Namibia. The percentage of transfusion events resulting in a reported acute transfusion reaction was calculated. Actual percentage and rates of acute transfusion reactions per 1,000 transfused units were estimated by reviewing patients' records from six hospitals, which transfuse >99% of all blood in Windhoek. Patients' records for 1,162 transfusion events occurring between 1(st) January - 31(st) December 2011 were randomly selected. Clinical and demographic information were abstracted and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network criteria were applied to categorize acute transfusion reactions. From January 1 - December 31, 2011, there were 3,697 transfusion events (involving 10,338 blood units) in the selected hospitals. Eight (0.2%) acute transfusion reactions were reported to the surveillance system. Of the 1,162 transfusion events selected, medical records for 785 transfusion events were analysed, and 28 acute transfusion reactions were detected, of which only one had also been reported to the surveillance system. An estimated 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3-4.4) of transfusion events in Windhoek resulted in an acute transfusion reaction, with an estimated rate of 11.5 (95% CI: 7.6-14.5) acute transfusion reactions per 1,000 transfused units. The estimated actual rate of acute transfusion reactions is higher than the rate reported to the national haemovigilance system. Improved surveillance and interventions to reduce transfusion-related morbidity and mortality are required in Namibia.

  7. Microvascular response to red blood cell transfusion in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Jordan A; MacLennan, Paul A; Vandromme-Cusick, Marianne J; Angotti, Jonathan M; Magnotti, Louis J; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Rue, Loring W; Barnum, Scott R; Patel, Rakesh P

    2012-03-01

    Trauma patients are often transfused allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs) in an effort to augment tissue oxygen delivery. However, the effect of RBC transfusion on microvascular perfusion in this patient population is not well understood. To this end, we investigated the effect of RBC transfusion on sublingual microvascular perfusion in trauma patients. Sublingual microcirculation was imaged at bedside with a sidestream dark-field illumination microscope before and after transfusion of one RBC unit in hemodynamically stable, anemic trauma patients. The perfused proportion of capillaries (PPC) before and after transfusion was determined, and the percent change in capillary perfusion following transfusion (ΔPPC) calculated. Sublingual microcirculation was observed in 30 patients. Mean age was 47 (SD, 21) years, mean Injury Severity Score was 29 (SD, 16), and mean pretransfusion hemoglobin was 7.5 (SD, 0.9) g/dL. No patients had a mean arterial pressure of less than 65 mmHg (mean, 89 [SD, 17] mmHg) or lactate of greater than 2.5 mmol/L (mean, 1.1 [SD, 0.3] mmol/L). Following transfusion, ΔPPC ranged from +68% to -36% and was found to inversely correlate significantly with pretransfusion PPC (Spearman r = -0.63, P = 0.0002). Pretransfusion PPC may be selectively deranged in otherwise stable trauma patients. Patients with relatively altered baseline PPC tend to demonstrate improvement in perfusion following transfusion, whereas those with relatively normal perfusion at baseline tend to demonstrate either no change or, in fact, a decline in PPC. Bedside sublingual imaging may have the potential to detect subtle perfusion defects and ultimately inform clinical decision making with respect to transfusion.

  8. When to consider transfusion therapy for patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Taher, A T; Radwan, A; Viprakasit, V

    2015-01-01

    Non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT) refers to all thalassaemia disease phenotypes that do not require regular blood transfusions for survival. Thalassaemia disorders were traditionally concentrated along the tropical belt stretching from sub-Saharan Africa through the Mediterranean region and the Middle East to South and South-East Asia, but global migration has led to increased incidence in North America and Northern Europe. Transfusionists may be familiar with β-thalassaemia major because of the lifelong transfusions needed by these patients. Although patients with NTDT do not require regular transfusions for survival, they may require transfusions in some instances such as pregnancy, infection or growth failure. The complications associated with NTDT can be severe if not properly managed, and many are directly related to chronic anaemia. Awareness of NTDT is important, and this review will outline the factors that should be taken into consideration when deciding whether to initiate and properly plan for transfusion therapy in these patients in terms of transfusion interval and duration of treatment. © 2014 The Authors. Vox Sanguinis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  9. Blood transfusion practices in obstetric anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Jadon, Ashok; Bagai, Rajni

    2014-09-01

    Blood transfusion is an essential component of emergency obstetric care and appropriate blood transfusion significantly reduces maternal mortality. Obstetric haemorrhage, especially postpartum haemorrhage, remains one of the major causes of massive haemorrhage and a prime cause of maternal mortality. Blood loss and assessment of its correct requirement are difficult in pregnancy due to physiological changes and comorbid conditions. Many guidelines have been used to assess the requirement and transfusion of blood and its components. Infrastructural, economic, social and religious constraints in blood banking and donation are key issues to formulate practice guidelines. Available current guidelines for transfusion are mostly from the developed world; however, they can be used by developing countries keeping available resources in perspective.

  10. Blood transfusion practices in obstetric anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Jadon, Ashok; Bagai, Rajni

    2014-01-01

    Blood transfusion is an essential component of emergency obstetric care and appropriate blood transfusion significantly reduces maternal mortality. Obstetric haemorrhage, especially postpartum haemorrhage, remains one of the major causes of massive haemorrhage and a prime cause of maternal mortality. Blood loss and assessment of its correct requirement are difficult in pregnancy due to physiological changes and comorbid conditions. Many guidelines have been used to assess the requirement and transfusion of blood and its components. Infrastructural, economic, social and religious constraints in blood banking and donation are key issues to formulate practice guidelines. Available current guidelines for transfusion are mostly from the developed world; however, they can be used by developing countries keeping available resources in perspective. PMID:25535427

  11. Immunological complications of blood transfusions.

    PubMed

    Brand, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    Most adverse blood transfusion (BT) events are immune-mediated and in the majority of severe reactions antibodies can be identified as causal factors. Alloimmunization not only causes symptomatic reactions, transfused cells can also be (silently) destroyed. Immunization by BT can contribute to hemolytic disease of the newborn as well as to allograft rejection after transplantation. Reversely, pregnancy and transplantation may evoke immunity hampering transfusion therapy. Besides causing mortality and morbidity, alloimmunization has a huge economic impact. Transfusion reactions prolong hospital stay, require diagnostic tests and complex donor selection procedures and create the need for typed donor registries. In the 1970s, Opeltz and colleagues described that pre-transplantation BT impaired rejection of renal transplants. Leukocytes were essential for this immunosuppressive BT effect that raised concern about negative effects on cancer growth and resistance against infections. Studies on the mechanism were however preliminary abandoned when calcineurin inhibitors for prevention of graft rejection became available and since all blood products underwent leukoreduction in most countries as precautionary measure against transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease. Whether current leukoreduced BT are immunosuppressive and for which patients or circumstances this may contribute to worse outcome, is unknown. The last decades of the previous century, leukoreduction of cellular blood products for leukemia patients significantly reduced the incidence of immunological platelet transfusion refractoriness. The first decade of this century the avoidance of plasma- and platelet-products from females, that may contain donor-derived leukocyte antibodies, decreased transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) by more than 30%. These were major achievements. Challenge for the near future is to further reduce alloimmunization in particular against red blood cells (RBC) as a

  12. Estimation of the infectious viral load required for transfusion-transmitted human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 infection (TT-HTLV-1) and of the effectiveness of leukocyte reduction in preventing TT-HTLV-1.

    PubMed

    Sobata, R; Matsumoto, C; Uchida, S; Suzuki, Y; Satake, M; Tadokoro, K

    2015-08-01

    The risk of transfusion-transmitted human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 infection (TT-HTLV-1) after prestorage leucocyte reduction (LR) remains unknown, as the proviral load in the blood component that would cause TT-HTLV-1 is undetermined. On the basis of the distribution of HTLV-1 proviral load among HTLV-1-sero-positive blood donors, we attempted to estimate the proviral load for transfusion-related infectivity. We also discuss the effectiveness of LR in preventing TT-HTLV-1. The HTLV-1 proviral load in 300 HTLV-1-sero-positive blood donors was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. The proviral load required for transfusion-related infectivity was estimated using historical TT-HTLV-1 frequency data from a retrospective study on patients who had received blood from HTLV-1-sero-positive blood donors and the distribution pattern of HTLV-1 proviral load among blood donors. HTLV-1 proviral loads ranged between < 0.01 and 25.0 copies per 100 leucocytes. Historical data showed TT-HTLV-1 frequency to be 80%. Assuming that 80% of the 300 sero-positive samples are infectious, it is estimated that the transfer of ≥ 9 × 10(4) cells containing the HTLV-1 provirus is required to establish TT-HTLV-1. The residual number of HTLV-1-infected cells after LR is substantially lower than the viral load necessary for TT-HTLV-1. LR therefore appears to be effective in minimizing the incidence of TT-HTLV-1. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  13. Alternatives to Blood Transfusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... or saved by collecting it with a special machine and giving it back into the patient. Giving a person back his or her own blood is called an autologous transfusion. It cuts down on the need for transfusions from other donors. But some studies have found tumor ... Information, ...

  14. Transfusion medicine in trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Murthi, Sarah B; Dutton, Richard P; Edelman, Bennett B; Scalea, Thomas M; Hess, John R

    2011-01-01

    Injured patients stress the transfusion service with frequent demands for uncrossmatched red cells and plasma, occasional requirements for large amounts of blood products and the need for new and better blood products. Transfusion services stress trauma centers with demands for strict accountability for individual blood component units and adherence to indications in a clinical field where research has been difficult, and guidance opinion-based. New data suggest that the most severely injured patients arrive at the trauma center already coagulopathic and that these patients benefit from prompt, specific, corrective treatment. This research is clarifying trauma system requirements for new blood products and blood-product usage patterns, but the inability to obtain informed consent from severely injured patients remains an obstacle to further research. PMID:21083009

  15. Eltrombopag for Treatment of Thrombocytopenia after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takashi; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Takuya; Fuji, Shigeo; Okinaka, Keiji; Kurosawa, Saiko; Kim, Sung-Won; Tanosaki, Ryuji; Fukuda, Takahiro

    2016-05-01

    Persistent thrombocytopenia is a common complication after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Eltrombopag is an oral thrombopoietin receptor agonist whose efficacy against persistent thrombocytopenia after allogeneic HCT has not been well characterized. This retrospective study evaluated the safety and efficacy of eltrombopag in 12 consecutive patients with persistent thrombocytopenia after allogeneic HCT. Eltrombopag was started at 12.5 mg once daily and the dose was increased by 12.5 mg daily every week until platelet counts exceeded 50,000/μL. Five patients had prolonged isolated thrombocytopenia (PIT) and 7 patients had secondary failure of platelet recovery (SFPR). The cumulative incidence rate of successful platelet recovery to ≥50,000/μL without transfusion support was 60% in PIT patients and 71% in SFPR patients. No patients discontinued the drug because of adverse events or intolerability. Notably, the rate of platelet recovery was higher (100% versus 58%; P = .0017) and recovery was faster (median, 33 days versus 137 days; P = .0078) in patients with normal numbers of bone marrow megakaryocytes before starting eltrombopag than in those with decreased numbers of megakaryocytes. Eltrombopag is a promising treatment for both PIT and SFPR after allogeneic HCT. The number of megakaryocytes in bone marrow before eltrombopag treatment may predict the response to eltrombopag.

  16. Severe hyperkalemia following blood transfusions: Is there a link?

    PubMed Central

    Rizos, Christos V; Milionis, Haralampos J; Elisaf, Moses S

    2017-01-01

    Patients with gastrointestinal bleeding often require large volume blood transfusion. Among the various side effects of blood transfusion, the increase of potassium levels is a serious one which is often overlooked. We report a case of severe hyperkalemia in a patient with gastric bleeding after large volume transfusion of packed red blood cells. The patient had hyperkalemia at baseline associated with his receiving medication as well as acute renal failure following hypovolemia. The baseline hyperkalemia was further aggravated after massive transfusions of packed red blood cells in a short period of time. The associated pathogenetic mechanisms resulting in the increase of potassium levels are presented. A number of risk factors which increase the risk of hyperkalemia after blood transfusion are discussed. Moreover, appropriate management strategies for the prevention of blood transfusion associated hyperkalemia are also presented. Physicians should always keep in mind the possibility of hyperkalemia in cases of blood transfusion. PMID:28101452

  17. The risks of blood transfusions and the shortage of supply leads to the quest for blood substitutes.

    PubMed

    Nouwairi, Nicole-Soraya

    2004-10-01

    A number of factors have combined to drive the interest in developing blood substitutes. These include the time-dependent decrement in stored blood biochemistry, the general shortage of the blood supply, and public awareness of the risks associated with allogeneic transfusions. Current literature on different blood substitutes was reviewed. The aim of this article is to help the reader understand the necessity of blood substitutes and to briefly describe blood substitutes that are in clinical trials. The need for oxygen-carrying blood substitutes is the driving force in multiple clinical trials. More research is needed to develop alteratives to allogeneic blood transfusion that are free of complications.

  18. Antigen recognition. V. Requirement for histocompatibility between antigen-presenting cell and B cell in the response to a thymus- dependent antigen, and lack of allogeneic restriction between T and B cells

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    The restrictions imposed by the major histocompatibility complex on T-B- antigen-presenting cell (APC) interactions were studied with an in vivo adoptive transfer system, using mutually tolerant T and B cells taken from one-way fetal liver chimeras. It was found that the B cells and adoptive recipient (which provides APC function) have to share determinants encoded by the left-hand end of the H-2 complex for cooperation, whereas there is apparently no such requirement for T-B cell syngeneicity. Suppression arising from allogeneic effects between the host and the transferred T or B cells was excluded by the use of tolerant as well as normal adoptive recipients; both were functionally equivalent. We conclude that under experimental conditions, unrestricted helper T cell function and concurrent APC-B cell genetic restriction can be demonstrated in vivo. PMID:7276826

  19. [Report on Notifications pursuant to Section 21 German Transfusion Act for 2001 and 2002].

    PubMed

    Haschberger, B; Waterkamp, A; Heiden, M; Seitz, R

    2005-01-01

    The report pursuant to Section 21 German Transfusion Act is based on data referring to 4.53 and 4.66 million allogeneous whole blood donations and 1.35 and 1.89 million apheresis donations respectively for the years 2001 and 2002. Since 2000, the quantity of plasma for fractionation from apheresis has doubled to approx. 1 million litres in 2002. At the same time, the number of private apheresis facilities has also increased. The data on plasma for fractionation (both from whole blood and from apheresis) have shown a sharp increase for both report periods, mainly due to the rise in the quantity of plasma from apheresis. In spite of this, the quantity for plasma for fractionation available to the German market declined by 43% during the report period, due to increasing export figures. The data on the manufacture of blood components are reliable, since the notifications are almost complete. In 2001, 4.32 million transfusion units of erythrocyte concentrates, the most important product derived from whole blood donations, were manufactured, compared with 4.45 million in 2002, out of these, slightly less than 77 percent were manufactured in the blood donations services of the Red Cross. The consumption values reported were clearly below the figures for the manufacture, with 3.2 million transfusion units in 2001 and 3.5 million in 2002. However, some facilities of the health service did not meet the requirement to notify their figures. As far as the data on manufacture, imports and exports of plasma derivatives are concerned, further improvements are required because of the complexity of the matter and the various implications to be taken into account. However, a statement on the supply situation cannot be yet made anyway, due to the missing notifications on the consumption figures.

  20. [Respiratory complications after transfusion].

    PubMed

    Bernasinski, M; Mertes, P-M; Carlier, M; Dupont, H; Girard, M; Gette, S; Just, B; Malinovsky, J-M

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory complications of blood transfusion have several possible causes. Transfusion-Associated Circulatory Overload (TACO) is often the first mentioned. Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI), better defined since the consensus conference of Toronto in 2004, is rarely mentioned. French incidence is low. Non-hemolytic febrile reactions, allergies, infections and pulmonary embolism are also reported. The objective of this work was to determine the statistical importance of the different respiratory complications of blood transfusion. This work was conducted retrospectively on transfusion accidents in six health centers in Champagne-Ardenne, reported to Hemovigilance between 2000 and 2009 and having respiratory symptoms. The analysis of data was conducted by an expert committee. Eighty-three cases of respiratory complications are found (316,864 blood products). We have counted 26 TACO, 12 TRALI (only 6 cases were identified in the original investigation of Hemovigilance), 18 non-hemolytic febrile reactions, 16 cases of allergies, 5 transfusions transmitted bacterial infections and 2 pulmonary embolisms. Six new TRALI were diagnosed previously labeled TACO for 2 of them, allergy and infection in 2 other cases and diagnosis considered unknown for the last 2. Our study found an incidence of TRALI 2 times higher than that reported previously. Interpretation of the data by a multidisciplinary committee amended 20% of diagnoses. This study shows the imperfections of our system for reporting accidents of blood transfusion when a single observer analyses the medical records.

  1. A Reduction in Clot Formation Rate and Strength Assessed by Thrombelastography Is Indicative of Transfusion Requirements in Patients With Penetrating Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    by currently used labora- tory values.4,9 Because it is known which blood components are responsible for the phases of clot formation, irregularity in...a specific portion of the TEG serves a diagnostic purpose. These values may direct transfusion of appropriate blood components and drugs, including...in the first 24 hours after admission included all blood components (units of packed red blood cells fresh frozen plasma fresh whole blood). Fresh

  2. When to consider transfusion therapy for patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Taher, A T; Radwan, A; Viprakasit, V

    2015-01-01

    Non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT) refers to all thalassaemia disease phenotypes that do not require regular blood transfusions for survival. Thalassaemia disorders were traditionally concentrated along the tropical belt stretching from sub-Saharan Africa through the Mediterranean region and the Middle East to South and South-East Asia, but global migration has led to increased incidence in North America and Northern Europe. Transfusionists may be familiar with β-thalassaemia major because of the lifelong transfusions needed by these patients. Although patients with NTDT do not require regular transfusions for survival, they may require transfusions in some instances such as pregnancy, infection or growth failure. The complications associated with NTDT can be severe if not properly managed, and many are directly related to chronic anaemia. Awareness of NTDT is important, and this review will outline the factors that should be taken into consideration when deciding whether to initiate and properly plan for transfusion therapy in these patients in terms of transfusion interval and duration of treatment. PMID:25286743

  3. Transfusion practices in trauma

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, V Trichur; Cattamanchi, Srihari

    2014-01-01

    Resuscitation of a severely traumatised patient with the administration of crystalloids, or colloids along with blood products is a common transfusion practice in trauma patients. The determination of this review article is to update on current transfusion practices in trauma. A search of PubMed, Google Scholar, and bibliographies of published studies were conducted using a combination of key-words. Recent articles addressing the transfusion practises in trauma from 2000 to 2014 were identified and reviewed. Trauma induced consumption and dilution of clotting factors, acidosis and hypothermia in a severely injured patient commonly causes trauma-induced coagulopathy. Early infusion of blood products and early control of bleeding decreases trauma-induced coagulopathy. Hypothermia and dilutional coagulopathy are associated with infusion of large volumes of crystalloids. Hence, the predominant focus is on damage control resuscitation, which is a combination of permissive hypotension, haemorrhage control and haemostatic resuscitation. Massive transfusion protocols improve survival in severely injured patients. Early recognition that the patient will need massive blood transfusion will limit the use of crystalloids. Initially during resuscitation, fresh frozen plasma, packed red blood cells (PRBCs) and platelets should be transfused in the ratio of 1:1:1 in severely injured patients. Fresh whole blood can be an alternative in patients who need a transfusion of 1:1:1 thawed plasma, PRBCs and platelets. Close monitoring of bleeding and point of care coagulation tests are employed, to allow goal-directed plasma, PRBCs and platelets transfusions, in order to decrease the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury. PMID:25535424

  4. Induction with azacytidine followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a Jehovah's Witness with acute monocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Garelius, Hege; Grund, Sofia; Stockelberg, Dick

    2015-05-01

    We have used a hypomethylating agent instead of conventional chemotherapy to induce remission in a young Jehovah's Witness with acute monocytic leukemia to avoid severe myelosuppression and blood product support. The treatment was consolidated with reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation. This could be an alternative when transfusions must be avoided.

  5. Transfusion-transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Bihl, Florian; Castelli, Damiano; Marincola, Francesco; Dodd, Roger Y; Brander, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Although the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections today is lower than ever, the supply of safe blood products remains subject to contamination with known and yet to be identified human pathogens. Only continuous improvement and implementation of donor selection, sensitive screening tests and effective inactivation procedures can ensure the elimination, or at least reduction, of the risk of acquiring transfusion transmitted infections. In addition, ongoing education and up-to-date information regarding infectious agents that are potentially transmitted via blood components is necessary to promote the reporting of adverse events, an important component of transfusion transmitted disease surveillance. Thus, the collaboration of all parties involved in transfusion medicine, including national haemovigilance systems, is crucial for protecting a secure blood product supply from known and emerging blood-borne pathogens. PMID:17553144

  6. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    MedlinePlus

    ... receiving the blood transfusion. To keep blood safe, blood banks carefully screen donated blood. The risk of catching ... one or more times before the surgery. A blood bank will store your blood for your use. NIH: ...

  7. Evolution in a centralized transfusion service.

    PubMed

    AuBuchon, James P; Linauts, Sandra; Vaughan, Mimi; Wagner, Jeffrey; Delaney, Meghan; Nester, Theresa

    2011-12-01

    The metropolitan Seattle area has utilized a centralized transfusion service model throughout the modern era of blood banking. This approach has used four laboratories to serve over 20 hospitals and clinics, providing greater capabilities for all at a lower consumption of resources than if each depended on its own laboratory and staff for these functions. In addition, this centralized model has facilitated wider use of the medical capabilities of the blood center's physicians, and a county-wide network of transfusion safety officers is now being developed to increase the impact of the blood center's transfusion expertise at the patient's bedside. Medical expectations and traffic have led the blood center to evolve the centralized model to include on-site laboratories at facilities with complex transfusion requirements (e.g., a children's hospital) and to implement in all the others a system of remote allocation. This new capability places a refrigerator stocked with uncrossmatched units in the hospital but retains control over the dispensing of these through the blood center's computer system; the correct unit can be electronically cross-matched and released on demand, obviating the need for transportation to the hospital and thus speeding transfusion. This centralized transfusion model has withstood the test of time and continues to evolve to meet new situations and ensure optimal patient care.

  8. [Blood components and good practices in transfusion].

    PubMed

    Andreu, Georges

    2015-02-01

    Each year, more than three millions of blood components are transfused to more than five hundred thousand patients in France. The optimal use of blood components requires that physicians prescribing blood components master the clinical indications of red blood cells concentrates, platelet concentrates and fresh frozen plasma. In addition, physicians in charge of blood component prescription should provide adequate pre- and post-transfusion information to their patients. Compliance of blood components administration in patients with safety guidelines contributes as well to their optimal use. In addition, for each blood component transfused, a proper evaluation of its safety and its efficacy should be done. Finally, a regular evaluation of transfusion practice in hospital services were blood components are used, through audits made in cooperation with their blood component provider, either blood transfusion centre or the hospital blood bank, enables to appreciate the level of compliance with safety and clinical guidelines, and more globally how the transfusion process is mastered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. [Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease guideline on gamma irradiation of blood components].

    PubMed

    Landi, E P; de Oliveira, J S

    1999-01-01

    Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is a rare and usually fatal syndrome. Clinical manifestations are fever, maculopapular skin rash, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hepatitis and pancytopenia owing to bone marrow hypoplasia. It can occur in recipients with severe immunosuppression and in immunocompetent recipients after transfusion of cellular components from HLA homozygous donor to recipients heterozygous for that HLA haplotype. The diagnosis is made by clinical manifestation and skin biopsy. Antithymocyte globulin and high dose systemic corticosteroids are both the most used therapy. The back of knowledge about this syndrome, the rapid evolution and the absence of treatment response are related to patients bad evolution. Gamma irradiation of blood products has been the mainstay of TA-GVHD prevention. Dose of 2500 cGy is required to completely inactivate T cells. Irradiation damage red cells membrane and the red celis units can not be storage for long time after irradiation. High potassium levels is the mainly change in red cells units. White cell-reduction filters do not prevent TA-GVHD and gamma irradiation does not prevent alloimmunization or blood reactions. Only cellular components like whole blood, red cells, platelets and granulocytes need be irradiated. Ali blood components should be irradiated to: first or second-degree relatives, patients need HLA-matched platelets, recipients of allogeneic or autologous bone marrow transplantation, patients with Hodgkin's disease, patients treated with purine analogue drugs, intrauterine transfusion, pre-term infants and when congenítal immunodeficiency states is suspected. It is recommended irrradiated blood to patients with neoplastic disease when they receive intensive chemotherapy.

  10. Transfusion independence and HMGA2 activation after gene therapy of human β-thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Payen, Emmanuel; Negre, Olivier; Wang, Gary; Hehir, Kathleen; Fusil, Floriane; Down, Julian; Denaro, Maria; Brady, Troy; Westerman, Karen; Cavallesco, Resy; Gillet-Legrand, Beatrix; Caccavelli, Laure; Sgarra, Riccardo; Maouche-Chrétien, Leila; Bernaudin, Françoise; Girot, Robert; Dorazio, Ronald; Mulder, Geert-Jan; Polack, Axel; Bank, Arthur; Soulier, Jean; Larghero, Jérôme; Kabbara, Nabil; Dalle, Bruno; Gourmel, Bernard; Socie, Gérard; Chrétien, Stany; Cartier, Nathalie; Aubourg, Patrick; Fischer, Alain; Cornetta, Kenneth; Galacteros, Frédéric; Beuzard, Yves; Gluckman, Eliane; Bushman, Frederick; Hacein-Bey-Abina, Salima; Leboulch, Philippe

    2010-09-16

    The β-haemoglobinopathies are the most prevalent inherited disorders worldwide. Gene therapy of β-thalassaemia is particularly challenging given the requirement for massive haemoglobin production in a lineage-specific manner and the lack of selective advantage for corrected haematopoietic stem cells. Compound β(E)/β(0)-thalassaemia is the most common form of severe thalassaemia in southeast Asian countries and their diasporas. The β(E)-globin allele bears a point mutation that causes alternative splicing. The abnormally spliced form is non-coding, whereas the correctly spliced messenger RNA expresses a mutated β(E)-globin with partial instability. When this is compounded with a non-functional β(0) allele, a profound decrease in β-globin synthesis results, and approximately half of β(E)/β(0)-thalassaemia patients are transfusion-dependent. The only available curative therapy is allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, although most patients do not have a human-leukocyte-antigen-matched, geno-identical donor, and those who do still risk rejection or graft-versus-host disease. Here we show that, 33 months after lentiviral β-globin gene transfer, an adult patient with severe β(E)/β(0)-thalassaemia dependent on monthly transfusions since early childhood has become transfusion independent for the past 21 months. Blood haemoglobin is maintained between 9 and 10 g dl(-1), of which one-third contains vector-encoded β-globin. Most of the therapeutic benefit results from a dominant, myeloid-biased cell clone, in which the integrated vector causes transcriptional activation of HMGA2 in erythroid cells with further increased expression of a truncated HMGA2 mRNA insensitive to degradation by let-7 microRNAs. The clonal dominance that accompanies therapeutic efficacy may be coincidental and stochastic or result from a hitherto benign cell expansion caused by dysregulation of the HMGA2 gene in stem/progenitor cells.

  11. Gender disparities in red blood cell transfusion in elective surgery: a post hoc multicentre cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gombotz, Hans; Schreier, Günter; Neubauer, Sandra; Kastner, Peter; Hofmann, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives A post hoc gender comparison of transfusion-related modifiable risk factors among patients undergoing elective surgery. Settings 23 Austrian centres randomly selected and stratified by region and level of care. Participants We consecutively enrolled in total 6530 patients (3465 women and 3065 men); 1491 underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, 2570 primary unilateral total hip replacement (THR) and 2469 primary unilateral total knee replacement (TKR). Main outcome measures Primary outcome measures were the number of allogeneic and autologous red blood cell (RBC) units transfused (postoperative day 5 included) and differences in intraoperative and postoperative transfusion rate between men and women. Secondary outcomes included perioperative blood loss in transfused and non-transfused patients, volume of RBCs transfused, perioperative haemoglobin values and circulating red blood volume on postoperative day 5. Results In all surgical groups, the transfusion rate was significantly higher in women than in men (CABG 81 vs 49%, THR 46 vs 24% and TKR 37 vs 23%). In transfused patients, the absolute blood loss was higher among men in all surgical categories while the relative blood loss was higher among women in the CABG group (52.8 vs 47.8%) but comparable in orthopaedic surgery. The relative RBC volume transfused was significantly higher among women in all categories (CABG 40.0 vs 22.3; TKR 25.2 vs 20.2; THR 26.4 vs 20.8%). On postoperative day 5, the relative haemoglobin values and the relative circulating RBC volume were higher in women in all surgical categories. Conclusions The higher transfusion rate and volume in women when compared with men in elective surgery can be explained by clinicians applying the same absolute transfusion thresholds irrespective of a patient's gender. This, together with the common use of a liberal transfusion strategy, leads to further overtransfusion in women. PMID:27965248

  12. [Management of massive transfusion - the role of the blood transfusion service].

    PubMed

    Sone, Shinji; Tsuno, Hirokazu; Okazaki, Hitoshi

    2014-12-01

    Massive transfusion (hemorrhage) is defined as blood transfusion exceeding the circulatory blood volume within 24 hours. Here, we investigated cases of massive transfusion, defined as transfusion of more than 21 units of red blood cells within 24 hours, in our institution in the period from August 2005 to March 2013. Massive transfusion accounted for approximately 1% of all blood transfusions in our institution, and the majority were cardiac surgery cases (75%), with 80% of the cases receiving blood transfusion irtfhe operating theater. Brain-dead heart and liver transplantations were started in our hospital in 2006. Due to the revision of the Organ Transplantation Law in July 2010, brain-dead organ donations increased in Japan. Massive transfusion was required in approximately 47% of heart and 41% of liver transplants, with 44% of the transplants being conducted on holidays, and 47% at night. Therefore, the implementation of a 24-hour duty system for medical technologists, including holidays, is essential for the prompt testing and supply of blood products. For improvement of the safety of blood supply, a computer network system, connecting the blood control system of the blood transfusion service, the anesthetic system of the operating theater, and the hospital general medical system, was implemented in our hospital in March 2007. In the operating theater, anesthetists can request blood products, order new blood products, cross-check the provided blood products, and register their use, using this system. At the blood transfusion service, the blood products to be provided are cross- checked against the anesthetists' requests. Through this system, the anesthetists and blood transfusion service staff can check the list of blood products available for the surgical patient as well as those already transfused, on a real-time basis. For analysis of the improvements achieved, we compared the number of non-used blood units, i.e., the number of those provided minus the

  13. Fresh whole blood transfusion: a controversial military practice.

    PubMed

    Kauvar, David S; Holcomb, John B; Norris, Gary C; Hess, John R

    2006-07-01

    The transfusion of fresh whole blood (FWB) for trauma-induced coagulopathy is unusual in civilian practice. However, US military physicians have used FWB in every combat operation since the practice was introduced in World War I and continue to do so during current military operations. We discuss our review of all blood products administered to US military casualties in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) between March and December 2003. FWB transfusions were most frequent when demands for massive transfusions wiped out existing blood supplies. FWB patients had the highest blood product requirements; however, mortality did not differ significantly between FWB and non-FWB patients overall or for massively transfused patients. We review the current military practice of FWB transfusion in combat theaters and conclude that FWB transfusion is convenient, safe, and effective in certain military situations.

  14. The association between red blood cell and platelet transfusion and subsequently developing idiopathic pneumonia syndrome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Vusse, Lisa K. Vande; Madtes, David K.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Gernsheimer, Terry B.; Curtis, J. Randall; Watkins, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blood transfusions are common during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and may contribute to lung injury. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS This study examined the associations between red blood cell (RBC) and platelet (PLT) transfusions and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) among 914 individuals who underwent myeloablative allogeneic HSCT between 1997 and 2001. Patients received allogeneic blood transfusions at their physicians' discretion. RBCs, PLTs, and a composite of “other” transfusions were quantified as the sum of units received each 7-day period from 6 days before transplant until IPS onset, death, or Posttransplant Day 120. RBC and PLT transfusions were modeled as separate time-varying exposures in proportional hazards models adjusted for IPS risk factors (age, baseline disease, irradiation dose) and other transfusions. Timing of PLT transfusion relative to myeloid engraftment and PLT ABO blood group (match vs. mismatch) were included as potential interaction terms. RESULTS Patients received a median of 9 PLT and 10 RBC units. There were 77 IPS cases (8.4%). Each additional PLT unit transfused in the prior week was associated with 16% higher IPS risk (hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.09–1.23; p < 0.001). Recent RBC and PLT transfusions were each significantly associated with greater risk of IPS when examined without the other; only PLT transfusions retained significance when both exposures were included in the model. The PLT association was not modified by engraftment or ABO mismatch. CONCLUSION PLT transfusions are associated with greater risk of IPS after myeloablative HSCT. RBCs may also contribute; however, these findings need confirmation. PMID:24033082

  15. Comparative Risk of Transfusion and Incremental Total Hospitalization Cost for Primary Unilateral, Bilateral, and Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty Procedures.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Christine I; Vose, Joshua G

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the comparative risk of autologous and allogenic blood transfusion, inhospital complications, and incremental total hospitalization costs for primary unilateral, simultaneous bilateral, and revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) procedures. Using the Premier Perspective database, we identified adults who underwent primary unilateral, simultaneous bilateral, or revision TKA procedures. Logistic regression, controlling for patient and hospital characteristics, was used to determine the risk of autologous or allogeneic blood transfusion. Controlling for the same factors, generalized linear models predicted incremental total hospitalization cost associated with transfusion. Between January 2008 and June 2014, 513,558 primary unilateral, 33,977 bilateral, and 32,494 revision TKA patients met selection criteria. The overall percentage receiving a transfusion was 14.1% for unilateral, 36.3% for bilateral, and 20.0% for revision procedures. Logistic regression showed patients aged >65 years, female gender, Northeastern location, large hospitals, and higher Charlson score to be significantly associated with higher transfusion risk. Although overall risk of transfusion decreased over the study period, patients with Charlson score ≥3 were at 2.27 (primary unilateral), 1.88 (bilateral), and 2.44 (revision) greater odds of transfusion compared with healthy controls (Charlson score = 0). Generalized linear models showed an incremental total hospitalization cost among those receiving a transfusion of $2477, $4235, and $8594, respectively, compared with those without transfusion. Transfusion risk remains a significant burden in select patient populations and procedures. The incremental cost of receiving a transfusion is significant, including not only direct costs but also staff time and increased hospital resource use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving the bacteriological safety of platelet transfusions.

    PubMed

    Blajchman, Morris A; Goldman, Mindy; Baeza, Federico

    2004-01-01

    Despite the increased application of aseptic techniques for blood collection and the preparation of platelet concentrates, morbidity and mortality arising from the transfusion of bacterially contaminated allogeneic platelet products persist. This problem exists because stored platelet concentrates represent a nearly ideal growth medium for bacteria and because they are stored at temperatures (22 degrees +/- 2 degrees C) that facilitate bacterial growth. The presence of bacteria in blood components including platelets has been a problem for many decades and currently is the most common microbiological cause of transfusion-associated morbidity and mortality. A variety of strategies have been devised and/or proposed in an attempt to try to reduce the risk of transfusion-associated sepsis. These include pretransfusion bacterial detection, efforts to reduce the likelihood of bacterial contamination, the optimization of blood product processing and storage, reducing recipient exposure, and the introduction of pathogen inactivation methodology. With regard to doing bacterial detection, a number of automated detection systems have become available to test for contaminated platelet components, but their utility to some extent is restricted by the time they take to indicate the presence of bacteria and/or their lack of sensitivity to detect initially low bacterial loads. A variety of other approaches has been shown to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination and include filtration to remove leukocytes and bacteria, diversion of the initial aliquot of blood during donation, and improved donor skin disinfection. Platelet pathogen inactivation methods under investigation include the addition of L-carnitine, gamma-irradiation, riboflavin plus UVA irradiation, and amotosalen HCl plus UVA irradiation. The latter process is licensed for clinical use with platelets in some countries in Europe. All of these approaches, either collectively or individually, hold considerable promise

  17. Pure Red Cell Aplasia in Major ABO-Mismatched Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Is Associated with Severe Pancytopenia.

    PubMed

    Aung, Fleur M; Lichtiger, Benjamin; Rondon, Gabriela; Yin, C Cameron; Alousi, Amin; Ahmed, Sairah; Andersson, Borje S; Bashir, Qaiser; Ciurea, Stefan O; Hosing, Chitra; Jones, Roy; Kebriaei, Partow; Khouri, Issa; Nieto, Yago; Oran, Betul; Parmar, Simrit; Qazilbash, Muzaffar; Shah, Nina; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Champlin, Richard E; Popat, Uday

    2016-05-01

    In major ABO-mismatched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) persistence of antidonor isohemagglutinins leads to pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). To investigate severe pancytopenia noted in a previous study of PRCA, we analyzed all major ABO-mismatched HSCT between January 2003 and December 2012. Of 83 PRCA patients, 13 (16%) had severe pancytopenia. Severe pancytopenia was defined as an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) < 1.5 K/μL or requiring granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, platelets < 50 K/μL or transfusion dependent, and PRCA with RBC transfusion dependence at post-transplant day 90. In 6 patients (46%) severe pancytopenia resolved after PRCA resolution. Two patients (15%) received a second transplant because of persistent pancytopenia/secondary graft failure, 1 (8%) died from secondary graft failure despite a stem cell boost, 1 (8%) did not recover his platelet counts despite RBC/ANC recovery, and 3 patients (23%) died from disease relapse. We found that severe pancytopenia is frequently associated with PRCA in 16% of major ABO-incompatible HSCT with a higher incidence in males and pancytopenia resolved with resolution of PRCA in 46% of patients.

  18. Association Among Blood Transfusion, Sepsis, and Decreased Long-term Survival After Colon Cancer Resection.

    PubMed

    Aquina, Christopher T; Blumberg, Neil; Becerra, Adan Z; Boscoe, Francis P; Schymura, Maria J; Noyes, Katia; Monson, John R T; Fleming, Fergal J

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the potential additive effects of blood transfusion and sepsis on colon cancer disease-specific survival, cardiovascular disease-specific survival, and overall survival after colon cancer surgery. Perioperative blood transfusions are associated with infectious complications and increased risk of cancer recurrence through systemic inflammatory effects. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested an association among sepsis, subsequent systemic inflammation, and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, no study has investigated the association among transfusion, sepsis, and disease-specific survival in postoperative patients. The New York State Cancer Registry and Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System were queried for stage I to III colon cancer resections from 2004 to 2011. Propensity-adjusted survival analyses assessed the association of perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion, sepsis, and 5-year colon cancer disease-specific survival, cardiovascular disease-specific survival, and overall survival. Among 24,230 patients, 29% received a transfusion and 4% developed sepsis. After risk adjustment, transfusion and sepsis were associated with worse colon cancer disease-specific survival [(+)transfusion: hazard ratio (HR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.30; (+)sepsis: HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.44-2.35; (+)transfusion/(+)sepsis: HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.87-2.76], cardiovascular disease-specific survival [(+)transfusion: HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.33; (+)sepsis: HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.14-2.31; (+)transfusion/(+)sepsis: HR 2.04, 95% CI 1.58-2.63], and overall survival [(+)transfusion: HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.14-1.29; (+)sepsis: HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.48-2.09; (+)transfusion/(+)sepsis: HR 2.36, 95% CI 2.07-2.68] relative to (-)transfusion/(-)sepsis. Additional analyses suggested an additive effect with those who both received a blood transfusion and developed sepsis having even worse survival. Perioperative blood transfusions are associated with shorter survival

  19. Radiofrequency bipolar hemostatic sealer reduces blood loss, transfusion requirements, and cost for patients undergoing multilevel spinal fusion surgery: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Frank, Steven M; Wasey, Jack O; Dwyer, Ian M; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Ness, Paul M; Kebaish, Khaled M

    2014-07-05

    A relatively new method of electrocautery, the radiofrequency bipolar hemostatic sealer (RBHS), uses saline-cooled delivery of energy, which seals blood vessels rather than burning them. We assessed the benefits of RBHS as a blood conservation strategy in adult patients undergoing multilevel spinal fusion surgery. In a retrospective cohort study, we compared blood utilization in 36 patients undergoing multilevel spinal fusion surgery with RBHS (Aquamantys, Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) to that of a historical control group (n = 38) matched for variables related to blood loss. Transfusion-related costs were calculated by two methods. Patient characteristics in the two groups were similar. Intraoperatively, blood loss was 55% less in the RBHS group than in the control group (810 ± 530 vs. 1,800 ± 1,600 mL; p = 0.002), and over the entire hospital stay, red cell utilization was 51% less (2.4 ± 3.4 vs. 4.9 ± 4.5 units/patient; p = 0.01) and plasma use was 56% less (1.1 ± 2.4 vs. 2.5 ± 3.4 units/patient; p = 0.03) in the RBHS group. Platelet use was 0.1 ± 0.5 and 0.3 ± 0.6 units/patient in the RBHS and control groups, respectively (p = 0.07). The perioperative decrease in hemoglobin was less in the RBHS group than in the control group (-2.0 ± 2.2 vs. -3.2 ± 2.1 g/dL; p = 0.04), and hemoglobin at discharge was higher in the RBHS group (10.5 ± 1.4 vs. 9.7 ± 0.9 g/dL; p = 0.01). The estimated transfusion-related cost savings were $745/case by acquisition cost and approximately 3- to 5-fold this amount by activity-based cost. The use of RBHS in patients undergoing multilevel spine fusion surgery can conserve blood, promote higher hemoglobin levels, and reduce transfusion-related costs.

  20. Surgical technique for allogeneic uterus transplantation in macaques

    PubMed Central

    Obara, Hideaki; Kisu, Iori; Kato, Yojiro; Yamada, Yohei; Matsubara, Kentaro; Emoto, Katsura; Adachi, Masataka; Matoba, Yusuke; Umene, Kiyoko; Nogami, Yuya; Banno, Kouji; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Itagaki, Iori; Kawamoto, Ikuo; Nakagawa, Takahiro; Ishigaki, Hirohito; Itoh, Yasushi; Ogasawara, Kazumasa; Saiki, Yoko; Sato, Shin-ichi; Nakagawa, Kenshi; Shiina, Takashi; Aoki, Daisuke; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    No study has reported an animal model of uterus transplantation (UTx) using cynomolgus macaques. We aimed to establish a surgical technique of allogeneic UTx assuming the recovery of a uterus from a deceased donor in cynomolgus macaques. Four allogeneic UTxs were performed in female cynomolgus macaques. Donor surgeries comprised en bloc recovery of organs with iliac vessels on both sides, and/or abdominal aorta/vena cava after sufficient perfusion from one femoral artery or external iliac artery. Before perfusion, 150 mL of whole blood was obtained from the donor for subsequent blood transfusion to the recipient. Four uterine grafts were orthotopically transplanted to recipients. End-to-side anastomosis was performed to the iliac vessels on one side in case 1 and iliac vessels on both sides in case 2; aorto-aorto/cavo-caval anastomosis was performed in cases 3 and 4. Arterial blood flow of the uterine grafts was determined by intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) angiography. ICG angiography results showed sufficient blood flow to all uterine grafts, and anaemia did not progress. Under appropriate immune suppression, all recipients survived for more than 90 days post-transplantation, without any surgical complications. We describe a surgical technique for allogeneic UTx in cynomolgus macaques. PMID:27786258

  1. T-cell subsets in autologous and allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell concentrates.

    PubMed

    Strobel, J; Moellmer, I; Zingsem, J; Hauck-Dlimi, B; Eckstein, R; Strasser, E

    2015-11-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and other T-cell subsets are of importance in the setting of autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantations. We conducted a study to assess the content of peripheral blood stem cell concentrates and related apheresis parameters in the autologous and allogeneic setting. We characterized 53 donors, patients and peripheral blood stem cell concentrates (PBSC) regarding the content of CD45(+) cells, lymphocytes, CD3(+) cells, CD3(+) CD4(+) T cells, CD3(+) CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells, CD3(+) CD4(+) CD25(+) CD127(low/negative) Tregs and CD34(+) cells and calculated cell yields, recruitment factors and collection efficiency for all cell types. We compared allogeneic data with autologous data. Autologous PBSC show significantly lower concentrations of T-cell subsets compared to allogeneic PBSC (17,112/μl CD4(+), 14,858/μl CD4(+) CD25(+) and 1579/μl CD3(+) CD4(+) CD25(+) CD127(low/negative) Tregs in autologous compared to 65,539/μl CD4(+), 44,208(+) /μl CD4(+) CD25(+) and 5040/μl CD3(+) CD4(+) CD25(+) CD127(low/negative) Tregs in allogeneic PBSC, respectively), in contrast to CD34(+) concentrations (5342/μl CD34(+) in autologous compared to 2367/μl CD34(+) in allogeneic PBSC, respectively). Accordantly, all T-cell yields are lower in the autologous setting compared to allogeneic PBSC. However, recruitment factor and collection efficiency of all cell types are higher in autologous compared to allogeneic PBSC, but not all parameters differ significantly when groups are compared. T-cell subsets and especially Tregs are a substantial part of PBSC transplantation, as considerable recruitment during apheresis occurs. In large volume apheresis, the collection efficiency of Treg is comparable to that of CD34(+) cells, while recruitment factors are even higher. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  2. Chimerism in transfusion medicine

    PubMed Central

    Brunker, Patricia AR

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion therapy is complicated by the production of alloantibodies to antigens present in the donor and lacking in the recipient through the poorly-understood but likely multi-factorial process of alloimmunization. The low prevalence of alloimmunization in transfused patients (6.1%)1 suggests that processes central to immunologic tolerance may be operating in the vast majority of transfused patients who do not produce alloantibodies. Using RhD as a prototype, evidence is reviewed that the ability to make antibodies to red blood cell (RBC) antigens may result in part from immunologic tolerance acquired in utero. These ideas are extended to other examples of maternal microchimerism (MMc) of other non-inherited maternal antigens (NIMA). An evolutionary argument is offered that multi-generational immunity supports the hypothesis that MMc may partly explain the “non-responder” phenotype in RBC alloimmunization. PMID:24196285

  3. Transfusion practices for treatment of dogs hospitalized following trauma: 125 cases (2008-2013).

    PubMed

    Lynch, Alex M; O'Toole, Therese E; Respess, Meghan

    2015-09-15

    To describe transfusion practices for treatment of dogs hospitalized because of traumatic injuries. Retrospective case series. 125 client-owned dogs. Medical records of dogs that sustained trauma and were hospitalized for ≥ 24 hours after emergency stabilization were reviewed. Admission characteristics and transfusion-specific data were assessed. Receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted to evaluate diagnostic utility of PCV and serum total solids concentration as predictors of transfusion in the study population. 45 of 125 (36%) dogs received transfusions. Packed RBCs were the most commonly administered blood product (42/45 [93%]). Common reasons for transfusion included perioperative hemodynamic support and treatment of shock or worsening anemia. Dogs that underwent transfusion had higher mean heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and animal trauma triage scores, with lower mean PCV, serum total solids concentration, and rectal temperature at admission than dogs that did not undergo transfusion. Total solids concentration and PCV at admission were specific but insensitive predictors of subsequent transfusion. Most (109/125 [87%]) dogs survived to hospital discharge. Significantly fewer dogs that had transfusions survived, compared with dogs that did not have transfusions. Seven of 10 dogs that received massive transfusions survived to discharge. Apparent clinical triggers for the decision to perform blood transfusion in dogs hospitalized following traumatic injury included evidence of shock or worsening anemia on admission and requirement for perioperative hemodynamic optimization. Although dogs that received transfusions had a lower survival rate than dogs that did not, this was likely attributable to greater severity of injuries in the transfusion group.

  4. [History of blood transfusion].

    PubMed

    Izaguirre Avila, Raúl; de Micheli, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    The idea of transfusing blood of an animal to another or from an animal to a man or from one to another man, is very ancient. When the doctrine of blood circulation was diffused, in the first third of the XVII century, this idea was give fresh impetus. On began also to inject some substance into the blood, wich will permit to introduce medicaments intravenously. It is worthy to be remembered that in the same year when the Harveyan monography De motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus was published (1628), the Paduan professor Giovanni Colle suggested a procedure for blood transfusions. Later (1645) the Tuscan physician Francesco Folli showed another procedure, in the presence of the great duke of Toscana, Ferdinando II de Medici. On his side, the surgeon Giovanni Guglielmo Riva realized blood transfusions from animals to men in 1668. Transfusions were already carried out by Richard Lower in London and by Jean-Baptiste Denis in Paris. During the XVIII century, blood transfusions were not effectuated because of some failure occurred in the formed century and of the proscription by civil and religious authorities. Nevertheless these were renewed during the first third of the XIX century in England as well as in the continental Europe. In Mexico the first blood transfusion was effectuated in 1845 by the physician Matias D. Beistegui. At the time persisted the problem of blood coagulation, which could be resolved during the XX century in North America (Crile, 1906) as well as in Latin America (Luis Agote, 1914). Moreover the blood groups were described in 1900 by the Austrian physician Karl Landsteiner, who identified later the Rh factor. It seems completely justified the inscription shining on the façade of the National Archive in Washington: "The past is only prologue".

  5. What Is a Blood Transfusion?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Blood Transfusion? A blood transfusion is a safe, common ... Very rarely, serious problems develop. Important Information About Blood The heart pumps blood through a network of ...

  6. Alloimmune refractoriness to platelet transfusions.

    PubMed

    Sandler, S G

    1997-11-01

    Patients who are transfused on multiple occasions with red cells or platelets may develop platelet-reactive alloantibodies and experience decreased clinical responsiveness to platelet transfusion. This situation, conventionally described as "refractoriness to platelet transfusions," is defined by an unsatisfactory low post-transfusion platelet count increment. If antibodies to HLAs are detected, improved clinical outcomes may result from transfusions of HLA-matched or donor-recipient cross-matched platelets. Because refractoriness is an expected, frequently occurring phenomenon, prevention of HLA alloimmunization is an important management strategy. Prevention strategies include efforts to decrease the number of transfusions, filtration of cellular components to reduce the number of HLA-bearing leukocytes, or pretransfusion ultraviolet B irradiation of cellular components to decrease their immunogenicity. Other investigational approaches include reducing the expression of HLAs on transfused platelets, inducing a transient reticuloendothelial system blockade by infusions of specialized immunoglobulin products, or transfusing semisynthetic platelet substitutes (thromboerythrocytes, thrombospheres) or modified platelets (infusible platelet membranes, lyophilized platelets).

  7. [Survival after blood transfusion: a study at Rouen university hospital].

    PubMed

    Josset, V; Chamouni, P; Merle, V; Tavolacci, M P; Froment, L; Daubert, H; Ladner, J; Czernichow, P

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate short term survival rate after blood transfusion according to various criteria. Patients admitted and transfused from January, 1 until June, 30 1996 at Rouen university hospital were retrospectively included, and their status (alive or dead) was determined. The characteristics of patients admitted and transfused were compared to the overall population of inpatients. Independent factors associated with mortality six months after blood transfusion were evaluated using Cox model. During the study period, 1887 patients were transfused. These patients were older, more often admitted in surgical or in intensive care units, and had a longer duration of stay, than the overall inpatients population. The survival rate at six months in transfused patients was 76.1%. Mortality rate at six months was independently higher in patients aged 75 and older, in men, in patients admitted in intensive care units, or transfused with homologous fresh-frozen plasma or packed platelet blood cells. Mortality rate was lower in patients who underwent a surgical procedure, in children under 16, and in patients whose stay was classified in "Circulatory system disorders", "Musculoskeletal system and connective tissues disorders or trauma", or "Injuries, allergy or poisoning". In this study implemented in a teaching hospital inpatients receiving blood transfusion, the survival was mainly associated with the severity and characteristics of the diseases requiring transfusion.

  8. Impact of Transfusion on Cancer Growth and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Goubran, Hadi A.; Elemary, Mohamed; Radosevich, Miryana; Seghatchian, Jerard; El-Ekiaby, Magdy; Burnouf, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    For many years, transfusion of allogeneic red blood cells, platelet concentrates, and plasma units has been part of the standard therapeutic arsenal used along the surgical and nonsurgical treatment of patients with malignancies. Although the benefits of these blood products are not a matter of debate in specific pathological conditions associated with life-threatening low blood cell counts or bleeding, increasing clinical evidence is nevertheless suggesting that deliberate transfusion of these blood components may actually lead to negative clinical outcomes by affecting patient’s immune defense, stimulating tumor growth, tethering, and dissemination. Rigorous preclinical and clinical studies are needed to dimension the clinical relevance, benefits, and risks of transfusion of blood components in cancer patients and understand the amplitude of problems. There is also a need to consider validating preparation methods of blood components for so far ignored biological markers, such as microparticles and biological response modifiers. Meanwhile, blood component transfusions should be regarded as a personalized medicine, taking into careful consideration the status and specificities of the patient, rather than as a routine hospital procedure. PMID:27006592

  9. Classifying transfusions related to the anemia of critical illness in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Posluszny, Joseph A; Conrad, Peggie; Halerz, Marcia; Shankar, Ravi; Gamelli, Richard L

    2011-07-01

    Critically ill patients require transfusions because of acute blood loss and the anemia of critical illness. In critically ill burn patients, typically, no distinction is made between transfusions related to acute surgical blood loss and those related to the anemia of critical illness. We sought to identify the percentage of blood transfusions due to the anemia of critical illness and the clinical characteristics associated with these transfusions in severely burned patients. Sixty adult patients with ≥20% total body surface area (TBSA) burn who were transfused at least 1 unit of packed red blood cells during their hospitalization were studied. Clinical variables including age, %TBSA burn, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, number of ventilator days, inhalation injury, and number of operative events were correlated with the total number of packed red blood cell units and percentage of nonsurgical transfusions in these patients. Nonsurgical transfusions were defined as transfusions occurring after postoperative day 1 for each distinct operative event and were classified as being caused by the anemia of critical illness. Patients were transfused an average of 16.6 units ± 21.2 units. Nonsurgical transfusions accounted for 52% of these transfusions. APACHE II score, %TBSA burn, number of ventilator days, and number of operative events, all correlated with total transfusions. However, nonsurgical transfusions correlated with only APACHE II score (p = 0.01) and number of ventilator days (p = 0.03). There was no correlation between nonsurgical transfusions and other clinical variables. The anemia of critical illness is responsible for >50% of all transfusions in severely burned patients. The initial severity of critical illness (APACHE II score) and duration of the critical illness (number of ventilator days) correlated with transfusions related to anemia of critical illness. Further investigation into the specific risk factors for these

  10. Classifying Transfusions Related to the Anemia of Critical Illness in Burn Patients

    PubMed Central

    Posluszny, Joseph A.; Conrad, Peggie; Halerz, Marcia; Shankar, Ravi; Gamelli, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Critically ill patients require transfusions because of acute blood loss and the anemia of critical illness. In critically ill burn patients, typically, no distinction is made between transfusions related to acute surgical blood loss and those related to the anemia of critical illness. We sought to identify the percentage of blood transfusions due to the anemia of critical illness and the clinical characteristics associated with these transfusions in severely burned patients. Methods Sixty adult patients with ≥20% total body surface area (TBSA) burn who were transfused at least 1 unit of packed red blood cells during their hospitalization were studied. Clinical variables including age, %TBSA burn, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, number of ventilator days, inhalation injury, and number of operative events were correlated with the total number of packed red blood cell units and percentage of nonsurgical transfusions in these patients. Nonsurgical transfusions were defined as transfusions occurring after postoperative day 1 for each distinct operative event and were classified as being caused by the anemia of critical illness. Results Patients were transfused an average of 16.6 units ± 21.2 units. Nonsurgical transfusions accounted for 52% of these transfusions. APACHE II score, %TBSA burn, number of ventilator days, and number of operative events, all correlated with total transfusions. However, nonsurgical transfusions correlated with only APACHE II score (p = 0.01) and number of ventilator days (p = 0.03). There was no correlation between nonsurgical transfusions and other clinical variables. Conclusion The anemia of critical illness is responsible for >50% of all transfusions in severely burned patients. The initial severity of critical illness (APACHE II score) and duration of the critical illness (number of ventilator days) correlated with transfusions related to anemia of critical illness. Further investigation

  11. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... two tests will be done before the transfusion: Blood typing. To confirm your child's blood type, a nurse ... blood bank lab, where technicians test it for blood type. Cross-matching. Once typing is complete, a compatible donor blood is chosen. ...

  12. Mortality risk is dose-dependent on the number of packed red blood cell transfused after coronary artery bypass graft

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Antônio Alceu; Sousa, Alexandre Gonçalves; Piotto, Raquel Ferrari; Pedroso, Juan Carlos Montano

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Transfusions of one or more packed red blood cells is a widely strategy used in cardiac surgery, even after several evidences of increased morbidity and mortality. The world's blood shortage is also already evident. Objective To assess whether the risk of mortality is dose-de>pendent on the number of packed red blood cells transfused after coronary artery bypass graft. Methods Between June 2009 and July 2010, were analyzed 3010 patients: transfused and non-transfused. Transfused patients were divided into six groups according to the number of packed red blood cells received: one, two, three, four, five, six or more units, then we assess the mortality risk in each group after a year of coronary artery bypass graft. To calculate the odds ratio was used the multivariate logistic regression model. Results The increasing number of allogeneic packed red blood cells transfused results in an increasing risk of mortality, highlighting a dose-dependent relation. The odds ratio values increase with the increased number of packed red blood cells transfused. The death's gross odds ratio was 1.42 (P=0.165), 1.94 (P=0.005), 4.17; 4.22, 8.70, 33.33 (P<0.001) and the adjusted death's odds ratio was 1.22 (P=0.43), 1.52 (P=0.08); 2.85; 2.86; 4.91 and 17.61 (P<0.001), as they received one, two, three, four, five, six or more packed red blood cells, respectively. Conclusion The mortality risk is directly proportional to the number of packed red blood cells transfused in coronary artery bypass graft. The greater the amount of allogeneic blood transfused the greater the risk of mortality. The current transfusion practice needs to be reevaluated. PMID:24598957

  13. Serial haematology results in transfused and non-transfused dogs naturally infected with Babesia rossi.

    PubMed

    Scheepers, E; Leisewitz, A L; Thompson, P N; Christopher, M M

    2011-09-01

    This prospective longitudinal study investigated the progression of haematological changes in 32 transfused and 54 non-transfused dogs naturally infected with Babesia rossi over the 1st 6 days following diagnosis and treatment. The effect of patient age on the results of complete blood counts was determined. Haematology data were analysed at presentation and at 24 hours, 3 days and 6 days after presentation. Dogs were treated with diminazene aceturate at diagnosis and a blood transfusion was given if deemed clinically required. Mildly to moderately regenerative normocytic normochromic anaemia was observed in all dogs throughout the study period. Transfused dogs more often had an inflammatory leukogram at presentation and at 24 hours, than dogs that were not transfused. In dogs with a left shift, a concurrent normal or decreased segmented neutrophil count was found more commonly than neutrophilia. Severe thrombocytopenia that resolved within a week was common. Blood transfusion alleviated the anaemia, but had no significant effect on white blood cell or platelet responses. Blood cell responses were not significantly influenced by age. In conclusion, the red blood cell and white blood cell responses were less than expected in dogs with babesiosis, given the degree of anaemia and inflammation present. The magnitude of thrombocytopenia and rapid return of the platelet count to normal suggested a possible immune-mediated mechanism for the thrombocytopenia.

  14. Acquired haemophilia A as a blood transfusion emergency

    PubMed Central

    Tagariello, Giuseppe; Sartori, Roberto; Radossi, Paolo; Risato, Renzo; Roveroni, Giovanni; Tassinari, Cristina; Giuffrida, Annachiara; Gandini, Giorgio; Franchini, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acquired haemophilia is a rare autoimmune disorder caused by autoantibodies directed in the majority of the cases against clotting factor VIII. This disorder is characterised by the sudden onset of bleeding that not rarely may be life-threatening and need transfusion support. Most reports on this condition describe the need for blood transfusions during the acute, haemorrhagic phase, but the number of transfused red cell units is often unknown. Patients and methods In the last 5 years, 14 patients with acquired haemophilia A were identified in the transfusion and haemophilia centres of Verona and Castelfranco Veneto. The transfusion support for these 14 patients was analyzed in this retrospective survey. Results The 14 patients required a total of 183 red cell units. The average transfusion requirement was 13 red cells units/patient, with a range from 0 to 38 units. Conclusions Eleven of the 14 patients studied needed strong transfusion support to enable any further management of the haemorrhages, as well as for eradication treatment of the autoantibodies to factor VIII. A relevant part of the management of haemorrhagic symptoms as well as the first choice for any further treatment (bleeding or the cure of the underlying disease) is transfusion of red blood cells. PMID:18661918

  15. Transfusion problems associated with transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Storb, R.; Weiden, P.L.

    1981-04-01

    Researchers have reviewed the role of blood transfusions in renal and marrow graft recipients. Striking contrasts are evident: while transfusions may promote successful kidney grafting, any transfusions before initiation of the transplant conditioning regimen may jeopardize the treatment of severe aplastic anemia by marrow transplantation. Researchers have suggested guidelines for the transfusion support of transplant candidates before transplantation and for marrow graft recipients after transplantation. It is important to recognize that after conditioning for marrow transplantation, all patients will be profoundly pancytopenic for a limited period of time, and intensive transfusion support is vital to patient survival.

  16. Adverse Effects of Plasma Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Suchitra; Vyas, Girish N.

    2012-01-01

    Plasma utilization has increased over the last two decades, and there is a growing concern that many plasma transfusions are inappropriate. Plasma transfusion is not without risk, and certain complications are more likely with plasma than other blood components. Clinical and laboratory investigations of the patients suffering reactions following infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) define the etiology and pathogenesis of the panoply of adverse effects. We review here the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of the risks associated with plasma transfusion. Risks commonly associated with FFP include: (1) transfusion related acute lung injury; (2) transfusion associated circulatory overload, and (3) allergic/anaphylactic reactions. Other less common risks include (1) transmission of infections, (2) febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions, (3) RBC allo-immunization, and (4) hemolytic transfusion reactions. The affect of pathogen inactivation/reduction methods on these risks are also discussed. Fortunately, a majority of the adverse effects are not lethal and are adequately treated in clinical practice. PMID:22578374

  17. Critical Role of Sensitized Serum in Rejection of Allogeneic Bone Marrow Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lu-Hong; Fang, Jian-Pei; Weng, Wen-Jun; Xu, Hong-Gui

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Humoral immunity has been clearly implicated in solid organ transplantation, but little is known about the relationship between humoral immunity and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This study was designed to investigate that relationship. Materials and Methods: Sensitized serum was obtained from a sensitized murine model established by allogeneic splenocyte transfusion. Sensitized serum was incubated with allogeneic bone marrow cells (BMCs) in vitro and the cytotoxicity was evaluated by the complement-dependent cytotoxicity method. Mice were transplanted with allogeneic BMCs incubated with sensitized serum after lethal irradiation. The engraftment was assayed by hematopoietic recovery and chimera analysis. Moreover, mice received passive transfer of sensitized serum 1 day prior to transplantation. Mortality was scored daily after bone marrow transplantation. Results: The in vitro experiments showed that sensitized serum was capable of impairing allogeneic BMCs through the complement-dependent cytotoxicity pathway. The animal studies showed that BMCs incubated with sensitized serum failed to rescue mice from lethal irradiation. The engraftment assay showed that the allogeneic BMCs incubated with sensitized serum were rejected with time in the recipients. Furthermore, the mice died of marrow graft rejection by transfer of sensitized serum prior to transplantation. Conclusion: Taken together, our results indicated that sensitized serum played a critical role in graft rejection during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:25330519

  18. Risk of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis C virus in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Imarengiaye, C O; Enosolease, M E; Iribhogbe, P E; Ehigiegba, A E

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate the risk of probable iatrogenic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection following transfusion of donor blood that has not been screened for HCV. Prospective study. Screening for human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus is routine in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. HCV screening was performed on transfused bags of donor blood selected at random. The detection of anti-HCV was based on the principle of double antigen sandwich immunoassay, in which purified recombinant antigens are employed sufficiently to identify anti-HCV. The outcomes of interest included the proportion of HCV-positive units of transfused donor blood, the source of blood and the total number of units of blood processed in the hospital blood bank. A total of 4532 units of donor blood were procured in the blood bank. Of these, 4132 units were certified as fit for transfusion following the hospital protocols. The sources of the transfused blood samples were commercial blood donors [89.2% (n = 3687)] and targeted donation [10.8% (n = 445)]. One hundred and ninety-two transfused blood samples were randomly screened for HCV, and 3% (n = 6) were found to be positive (95% confidence intervals 0.007-0.06). The likely risk of iatrogenic transfusion-related HCV infection was estimated to be 129 cases/year at the present rate of utilization of donor blood at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. There is a risk of iatrogenic transfusion-transmitted HCV in the study hospital. Hospitals in Nigeria should screen for HCV prior to allogeneic transfusion, which may help in avoiding transfusion-related HCV and its probable long-term effects.

  19. The prevention of transfusion-associated circulatory overload.

    PubMed

    Alam, Asim; Lin, Yulia; Lima, Ana; Hansen, Mark; Callum, Jeannie L

    2013-04-01

    Transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) is an important and potentially injurious complication of transfusion that is underappreciated by clinicians. Risk factors for TACO include being at an extreme of age, having preexisting cardiac and/or (potentially) renal dysfunction, acute myocardial infarction, and individuals receiving plasma. Keys to preventing TACO, aside from identifying high-risk individuals, should be multifaceted. We advocate for the widespread use of pretransfusion checklists and implementation of nonemergent transfusion protocols. We suggest the regular use of pretransfusion diuretics in high-risk individuals. When a transfusion is required, we believe that "critical" nursing supervision and leadership are instrumental in the coordination of slow transfusion rates on computerized infusion pumps and ensuring patients are appropriately monitored. We believe that using these methodologies on a global scale will prevent many TACO events and minimize the severity when it does occur.

  20. Allogeneic transplantation for Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Peggs, Karl S; Anderlini, Paolo; Sureda, Anna

    2008-11-01

    The majority of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) can now expect to be cured with conventional chemo- and/or radio-therapy. However, a subgroup still exists that have poor outcomes, even following dose escalation and autologous stem cell transplantation. Furthermore, patients relapsing after autografting have limited therapeutic options available. Whilst the application of allogeneic transplantation strategies has historically been limited by prohibitive transplant-related mortality, the exploration of reduced intensity approaches has demonstrated the feasibility of delivering allogeneic immunotherapies with more acceptable mortality rates. Although its role remains controversial, we are beginning to re-evaluate the use of allogeneic transplantation in the management of patients with HL and to address a number of critical questions. These include whether a clinically relevant graft-versus-tumour response occurs in HL, and whether subgroups of patients who might benefit from allogeneic approaches can be identified in order to inform development of rational clinical studies. This review focuses on evaluating recent experience with reduced intensity allogeneic approaches in HL in order to inform opinion on its current role and to highlight areas for future investigation.

  1. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Vikram; Srivastava, Alok; Chandy, Mammen

    2014-12-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplant remains the only curative option for β-thalassemia major. In patients with good risk features it is reasonable to anticipate a greater than 90% chance of a successful transplant outcome. The conventional risk stratification system has limitations and alternative systems are being explored to better identify subsets that require innovative approaches. Several novel regimens have been evaluated to reduce treatment-related morbidity and mortality. There remain challenges in improving the clinical outcome of high-risk patients. There are limited data on the role of splenectomy before transplantation or optimal posttransplant chelation and care of these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Blood transfusion in trauma patients: unresolved questions.

    PubMed

    Cushing, M; Shaz, B H

    2011-03-01

    Massive transfusion is an essential part of resuscitation efforts in acute trauma patients. The goal is to quickly correct trauma-induced coagulopathy and replace red blood cell (RBC) mass with the minimal number as well as the appropriate choice of blood components to minimize the possible adverse effects of transfusions. Early trauma induced coagulopathy (ETIC) is present in about 20% of patients upon hospital admission and predicts for decreased survival. The mechanism of ETIC is still being elucidated; however, most theories of ETIC's pathophysiology justify the early use of plasma. Most massive transfusion protocol (MTP) ratios deliver blood products in a ratio of 1:1:1 for RBCs:plasma:platelets, which is supported by the majority of the literature demonstrating improved patient survival with higher ratios (>1 plasma and platelet for every 2 RBCs transfused). Indeed, formula-driven MTPs allow trauma services to react quickly to ETIC and provide coagulation factors and platelets in these ratios without having to wait for the results of coagulation assays while the patient's coagulopathy worsens. New MTPs are being created which are adjusted according to an individual's coagulation laboratory values based on point-of-care laboratory tests, such as thromboelastography. When creating an MTP, product wastage due to inappropriate activation and improper product storage should be considered and closely monitored. Another area of discussion regarding transfusion in trauma includes the potential association of prolonged storage of RBCs and adverse outcomes, which has yet to be confirmed. Significant progress has been made in the transfusion management of trauma patients, but further studies are required to optimize patient care and outcomes.

  3. Redefining massive transfusion when every second counts.

    PubMed

    Savage, Stephanie A; Zarzaur, Ben L; Croce, Martin A; Fabian, Timothy C

    2013-02-01

    The massive transfusion (MT) concept (>10-U packed red blood cells per 24 hours) is retrospective, arbitrary, and prone to survivor bias. Accounting for rate and timing is a more accurate conceptual framework. We redefined MT as a critical administration threshold (CAT) of 3 U/h, which is clinically pertinent and reflects hemorrhagic shock. The purpose of this study was to compare the traditional form of MT to a CAT definition in predicting mortality. Patients receiving transfusion in the first 24 hours were included. Precise transfusion times for each unit, in minutes, were calculated from time of injury. MT and CAT were compared to determine risk of death. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine inpatient mortality. A total of 169 patients(70%, >10 New Injury Severity Score [NISS]) were studied; 46% were CAT+; 22% met the MT criteria. With logistic regression, a CAT of 3 U/h (CAT+) was more predictive of death compared with 2, 4, 5, or 6 U/h. CAT was met once (CAT 1), twice (CAT 2) or more than 3 times (CAT 3) in 21%, 14%, and 11%, respectively. Increasing CAT was associated with increased mortality. CAT identified 75% of all deaths; MT only identified 33% and failed to identify 42% of CAT+ deaths. CAT (relative risk [RR] 3.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.80-7.15) had a stronger association with mortality compared with MT(RR, 1.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-3.26). The traditional definition of MT is inadequate to reflect illness severity. Using CATs allows prospective identification of critically ill trauma patients and eliminates survivor bias. CAT may serve as an activation trigger for transfusion protocols, allowing early identification of patients with critical transfusion requirements. Clinical trials involving transfusion strategies should consider CAT as an instrument for evaluating outcomes. Diagnostic/prognostic study, level II.

  4. Iron and transfusion medicine.

    PubMed

    Waldvogel-Abramovski, Sophie; Waeber, Gérard; Gassner, Christoph; Buser, Andreas; Frey, Beat M; Favrat, Bernard; Tissot, Jean-Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Blood bankers have focused their energy to secure blood transfusion, and only recently have studies been published on the effect of blood donation on iron metabolism. In many facilities, hemoglobin measurement is only performed just before or even during blood donation, but the determination of iron stores is largely ignored. The 2013 paradox of transfusion medicine is due to the fact that blood donation may be harmful and leads to iron deficiency with or without anemia, but for other individuals, it may be a healthy measure preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this review is to discuss iron metabolism in the perspective of blood donation, notably regarding their possible genetic profiles that eventually will discriminate "good" iron absorbers from "bad" iron responders. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  5. Risk Factors and Clinical Outcomes Associated with Perioperative Transfusion-associated Circulatory Overload.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Leanne; Jia, Qing; Subramanian, Arun; Yadav, Hemang; Schroeder, Darrell R; Kor, Daryl J

    2017-03-01

    Transfusion-associated circulatory overload remains underappreciated in the perioperative environment. The authors aimed to characterize risk factors for perioperative transfusion-associated circulatory overload and better understand its impact on patient-important outcomes. In this case-control study, 163 adults undergoing noncardiac surgery who developed perioperative transfusion-associated circulatory overload were matched with 726 transfused controls who did not develop respiratory complications. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate potential risk factors for transfusion-associated circulatory overload. The need for postoperative mechanical ventilation, lengths of intensive care unit and hospital stay, and mortality were compared. For this cohort, the mean age was 71 yr and 56% were men. Multivariable analysis revealed the following independent predictors of transfusion-associated circulatory overload: emergency surgery, chronic kidney disease, left ventricular dysfunction, previous β-adrenergic receptor antagonist use, isolated fresh frozen plasma transfusion (vs. isolated erythrocyte transfusion), mixed product transfusion (vs. isolated erythrocyte transfusion), and increasing intraoperative fluid administration. Patients who developed transfusion-associated circulatory overload were more likely to require postoperative mechanical ventilation (73 vs. 33%; P < 0.001) and experienced prolonged intensive care unit (11.1 vs. 6.5 days; P < 0.001) and hospital lengths of stay (19.9 vs. 9.6 days; P < 0.001). Survival was significantly reduced (P < 0.001) in transfusion recipients who developed transfusion-associated circulatory overload (1-yr survival 72 vs. 84%). Perioperative transfusion-associated circulatory overload was associated with a protracted hospital course and increased mortality. Efforts to minimize the incidence of transfusion-associated circulatory overload should focus on the judicious use of

  6. Providing a Placental Transfusion in Newborns Who Need Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Katheria, Anup C.; Brown, Melissa K.; Rich, Wade; Arnell, Kathy

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, there have been several studies and reviews on the importance of providing a placental transfusion to the newborn. Allowing a placental transfusion to occur by delaying the clamping of the umbilical cord is an extremely effective method of enhancing arterial oxygen content, increasing cardiac output, and improving oxygen delivery. However, premature and term newborns who require resuscitation have impaired transitional hemodynamics and may warrant different methods to actively provide a placental transfusion while still allowing for resuscitation. In this review, we will provide evidence for providing a placental transfusion in these circumstances and methods for implementation. Several factors including cord clamping time, uterine contractions, umbilical blood flow, respirations, and gravity play an important role in determining placental transfusion volumes. Finally, while many practitioners agree that a placental transfusion is beneficial, it is not always straightforward to implement and can be performed using different methods, making this basic procedure important to discuss. We will review three placental transfusion techniques: delayed cord clamping, intact umbilical cord milking, and cut-umbilical cord milking. We will also review resuscitation with an intact cord and the evidence in term and preterm newborns supporting this practice. We will discuss perceived risks versus benefits of these procedures. Finally, we will provide key straightforward concepts and implementation strategies to ensure that placental-to-newborn transfusion can become routine practice at any institution. PMID:28180126

  7. New technology for transfusion safety.

    PubMed

    Dzik, Walter H

    2007-01-01

    Hemovigilance programs from around the world document that the greatest risk to recipients of blood transfusion is human error, resulting in transfusion of the incorrect blood component. Errors in transfusion care have strong parallels with errors in medication administration. Errors often result from 'lapse' or 'slip' mistakes in which details of patient identification are overlooked. Three areas of transfusion are focal points for improved care: the labelling of the patient's pre-transfusion sample, the decision to transfuse and the final bedside check designed to prevent mis-transfusion. Both barcodes and radio-frequency identification technology, each ideally suited to matching alpha-numeric identifiers, are being implemented in order to improve performance sample labelling and the bedside check. The decision to transfuse should ultimately be enhanced through the use of nanotechnology sensors, computerised order entry and decision support systems. Obstacles to the deployment of new technology include resistance to change, confusion regarding the best technology, and uncertainty regarding the return-on-investment. By focusing on overall transfusion safety, deploying validated systems appropriate for both medication and blood administration, thoughtful integration of technology into bedside practice and demonstration of improved performance, the application of new technologies will improve care for patients in need of transfusion therapy.

  8. Nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Storb, Rainer; Sandmaier, Brenda M.

    2016-01-01

    Most hematological malignancies occur in older patients. Until recently these patients and those with comorbidities were not candidates for treatment with allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation because they were unable to tolerate the heretofore used high-dose conditioning regimens. The finding that many of the cures achieved with allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation were due to graft-versus-tumor effects led to the development of less toxic and well-tolerated reduced intensity and nonmyeloablative regimens. These regimens enabled allogeneic engraftment, thereby setting the stage for graft-versus-tumor effects. This review summarizes the encouraging early results seen with the new regimens and discusses the two hurdles that need to be overcome for achieving even greater success, disease relapse and graft-versus-host disease. PMID:27132278

  9. Transfusion management using a remote-controlled, automated blood storage

    PubMed Central

    Pagliaro, Pasqualepaolo; Turdo, Rosalia

    2008-01-01

    Background Generally, the safety of transfusion terapies for patients depends in part on the distribution of the blood products. The prevention of adverse events can be aided by technological means, which, besides improving the traceability of the process, make errors less likely. In this context, the latest frontier in automation and computerisation is the remote-controlled, automated refrigerator for blood storage. Materials and methods Computer cross-matching is an efficient and safe method for assigning blood components, based on Information Technology applied to typing and screening. This method can be extended to the management of an automated blood refrigerator, the programme of which is interfaced with the Transfusion Service’s information system. The connection we made in our Service between EmoNet® and Hemosafe® enables real-time, remote-controlled management of the following aspects of blood component distribution: a) release of autologous and allogeneic units already allocated to a patient, b) release of available units, which can be allocated by remote-control to known patients, in the presence of a valid computer cross-match, c) release of O-negative units of blood for emergencies. Results Our system combines an information database, which enables computer cross-matching, with an automated refrigerator for blood storage with controlled access managed remotely by the Transfusion Service. The effectiveness and safety of the system were validated during the 4 months of its routine use in the Transfusion Service’s outpatient department. Conclusions The safety and efficiency of the distribution of blood products can and must be increased by the use of technological innovations. With the EmoNet®/Hemosafe® system, the responsibility for the remote-controlled distribution of red blood cell concentrates remains with the chief of the Transfusion Services, through the use of automated computer procedures and supported by continuous training of

  10. Transfusion management using a remote-controlled, automated blood storage.

    PubMed

    Pagliaro, Pasqualepaolo; Turdo, Rosalia

    2008-04-01

    Generally, the safety of transfusion terapies for patients depends in part on the distribution of the blood products. The prevention of adverse events can be aided by technological means, which, besides improving the traceability of the process, make errors less likely. In this context, the latest frontier in automation and computerisation is the remote-controlled, automated refrigerator for blood storage. Computer cross-matching is an efficient and safe method for assigning blood components, based on Information Technology applied to typing and screening. This method can be extended to the management of an automated blood refrigerator, the programme of which is interfaced with the Transfusion Service's information system. The connection we made in our Service between EmoNet and Hemosafe enables real-time, remote-controlled management of the following aspects of blood component distribution: a) release of autologous and allogeneic units already allocated to a patient, b) release of available units, which can be allocated by remote-control to known patients, in the presence of a valid computer cross-match, c) release of O-negative units of blood for emergencies. Our system combines an information database, which enables computer cross-matching, with an automated refrigerator for blood storage with controlled access managed remotely by the Transfusion Service. The effectiveness and safety of the system were validated during the 4 months of its routine use in the Transfusion Service's outpatient department. The safety and efficiency of the distribution of blood products can and must be increased by the use of technological innovations. With the EmoNet/Hemosafe system, the responsibility for the remote-controlled distribution of red blood cell concentrates remains with the chief of the Transfusion Services, through the use of automated computer procedures and supported by continuous training of technicians and nursing staff.

  11. Red blood cell transfusion practices in very low birth weight infants in 1990s postsurfactant era.

    PubMed Central

    Beeram, M. R.; Krauss, D. R.; Riggs, M. W.

    2001-01-01

    The purposes of this study are (1) to evaluate the practice of red blood cell transfusions in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (between 501 to 1500 g) during the postsurfactant era of the 1990s; and (2) to evaluate if there is a decreasing trend in red cell transfusions in the 1990s. Database and medical records of VLBW infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) between January 1990 and December 1995 at Scott & White Clinic, Temple, Texas, were reviewed. Five hundred twenty-seven infants were admitted to the NICU, excluding 5 infants that were transferred out for possible cardiac surgery or for other reasons. Fifty one (9.7%) of these infants died prior to discharge. Hence, data from 476 survivors were reviewed for red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Transfusions were given at the discretion of the attending neonatologist. None of the infants received erythropoietin. Of the 476 infants, 289 (61%) received RBC transfusions during the hospital stay, with 2.7+/-3.6 transfusions per infant with a volume of 40.5+/-50.4 mL/kg. Smaller infants required significantly more transfusions compared to larger infants when divided into 250-g subgroups. No statistically significant difference was noted in the number of RBC transfusions per infant or number of infants transfused during the 6-year period from year to year. We conclude that VLBW infants in the 1990s postsurfactant era required 2.7 RBC transfusions per infant, on average, with the smallest infants requiring the most transfusions. These data will be helpful to counsel mothers in preterm labor regarding the need of transfusions for each birth weight category. Red cell transfusion practice has not changed over this 6-year period in the 1990s. Additional measures such as erythropoietin or even stricter transfusion criteria may be necessary to decrease transfusions further. However, safety of such measures should be carefully evaluated. PMID:11688921

  12. Risk factors for intraoperative massive transfusion in pediatric liver transplantation: a multivariate analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Seok-Joon; Kim, Sun-Key; Choi, Seong-Soo; Kang, Keum Nae; Rhyu, Chang Joon; Hwang, Shin; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Namgoong, Jung-Man; Kim, Young-Kug

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pediatric liver transplantation (LT) is strongly associated with increased intraoperative blood transfusion requirement and postoperative morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we aimed to assess the risk factors associated with massive transfusion in pediatric LT, and examined the effect of massive transfusion on the postoperative outcomes. Methods: We enrolled pediatric patients who underwent LT between December 1994 and June 2015. Massive transfusion was defined as the administration of red blood cells ≥100% of the total blood volume during LT. The cases of pediatric LT were assigned to the massive transfusion or no-massive transfusion (administration of red blood cells <100% of the total blood volume during LT) group. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the risk factors associated with massive transfusion in pediatric LT. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, with the log rank test, was used to compare graft and patient survival within 6 months after pediatric LT between the 2 groups. Results: The total number of LT was 112 (45.0%) and 137 (55.0%) in the no-massive transfusion and massive transfusion groups, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that high white blood cell (WBC) count, low platelet count, and cadaveric donors were significant predictive factors of massive transfusion during pediatric LT. The graft failure rate within 6 months in the massive transfusion group tended to be higher than that in the no-massive transfusion group (6.6% vs. 1.8%, P = 0.068). However, the patient mortality rate within 6 months did not differ significantly between the massive transfusion and no-massive transfusion groups (7.3% vs. 7.1%, P = 0.964). Conclusion: Massive transfusion during pediatric LT is significantly associated with a high WBC count, low platelet count, and cadaveric donor. This finding can provide a better understanding of perioperative blood transfusion management

  13. Risk factors for intraoperative massive transfusion in pediatric liver transplantation: a multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Seok-Joon; Kim, Sun-Key; Choi, Seong-Soo; Kang, Keum Nae; Rhyu, Chang Joon; Hwang, Shin; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Namgoong, Jung-Man; Kim, Young-Kug

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pediatric liver transplantation (LT) is strongly associated with increased intraoperative blood transfusion requirement and postoperative morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we aimed to assess the risk factors associated with massive transfusion in pediatric LT, and examined the effect of massive transfusion on the postoperative outcomes. Methods: We enrolled pediatric patients who underwent LT between December 1994 and June 2015. Massive transfusion was defined as the administration of red blood cells ≥100% of the total blood volume during LT. The cases of pediatric LT were assigned to the massive transfusion or no-massive transfusion (administration of red blood cells <100% of the total blood volume during LT) group. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the risk factors associated with massive transfusion in pediatric LT. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, with the log rank test, was used to compare graft and patient survival within 6 months after pediatric LT between the 2 groups. Results: The total number of LT was 112 (45.0%) and 137 (55.0%) in the no-massive transfusion and massive transfusion groups, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that high white blood cell (WBC) count, low platelet count, and cadaveric donors were significant predictive factors of massive transfusion during pediatric LT. The graft failure rate within 6 months in the massive transfusion group tended to be higher than that in the no-massive transfusion group (6.6% vs. 1.8%, P = 0.068). However, the patient mortality rate within 6 months did not differ significantly between the massive transfusion and no-massive transfusion groups (7.3% vs. 7.1%, P = 0.964). Conclusion: Massive transfusion during pediatric LT is significantly associated with a high WBC count, low platelet count, and cadaveric donor. This finding can provide a better understanding of perioperative blood transfusion management

  14. Cost of transfusion-dependent myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) from a German payer's perspective.

    PubMed

    Kühne, Felicitas; Mittendorf, Thomas; Germing, Ulrich; Tesch, Hans; Weinberg, Reiner; Grabenhorst, Ulrich; Mohr, Andreas; Lipp, Rainer; von der Schulenburg, Johann Matthias

    2010-12-01

    No curative treatment exists for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) besides allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Hence, palliative treatment is provided for a life time accruing high health care cost. As no study in cost of MDS exists in Germany, the objective of this study was to assess and analyze costs of transfusion-dependent low/intermediate-1-risk MDS in Germany from a payers' perspective. From seven centers, 116 low/intermediate-1-risk transfusion-dependent MDS patients with and without isolated 5q-deletion were identified. Claims data and patient records of the previous 5 years were used to collect health care utilization data retrospectively. Publicly available tariff books and remuneration schemes were applied to evaluate mean costs per year in Euro with 2007 as base year. The annual cost of MDS patients was estimated at 14,883. Subgroup analyses showed differences in patient's characteristics and outcomes among patients treated at a hospital-based vs. an office-based setting. Patients treated at the hospital-based registry show higher cost, whereas the reasons for that still need to be detected. Overall, per annum direct costs range from 12,543 (SD 12,967) to 24,957 (SD 36,399) in different subgroups of patients. In both groups, patients with 5q-deletion use more medication than those without deletion. Mean costs for medication in the office-based setting are 5,902 for patients with isolated 5q-deletion vs. 3,932 for patients with no deletion, respectively. MDS leads to a high health care utilization and resulting costs for the health care system which requires a detailed analysis of underlying services.

  15. Transfusion under triple threat: Lessons from Japan's 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear crisis.

    PubMed

    Nollet, Kenneth E; Komazawa, Tomoko; Ohto, Hitoshi

    2016-10-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 provoked tsunami waves with inland penetration up to 5 km and run-up heights to 40 m. More than 400 km(2) were flooded, mainly along the northeast coast of Japan's largest island, Honshu. Nearly 20,000 human lives were abruptly taken by this natural disaster. Four coastal nuclear facilities went into automatic shutdown; at one, Fukushima Daiichi, cooling system failures resulted in the meltdown of three reactor cores, accompanied by explosive release of radioisotopes. Essentials of modern blood banking and transfusion medicine were lost: roads, vehicles, blood collection venues, and facilities for blood testing and processing. Normal channels of communication were interrupted, not only by physical damage but also due to circuit overload as mobile phone users sought information and tried to exchange messages about their own and others' health, welfare, and whereabouts. The Japanese Red Cross, as a monopoly supplier of allogeneic blood, responded with a nationally coordinated effort that met the transfusion demands of a disaster characterized by immediate mass fatality rather than mass injury. Japan's routine transfusion demands are also met by hospital-based autologous blood programs, which could be pressed into service for emergency allogeneic collections. Herein we report institutional and personal experience in anticipation of future disasters, in which transfusion needs might differ from routine demand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation and pretransplant blood transfusion on pancreatic islet allograft survival

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez-Picon, G.; McGeorge, M.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has been shown to have a strong immunosuppressive effect both experimentally and clinically. Pretransplant blood transfusions have also been shown to have a strong beneficial effect in the outcome of organ transplantation. A study was made of the effect of TLI and pretransplant blood transfusions, alone and in combination, as an immunosuppressive modality in the isolated pancreatic islet transplant in the rat model. Donor rats (Fischer RT1v1) were kept on a 50% DL-ethionine supplemented diet for 4-6 weeks prior to pancreas removal. Recipient rats (Lewis RT1) were made diabetics prior to transplantation by iv injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg). Transfusion protocol consisted of a biweekly transfusion of 2 ml of either donor specific or third party transfusions. Total lymphoid irradiation was carried out by daily administration of 200 rads during one week prior to transplantation. Transplantation of the isolated islets was performed by intraportal injection. Syngeneic transplant of one and a half donor pancreata in each recipient reverted the diabetic condition indefinitely (greater than 100 days). Untreated allogenic grafts had a mean survival time (MST) of 5.2 days. Total lymphoid irradiation in dosages of 800, 1000, and 1200 rads, as the only immunosuppressive regimen, prolonged the MST of allografts to 15.3, 16.5, and 21.8 days, respectively (P less than .05). Pretransplant third party blood transfusion had no effect on allograft survival (MST 6.0). When donor specific blood transfusions were given, the MST was prolonged to 25.3 days (P less than .05). When TLI was administered to recipients of donor specific transfusions, the MST of the allografts did not show any statistical significant difference when compared with untreated animals. This abrogation of the beneficial effect of specific blood transfusion was observed in all dosages of TLI employed: 800 rad (MST 3.0), 1000 rad (MST 8.0), 1200 rad (MST 5.18).

  17. Reactions Induced by Platelet Transfusions

    PubMed Central

    Kiefel, Volker

    2008-01-01

    Summary Platelet transfusions play a central role in therapeutic regimens for patients with hematologic/oncologic diseases who develop severe thrombocytopenia either in the course of their disease or following cytostatic therapy. Like other blood components, platelet transfusions have achieved a high degree of safety as far as transmission of viral diseases is concerned. However, transfusion of platelet concentrates is accompanied by a high frequency of febrile and anaphylactoid reactions. In rare cases, recipients of platelet concentrates are threatened by severe reactions as septic complications due to bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates, transfusion-related acute lung injury and severe anaphylactic episodes. PMID:21512624

  18. Transfusion--whence and why.

    PubMed

    Freedman, John

    2014-02-01

    The past is prologue. Reviewing the history of transfusion tells us how far we have come, but also where we need to go. The past has been filled with innovation and important discoveries, but is also fraught with stumbling blocks and unintended side effects. Although much has been achieved and transfusion is safer today than ever, nonetheless we are recognizing new potential concerns with transfusion and we are undergoing a paradigm shift in our attitudes, approach and patient management in regard to blood transfusion.

  19. Qualitative research in transfusion medicine.

    PubMed

    Arnold, E; Lane, S

    2011-10-01

    Transfusion medicine research has traditionally employed quantitative methods to answer clinical research questions. Increasingly, qualitative research methods are being used in the field to address a wide variety of research questions in areas such as blood donation, transfusion practices and policy development. This article describes the key characteristics, methodologies and methods of qualitative research and draws on examples to show how qualitative research approaches have been applied in the field of transfusion medicine. It is hoped that this overview will inform and encourage the application of qualitative research in the field of transfusion medicine.

  20. Blood transfusion for caesarean delivery complicated by placenta praevia.

    PubMed

    Boyle, R K; Waters, B A; O'Rourke, P K

    2009-12-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if the need for red cell blood transfusion in placenta praevia could be predicted. Data from a retrospective observational study of 246 obstetric patients, with placenta praevia, from 1999 to 2005 were analysed to generate a model to predict requirement for transfusion. Seventy-one patients were transfused. Independent risk factors for transfusion were gestational age at delivery of 32-35 weeks [odds ratio (OR): 2.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-6.4] and caesarean combined with hysterectomy (OR: 29.4; 95% CI: 5.9-145.9; P < 0.001). No independent risk of transfusion was associated with maternal age, race, parity, smoking status, type of anaesthesia, caesarean combined with arterial balloon occlusion, grade of placenta, accreta and previous uterine surgery. Gestational age at delivery and type of surgery required are predictors of transfusion during caesarean for placenta praevia. Arterial balloon occlusion does not appear to increase transfusion risk and may be considered as one of the techniques in management.

  1. [Transfusion safety. Introduction and identifying the problem].

    PubMed

    Ambriz Fernández, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    The problems that exist in our country in the security of the transfusion chain affect every step in the recruitment, donor selection, and aseptic collection, screening tests, production of blood components, storage, transportation and transfusion to recipient. Some of which can lead to fatal cases or moving slowly because of the fragmentation of our health system.With the principles of ethics, we must move towards a unified national blood system overcoming the conflicts of interest that affect the impact on administrative certifications; decrease the irrational use of resources, optimize costs and achieve a transfusion medicine security system and haemovigilance of the at the hospital. There has to be some regional blood banks well-coordinated in health institutions, with central management systems of quality and more specialized procedures,the latter can be achieved with more than 150 public blood banks, transforming them into positions of blood collection of voluntary donation of repetition. The resources would be released equip regional banks. Also required to provide education and legislation ad hoc for goals in voluntary blood donation and focused mainly the university population and centralize information for haemovigilance based computer systems specific hospitals, that reduce errors and restrict risk blood components involved in fatal cases, and reduce the possibility of punitive actions. It has international advice of the whole transfusion chain.

  2. [Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI)].

    PubMed

    Schweisfurth, H; Sopivnik, I; Moog, R

    2014-09-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is primarily caused by transfusion of fresh frozen plasma or platelet concentrates and occurs by definition within 6 hours after transfusion with acute shortness of breath, hypoxemia and radiographically detectable bilateral infiltrates of the lung. Mostly leucocyte antibodies in the plasma of the blood donor (immunogenic TRALI) are responsible. Apart from antibodies, other substances such as biologically active lipids, mainly arising from the storage of platelet and red blood cell concentrates, can activate neutrophilic granulocytes and trigger a non-immunogenic TRALI. Pathophysiologically, granulocytes in the capillaries of the lung vessels release oxygen radicals and enzymes which damage the endothelial cells and cause pulmonary edema. Therapeutically, nasal oxygen administration may be sufficient. In severe cases, mechanical ventilation, invasive hemodynamic monitoring and fluid intake are required. Diuretics should be avoided. The administration of glucocorticoids is controversial. Antibody-related TRALI reactions occurred mainly after transfusion of fresh frozen plasma, which had been obtained from womenimmunized during pregnancy against leukocyte antigens. Therefore, in Germany, since 2009 only plasma from female donors without a history of prior or current pregnancy or negative testing for antibodies against HLA I, II or HNA has been used with the result that since then no TRALI-related death has been registered.

  3. Elmer L. DeGowin, MD: blood transfusions in war and peace.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Ronald G

    2006-04-01

    Elmer L. DeGowin, MD, like many of the pioneers of American blood banking and transfusion medicine, entered the discipline because of scientific curiosity and a desire to provide efficacious and safe allogeneic transfusions to patients. Much of the early impetus and financial support were fueled by the military needs of World War II. Dr. DeGowin and his colleagues provided important information pertaining to the preservation, storage, transportation, and transfusion of blood. After the war, many of these investigations continued and were applied to civilian practices. The legacy of Dr. DeGowin to provide exemplary service, teaching, and research has been sustained by the physicians and staff of the Elmer L. DeGowin Memorial Blood Center (University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Ia).

  4. TRALI-new challenges for histocompatibility and immunogenetics in transfusion medicine.

    PubMed

    Flesch, B K; Petershofen, E K; Bux, J

    2011-07-01

    Antibodies against human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) have long been associated with transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). In contrast to febrile transfusion reactions and refractoriness to platelet transfusions in immunized patients, the causative antibodies in TRALI are present in the transfused blood component, i.e. they are formed by the blood donor and not by the recipient. Consequently, blood components with high plasma volume are particularly associated with TRALI. In addition to antibodies against HLAs, antibodies directed against human neutrophil antigens (HNAs) present in the plasma of predominantly multiparous female blood donors can induce severe TRALI reactions. Especially, antibodies to HLA class II and HNA-3a antigens can induce severe or even fatal ALI in critically ill patients. Over the last decade, the clinical importance of TRALI as major cause for severe transfusion-related morbidities has led to the establishment of new guidelines aimed at preventing this condition, including routine testing for HLA and -HNA antibodies for plasma donors with a history of allogeneic sensitization. This, in turn, poses new challenges for close collaboration between blood transfusion centers and histocompatibility and immunogenetics laboratories, for sensitive and specific detection of the relevant antibodies.

  5. Sirolimus for Refractory Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Report and Literature Review of the Treatment of Post-Transplant Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong A; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Kwon, Hyun-Seop; Baik, Chung-Ryul; Song, Sae-Am; Lee, Jung Nye

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) may occur after any type of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT), even ABO-matched transplantation. It tends to be refractory to standard corticosteroid treatment and requires multiple transfusions. Though, there is no consensus regarding the optimal treatment for post-transplant severe AIHA. We present a pediatric patient with refractory AIHA after umbilical cord blood transplantation. She developed severe AIHA at 3months after transplantation and was unresponsive to multiple treatment modalities, including corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, plasma exchange and rituximab, resulting in persistent transfusion dependency. Sirolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, was started on day 67 after the onset of AIHA, and this patient was successfully rescued without any complications. Sirolimus induces apoptosis in autoreactive lymphocytes, increases regulatory T cells and has been reported to have a positive effect on AIHA following solid organ transplantation (SOT). We reviewed the literature regarding post-transplant AIHA in the PubMed database and evaluated the treatment outcome of sirolimus in AIHA after SOT.

  6. SHOT conference report 2016: serious hazards of transfusion - human factors continue to cause most transfusion-related incidents.

    PubMed

    Bolton-Maggs, P H B

    2016-12-01

    The Annual SHOT Report for incidents reported in 2015 was published on 7 July at the SHOT symposium. Once again, the majority of reports (77·7%) were associated with mistakes ('human factors'). Pressures and stress in the hospital environment contributed to several error reports. There were 26 deaths where transfusion played a part, one due to haemolysis from anti-Wr(a) (units issued electronically). The incidence of haemolysis due to this antibody has increased in recent years. Transfusion-associated circulatory overload is the most common contributor to death and major morbidity. Reports of delays to transfusion have increased, some caused by the failure of correct patient identification. There were seven ABO-incompatible red cell transfusions (one death) with an additional six to allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. Near-miss reporting and analysis is useful and demonstrated nearly 300 instances of wrong blood in tube, which could have resulted in ABO-incompatible transfusion had the error not been detected. Errors with anti-D immunoglobulin continue, and preliminary data from the new survey of new anti-D found in pregnancy has shown that sensitisation occurs in some women even with apparently 'ideal' care. For the first time, the SHOT report now incorporates a chapter on donor events.

  7. Platelet adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibition provides no advantage in predicting need for platelet transfusion or massive transfusion.

    PubMed

    Stettler, Gregory R; Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Hunter B; Nunns, Geoffrey R; Huebner, Benjamin R; Einersen, Peter; Ghasabyan, Arsen; Silliman, Christopher C; Banerjee, Anirban; Sauaia, Angela

    2017-09-27

    Thrombelastography platelet mapping is a useful assay to assess antiplatelet therapy. Inhibited response to the adenosine diphosphate receptor on platelets occurs early after injury, but recent work suggests this alteration occurs even with minor trauma. However, the utility of thrombelastography platelet mapping, specifically the percent of adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibition, in predicting outcomes and guiding platelet transfusion in trauma-induced coagulopathy remains unknown We assessed the role of percent of adenosine diphosphate-inhibition in predicting survival, requirement for massive transfusion or platelet transfusion in patients at risk for trauma-induced coagulopathy. Thrombelastography platelet mapping was assessed in 303 trauma activation patients from 2014-2016 and in 89 healthy volunteers. Percent of adenosine diphosphate-inhibition is presented as median and interquartile range. We compared the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of percent of adenosine diphosphate-inhibition, platelet count, and rapid thrombelastography maximum amplitude for in-hospital mortality, massive transfusion (>10 red blood cells or death/6 hours), and platelet transfusion (>0 platelet units or death/6 hour). Overall, 35 (11.5%) patient died, 27 (8.9%) required massive transfusion and 46, platelet transfusions (15.2%). Median percent of adenosine diphosphate-inhibition was 42.5% (interquartile range: 22.4-69.1%), compared with 4.3 % (interquartile range: 0-13.5%) in healthy volunteers (P < .0001). Patients that died, had a massive transfusion, or platelet transfusion had higher percent of adenosine diphosphate-inhibition than those that did not (P < .05 for all). However, percent of adenosine diphosphate-inhibition did not add significantly to the predictive performance of maximum amplitude or platelet count for any of the 3 outcomes, after adjustment for confounders. Subgroup analyses by severe traumatic brain injury, severe injury and

  8. Perioperative blood transfusion in combat casualties: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dunne, James R; Hawksworth, Jason S; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Gage, Fred; Tadaki, Doug K; Perdue, Philip W; Forsberg, Jonathan; Davis, Tom; Denobile, John W; Brown, Trevor S; Elster, Eric A

    2009-04-01

    patients. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the initial mean serum cytokine/chemokine level of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-8, interferon inducible protein (IP)-10, IL-6, and IL-12p40 and the number of units of blood transfused (p < 0.05). Allogeneic blood transfusions in combat casualties were associated with impaired wound healing, increased perioperative infection rate, and resource utilization. In addition, the extent of blood transfusion was associated with significant differences in inflammatory chemokine and cytokine release.

  9. Transfusion service disaster planning.

    PubMed

    Bundy, K L; Foss, M L; Stubbs, J R

    2008-01-01

    The Mayo Clinic, in Rochester, Minnesota, recently set forth a directive to develop a Mayo Emergency Incident Command System (MEICS) plan to respond to major disasters. The MEICS plan that was developed interfaces with national response plans to ensure effective communication and coordination between our institution and local, state, and federal agencies to establish a common language and communication structure. The MEICS plan addresses multiple aspects of dealing with resource needs during a crisis, including the need for blood and transfusion medicine services. The MEICS plan was developed to supplement our current local emergency preparedness procedures and provide a mechanism for responding to the escalating severity of an emergency to deal with situations of a magnitude that is outside the normal experience. A plan was developed to interface the existing Transfusion Medicine disaster plan standard operating procedures (SOP) with the institutional and Department of Laboratory Medicine (DLMP) MEICS plans. The first step in developing this interface was defining MEICS. Other major steps were defining the chain of command, developing a method for visually indicating who is "in charge," planning communication, defining the actions to be taken, assessing resource needs, developing flowcharts and updating SOPs, and developing a blood rationing team to deal with anticipated blood shortages. Several key features of the interface and updated disaster plan that were developed are calling trees for response personnel, plans for relocating leadership to alternative command centers, and action sheets to assist with resource assessment. The action sheets also provide documentation of key actions by response personnel.

  10. Massive transfusion: blood component ratios.

    PubMed

    Lal, Devika S; Shaz, Beth H

    2013-11-01

    This review will address recent developments in the transfusion management of massively transfused trauma patients, focusing on the use of fixed blood component ratios in massive transfusion protocols. The majority of trauma centers have migrated from laboratory-based transfusion protocols to massive transfusion protocols with fixed blood component ratios. These protocols with red blood cell : plasma : platelet ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 are associated with improved survival in severely injured patients. However, alternate ratios have also demonstrated improved survival. Thus, the optimal ratio has not been determined. In addition, the use of medications, such as antifibrinolytics, and point of care testing, such as thromboelastography, are increasingly being used as part of massive transfusion protocols to adjust transfusion therapy and decrease bleeding. However, their optimal integration has yet to be determined. Massive transfusion protocols with fixed ratios of red blood cells to plasma and platelets have improved survival in both civilian and military trauma patients. Continued studies of ratios as well as integration of other therapies and testing are ongoing in order to continue to improve patient outcome.

  11. Transfusion medicine on American television.

    PubMed

    Karp, J K

    2014-02-01

    Television is a beloved American pastime and a frequent American export. As such, American television shapes how the global public views the world. This study examines how the portrayal of blood transfusion and blood donation on American television may influence how domestic and international audiences perceive the field of transfusion medicine. American television programming of the last quarter-century was reviewed to identify programmes featuring topics related to blood banking/transfusion medicine. The included television episodes were identified through various sources. Twenty-seven television episodes airing between 1991 and 2013 were identified as featuring blood bank/transfusion medicine topics. Although some accurate representations of the field were identified, most television programmes portrayed blood banking/transfusion medicine inaccurately. The way in which blood banking/transfusion medicine is portrayed on American television may assist clinicians in understanding their patient's concerns about blood safety and guide blood collection organisations in improving donor recruitment. © 2013 The Author. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  12. Feto-fetal transfusion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Galea, P; Scott, J M; Goel, K M

    1982-01-01

    Out of 42 pairs of liveborn monochorial twins there were 32 pairs with vascular anastomoses. Of these, 11 pairs had feto-fetal transfusion syndrome. There were another 8 pairs of stillborn twin fetuses with vascular communications and in these chronic feto-fetal transfusion syndrome might have resulted in intrauterine death. PMID:6890328

  13. [Blood transfusion via the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit: the anesthesiologist point of view].

    PubMed

    Durand, M; Rossi-Blancher, M; Poquet, C

    2014-04-01

    Cardiac surgery frequently requires blood transfusion. The use of transfusion should be restricted due to side effects. Blood transfusion via the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit is easy and allows a fast transfusion. The administration of packed red cells is relatively frequent because of the CPB-induced hemodilution and of the higher rate of postoperative complications when the haematocrit during CPB decreases below 20%. This transfusion of packed red cells does not seem to be associated with complications during CPB. Platelet transfusion during bypass is illogical because of the destruction of platelets during CPB and must be avoided. Fresh frozen plasma transfusion during CPB is seldom indicated but is possible. It could reverse heparin resistance.

  14. Massive transfusion and blood product use in the pediatric trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Dehmer, Jeffrey J; Adamson, William T

    2010-11-01

    Hemorrhagic shock in the pediatric trauma patient is an uncommon but fundamental problem for the treating clinician. Current management of hemorrhagic shock involves initial resuscitation with crystalloid fluids followed by infusion of blood components as necessary. In management of the adult trauma patient, many institutions have implemented massive transfusion protocols to guide transfusion in situations requiring or anticipating the use of greater than 10 U of packed red blood cells. In the pediatric population, guidelines for massive transfusion are vague or nonexistent. Adult trauma transfusion protocols can be applied to children until a pediatric protocol is validated. Here, we attempt to identify certain principles of transfusion therapy specific to pediatric trauma and outline a sample pediatric massive transfusion protocol that may be used to guide resuscitation. Also, adjuncts to transfusion, such as colloid fluids, other plasma expanders or hemoglobin substitutes, and recombinant activated factor VII, are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reengineering transfusion and cellular therapy processes hospitalwide: ensuring the safe utilization of blood products.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jay P

    2005-10-01

    Efforts to make blood transfusion as safe as possible have focused on making the blood in the bag as disease-free as possible. The results have been dramatic, and the costs have been correspondingly high. Although blood services will have to continue to deal with emerging pathogens, efforts to reduce the transfusion of infectious agents presently posing a risk will require high incremental costs and result in only improvements of a small magnitude. The other aspect of safe blood transfusion, the actual transfusion process performed primarily in hospitals, has been accorded considerably less interest. We should turn our attention to enhancing overall blood safety by focusing on improving the process of blood transfusion. Errors involving patient, specimen, and blood product identification put transfused patients at risk, increasing the mortality risk for some. Solutions that could improve the transfusion process are discussed as a focus of this article.

  16. Reducing noninfectious risks of blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Gilliss, Brian M; Looney, Mark R; Gropper, Michael A

    2011-09-01

    As screening for transfusion-associated infections has improved, noninfectious complications of transfusion now cause the majority of morbidity and mortality associated with transfusion in the United States. For example, transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion-associated circulatory overload, and hemolytic transfusion-reactions are the first, second, and third leading causes of death from transfusion, respectively. These complications and others are reviewed, and several controversial methods for prevention of noninfectious complications of transfusion are discussed, including universal leukoreduction of erythrocyte units, use of male-only plasma, and restriction of erythrocyte storage age.

  17. Blood transfusion practices in neuroanaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Zulfiqar; Hassan, Nelofar; Syed, Sumaya

    2014-01-01

    Neuroanaesthesia practice is associated with risk of significant blood loss resulting in anaemia in the intraoperative and postoperative period. The transfusion triggers in a neurologically injured brain are not clearly defined. Both a low haematocrit and a high haematocrit have not shown any improvement in the outcome. Transfusion of red blood cells may improve the cerebral oxygenation on neurophysiological monitors. However, these benefits have not been translated into clinical practice. Transfusion in subarachnoid haemorrhage leads to increased incidence of vasospasm and a poor outcome. Restrictive transfusion strategy is seen to have a lower incidence of pneumonia, urinary tract infection, bacteremia and septic shock in severe head injury. Current evidence suggests that a haemoglobin (Hb) level of <7 g/dl may be deleterious to the neurosurgical population. Target Hb of 8-9 g/dl may be desirable intraoperatively. Different transfusion triggers may hold true for different neurosurgical pathologies. PMID:25535426

  18. Predictive factors for red blood cell transfusion in children undergoing noncomplex cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Mulaj, Muj; Faraoni, David; Willems, Ariane; Sanchez Torres, Cristel; Van der Linden, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is frequently required in pediatric cardiac surgery and is associated with altered outcome and increased costs. Determining which factors predict transfusion in this context will enable clinicians to adopt strategies that will reduce the risk of RBC transfusion. This study aimed to assess predictive factors associated with RBC transfusion in children undergoing low-risk cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Children undergoing surgery to repair ventricular septal defect or atrioventricular septal defect from 2006 to 2011 were included in this retrospective study. Demography, preoperative laboratory testing, intraoperative data, and RBC transfusion were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to define factors that were able to predict RBC transfusion. Then, we employed receiver operating characteristic analysis to design a predictive score. Among the 334 children included, 261 (78%) were transfused. Age (<18 months), priming volume of the CPB (>43 mL/kg), type of oxygenator used, minimal temperature reached during CPB (<32°C), and preoperative hematocrit (<34%) were independently associated with RBC transfusion in the studied population. A predictive score 2 or greater was the best predictor of RBC transfusion. The present study identified several factors that were significantly associated with perioperative RBC transfusion. Based on these factors, we designed a predictive score that can be used to develop a patient-based blood management program with the aim of reducing the incidence of RBC transfusion. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Post-transfusion hepatitis: impact of non-A, non-B hepatitis surrogate tests. Canadian Post-Transfusion Hepatitis Prevention Study Group.

    PubMed

    Blajchman, M A; Bull, S B; Feinman, S V

    1995-01-07

    Canada has not introduced the non-A, non-B (NANB) surrogate marker tests (antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen and alanine aminotransferase) to screen donated blood. We evaluated the effect of NANB surrogate markers in reducing post-transfusion hepatitis in a prospective randomised intervention study. From 1988 to 1992, 4588 subjects were enrolled into two study groups that received allogeneic blood from which units positive for NANB surrogate markers were either withheld (n = 2311) or not withheld (n = 2277). We also assessed a simultaneous non-randomised cohort (n = 650) of subjects who received only syngeneic blood. All subjects were followed up for 6 months and assessed for the presence of post-transfusion hepatitis due to hepatitis A, B, C, non ABC, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Withholding of blood containing NANB surrogate positive units reduced the overall post-transfusion hepatitis rate by 40% (p = 0.065) and the hepatitis C rate by 70% (p = 0.05). Most of the benefit of NANB surrogate testing was due to reduced frequency of hepatitis C virus after transfusion before all donor blood was screened for anti-HCV. During this time the overall post-transfusion hepatitis rate per 1000 transfusion recipients was 20.2 in the no-withhold group compared with 5.0 in the withhold group (p = 0.05), and the HCV hepatitis rate was 12.6 and 0 respectively (p = 0.06). After the introduction of HCV screening, the overall post-transfusion hepatitis rates were 8.6 and 6.8 per 1000 (p = 0.55) respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. The use of trauma transfusion pathways for blood component transfusion in the civilian population: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vogt, K N; Van Koughnett, J A; Dubois, L; Gray, D K; Parry, N G

    2012-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if, amongst civilian trauma patients requiring massive transfusion (MT), the use of a formal trauma transfusion pathway (TTP), in comparison with transfusion without a TTP, is associated with a reduction in mortality, or changes in indices of coagulation, blood product utilisation and complications. A systematic review of three bibliographic databases, reference lists and conference proceedings was conducted. Studies were included if comparisons were made between patients receiving transfusion with and without a TTP. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers on population characteristics, transfusion strategies, blood product utilisation, indices of coagulation, clinical outcomes and complications. Data were pooled using a random effects model and heterogeneity explored. Seven observational studies met all eligibility criteria. Amongst 1801 patients requiring MT, TTPs were associated with a significant reduction in mortality (RR 0·69, 95% CI 0·55, 0·87). No significant increase in the mean number of PRBC transfused between TTP and control patients was seen (MD -1·17 95% CI -2·70, 0·36). When studies assessing only trauma patients were considered, TTPs were associated with a reduction in the mean number of units of plasma transfused (MD -2·63, 95% CI -4·24, -1·01). In summary, the use of TTPs appears to be associated with a reduction in mortality amongst trauma patients requiring MT without a clinically significant increase in the number of PRBC transfused and a potential reduction in plasma transfusion. Effects of TTPs on platelet transfusion, indices of coagulation and complications remain unclear. A randomised controlled trial is warranted. © 2012 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2012 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  1. Sickle Cell Trait Increases Red Blood Cell Storage Hemolysis and Post-Transfusion Clearance in Mice.

    PubMed

    Osei-Hwedieh, David O; Kanias, Tamir; Croix, Claudette St; Jessup, Morgan; Xiong, Zeyu; Sinchar, Derek; Franks, Jonathan; Xu, Qinzi; M Novelli, Enrico; Sertorio, Jonas T; Potoka, Karin; Binder, Robert J; Basu, Swati; Belanger, Andrea M; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Triulzi, Darrell; Lee, Janet S; Gladwin, Mark T

    2016-09-01

    Transfusion of blood at the limits of approved storage time is associated with lower red blood cell (RBC) post-transfusion recovery and hemolysis, which increases plasma cell-free hemoglobin and iron, proposed to induce endothelial dysfunction and impair host defense. There is noted variability among donors in the intrinsic rate of storage changes and RBC post-transfusion recovery, yet genetic determinants that modulate this process are unclear. We explore RBC storage stability and post-transfusion recovery in murine models of allogeneic and xenogeneic transfusion using blood from humanized transgenic sickle cell hemizygous mice (Hba(tm1Paz)Hbb(tm1Tow)Tg(HBA-HBBs)41Paz/J) and human donors with a common genetic mutation sickle cell trait (HbAS). Human and transgenic HbAS RBCs demonstrate accelerated storage time-dependent hemolysis and reduced post-transfusion recovery in mice. The rapid post-transfusion clearance of stored HbAS RBC is unrelated to macrophage-mediated uptake or intravascular hemolysis, but by enhanced sequestration in the spleen, kidney and liver. HbAS RBCs are intrinsically different from HbAA RBCs, with reduced membrane deformability as cells age in cold storage, leading to accelerated clearance of transfused HbAS RBCs by entrapment in organ microcirculation. The common genetic variant HbAS enhances RBC storage dysfunction and raises provocative questions about the use of HbAS RBCs at the limits of approved storage. Copyright © 2016 Forschungsgesellschaft für Arbeitsphysiologie und Arbeitschutz e.V. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Ethics and blood transfusion].

    PubMed

    Tissot, J-D; Garraud, O; Danic, B; Cabaud, J-J; Lefrère, J-J

    2013-09-01

    Blood donation is an act of solidarity. Most often, this act is done on a volunteer basis and, depending on countries and circumstances, is not remunerated. The increase in need, the always-greater number of deferral criteria, the safety issues and the changes in the structures of our societies are among the many subjects for ethical debates. Taking these into account, the actors of the transfusion must analyze certain parameters: the value of a donation, the meaning of volunteering, the appropriateness of remunerating the act of giving a part of one's self, no longer as a donation or an expression of altruism and solidarity, but as a commercial act regimented by economic laws.

  3. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy in treatment of erectile dysfunction: autologous or allogeneic cell sources?

    PubMed

    Mangir, Naside; Akbal, Cem; Tarcan, Tufan; Simsek, Ferruh; Turkeri, Levent

    2014-12-01

    To compare the efficacy of intracavernosal injection of autologous and allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells as potential treatment of erectile dysfunction in an experimental rat model. Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from rat paratesticular fat tissue. Bilateral cavernous nerve injury was carried out followed by immediate intracavernosal injection of either autologous or allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells or mesenchymal stem cell lysates. One month after injection, erectile function was evaluated by means of intracavernosal pressure measurement. All rats were eventually killed, and penile tissues were taken for immunhistochemical and molecular investigation. A total of 36 Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The mean maximum intracavernosal pressure in the sham-operated, autologous and allogeneic mesenchymal stem cell injection groups were significantly better compared with the vehicle injection group (80.5 [3.56], 71.1 [2.9] and 69.2 [3.2] vs 40.33 [4.4], respectively). Mean maximum intracavernosal pressure to mean arterial pressure ratios in the autologous and allogeneic mesenchymal stem cell and mesenchymal stem cell lysate injection groups were not significantly different. Intracavernosal injection of both autologous or allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells improve erectile functions in a rat model of cavernous nerve injury. Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells might provide clinicians with ready to use, standardized and, in certain cases, more effective products. More studies focusing on long-term immunological aspects of allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells are required. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  4. Preparation of allogeneic bone for alveolar ridge augmentation.

    PubMed

    Krasny, Kornel; Kamiński, Artur; Krasny, Marta; Czech, Tomasz; Wojtowicz, Andrzej

    2017-05-20

    Implant treatment is safe and predictable with sufficient amount and quality of bone tissue. In case of severely reduced bone tissue after a tooth was lost, augmentation of such tissue is necessary before implant embedment. Retrospective evaluation covered 380 alveolar ridge reconstructions. The study material consisted of human grafts prepared by the Department of Transplantology and Central Tissue Bank, Medical University of Warsaw. Presentation of laboratory procedures in the context of physical parameters of frozen, radiation sterilised, allogeneic corticocancellous material was presented. The preparation process makes it possible to obtain two types of bone material: granules and blocks. Women underwent 164 procedures with the use of bone granules and 61 augmentations with bone blocks. In case of men 122 packages of granules were used as well as 33 bone blocks. Based on the results an evaluation of usability of available allogeneic grafts was performed with reference to planned alveolar ridge augmentation procedures, which they were used for. 1. The opportunity to prepare allogeneic material of different textures allowed selection to meet augmentation requirements while providing biological safety. 2. Allogeneic granules should be used in multi-wall defects, such as a double, closed sinus lift and post-extraction socket augmentation. 3. Owing to their superior mechanical parameters, bone blocks were successfully used in extending the width and height of the alveolar ridge and in open sinus lifts with one-wall or two-wall defects and adequate location of the lamellar bone in a graft prevented substantial graft resorption.

  5. Allogenic bone grafts in post-traumatic juxta-articular defects: Need for allogenic bone banking.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anil Kumar; Vikas, Rohit; Agrawal, H S

    2017-07-01

    Allogenic bone banking provide both structural and granular bone grafts for various orthopaedic, spinal, oncological and dental surgeries. However allogenic bones, presently, are not readily available. This article discusses the clinical applications of the allogenic grafts, the screening criteria and procedure for maintenance of such a bone banking facility. This article demonstrates the effective role of allogenic bone in a case of post-traumatic bone loss situation and discusses the growing need and present situation of bone banking in our country.

  6. Prospective study on the clinical course and outcomes in transfusion-related acute lung injury*.

    PubMed

    Looney, Mark R; Roubinian, Nareg; Gajic, Ognjen; Gropper, Michael A; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Lowell, Clifford A; Bacchetti, Peter; Wilson, Gregory; Koenigsberg, Monique; Lee, Deanna C; Wu, Ping; Grimes, Barbara; Norris, Philip J; Murphy, Edward L; Gandhi, Manish J; Winters, Jeffrey L; Mair, David C; Schuller, Randy M; Hirschler, Nora V; Rosen, Rosa Sanchez; Matthay, Michael A; Toy, Pearl

    2014-07-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury is the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality. A prospective study using electronic surveillance was conducted at two academic medical centers in the United States with the objective to define the clinical course and outcomes in transfusion-related acute lung injury cases. Prospective case study with controls. University of California, San Francisco and Mayo Clinic, Rochester. We prospectively enrolled 89 patients with transfusion-related acute lung injury, 164 transfused controls, and 145 patients with possible transfusion-related acute lung injury. None. Patients with transfusion-related acute lung injury had fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, hypotension, and prolonged hypoxemia compared with controls. Of the patients with transfusion-related acute lung injury, 29 of 37 patients (78%) required initiation of mechanical ventilation and 13 of 53 (25%) required initiation of vasopressors. Patients with transfusion-related acute lung injury and possible transfusion-related acute lung injury had an increased duration of mechanical ventilation and increased days in the ICU and hospital compared with controls. There were 15 of 89 patients with transfusion-related acute lung injury (17%) who died, whereas 61 of 145 patients with possible transfusion-related acute lung injury (42%) died and 7 of 164 of controls (4%) died. Patients with transfusion-related acute lung injury had evidence of more systemic inflammation with increases in circulating neutrophils and a decrease in platelets compared with controls. Patients with transfusion-related acute lung injury and possible transfusion-related acute lung injury also had a statistically significant increase in plasma interleukin-8, interleukin-10, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist posttransfusion compared with controls. In conclusion, transfusion-related acute lung injury produced a condition resembling the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and was associated with

  7. Hydroxyurea for reducing blood transfusion in non-transfusion dependent beta thalassaemias.

    PubMed

    Foong, Wai Cheng; Ho, Jacqueline J; Loh, C Khai; Viprakasit, Vip

    2016-10-18

    Non-transfusion dependent beta thalassaemia is a subset of inherited haemoglobin disorders characterised by reduced production of the beta globin chain of the haemoglobin molecule leading to anaemia of varying severity. Although blood transfusion is not a necessity for survival, it is required when episodes of chronic anaemia occur. This chronic anaemia can impair growth and affect quality of life. People with non-transfusion dependent beta thalassaemia suffer from iron overload due to their body's increased capability of absorbing iron from food sources. Iron overload becomes more pronounced in those requiring blood transfusion. People with a higher foetal haemoglobin level have been found to require fewer blood transfusions. Hydroxyurea has been used to increase foetal haemoglobin level; however, its efficacy in reducing transfusion, chronic anaemia complications and its safety need to be established. To assess the effectiveness, safety and appropriate dose regimen of hydroxyurea in people with non-transfusion dependent beta thalassaemia (haemoglobin E combined with beta thalassaemia and beta thalassaemia intermedia). We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of relevant journals. We also searched ongoing trials registries and the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews.Date of last search: 30 April 2016. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of hydroxyurea in people with non-transfusion dependent beta thalassaemia comparing hydroxyurea with placebo or standard treatment or comparing different doses of hydroxyurea. Two authors independently applied the inclusion criteria in order to select trials for inclusion. Both authors assessed the risk of bias of trials and extracted the data. A third author verified these assessments. No trials comparing hydroxyurea with placebo or standard care were found. However, we included

  8. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and need of blood transfusion in total knee arthroplasty: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study in Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, Abhishek; Sobti, Anshul; Maniar, Shriji; Mishra, Amit; Gite, Raju; Shetty, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: For quite a few years, tranexamic acid (TEA) has been used during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to reduce blood loss. However, no consensus exits regarding its timing and doses. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized double-blinded study of 56 patients in the Indian population undergoing TKA from 2011 to 2012. A dose of 10 mg/kg body weight of TEA (three doses) was given in one group and normal saline was administered in the other. Results: The mean blood loss in the TEA unilateral group was 295 mL ± 218 mL and in the placebo group was 482 mL ± 186 mL (P < 0.005). In the bilateral TEA group, the mean blood loss was 596 mL ± 235 mL and in the placebo group was 1349 mL ± 41 mL (P < 0.005). Conclusion: The number of patients requiring blood transfusion reduced substantially. There was no increase in the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism. TEA reduces intraoperative and postoperative blood loss and thus reduces the need of allogenic blood transfusion. PMID:26420938

  9. Severe thalassaemia intermedia with multiple fractures: role of transfusion therapy.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Saqib Qayyum; Iqbal, Mudassar; Wahla, Madiha Saeed; Tarrar, Aimel Munir

    2011-11-01

    Thalassaemia intermedia includes thalassaemias with clinical severity intermediate between asymptomatic thalassaemia minor and transfusion dependent thalassaemia major. By definition patients of thalassaemia intermedia maintain a haemoglobin level of 7-10 g/dl and do not, or only occasionally, require blood transfusion. An eight-year-old girl who was a known case of thalassaemia intermedia and had been occasionally transfused presented with fever, pain and swelling over the wrists, ankles and above the right knee joint. Radiographs showed medullary widening, cortical thinning and; multiple, recent and old, partially healed fractures of metadiaphseal regions of long bones. Her fractures have been immobilized by means of back slabs. In view of her recurrent fractures and growth retardation we advised a regular transfusion-chelation regimen to our patient to suppress her ineffective dyserythropoiesis. The treatment is expected to prevent further bone fragility and fractures, as well as improve her life quality.

  10. Alternative allogeneic donor sources for transplantation for childhood diseases: unrelated cord blood and haploidentical family donors.

    PubMed

    Cairo, Mitchell S; Rocha, Vanderson; Gluckman, Eliane; Hale, Gregory; Wagner, John

    2008-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation has been demonstrated to be curative in a wide variety of pediatric malignant and nonmalignant diseases, and can be traced back over 50 years ago to the original report of Thomas et al. HLA matched sibling donors have been the gold standard for pediatric recipients requiring allogeneic donors for both nonmalignant and malignant conditions. However, only 25% of potential pediatric recipients possesses an HLA-matched sibling donor, and the frequency is even less in those with genetic nonmalignant conditions because of genetically affected other siblings within the family. Therefore, 75% to 90% of potential pediatric recipients require alternative allogeneic donor cells for treatment of their underlying conditions. Potential alternative allogeneic donor sources include unrelated cord blood donors, unrelated adult donors, and haploidentical family donors. In this article we review the experience of both unrelated cord blood donor and haploidentical family donor transplants in selected pediatric malignant and nonmalignant conditions.

  11. Patient blood management in orthopaedic surgery: a four-year follow-up of transfusion requirements and blood loss from 2008 to 2011 at the Balgrist University Hospital in Zurich, Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Theusinger, Oliver M.; Kind, Stephanie L.; Seifert, Burkhardt; Borgeat, lain; Gerber, Christian; Spahn, Donat R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the introduction of a Patient Blood Management (PBM) programme in elective orthopaedic surgery on immediate pre-operative anaemia, red blood cell (RBC) mass loss, and transfusion. Materials and methods Orthopaedic operations (hip, n=3,062; knee, n=2,953; and spine, n=2,856) performed between 2008 and 2011 were analysed. Period 1 (2008), was before the introduction of the PBM programme and period 2 (2009 to 2011) the time after its introduction. Immediate pre-operative anaemia, RBC mass loss, and transfusion rates in the two periods were compared. Results In hip surgery, the percentage of patients with immediate pre-operative anaemia decreased from 17.6% to 12.9% (p<0.001) and RBC mass loss was unchanged, being 626±434 vs 635±450 mL (p=0.974). Transfusion rate was significantly reduced from 21.8% to 15.7% (p<0.001). The number of RBC units transfused remained unchanged (p=0.761). In knee surgery the prevalence of immediate pre-operative anaemia decreased from 15.5% to 7.8% (p<0.001) and RBC mass loss reduced from 573±355 to 476±365 mL (p<0.001). The transfusion rate dropped from 19.3% to 4.9% (p<0.001). RBC transfusions decreased from 0.53±1.27 to 0.16±0.90 units (p<0.001). In spine surgery the prevalence of immediate pre-operative anaemia remained unchanged (p=0.113), RBC mass loss dropped from 551±421 to 404±337 mL (p<0.001), the transfusion rate was reduced from 18.6 to 8.6% (p<0.001) and RBC transfusions decreased from 0.66±1.80 to 0.22±0.89 units (p=0.008). Discussion Detection and treatment of pre-operative anaemia, meticulous surgical technique, optimal surgical blood-saving techniques, and standardised transfusion triggers in the context of PBM programme resulted in a lower incidence of immediate pre-operative anaemia, reduction in RBC mass loss, and a lower transfusion rate. PMID:24931841

  12. Microchimerism decades after transfusion among combat-injured US veterans from the Vietnam, Korean, and World War II conflicts.

    PubMed

    Utter, Garth H; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Rivers, Ryan M; Montalvo, Lani; Wen, Li; Chafets, Daniel M; Reed, William F; Busch, Michael P

    2008-08-01

    Blood transfusion after traumatic injury can result in microchimerism (MC) of donor white cells (WBCs) in the recipient as late as 2 to 3 years postinjury, the longest prospective follow-up to date. The purpose of this study was to determine how long transfusion-associated MC lasts after traumatic injury. A group of US combat veterans who received transfusions who responded to a recruitment notice was retrospectively evaluated. Their blood was sampled, and MC was assessed by quantitative allele-specific polymerase chain reaction detection of differences at the HLA-DR locus or a panel of insertion-deletion polymorphism loci. Results of veterans were compared to those from an age- and gender-matched blood donor control group, from whom WBCs were retrieved from leukoreduction filters. Among 163 combat veterans who received transfusion and 150 control subjects who did not receive transfusions, 16 (9.8%) of the veterans and 1 (0.7%) control subject had evidence of MC (relative risk, 14.7; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-110). The veterans with MC included 3 who served in WWII (7% of subjects from that conflict), 5 in Korea (18%), and 6 in Vietnam (7%). Transfusion for combat-related injury can result in MC that lasts for 60 years, suggesting that it may involve permanent engraftment. MC is rare among male blood donors who did not receive transfusions, who are probably representative of individuals who have not had postnatal allogeneic exposures.

  13. Transfusion-transmitted Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Wendel, S

    1998-11-01

    Transfusion-transmitted Chagas' disease has been recognized since 1952. Until recently, no cases were reported outside of Latin America. However, emigration during the past 20 years expanded its transfusional geographic borders to North America. Trypanosoma cruzi-infected donors usually are asymptomatic, often for a lifetime. This situation complicates donor screening, particularly in regions where blood bank personnel are not familiar with the risk factors and natural history of this transfusion-transmitted infection. This review addresses the main aspects of epidemiology, risks of infection, clinical symptoms in donors and recipients, preventive measures, and blood donor screening to prevent transfusion-transmitted Chagas' disease.

  14. Descriptions of Acute Transfusion Reactions in the Teaching Hospitals of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Payandeh, Mehrdad; Zare, Mohammad Erfan; Kansestani, Atefeh Nasir; Pakdel, Shirin Falah; Jahanpour, Firuzeh; Yousefi, Hoshang; Soleimanian, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    Background Transfusion services rely on transfusion reaction reporting to provide patient care and protect the blood supply. Unnecessary discontinuation of blood is a major wastage of scarce blood, as well as man, hours and funds. The aim of the present study was to describe the main characteristics of acute transfusion reactions reported in the 4 hospital of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS), Kermanshah, Iran. Material and Methods The study was carried out at 4 teaching hospital of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran, over18 months from April 2010. All adult patients on admission in the hospitals who required blood transfusion and had establish diagnosis and consented were included in the study. Results In the year 2010 until 2012, a total of 6238 units of blood components were transfused. A total of 59 (0.94%) cases of transfusion reaction were reported within this 3 years period. The commonest were allergic reactions which presented with various skin manifestations such as urticarial, rashes and pruritus (49.2%), followed by increase in body temperature of > 1°C from baseline which was reported as febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction (37.2%). pain at the transfusion site (6.8%) and hypotension (6.8%). Conclusion It is important that each transfusion of blood components to be monitor carefully. Many transfusion reactions are not recognized, because signs and symptoms mimic other clinical conditions. Any unexpected symptoms in a transfusion recipient should at least be considered as a possible transfusion reaction and be evaluated. Prompt recognition and treatment of acute transfusion reaction are crucial and would help in decreasing transfusion related morbidity and mortality, but prevention is preferable. PMID:24505522

  15. Prophylactic Plasma Transfusion Before Interventional Radiology Procedures Is Not Associated With Reduced Bleeding Complications.

    PubMed

    Warner, Matthew A; Woodrum, David A; Hanson, Andrew C; Schroeder, Darrell R; Wilson, Gregory A; Kor, Daryl J

    2016-08-01

    To determine the association between prophylactic plasma transfusion and periprocedural red blood cell (RBC) transfusion rates in patients with elevated international normalized ratio (INR) values undergoing interventional radiology procedures. In this retrospective cohort study, adult patients undergoing interventional radiology procedures with a preprocedural INR available within 30 days of the procedure during a study period of January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2013, were eligible for inclusion. Baseline characteristics, coagulation parameters, transfusion requirements, and procedural details were extracted. Univariate and multivariable propensity-matched analyses were used to assess the relationships between prophylactic plasma transfusion and the outcomes of interest, with a primary outcome assessed a priori of RBC transfusion occurring during the procedure or within the first 24 hours postprocedurally. A total of 18,204 study participants met inclusion criteria for this study, and 1803 (9.9%) had an INR of 1.5 or greater before their procedure. Of these 1803 patients, 196 patients (10.9%) received prophylactic plasma transfusion with a median time of 1.9 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 1.1-3.2 hours) between plasma transfusion initiation and procedure initiation. In multivariable propensity-matched analysis, plasma administration was associated with increased periprocedural RBC transfusions (odds ratio, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.38-3.50; P<.001) and postprocedural intensive care unit admission rates (odds ratio, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.41-3.14; P<.001) as compared with those who were not transfused preprocedurally. Similar relationships were seen at higher INR thresholds for plasma transfusion. In patients undergoing interventional radiology procedures, preprocedural plasma transfusions given in the setting of elevated INR values were associated with increased periprocedural RBC transfusions. Additional research is needed to clarify this potential association between

  16. The Red Blood Cell Transfusion Trigger: Has the Sin of Commission Now Become a Sin of Omission?.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-05-01

    concentration of 10 to 12 g/dl. Human recombinant erythropoietin is also recommended for the reduction of allogeneic blood transfusions in surgical...patients. Human recombinant erythropoietin is recommended for anemic patients with hemoglobin concentrations of ■, greater than 10 g/dl and less than 13...with recombinant erythropoietin also reduces the defects in platelet adhesion and aggregation caused by uremic plasma. Thromb. Haemost. 1991;66:638

  17. Hyperkalemia caused by rapid red cell transfusion and the potassium absorption filter

    PubMed Central

    Imashuku, Yasuhiko; Kitagawa, Hirotoshi; Mizuno, Takayoshi; Fukushima, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of transient hyperkalemia during hysterectomy after cesarean section, due to preoperatively undiagnosed placenta accreta that caused unforeseen massive hemorrhage and required rapid red cell transfusion. Hyperkalemia-induced by rapid red cell transfusion is a well-known severe complication of transfusion; however, in patients with sudden massive hemorrhage, rapid red cell transfusion is necessary to save their life. In such cases, it is extremely important to monitor serum potassium levels. For an emergency situation, a system should be developed to ensure sufficient preparation for immediate transfusion and laboratory tests. Furthermore, sufficient stock of preparations to treat hyperkalemia, such as calcium preparations, diuretics, glucose, and insulin is required. Moreover, a transfusion filter that absorbs potassium has been developed and is now available for clinical use in Japan. The filter is easy to use and beneficial, and should be prepared when it is available. PMID:28217070

  18. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI): a clinical review with emphasis on the critically ill.

    PubMed

    Benson, Alexander B; Moss, Marc; Silliman, Christopher C

    2009-11-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality world-wide. Although first described in 1983, it took two decades to develop consensus definitions, which remain controversial. The pathogenesis of TRALI is related to the infusion of donor antibodies that recognize leucocyte antigens in the transfused host or the infusion of lipids and other biological response modifiers that accumulate during the storage or processing of blood components. TRALI appears to be the result of at least two sequential events and treatment is supportive. This review demonstrates that critically ill patients are more susceptible to TRALI and require special attention by critical care specialists, haematologists and transfusion medicine experts. Further research is required into TRALI and its pathogenesis so that transfusions are safer and administered appropriately. Avoidance including male-only transfusion practises, the use of leucoreduced components, fresher blood/blood components and solvent detergent plasma are also discussed.

  19. Reappraising the concept of massive transfusion in trauma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The massive-transfusion concept was introduced to recognize the dilutional complications resulting from large volumes of packed red blood cells (PRBCs). Definitions of massive transfusion vary and lack supporting clinical evidence. Damage-control resuscitation regimens of modern trauma care are targeted to the early correction of acute traumatic coagulopathy. The aim of this study was to identify a clinically relevant definition of trauma massive transfusion based on clinical outcomes. We also examined whether the concept was useful in that early prediction of massive transfusion requirements could allow early activation of blood bank protocols. Methods Datasets on trauma admissions over a 1 or 2-year period were obtained from the trauma registries of five large trauma research networks. A fractional polynomial was used to model the transfusion-associated probability of death. A logistic regression model for the prediction of massive transfusion, defined as 10 or more units of red cell transfusions, was developed. Results In total, 5,693 patient records were available for analysis. Mortality increased as transfusion requirements increased, but the model indicated no threshold effect. Mortality was 9% in patients who received none to five PRBC units, 22% in patients receiving six to nine PRBC units, and 42% in patients receiving 10 or more units. A logistic model for prediction of massive transfusion was developed and validated at multiple sites but achieved only moderate performance. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.81, with specificity of only 50% at a sensitivity of 90% for the prediction of 10 or more PRBC units. Performance varied widely at different trauma centers, with specificity varying from 48% to 91%. Conclusions No threshold for definition exists at which a massive transfusion specifically results in worse outcomes. Even with a large sample size across multiple trauma datasets, it was not possible to develop a

  20. Blood Conservation Strategies and Liver Transplantation Transfusion-Free Techniques Derived from Jehovah's Witness Surgical Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Mansi; Kulkarni, Sujit; Dhanireddy, Kiran; Perez, Alexander; Selby, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Red blood cell and component transfusions are a frequent and widely accepted accompaniment of surgical procedures. Although the risk of specific disease transmission via allogeneic blood transfusions (ABT) is very low, the occurrence of transfusion related immune modulation (TRIM) still remains a ubiquitous concern. Recent studies have shown that ABT are linked to increased morbidity and mortality across various specialties, with negative outcomes directly correlated to number of transfusions. Blood conservation methods are therefore necessary to reduce ABT. Acute normo-volemic hemodilution (ANH) along with pre-operative blood augmentation and intraoperative cell salvage are blood conservation techniques utilized in tertiary and even quaternary (transplantation) surgery in Jehovah's Witnesses with excellent outcomes. The many hematologic complications such as anemia, thrombocytopenia and coagulopathies that occur with liver transplantation present a significant barrier when trying to avoid ABT. Despite this, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been successfully performed in a transfusion-free environment, providing valuable insight into the possibilities of limiting ABT and its associated risks in all patients.

  1. Transfusion of type-A and type-B blood to cats.

    PubMed

    Giger, U; Bücheler, J

    1991-02-01

    Although nearly all domestic shorthair and longhair cats have type-A blood (greater than 99%), the frequency of blood type B in various feline breeds ranges from 0 to 59%. All blood-type-B cats have strong natural alloantibodies, predominantly of the IgM class, whereas blood-type-A cats have low alloantibody titers of the IgG and IgM classes. We therefore studied the efficacy and safety of transfusing 20 ml of matched and mismatched 14C-potassium cyanate-labeled blood to cats. In autologous and allogeneic matched transfusions of blood-type-A and type-B cats, the half-life of labeled erythrocytes proved to be similar (29 to 39 days). In contrast, type-B erythrocytes transfused into 5 blood-type-A cats had a mean (+/- SD) half-life of only 2.1 +/- 0.2 days and induced minor transfusion reactions. Half of the type-A blood given to 4 blood-type-B cats was destroyed within minutes to 6 hours (mean +/- SD = 1.3 +/- 2.3 hours), depending on the alloantibody titer. After 1 day, none of the labeled erythrocytes were detected. Mismatched transfusions in blood-type-B cats caused marked transient reactions including systemic anaphylactic signs (hypotension, bradycardia, apnea, urination, defecation, vomiting, and severe neurologic depression) and hemolytic signs (hemoglobinemia and pigmenturia) associated with severe reduction in plasma alloantibody titer and complement activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Prehospital identification of trauma patients requiring transfusion: results of a retrospective study evaluating the use of the trauma induced coagulopathy clinical score (TICCS) in 33,385 patients from the TraumaRegister DGU(®).

    PubMed

    Tonglet, Martin; Lefering, Rolf; Minon, Jean Marc; Ghuysen, Alexandre; D'Orio, Vincenzo; Hildebrand, Frank; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Horst, Klemens

    2017-06-22

    Identifying trauma patients that need emergent blood product transfusion is crucial. The Trauma Induced Coagulopathy Clinical Score (TICCS) is an easy-to-measure score developed to meet this medical need. We hypothesized that TICCS would assist in identifying patients that need a transfusion in a large cohort of severe trauma patients from the TraumaRegister DGU(®) (TR-DGU). A total of 33,385 severe trauma patients were extracted from the TR-DGU for retrospective analysis. The TICCS was adapted for the registry structure. Blood transfusion was defined as the use of at least one unit of red blood cells (RBC) during acute hospital treatment. With an area under the receiving operating curve (AUC) of 0.700 (95% CI: 0.691-0.709), the TICCS appeared to be moderately discriminant for determining the need for RBC transfusion in the trauma population of the TR-DGU. A TICCS cut-off value of ≥12 yielded the best trade-off between true positives and false positives. The corresponding positive predictive value and negative predictive values were 48.4% and 89.1%, respectively. This retrospective study confirms that the TICCS is a useful and simple score for discriminating between trauma patients with and without the need for emergent blood product transfusion.

  3. Blood transfusions and Jehovah's Witnesses.

    PubMed

    Thompson, H A

    1989-04-01

    Jehovah's Witnesses believe that a human must not sustain his life with another creature's blood, and they recognize no distinction "between taking blood into the mouth and taking it into the blood vessels." It is their deep-seated religious conviction that Jehovah will turn his back on anyone who receives blood transfusions (1). Thus, Jehovah's Witnesses regularly refuse transfusions for themselves and their children because they believe the procedure creates a risk of losing eternal salvation. Legally, such refusals are based on the constitutional grounds that the transfusion is an invasion of the right of privacy and a violation of the individual's freedom of religious practice. When courts review these refusals they focus on state interests that outweigh the individual's rights. With an eye toward providing guidance to Texas physicians in dealing with such refusals, this article reviews case law on the subject of blood transfusions and Jehovah's Witnesses.

  4. Controlling post-transfusion hepatitis: a proposal to publicize hepatitis rates of transfusion facilities.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, S N; Sapolsky, H M

    1979-01-01

    A federal requirement that donor blood be labelled as either "paid" or "volunteer" took effect on May 15, 1978. A major rationale for requiring such labelling is that physicians, now that they can distinguish between categories of blood, will fear liability for post-transfusion hepatitis resulting from the use of paid blood. Thus, supporters of the labelling requirement hope that it will deter the use of high-risk commercial blood. Some paid blood, however, is not commercial blood and in fact may be safer than volunteer blood. The labelling strategy for hepatitis control, therefore, has negative as well as positive attributes. This Article considers the efficacy of blood labelling as a hepatitis control measure and proposes an alternative strategy--the periodic publicizing of hepatitis rates of facilities that perform transfusions--that, if practiced responsibly, could significantly decrease hepatitis transmission rates.

  5. Transfusion medicine as of 2014

    PubMed Central

    Cid, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Transfusion of blood components is one of the most common medical treatments, and in spite of the time that has evolved since we started to transfuse blood routinely in the 1930s, there are issues associated with its use that we are still trying to improve. Issues such as when to transfuse and adverse effects associated with the transfusion are fields where new evidence is being generated that ideally should help us to indicate when and what to transfuse to the patients. The recognition that the evidence generated in randomized control trials was not widely applied to guide the indication of the transfusion of blood components has provoked the development of initiatives that try to reduce its unnecessary usage. Those initiatives, grouped under the name of patient blood management, have represented a significant paradigm change, and a growing number of activities in this field are performed in health-care facilities around the world. This article tries to summarize the latest publications in those fields. PMID:25580259

  6. Relevance of RH variants in transfusion of sickle cell patients.

    PubMed

    Noizat-Pirenne, F; Tournamille, C

    2011-12-01

    Transfusion remains the main treatment of sickle cell disease patients. Red cell alloimmunization is frequent because of the antigen disparities between patients of African descent and donors of European ancestry. Alloimmunization is associated with severe hemolytic transfusion reaction, autoantibody formation, and difficulties in the management of transfusion compatibility. Beside common antigens, a number of different RH variant antigens found in individuals of African descent can be involved in alloimmunization. If some variants, such as Hr(S) negative antigens, are known to prone significant alloantibodies and delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions, it is not clear whether all the described variants represent a clinical risk for sickle cell disease patients. The knowledge of the clinical relevance of RH variants is a real issue. An abundance of molecular tools are developed to detect variants, but they do not distinguish those likely to prone immunization from those that are unlikely to prone immunization and delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions. A strategy of prevention, which generally requires rare red blood cells, cannot be implemented without this fundamental information. In this review, we discuss the relevance of RH variants in sickle cell disease, based on the published data and on our experience in transfusion of these patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Teaching transfusion medicine: current situation and proposals for proper medical training

    PubMed Central

    Flausino, Gustavo de Freitas; Nunes, Flávio Ferreira; Cioffi, Júnia Guimarães Mourão; Proietti, Anna Bárbara de Freitas Carneiro

    2014-01-01

    The current curricula in medical schools and hospital residence worldwide lack exposure to blood transfusion medicine, and require the reformulation of academic programs. In many countries, training in blood transfusion is not currently offered to medical students or during residency. Clinical evidence indicates that blood transfusions occur more frequently than recommended, contributing to increased risk due to this procedure. Therefore, the rational use of blood and its components is essential, due to the frequent undesirable reactions, to the increasing demand of blood products and the cost of the process. Significant improvements in knowledge of and skills in transfusion medicine are needed by both students and residents. Improvements are needed in both background knowledge and the practical application of this knowledge to improve safety. Studies prove that hemovigilance has an impact on transfusion safety and helps to prevent the occurrence of transfusion-related adverse effects. To ensure that all these aspects of blood transfusion are being properly addressed, many countries have instituted hospital transfusion committees. From this perspective, the interventions performed during the formation of medical students and residents, even the simplest, have proven effective in the acquisition of knowledge and medical training, thereby leading to a reduction in inappropriate use of blood. Therefore, we would like to emphasize the importance of the exposure of medical students and residents to blood services and transfusion medicine in order for them to acquire adequate medical training, as well as to discuss some changes in the current medical curricula regarding transfusion medicine that we judge critical. PMID:25638770

  8. Exchange Transfusion for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 2006 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Ballot, Daynia E; Rugamba, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    Background. Severe hyperbilirubinaemia requiring exchange transfusion has become less common in recent years; however, kernicterus still occurs. The aim of this study was to review babies undergoing exchange transfusion for severe hyperbilirubinaemia in a Johannesburg hospital. Methodology. This was a retrospective review of babies who required exchange transfusion in both the neonatal and the paediatric wards from June 1, 2006, to December 31, 2011. Results. There were 64 patients who underwent 67 exchange transfusions. Isoimmune haemolysis (both Rh and ABO incompatibility) was the cause of jaundice in 9/64 (14%). Most babies who underwent exchange transfusion were sick or preterm and were admitted in hospital after birth (38/64; 59.5%); three of these babies died, but not during the exchange transfusion (3/38; 7.9%); all three had signs suggestive of neonatal sepsis. The remaining 26 babies (40.6%) were readmitted to the paediatric wards for exchange transfusion. Six of these babies (6/26; 23.0%) had signs of kernicterus. The most significant complication of exchange transfusion was apnoea requiring mechanical ventilation in three patients (3/64; 4.6%). Conclusion. Despite a relatively low number of babies undergoing exchange transfusion, kernicterus still occurs and must be prevented. Proper protocols for screening and management of severe hyperbilirubinaemia need to be enforced.

  9. Metastatic spine tumor surgery: does perioperative blood transfusion influence postoperative complications?

    PubMed

    Zaw, Aye Sandar; Kantharajanna, Shashidhar B; Maharajan, Karthikeyan; Tan, Barry; Saparamadu, Amarasinghe A; Kumar, Naresh

    2017-09-16

    The question of independent association between allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT) and postoperative complications in cancer surgeries has been controversial and remains so. In metastatic spine tumor surgery (MSTS), previous studies investigated the influence of ABT on survival, but not on postoperative complications. We aimed to evaluate the influence of perioperative ABT on postoperative complications and infections in patients undergoing MSTS. This retrospective study included 247 patients who underwent MSTS at a single tertiary institution between 2005 and 2014. The outcome measures were postoperative complications and infections within 30 days after MSTS. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess influence of blood transfusion on the outcomes after adjusting for potential confounders. Of 247 patients, 133 (54%) received ABT with overall median (range) of 2 (0-10) units. The adjusted odds of developing any postoperative complication was 2.27 times higher in patients with transfusion (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-4.38; p = 0.01) and 1.24 times higher odds per every unit increase in blood transfusion (95% CI, 1.05-1.46; p < 0.01). Exposure to blood transfusion also increased the odds of having overall postoperative infections (odds ratio, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.15-11.11; p = 0.02) and there were 1.24 times higher odds per every unit increase in transfusion (95% CI, 1.01-1.54; p = 0.04). This study adds evidence to the literature implicating ABT to be influential on postoperative complications and infections in patients undergoing MSTS. Appropriate blood management measures should, therefore, be given a crucial place in the care of these patients so as to reduce any putative effect of blood transfusion. © 2017 AABB.

  10. Massive transfusion in paediatric and adolescent trauma patients: incidence, patient profile, and outcomes prior to a massive transfusion protocol.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Michael Hobbs; Singh, Supriya; Merritt, Neil Howard

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the incidence, patient profile, and outcomes associated with massive transfusion in paediatric trauma patients prior to establishing a massive transfusion protocol. We performed a retrospective review of paediatric trauma patients treated at London Heath Sciences Centre between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011. Inclusion criteria were Injury Severity Score (ISS) greater than 12 and age less than 18 years. 435 patients met the inclusion criteria. Three hundred and fifty-six (82%) did not receive packed red blood cells in the first 24h, 66 (15%) received a non-massive transfusion (<40mL/kg), and 13 (3%) received a massive transfusion (>40mL/kg). Coagulopathy of any kind was more common in massive transfusion (11/13; 85%) than non-massive (32/66; 49%) (p=0.037). Hyperkalemia (18% versus 23%; p=0.98) and hypocalcemia (41% versus 46%; p=1.00) were similar in both groups. Of the 13 massively transfused patients, 9 had multisystem injuries due to a motor vehicle collision, 3 had non-accidental head injuries requiring surgical evacuation, and 1 had multiple stab wounds. In the absence of a massive transfusion protocol, only 8 of the 13 patients received both fresh frozen plasma and platelets in the first 24h. Massive transfusion occurred in patients from across the age spectrum and was associated with severe injuries (mean ISS=33), a higher incidence of severe head injuries (92%), longer hospital stay (mean=36 days), and increased mortality (38%). This study is the first to describe the incidence, complications, and outcomes associated with massive transfusion in paediatric trauma patients prior to a massive transfusion protocol. Massive transfusion occurred in 3% of patients and was associated with coagulopathy and poor outcomes. Protocols are needed to ensure that resuscitation occurs in a coordinated fashion and that patients are given appropriate amounts of fresh frozen plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate. Copyright

  11. Role of blood transfusion in organ system failure following major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Maetani, S; Nishikawa, T; Tobe, T; Hirakawa, A

    1986-01-01

    Using multivariate probit analysis, the data of 565 patients who underwent major abdominal surgery were retrospectively analyzed, and the etiologic role of blood transfusion in organ system failure (OSF), which includes respiratory failure, gastrointestinal stress bleeding, renal failure, nonobstructive, nonhepatitic jaundice, and coagulopathy, was studied. Apart from the amount of blood transfusion, the following factors were included in the analysis as possible contributors to OSF: age, preoperative hematocrit, organ failure risk (diffuse peritonitis, obstructive cholangitis, liver cirrhosis, terminal cancer, and hemorrhagic shock), operative time, blood loss, and postoperative highest hematocrit. The results showed that, except for preoperative hematocrit, all the factors are statistically significant contributors, blood transfusion being the most significant. There was no statistically significant interaction between blood transfusion and organ failure risk. It is concluded that blood transfusion is an important, independent factor contributing to OSF, and its contribution cannot be attributed to the underlying conditions that require blood transfusion. PMID:3485412

  12. Consequences of Transfusing Blood Components in Patients With Trauma: A Conceptual Model.

    PubMed

    Jones, Allison R; Frazier, Susan K

    2017-04-01

    Transfusion of blood components is often required in resuscitation of patients with major trauma. Packed red blood cells and platelets break down and undergo chemical changes during storage (known as the storage lesion) that lead to an inflammatory response once the blood components are transfused to patients. Although some evidence supports a detrimental association between transfusion and a patient's outcome, the mechanisms connecting transfusion of stored components to outcomes remain unclear. The purpose of this review is to provide critical care nurses with a conceptual model to facilitate understanding of the relationship between the storage lesion and patients' outcomes after trauma; outcomes related to trauma, hemorrhage, and blood component transfusion are grouped according to those occurring in the short-term (≤30 days) and the long-term (>30 days). Complete understanding of these clinical implications is critical for practitioners in evaluating and treating patients given transfusions after traumatic injury.

  13. Reducing the risk of transfusion-transmissible viral infection through blood donor selection: the Australian experience 2000 through 2006.

    PubMed

    Polizzotto, Mark N; Wood, Erica M; Ingham, Helen; Keller, Anthony J

    2008-01-01

    Selection of voluntary donors who are at low risk of transfusion-transmissible viral infection (TTVI) is central in maintaining the safety of the blood supply. Evaluation of its effectiveness and the dynamics of the process may offer opportunities to further improve transfusion safety. The impact of donor selection on prevalence of TTVI was analyzed in all allogeneic donations in Australia between July 2000 and June 2006 by interviewing donors found to have a TTVI. The presence and disclosure of infective risks was reassessed. A total of 6.3 million donations were tested; of these, 1,449 (0.02%) were repeat-reactive for a TTVI and were discarded. This comprised 605 (42%) positive for the presence of hepatitis B, 818 (56%) positive for the presence of hepatitis C, 18 (1%) positive for the presence of human immunodeficiency virus, and 20 (1%) positive for the presence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus-I and/or -II (HTLV-I/II). This prevalence was 50 to 350 times lower than in the Australian population. In 1,158 cases (80%), an infective risk was identified; 509 donors (44%) had more than one. The most common identified were country of birth and parental ethnicity (n = 682, 26% of risks), tattoos and/or piercings (n = 448, 18%), and intravenous drug use (n = 302, 12%). In 302 cases (21%) disclosure at predonation screening would have resulted in deferral. Factors influencing nondisclosure included temporal remoteness and perceptions that laboratory testing rendered disclosure unnecessary. These findings affirm the effectiveness of current stringent donor selection criteria in reducing the residual risk of TTVI. Ongoing donor education regarding the importance of risk disclosure is required.

  14. Risk factor analysis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tsung-Yen; Jaing, Tang-Her; Wen, Yu-Chuan; Huang, I-Anne; Chen, Shih-Hsiang; Tsay, Pei-Kwei

    2016-11-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a clinically relevant complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Currently, there is no established consensus regarding the optimal therapeutic approach. Whether AIHA contributes to increased mortality is still somewhat controversial.We investigated the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of post-transplant AIHA in 265 consecutive pediatric patients undergoing allo-HSCT over a 17-year period. Onset of AIHA was calculated from the first documented detection of AIHA by either clinical symptoms or positive direct agglutinin test. Resolution of AIHA was defined as normalization of hemoglobin and biochemical markers of hemolysis with sustained transfusion independence.We identified 15 cases of AIHA after allo-HSCT (incidence rate, 6%). Ten (67%) of these patients had a positive direct antiglobulin test. Data were obtained for 9 boys and 6 girls after a median follow-up of 53 months (range 4-102). The median age was 5.1 years (range 0.5-15.4) at the time of HSCT and the median time to emergence was 149 days (range 42-273). No significant risk factor for post-transplant AIHA has emerged from our data to date. In the majority (14 of 15; 93%) of AIHA patients, multiple agents for treatment were required, with 12 of 15 (80%) patients achieving complete resolution of AIHA. No splenectomy was performed in any of our patients.For various reasons, post-transplantation AIHA poses an extraordinary challenge to transplant physicians. Despite the advancements in diagnostic tools, therapeutic challenges remain due to the myriad interacting pathways in AIHA.

  15. Risk factor analysis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tsung-Yen; Jaing, Tang-Her; Wen, Yu-Chuan; Huang, I-Anne; Chen, Shih-Hsiang; Tsay, Pei-Kwei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a clinically relevant complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Currently, there is no established consensus regarding the optimal therapeutic approach. Whether AIHA contributes to increased mortality is still somewhat controversial. We investigated the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of post-transplant AIHA in 265 consecutive pediatric patients undergoing allo-HSCT over a 17-year period. Onset of AIHA was calculated from the first documented detection of AIHA by either clinical symptoms or positive direct agglutinin test. Resolution of AIHA was defined as normalization of hemoglobin and biochemical markers of hemolysis with sustained transfusion independence. We identified 15 cases of AIHA after allo-HSCT (incidence rate, 6%). Ten (67%) of these patients had a positive direct antiglobulin test. Data were obtained for 9 boys and 6 girls after a median follow-up of 53 months (range 4–102). The median age was 5.1 years (range 0.5–15.4) at the time of HSCT and the median time to emergence was 149 days (range 42–273). No significant risk factor for post-transplant AIHA has emerged from our data to date. In the majority (14 of 15; 93%) of AIHA patients, multiple agents for treatment were required, with 12 of 15 (80%) patients achieving complete resolution of AIHA. No splenectomy was performed in any of our patients. For various reasons, post-transplantation AIHA poses an extraordinary challenge to transplant physicians. Despite the advancements in diagnostic tools, therapeutic challenges remain due to the myriad interacting pathways in AIHA. PMID:27861376

  16. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for MDS and CMML: recommendations from an international expert panel.

    PubMed

    de Witte, Theo; Bowen, David; Robin, Marie; Malcovati, Luca; Niederwieser, Dietger; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Mufti, Ghulam J; Fenaux, Pierre; Sanz, Guillermo; Martino, Rodrigo; Alessandrino, Emilio Paolo; Onida, Francesco; Symeonidis, Argiris; Passweg, Jakob; Kobbe, Guido; Ganser, Arnold; Platzbecker, Uwe; Finke, Jürgen; van Gelder, Michel; van de Loosdrecht, Arjan A; Ljungman, Per; Stauder, Reinhard; Volin, Liisa; Deeg, H Joachim; Cutler, Corey; Saber, Wael; Champlin, Richard; Giralt, Sergio; Anasetti, Claudio; Kröger, Nicolaus

    2017-03-30

    An international expert panel, active within the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, European LeukemiaNet, Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trial Group, and the International Myelodysplastic Syndromes Foundation developed recommendations for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). Disease risks scored according to the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) and presence of comorbidity graded according to the HCT Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) were recognized as relevant clinical variables for HSCT eligibility. Fit patients with higher-risk IPSS-R and those with lower-risk IPSS-R with poor-risk genetic features, profound cytopenias, and high transfusion burden are candidates for HSCT. Patients with a very high MDS transplantation risk score, based on combination of advanced age, high HCT-CI, very poor-risk cytogenetic and molecular features, and high IPSS-R score have a low chance of cure with standard HSCT and consideration should be given to treating these patients in investigational studies. Cytoreductive therapy prior to HSCT is advised for patients with ≥10% bone marrow myeloblasts. Evidence from prospective randomized clinical trials does not provide support for specific recommendations on the optimal high intensity conditioning regimen. For patients with contraindications to high-intensity preparative regimens, reduced intensity conditioning should be considered. Optimal timing of HSCT requires careful evaluation of the available effective nontransplant strategies. Prophylactic donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) strategies are recommended in patients at high risk of relapse after HSCT. Immune modulation by DLI strategies or second HSCT is advised if relapse occurs beyond 6 months after HSCT. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. Accuracy of Estimated Blood Loss in Predicting Need for Transfusion after Delivery.

    PubMed

    Conner, Shayna N; Tuuli, Methodius G; Colvin, Ryan; Shanks, Anthony L; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G

    2015-11-01

    The definition of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) was developed more than 50 years ago. Since then, the obstetric population has changed dramatically. We sought to determine how well we estimated blood loss (EBL) and find thresholds predicting need for transfusion. We performed a prospective cohort study from 2010 to 2012, comparing those who needed transfusion postpartum and those who did not. EBL, calculated EBL (cEBL), and change in hematocrit were calculated for patients who did not receive transfusion, and EBL was calculated for those who did receive transfusion, stratified by delivery type. Receiver operator curves were created and optimal thresholds of EBL to predict transfusion were estimated. Among 4,804 patients, transfusion was required for 0.65% of vaginal and 8.7% of cesarean deliveries. Median EBL was higher in women requiring transfusion. A weak correlation was noted between EBL and cEBL for all deliveries. Thresholds of 500 mL blood loss for vaginal delivery and 1,000 mL for cesarean had the best predictive ability for transfusion. In this modern obstetric, cohort EBL is weakly correlated with cEBL, suggesting that accuracy of clinical estimates of blood loss is modest. However, EBL predicts need for transfusion, with optimal thresholds of 500 mL for a vaginal delivery and 1,000 mL in a cesarean. This validates the traditional definitions of PPH in our modern population. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Anemia and red blood cell transfusion in neurocritical care

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Andreas H; Zygun, David A

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Anemia is one of the most common medical complications to be encountered in critically ill patients. Based on the results of clinical trials, transfusion practices across the world have generally become more restrictive. However, because reduced oxygen delivery contributes to 'secondary' cerebral injury, anemia may not be as well tolerated among neurocritical care patients. Methods The first portion of this paper is a narrative review of the physiologic implications of anemia, hemodilution, and transfusion in the setting of brain-injury and stroke. The second portion is a systematic review to identify studies assessing the association between anemia or the use of red blood cell transfusions and relevant clinical outcomes in various neurocritical care populations. Results There have been no randomized controlled trials that have adequately assessed optimal transfusion thresholds specifically among brain-injured patients. The importance of ischemia and the implications of anemia are not necessarily the same for all neurocritical care conditions. Nevertheless, there exists an extensive body of experimental work, as well as human observational and physiologic studies, which have advanced knowledge in this area and provide some guidance to clinicians. Lower hemoglobin concentrations are consistently associated with worse physiologic parameters and clinical outcomes; however, this relationship may not be altered by more aggressive use of red blood cell transfusions. Conclusions Although hemoglobin concentrations as low as 7 g/dl are well tolerated in most critical care patients, such a severe degree of anemia could be harmful in brain-injured patients. Randomized controlled trials of different transfusion thresholds, specifically in neurocritical care settings, are required. The impact of the duration of blood storage on the neurologic implications of transfusion also requires further investigation. PMID:19519893

  19. Massive Transfusion Protocol Simulation: An Innovative Approach to Team Training.

    PubMed

    Langston, Allison; Downing, Dayna; Packard, Jennifer; Kopulos, Marion; Burcie, Shelley; Martin, Kay; Lewis, Brennan

    2017-06-01

    At a 72-bed pediatric facility, a multidisciplinary team approach was used to prepare for the expansion of services for patients requiring spinal fusion. This preparation included emergency response requiring massive transfusion, necessitating the need for a Massive Transfusion Protocol (MTP) process to be in place. Such instances are low volume/high risk, creating difficulty for staff to gain and maintain proficiency with the equipment and processes related to the MTP in a secure environment. The purpose of this article is to highlight the preparation and education put into place before receiving the first pediatric patient for spinal fusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acquired hemoglobin variants and exposure to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient red blood cell units during exchange transfusion for sickle cell disease in a patient requiring antigen-matched blood.

    PubMed

    Raciti, Patricia M; Francis, Richard O; Spitalnik, Patrice F; Schwartz, Joseph; Jhang, Jeffrey S

    2013-08-01

    Red blood cell exchange (RBCEx) is frequently used in the management of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and acute chest syndrome or stroke, or to maintain target hemoglobin S (HbS) levels. In these settings, RBCEx is a category I or II recommendation according to guidelines on the use of therapeutic apheresis published by the American Society for Apheresis. Matching donor red blood cells (RBCs) to recipient phenotypes (e.g., C, E, K-antigen negative) can decrease the risk of alloimmunization in patients with multi-transfused SCD. However, this may select for donors with a higher prevalence of RBC disorders for which screening is not performed. This report describes a patient with SCD treated with RBCEx using five units negative for C, E, K, Fya, Fyb (prospectively matched), four of which were from donors with hemoglobin variants and/or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Pre-RBCEx HbS quantification by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) demonstrated 49.3% HbS and 2.8% hemoglobin C, presumably from transfusion of a hemoglobin C-containing RBC unit during a previous RBCEx. Post-RBCEx HPLC showed the appearance of hemoglobin G-Philadelphia. Two units were G6PD-deficient. The patient did well, but the consequences of transfusing RBC units that are G6PD-deficient and contain hemoglobin variants are unknown. Additional studies are needed to investigate effects on storage, in-vivo RBC recovery and survival, and physiological effects following transfusion of these units. Post-RBCEx HPLC can monitor RBCEx efficiency and detect the presence of abnormal transfused units.

  1. Donor WBCs can persist and transiently mediate immunologic function in a murine transfusion model: effects of irradiation, storage, and histocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Lee, T H; Reed, W; Mangawang-Montalvo, L; Watson, J; Busch, M P

    2001-05-01

    Donor WBCs are responsible for numerous transfusion complications, but little is known concerning the natural history of their clearance following transfusion or of their function in the recipient's circulation. A murine transfusion model was developed to investigate the effects of blood component characteristics and histocompatibility on donor WBC survival kinetics and function. To investigate the effects of storage and irradiation, fresh whole blood and blood stored for 1, 2, and 6 weeks at 4 degrees C, all from male C57b (H2K(b)) mice, was transfused to female Balb/c (H2K(d)) mice. To study the effect of histocompatibility, blood was also transfused from C57b mice to Balb/c, FVB, C3H, and SW (outbred) mice. To investigate the xenogeneic setting, blood from humans, rats, and rabbits was transfused to Balb/c mice. Samples were collected weekly after transfusion, and the donor WBCs were analyzed, targeting the Y-chromosome with quantitative PCR. To investigate donor WBC function, dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) sensitivity was induced in donor and recipient mice, and the transfusion recipients were observed for hypersensitivity to DNCB. Donor WBCs had reduced in vivo survival equivalent to their period of storage ex vivo at 4 degrees C. Irradiation of donor blood produced no observable difference in donor WBC survival. Allogeneic male donor WBCs persisted (100-<1 cell/microL) in female Balb/c recipient mice blood over 6 weeks. Donor WBC survival kinetics displayed an early MHC-dependent phase, which was followed by a more rapid phase that was not influenced by donor-recipient MHC differences. All donor WBCs were cleared within 24 to 48 hours. DNCB sensitivity was passed through transfusion, where it was transiently expressed in naive recipients. The clearance of donor WBCs in the murine transfusion model is much slower than that in humans. Allogeneic donor WBC clearance may be biphasic, involving MHC-dependent as well as MHC-independent mechanisms. DNCB sensitivity can

  2. Low levels of allogeneic but not syngeneic hematopoietic chimerism reverse autoimmune insulitis in prediabetic NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Kaminitz, Ayelet; Mizrahi, Keren; Yaniv, Isaac; Farkas, Daniel L; Stein, Jerry; Askenasy, Nadir

    2009-09-01

    The relative efficiencies of allogeneic and syngeneic bone marrow transplantation and the threshold levels of donor chimerism required to control autoimmune insulitis were evaluated in prediabetic NOD mice. Male and female NOD mice were conditioned by radiation and grafted with bone marrow cells from allogeneic and syngeneic sex-mismatched donors. Establishment of full allogeneic chimerism in peripheral blood reversed insulitis and restored glucose tolerance despite persistence of residual host immune cells. By contrast, sublethal total body irradiation (with or without syngeneic transplant) reduced the incidence and delayed the onset of diabetes. The latter pattern was also seen in mice that rejected the bone marrow allografts. Low levels of stable allogeneic hematopoietic chimerism (>1%) were sufficient to prevent the evolution of diabetes following allogeneic transplantation. The data indicate that immunomodulation attained at low levels of allogeneic, but not syngeneic, hematopoietic chimerism is effective in resolution of islet inflammation at even relatively late stages in the evolution of the prediabetic state in a preclinical model. However, our data question the efficacy and rationale behind syngeneic (autologous-like) immuno-hematopoietic reconstitution in type 1 diabetes.

  3. Is ABO mismatch another risk factor for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in pediatric thalassemic patients?

    PubMed

    Atay, Didem; Erbey, Fatih; Akcay, Arzu; Ozturk, Gulyuz

    2015-09-01

    The ABO incompatibility between donor and recipient is not considered a barrier to successful allogeneic HSCT. Nevertheless, conflicting data still exist about the influence of ABO incompatibility on transplant outcome in pediatric patients with thalassemia. Fifty-one children with beta-thalassemia major who underwent allogeneic HSCT were enrolled this study. Twenty-three of them (45%) received an ABO-incompatible transplant [minor ABO mismatch: six (26%), major ABO mismatch: fourteen (61%), and bidirectional mismatch: three (13%)]. In this study, ABO incompatibility did not significantly impair GVHD, VOD, neutrophil and platelet engraftment, TRM, OS and TFS. Particularly in major and bidirectional ABO-mismatched patients, a delayed erythroid recovery was recorded as compared to the group receiving an ABO-compatible graft (median time, 31 and 38 days vs. 19.5 days; p: 0.02 and p: 0.03). Median time to red cell transfusion independence was significantly longer in major ABO-incompatible patients (median time, 87 days vs. 32 days; p: 0.001). Therefore, whenever feasible, major ABO-mismatched donors should be avoided in HSCT recipients, to prevent delayed erythroid recovery with prolonged RBC transfusion needs and impaired quality of life.

  4. Transfusion safety in developing countries and the Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Ray, V L; Chaudhary, R K; Choudhury, N

    2000-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic has brought into focus the importance of safe blood transfusion. The management of an effective transfusion service is an expensive endeavour even in the most developed countries, and is therefore a monumental challenge for developing countries with limited budgets and other priorities. HIV prevalence in the Indian population has shown a steady rise from 0.5% in 1990 to 1.2% in 1997 with the highest prevalence in cities. When the HIV infection was discovered in India in 1986, the health authorities set up the National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) with a primary focus on ensuring a safe blood supply. NACO was funded by the World Bank and technically supported by WHO. The supreme Court of India has also taken up the issue of blood safety by banning paid donations by the end of 1997 and established the autonomous National Blood Transfusion Council and the State Transfusion Councils. The Drugs Controller of India and State F.D.A. have issued licences to all blood banks to streamline them after all requirements are met. However, there are a number of blood banks which are operating without licences. While India collects three million units of blood, barely 10% is available as blood components, and only a percentage of the blood is being screened for infectious markers. Nevertheless, there is a general recognition that an improved transfusion service is required in India.

  5. [Economic environment and blood transfusion].

    PubMed

    Durand-Zaleski, I

    2015-08-01

    The increasing pressure on healthcare resources affects blood donation and transfusion. We attempted a survey of the efficiency of different strategies, actual or proposed to improve the management of blood products. We found an important disconnect between the cost effectiveness ratio of strategies and their uptake by policy makers. In other words, the least efficient strategies are those which increase transfusion safety by increasing the number of biological markers and are those preferred by health authorities in developed countries. Other more efficient strategies are more slowly implemented and included a systematic use of transfusion guidelines, reducing blood losses or increasing pre operative blood levels in elective surgeries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  6. [Granulocytes transfusion for neutropenic patients].

    PubMed

    Fernández, J; Pressiani, V; Solimano, J; Koziner, B

    2001-01-01

    A renewed interest in the transfusion of granulocytes for support of patients afflicted by severe and prolonged neutropenia has resulted from improved methods of mobilization and collection that provide cellular products superior in number and functions as compared with historical experiences of the 70's. In this review we discuss the clinical experience reported in the literature over the past three decades, the progress made in donor selection, the use of growth factors and mechanical apheresis. We comment on adverse effects, emphasize present indications and our own experience for the use of granulocyte transfusions. Hopefully, the progress made in this area will justify the consideration of granulocyte transfusions in the management of the severely neutropenic patient and provide proper documentation to avoid repeating the disappointment experienced in the previous two decades.

  7. Alternatives, and adjuncts, to prophylactic platelet transfusion for people with haematological malignancies undergoing intensive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Desborough, Michael; Estcourt, Lise J; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally; Stanworth, Simon J; Murphy, Michael F

    2016-08-22

    review included 10 trials in eight references with 554 participants. Six trials (336 participants) only included participants with acute myeloid leukaemia undergoing intensive chemotherapy, two trials (38 participants) included participants with lymphoma undergoing intensive chemotherapy and two trials (180 participants) reported participants undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Men and women were equally well represented in the trials. The age range of participants included in the trials was from 16 years to 81 years. All trials took place in high-income countries. The manufacturers of the agent sponsored eight trials that were under investigation, and two trials did not report their source of funding.No trials assessed artificial platelet substitutes, fibrinogen concentrate, recombinant activated factor VII or desmopressin.Nine trials compared a TPO mimetic to placebo or standard care; seven of these used pegylated recombinant human megakaryocyte growth and differentiation factor (PEG-rHuMGDF) and two used recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO).One trial compared platelet-poor plasma to platelet transfusion.We considered that all the trials included in this review were at high risk of bias and meta-analysis was not possible in seven trials due to problems with the way data were reported.We are very uncertain whether TPO mimetics reduce the number of participants with any bleeding episode (odds ratio (OR) 0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10 to 1.62, one trial, 120 participants, very low quality evidence). We are very uncertain whether TPO mimetics reduce the risk of a life-threatening bleed after 30 days (OR 1.46, 95% CI 0.06 to 33.14, three trials, 209 participants, very low quality evidence); or after 90 days (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.06 to 16.37, one trial, 120 participants, very low quality evidence). We are very uncertain whether TPO mimetics reduce platelet transfusion requirements after 30 days (mean difference -3.00 units, 95% CI -5.39 to -0.61, one

  8. Alternatives, and adjuncts, to prophylactic platelet transfusion for people with haematological malignancies undergoing intensive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Desborough, Michael; Estcourt, Lise J; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally; Stanworth, Simon J; Murphy, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    not yet been published (trial completion dates: April 2012 to February 2017). Therefore, the review included 10 trials in eight references with 554 participants. Six trials (336 participants) only included participants with acute myeloid leukaemia undergoing intensive chemotherapy, two trials (38 participants) included participants with lymphoma undergoing intensive chemotherapy and two trials (180 participants) reported participants undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Men and women were equally well represented in the trials. The age range of participants included in the trials was from 16 years to 81 years. All trials took place in high-income countries. The manufacturers of the agent sponsored eight trials that were under investigation, and two trials did not report their source of funding. No trials assessed artificial platelet substitutes, fibrinogen concentrate, recombinant activated factor VII or desmopressin. Nine trials compared a TPO mimetic to placebo or standard care; seven of these used pegylated recombinant human megakaryocyte growth and differentiation factor (PEG-rHuMGDF) and two used recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO). One trial compared platelet-poor plasma to platelet transfusion. We considered that all the trials included in this review were at high risk of bias and meta-analysis was not possible in seven trials due to problems with the way data were reported. We are very uncertain whether TPO mimetics reduce the number of participants with any bleeding episode (odds ratio (OR) 0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10 to 1.62, one trial, 120 participants, very low quality evidence). We are very uncertain whether TPO mimetics reduce the risk of a life-threatening bleed after 30 days (OR 1.46, 95% CI 0.06 to 33.14, three trials, 209 participants, very low quality evidence); or after 90 days (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.06 to 16.37, one trial, 120 participants, very low quality evidence). We are very uncertain whether TPO mimetics reduce

  9. Benchmarking: applications to transfusion medicine.

    PubMed

    Apelseth, Torunn Oveland; Molnar, Laura; Arnold, Emmy; Heddle, Nancy M

    2012-10-01

    Benchmarking is as a structured continuous collaborative process in which comparisons for selected indicators are used to identify factors that, when implemented, will improve transfusion practices. This study aimed to identify transfusion medicine studies reporting on benchmarking, summarize the benchmarking approaches used, and identify important considerations to move the concept of benchmarking forward in the field of transfusion medicine. A systematic review of published literature was performed to identify transfusion medicine-related studies that compared at least 2 separate institutions or regions with the intention of benchmarking focusing on 4 areas: blood utilization, safety, operational aspects, and blood donation. Forty-five studies were included: blood utilization (n = 35), safety (n = 5), operational aspects of transfusion medicine (n = 5), and blood donation (n = 0). Based on predefined criteria, 7 publications were classified as benchmarking, 2 as trending, and 36 as single-event studies. Three models of benchmarking are described: (1) a regional benchmarking program that collects and links relevant data from existing electronic sources, (2) a sentinel site model where data from a limited number of sites are collected, and (3) an institutional-initiated model where a site identifies indicators of interest and approaches other institutions. Benchmarking approaches are needed in the field of transfusion medicine. Major challenges include defining best practices and developing cost-effective methods of data collection. For those interested in initiating a benchmarking program, the sentinel site model may be most effective and sustainable as a starting point, although the regional model would be the ideal goal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Increased efficacy of allogenic bone marrow transplantation].

    PubMed

    Fedotenkov, A G; Danilova, L A; Ignasheva, L P

    1982-08-01

    Experiments made in vivo and vitro have demonstrated that conservation of allogeneic hemopoietic tissue with glycerin brings about a decrease in transplatation, homologous activity of T lymphocytes. Allogeneic bone marrow conserved with glycerin compares very favourably with freshly prepared allogeneic bone marrow since the transplant-versus-host reaction is attenuated under the effect of glycerin. Moreover, it shows a higher proliferative activity. The glycerin-induced reduction of the inactivating effect of lymphocytes against non-syngeneic colony-forming units enables the conserved bone marrow to be transplanted from several donors.

  11. [Blood transfusions in Jehovah's witnesses].

    PubMed

    Aguilera, P

    1993-04-01

    Jehovah Witnesses cite religious motives to refuse transfusions of whole blood or its components for themselves and their children, even when life is endangered. An ethical analysis of decision making in health problems is made, giving priority to the alternatives chosen by the patient. One of the elements that turns a therapeutic procedure into extraordinary is the moral impossibility of its use, originated in a subjective cause. The right to act with freedom in religious matters must also be considered. It is concluded that the denial of a Jehovah Witness to be transfused must be respected. However, in the case of children, the physicians should disregard the parents rejection.

  12. Neonatal outcome after fetal anemia managed by intrauterine transfusion.

    PubMed

    Garabedian, C; Rakza, T; Thomas, D; Wibaut, B; Vaast, P; Subtil, D; Houfflin-Debarge, V

    2015-11-01

    In-utero transfusion is now well under control and improves the survival of foetuses monitored for fetal anemia with a survival rate of more than 80 %. The aim was to evaluate short-term neonatal outcome after fetal severe anemia managed by intrauterine transfusions. We did a retrospective study of all neonates born after management of severe fetal anemia (n = 93) between January 1999 and January 2013 in our regional center. The two main causes of anemia were maternal red blood cell alloimmunization (N = 81, 87 %) and Parvovirus B19 infection (N = 10, 10.8 %). In the alloimmunization group, phototherapy was implemented in 85.2 % of cases with a maximum level of bilirubin of 114.4 ± 60.7 (mg/dl). Transfusion and exchange transfusion were, respectively, required in 51.9 % and in 34.6 % of cases. One neonate presented a convulsive episode, and we observed three neonatal deaths. In the parvovirus group, none of the child had anemia at birth and no management was necessary. Contemporary management of Rhesus disease is associated with encouraging neonatal outcomes. In case of Parvovirus infection, no specific management is necessary at. But, in all cases of fetal anemia, children should be followed up with particular attention to neurologic development. • In-utero transfusion is now well under control and improves the survival of fetuses monitored for fetal anemia. • Limited studies are available on the effect of IUT on postnatal outcome in infants with a history of fetal anemia. What is New: • Contemporary management of severe Rhesus disease is associated with encouraging neonatal outcomes. • The majority of infants can be managed with phototherapy and a limited number of top-up transfusions and exchange transfusions. In case of Parvovirus infection, the short-term neonatal outcome is excellent.

  13. Assessment of clinical and laboratory variables as a guide to packed red blood cell transfusion of euvolemic anemic dogs.

    PubMed

    Kisielewicz, C; Self, I; Bell, R

    2014-01-01

    There are no standardized guidelines for determining the likelihood that euvolemic anemic dogs will benefit from transfusion of packed red blood cells (pRBC). To report clinical and laboratory variables of dogs receiving pRBC transfusion, which could guide transfusion of other anemic dogs. Twenty-four client-owned anemic dogs receiving pRBC transfusion. Prospective study; 30 transfusions assessed. Clinical findings (mucosal color, pulse quality, heart rate, respiratory rate, mentation/exercise tolerance) before and after transfusion were evaluated by the anemic dog clinical assessment score (ADCAS). Hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, venous oxygen content (CvO2 ), and lactate concentration were measured from blood samples taken before and after transfusion. These results were not used for case management. All ADCAS variables decreased significantly with transfusion (P < .001); the total score was ≥5/12 before transfusion, and ≤3/12 in all cases that were deemed to no longer require transfusion. Hematocrit and CvO2 were <17% and <5 mL/dL, respectively, in 83% of cases before transfusion and hemoglobin concentration was <5.8 g/dL in 80%. Hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and CvO2 increased significantly with transfusion (P < .001); lactate concentration decreased significantly (P = .006). Clinical and laboratory variables improved significantly after transfusion of pRBC. By identifying how transfusion affected these variables, it was possible to recognize clinical (ADCAS) and laboratory (hemoglobin, CvO2 , lactate) variables, which could be useful in guiding the decision to transfuse dogs with similar presentations. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. SUCCESSFUL FERTILITY RESTORATION AFTER ALLOGENEIC HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Gharwan, Helen; Neary, Nicola M.; Link, Mary; Hsieh, Matthew M.; Fitzhugh, Courtney D.; Sherins, Richard J.; Tisdale, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Myeloablative conditioning regimens given prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) frequently cause permanent sterility in men. In patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) we use a nonmyeloablative regimen with sirolimus, alemtuzumab, and low-dose total-body irradiation (300 centigrays) with gonadal shielding preceding allogeneic HSCT. We report here the restoration of azoospermia in a patient with SCD after allogeneic HSCT. We discuss the impact of our patient’s underlying chronic medical conditions and the therapies he had received (frequent blood transfusions, iron chelating drugs, ribavirin, hydroxyurea, opioids), as well as the impact of the nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen on male gonadal function, and we review the literature on this topic. Methods We determined the patient’s reproductive hormonal values and his semen parameters before, during, and after HSCT and infertility treatment. In addition, we routinely measured his serum laboratory parameters pertinent to SCD and infertility, such as iron and ferritin levels. A karyotype analysis was performed to assess the potential presence of Klinefelter syndrome. Finally, imaging studies of the patient’s brain and testes were done to rule out further underlying pathology. Results A 42-year-old man with SCD, transfusional iron overload, and hepatitis C underwent a nonmyeloablative allogeneic HSCT. One year later he desired to father a child but was found to be azoospermic in the context of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Restoration of fertility was attempted with human chorionic gonadotropin (2,000 IU) plus human menopausal gonadotropin (75 IU follicle-stimulating hormone) injected subcutaneously 3 times weekly. Within 6 months of treatment, the patient’s serum calculated free testosterone value normalized, and his sperm count and sperm motility improved. After 10 months, he successfully initiated a pregnancy through intercourse. The pregnancy was uncomplicated, and a healthy

  15. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI).

    PubMed

    Roberts, George H

    2004-01-01

    Transfusion is an inevitable event in the life of many individuals. Transfusion medicine personnel attempt to provide blood products that will result in a safe and harmless transfusion. However, this is not always possible since no laboratory test gives totally accurate and reliable results all the time and testing in routine transfusion services is devoted primarily to the identification of red blood cell problems. Thus, when patients are transfused, several possible adverse effects may occur in the transfused patient even though quality testing indicates no potential problem. These adverse events include infectious complications, hemolytic reactions, anaphylaxis, urticaria, circulatory overload, transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease, chills and fever, immunomodulation, and transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI).

  16. Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001595.htm Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome is a rare condition ...

  17. A Derivation and Validation Study of an Early Blood Transfusion Needs Score for Severe Trauma Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Umejiego, Johnbosco; Robinson, Richard D; Schrader, Chet D; Leuck, JoAnna; Barra, Michael; Buca, Stefan; Shedd, Andrew; Bui, Andrew; Zenarosa, Nestor R

    2016-08-01

    There is no existing adequate blood transfusion needs determination tool that Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel can use for prehospital blood transfusion initiation. In this study, a simple and pragmatic prehospital blood transfusion needs scoring system was derived and validated. Local trauma registry data were reviewed retrospectively from 2004 through 2013. Patients were randomly assigned to derivation and validation cohorts. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the independent approachable risks associated with early blood transfusion needs in the derivation cohort in which a scoring system was derived. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operational characteristic (AUC) were calculated and compared using both the derivation and validation data. A total of 24,303 patients were included with 12,151 patients in the derivation and 12,152 patients in the validation cohorts. Age, penetrating injury, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) were risks predictive of early blood transfusion needs. An early blood transfusion needs score was derived. A score > 5 indicated risk of early blood transfusion need with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 80%. A sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 80% were also found in the validation study and their AUC showed no statistically significant difference (AUC of the derivation = 0.87 versus AUC of the validation = 0.86, P > 0.05). An early blood transfusion scoring system was derived and internally validated to predict severe trauma patients requiring blood transfusion during prehospital or initial emergency department resuscitation.

  18. Electrolyte and acid/base changes in dogs undergoing autologous blood transfusion via a cell salvage device

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Jodie L.; Thieman Mankin, Kelley M.; Levine, Gwendolyn J.; Thompson, James

    2015-01-01

    This study reports electrolyte and acid/base disturbances observed in clinical cases receiving autologous transfusion of blood processed by a cell salvage device. The records of 12 client-owned dogs that received an autologous transfusion via a cell salvage device with pre- and post-autologous transfusion blood work available were reviewed. Blood work from the 12 case dogs was compared to blood work from 12 control dogs with similar diseases. Control dogs received similar surgical treatment and were administered a similar volume per kg of packed red blood cells as case dogs, but did not undergo autologous transfusion. Case dogs that received autologous transfusion via a cell salvage device were significantly more likely to experience a decrease in ionized calcium and magnesium levels post-transfusion than were control dogs. Calcium and magnesium levels should be closely monitored during and after autologous transfusion. Calcium and/or magnesium supplementation may be required. PMID:26345136

  19. Blood transfusion in Europe: basic principles for initial and continuous training in transfusion medicine: an approach to an European harmonisation.

    PubMed

    Mueller, M M; Seifried, E

    2006-11-01

    and 2001/19/EC, the directives of the European Parliament and of the Council on the mutual recognition of professional qualifications of European doctors currently in force, as well as the impending directive 2005/36/EC, which has to be translated into national law until October 2007, do not include transfusion medicine, blood transfusion or immunohaematology at all. Other medical specialities, which like our field, are not common to all member states of the European Union, are listed in the above mentioned directives with the minimum length of training and minimal requirements for the qualifications. Examples include clinical biology, biological haematology, microbiology-bacteriology, biological chemistry, immunology, thoracic, paediatric or vascular surgery as well as physiotherapy, stomatology, neuro-psychiatry, dermato-venerology, occupational medicine, allergology, geriatrics, gastro-enterological surgery, community medicine, nuclear medicine, pharmacology, accident and emergency medicine or tropical medicine. Most of the above are medical specialities in some member states, but not in all. A concerted initiative inaugurated by the European Network of Transfusion Medicine Societies (EuroNet-TMS) and the European Blood Alliance (EBA) aims to compile the situation of the transfusion medicine speciality throughout Europe. A preliminary summary of the current situation in 15 European states was prepared in 2005 after a first set of questions, which was sent out by us via the EBA platform. The authors appreciate Clair Watts' compilation of the answers provided by the 15 European colleagues. A summary of these answers is depicted in Table 1. However, the initiative aims at a more complex analysis of the different requirements and constituent parts of the qualification in transfusion medicine in different countries. A long-term objective of this initiative might be to introduce the transfusion medicine specialisation into the above mentioned EC directives in order to

  20. Role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in mantle cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jonathon B.; Burns, Linda J.; Bachanova, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Despite a wide spectrum of treatment options, mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) remains a challenging hematologic malignancy to manage. Advances in front-line therapy, including the monoclonal antibody rituximab and increasing use of cytarabine, have improved remission rates. Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can effectively consolidate remission of MCL, leading to encouraging survival beyond 5 yr. However, nearly all patients with MCL will relapse and require salvage therapy. Novel agents such as ibrutinib, bortezomib, and lenalidomide have dramatically expanded the options for treating relapsed MCL. In this review, we summarize the clinical evidence supporting the use of allogeneic donor HCT in MCL and make recommendations on indications for its use. Data suggest that allogeneic donor HCT is the only curative therapy for patients with poor prognosis or aggressive MCL. Patient selection, timing, and optimal use remain a matter of scientific debate and given the rapidly changing therapeutic landscape of MCL, the outcomes of allogeneic HCT should be interpreted in the context of novel therapeutics. PMID:25154430

  1. Analysis of complications after blood components' transfusions.

    PubMed

    Timler, Dariusz; Klepaczka, Jadwiga; Kasielska-Trojan, Anna; Bogusiak, Katarzyna

    2015-04-01

    Complications after blood components still constitute an important clinical problem and serve as limitation of liberal-transfusion strategy. The aim of the study was to present the 5-year incidence of early blood transfusions complications and to assess their relation to the type of the transfused blood components. 58,505 transfusions of blood components performed in the years 2006-2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Data concerning the amount of the transfused blood components and the numbers of adverse transfusion reactions reported to the Regional Blood Donation and Treatment Center (RBDTC) was collected. 95 adverse transfusion reactions were reportedto RBDTC 0.16% of alldonations (95/58 505) - 58 after PRBC transfusions, 28 after platelet concentrate transfusions and 9 after FFP transfusion. Febrile nonhemolytic and allergic reactions constitute respectively 36.8% and 30.5% of all complications. Nonhemolyticand allergic reactions are the most common complications of blood components transfusion and they are more common after platelet concentrate transfusions in comparison to PRBC and FFP donations.

  2. Transfusion-related acute lung injury risk mitigation: an update.

    PubMed

    Otrock, Z K; Liu, C; Grossman, B J

    2017-09-25

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a life-threatening complication of transfusion. Greater understanding of the pathophysiology of this syndrome has much improved during the last two decades. Plasma-containing components from female donors with leucocyte antibodies were responsible for the majority of TRALI fatalities before mitigation strategies were implemented. Over the past 15 years, measures to mitigate risk for TRALI have been implemented worldwide and they continued to evolve with time. The AABB requires that all plasma containing components and whole blood for transfusion must be collected from men, women who have not been pregnant, or women who have tested negative for human leucocyte antigen antibodies. Although the incidence of TRALI has decreased following the institution of TRALI mitigation strategies, TRALI is still the most common cause of transfusion-associated death in the United States. In this review, we focus on TRALI risk mitigation strategies. We describe the measures taken by blood collection facilities to reduce the risk of TRALI in the United States, Canada and European countries. We also review the literature for the effectiveness of these measures. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  3. Alemtuzumab in allogeneic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Poiré, Xavier; van Besien, Koen

    2011-01-01

    Introduction With the use of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC), early toxicity of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) has been much reduced. Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) causes morbidities and mortality. Alemtuzumab is a mAb directed against CD52. When administered prior to transplant it leads to T-cell depletion. Incorporation of alemtuzumab in RIC results in low rates of GvHD and treatment-related mortality (TRM) in haematological diseases, even in the setting of mismatched-donor transplantation. Areas covered The use of alemtuzumab for GvHD in SCT. The benefit of alemtuzumab-based conditioning is partially offset by increased disease relapse due to impaired graft-versus-tumor effect (GvT) and by slower immune reconstitution, necessitating special precautions. While GvHD is prevented with alemtuzumab, post-SCT interventions are often required. Most studies find that alemtuzumab-based conditioning results in decreased chronic GvHD and TRM, but also in decreased progression-free survival. Overall survival after 3 – 5 years is usually equivalent and quality of life may be improved because of a lower incidence of sequelae of chronic GvHD. Many aspects of alemtuzumab treatment are under investigation. Expert opinion Alemtuzumab reduces GvHD and TRM after SCT. Use of alemtuzumab requires awareness and strict management of the risk of opportunistic infections and of an increased risk of disease recurrence. PMID:21702703

  4. Alemtuzumab in allogeneic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Poiré, Xavier; van Besien, Koen

    2011-08-01

    With the use of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC), early toxicity of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) has been much reduced. Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) causes morbidities and mortality. Alemtuzumab is a mAb directed against CD52. When administered prior to transplant, it leads to T-cell depletion. Incorporation of alemtuzumab in RIC results in low rates of GvHD and treatment-related mortality (TRM) in haematological diseases, even in the setting of mismatched-donor transplantation. The use of alemtuzumab for GvHD prophylaxis in SCT. The benefit of alemtuzumab-based conditioning is partially offset by increased disease relapse due to impaired graft-versus-tumor effect (GvT) and by slower immune reconstitution, necessitating special precautions. While GvHD is prevented with alemtuzumab, post-SCT interventions are often required. Most studies find that alemtuzumab-based conditioning results in decreased chronic GvHD and TRM, but also in decreased progression-free survival. Overall survival after 3 - 5 years is usually equivalent and quality of life may be improved because of a lower incidence of sequelae of chronic GvHD. Many aspects of alemtuzumab treatment are under investigation. Alemtuzumab reduces GvHD and TRM after SCT. Use of alemtuzumab requires awareness and strict management of the risk of opportunistic infections and of an increased risk of disease recurrence.

  5. Liquid plasma use during "super" massive transfusion protocol.

    PubMed

    Allen, Casey J; Shariatmadar, Sherry; Meizoso, Jonathan P; Hanna, Mena M; Mora, Jose L; Ray, Juliet J; Namias, Nicholas; Dudaryk, Roman; Proctor, Kenneth G

    2015-12-01

    A massive transfusion protocol (MTP) presents a logistical challenge for most blood banks and trauma centers. We compare the ratio of packed red blood cells (PRBC) and plasma transfused over serial time points in those requiring MTP (10-30 U PRBC/24 h) to those requiring "super" MTP (S-MTP; >30 U PRBC/24 h) and test the hypothesis that changes in allocation of blood products with use of readily transfusable liquid plasma (LP) improves the ratio of PRBC and plasma during S-MTP. All transfused trauma patients (n = 1305) from January 01, 2009-April, 03, 2015 were reviewed. PRBC:plasma ratio was compared for MTP (n = 277) and S-MTP (n = 61) patients, before and after the availability of LP at our institution. Data are reported as mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range). Age was 41 ± 19 y, 52% blunt mechanism, injury severity score 32 ± 16, and 46.3% mortality. In 24 h, requirements were 17 (14) U PRBC and 10 (11) U plasma, with a PRBC:plasma of 1.6 (0.8). Within the first hour, PRBC:plasma for S-MTP versus MTP was 2.1:1 versus 1.7:1 (P = 0.017). With LP, S-MTP patients received significantly lower PRBC:plasma at the first hour (P < 0.001). Before institutional changes, PRBC:plasma positively correlated with PRBC transfused at hour 1 (r = 0.410, R(2) = 0.168, P < 0.001); after institutional changes and the advent of LP, there was no correlation (r = 0.177, R(2) = 0.031, P = 0.219). Within the first hour of transfusion, units of PRBC transfused positively correlated with PRBC:plasma, and patients receiving S-MTP had higher PRBC:plasma than those receiving MTP. Changes in our institution's MTP protocol to include LP improved the early PRBC:plasma transfused in patients requiring S-MTP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bilaterally Symmetrical Lower Extremity Compartment Syndrome following Massive Transfusion.

    PubMed

    Karaoren, Gulsah; Bakan, Nurten; Tomruk, Senay Goksu; Topaç, Zelin; Kurtulmuş, Tuhan; Irkören, Saime

    2016-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is a serious condition characterized by raised intracompartmental pressure, which develops following trauma. Well leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is a term reserved for compartment syndrome in a nontraumatic setting, usually resulting from prolonged lithotomy position during surgery. In literature, 8 cases have been reported regarding well leg compartment syndrome in a supine position and bilateral symmetrical involvement was observed in only 2 cases. In WLCS etiology, lengthy surgery, lengthy hypotension, and extremity malpositioning have been held responsible but one of the factors with a role in the etiology may have been the tissue oedema and impaired microcirculation formed from the effect of vasoactive mediators expressed into the circulation associated with the massive blood transfusion. The case is presented here regarding symmetrical lower extremity compartment syndrome after surgery in which massive transfusion was made for gross haemorrhage from an abdominal injury. In conclusion, blood transfusion applied at the required time is life-saving but potential risks must always be considered.

  7. Neonatal thrombocytopenia and platelet transfusion - a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Carr, Robert; Kelly, Anne M; Williamson, Lorna M

    2015-01-01

    Five percent of newborn infants admitted to UK neonatal units during a recent study developed a platelet count <60 × 10(9)/l, and 60% of these were transfused platelets. This review summarises the common causes and mechanisms of thrombocytopenia in the newborn. Relevant evidence relating the platelet count to the risk of haemorrhage is reviewed, and current UK guidance on transfusion thresholds outlined. The UK policy for the provision of platelets for transfusion to neonates is described, including the particular requirements for neonatal allo-immune thrombocytopenia. Finally, we look towards the future and prospects for reducing the need to expose newborns to donor-derived platelets. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Immune transfer studies in canine allogeneic marrow graft donor-recipient pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Grosse-Wilde, H.; Krumbacher, K.; Schuening, F.D.; Doxiadis, I.; Mahmoud, H.K.; Emde, C.; Schmidt-Weinmar, A.; Schaefer, U.W.

    1986-07-01

    Transfer of immunity occurring with bone marrow grafting was studied using the dog as a preclinical model. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was performed between DLA-identical beagle litter-mates. The donors were immunized with tetanus toxoid (TT) or sheep red blood cells (SRBC), and their humoral response was monitored by hemagglutination. The recipients of bone marrow from TT-immunized donors showed a marked increase of antibody titer one week posttransplantation, while in the recipients of marrow from SRBC immunized donors the antibody titers were considerably lower. Within the following 60 days the antibody titers in both groups diminished gradually to pregrafting levels. Control experiments in which cell-free plasma from donors immunized with TT and SRBC respectively was transfused indicated that the initial rise of specific antibody titers after marrow grafting is likely to be due to a passive transfer of humoral immunity. A single challenge of these marrow graft recipients with the respective antigen 15-18 weeks posttransplantation led to a secondary type of humoral immune response. It could be demonstrated that transfer of memory against TT or SRBC was independent from the actual antibody titer and the time of vaccination of the donor. One dog was immunized with TT after serving as marrow donor. When the donor had shown an antibody response, a peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) transfusion was given to his chimera. Subsequent challenge of the latter resulted in a secondary type of specific antibody response. This indicates that specific cellular-bound immunological memory can be transferred after BMT from the donor to his allogeneic bone marrow chimera by transfusion of peripheral blood leukocytes. The data may be of importance in clinical BMT to protect patients during the phase of reduced immune reactivity by transfer of memory cells.

  9. Risk perception and its role in attitudes toward blood transfusion: a qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Ly Thi; Bruhn, Roberta; Custer, Brian

    2013-04-01

    Despite improvements in blood safety making transfusion a much safer clinical procedure, the general public still perceives it as risky. We systematically reviewed available literature to examine evidence regarding the reasons and causes behind this perception. Electronic databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE for literature dating back to the 1980s were searched. Eligible studies collected information on blood recipients' demographics, measures of risk domains (sets of values that risks encompass), and general knowledge of blood transfusion in terms of risks and benefits. Each study was assessed for quality of data, research method, and relevant findings. A scoring system was used to subjectively rate the overall quality of each study. Each study was reviewed for its method of data collection and information abstracted on hazards and conceptual dimensions used to measure risk. Risk perception between blood transfusion and other hazards including alternatives to transfusion were compared. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria, all of which were conducted outside the United States, with most of the studies published more than 10 years ago and conducted by only 3 research groups. Five studies were rated as being very good, four good, five fair, and one of poor quality. The finding of the studies consistently show that objective or raw knowledge is not correlated with risk perception, but subjective or calibrated knowledge is. Thus, it is what people think they know rather than what they actually do know that influences risk perception of transfusion. Of the 3 common conceptual domains-dread, unknown risk, and benefits-blood transfusion was found to be of intermediate dread, intermediate unknown risk, and most beneficial compared with other hazards. Donated blood was found to have lower perceived risk than all other alternatives to transfusion, except for use of autologous blood. There is a lack of recent studies on allogeneic transfusion

  10. Major non-ABO incompatibility caused by anti-Jk(a) in a patient before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, M Y; Chaudhary, P; Shulman, I A; Pullarkat, V

    2013-01-01

    A 49-year-old white man with blood group AB, D+ was found to have alloanti-Jk(a) and -K when he developed a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Given that his stem cell donor was blood group O, D+, Jk(a+), K-, rituximab was added to his conditioning regimen of fludarabine and melphalan to prevent hemolysis of engrafting Jk(a+) donor red blood cells. The patient proceeded to receive a peripheral blood stem cell transplant from a matched unrelated donor with no adverse events. To our knowledge, this is the first case of successful management of major non-ABO incompatibility caused by anti-Jk(a) in a patient receiving an allogeneic HSCT reported in the literature.

  11. NOTE: Arterio-venous flow between monochorionic twins determined during intra-uterine transfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gemert, Martin J. C.; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Lopriore, Enrico; Pasman, Suzanne A.; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.

    2008-04-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monozygotic (identical) twin fetuses sharing one single (monochorionic) placenta. TTTS is caused by a net inter-twin transfusion of blood through placental anastomoses, from one twin (the donor) to the other (the recipient), which link the two feto-placental circulations. Currently, the only reliable method to measure the net inter-twin transfusion clinically is when incomplete laser therapy of TTTS occurs and one of the twins becomes anemic and requires an intra-uterine transfusion of adult red blood cells. Then, differences between adult hemoglobin concentrations measured during the transfusion and at birth relate not only to the net inter-twin transfusion but also to the finite lifetime of the adult red blood cells. We have analyzed this situation, derived the differential equations of adult hemoglobin in the donor and recipient twins, given the solutions and given expressions relating the net inter-twin flow with clinically measured parameters. We have included single and multiple intra-uterine transfusions. In conclusion, because incomplete laser therapy occurs frequently, and some cases require an intra-uterine transfusion, this method may allow collecting a wealth of net inter-twin flow data from clinicians involved in laser therapy of TTTS. To aid to the widespread use of this method, we have presented the equations as clearly as possible in tables for easy use by others.

  12. Earlier low-dose TBI or DST overcomes CD8+ T-cell-mediated alloresistance to allogeneic marrow in recipients of anti-CD40L.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yasuo; Ito, Hiroshi; Kurtz, Josef; Wekerle, Thomas; Ho, Leon; Sykes, Megan

    2004-01-01

    Treatment with a single injection of anti-CD40L (CD154) monoclonal antibody (mAb) and fully mismatched allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) allows rapid tolerization of CD4+ T cells to the donor. The addition of in vivo CD8 T-cell depletion leads to permanent mixed hematopoietic chimerism and tolerance. We now describe two approaches that obviate the requirement for CD8 T-cell depletion by rapidly tolerizing recipient CD8 T cells in addition to CD4 cells. Administration of donor-specific transfusion (DST) to mice receiving 3 Gy total body irradiation (TBI), BMT and anti-CD40L mAb on day 0 uniformly led to permanent mixed chimerism and tolerance, compared with only 40% of mice receiving similar treatment without DST. In the absence of DST, moving the timing of 3 Gy TBI to day -1 or day -2 instead of day 0 led to rapid (by 2 weeks) induction of CD8+ cell tolerance, and also permitted uniform achievement of permanent mixed chimerism and donor-specific tolerance in recipients of anti-CD40L and BMT on day 0. These nontoxic regimens overcome CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell-mediated alloresistance without requiring host T-cell depletion, permitting the induction of permanent mixed chimerism and tolerance.

  13. ABO-Mismatched Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Worel, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Summary Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative option for a variety of malignant and non-malignant hematological and congenital diseases. Due to the fact that the human leukocyte antigen system is inherited independently of the blood group system, approximately 40-50% of all HSCTs are performed across the ABO blood group barrier. The expected immune-hematological consequences after transplantation of an ABO-mismatched stem cell graft are immediate and delayed hemolytic complications due to presence of isohemagglutinins or passenger lymphocyte syndrome. The risks of these complications can partially be prevented by graft manipulation and appropriate transfusion support. Dependent on the kind of ABO mismatch, different effects on engraftment have been observed, e.g. delayed red blood cell recovery and pure red cell aplasia. Data on incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), non-relapse mortality, relapse, and overall survival are inconsistent as most studies include limited patient numbers, various graft sources, and different conditioning and GVHD prophylaxis regimens. This makes it difficult to detect a consistent effect of ABO-mismatched transplantation in the literature. However, knowledge of expectable complications and close monitoring of patients helps to detect problems early and to treat patients efficiently, thus reducing the number of fatal or life-threatening events caused by ABO-mismatched HSCT. PMID:27022317

  14. Transfusion-transmitted infections inmulti-transfused patients in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Vinelli, Elizabeth; Lorenzana, Ivette

    2005-12-01

    Monitoring infectivity markers in multi-transfused patients is an important indicator of the efficiency and quality of testing in blood centers. This study is part of a regional initiative to bring both national and regional attention to the problem of hepatitis C, compare the threat of HCV to that of HBV and HIV; assess the risks for viral infection of using different blood products and implementing different transfusion practices, and contribute to a better understanding of the state of blood safety in the region. A cross sectional study was conducted from September 2002 to August 2003 and included multi-transfused patients from eight private, public and Social Security hospitals from Tegucigalpa and San Pedro Sula, Honduras. A survey was completed for each patient which included demographic and clinical data. Patients were tested for HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HIV and anti-HCV Effects of the exposure to blood products, to whole blood; to lyophilized factor VIII in patients living with hemophilia on the prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV infection were evaluated. Five hundred and two patients were enrolled in the study; 11% were positive for HBsAg; 27% for anti-HBc; 7% for HCV and 1% for HIV One point six percent of hemophilia patients were positive for HBsAg; 38% were positive for anti-HBc and 26.9% for HCV A dose effect between the exposure to blood products and prevalence of HCV was found (p < 0.05). It was not possible to show a dose effect between the exposure to blood products and prevalence of either HBV or HIV in any of the subpopulations studied. The transfusion of blood products seems to be the main factor for HCV seropositivity in the subpopulation of patients studied. Additional work is needed to elucidate the risk factors associated with HBV infection in Honduras.

  15. Intrauterine blood transfusion in immune hydrops fetalis, corrects middle cerebral artery Doppler velocimetry very quickly

    PubMed Central

    Yalinkaya, Ahmet; Evsen, Mehmet Sıddık; Celik, Yusuf; Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Soydinc, Hatice Ender; Taner, Mehmet Zeki

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the middle cerebral artery velocimetry before and after intrauterine blood transfusion in immune hydrops fetalis. The current study was conducted in a tertiary research hospital, from February 2009 to January 2011. Nineteen intrauterine blood transfusions performed during the study period. The factors recorded were age of the mothers, gestational weeks, pre-transfusion fetal hematocrit and post-transfusion fetal hematocrit, and also middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocimetry (MCA-PSV) was detected and recorded before and after intrauterine transfusion. A control group of twenty two cases for normal MCA doppler velocimetry was also included to the study. During the study, a total of eleven rhesus isoimmunized pregnancies underwent intrauterine blood transfusions at our perinatal diagnose unit. Before transfusion seventeen severe and two moderate anemias were detected and mean MoM of MCA-PSV was 1.76±0.38 MoM. Post transfusion mean MoM of MCA-PSV in the patient group and control group were 1.08±0.22 MoM and 0.96±0.21 MoM, respectively. The mean MCA-PSV values were higher in RI fetuses than post transfusion and control group. In current study, we found that MCA-PSV is a valuable parameter in detecting fetal anemia requiring intrauterine transfusion and mean MCA-PSV values is higher than 1.5 MoM in fetuses with anemia. And also decrease in MCA-PSV just after transfusion in anemic fetuses showed the quick response of the fetus to correction of anemia. PMID:22364302

  16. Blood component preferences of transfusion services supporting infant transfusions: a University HealthSystem Consortium benchmarking study.

    PubMed

    Fung, Mark K; Roseff, Susan D; Vermoch, Kathleen L

    2010-09-01

    The extent of acceptability of red blood cells (RBCs) containing additive solutions (ASs) for low-volume neonatal transfusions among hospitals is unknown. Also unknown is whether hospitals have policies that address the risk of hyperkalemia associated with prolonged storage either with or without irradiation for neonatal transfusions. A benchmarking survey of University HealthSystem Consortium members included questions regarding the acceptability of RBC units containing ASs for low-volume neonatal transfusions, policies addressing the length of RBC storage in AS, and policies regarding storage periods after irradiation. Twenty-eight of 47 respondents (60%) accept the use of at least one AS (AS-1, AS-3, or AS-5). Twenty-one (45%) accept the use of all three ASs for neonatal transfusions. Thirty-seven of 45 respondents (82%) do not have a policy requiring washing of RBCs used for low-volume transfusions beyond a specified number of days of storage or days after irradiation. Although the majority of institutions will use ASs, a significant number of institutions will not. The reasons for these policies were not elicited. Most respondents did not have a policy requiring washing beyond a specified number of days of storage or days after irradiation. Since RBCs stored for prolonged periods of time after irradiation have increased plasma potassium, it is important to develop policies to prevent clinically significant posttransfusion hyperkalemia in at-risk patients when RBCs are irradiated and not used immediately. More work still needs to be done to resolve these fundamental precepts of neonatal transfusion.

  17. Association Between Blood Transfusions and 12-Month Mortality After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Kleczynski, Pawel; Dziewierz, Artur; Bagienski, Maciej; Rzeszutko, Lukasz; Sorysz, Danuta; Trebacz, Jaroslaw; Sobczynski, Robert; Tomala, Marek; Stapor, Maciej; Dudek, Dariusz

    2017-02-07

    Blood transfusions are considered as an important predictor of adverse outcome in patients with severe aortic (AS) undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). We sought to investigate the association between blood transfusions and mortality after TAVI. We enrolled 101 consecutive patients with severe AS undergoing TAVI. Patients who required transfusion were defined as patients in whom at least one unit of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) was transfused in the perioperative period. Twelve-month outcomes were assessed based on Valve Academic Research Consortium definitions. A total of 28 (27.7%) patients required blood transfusion after TAVI. Baseline characteristics of the patients with and without a transfusion were similar. Median amount of PRBCs was 2 (interquartile range, 2-4). Twelvemonth all-cause mortality was higher in patients with than without a blood transfusion (39.3% versus 9.6%; P = 0.001). Importantly, the need for a blood transfusion after TAVI was an independent predictor of higher mortality rates after 12 months (hazard ratio (HR) 2.84 95%CI (1.06-7.63); P = 0.039; (HR for incomplete coronary revascularization 10.86, 95%CI 3.72-31.73; P < 0.001; HR for a history of stroke/TIA 3.93, 95%CI 1.39-11.07; P < 0.001). The duration of inhospital stay was longer in patients requiring transfusion (16.0 (14.0-22.0) versus 7.0 (7.0-11.5) days; P = 0.014). In conclusion, blood transfusions after TAVI were associated with higher mortality rates after 12 months, longer in-hospital stay, and were identified as an independent predictor of impaired clinical outcome.

  18. [Cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia complicated with relapsed myelodysplastic syndrome after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation].

    PubMed

    Okamura, Hiroshi; Nakane, Takahiko; Fujino, Keizo; Koh, Shiro; Yoshimura, Takuro; Nishimoto, Mitsutaka; Hayashi, Yoshiki; Koh, Hideo; Nakao, Yoshitaka; Nakamae, Hirohisa; Hino, Masayuki

    2015-04-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is known to often be complicated by a range of autoimmune diseases. We herein present a case with MDS complicated by cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia (cold AIHA). The patient was a 51-year-old woman. She was diagnosed with MDS (refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia) in May 2009. In January 2010, she underwent unrelated allogeneic bone marrow transplantation but was re-admitted in October 2010 for treatment of relapsed MDS. Despite daily transfusions of red blood cells, her anemia failed to improve. Her laboratory examinations showed a low haptoglobin level and elevation of indirect bilirubin and LDH. The direct Coombs test was positive at a low and at room temperature and cold agglutinin was negative. After confirming the diagnosis of cold AIHA, all transfusion fluids were warmed but her anemia still failed to improve. In addition to the warmed transfusion fluids, we administered corticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin infusions. This management strategy ameliorated the patient's hemolytic anemia. To our knowledge, MDS cases complicated by cold AIHA are rare. Our patient thus provides a valuable contribution to medical knowledge.

  19. Provision of cellular blood components to CMV-seronegative patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the UK: survey of UK transplant centres.

    PubMed

    Morton, S; Peniket, A; Malladi, R; Murphy, M F

    2017-09-15

    To identify current UK practice with regards to provision of blood components for cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seronegative, potential, allogeneic stem cell recipients of seronegative grafts. Infection with CMV remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (aSCT). CMV transmission has been a risk associated with the transfusion of blood components from previously exposed donors, but leucocyte reduction has been demonstrated to minimise this risk. In 2012, the UK Advisory Committee for the Safety of Tissues and Organs (SaBTO) recommended that CMV-unselected components could be safely transfused without increased risk of CMV transmission. We surveyed UK aSCT centres to establish current practice. Fifteen adult and seven paediatric centres (75%) responded; 22·7% continue to provide components from CMV-seronegative donors. Reasons cited include the continued perceived risk of CMV transmission by blood transfusion, its associated morbidity and concerns regarding potential for ambiguous CMV serostatus in seronegative potential transplant recipients due to passive antibody transfer from CMV-seropositive blood donors, leading to erroneous donor/recipient CMV matching at transplant. The survey demonstrated a surprisingly high rate (22.7%) of centres continuing to provide blood components from CMV-seronegative donors despite SaBTO guidance. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  20. Coagulopathy and blood component transfusion in trauma.

    PubMed

    Spahn, D R; Rossaint, R

    2005-08-01

    Trauma is a serious global health problem, accounting for approximately one in 10 deaths worldwide. Uncontrollable bleeding accounts for 39% of trauma-related deaths and is the leading cause of potentially preventable death in patients with major trauma. While bleeding from vascular injury can usually be repaired surgically, coagulopathy-related bleeding is often more difficult to manage and may also mask the site of vascular injury. The causes of coagulopathy in patients with severe trauma are multifactorial, including consumption and dilution of platelets and coagulation factors, as well as dysfunction of platelets and the coagulation system. The interplay between hypothermia, acidosis and progressive coagulopathy, referred to as the 'lethal triad', often results in exsanguination. Current management of coagulopathy-related bleeding is based on blood component replacement therapy. However, there is a limit on the level of haemostasis that can be restored by replacement therapy. In addition, there is evidence that transfusion of red blood cells immediately after injury increases the incidence of post-injury infection and multiple organ failure. Strategies to prevent significant coagulopathy and to control critical bleeding effectively in the presence of coagulopathy may decrease the requirement for blood transfusion, thereby improving clinical outcome of patients with major trauma.

  1. Normalization of red cell enolase level following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in a child with Diamond-Blackfan anemia.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong A; Lim, Yeon Jung; Park, Hyeon Jin; Kong, Sun Young; Park, Byung Kiu; Ghim, Thad T

    2010-04-01

    We describe a girl with Diamond-Blackfan anemia with accompanying red cell enolase deficiency. At the age of 9 yr old, the patient received allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from her HLA-identical sister who had normal red cell enolase activity. While the post transplant DNA analysis with short tandem repeat has continuously demonstrated a stable mixed chimerism on follow-up, the patient remains transfusion independent and continues to show a steady increase in red cell enolase activity for over two and a half years following bone marrow transplantation.

  2. How we manage AB plasma inventory in the blood center and transfusion service.

    PubMed

    Yazer, Mark; Eder, Anne F; Land, Kevin J

    2013-08-01

    The growing use of group AB plasma in the United States in recent years poses unique challenges to blood centers and transfusion services. Blood centers must collect sufficient plasma components from a limited pool of group AB donors while taking steps to improve transfusion safety that further restricts the available supply. Transfusion services, on the other hand, must use the finite resource in the most conscientious and medically appropriate manner. Recently, many investigations have challenged long-held beliefs about transfusion practice and appropriate indications for blood components across a variety of specialties. Balancing supply and demand of group AB plasma requires collaboration between blood suppliers and transfusion services, and opportunities for improvement exist on both sides of the equation. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  3. Applying molecular immunohaematology to regularly transfused thalassaemic patients in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Rujirojindakul, Pairaya; Flegel, Willy A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Red blood cell transfusion is the principal therapy in patients with severe thalassaemias and haemoglobinopathies, which are prevalent in Thailand. Serological red blood cell typing is confounded by chronic transfusion, because of circulating donor red blood cells. We evaluated the concordance of serological phenotypes between a routine and a reference laboratory and with red cell genotyping. Materials and methods Ten consecutive Thai patients with β-thalassemia major who received regular transfusions were enrolled in Thailand. Phenotypes were tested serologically at Songklanagarind Hospital and at the National Institutes of Health. Red blood cell genotyping was performed with commercially available kits and a platform. Results In only three patients was the red cell genotyping concordant with the serological phenotypes for five antithetical antigen pairs in four blood group systems at the two institutions. At the National Institutes of Health, 32 of the 100 serological tests yielded invalid or discrepant results. The positive predictive value of serology did not reach 1 for any blood group system at either of the two institutions in this set of ten patients. Discussion Within this small study, numerous discrepancies were observed between serological phenotypes at the two institutes; red cell genotyping enabled determination of the blood group when serology failed due to transfused red blood cells. We question the utility of serological tests in regularly transfused paediatric patients and propose relying solely on red cell genotyping, which requires training for laboratory personnel and physicians. Red cell genotyping outperformed red cell serology by an order of magnitude in regularly transfused patients. PMID:24120606

  4. [Transfusion medicine in the 2000s, on a reform].

    PubMed

    Hervé, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    The creation of the Etablissement Français du Sang (EFS) was mentioned in the Law of July 1, 1998, pertaining to sanitary safety. The EFS is the sole operator of blood transfusion. With a unique legal status, supervised by the Ministry in charge of Health, the EFS organizes the activities involved in the transfusion chain over the whole territory, it promotes research activities and take part in international scientific cooperation. Its activities include medical biology as well as cell and gene therapy. As part of the new 2000-2004 territorial transfusion scheme, the EFS network comprises 18 centers (versus 43 in the previous plan), 14 of which are located in the French territory and the other 4 overseas. The network includes 18 technical platforms for the biological qualification of blood products, while 27 are dedicated to their preparation, transformation and storage. The activities of collection and distribution, which comply with the principle of proximity to both donors and patients, are ensured by 220 sites spread over the whole territory. For the future, the EFS wants to focus its efforts on reducing residual infectious risks (using molecular biology tools), preventing immunological risks, drawing up an education program aiming at teaching transfusion medicine differently. Despite the advances achieved in biotechnologies, the development of substitution products to replace blood transfusion will still require a lot of time. The EFS wishes to focus its action following three different axes: transfusion medicine, medical biology and cell engineering. With its 18 centers and its 8,200 persons, the EFS must face the challengers of the 2000s, relying on the advances in biotechnologies.

  5. [Perioperative risk factors associated with allogeneic blood transfusion in patients with hip fracture surgery].

    PubMed

    Durán-Nah, Jaime Jesús; Pastelín-Ruiz, Sofía Elisa; Miam-Viana, Emilio de Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo es identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a la hemotransfusión alogénica en pacientes con cirugía de cadera realizada en un hospital general citadino, durante 2008 y 2009. Métodos: fueron considerados como casos 118 pacientes que recibieron sangre alogénica en el pre, el trans o en el postquirúrgico inmediato, y como controles 138 pacientes que tuvieron el mismo tipo de cirugía, pero no fueron hemotransfundidos. La relación entre variables se investigó utilizando un modelo de regresión logística del que se obtuvieron la razón de momios (RM) y los intervalos de confianza (IC) de 95 %. Resultados: se identificaron como factores de riesgo: el sangrado transquirúrgico mayor o igual a 400 ml (frente a < 400 ml, RM 5.68, IC 95 % 2.5 a 12.9, p = 0.007) y la concentración prequirúrgica de hemoglobina < 11 g/dL (frente a = 11 g/dL, RM 2.86, IC 95 % 1.5 a 5.6; p = 0.001); pero no la duración de la cirugía, el segmento femoral intervenido, la técnica quirúrgica ni la Hb postquirúrgica. Conclusiones: el sangrado transquirúrgico mayor o igual a 400 ml y la Hb prequirúrgica < 11 g/dL incrementaron el riesgo de hemotransfusión alogénica.

  6. Transfusion-transmitted parasitic infections

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gagandeep; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    The transmission of parasitic organisms through transfusion is relatively rare. Of the major transfusion-transmitted diseases, malaria is a major cause of TTIP in tropical countries whereas babesiosis and Chagas’ disease pose the greatest threat to donors in the USA In both cases, this is due to the increased number of potentially infected donors. There are no reliable serologic tests available to screen donors for any of these organisms and the focus for prevention remains on adherence to donor screening guidelines that address travel history and previous infection with the etiologic agent. One goal is the development of tests that are able to screen for and identify donors potentially infectious for parasitic infections without causing the deferral of a large number of non-infectious donors or significantly increasing costs. Ideally, methods to inactivate the infectious organism will provide an element of added safety to the blood supply. PMID:20859503

  7. Transfusion-transmitted parasitic infections.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gagandeep; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2010-07-01

    The transmission of parasitic organisms through transfusion is relatively rare. Of the major transfusion-transmitted diseases, malaria is a major cause of TTIP in tropical countries whereas babesiosis and Chagas' disease pose the greatest threat to donors in the USA In both cases, this is due to the increased number of potentially infected donors. There are no reliable serologic tests available to screen donors for any of these organisms and the focus for prevention remains on adherence to donor screening guidelines that address travel history and previous infection with the etiologic agent. One goal is the development of tests that are able to screen for and identify donors potentially infectious for parasitic infections without causing the deferral of a large number of non-infectious donors or significantly increasing costs. Ideally, methods to inactivate the infectious organism will provide an element of added safety to the blood supply.

  8. Detection of homologous blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Voss, S C; Thevis, M; Schinkothe, T; Schänzer, W

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to improve and validate a flow cytometric method for the detection of homologous blood transfusion in doping control analysis. A panel of eight different primary antibodies and two different phycoerythrin-conjugated secondary antibodies was used for the detection of different blood populations. The flow cytometer used in this study was the BD FACSArray instrument. Mixed red blood cell populations were prepared from phenotype known donors. Linearity, specificity, recovery, precision, robustness and interday-precision were tested for every primary antibody used in the presented assay. The technique of signal amplification was utilized for an improved separation of antigens with weak or heterozygous expression to improve the interpretation of histograms. The resulting method allowed to clearly identify mixed red blood cell populations in homologous blood transfusion samples containing 0.3 - 2.0 % of donor blood.

  9. Autologous umbilical cord blood transfusion.

    PubMed Central

    Ballin, A.; Arbel, E.; Kenet, G.; Berar, M.; Kohelet, D.; Tanay, A.; Zakut, H.; Meytes, D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine some aspects of umbilical cord blood collection for autologous transfusion in premature infants. All 120 microbacterial cultures (aerobic and anaerobic) of cord blood samples as well as 30 cultures of mycoplasma were treated. Cord prothrombin fragment (F 1 + 2) concentrations were quantified at one and 10 minutes after clamping of the cord. F 1 + 2 concentrations assessed on 25 newborn infants were similar and no linear association with time of clamping could be drawn. This means that cord blood thrombosis is not activated for at least 10 minutes following clamping of the cord. As far as is known, the first newborn infant to benefit from this method of transfusion is reported here. The premature infant received two portions of autologous blood (on days 5 and 7). No untoward effects were noted. Blood, collected from the umbilical cord, is a safe source for autotransfusion, provided that bacteriological testing has been carried out. PMID:8535878

  10. Ensuring that blood transfusion sets administer an effective dose of functional blood components.

    PubMed

    Bashir, S; Nightingale, M J; Cardigan, R

    2013-08-01

    Proposed changes to ISO 1135-4 will require that blood transfusion administration sets are demonstrated by the manufacturers to be suitable for the range of cellular and plasma blood components for which they are designated. To design a test protocol to asses the depletion of the blood components by transfusion sets and damage and activation of blood components during their passage through the set. Transfusion giving sets (CareFusion Ref no. 60895 180311 and Fresenius Ref no. 2900032) were assessed by comparing samples of the blood component taken prior to and after passage through the transfusion set in strict accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. As well as depletion of red cells, platelets and FVIIIc, the following markers of damage/activation were assessed: red cells-supernatant haemolysis and potassium; FFP-prothrombin fragments 1 and 2 and fibrinopeptide A and platelets-pH, CD62P, CD63 and sP-selectin. The CareFusion and the Fresenius transfusion sets gave less than 5% depletion of blood components and caused negligible and clinically insignificant effects on red cells, platelet concentrates and FFP. A practical test protocol has been established to assess the depletion, damage to and activation of the key constituents of commonly requested blood components. This protocol would provide a valuable addition to ISO 1135-4 in assuring the suitability of transfusion sets. © 2013 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  11. Transfusion challenges in hematology oncology and hematopoietic stem cell transplant - Literature review and local experience.

    PubMed

    Elemary, Mohamed; Seghatchian, Jerard; Stakiw, Julie; Bosch, Mark; Sabry, Waleed; Goubran, Hadi

    2017-06-01

    Transfusion medicine plays a vital role in the supportive care of patients receiving therapy for hematology, oncology and hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT). With advances in therapy with more intensive chemotherapy or radiotherapy, patients usually develop cytopenias and need frequent transfusion support with packed red blood cells, granulocyte transfusion or platelets to support them until they recover from the effect of therapy. HSCT poses unique challenges for transfusion medicine, since transplant recipients may require substantial transfusion support due to cytopenias associated with toxic medications, decreased marrow reserve, infection or their malignancy. Transfusion support has many complications, mainly immune mediated and infectious complications. Jehovah's Witness patients deny transfusions of blood products as a therapeutic option and, consequently, management of their disease with chemotherapy and stem cell transplant after myeloablative therapy is quite challenging. This review describes the challenges of transfusion support in managing hemato-oncology and stem cell transplant patients and highlights a local experience in transplanting two Jehovah's Witness patients. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lower alloimmunization rates in pediatric sickle cell patients on chronic erythrocytapheresis compared to chronic simple transfusions.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Shannon Kelly; Garcia, Alicia; Hagar, Ward; Gildengorin, Ginny; Quirolo, Keith; Vichinsky, Elliott

    2012-12-01

    Erythrocytapheresis (ECP), automated red blood cell exchange, is increasingly being used for chronic transfusion therapy in sickle cell disease (SCD) as it is an isovolumetric transfusion, is more effective in lowering hemoglobin (Hb)S, and can limit iron overload. Because ECP requires increased blood exposure compared to simple transfusions there is concern for increased transfusion complications, including alloimmunization. We compared alloimmunization rates between patients receiving simple or exchange chronic transfusions. Data were retrospectively collected for 45 SCD patients (n = 23 simple, n = 22 ECP) on a chronic transfusion program as of December 2010 to determine the rate of antibody formation (antibodies formed per 100 units transfused). The 45 patients received 10,949 units and formed six new alloantibodies during the study period (1994-2010); therefore, the overall alloimmunization rate was 0.055 alloantibodies per 100 U. There were three antibodies formed in three patients on ECP, one allo (anti-rh(i) ) and two autoantibodies. There were six antibodies in four patients on a simple transfusion program, five allo (anti-Le(a) , M, D, C, and Kp(a) ) and one autoantibody. The ECP group received significantly more blood (338.5 units/patient vs. 152.2 units/patient, p = 0.001). The rate of antibody formation (auto plus allo) was 0.040 antibodies per 100 U in the ECP group and 0.171 antibodies per 100 U in the simple transfusion group (p = 0.04). The alloantibodies formed per 100 units was 0.013 in the ECP group and 0.143 in the simple transfusion group (p = 0.03). Chronic ECP should be considered in patients requiring optimal management of HbS levels and iron burden. Concerns about increased alloimmunization with ECP may be unjustified. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  13. Clinical transfusion practice update: haemovigilance, complications, patient blood management and national standards.

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, Sunelle; Wood, Erica M; Cole-Sinclair, Merrole F

    2013-09-16

    Blood transfusion is not without risk. Although the risks of HIV and hepatitis transmission have diminished, haemovigilance programs highlight that other significant transfusion hazards remain. Sepsis from bacterial contamination is the most common residual infectious hazard in developed countries, and events due to clerical error are problematic. Unnecessary transfusions should be avoided. New national guidelines on patient blood management (PBM) emphasise holistic approaches, including strategies to reduce transfusion requirements. Perioperative PBM should incorporate preoperative haemoglobin and medication optimisation, intraoperative blood conservation, and consideration of restrictive postoperative transfusion and cell-salvage techniques. When massive transfusion is required, hospitals should implement massive transfusion protocols. These protocols reduce mortality, improve communication and facilitate adequate provision of blood products. They should include multidisciplinary team involvement and guidelines for use of blood components and adjunctive agents. Although fresh frozen plasma to red blood cell and platelet to red blood cell ratios of ≥ 1 : 2 appear to reduce mortality in trauma patients who receive massive transfusion, there is insufficient evidence to recommend specific ratios. Systematic reviews have found no significant benefit of recombinant activated factor VII in critical bleeding, and an increase in thromboembolic events; specialist haematology advice is therefore recommended when considering use of this agent. The National Safety and Quality Health Service Standards address use of blood and blood products, and provide important transfusion principles for adoption by all clinicians. Storage of red cells in additive solution results in changes, known as the "storage lesion", and studies to determine the clinical effect of the age of blood at transfusion are ongoing.

  14. The evolving role of the transfusion practitioner.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kristy; Akers, Christine; Davis, Amanda K; Wood, Erica; Hennessy, Clare; Bielby, Linley

    2015-04-01

    Much of the recent work in transfusion practice has shifted to focus on the patient, after efforts over previous decades to ensure the quality and safety of blood products. After the commencement of hemovigilance and transfusion practice improvement programs, the introduction of transfusion practitioners (TP) into health care services and blood centers has continued to increase worldwide. Since this relatively new role was introduced, much work of the TP has focused on patient and staff education, adverse events, transfusion governance, and monitoring of transfusion practices within organizations. The complex nature of the transfusion process makes the TP an integral link in the transfusion chain. Together with hospital transfusion teams and committees, the TP works collaboratively to facilitate the transfusion change management programs and initiatives. Recently, the TP role has evolved to include an emphasis on patient blood management and, to some extent, is shaped by national standards and regulations. These established roles of the TP, together with the ever-changing field of transfusion medicine, provide new opportunities and challenges for a role that is continuing to evolve worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Coordination and management of multicenter clinical studies in trauma: Experience from the PRospective Observational Multicenter Major Trauma Transfusion (PROMMTT) Study

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Fox, Erin E.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Cotton, Bryan A.; Podbielski, Jeanette M.; Matijevic, Nena; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Zhang, Jiajie; Mirhaji, Parsa; Duran, Sarah; Reynolds, Robert J.; Benjamin-Garner, Ruby; Holcomb, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Early death due to hemorrhage is a major consequence of traumatic injury. Transfusion practices differ among hospitals and it is unknown which transfusion practices improve survival. This report describes the experience of the PRospective Observational Multicenter Major Trauma Transfusion (PROMMTT) Study Data Coordination Center in designing and coordinating a study to examine transfusion practices at ten Level 1 trauma centers in the U.S. Methods PROMMTT was a multisite prospective observational study of severely injured transfused trauma patients. The clinical sites collected real-time information on the timing and amounts of blood product infusions as well as colloids and crystalloids, vital signs, initial diagnostic and clinical laboratory tests, life saving interventions and other clinical care data. Results Between July 2009 and October 2010, PROMMTT screened 12,561 trauma admissions and enrolled 1,245 patients who received one or more blood transfusions within 6 hours of ED admission. A total of 297 massive transfusions were observed over the course of the study at a combined rate of 5.0 massive transfusion patients/week. Conclusion PROMMTT is the first multisite study to collect real-time prospective data on trauma patients requiring transfusion. Support from the Department of Defense and collaborative expertise from the ten participating centers helped to demonstrate the feasibility of prospective trauma transfusion studies. The observational data collected from this study will be an invaluable resource for research in trauma surgery and it will guide the design and conduct of future randomized trials. PMID:22001613

  16. Red cell exchange to mitigate a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction in a patient transfused with incompatible red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Irani, Mehraboon S; Karafin, Matthew S; Ernster, Luke

    2017-02-01

    A red cell exchange was performed to prevent a potentially fatal hemolytic transfusion reaction in a patient with anti-e who was transfused with e-antigen unscreened red blood cells during liver transplant surgery. A 64-year-old woman with cirrhosis due to hepatitis C was scheduled to receive a liver transplant. She had a previously documented anti-e, an antibody to the Rh(e)-antigen that is known to cause delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions. Pre-operatively and intra-operatively, she had massive hemorrhage which required transfusion of 34 e-antigen unscreened red blood cells (RBCs) most of which were incompatible. The hemoglobin dropped from 9.1 g/dL on post-operative day (POD)1 to 6.6 g/dL on POD6, with no evidence of blood loss. The bilirubin also increased from 5.0 mg/dL on POD 1 to 11.0 mg/dL on POD 6. As she was also becoming more hemodynamically unstable, a red cell exchange with 10 units of e-negative RBCs was performed on POD 6. She improved clinically and was extubated the following day. A few residual transfused e-positive red cells were detected after the red cell exchange until POD 13. This case illustrates how a red cell exchange can mitigate the potentially harmful effects of a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction caused by red cell antibodies. With massive intraoperative blood loss it may not be possible to have antigen-negative RBCs immediately available, particularly for the e-antigen, which is present in 98% of the donor population. The ability to perform such a procedure may be life-saving in such patients. J. Clin. Apheresis 32:59-61, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Hungary].

    PubMed

    Bátai, Árpád; Reményi, Péter; Réti, Marienn; Barta, Anikó; Gopcsa, László; Lengyel, Lilla; Torbágyi, Éva; Csukly, Zoltán; Karászi, Éva; Tordai, Attila; Andrikovics, Hajnalka; Balassa, Katalin; Tasnády, Szabolcs; Masszi, Tamás

    2017-02-01

    The publication summarizes the 2548 stem cell transplantations performed in the period of 1993-2015 in Szent Laszló Hospital, Budapest and provides a detailed discussion of the 425 allogeneic transplantations during 2007-2013. The analysis explains the major steps of the evolution of allogeneic stem cell transplantation and compares the results of the unique Hungarian allogeneic center. The significant shift in the transplantation indications from chronic myeloid leukemia to myelodysplastic syndromes and the rising age of the recipients are in line with world wide tendencies. The latter one is the consequence of the introduction and improvement of the concept of reduced intensity conditioning regimens, originally arising from the idea of Endre Kelemen. The most limiting factor, the donor availability seems to be resolved with the use of a new immunomodulating regimen, the application of posttransplantation cyclophosphamide, which allows the transplantation through HLA barriers with haploidentical family donors with comparable results to the HLA matched volunteer unrelated donors. The above mentioned tendencies result the wider use of allogeneic stem cell transplantation less dependent from recipient age, comorbidities and even donor availability. The publication highlights the need of expanding the stem cell transplantation budget and the involvement of new centers in Hungary in allogeneic of stem cell transplantation. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(8), 291-297.

  18. Leukemia in AKR mice. I. Effects of leukemic cells on antibody-forming potential of syngeneic and allogeneic normal cells

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    Cells from the spleen, thymus, lymph node, and liver of leukemic AKR mice suppress in vitro antibody responses of normal syngeneic and semiallogeneic cells. This suppression can be mediated by irradiated leukemic cells, requires cell contact between leukemic and normal cells, and may occur at any time during the in vitro culture period. Leukemic AKR cells do not suppress antibody responses of allogeneic cells, even when allogeneic cells have H-2 or background genes homologous with AKR. Leukemic cells do, however, suppress cells that are unable to respond allogeneically to leukemic AKR cells, such as cells of the F1s of AKR. Suppression of normal AKR antibody responses by leukemic AKR cells may be overcome by addition of irradiated allogeneic cells. The fact that leukemic AKR cells are able to suppress normal lymphocyte responses may be of significance in pathogenesis of leukemia in these mice. PMID:942993

  19. Analysis of leucocyte antibodies, cytokines, lysophospholipids and cell microparticles in blood components implicated in post-transfusion reactions with dyspnoea.

    PubMed

    Maślanka, K; Uhrynowska, M; Łopacz, P; Wróbel, A; Smoleńska-Sym, G; Guz, K; Lachert, E; Ostas, A; Brojer, E

    2015-01-01

    Post-transfusion reactions with dyspnoea (PTR) are major causes of morbidity and death after blood transfusion. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) are most dangerous, while transfusion-associated dyspnoea (TAD) is a milder respiratory distress. We investigated blood components for immune and non-immune factors implicated in PTR. We analysed 464 blood components (RBCs, PLTs, L-PLTs, FFP) transfused to 271 patients with PTR. Blood components were evaluated for 1/antileucocyte antibodies, 2/cytokines: IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, sCD40L, 3/lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoPCs), 4/microparticles (MPs) shed from plateletes (PMPs), erythrocytes (EMPs) and leucocytes (LMPs). Anti-HLA class I/II antibodies or granulocyte-reactive anti-HLA antibodies were detected in 18.2% of blood components (RBC and FFP) transfused to TRALI and in 0.5% of FFP transfused to TAD cases. Cytokines and LysoPCs concentrations in blood components transfused to PTR patients did not exceed those in blood components transfused to patients with no PTR. Only EMPs percentage in RBCs transfused to patients with TRALI was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in RBCs transfused to patients with no PTR. Immune character of PTR was confirmed mainly in 1/5 TRALI cases. Among non-immune factors, only MPs released from stored RBCs are suggested as potential mediators of TRALI. Our results require further observations in a more numerous and better defined group of patients. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  20. Severe phimosis as a notable sequela of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in boys.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, D; Kobayashi, R; Kaneda, M; Sato, T; Ichikawa, M; Ariga, T

    2007-08-01

    Hematopoietic SCT has improved the survival rates of patients with hematologic and metabolic disorders, as well as those with malignancy or immunodeficiency. Although various complications have been reported following allogeneic SCT, phimosis has rarely been reported, and the predisposing risk factors for phimosis have not been determined. In this study, the occurrence of severe phimosis following allogeneic SCT in boys was analyzed, and its risk factors were determined. The patients were under 15 years of age. Phimosis was observed in 32.6% of 46 patients after allogeneic SCT; 13.0% of cases required surgery. On univariate analysis, risk factors for severe phimosis included chronic GVHD and the use of a conditioning regimen including anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG). Multivariate analysis showed that chronic GVHD was an independent risk factor for severe phimosis. Thus, severe phimosis is an important complication of SCT in boys, especially in patients with chronic GVHD.

  1. Pulmonary consequences of transfusion: TRALI and TACO.

    PubMed

    Popovsky, Mark A

    2006-06-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury and transfusion-associated circulatory overload are important, life-threatening complications of transfusion. Each adversely impact hospital length of stay and cost of healthcare. TRALI is clinically indistinguishable from the adult respiratory distress syndrome but it has a more favorable prognosis. Approximately 10% of TRALI patients die from this complication. The at-risk patient for TRALI has not been identified. The most commonly cited incidence is 1:5000 plasma-containing blood component transfusions. Although several pathways may lead to TRALI, passive transfusion of leukocyte antibodies is currently the most important association. TACO occurs in 1-8% of patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty. It is precipitated by positive fluid balance and high transfusion flow rates. TACO is characterized by respiratory distress and acute pulmonary edema.

  2. Richard Lower: the origins of blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Fastag, Eduardo; Varon, Joseph; Sternbach, George

    2013-06-01

    Millions of blood transfusions are performed yearly worldwide. With respect to its historical origins, this practice began in the 17(th) century with an English physician. In 1666, Richard Lower reported the first successful transfusion between animals. The first transfusion in a human patient was performed the following year by Jean Baptiste Denis, a French physician. That same year, Lower transfused blood from a lamb into the bloodstream of a clergyman named Arthur Coga. However, the practice was subsequently abandoned for hundreds of years. Safe transfusion awaited the recognition of blood types and cross-matching, and did not occur until early in the 20(th) century. A number of other advances in transfusion therapy have followed, and more are in development.

  3. Adverse events related to blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Sandeep; Hemlata; Verma, Anupam

    2014-09-01

    The acute blood transfusion reactions are responsible for causing most serious adverse events. Awareness about various clinical features of acute and delayed transfusion reactions with an ability to assess the serious reactions on time can lead to a better prognosis. Evidence-based medicine has changed today's scenario of clinical practice to decrease adverse transfusion reactions. New evidence-based algorithms of transfusion and improved haemovigilance lead to avoidance of unnecessary transfusions perioperatively. The recognition of adverse events under anaesthesia is always challenging. The unnecessary blood transfusions can be avoided with better blood conservation techniques during surgery and with anaesthesia techniques that reduce blood loss. Better and newer blood screening methods have decreased the infectious complications to almost negligible levels. With universal leukoreduction of red blood cells (RBCs), selection of potential donors such as use of male donors only plasma and restriction of RBC storage, most of the non-infectious complications can be avoided.

  4. The Deleterious Effect of Red Blood Cell Storage on Microvascular Response to Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Jordan A.; MacLennan, Paul A.; Vandromme–Cusick, Marianne J.; Magnotti, Louis J.; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Rue, Loring W.; Angotti, Jonathan M.; Garrett, Cristen A.; Hendrick, Leah E.; Croce, Martin A.; Fabian, Timothy C.; Barnum, Scott R.; Patel, Rakesh P.

    2013-01-01

    Background The transfusion of relatively older red blood cells (RBCs) has been associated with both morbidity and mortality in trauma patients in observational studies. Although the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain unclear, alterations in the microcirculation as a result of the transfusion of relatively older blood may be a causative factor. To assess this hypothesis, we evaluated microvascular perfusion in trauma patients during RBC transfusion. Methods Anemic but otherwise stable trauma ICU patients with orders for transfusion were identified. Thenar muscle tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) was measured continuously by near infrared spectroscopy during the course of transfusion of one RBC unit. Sublingual microcirculation was observed by sidestream dark field illumination microscopy before and after transfusion of one RBC unit. Thenar muscle StO2 was recorded over the course of transfusion. Pre- and post-transfusion perfused capillary vascular density (PCD) was determined by semi-quantitative image analysis. Changes in StO2 and PCD relative to age of RBC unit were evaluated using mixed models that adjusted for baseline StO2 and Spearman's correlation, respectively. Results Overall, 93 patients were recruited for study participation, 69% were male and average Injury Severity Score was 26.4. Average pre-transfusion hemoglobin was 7.5 mg/dL and the average age of RBC unit transfused was 29.4 days. Average peri-transfusion StO2 was negatively associated with increasing RBC age (slope -0.11, p = 0.0014). Change in PCD from pre- to post-transfusion was found to correlate negatively with RBC storage age (Spearman correlation = -0.27, p = 0.037). Conclusions The transfusion of relatively older RBC units was associated with a decline in both StO2 and PCD. Collectively, these observations demonstrate that transfusions of older RBC units are associated with the inhibition of regional microvascular perfusion. In patients requiring multiple units of RBCs

  5. [Why is it necessary to review the December 15th 2003 circular relative to the transfusion act?].

    PubMed

    Lassale, B; Besse-Moreau, M; Aullen, J-P

    2014-11-01

    Blood transfusion is currently a delegated medical act in patient care services. Following severe adverse events, hemovigilance now disposes of a dense regulation. Data collection and analysis in the national hemovigilance "e-FIT" database allow detection of errors or malfunctions in the transfusion act. Blood transfusion safety depends on the strict respect of processes from the prescription of blood products and required patient immuno-hematology exams to the administration of blood products and follow-up of the patient. In the circular relative to the transfusion act, many steps of the transfusion process, less explicit, can be interpreted differently by health care professionals and thus lead to errors or severe adverse events. Standardization of procedures for the transfusion act and its surveillance would increase their safety and avoid potential risks for the patient.

  6. The Impact of Platelet Transfusion in Massively Transfused Trauma Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    packed red blood cells [PRBC] within 24 hours of admission). Mortality was evaluated according to 4 apheresis platelet (aPLT):PRBC ratios: Low ratio (1...a massive transfusion, as the apheresis platelet -to-red cell ratio increased, a stepwise improvement in survival was seen. Prospective evaluation of...6.6 9.9 5.5 9.6 0.001 *FFP:PRBC ratio (%) (units FFP/units PRBC) 100. aPLT, apheresis platelets ; FFP, fresh frozen plasma; PRBC, packed red

  7. [CD36 Antigen Deficiency and Platelet Transfusion].

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Yan; Zhou, Yan; Shen, Wei-Dong

    2016-06-01

    CD36 is a transmembrane glycoprotein, a multi-ligand receptor, possesses various biological functions. CD36 deficiency may stimulate the body to produce anti-CD36 alloimmune antibodies through the several pathways, such as blood transfusion, pregnancy or organ transplantation and so on, leading to the refractoriness of immune platelet transfusion and other diseases. The recent research advances of CD36 deficiency and its molecular biological basis, platelet transfusion and CD36 antibody detection are summarized briefey in this review.

  8. Anemia and transfusion in the neonate.

    PubMed

    Colombatti, Raffaella; Sainati, Laura; Trevisanuto, Daniele

    2016-02-01

    Neonatal anemia is a frequent occurrence in neonatal intensive care units. Red blood cell transfusion criteria in case of blood loss are clearly defined but optimal hemoglobin or hematocrit thresholds of transfusion for anemia due to decreased production or increased destruction are less evident. This review focuses on the causes of anemia in the newborn period and the most recent evidence-based treatment options, including transfusion and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Blood transfusion and ethics: new questions].

    PubMed

    Sicard, D

    2006-09-01

    Chairman to the French Institutional Review Board, Professor Didier Sicard raises blood donation issues from an ethical standpoint. The contaminated blood scandal focused on the necessity of reducing transfusion risks and regarded blood safety as an ethical mandatory requirement, a debatable subject to deal with. The author proposes to reconsider the nature of unpaid blood donations while advising not to scorn the remunerated gift when such is the case. As for the use of blood, he questions the solutions based on a zero risk perspective, in particular an excessive auto-transfusional practice or a restrictive use of blood, lately regarded as essential. Starting from the blood donation concern this article leads us to think over both our society's fears and the precautionary principle abuses.

  10. [Pulmonary complications of transfusion (TACO-TRALI)].

    PubMed

    Renaudier, P; Rebibo, D; Waller, C; Schlanger, S; Vo Mai, M-P; Ounnoughene, N; Breton, P; Cheze, S; Girard, A; Hauser, L; Legras, J-F; Saillol, A; Willaert, B; Caldani, C

    2009-05-01

    Pulmonary oedemas occurring during or after a blood transfusion appear as the most frequent serious immediate incidents in the French hemovigilance database. They include transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) and transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). TACO are a major cause of transfusion-related death in France. TRALI are more and more recognized and notified. In no case, pooled fresh frozen plasma (100 donations) treated with solvent-detergent were involved in French TRALI cases. A logigrame will allow hemovigilance officers to better classify pulmonary oedemas in e-fit, the French hemovigilance database.

  11. Hemolysis after ABO-incompatible platelet transfusions.

    PubMed

    Chow, M P; Yung, C H; Hu, H Y; Tzeng, C H

    1991-08-01

    An 18 year old girl, with acute myeloid leukemia, developed progressive hemolysis after receiving multiple transfusions with ABO-incompatible platelets. It was caused by passive transfusion of anti-A and -B isoagglutinin from the donor plasma. Her hemoglobin level returned to normal after giving group compatible or pooled and reduced volume platelet concentrates. Transfusing group-incompatible platelets is not contraindicated, but donor plasma reduction should be considered for those patients who need prolonged platelet support. Testing for isoagglutinin titer in group O donors is an alternate method to reduce the incidence of plasma-induced hemolysis in group-incompatible platelet transfusions.

  12. [An analysis of transfusion in adult surgery].

    PubMed

    Pinto, V; Baldonedo, R; Alvarez, J A

    1999-12-01

    To analyze the transfusion rate of adult transfused patients undergoing standard curative surgery made in operating room (not ambulatory). Data from discharge reports of patients having surgery during 1996, codified according to the International Diseases Classification (ICE-9-MC). Age, sex, diagnosis, procedures (including transfusions), were analysed along with the surgical procedures and if the patient was subsequently admitted. 11,673 adult patients had surgery, of whom 890 underwent transfusion (7.6%). The transfusion rate was greater in males, in patients over 60 years old, in patients with several surgical procedures simultaneously, in patients who were subsequently admitted, and in patients with surgery procedures of pancreas, spleen, dorsolumbar column, liver, pharynx, hip and stomach. Given the variability in the blood transfusion practices among the hospitals, to know the transfusion rates of each clinic and surgical situation would permit a better planning of: the surgical blood transfusions, the autologous blood transfusion program, the criteria on crossmatching tests, as well as to increase the information to the patient in the surgical Informed Consent.

  13. Pulmonary complications of transfused blood components.

    PubMed

    Benson, Alexander B

    2012-09-01

    Three transfusion complications are responsible for the majority of the morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. This article discusses the respiratory complications associated with these pathophysiologic processes, including definitions, diagnosis, mechanism, incidence, risk factors, clinical management, and strategies for prevention. It also explores how different patient populations and different blood components differentially affect the risk of these deadly transfusion complications. Lastly, the article discusses how health care providers can risk stratify individual patients or patient populations to determine whether a given transfusion is more likely to benefit or harm the patient based on the transfusion indication, risk, and expected result.

  14. Predictive factors for perioperative blood transfusion in surgeries for correction of idiopathic, neuromuscular or congenital scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Borges, Paulo Alvim; Barbosa, Angelo Roberto; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; Marcon, Raphael Martus; Barros Filho, Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa de

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the association of clinical and demographic variables in patients requiring blood transfusion during elective surgery to treat scoliosis with the aim of identifying markers predictive of the need for blood transfusion. Based on the review of medical charts at a public university hospital, this retrospective study evaluated whether the following variables were associated with the need for red blood cell transfusion (measured by the number of packs used) during scoliosis surgery: scoliotic angle, extent of arthrodesis (number of fused levels), sex of the patient, surgery duration and type of scoliosis (neuromuscular, congenital or idiopathic). Of the 94 patients evaluated in a 55-month period, none required a massive blood transfusion (most patients needed less than two red blood cell packs). The number of packs was not significantly associated with sex or type of scoliosis. The extent of arthrodesis (r = 0.103), surgery duration (r = 0.144) and scoliotic angle (r = 0.004) were weakly correlated with the need for blood transfusion. Linear regression analysis showed an association between the number of spine levels submitted to arthrodesis and the volume of blood used in transfusions (p = 0.001). This study did not reveal any evidence of a significant association between the need for red blood cell transfusion and scoliotic angle, sex or surgery duration in scoliosis correction surgery. Submission of more spinal levels to arthrodesis was associated with the use of a greater number of blood packs.

  15. Minor elective surgical procedures using general anesthesia in children with sickle cell anemia without pre-operative blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Fu, Teresa; Corrigan, Nicole J; Quinn, Charles T; Rogers, Zora R; Buchanan, George R

    2005-07-01

    Pre-operative red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are often recommended for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) who require elective surgery under general anesthesia. However, definitive randomized studies demonstrating the benefit of transfusions in this setting have not been conducted. In particular, the merits of transfusion prior to minor or low-risk surgical procedures in children with SCD have not been demonstrated. We hypothesized that children with sickle cell anemia (Hb SS) who have minor elective surgical procedures develop few complications even without pre-operative transfusion. We accessed our Comprehensive Sickle Cell Program's Database to identify all such procedures performed during a 13-year period. Medical records were reviewed to characterize the surgical procedure, the use of transfusions, and perioperative complications. Twenty-eight children with Hb SS had a total of 38 minor surgical procedures. No perioperative transfusions were given in 34 of the cases (85%). Five of these 34 surgeries (15%) were associated with minor post-operative complications (fever or transient pain). No post-operative acute chest syndrome was encountered. Minor or low-risk elective surgical procedures in children with Hb SS may not routinely require pre-operative transfusion. A randomized clinical trial to compare transfusion with no transfusion for minor surgical procedures is needed.

  16. Thrombocytopenia in leptospirosis and role of platelet transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Jayashree; Suryavanshi, Moushumi

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The study was designed to find out the incidence of thrombocytopenia i