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Sample records for allohexaploid wheat triticum

  1. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of the homoeologous EPSP Synthase genes of allohexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum (L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) is the sixth and penultimate enzyme in the shikimate biosynthesis pathway. The EPSPS genes of allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD) have not been well characterized. Herein, the three homoeologous copies of the wheat EPSPS gen...

  2. Evolution of the BBAA component of bread wheat during its history at the allohexaploid level.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huakun; Zhu, Bo; Qi, Bao; Gou, Xiaowan; Dong, Yuzhu; Xu, Chunming; Zhang, Bangjiao; Huang, Wei; Liu, Chang; Wang, Xutong; Yang, Chunwu; Zhou, Hao; Kashkush, Khalil; Feldman, Moshe; Wendel, Jonathan F; Liu, Bao

    2014-07-01

    Subgenome integrity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum; BBAADD) makes possible the extraction of its BBAA component to restitute a novel plant type. The availability of such a ploidy-reversed wheat (extracted tetraploid wheat [ETW]) provides a unique opportunity to address whether and to what extent the BBAA component of bread wheat has been modified in phenotype, karyotype, and gene expression during its evolutionary history at the allohexaploid level. We report here that ETW was anomalous in multiple phenotypic traits but maintained a stable karyotype. Microarray-based transcriptome profiling identified a large number of differentially expressed genes between ETW and natural tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum), and the ETW-downregulated genes were enriched for distinct Gene Ontology categories. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that gene expression differences between ETW and a set of diverse durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp durum) cultivars were distinct from those characterizing tetraploid cultivars per se. Pyrosequencing revealed that the expression alterations may occur to either only one or both of the B and A homoeolog transcripts in ETW. A majority of the genes showed additive expression in a resynthesized allohexaploid wheat. Analysis of a synthetic allohexaploid wheat and diverse bread wheat cultivars revealed the rapid occurrence of expression changes to the BBAA subgenomes subsequent to allohexaploidization and their evolutionary persistence.

  3. Extensive and Heritable Epigenetic Remodeling and Genetic Stability Accompany Allohexaploidization of Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Na; Zhu, Bo; Li, Mingjiu; Wang, Li; Xu, Liying; Zhang, Huakun; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Qi, Bao; Han, Fangpu; Liu, Bao

    2011-01-01

    Allopolyploidy has played a prominent role in organismal evolution, particularly in angiosperms. Allohexaploidization is a critical step leading to the formation of common wheat as a new species, Triticum aestivum, as well as for bestowing its remarkable adaptability. A recent study documented that the initial stages of wheat allohexaploidization was associated with rampant genetic and epigenetic instabilities at genomic regions flanking a retrotransposon family named Veju. Although this finding is in line with the prevailing opinion of rapid genomic instability associated with nascent plant allopolyploidy, its relevance to speciation of T. aestivum remains unclear. Here, we show that genetic instability at genomic regions flanking the Veju, flanking a more abundant retroelement BARE-1, as well as at a large number of randomly sampled genomic loci, is all extremely rare or nonexistent in preselected individuals representing three sets of independently formed nascent allohexaploid wheat lines, which had a transgenerationally stable genomic constitution analogous to that of T. aestivum. In contrast, extensive and transgenerationally heritable repatterning of DNA methylation at all three kinds of genomic loci were reproducibly detected. Thus, our results suggest that rampant genetic instability associated with nascent allohexaploidization in wheat likely represents incidental and anomalous phenomena that are confined to by-product individuals inconsequential to the establishment of the newly formed plants toward speciation of T. aestivum; instead, extensive and heritable epigenetic remodeling coupled with preponderant genetic stability is generally associated with nascent wheat allohexaploidy, and therefore, more likely a contributory factor to the speciation event(s). PMID:21515577

  4. Evolution of the BBAA Component of Bread Wheat during Its History at the Allohexaploid Level[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huakun; Zhu, Bo; Qi, Bao; Gou, Xiaowan; Dong, Yuzhu; Xu, Chunming; Zhang, Bangjiao; Huang, Wei; Liu, Chang; Wang, Xutong; Yang, Chunwu; Zhou, Hao; Kashkush, Khalil; Feldman, Moshe; Wendel, Jonathan F.; Liu, Bao

    2014-01-01

    Subgenome integrity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum; BBAADD) makes possible the extraction of its BBAA component to restitute a novel plant type. The availability of such a ploidy-reversed wheat (extracted tetraploid wheat [ETW]) provides a unique opportunity to address whether and to what extent the BBAA component of bread wheat has been modified in phenotype, karyotype, and gene expression during its evolutionary history at the allohexaploid level. We report here that ETW was anomalous in multiple phenotypic traits but maintained a stable karyotype. Microarray-based transcriptome profiling identified a large number of differentially expressed genes between ETW and natural tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum), and the ETW-downregulated genes were enriched for distinct Gene Ontology categories. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that gene expression differences between ETW and a set of diverse durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp durum) cultivars were distinct from those characterizing tetraploid cultivars per se. Pyrosequencing revealed that the expression alterations may occur to either only one or both of the B and A homoeolog transcripts in ETW. A majority of the genes showed additive expression in a resynthesized allohexaploid wheat. Analysis of a synthetic allohexaploid wheat and diverse bread wheat cultivars revealed the rapid occurrence of expression changes to the BBAA subgenomes subsequent to allohexaploidization and their evolutionary persistence. PMID:24989045

  5. Persistent whole-chromosome aneuploidy is generally associated with nascent allohexaploid wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huakun; Bian, Yao; Gou, Xiaowan; Zhu, Bo; Xu, Chunming; Qi, Bao; Li, Ning; Rustgi, Sachin; Zhou, Hao; Han, Fangpu; Jiang, Jiming; von Wettstein, Diter; Liu, Bao

    2013-01-01

    Allopolyploidization has been a driving force in plant evolution. Formation of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) represents a classic example of successful speciation via allopolyploidy. Nevertheless, the immediate chromosomal consequences of allopolyploidization in wheat remain largely unexplored. We report here an in-depth investigation on transgenerational chromosomal variation in resynthesized allohexaploid wheats that are identical in genome constitution to common wheat. We deployed sequential FISH, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), and homeolog-specific pyrosequencing, which enabled unequivocal identification of each of the 21 homologous chromosome pairs in each of >1,000 individual plants from 16 independent lines. We report that whole-chromosome aneuploidy occurred ubiquitously in early generations (from selfed generation S1 to >S20) of wheat allohexaploidy although at highly variable frequencies (20–100%). In contrast, other types of gross structural variations were scant. Aneuploidy included an unexpected hidden type, which had a euploid chromosome number of 2n = 42 but with simultaneous loss and gain of nonhomeologous chromosomes. Of the three constituent subgenomes, B showed the most lability for aneuploidy, followed by A, but the recently added D subgenome was largely stable in most of the studied lines. Chromosome loss and gain were also unequal across the 21 homologous chromosome pairs. Pedigree analysis showed no evidence for progressive karyotype stabilization even with multigenerational selection for euploidy. Profiling of two traits directly related to reproductive fitness showed that although pollen viability was generally reduced by aneuploidy, the adverse effect of aneuploidy on seed-set is dependent on both aneuploidy type and synthetic line. PMID:23401544

  6. Massive alterations of the methylation patterns around DNA transposons in the first four generations of a newly formed wheat allohexaploid.

    PubMed

    Yaakov, Beery; Kashkush, Khalil

    2011-01-01

    Rapid and reproducible genomic changes can be induced during the early stages of the life of nascent allopolyploid species. In a previous study, it was shown that following allopolyploidization, cytosine methylation changes can affect up to 11% of the wheat genome. However, the methylation patterns around transposable elements (TEs) were never studied in detail. We used transposon methylation display (TMD) to assess the methylation patterns of CCGG sites flanking three TE families (Balduin, Apollo, and Thalos) in the first four generations of a newly formed wheat allohexaploid. In addition, transposon display (TD), using a methylation-insensitive restriction enzyme, was applied to search for genomic rearrangements at the TE insertion sites. We observed that up to 54% of CCGG sites flanking the three TE families showed changes in methylation patterns in the first four generations of a newly formed wheat allohexaploid, where hypermethylation was predominant. Over 70% of the changes in TMD patterns occurred in the first two generations of the newly formed allohexaploid. Furthermore, analysis of 555 TE insertion sites by TD and 18 cases by site-specific PCR revealed a full additive pattern in the allohexaploid, an indication for lack of massive rearrangements. These data indicate that following allopolyplodization, DNA-TE insertion sites can undergo a significantly high level of methylation changes compared with methylation changes of other genomic sequences.

  7. [Research advances in wheat (Triticum aestivum) allelopathy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoke; Jiang, Yong; Liang, Wenju; Kong, Chuihua

    2004-10-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is the main food crop in the world, and plays an important role in agricultural production. In order to enhance wheat yield, herbicides and germicides were intensively applied and made negative effects on the environment. Wheat possesses allelopathic potential for weed suppression and disease control through the release of secondary metabolites from its living plants or residues, which could avoid the environment pollution brought by herbicides and germicides. This paper reviewed the research advances in wheat allelopathy. Hydroxamic acids and phenolic acids are the predominant allelochemicals frequently reported which could produce plant natural defense against weed, pest and disease. The allelopathic activity of allelochemicals is determined not only by the allelochemicals, but also by the factors of inheritance, environment and biology. The retention, transportation and transformation processes of allelochemicals, and the relationship between wheat allelopathy and soil biota and its mechanism were seldom studied and still needed to be researched profoundly. Utilizing wheat allelopathy in plant protection, environment protection and crop breeding would improve the stress-resistance, yield and quality of wheat in agricultural production. PMID:15624846

  8. Incidence of Wheat streak mosaic virus, Triticum mosaic virus, and Wheat mosaic virus in wheat curl mites recovered from maturing winter wheat spikes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat curl mites (WCM; Aceria tosichella) transmit Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), and Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV) to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains region of the United States. These viruses can be detected in single, double, or triple combinations i...

  9. Transfer of soft kernel texture from Triticum aestivum to durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) is a leading cereal grain whose primary use is the production of semolina and then pasta. Its rich culinary relationship to humans is related, in part, to its very hard kernel texture. This very hard texture is due to the loss of the Puroindoline genes whi...

  10. Variants of Triticum mosaic virus isolated from wheat in Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a recently discovered virus infecting wheat. We compared the Colorado isolates C10-492 and C11-775 with the 06-123 isolate of TriMV from Kansas (TriMV-K). Comparisons were made using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), infectivity assay, host range, dry weig...

  11. RNAi mediated, stable resistance to Triticum mosaic virus in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), discovered in 2006, affects wheat production systems in the Great Plains of the United States. There are no available TriMV resistant commercial varieties. RNA interference (RNAi) was evaluated as an alternative strategy to generate resistance to TriMV. An RNAi pANDA...

  12. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Analyses of Gene Expression during Photomorphogenesis in Diploid Wheat Triticum monococcum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticum monococcum (2n), a close ancestor of the A-genome progenitor of cultivated hexaploid wheat, was used as a model to study components regulating photomorphogenesis in diploid wheat. Constructed were genome-wide transcriptomes of two Triticum monococcum subspecies, the wild winter wheat T. mo...

  13. Nutritional properties of einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum L.).

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Alyssa; Brandolini, Andrea

    2014-03-15

    The hulled wheat einkorn (Triticum monococcum L. ssp. monococcum), a staple food of early farmers for many thousand years, today is cropped only in small areas of the Mediterranean region and continental Europe. Increasing attention to the nutritional quality of foods has fostered renewed interest in this low-impact crop. The reappraisal of einkorn quality evidenced that this ancient wheat has some dietary advantages over polyploid wheats. Einkorn wholemeal is poor in dietary fibre but rich in proteins, lipids (mostly unsaturated fatty acids), fructans and trace elements (including zinc and iron). The good concentration of several antioxidant compounds (carotenoids, tocols, conjugated polyphenols, alkylresorcinols and phytosterols) and low β-amylase and lipoxygenase activities (which limit antioxidant degradation during food processing) contribute to the excellent nutritional properties of its flour, superior to those of other wheats. Conversely, einkorn has relatively low bound polyphenol content and high polyphenol oxidase activity. In spite of eliciting weaker toxic reactions than other Triticum species, einkorn is not suitable for coeliacs. Current trends towards the consumption of functional foods suggest that this cereal may still play a significant role in human consumption, especially in the development of new or special foods with superior nutritional quality.

  14. Resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus in wheat lines carrying Wsm1 and Wsm3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) are important viruses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains of United States. In addition to agronomic practices to prevent damage from these viruses, temperature sensitive resistance genes Wsm1, Wsm2 and Wsm3, have bee...

  15. Analysis of Triticum boeoticum and Triticum urartu seed defensins: To the problem of the origin of polyploid wheat genomes.

    PubMed

    Odintsova, Tatyana I; Korostyleva, Tatyana V; Odintsova, Margarita S; Pukhalsky, Vitaliy A; Grishin, Eugene V; Egorov, Tsezi A

    2008-06-01

    The origin of polyploid wheat genomes has been the subject of numerous studies and is the key problem in wheat phylogeny. Different diploid species have been supposed to donate genomes to tetraploid and hexaploid wheat species. To shed light on phylogenetic relationships between the presumable A genome donors and hexaploid wheat species we have applied a new approach: the comparison of defensins from diploid Triticum species, Triticum boeoticum Boiss. and Triticum urartu Thum. ex Gandil., with previously characterized Triticum kiharae defensins [T.I. Odintsova et al., Biochimie 89 (2007) 605-612]. Defensins were isolated by acidic extraction of seeds followed by three-step chromatographic separation. Isolated defensins were identified by molecular masses using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. For the first time, we have shown that T. urartu defensins are more similar to those of the hexaploid wheat than T. boeoticum defensins, although variation among samples collected in different regions of the world was revealed. Our results clearly demonstrate that T. urartu of the Asian origin contributed the A genome to polyploid wheat species.

  16. Metabolite profiling of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) phloem exudate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biofortification of staple crops with essential micronutrients relies on the efficient, long distance transport of nutrients to the developing seed. The main route of this transport in common wheat (Triticum aestivum) is via the phloem, but due to the reactive nature of some essential micronutrients (specifically Fe and Zn), they need to form ligands with metabolites for transport within the phloem. Current methods available in collecting phloem exudate allows for small volumes (μL or nL) to be collected which limits the breadth of metabolite analysis. We present a technical advance in the measurement of 79 metabolites in as little as 19.5 nL of phloem exudate. This was achieved by using mass spectrometry based, metabolomic techniques. Results Using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS), 79 metabolites were detected in wheat phloem. Of these, 53 were identified with respect to their chemistry and 26 were classified as unknowns. Using the ratio of ion area for each metabolite to the total ion area for all metabolites, 39 showed significant changes in metabolite profile with a change in wheat reproductive maturity, from 8–12 to 17–21 days after anthesis. Of these, 21 were shown to increase and 18 decreased as the plant matured. An amine group derivitisation method coupled with liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS) based metabolomics was able to quantify 26 metabolites and semi-quantitative data was available for a further 3 metabolites. Conclusions This study demonstrates that it is possible to determine metabolite profiles from extremely small volumes of phloem exudate and that this method can be used to determine variability within the metabolite profile of phloem that has occurred with changes in maturity. This is also believed to be the first report of the presence of the important metal complexing metabolite, nicotianamine in the phloem of wheat. PMID:25143779

  17. Fructan metabolism in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) kernels.

    PubMed

    Verspreet, Joran; Cimini, Sara; Vergauwen, Rudy; Dornez, Emmie; Locato, Vittoria; Le Roy, Katrien; De Gara, Laura; Van den Ende, Wim; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2013-12-01

    Although fructans play a crucial role in wheat kernel development, their metabolism during kernel maturation is far from being understood. In this study, all major fructan-metabolizing enzymes together with fructan content, fructan degree of polymerization and the presence of fructan oligosaccharides were examined in developing wheat kernels (Triticum aestivum L. var. Homeros) from anthesis until maturity. Fructan accumulation occurred mainly in the first 2 weeks after anthesis, and a maximal fructan concentration of 2.5 ± 0.3 mg fructan per kernel was reached at 16 days after anthesis (DAA). Fructan synthesis was catalyzed by 1-SST (sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase) and 6-SFT (sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase), and to a lesser extent by 1-FFT (fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase). Despite the presence of 6G-kestotriose in wheat kernel extracts, the measured 6G-FFT (fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase) activity levels were low. During kernel filling, which lasted from 2 to 6 weeks after anthesis, kernel fructan content decreased from 2.5 ± 0.3 to 1.31 ± 0.12 mg fructan per kernel (42 DAA) and the average fructan degree of polymerization decreased from 7.3 ± 0.4 (14 DAA) to 4.4 ± 0.1 (42 DAA). FEH (fructan exohydrolase) reached maximal activity between 20 and 28 DAA. No fructan-metabolizing enzyme activities were registered during the final phase of kernel maturation, and fructan content and structure remained unchanged. This study provides insight into the complex metabolism of fructans during wheat kernel development and relates fructan turnover to the general phases of kernel development.

  18. Distribution of cadmium, iron and zinc in millstreams of hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop in the Great Plains of the United 14 States, and our previous work demonstrated that wheat genotypes vary for grain cadmium 15 accumulation, with some exceeding the CODEX standard (0.2 mg kg-1). Previous reports of 16 cadmium distribution in ...

  19. Did the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) shape the evolutionary trajectory of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most successful domesticated plant species in the world. The majority of wheat carries mutations in the Puroindoline genes that result in a hard kernel phenotype. An explanation as to the selection of these hard-kernel mutations has not been established. He...

  20. Factors Affecting the Radiosensitivity of Hexaploid Wheat to -Irradiation: Radiosensitivity of Hexaploid Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Gu, Jiayu; Zhao, Linshu; Guo, Huijun; Xie, Yongdun; Zhao, Shirong; Song, Xiyun; Han, Longzhi; Liu, Luxiang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the radiosensitivity of plants, an important factor in crop mutation breeding programs, requires a thorough investigation of the factors that contribute to this trait. In this study, we used the highly radiosensitive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety HY1 and J411, a γ-irradiation-insensitive control, which were screened from a natural population, to examine the factors affecting radiosensitivity, including free radical content and total antioxidant capacity, as well as the expression of TaKu70 and TaKu80 (DNA repair-related genes) as measured by real-time PCR. We also investigated the alternative splicing of this gene in the wild-type wheat ecotype by sequence analysis. Free radical contents and total antioxidant capacity significantly increased upon exposure of HY1 wheat to γ-irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. By contrast, in J411, the free radical contents exhibited a similar trend, but the total antioxidant capacity exhibited a downward trend upon increasing γ-irradiation. Additionally, we detected dose-dependent increases in TaKu70 and TaKu80 expression levels in γ-irradiated HY1, while in J411, TaKu70 expression levels increased, followed by a decline. We also detected alternative splicing of TaKu70 mRNA, namely, intron retention, in HY1 but not in J411. Our findings indicate that γ-irradiation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in hexaploid wheat, resulting in growth retardation of seedlings, and they suggest that TaKu70 may play a causal role in radiosensitivity in HY1. Further studies are required to exploit these factors to improve radiosensitivity in other wheat varieties. PMID:27551965

  1. [Analysis of storage proteins (prolamines, puroindolines and waxy) in common wheat lines Triticum aestivum L. x (Triticum timopheevii Zhuk. x Triticum tauschii) with complex resistance to fungal infections].

    PubMed

    Obukhova, L V; Laĭkova, L I; Shumnyĭ, V K

    2010-06-01

    Storage proteins (prolamines, puroindolines, and Waxy) were studied in common wheat introgression lines obtained with the use of the Saratovskaya 29 (S29) cultivar line and synthetic hexaploid wheat (Triticum timopheevii Zhuk. x T. tauschii) (Sintetik, Sin.) and displaying complex resistance to fungal infections. Comparative analysis of storage proteins in the introgression lines of common wheat Triticum aestivum L. and in the parental forms revealed the only line (BC5) having a substitution at the Gli-B2 locus from Sintetik. Hybrid lines subjected to nine back crosses with the recurrent parental form S29 and selections for resistance to pathogens can be considered as nearly isogenic for the selected trait and retaining the allelic composition of (1) prolamines responsible for the bread-making qualitiy, (2) puroindolines associated with grain texture, and (3) Waxy proteins responsible for nutritive qualities. These lines are valuable as donors of immunity in breeding programs without the loss of the quality of flour and grain as compared to the S29 line and are also important in searching for genes determining resistance to leaf and stem rust and to powdery mildew. The amphiploid has a number of characters (silent Glu-A 1 locus and Ha genotype) that can negatively affect the quality of flour and grain and thus should be taken into account when choosing this donor.

  2. Inheritance of grain polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in multiple wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genetic backgrounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity can cause discoloration of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) food products. Five crosses (PI 117635/Antelope; Fielder/NW03681; Fielder/Antelope; NW07OR1070/Antelope; NW07OR1066/OR2050272H) were selected to study the genetic inheritance of PPO activity. STS marker...

  3. Evaluation of Fusarium head blight resistance in tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) in North America in recent years has been seriously threatened and compromised by epidemics of Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe [teleomorph Gibberella zeae (Schw.) Petch]. Deployment of FHB-resista...

  4. In vitro effect of wheat bran (Triticum aestivum) extract on calcium oxalate urolithiasis crystallization.

    PubMed

    Sekkoum, Khaled; Cheriti, Abdelkrim; Taleb, Safia

    2011-10-01

    Urolithiasis can lead to the loss of renal function in some cases. In this study, we tested the inhibiting effect of wheat bran (Triticum aestivum L) extract on calcium oxalate crystallization in a turbidimetric model, by FTIR spectroscopy, and polarized microscopy. The results show that this plant extract has a major inhibitory effect on calcium oxalate crystallization. PMID:22164778

  5. Metabolic Pathways of the Wheat (Triticum aestivum)Endosperm Amyloplast Revealed by Proteomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By definition, amyloplasts are plastids specialized for starch production. However, amyloplasts have a broader range of functions that are not widely recognized. A recent proteomic study of amyloplasts isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum Butte 86) endosperm suggested that they share many of the ...

  6. A review of the occurrence of grain softness protein-1 genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain softness protein-1 (Gsp-1) is a small, 495-bp intronless gene found throughout the Triticeae tribe at the distal end of group 5 chromosomes. With the Puroindolines, it constitutes a key component of the Hardness locus. In the polyploid wheats, Triticum aestivum and T. turgidum, the gene is pr...

  7. mRNA and Small RNA Transcriptomes Reveal Insights into Dynamic Homoeolog Regulation of Allopolyploid Heterosis in Nascent Hexaploid Wheat[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Aili; Liu, Dengcai; Wu, Jun; Zhao, Xubo; Hao, Ming; Geng, Shuaifeng; Yan, Jun; Jiang, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Lianquan; Wu, Junyan; Yin, Lingjie; Zhang, Rongzhi; Wu, Liang; Zheng, Youliang; Mao, Long

    2014-01-01

    Nascent allohexaploid wheat may represent the initial genetic state of common wheat (Triticum aestivum), which arose as a hybrid between Triticum turgidum (AABB) and Aegilops tauschii (DD) and by chromosome doubling and outcompeted its parents in growth vigor and adaptability. To better understand the molecular basis for this success, we performed mRNA and small RNA transcriptome analyses in nascent allohexaploid wheat and its following generations, their progenitors, and the natural allohexaploid cultivar Chinese Spring, with the assistance of recently published A and D genome sequences. We found that nonadditively expressed protein-coding genes were rare but relevant to growth vigor. Moreover, a high proportion of protein-coding genes exhibited parental expression level dominance, with genes for which the total homoeolog expression level in the progeny was similar to that in T. turgidum potentially participating in development and those with similar expression to that in Ae. tauschii involved in adaptation. In addition, a high proportion of microRNAs showed nonadditive expression upon polyploidization, potentially leading to differential expression of important target genes. Furthermore, increased small interfering RNA density was observed for transposable element–associated D homoeologs in the allohexaploid progeny, which may account for biased repression of D homoeologs. Together, our data provide insights into small RNA–mediated dynamic homoeolog regulation mechanisms that may contribute to heterosis in nascent hexaploid wheat. PMID:24838975

  8. A Standardized Inoculation Protocol to Test Wheat Cultivars for Reaction to Head Blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae (Triticum pathotype)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat blast, caused by the Triticum pathotype of M. oryzae (MoT), poses a significant threat to wheat production worldwide. Because this pathotype does not occur in the U.S., it is important to prepare for its possible introduction. As part of this preparation, over 500 U.S. wheat cultivars were tes...

  9. Rmg8, a New Gene for Resistance to Triticum Isolates of Pyricularia oryzae in Hexaploid Wheat.

    PubMed

    Anh, Vu Lan; Anh, Nguyen Tuan; Tagle, Analiza Grubanzo; Vy, Trinh Thi Phuong; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Takumi, Shigeo; Chuma, Izumi; Tosa, Yukio

    2015-12-01

    Blast, caused by Pyricularia oryzae, is one of the major diseases of wheat in South America. We identified a new gene for resistance to Triticum isolates of P. oryzae in common wheat 'S-615', and designated it "resistance to Magnaporthe grisea 8" (Rmg8). Rmg8 was assigned to chromosome 2B through molecular mapping with simple-sequence repeat markers. To identify an avirulence gene corresponding to Rmg8, Triticum isolate Br48 (avirulent on S-615) was crossed with 200R29 (virulent on S-615), an F1 progeny derived from a cross between an Eleusine isolate (MZ5-1-6) and Br48. Segregation analysis of their progeny revealed that avirulence of Br48 on S-615 was conditioned by a single gene, which was designated AVR-Rmg8. AVR-Rmg8 was closely linked to AVR-Rmg7, which corresponded to Rmg7 located on chromosome 2A of tetraploid wheat.

  10. Rmg8, a New Gene for Resistance to Triticum Isolates of Pyricularia oryzae in Hexaploid Wheat.

    PubMed

    Anh, Vu Lan; Anh, Nguyen Tuan; Tagle, Analiza Grubanzo; Vy, Trinh Thi Phuong; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Takumi, Shigeo; Chuma, Izumi; Tosa, Yukio

    2015-12-01

    Blast, caused by Pyricularia oryzae, is one of the major diseases of wheat in South America. We identified a new gene for resistance to Triticum isolates of P. oryzae in common wheat 'S-615', and designated it "resistance to Magnaporthe grisea 8" (Rmg8). Rmg8 was assigned to chromosome 2B through molecular mapping with simple-sequence repeat markers. To identify an avirulence gene corresponding to Rmg8, Triticum isolate Br48 (avirulent on S-615) was crossed with 200R29 (virulent on S-615), an F1 progeny derived from a cross between an Eleusine isolate (MZ5-1-6) and Br48. Segregation analysis of their progeny revealed that avirulence of Br48 on S-615 was conditioned by a single gene, which was designated AVR-Rmg8. AVR-Rmg8 was closely linked to AVR-Rmg7, which corresponded to Rmg7 located on chromosome 2A of tetraploid wheat. PMID:26555672

  11. Genetic variability in anthocyanin composition and nutritional properties of blue, purple, and red bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum) wheats.

    PubMed

    Ficco, Donatella B M; De Simone, Vanessa; Colecchia, Salvatore A; Pecorella, Ivano; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Finocchiaro, Franca; Papa, Roberto; De Vita, Pasquale

    2014-08-27

    Renewed interest in breeding for high anthocyanins in wheat (Triticum ssp.) is due to their antioxidant potential. A collection of different pigmented wheats was used to investigate the stability of anthocyanins over three crop years. The data show higher anthocyanins in blue-aleurone bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), followed by purple- and red-pericarp durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum), using cyanidin 3-O-glucoside as standard. HPLC of the anthocyanin components shows five to eight major anthocyanins for blue wheat extracts, compared to three anthocyanins for purple and red wheats. Delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside are predominant in blue wheat, with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-galactoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside in purple wheat. Of the total anthocyanins, 40-70% remain to be structurally identified. The findings confirm the high heritability for anthocyanins, with small genotype × year effects, which will be useful for breeding purposes, to improve the antioxidant potential of cereal-based foods.

  12. [Ecotoxicological effects of oxytetracycline on wheat (Triticum aestivum) based on seed germination and seedling development].

    PubMed

    An, Jing; Zhou, Qi-xing; Liu, Wei-tao

    2009-10-15

    The ecotoxicological effects of oxytetracycline (OTC) on the germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds and the early development of wheat seedlings were investigated. The results showed that the elongation of wheat shoots and roots was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited by OTC, and there was a good dose-response relationship between the OTC concentration and inhibition rates. According to the linear regression equation, EC50 of OTC for inhibiting wheat shoot and root elongation was 65.5 mg/L and 34.7 mg/L, respectively. However, the germination of wheat seeds was not inhibited by OTC. Moreover, after a 21-day exposure to 0.15-2.40 mg/L OTC, the content of chlorophyll (CHL) decreased by 35.6%-47.3%, and the content of soluble protein (SP) in the leaves and roots of wheat plants decreased significantly. After a 7-day exposure, the activity of SOD and POD in wheat was not changed significantly. With the prolongation of exposure time, the activity of SOD and POD in wheat leaves and roots decreased significantly, the inhibition rate of SOD activity in roots increased up to 72.3% after a 21-day exposure to 2.4 mg/L OTC, which indicated that the antioxidant defense systems were damaged. The results above suggested that the low concentration OTC had ecotoxicological effects on wheat seedlings after chronic exposure.

  13. Molecular organization and comparative analysis of chromosome 5B of the wild wheat ancestor Triticum dicoccoides.

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Bala Ani; Yuce, Meral; Lucas, Stuart; Vrána, Jan; Burešová, Veronika; Doležel, Jaroslav; Budak, Hikmet

    2015-06-18

    Wild emmer wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides is the wild relative of Triticum turgidum, the progenitor of durum and bread wheat, and maintains a rich allelic diversity among its wild populations. The lack of adequate genetic and genomic resources, however, restricts its exploitation in wheat improvement. Here, we report next-generation sequencing of the flow-sorted chromosome 5B of T. dicoccoides to shed light into its genome structure, function and organization by exploring the repetitive elements, protein-encoding genes and putative microRNA and tRNA coding sequences. Comparative analyses with its counterparts in modern and wild wheats suggest clues into the B-genome evolution. Syntenic relationships of chromosome 5B with the model grasses can facilitate further efforts for fine-mapping of traits of interest. Mapping of 5B sequences onto the root transcriptomes of two additional T. dicoccoides genotypes, with contrasting drought tolerances, revealed several thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms, of which 584 shared polymorphisms on 228 transcripts were specific to the drought-tolerant genotype. To our knowledge, this study presents the largest genomics resource currently available for T. dicoccoides, which, we believe, will encourage the exploitation of its genetic and genomic potential for wheat improvement to meet the increasing demand to feed the world.

  14. Identification of differentially expressed proteins between hybrid and parents in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedling leaves.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao; Ni, Zhongfu; Yao, Yingyin; Zhang, Yinhong; Sun, Qixin

    2009-01-01

    In spite of commercial use of heterosis in agriculture, the molecular basis of heterosis is poorly understood. To gain a better understanding of the molecular basis of wheat heterosis, we carried out a comparative proteomic analysis in seedling leaves between wheat hybrid and parents. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) Line 3338 and spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) Line 2463 were used to produce a heterotic F(1) hybrid. The expression patterns of the total proteins were compared in seedling leaves between hybrid and its parents by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with two pH ranges for the first dimension separation. Among ~900 protein spots reproducibly detected, 49 protein spots were identified as being differentially expressed between hybrid and its parental lines (P < 0.05) for more than 1.5-folds. Six possible modes of differential expression were observed, including high- and low-parent dominance, underdominance, and overdominance, uniparent silencing and uniparent dominance. Moreover, 30 of the 49 differentially expressed protein spots were identified, which were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, energy, cell growth and division, disease and defense, secondary metabolism. These results indicated that wheat hybridization can cause protein expression differences between hybrid and its parents; these proteins were involved in diverse physiological process pathways, which might be responsible for the observed heterosis.

  15. A chromosome-based draft sequence of the hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome.

    PubMed

    2014-07-18

    An ordered draft sequence of the 17-gigabase hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome has been produced by sequencing isolated chromosome arms. We have annotated 124,201 gene loci distributed nearly evenly across the homeologous chromosomes and subgenomes. Comparative gene analysis of wheat subgenomes and extant diploid and tetraploid wheat relatives showed that high sequence similarity and structural conservation are retained, with limited gene loss, after polyploidization. However, across the genomes there was evidence of dynamic gene gain, loss, and duplication since the divergence of the wheat lineages. A high degree of transcriptional autonomy and no global dominance was found for the subgenomes. These insights into the genome biology of a polyploid crop provide a springboard for faster gene isolation, rapid genetic marker development, and precise breeding to meet the needs of increasing food demand worldwide.

  16. A chromosome-based draft sequence of the hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome.

    PubMed

    2014-07-18

    An ordered draft sequence of the 17-gigabase hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome has been produced by sequencing isolated chromosome arms. We have annotated 124,201 gene loci distributed nearly evenly across the homeologous chromosomes and subgenomes. Comparative gene analysis of wheat subgenomes and extant diploid and tetraploid wheat relatives showed that high sequence similarity and structural conservation are retained, with limited gene loss, after polyploidization. However, across the genomes there was evidence of dynamic gene gain, loss, and duplication since the divergence of the wheat lineages. A high degree of transcriptional autonomy and no global dominance was found for the subgenomes. These insights into the genome biology of a polyploid crop provide a springboard for faster gene isolation, rapid genetic marker development, and precise breeding to meet the needs of increasing food demand worldwide. PMID:25035500

  17. Sequence and tissue-specific expression of a putative peroxidase gene from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Hertig, C; Rebmann, G; Bull, J; Mauch, F; Dudler, R

    1991-01-01

    We have used a cDNA clone encoding a pathogen-induced putative wheat peroxidase to screen a genomic library of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Cheyenne) and isolated one positive clone, lambda POX1. Sequence analysis revealed that this clone contains a gene encoding a putative peroxidase with a calculated pI of 8.1 which exhibits 58% and 83% sequence identity to the amino acid sequence of the turnip (Brassica rapa) peroxidase and a pathogen-induced putative wheat peroxidase, respectively. The two introns in the wheat gene are at the same positions as introns in the peroxidase genes of tomato and horseradish. Results of S1-mapping experiments suggest that this gene is neither pathogen- nor wound-induced in leaves but is constitutively expressed in roots.

  18. Sequence and tissue-specific expression of a putative peroxidase gene from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Hertig, C; Rebmann, G; Bull, J; Mauch, F; Dudler, R

    1991-01-01

    We have used a cDNA clone encoding a pathogen-induced putative wheat peroxidase to screen a genomic library of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Cheyenne) and isolated one positive clone, lambda POX1. Sequence analysis revealed that this clone contains a gene encoding a putative peroxidase with a calculated pI of 8.1 which exhibits 58% and 83% sequence identity to the amino acid sequence of the turnip (Brassica rapa) peroxidase and a pathogen-induced putative wheat peroxidase, respectively. The two introns in the wheat gene are at the same positions as introns in the peroxidase genes of tomato and horseradish. Results of S1-mapping experiments suggest that this gene is neither pathogen- nor wound-induced in leaves but is constitutively expressed in roots. PMID:1653627

  19. Repeatability of mice consumption discrimination of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties across field experiments and mouse cohorts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole grain wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) foods can provide critical nutrients for health and nutrition in the human diet. However, undesirable flavors are often suggested as a barrier to increased whole-grain consumption, yet flavor differences among wheat varieties have not been widely studied. Pot...

  20. Heading date QTL in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) coincide with major developmental genes Vernalization-1 and Photoperiod-1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), time from planting to spike emergence is influenced by genes controlling vernalization requirement and photoperiod response. Characterizing the available genetic diversity of known and novel alleles of Vernalization-1 (Vrn-1) and Photoperiod-1 (Ppd-1) in winter wheat...

  1. Effect of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain color and hardness on the consumption preference of a mouse model system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain is a staple food and provides necessary nutrients for human health and nutrition. Yet, flavor differences among wheat varieties are not well understood. Grain flavor and consumption preference can be examined using the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) as a...

  2. Novel rust resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Puccinia fungi that cause wheat rust diseases are among the most globally destructive agricultural pathogens. The most effective and utilized defense against rust is genetic resistance. The vast majority of rust resistance is racespecific conferred by single genes rapidly overcome by the pathoge...

  3. HMW and LMW glutenin alleles among putative tetraploid and hexaploid European spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.) progenitors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Y; Hsam, S L K; Yu, J Z; Jiang, Y; Ohtsuka, I; Zeller, F J

    2003-11-01

    The allelic compositions of high- and low-molecular-weight subunits of glutenins (HMW-GS and LMW-GS) among European spelt ( Triticum spelta L.) and related hexaploid and tetraploid Triticum species were investigated by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). A total of seven novel glutenin alleles (designated A1a*, B1d*, B1g*, B1f*, B1j*, D1a* at Glu-1 and A3h at the Glu-3 loci, respectively) in European spelt wheat were detected by SDS-PAGE, which were confirmed further by employing A-PAGE and CE methods. Particularly, two HMW-GS alleles, Glu-B1d* coding the subunits 6.1 and 22.1, and Glu-B1f* coding the subunits 13 and 22*, were found to occur in European spelt with frequencies of 32.34% and 5.11%, respectively. These two alleles were present in cultivated emmer (Triticum dicoccum), but they were not observed in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The allele Glu-B1g* coding for 13* and 19* subunits found in spelt wheat was also detected in club wheat (Triticum compactum L.). Additionally, two alleles coding for LMW-GS, Glu-A3h and Glu-B3d, occurred with high frequencies in spelt, club and cultivated emmer wheat, whereas these were not found or present with very low frequencies in bread wheat. Our results strongly support the secondary origin hypothesis, namely European spelt wheat originated from hybridization between cultivated emmer and club wheat. This is also confirmed experimentally by the artificial synthesis of spelt through crossing between old European emmer wheat, T. dicoccum and club wheat, T. compactum.

  4. Search for diagnostic proteins to prove authenticity of organic wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zörb, Christian; Betsche, Thomas; Langenkämper, Georg

    2009-04-01

    Research comparing the biochemical composition of wheat grains from organic or conventional agriculture has used the targeted analytical approach. To obtain a more comprehensive record of the food's composition, we employed protein profiling techniques. Levels of 1049 proteins were recorded in wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Titlis) of two growing seasons from a rigorously controlled field trial in Switzerland, containing organic and conventional plots. Levels of 25 proteins were different between organic and conventional wheat in both years. Storage proteins, enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, a peroxidase, and proteins of unknown function were affected by the agricultural regime. Total protein content was lower in organic wheat. We consider these differences negligible with regard to nutrition in an average diet and propose that food quality of conventional and organic wheat grown in the field trial was equal. Applying various filters and calculations, one of which takes seasonal influences into account, 16 of the 25 proteins with different levels in organic and conventional wheat were retained. These 16 "diagnostic" proteins have the potential to afford a signature to prove authenticity of organic wheat.

  5. Genetic characterization and expression analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum) line 07OR1074 exhibiting very low polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) polyphenol oxidase (PPO) contributes to the time dependent discoloration of Asian noodles. Wheat contains multiple paralogous and orthologous PPO genes , Ppo-A1, Ppo-D1, Ppo-A2, Ppo-D2, and Ppo-B2, expressed in wheat kernels, Ppo-A1, Ppo-D1, Ppo-A2, Ppo-D2, and Ppo-B2. To d...

  6. Did the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) shape the evolutionary trajectory of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)?

    PubMed Central

    Morris, C F; Fuerst, E P; Beecher, B S; Mclean, D J; James, C P; Geng, H W

    2013-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most successful domesticated plant species in the world. The majority of wheat carries mutations in the Puroindoline genes that result in a hard kernel phenotype. An evolutionary explanation, or selective advantage, for the spread and persistence of these hard kernel mutations has yet to be established. Here, we demonstrate that the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) exerts a pronounced feeding preference for soft over hard kernels. When allele frequencies ranged from 0.5 to 0.009, mouse predation increased the hard allele frequency as much as 10-fold. Studies involving a single hard kernel mixed with ∼1000 soft kernels failed to recover the mutant kernel. Nevertheless, the study clearly demonstrates that the house mouse could have played a role in the evolution of wheat, and therefore the cultural trajectory of humankind. PMID:24223281

  7. Cultivar variations in cadmium and lead accumulation and distribution among 30 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weitao; Liang, Lichen; Zhang, Xue; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, heavy metal pollution in agricultural soil in China has received public concern. The concept of low-accumulation cultivars (LACs) was proposed to minimize the influx of pollutants to the human food chain. Variations in Cd and Pb accumulation, distribution, and tolerance among 30 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were studied in a hydroponic experiment to preliminary identify LACs of Cd or Pb for further field experiments. Of the 30 wheat cultivars tested, 27 and 26 wheat cultivars showed no effect of the Cd/Pb treatments on the shoot and root biomass, respectively. The results showed that the tested wheat cultivars had considerable tolerance to Cd and Pb toxicity. Significant (p < 0.05) differences in shoot Cd concentration were observed among the tested wheat cultivars under treatments Cd1.0 and Cd1.0Pb15, ranging from 0.91 to 6.74 and from 0.87 to 5.96, with the mean of 3.83 and 2.94 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively. Significant (p < 0.05) differences in shoot Pb concentration were also observed among the tested wheat cultivars under treatments Pb15 and Cd1.0Pb15, ranging from 22.18 to 94.03 and from 18.30 to 76.88, with the mean of 50.38 and 41.20 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively. Low accumulation and internal distribution may both affect the cultivar differences in Cd and Pb accumulation in wheat shoots. Overall, wheat cultivars LF-13, LF-16, and LF-21 had lower Cd-accumulating abilities in their shoots. Wheat cultivars LF-13, LF-23, LF-26, and LF-27 showed low Pb accumulation characteristics in their shoots. An antagonistic interaction occurred between Cd and Pb in accumulation in wheat roots and shoots, which will be further studied in field experiments.

  8. Occurrence of biogenic amines in beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum).

    PubMed

    Mozzon, Massimo; Boselli, Emanuele; Obiedziński, Mieczysław W; Frega, Natale G

    2015-01-01

    Because several groups of microorganisms are able to decarboxylate amino acids, the presence of biogenic amines (BA) can be seen as an index of the microbiological quality of the brewing process. BAs were quantified for the first time in the intermediate products and craft beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum) in a small size brewery in order to assess the possible presence of critical control points related to biological hazard in the brewing process. BA levels in beers produced exclusively from malted organic Emmer wheat were between 15.4 and 25.2 mg l(-1) in the samples of light beer (Lt) and between 8.9 and 15.3 mg l(-1) in double malt beers (DM) ready for consumption (the beers stored for 90 days at 1-2°C). Cadaverine and tyramine were the main BAs in the Lt and DM beers, respectively. Increased concentrations of BAs seemed to be more related to the heat treatment of the processing product during mashing and wort boiling, rather than to the fermentation process. Much lower concentrations were found in finished beers obtained from 50% malted organic Emmer wheat and 50% malted barley (up to 3.2 mg l(-1)) or from 30% malted Emmer wheat (up to 8.3 mg l(-1)). Thus, Emmer wheat malt can be a useful alternative to wheat and spelt for the production of beer with a limited content of BA, if the processing technology is kept under control.

  9. [Ecotoxicity of synthetical musks on wheat (Triticum aestivum) based on seed germination].

    PubMed

    Chen, Su; Sun, Li-na; Sun, Tie-heng; Chao, Lei; Sun, Wei-ke; Lou, Yang

    2011-05-01

    With soil culture the ecotoxicological effects of galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) on the germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds were investigated. And the influence of these two synthetical musks on the wheat germination rate, inhibition rate of root elongation and inhibition rate of shoot elongation were studied. The results showed that there were no obvious dose-effect relationship between wheat germination rate and concentrations of these two synthetical musks. Lower dose (HHCB < or = 150 mg x kg(-1), AHTN < or = 200 mg x kg(-1)) could accelerate the germination of wheat. Under the test concentrations of synthetical musks, the wheat germination rates treated with HHCB and AHTN were 77.78%-95.56% and 84.44%-97.78%, respectively. There were good dose-effect relationship between inhibition rate of root elongation (or inhibition rate of shoot elongation) and synthetical musks concentrations. The EC50 of HHCB and AHTN based on shoot were 155.84 mg x kg(-1) and 290.58 mg x kg(-1), and were 215.66 mg x kg(-1) and 323.10 mg x kg(-1) based on root from linear model. The EC50 of wheat sensitive positions showed that the toxicity of HHCB was stronger than AHTN.

  10. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Analyses of Gene Expression during Photomorphogenesis in Diploid Wheat Triticum monococcum

    PubMed Central

    Naithani, Sushma; Sullivan, Chris; Preece, Justin; Tiwari, Vijay K.; Elser, Justin; Leonard, Jeffrey M.; Sage, Abigail; Gresham, Cathy; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Bolser, Dan; McCarthy, Fiona; Kersey, Paul; Lazo, Gerard R.; Jaiswal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Background Triticum monococcum (2n) is a close ancestor of T. urartu, the A-genome progenitor of cultivated hexaploid wheat, and is therefore a useful model for the study of components regulating photomorphogenesis in diploid wheat. In order to develop genetic and genomic resources for such a study, we constructed genome-wide transcriptomes of two Triticum monococcum subspecies, the wild winter wheat T. monococcum ssp. aegilopoides (accession G3116) and the domesticated spring wheat T. monococcum ssp. monococcum (accession DV92) by generating de novo assemblies of RNA-Seq data derived from both etiolated and green seedlings. Principal Findings The de novo transcriptome assemblies of DV92 and G3116 represent 120,911 and 117,969 transcripts, respectively. We successfully mapped ∼90% of these transcripts from each accession to barley and ∼95% of the transcripts to T. urartu genomes. However, only ∼77% transcripts mapped to the annotated barley genes and ∼85% transcripts mapped to the annotated T. urartu genes. Differential gene expression analyses revealed 22% more light up-regulated and 35% more light down-regulated transcripts in the G3116 transcriptome compared to DV92. The DV92 and G3116 mRNA sequence reads aligned against the reference barley genome led to the identification of ∼500,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and ∼22,000 simple sequence repeat (SSR) sites. Conclusions De novo transcriptome assemblies of two accessions of the diploid wheat T. monococcum provide new empirical transcriptome references for improving Triticeae genome annotations, and insights into transcriptional programming during photomorphogenesis. The SNP and SSR sites identified in our analysis provide additional resources for the development of molecular markers. PMID:24821410

  11. Physiological and Antioxidant Responses in Wheat (Triticum aestivum) to HHCB in Soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cuihong; Cai, Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivum) were exposed in soil to the polycyclic musk chemical, 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyran (HHCB) for 21 days, to evaluate its effect upon chlorophyll (CHL), lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant system. The content of CHL in leaves was inhibited significantly after 14- and 21-days exposures, whereas it was significantly induced by a low level of HHCB after a 7-days exposure. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in wheat leaves increased with an increase in the concentration of HHCB in soil, indicating that oxidative stress could be induced by HHCB. Moreover, HHCB exposure induced significant antioxidant responses in wheat. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in wheat leaves were induced by HHCB after 14 and 21 days of exposure. However, the changing trend of the antioxidant enzymes in wheat roots was different from that in leaves. The results suggested that the assayed parameters of T. aestivum could be used as responsive biomarkers for oxidative stress in the soil environment.

  12. Development of an Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) Resource for Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Lazo, G. R.; Chao, S.; Hummel, D. D.; Edwards, H.; Crossman, C. C.; Lui, N.; Matthews, D. E.; Carollo, V. L.; Hane, D. L.; You, F. M.; Butler, G. E.; Miller, R. E.; Close, T. J.; Peng, J. H.; Lapitan, N. L. V.; Gustafson, J. P.; Qi, L. L.; Echalier, B.; Gill, B. S.; Dilbirligi, M.; Randhawa, H. S.; Gill, K. S.; Greene, R. A.; Sorrells, M. E.; Akhunov, E. D.; Dvořák, J.; Linkiewicz, A. M.; Dubcovsky, J.; Hossain, K. G.; Kalavacharla, V.; Kianian, S. F.; Mahmoud, A. A.; Miftahudin; Ma, X.-F.; Conley, E. J.; Anderson, J. A.; Pathan, M. S.; Nguyen, H. T.; McGuire, P. E.; Qualset, C. O.; Anderson, O. D.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the rationale, approaches, organization, and resource development leading to a large-scale deletion bin map of the hexaploid (2n = 6x = 42) wheat genome (Triticum aestivum L.). Accompanying reports in this issue detail results from chromosome bin-mapping of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) representing genes onto the seven homoeologous chromosome groups and a global analysis of the entire mapped wheat EST data set. Among the resources developed were the first extensive public wheat EST collection (113,220 ESTs). Described are protocols for sequencing, sequence processing, EST nomenclature, and the assembly of ESTs into contigs. These contigs plus singletons (unassembled ESTs) were used for selection of distinct sequence motif unigenes. Selected ESTs were rearrayed, validated by 5′ and 3′ sequencing, and amplified for probing a series of wheat aneuploid and deletion stocks. Images and data for all Southern hybridizations were deposited in databases and were used by the coordinators for each of the seven homoeologous chromosome groups to validate the mapping results. Results from this project have established the foundation for future developments in wheat genomics. PMID:15514037

  13. Comparison of organic and inorganic amendments for enhancing soil lead phytoextraction by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Saifullah; Ghafoor, A; Zia, M H; Murtaza, G; Waraich, Ejaz Ahmad; Bibi, Sadia; Srivastava, P

    2010-09-01

    Phytoextraction has received increasing attention as a promising, cost-effective alternative to conventional engineering-based remediation methods for metal contaminated soils. In order to enhance the phytoremediative ability of green plants chelating agents are commonly used. Our study aims to evaluate whether, citric acid (CA) or elemental sulfur (S) should be used as an alternative to the ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)for chemically enhanced phytoextraction. Results showed that EDTA was more efficient than CA and S in solubilizing lead (Pb) from the soil. The application of EDTA and S increased the shoot biomass of wheat. However, application of CA at higher rates (30 mmol kg(-1)) resulted in significantly lower wheat biomass. Photosynthesis and transpiration rates increased with EDTA and S application, whereas these parameters were decreased with the application of CA. Elemental sulfur was ineffective for enhancing the concentration of Pb in wheat shoots. Although CA did not increase the Pb solubility measured at the end of experiment, however, it was more effective than EDTA in enhancing the concentration of Pb in the shoots of Triticum aestivum L. It was assumed that increase in Mn concentration to toxic levels in soil with CA addition might have resulted in unusual Pb concentration in wheat plants. The results of the present study suggest that under the conditions used in this experiment, CA at the highest dose was the best amendment for enhanced phytoextraction of Pb using wheat compared to either EDTA or S.

  14. Evolution of polyploid triticum wheats under cultivation: the role of domestication, natural hybridization and allopolyploid speciation in their diversification.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Yoshihiro

    2011-05-01

    The evolution of the polyploid Triticum wheats is distinctive in that domestication, natural hybridization and allopolyploid speciation have all had significant impacts on their diversification. In this review, I outline the phylogenetic relationships of cultivated wheats and their wild relatives and provide an overview of the recent progress and remaining issues in understanding the genetic and ecological factors that favored their evolution. An attempt is made to view the evolution of the polyploid Triticum wheats as a continuous process of diversification that was initiated by domestication of tetraploid emmer wheat and driven by various natural events ranging from interploidy introgression via hybridization to allopolyploid speciation of hexaploid common wheat, instead of viewing it as a group of discrete evolutionary processes that separately proceeded at the tetraploid and hexaploid levels. This standpoint underscores the important role of natural hybridization in the reticulate diversification of the tetraploid-hexaploid Triticum wheat complex and highlights critical, but underappreciated, issues that concern the allopolyploid speciation of common wheat.

  15. Distribution of Cadmium, Iron, and Zinc in Millstreams of Hard Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Guttieri, Mary J; Seabourn, Bradford W; Liu, Caixia; Baenziger, P Stephen; Waters, Brian M

    2015-12-16

    Hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop in the Great Plains of the United States, and our previous work demonstrated that wheat genotypes vary for grain cadmium accumulation with some exceeding the CODEX standard (0.2 mg kg(-1)). Previous reports of cadmium distribution in flour milling fractions have not included high cadmium grain. This study measured the distribution of cadmium, zinc, and iron in flour and bran streams from high cadmium (0.352 mg kg(-1)) grain on a pilot mill that produced 12 flour and four bran streams. Recovery in flour was substantially greater for cadmium (50%) than for zinc (31%) or iron (22%). Cadmium, zinc, and iron in the lowest mineral concentration flour stream, representing the purest endosperm fraction, were 52, 22, and 11%, respectively, of initial grain concentration. Our results indicate that, relative to zinc and iron, a greater proportion of cadmium is stored in the endosperm, the source of white flour.

  16. Distribution of Cadmium, Iron, and Zinc in Millstreams of Hard Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Guttieri, Mary J; Seabourn, Bradford W; Liu, Caixia; Baenziger, P Stephen; Waters, Brian M

    2015-12-16

    Hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop in the Great Plains of the United States, and our previous work demonstrated that wheat genotypes vary for grain cadmium accumulation with some exceeding the CODEX standard (0.2 mg kg(-1)). Previous reports of cadmium distribution in flour milling fractions have not included high cadmium grain. This study measured the distribution of cadmium, zinc, and iron in flour and bran streams from high cadmium (0.352 mg kg(-1)) grain on a pilot mill that produced 12 flour and four bran streams. Recovery in flour was substantially greater for cadmium (50%) than for zinc (31%) or iron (22%). Cadmium, zinc, and iron in the lowest mineral concentration flour stream, representing the purest endosperm fraction, were 52, 22, and 11%, respectively, of initial grain concentration. Our results indicate that, relative to zinc and iron, a greater proportion of cadmium is stored in the endosperm, the source of white flour. PMID:26568286

  17. Evolution of physiological responses to salt stress in hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunwu; Zhao, Long; Zhang, Huakun; Yang, Zongze; Wang, Huan; Wen, Shanshan; Zhang, Chunyu; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Liu, Bao

    2014-08-12

    Hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., genome BBAADD) is generally more salt tolerant than its tetraploid wheat progenitor (Triticum turgidum L.). However, little is known about the physiological basis of this trait or about the relative contributions of allohexaploidization and subsequent evolutionary genetic changes on the trait development. Here, we compared the salt tolerance of a synthetic allohexaploid wheat (neo-6x) with its tetraploid (T. turgidum; BBAA) and diploid (Aegilops tauschii; DD) parents, as well as a natural hexaploid bread wheat (nat-6x). We studied 92 morphophysiological traits and analyzed homeologous gene expression of a major salt-tolerance gene High-Affinity K(+) Transporter 1;5 (HKT1;5). We observed that under salt stress, neo-6x exhibited higher fitness than both of its parental genotypes due to inheritance of favorable traits like higher germination rate from the 4x parent and the stronger root Na(+) retention capacity from the 2x parent. Moreover, expression of the D-subgenome HKT1;5 homeolog, which is responsible for Na(+) removal from the xylem vessels, showed an immediate transcriptional reprogramming following allohexaploidization, i.e., from constitutive high basal expression in Ae. tauschii (2x) to salt-induced expression in neo-6x. This phenomenon was also witnessed in the nat-6x. An integrated analysis of 92 traits showed that, under salt-stress conditions, neo-6x resembled more closely the 2x than the 4x parent, suggesting that the salt stress induces enhanced expressivity of the D-subgenome homeologs in the synthetic hexaploid wheat. Collectively, the results suggest that condition-dependent functionalization of the subgenomes might have contributed to the wide-ranging adaptability of natural hexaploid wheat. PMID:25074914

  18. Evolution of physiological responses to salt stress in hexaploid wheat

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunwu; Zhao, Long; Zhang, Huakun; Yang, Zongze; Wang, Huan; Wen, Shanshan; Zhang, Chunyu; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Liu, Bao

    2014-01-01

    Hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., genome BBAADD) is generally more salt tolerant than its tetraploid wheat progenitor (Triticum turgidum L.). However, little is known about the physiological basis of this trait or about the relative contributions of allohexaploidization and subsequent evolutionary genetic changes on the trait development. Here, we compared the salt tolerance of a synthetic allohexaploid wheat (neo-6x) with its tetraploid (T. turgidum; BBAA) and diploid (Aegilops tauschii; DD) parents, as well as a natural hexaploid bread wheat (nat-6x). We studied 92 morphophysiological traits and analyzed homeologous gene expression of a major salt-tolerance gene High-Affinity K+ Transporter 1;5 (HKT1;5). We observed that under salt stress, neo-6x exhibited higher fitness than both of its parental genotypes due to inheritance of favorable traits like higher germination rate from the 4x parent and the stronger root Na+ retention capacity from the 2x parent. Moreover, expression of the D-subgenome HKT1;5 homeolog, which is responsible for Na+ removal from the xylem vessels, showed an immediate transcriptional reprogramming following allohexaploidization, i.e., from constitutive high basal expression in Ae. tauschii (2x) to salt-induced expression in neo-6x. This phenomenon was also witnessed in the nat-6x. An integrated analysis of 92 traits showed that, under salt-stress conditions, neo-6x resembled more closely the 2x than the 4x parent, suggesting that the salt stress induces enhanced expressivity of the D-subgenome homeologs in the synthetic hexaploid wheat. Collectively, the results suggest that condition-dependent functionalization of the subgenomes might have contributed to the wide-ranging adaptability of natural hexaploid wheat. PMID:25074914

  19. Evolution of physiological responses to salt stress in hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunwu; Zhao, Long; Zhang, Huakun; Yang, Zongze; Wang, Huan; Wen, Shanshan; Zhang, Chunyu; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Liu, Bao

    2014-08-12

    Hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., genome BBAADD) is generally more salt tolerant than its tetraploid wheat progenitor (Triticum turgidum L.). However, little is known about the physiological basis of this trait or about the relative contributions of allohexaploidization and subsequent evolutionary genetic changes on the trait development. Here, we compared the salt tolerance of a synthetic allohexaploid wheat (neo-6x) with its tetraploid (T. turgidum; BBAA) and diploid (Aegilops tauschii; DD) parents, as well as a natural hexaploid bread wheat (nat-6x). We studied 92 morphophysiological traits and analyzed homeologous gene expression of a major salt-tolerance gene High-Affinity K(+) Transporter 1;5 (HKT1;5). We observed that under salt stress, neo-6x exhibited higher fitness than both of its parental genotypes due to inheritance of favorable traits like higher germination rate from the 4x parent and the stronger root Na(+) retention capacity from the 2x parent. Moreover, expression of the D-subgenome HKT1;5 homeolog, which is responsible for Na(+) removal from the xylem vessels, showed an immediate transcriptional reprogramming following allohexaploidization, i.e., from constitutive high basal expression in Ae. tauschii (2x) to salt-induced expression in neo-6x. This phenomenon was also witnessed in the nat-6x. An integrated analysis of 92 traits showed that, under salt-stress conditions, neo-6x resembled more closely the 2x than the 4x parent, suggesting that the salt stress induces enhanced expressivity of the D-subgenome homeologs in the synthetic hexaploid wheat. Collectively, the results suggest that condition-dependent functionalization of the subgenomes might have contributed to the wide-ranging adaptability of natural hexaploid wheat.

  20. Structural and functional analysis of chitinase gene family in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Mishra, A K; Pandey, Bharati; Tyagi, Chetna; Chakraborty, Ohika; Kumar, Amrender; Jain, A K

    2015-04-01

    Chitinases are the hydrolytic enzymes which protect plants against pathogen attack. However, the precise role of chitinases in disease resistance has not been explored in wheat. In the present study, in silico approach, including secondary structure analysis, detailed signature pattern study, cis-acting regulatory elements survey, evolutionary trends and three-dimensional molecular modeling was used for different chitinase classes of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Homology modeling of class I, II, IV and 3 chitinase proteins was performed using the template crystal structure. The model structures were further refined by molecular mechanics methods using different tools, such as Procheck, ProSA and Verify3D. Secondary structure studies revealed greater percentage of residues forming a helix conformation with specific signature pattern, similar to casein kinase II phosphorylation site, amidation site, N-myristoylation (N-MYR) site and protein kinase C phoshorylation site. The expression profile suggested that wheat chitinase gene was highly expressed in cell culture and callus. We found that wheat chitinases showed more functional similarity with rice and barley. The results provide insight into the evolution of the chitinase family, constituting a diverse array of pathogenesis-related proteins. The study also provides insight into the possible binding sites of chitinase proteins and may further enhance our knowledge of fungal resistance mechanism in plants.

  1. Diversity of fungal endophytes in recent and ancient wheat ancestors Triticum dicoccoides and Aegilops sharonensis.

    PubMed

    Ofek-Lalzar, Maya; Gur, Yonatan; Ben-Moshe, Sapir; Sharon, Or; Kosman, Evsey; Mochli, Elad; Sharon, Amir

    2016-10-01

    Endophytes have profound impacts on plants, including beneficial effects on agriculturally important traits. We hypothesized that endophytes in wild plants include beneficial endophytes that are absent or underrepresented in domesticated crops. In this work, we studied the structure of endophyte communities in wheat-related grasses, Triticum dicoccoides and Aegilops sharonensis, and compared it to an endophyte community from wheat (T. aeastivum). Endophytes were isolated by cultivation and by cultivation-independent methods. In total, 514 intergenic spacer region sequences from single cultures were analyzed. Categorization at 97% sequence similarity resulted in 67 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that were evenly distributed between the different plant species. A narrow core community of Alternaria spp. was found in all samples, but each plant species also contained a significant portion of unique endophytes. The cultivation-independent analysis identified a larger number of OTUs than the cultivation method, half of which were singletons or doubletons. For OTUs with a relative abundance >0.5%, similar numbers were obtained by both methods. Collectively, our data show that wild grass relatives of wheat contain a wealth of taxonomically diverse fungal endophytes that are not found in modern wheat, some of which belong to taxa with known beneficial effects. PMID:27402714

  2. Diversity of fungal endophytes in recent and ancient wheat ancestors Triticum dicoccoides and Aegilops sharonensis.

    PubMed

    Ofek-Lalzar, Maya; Gur, Yonatan; Ben-Moshe, Sapir; Sharon, Or; Kosman, Evsey; Mochli, Elad; Sharon, Amir

    2016-10-01

    Endophytes have profound impacts on plants, including beneficial effects on agriculturally important traits. We hypothesized that endophytes in wild plants include beneficial endophytes that are absent or underrepresented in domesticated crops. In this work, we studied the structure of endophyte communities in wheat-related grasses, Triticum dicoccoides and Aegilops sharonensis, and compared it to an endophyte community from wheat (T. aeastivum). Endophytes were isolated by cultivation and by cultivation-independent methods. In total, 514 intergenic spacer region sequences from single cultures were analyzed. Categorization at 97% sequence similarity resulted in 67 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that were evenly distributed between the different plant species. A narrow core community of Alternaria spp. was found in all samples, but each plant species also contained a significant portion of unique endophytes. The cultivation-independent analysis identified a larger number of OTUs than the cultivation method, half of which were singletons or doubletons. For OTUs with a relative abundance >0.5%, similar numbers were obtained by both methods. Collectively, our data show that wild grass relatives of wheat contain a wealth of taxonomically diverse fungal endophytes that are not found in modern wheat, some of which belong to taxa with known beneficial effects.

  3. Triticum mosaic virus exhibits limited population variation yet shows evidence of parallel evolution after replicated serial passage in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An infectious cDNA clone of Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) (genus Poacevirus; family Potyviridae) was used to establish three independent lineages in wheat to examine intra-host population diversity levels within protein 1 (P1) and coat protein (CP) cistrons over time. Genetic variation was assessed ...

  4. Targeted mapping of Cdu1, a major locus regulating grain cadmium concentration in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) cultivars have the genetic propensity to accumulate cadmium (Cd) in the grain. A major gene controlling grain Cd concentration designated as Cdu1 has been reported on 5B, but the genetic factor(s) conferring the low Cd phenotype are currently unknow...

  5. Complementary epistasis involving Sr12 explains adult plant resistance to stem rust in Thatcher wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult plant resistance (APR) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, is desirable because this resistance can be race non-specific. Resistance derived from cultivar Thatcher can confer high levels of APR to the virulent P. graminis f. sp. tritici rac...

  6. Use of student’s t statistic as a phenotype of relative consumption preference of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole-grain wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) products provide essential nutrients to humans, but bran attributes may hinder consumption. Differences in grain attributes including flabor/aroma can be indentified using the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) as a model system. A potential application of this mo...

  7. Differential regulation of alanine aminotransferase homologues by abiotic stresses in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kendziorek, Maria; Paszkowski, Andrzej; Zagdańska, Barbara

    2012-06-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings contain four alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) homologues. Two of them encode AlaAT enzymes, whereas two homologues act as glumate:glyoxylate aminotransferase (GGAT). To address the function of the distinct AlaAT homologues a comparative examination of the changes in transcript level together with the enzyme activity and alanine and glutamate content in wheat seedlings subjected to low oxygen availability, nitrogen and light deficiency has been studied. Shoots of wheat seedlings were more tolerant to hypoxia than the roots as judging on the basis of enzyme activity and transcript level. Hypoxia induced AlaAT1 earlier in roots than in shoots, while AlaAT2 and GGAT were unaffected. The increase in AlaAT activity lagged behind the increase in alanine content. Nitrogen deficiency has little effect on the activity of GGAT. In contrast, lower activity of AlaAT and the level of mRNA for AlaAT1 and AlaAT2 in wheat seedlings growing on a nitrogen-free medium seems to indicate that AlaAT is regulated by the availability of nitrogen. Both AlaAT and GGAT activities were present in etiolated wheat seedlings but their activity was half of that observed in light-grown seedlings. Exposure of etiolated seedlings to light caused an increase in enzyme activities and up-regulated GGAT1. It is proposed that hypoxia-induced AlaAT1 and light-induced peroxisomal GGAT1 appears to be crucial for the regulation of energy availability in plants grown under unfavourable environmental conditions. Key message In young wheat seedlings, both AlaAT and GGAT are down-regulated by nitrogen deficiency, whereas AlaAT1 is upregulated by hypoxia and GGAT1 by light.

  8. Occurrence of biogenic amines in beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum).

    PubMed

    Mozzon, Massimo; Boselli, Emanuele; Obiedziński, Mieczysław W; Frega, Natale G

    2015-01-01

    Because several groups of microorganisms are able to decarboxylate amino acids, the presence of biogenic amines (BA) can be seen as an index of the microbiological quality of the brewing process. BAs were quantified for the first time in the intermediate products and craft beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum) in a small size brewery in order to assess the possible presence of critical control points related to biological hazard in the brewing process. BA levels in beers produced exclusively from malted organic Emmer wheat were between 15.4 and 25.2 mg l(-1) in the samples of light beer (Lt) and between 8.9 and 15.3 mg l(-1) in double malt beers (DM) ready for consumption (the beers stored for 90 days at 1-2°C). Cadaverine and tyramine were the main BAs in the Lt and DM beers, respectively. Increased concentrations of BAs seemed to be more related to the heat treatment of the processing product during mashing and wort boiling, rather than to the fermentation process. Much lower concentrations were found in finished beers obtained from 50% malted organic Emmer wheat and 50% malted barley (up to 3.2 mg l(-1)) or from 30% malted Emmer wheat (up to 8.3 mg l(-1)). Thus, Emmer wheat malt can be a useful alternative to wheat and spelt for the production of beer with a limited content of BA, if the processing technology is kept under control. PMID:25654207

  9. Factors Affecting the Radiosensitivity of Hexaploid Wheat to γ-Irradiation: Radiosensitivity of Hexaploid Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Linshu; Guo, Huijun; Xie, Yongdun; Zhao, Shirong; Song, Xiyun; Han, Longzhi; Liu, Luxiang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the radiosensitivity of plants, an important factor in crop mutation breeding programs, requires a thorough investigation of the factors that contribute to this trait. In this study, we used the highly radiosensitive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety HY1 and J411, a γ-irradiation-insensitive control, which were screened from a natural population, to examine the factors affecting radiosensitivity, including free radical content and total antioxidant capacity, as well as the expression of TaKu70 and TaKu80 (DNA repair-related genes) as measured by real-time PCR. We also investigated the alternative splicing of this gene in the wild-type wheat ecotype by sequence analysis. Free radical contents and total antioxidant capacity significantly increased upon exposure of HY1 wheat to γ-irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. By contrast, in J411, the free radical contents exhibited a similar trend, but the total antioxidant capacity exhibited a downward trend upon increasing γ-irradiation. Additionally, we detected dose-dependent increases in TaKu70 and TaKu80 expression levels in γ-irradiated HY1, while in J411, TaKu70 expression levels increased, followed by a decline. We also detected alternative splicing of TaKu70 mRNA, namely, intron retention, in HY1 but not in J411. Our findings indicate that γ-irradiation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in hexaploid wheat, resulting in growth retardation of seedlings, and they suggest that TaKu70 may play a causal role in radiosensitivity in HY1. Further studies are required to exploit these factors to improve radiosensitivity in other wheat varieties. PMID:27551965

  10. In vitro transcripts of wild-type and fluorescent protein-tagged triticum mosaic virus (family potyviridae) are biologically active in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) (genus Poacevirus, family Potyviridae) is a recently described eriophyid mite-transmitted wheat virus. In vitro RNA transcripts generated from full-length cDNA clones of TriMV proved infectious on wheat, and the progeny virus was efficiently transmitted by wheat curl m...

  11. Identification and characterization of a subset of microRNAs in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Su, Chun; Yang, Xiaozeng; Gao, Shiqing; Tang, Yimiao; Zhao, Changping; Li, Lei

    2014-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of endogenous regulator for post-transcriptionally modulating gene expression. Elucidating complete miRNA repertoires for individual species is a long-desired goal in miRNA research. So far only 42 have been annotated for common wheat (Triticum aestivum) due to its large genome. Here, we employed miRDeep-P, a program developed previously for retrieving miRNAs from deep sequencing data in plants, to parse 14 sequenced small RNA libraries of wheat using expression sequence tags (ESTs) as the reference in lieu of a complete genome sequence. This effort identified 145 miRNAs along with the corresponding stem-looped precursors with many differentially expressed in development and associated with powdery mildew infection. Examination of the phylogenetic distribution of these miRNAs and their target genes revealed that many are conserved in monocots. The set of miRNAs identified in this study is thus useful to further miRNA research in wheat and other important cereal crop species.

  12. Acid Carboxypeptidases in Grains and Leaves of Wheat, Triticum aestivum L.

    PubMed

    Mikola, L

    1986-07-01

    Extracts of resting and germinating (3 days at 20 degrees C) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Ruso) grains rapidly hydrolyzed various benzyloxycarbonyldipeptides (Z-dipeptides) at pH 4 to 6. Similar activities were present in extracts of mature flag leaves. Fractionation by chromatography on CM-cellulose and on Sephadex G-200 showed that the activities in germinating grains were due to five acid carboxypeptidases with different and complementary substrate specificities. The wheat enzymes appeared to correspond to the five acid carboxypeptidases present in germinating barley (L Mikola 1983 Biochim Biophys Acta 747: 241-252). The enzymes were designated wheat carboxypeptidases I to V and their best or most characteristic substrates and approximate molecular weights were: I, Z-Phe-Ala, 120,000; II, Z-Ala-Arg, 120,000; III, Z-Ala-Phe, 40,000; IV, Z-Pro-Ala, 165,000; and V, Z-Pro-Ala, 150,000. Resting grains contained carboxypeptidase II as a series of three isoenzymes and low activities of carboxypeptidases IV and V. During germination the activity of carboxypeptidase II decreased, those of carboxypeptidases IV and V increased, and high activities of carboxypeptidases I and III appeared. The flag leaves contained high activity of carboxypeptidase I and lower activities of carboxypeptidases II, IV, and V, whereas carboxypeptidase III was absent.

  13. Acid Carboxypeptidases in Grains and Leaves of Wheat, Triticum aestivum L

    PubMed Central

    Mikola, Leena

    1986-01-01

    Extracts of resting and germinating (3 days at 20°C) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Ruso) grains rapidly hydrolyzed various benzyloxycarbonyldipeptides (Z-dipeptides) at pH 4 to 6. Similar activities were present in extracts of mature flag leaves. Fractionation by chromatography on CM-cellulose and on Sephadex G-200 showed that the activities in germinating grains were due to five acid carboxypeptidases with different and complementary substrate specificities. The wheat enzymes appeared to correspond to the five acid carboxypeptidases present in germinating barley (L Mikola 1983 Biochim Biophys Acta 747: 241-252). The enzymes were designated wheat carboxypeptidases I to V and their best or most characteristic substrates and approximate molecular weights were: I, Z-Phe-Ala, 120,000; II, Z-Ala-Arg, 120,000; III, Z-Ala-Phe, 40,000; IV, Z-Pro-Ala, 165,000; and V, Z-Pro-Ala, 150,000. Resting grains contained carboxypeptidase II as a series of three isoenzymes and low activities of carboxypeptidases IV and V. During germination the activity of carboxypeptidase II decreased, those of carboxypeptidases IV and V increased, and high activities of carboxypeptidases I and III appeared. The flag leaves contained high activity of carboxypeptidase I and lower activities of carboxypeptidases II, IV, and V, whereas carboxypeptidase III was absent. PMID:16664910

  14. Determination of zinc oxide nanoparticles toxicity in root growth in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Meppaloor G; Chung, Ill Min

    2016-09-01

    The effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) was studied in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings under in vitro exposure conditions. To avoid precipitation of nanoparticles, the seedlings were grown in half strength semisolid Murashige and Skoog medium containing 0, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. Analysis of zinc (Zn) content showed significant increase in roots. In vivo detection using fluorescent probe Zynpyr-1 indicated accumulation of Zn in primary and lateral root tips. All concentrations of ZnONPs significantly reduced root growth. However, significant decrease in shoot growth was observed only after exposure to 400 and 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. The reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation levels significantly increased in roots. Significant increase in cell-wall bound peroxidase activity was observed after exposure to 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. Histochemical staining with phloroglucinol-HCl showed lignification of root cells upon exposure to 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. Treatment with propidium iodide indicated loss of cell viability in root tips of wheat seedlings. These results suggest that redox imbalances, lignification and cell death has resulted in reduction of root growth in wheat seedlings exposed to ZnONPs nanoparticles. PMID:27630051

  15. Nitric oxide mediates alginate oligosaccharides-induced root development in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunhong; Liu, Hang; Yin, Heng; Wang, Wenxia; Zhao, Xiaoming; Du, Yuguang

    2013-10-01

    Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS), which are marine oligosaccharides, are involved in regulating plant root growth, but the promotion mechanism for AOS remains unclear. Here, AOS (10-80 mg L(-1)) were found to induce the generation of nitric oxide (NO) in the root system of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which promoted the formation and elongation of wheat roots in a dose-dependent manner. NO inhibitors suggested that nitrate reductase (NR), rather than nitric oxide synthase (NOS), was essential for AOS-induced root development. Further studies confirmed that AOS-induced NO generation in wheat roots by up-regulating the gene expression and enzyme activity of NR at the post-transcriptional level. The anatomy and RT-PCR results showed that AOS accelerated the division and growth of stele cells, leading to an increase in the ratio of stele area to root transverse area. This could be inhibited by the NR inhibitor, sodium tungstate, which indicated that NO catalyzed by the NR was involved in AOS regulation of root development. Taken together, in the early stage of AOS-induced root development, NO generation was a novel mechanism by which AOS regulated plant growth. The results also showed that this marine resource could be widely used for crop development.

  16. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis of European hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Nanna Hellum; Backes, Gunter; Stougaard, Jens; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Jahoor, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Progress in plant breeding is facilitated by accurate information about genetic structure and diversity. Here, Diversity Array Technology (DArT) was used to characterize a population of 94 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties of mainly European origin. In total, 1,849 of 7,000 tested markers were polymorphic and could be used for population structure analysis. Two major subgroups of wheat varieties, GrI and GrII, were identified using the program STRUCTURE, and confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA). These subgroups were largely separated according to origin; GrI comprised varieties from Southern and Eastern Europe, whereas GrII contained mostly modern varieties from Western and Northern Europe. A large proportion of the markers contributing most to the genetic separation of the subgroups were located on chromosome 2D near the Reduced height 8 (Rht8) locus, and PCR-based genotyping suggested that breeding for the Rht8 allele had a major impact on subgroup separation. Consistently, analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) suggested that different selective pressures had acted on chromosome 2D in the two subgroups. Our data provides an overview of the allele composition of bread wheat varieties anchored to DArT markers, which will facilitate targeted combination of alleles following DArT-based QTL studies. In addition, the genetic diversity and distance data combined with specific Rht8 genotypes can now be used by breeders to guide selection of crossing parents.

  17. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure Analysis of European Hexaploid Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Nanna Hellum; Backes, Gunter; Stougaard, Jens; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Jahoor, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Progress in plant breeding is facilitated by accurate information about genetic structure and diversity. Here, Diversity Array Technology (DArT) was used to characterize a population of 94 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties of mainly European origin. In total, 1,849 of 7,000 tested markers were polymorphic and could be used for population structure analysis. Two major subgroups of wheat varieties, GrI and GrII, were identified using the program STRUCTURE, and confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA). These subgroups were largely separated according to origin; GrI comprised varieties from Southern and Eastern Europe, whereas GrII contained mostly modern varieties from Western and Northern Europe. A large proportion of the markers contributing most to the genetic separation of the subgroups were located on chromosome 2D near the Reduced height 8 (Rht8) locus, and PCR-based genotyping suggested that breeding for the Rht8 allele had a major impact on subgroup separation. Consistently, analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) suggested that different selective pressures had acted on chromosome 2D in the two subgroups. Our data provides an overview of the allele composition of bread wheat varieties anchored to DArT markers, which will facilitate targeted combination of alleles following DArT-based QTL studies. In addition, the genetic diversity and distance data combined with specific Rht8 genotypes can now be used by breeders to guide selection of crossing parents. PMID:24718292

  18. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Key Proteins and Phosphoproteins upon Seed Germination of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Kun; Zhen, Shoumin; Cheng, Zhiwei; Cao, Hui; Ge, Pei; Yan, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the oldest cultivated crops and the second most important food crop in the world. Seed germination is the key developmental process in plant growth and development, and poor germination directly affects plant growth and subsequent grain yield. In this study, we performed the first dynamic proteome analysis of wheat seed germination using a two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE)-based proteomic approach. A total of 166 differentially expressed protein (DEP) spots representing 73 unique proteins were identified, which are mainly involved in storage, stress/defense/detoxification, carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, cell metabolism, and transcription/translation/transposition. The identified DEPs and their dynamic expression profiles generally correspond to three distinct seed germination phases after imbibition: storage degradation, physiological processes/morphogenesis, and photosynthesis. Some key DEPs involved in storage substance degradation and plant defense mechanisms, such as globulin 3, sucrose synthase type I, serpin, beta-amylase, and plastid ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) small subunit, were found to be phosphorylated during seed germination. Particularly, the phosphorylation site Ser355 was found to be located in the enzyme active region of beta-amylase, which promotes substrate binding. Phosphorylated modification of several proteins could promote storage substance degradation and environmental stress defense during seed germination. The central metabolic pathways involved in wheat seed germination are proposed herein, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms of cereal seed germination. PMID:26635843

  19. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Key Proteins and Phosphoproteins upon Seed Germination of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Dong, Kun; Zhen, Shoumin; Cheng, Zhiwei; Cao, Hui; Ge, Pei; Yan, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the oldest cultivated crops and the second most important food crop in the world. Seed germination is the key developmental process in plant growth and development, and poor germination directly affects plant growth and subsequent grain yield. In this study, we performed the first dynamic proteome analysis of wheat seed germination using a two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE)-based proteomic approach. A total of 166 differentially expressed protein (DEP) spots representing 73 unique proteins were identified, which are mainly involved in storage, stress/defense/detoxification, carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, cell metabolism, and transcription/translation/transposition. The identified DEPs and their dynamic expression profiles generally correspond to three distinct seed germination phases after imbibition: storage degradation, physiological processes/morphogenesis, and photosynthesis. Some key DEPs involved in storage substance degradation and plant defense mechanisms, such as globulin 3, sucrose synthase type I, serpin, beta-amylase, and plastid ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) small subunit, were found to be phosphorylated during seed germination. Particularly, the phosphorylation site Ser(355) was found to be located in the enzyme active region of beta-amylase, which promotes substrate binding. Phosphorylated modification of several proteins could promote storage substance degradation and environmental stress defense during seed germination. The central metabolic pathways involved in wheat seed germination are proposed herein, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms of cereal seed germination. PMID:26635843

  20. Potential of antioxidant enzymes in depicting drought tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Devi, Rachana; Kaur, Narinder; Gupta, Anil Kumar

    2012-08-01

    In an effort to determine the biochemical markers for identifying genotypes before sowing for drought tolerance, changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes were determined in the seedlings of five drought-tolerant and five drought-sensitive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes, each with different genetic background growing under normal and water deficit conditions induced by 6% mannitol. In comparison with non-stressed seedlings, the catalase (CAT) activity was upregulated by more than 50% in the roots of water-stressed seedlings in drought-tolerant genotypes. Water deficit stress also led to the upregulation of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in the endosperms and glutathione reductase (GR), CAT and peroxidase (POD) in the shoots of stressed seedlings in drought-tolerant genotypes. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was very low in roots and shoots and showed non-significant increase under water-stress in tolerant genotypes. Out of five specified enzyme activities (CAT in roots and shoots, APX in endosperms, GR and POD in shoots), if any three are upregulated in the specified tissues under water deficit conditions, the genotype is likely to be drought-tolerant. Wheat seedlings with low GR and APX activities and high POD activity in shoots with a low ratio of GR activity of shoot to root of non-stressed seedlings are likely to perform better under rainfed conditions. The observed data showed that status of antioxidant enzymes could provide a meaningful tool for depicting drought tolerance of a wheat genotype.

  1. Photosynthetic capacity and dry mass partitioning in dwarf and semi-dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. L.; Bugbee, B. G.

    1998-01-01

    Efficient use of space and high yields are critical for long-term food production aboard the International Space Station. The selection of a full dwarf wheat (less than 30 cm tall) with high photosynthetic and yield potential is a necessary prerequisite for growing wheat in the controlled, volume-limited environments available aboard long-term spaceflight missions. This study evaluated the photosynthetic capacity and carbon partitioning of a full-dwarf wheat cultivar, Super Dwarf, which is routinely used in spaceflight studies aboard U.S. space shuttle and NASA/Mir missions and made comparisons with other dwarf and semi-dwarf wheat cultivars utilized in other ground-based studies in plant space biology. Photosynthetic capacity of the flag leaf in two dwarf (Super Dwarf, BB-19), and three semi-dwarf (Veery-10, Yecora Rojo, IBWSN 199) wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) was assessed by measuring: net maximum photosynthetic rate, RuBP carboxylation efficiency, chlorophyll concentration and flag leaf area. Dry mass partitioning of carbohydrates to the leaves, sheaths, stems and ear was also assessed. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions in three replicate studies: slightly enriched CO2 (370 micromoles mol-1), high photosynthetic photon flux (1000 micromoles m-2 s-1; 58 mol m-2 d-1) for a 16 h photoperiod, 22/15 degrees C day/night temperatures, ample nutrients and water provided by one-half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution (Hoagland and Arnon, 1950). Photosynthetic capacity of the flag leaf was determined at anthesis using net CO2 exchange rate versus internal CO2 concentration curves measured under saturating light (2000 micromoles m-2 s-1) and CO2 (1000 micromoles mol-1). Dwarf wheat cultivars had greater photosynthetic capacities than the taller semi-dwarfs, they averaged 20% higher maximum net photosynthetic rates compared to the taller semi-dwarfs, but these higher rates occurred only at anthesis, had slightly greater carboxylation

  2. Spelt (Triticum spelta L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) wholemeals have similar sterol profiles, as determined by quantitative liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Ruibal-Mendieta, Nike L; Rozenberg, Raoul; Delacroix, Dominique L; Petitjean, Géraldine; Dekeyser, Adrien; Baccelli, Chiara; Marques, Carole; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Meurens, Marc; Habib-Jiwan, Jean-Louis; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2004-07-28

    From a nutritional point of view, cereal lipids include valuable molecules, such as essential fatty acids, phytosterols, and fat-soluble vitamins. Spelt (Triticum spelta L.) is an alternative hulled bread cereal mostly grown in Belgium, where it is mainly intended for animal feed but should increasingly be used for human consumption. The present research focused on phytosterol quantification by LC/APCI-MS2 in saponified wholemeal extracts of 16 dehulled spelt and 5 winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties grown in Belgium during 2001-2002 at the same location. Glycosylated sterols and free and formerly esterified sterols could be determined in saponified extracts. Results show that the mean phytosterol content is comparable in both cereals (whereas other lipids, such as oleic and linoleic acids, are increased in spelt wholemeal): spelt extract has, on average, 527.7 microg of free and esterified sterols g(-1) of wholemeal and 123.8 microg of glycosylated sterols g(-1) of wholemeal versus 528.5 and 112.6 microg x g(-1) in winter wheat (values not corrected for recoveries). This is the first report on the application and validation of an LC/MS2 method for the quantification of phytosterols in spelt and winter wheat.

  3. Characterization and Expression Analysis of Phytoene Synthase from Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Flowerika; Alok, Anshu; Kumar, Jitesh; Thakur, Neha; Pandey, Ashutosh; Pandey, Ajay Kumar; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Tiwari, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    Phytoene synthase (PSY) regulates the first committed step of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in plants. The present work reports identification and characterization of the three PSY genes (TaPSY1, TaPSY2 and TaPSY3) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The TaPSY1, TaPSY2, and TaPSY3 genes consisted of three homoeologs on the long arm of group 7 chromosome (7L), short arm of group 5 chromosome (5S), and long arm of group 5 chromosome (5L), respectively in each subgenomes (A, B, and D) with a similarity range from 89% to 97%. The protein sequence analysis demonstrated that TaPSY1 and TaPSY3 retain most of conserved motifs for enzyme activity. Phylogenetic analysis of all TaPSY revealed an evolutionary relationship among PSY proteins of various monocot species. TaPSY derived from A and D subgenomes shared proximity to the PSY of Triticum urartu and Aegilops tauschii, respectively. The differential expression of TaPSY1, TaPSY2, and TaPSY3 in the various tissues, seed development stages, and stress treatments suggested their role in plant development, and stress condition. TaPSY3 showed higher expression in all tissues, followed by TaPSY1. The presence of multiple stress responsive cis-regulatory elements in promoter region of TaPSY3 correlated with the higher expression during drought and heat stresses has suggested their role in these conditions. The expression pattern of TaPSY3 was correlated with the accumulation of β-carotene in the seed developmental stages. Bacterial complementation assay has validated the functional activity of each TaPSY protein. Hence, TaPSY can be explored in developing genetically improved wheat crop. PMID:27695116

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Purple Pericarps in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenjie; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Dengcai; Liu, Baolong; Zhang, Huaigang

    2016-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars possessing purple grain arethought to be more nutritious because of high anthocyanin contents in the pericarp. Comparative transcriptome analysis of purple (cv Gy115) and white pericarps was carried out using next-generation sequencing technology. There were 23,642 unigenes significantly differentially expressed in the purple and white pericarps, including 9945 up-regulated and 13,697 down-regulated. The differentially expressed unigenes were mainly involved in encoding components of metabolic pathways, The flavonoid biosynthesis pathway was the most represented in metabolic pathways. In the transcriptome of purple pericarp in Gy115, most structural and regulatory genes biosynthesizing anthocyanin were identified, and had higher expression levels than in white pericarp. The largestunigene of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Gy115 was longer than the reference genes, which implies that high-throughput sequencing could isolate the genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis in tissues or organs with high anthocyanin content. Based on present and previous results, three unigenes of MYB gene on chromosome 7BL and three unigenes of MYC on chromosome 2AL were predicted as candidate genes for the purple grain trait. This article was the first to provide a systematic overview comparing the transcriptomes of purple and white pericarps in common wheat, which should be very valuable for identifying the key genes for the purple pericarp trait. PMID:27171148

  5. Association of Agronomic Traits with SNP Markers in Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. durum (Desf.))

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xin; Ren, Jing; Ren, Xifeng; Huang, Sisi; Sabiel, Salih A. I.; Luo, Mingcheng; Nevo, Eviatar; Fu, Chunjie; Peng, Junhua; Sun, Dongfa

    2015-01-01

    Association mapping is a powerful approach to detect associations between traits of interest and genetic markers based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) in molecular plant breeding. In this study, 150 accessions of worldwide originated durum wheat germplasm (Triticum turgidum spp. durum) were genotyped using 1,366 SNP markers. The extent of LD on each chromosome was evaluated. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers with ten agronomic traits measured in four consecutive years was analyzed under a mix linear model (MLM). Two hundred and one significant association pairs were detected in the four years. Several markers were associated with one trait, and also some markers were associated with multiple traits. Some of the associated markers were in agreement with previous quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses. The function and homology analyses of the corresponding ESTs of some SNP markers could explain many of the associations for plant height, length of main spike, number of spikelets on main spike, grain number per plant, and 1000-grain weight, etc. The SNP associations for the observed traits are generally clustered in specific chromosome regions of the wheat genome, mainly in 2A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 1B, and 6B chromosomes. This study demonstrates that association mapping can complement and enhance previous QTL analyses and provide additional information for marker-assisted selection. PMID:26110423

  6. Ractopamine up take by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) from soil.

    PubMed

    Shelver, Weilin L; DeSutter, Thomas M

    2015-08-01

    Ractopamine is a beta adrenergic agonist used as a growth promoter in swine, cattle and turkeys. To test whether ractopamine has the potential to accumulate in plants grown in contaminated soil, a greenhouse study was conducted with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in two soils having different concentrations of organic matter (1.3% and 2.1%), amended with 0, 0.5, and 10 μg/g of ractopamine. Plant growth ranged from 2.7 to 8.8 g dry weight (dw) for alfalfa, and 8.7 to 40 g dw for wheat and was generally greater in the higher organic matter content soil. The uptake of ractopamine in plant tissues ranged from non-detectable to 897 ng/g and was strongly dependent on soil ractopamine concentration across soil and plant tissue. When adjusted to the total fortified quantities, the amount of ractopamine taken up by the plant tissue was low, <0.01% for either soil.

  7. Varietal screening of ozone sensitivity in Mediterranean durum wheat (Triticum durum, Desf.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monga, Robert; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Alonso, Rocìo; Bermejo, Victoria; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Faoro, Franco; Gerosa, Giacomo

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the ozone (O3) sensitivity of five cultivars of durum wheat (Triticum durum) grown in Open-Top Chambers (OTC) during the 2013 growing season. Two levels of ozone were applied during daylight hours: +50% and -50% of ambient ozone concentration respectively in O3-enriched OTC and charcoal-filtered OTC. Results suggest that the significant differences observed in agronomic parameters, were more cultivar-dependent rather than ozone-dependent. Two cultivars showed a significant reduction of aboveground biomass due to ozone (-19.7% and -25%), however only one of them showed also a significant reduction in grain yield (-16%). Stomatal conductance was significantly reduced by ozone fumigation up to -33% in the afternoon measuring cycle. No significant effects on chlorophyll fluorescence were found, nor correlation was observed between ozone-like symptoms severity (leaf chlorotic/necrotic spots) and yield reduction, suggesting that these parameters cannot be indicative of ozone sensitivity/tolerance. These results may be useful for the selection of durum wheat genotypes more adapted for the cultivation in geographical areas where tropospheric ozone is particularly high, but also for the future definition of consistent dose-response relationships to be used in the ozone risk assessment evaluation for the Mediterranean countries.

  8. Cloning, characterization and functional analysis of novel 6-kestose exohydrolases (6-KEHs) from wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Van den Ende, Wim; Yoshida, Midori; Clerens, Stefan; Vergauwen, Rudy; Kawakami, Akira

    2005-06-01

    Cereals accumulate graminan-type fructans which are subject to stress-related degradation by fructan 1-exohydrolases (1-FEHs) and fructan 6-exohydrolases (6-FEHs). To find new FEH genes related to freezing tolerance, a cold-hardened wheat crown cDNA library was screened. Here we report the cloning, purification and characterization of two novel 6-kestosidase (6-KEH) isoenzymes from wheat crowns (Triticum aestivum). Functional characterization in Pichia pastoris confirmed the extreme substrate selectivity for the fructan trisaccharide 6-kestose. Northern blotting showed that 6-KEH transcripts were constantly detected at the same level from autumn to winter in crown but not in leaf tissues. Apoplastic fluid isolations and activity measurements strongly suggest that 6-KEH is localized in the apoplast. It is proposed that 6-KEHs, together with other FEHs, might be involved in the breakdown of apoplastic fructans which may fulfil a role as membrane protectors under stress. Alternatively, a role in signalling processes, or in the degradation of exogenous 6-kestose from bacterial origin, cannot be excluded.

  9. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Linkage Disequilibrium in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Tascioglu, Tulin; Metin, Ozge Karakas; Aydin, Yildiz; Sakiroglu, Muhammet; Akan, Kadir; Uncuoglu, Ahu Altinkut

    2016-08-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) gene pool was analyzed with 117 microsatellite markers scattered throughout A, B, and D genomes. Ninety microsatellite markers were giving 1620 polymorphic alleles in 55 different bread wheat genotypes. These genotypes were found to be divided into three subgroups based on Bayesian model and Principal component analysis. The highest polymorphism information content value for the markers resides on A genome was estimated for wmc262 marker located on 4A chromosome with the polymorphism information content value of 0.960. The highest polymorphism information content value (0.954) among the markers known to be located on B genome was realized for wmc44 marker located on 1B chromosome. The highest polymorphism information content value for the markers specific to D genome was found in gwm174 marker located on 5D chromosome with the polymorphism information content value of 0.948. The presence of linkage disequilibrium between 81 pairwise SSR markers reside on the same chromosome was tested and very limited linkage disequilibrium was observed. The results confirmed that the most distant genotype pairs were as follows Ceyhan-99-Behoth 6, Gerek 79-Douma 40989, and Karahan-99-Douma 48114.

  10. Comprehensive Functional Analyses of Expressed Sequence Tags in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    PubMed Central

    Manickavelu, Alagu; Kawaura, Kanako; Oishi, Kazuko; Shin-I, Tadasu; Kohara, Yuji; Yahiaoui, Nabila; Keller, Beat; Abe, Reina; Suzuki, Ayako; Nagayama, Taishi; Yano, Kentaro; Ogihara, Yasunari

    2012-01-01

    About 1 million expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences comprising 125.3 Mb nucleotides were accreted from 51 cDNA libraries constructed from a variety of tissues and organs under a range of conditions, including abiotic stresses and pathogen challenges in common wheat (Triticum aestivum). Expressed sequence tags were assembled with stringent parameters after processing with inbuild scripts, resulting in 37 138 contigs and 215 199 singlets. In the assembled sequences, 10.6% presented no matches with existing sequences in public databases. Functional characterization of wheat unigenes by gene ontology annotation, mining transcription factors, full-length cDNA, and miRNA targeting sites were carried out. A bioinformatics strategy was developed to discover single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within our large EST resource and reported the SNPs between and within (homoeologous) cultivars. Digital gene expression was performed to find the tissue-specific gene expression, and correspondence analysis was executed to identify common and specific gene expression by selecting four biotic stress-related libraries. The assembly and associated information cater a framework for future investigation in functional genomics. PMID:22334568

  11. Evaluation of assembly strategies using RNA-seq data associated with grain development of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Huai-Zhu; Gao, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Qi-Jiao; Dong, Jian; Zhao, Wan-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops cultivated worldwide. Identifying the complete transcriptome of wheat grain could serve as foundation for further study of wheat seed development. However, the relatively large size and the polyploid complexity of the genome have been substantial barriers to molecular genetics and transcriptome analysis of wheat. Alternatively, RNA sequencing has provided some useful information about wheat genes. However, because of the large number of short reads generated by RNA sequencing, factors that are crucial to transcriptome assembly, including software, candidate parameters and assembly strategies, need to be optimized and evaluated for wheat data. In the present study, four cDNA libraries associated with wheat grain development were constructed and sequenced. A total of 14.17 Gb of high-quality reads were obtained and used to assess different assembly strategies. The most successful approach was to filter the reads with Q30 prior to de novo assembly using Trinity, merge the assembled contigs with genes available in wheat cDNA reference data sets, and combine the resulting assembly with an assembly from a reference-based strategy. Using this approach, a relatively accurate and nearly complete transcriptome associated with wheat grain development was obtained, suggesting that this is an effective strategy for generation of a high-quality transcriptome from RNA sequencing data.

  12. Cytoplasmic effects on DNA methylation between male sterile lines and the maintainer in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Ba, Qingsong; Zhang, Gaisheng; Niu, Na; Ma, Shoucai; Wang, Junwei

    2014-10-01

    Male sterile cytoplasm plays an important role in hybrid wheat, and three-line system including male sterile (A line), its maintainer (B line) and restoring (R line) has played a major role in wheat hybrid production. It is well known that DNA methylation plays an important role in gene expression regulation during biological development in wheat. However, no reports are available on DNA methylation affected by different male sterile cytoplasms in hybrid wheat. We employed a methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism technique to characterize nuclear DNA methylation in three male sterile cytoplasms. A and B lines share the same nucleus, but have different cytoplasms which is male sterile for the A and fertile for the B. The results revealed a relationship of DNA methylation at these sites specifically with male sterile cytoplasms, as well as male sterility, since the only difference between the A lines and B line was the cytoplasm. The DNA methylation was markedly affected by male sterile cytoplasms. K-type cytoplasm affected the methylation to a much greater degree than T-type and S-type cytoplasms, as indicated by the ratio of methylated sites, ratio of fully methylated sites, and polymorphism between A lines and B line for these cytoplasms. The genetic distance between the cytoplasm and nucleus for the K-type is much greater than for the T- and S-types because the former is between Aegilops genus and Triticum genus and the latter is within Triticum genus between Triticum spelta and Triticum timopheevii species. Thus, this difference in genetic distance may be responsible for the variation in methylation that we observed.

  13. Purification, cloning and functional characterization of a fructan 6-exohydrolase from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Van Riet, Liesbet; Nagaraj, Vinay; Van den Ende, Wim; Clerens, Stefan; Wiemken, Andres; Van Laere, André

    2006-01-01

    Fructans, beta2-1 and/or beta2-6 linked polymers of fructose, are produced by fructosyltransferases (FTs) from sucrose. They are important storage carbohydrates in many plants. Fructan reserves, widely distributed in plants, are believed to be mobilized via fructan exohydrolases (FEHs). The purification, cloning, and functional characterization of a 6-FEH from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are reported here. It is the first FEH shown to hydrolyse exclusively beta2-6 bonds found in a fructan-producing plant. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulphate precipitation, ConA affinity-, ion exchange-, and size exclusion chromatography and yielded a single band of 70 kDa following SDS-PAGE. Sequence information obtained by mass spectrometry of in-gel trypsin digests demonstrated the presence of a single protein. Moreover, these unique peptide sequences, together with some ESTs coding for them, could be used in a RT-PCR based strategy to clone a 1.7 kb cDNA. Functionality tests of the cDNA performed after heterologous expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris showed--as did the native enzyme from wheat--a very high activity of the produced protein against bacterial levan, 6-kestose, and phlein whilst sucrose and inulin were not used as substrates. Therefore the enzyme is a genuine 6-FEH. In contrast to most FEHs from fructan-accumulating plants, this FEH is not inhibited by sucrose. The relative abundance of 6-FEH transcripts in various tissues of wheat was investigated using quantitative RT-PCR.

  14. Genome interplay in the grain transcriptome of hexaploid bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Matthias; Kugler, Karl G; Sandve, Simen R; Zhan, Bujie; Rudi, Heidi; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Mayer, Klaus F X; Olsen, Odd-Arne

    2014-07-18

    Allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) provides approximately 20% of calories consumed by humans. Lack of genome sequence for the three homeologous and highly similar bread wheat genomes (A, B, and D) has impeded expression analysis of the grain transcriptome. We used previously unknown genome information to analyze the cell type-specific expression of homeologous genes in the developing wheat grain and identified distinct co-expression clusters reflecting the spatiotemporal progression during endosperm development. We observed no global but cell type- and stage-dependent genome dominance, organization of the wheat genome into transcriptionally active chromosomal regions, and asymmetric expression in gene families related to baking quality. Our findings give insight into the transcriptional dynamics and genome interplay among individual grain cell types in a polyploid cereal genome.

  15. Cloning and sequencing of cDNAs encoding a pathogen-induced putative peroxidase of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Rebmann, G; Hertig, C; Bull, J; Mauch, F; Dudler, R

    1991-02-01

    We report here the complete amino acid sequence of a pathogen-induced putative peroxidase from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as deduced from cDNA clones representing mRNA from leaves infected with the powdery mildew fungus Erysiphe graminis. The protein consists of 312 amino acids, of which the first 22 form a putative signal sequence, and has a calculated pI of 5.7. Sequence comparison revealed that the putative wheat peroxidase is most similar to the turnip (Brassica rapa) peroxidase, with which it shares 57% identical and 13% conserved amino acids.

  16. Cloning and sequencing of cDNAs encoding a pathogen-induced putative peroxidase of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Rebmann, G; Hertig, C; Bull, J; Mauch, F; Dudler, R

    1991-02-01

    We report here the complete amino acid sequence of a pathogen-induced putative peroxidase from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as deduced from cDNA clones representing mRNA from leaves infected with the powdery mildew fungus Erysiphe graminis. The protein consists of 312 amino acids, of which the first 22 form a putative signal sequence, and has a calculated pI of 5.7. Sequence comparison revealed that the putative wheat peroxidase is most similar to the turnip (Brassica rapa) peroxidase, with which it shares 57% identical and 13% conserved amino acids. PMID:1893103

  17. Crop selection for advanced life support systems in the ESA MELiSSA program: Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var durum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasiak, M.; Gidzinski, D.; Jordan, M.; Dixon, M.

    2012-06-01

    As part of an ESA MELiSSA investigation into advanced life support (ALS) candidate crop cultivar selection and growth requirements, the University of Guelph's Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility (CESRF) conducted a case study on growth and development of four durum wheat cultivars (Triticum turgidum var durum) grown hydroponically under controlled conditions in a sealed environment. Cultivars tested were Canadian developed Avonlea, Commander, Eurostar and Strongfield. There were few fundamental differences in durum quality parameters between hydroponically and field grown wheat, however yields of Eurostar and Strongfield exceeded those of field trials by 41% and 87% respectively.

  18. Extensive pericentric rearrangements in the bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotype "Chinese Spring" revealed from chromosome shotgun sequence data.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Stiller, Jiri; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, You-Liang; Devos, Katrien M; Doležel, Jaroslav; Liu, Chunji

    2014-10-27

    The bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotype "Chinese Spring" ("CS") is the reference base in wheat genetics and genomics. Pericentric rearrangements in this genotype were systematically assessed by analyzing homoeoloci for a set of nonredundant genes from Brachypodium distachyon, Triticum urartu, and Aegilops tauschii in the CS chromosome shotgun sequence obtained from individual chromosome arms flow-sorted from CS aneuploid lines. Based on patterns of their homoeologous arm locations, 551 genes indicated the presence of pericentric inversions in at least 10 of the 21 chromosomes. Available data from deletion bin-mapped expressed sequence tags and genetic mapping in wheat indicated that all inversions had breakpoints in the low-recombinant gene-poor pericentromeric regions. The large number of putative intrachromosomal rearrangements suggests the presence of extensive structural differences among the three subgenomes, at least some of which likely occurred during the production of the aneuploid lines of this hexaploid wheat genotype. These differences could have significant implications in wheat genome research where comparative approaches are used such as in ordering and orientating sequence contigs and in gene cloning.

  19. Assessment of genotoxic effects of boron on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by using RAPD analysis.

    PubMed

    Kekec, Guzin; Sakcali, M Serdal; Uzonur, Irem

    2010-06-01

    In boron-rich soils of Turkey, boron tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and sensitive bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are most widely cultivated crops. In this study they have been studied to elucidate the probable genotoxic effects of boron by using RAPD analysis. During the study, root and stem lengths have been measured and inhibitory rates (%) of root growth have been found to be significant, starting from 10 (13%) and 5 ppm (19%) for wheat and bean, respectively, which is in strong correlation with the root DNA alterations; RAPD variations starting from 100 ppm for wheat and 25 ppm for bean. The preliminary findings encourage the use of these tools in investigation of genotoxic effects of boron on wheat, bean and the other crops. PMID:20467724

  20. Sampling system for wheat (Triticum aestivum L) area estimation using digital LANDSAT MSS data and aerial photographs. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Moreira, M. A.; Chen, S. C.; Batista, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure to estimate wheat (Triticum aestivum L) area using sampling technique based on aerial photographs and digital LANDSAT MSS data is developed. Aerial photographs covering 720 square km are visually analyzed. To estimate wheat area, a regression approach is applied using different sample sizes and various sampling units. As the size of sampling unit decreased, the percentage of sampled area required to obtain similar estimation performance also decreased. The lowest percentage of the area sampled for wheat estimation with relatively high precision and accuracy through regression estimation is 13.90% using 10 square km as the sampling unit. Wheat area estimation using only aerial photographs is less precise and accurate than those obtained by regression estimation.

  1. The effect of high temperature on cell structure and gluten protein accumulation in the endosperm of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High temperature during grain fill is one of the more significant environmental factors that alters wheat yield and flour quality. To identify endosperm responses to high temperature, cell structure and gluten protein composition were investigated in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte ...

  2. Effect of high temperature on cell structure and gluten protein accumulation in the endosperm of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High temperature during grain fill is one of the more significant environmental factors that alters wheat yield and flour quality. To identify endosperm responses to high temperature, cell structure and gluten protein composition were investigated in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte ...

  3. Genome-wide association mapping for stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis F. sp. tritici) in US Pacific Northwest winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis F. sp. tritici; also known as yellow rust) is a globally devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and a major threat to wheat production in the US Pacific Northwest (PNW), therefore both adult plant and all-stage resistance have been introduced into the w...

  4. Starch granule formation and protein deposition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starchy endosperm cells is altered by high temperature during grain fill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High temperatures during wheat grain fill decrease starch and protein levels, adversely affecting wheat yield and flour quality. To determine the effect of high temperature on starchy endosperm cell development, grain (Triticum aestivum L. "Butte 86") was produced under a 24/17°C or 37/28°C day/nigh...

  5. Starch granule formation and protein deposition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starchy endosperm cells are altered by high temperature during grain fill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High temperatures during wheat grain fill decrease starch and protein levels, adversely affecting wheat yield and flour quality. To determine the effect of high temperature on starchy endosperm cell development, grain (Triticum aestivum L. ‘Butte 86’) was produced under a 24/17°C or 37/28°C day/nigh...

  6. High temperature during grain fill alters the morphology of protein and starch deposits in the starchy endosperm cells of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High temperature during grain fill reduces wheat yield and alters flour quality. Starchy endosperm cell morphology was investigated in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ‘Butte 86’) grain produced under a 24/17 °C or 37/28 °C day/night regimen imposed from anthesis to maturity to identify changes in cell s...

  7. Novel and conserved heat-responsive microRNAs in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ranjeet Ranjan; Pathak, Himanshu; Sharma, Sushil Kumar; Kala, Yugal Kishore; Nirjal, Mahesh Kumar; Singh, Gyanendra Pratap; Goswami, Suneha; Rai, Raj Deo

    2015-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous RNAs of ~22 nucleotides that have been shown to play regulatory role by negatively affecting the expression of genes at the post-transcriptional level. Information of miRNAs on some important crops like soybean, Arabidopsis, and rice, etc. are available, but no study on heat-responsive novel miRNAs has yet been reported in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In the present investigation, a popular wheat cultivar HD2985 was used in small RNA library construction and Illumina HiSeq 2000 was used to perform high-throughput sequencing of the library after cluster generation; 110,896,604 and 87,743,861 reads were generated in the control (22 °C) and heat-treated (42 °C for 2 h) samples, respectively. Forty-four precursor and mature miRNAs were found in T. aestivum from miRBase v 19. The frequencies of the miRNA families varied from 2 (tae-miR1117) to 60,672 (tae-miR159b). We identify 1052 and 902 mature miRNA sequences in HD2985 control and HS-treated samples by mapping on reference draft genome of T. aestivum. Maximum identified miRNAs were located on IWGSC_CSS_3B_scaff (chromosome 3B). We could identify 53 and 46 mature miRNA in the control and HS samples and more than 516 target genes by mapping on the reference genome of Oryza sativa, Zea mays, and Sorghum bicolor. Using different pipelines and plant-specific criteria, 37 novel miRNAs were identified in the control and treated samples. Six novel miRNA were validated using qRT-PCR to be heat-responsive. A negative correlation was, however, observed between the expression of novel miRNAs and their targets. Target prediction and pathway analysis revealed their involvement in the heat stress tolerance. These novel miRNAs are new additions to miRNA database of wheat, and the regulatory network will be made use of in deciphering the mechanism of thermotolerance in wheat.

  8. Accumulation of phenanthrene by roots of intact wheat (Triticum acstivnm L.) seedlings: passive or active uptake?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of particular concern due to their hydrophobic, recalcitrant, persistent, potentially carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic properties, and their ubiquitous occurrence in the environment. Most of the PAHs in the environment are present in surface soil. Plants grown in PAH-contaminated soils or water can become contaminated with PAHs because of their uptake. Therefore, they may threaten human and animal health. However, the mechanism for PAHs uptake by crop roots is little understood. It is important to understand exactly how PAHs are transported into the plant root system and into the human food chain, since it is beneficial in governing crop contamination by PAHs, remedying soils or waters polluted by PAHs with plants, and modeling potential uptake for risk assessment. Results The possibility that plant roots may take up phenanthrene (PHE), a representative of PAHs, via active process was investigated using intact wheat (Triticum acstivnm L.) seedlings in a series of hydroponic experiments. The time course for PHE uptake into wheat roots grown in Hoagland solution containing 5.62 μM PHE for 36 h could be separated into two periods: a fast uptake process during the initial 2 h and a slow uptake component thereafter. Concentration-dependent PHE uptake was characterized by a smooth, saturable curve with an apparent Km of 23.7 μM and a Vmax of 208 nmol g-1 fresh weight h-1, suggesting a carrier-mediated uptake system. Competition between PHE and naphthalene for their uptake by the roots further supported the carrier-mediated uptake system. Low temperature and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) could inhibit PHE uptake equally, indicating that metabolism plays a role in PHE uptake. The inhibitions by low temperature and DNP were strengthened with increasing concentration of PHE in external solution within PHE water solubility (7.3 μM). The contribution of active uptake to total absorption was almost 40% within PHE water

  9. New isoforms and assembly of glutamine synthetase in the leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaochun; Wei, Yihao; Shi, Lanxin; Ma, Xinming; Theg, Steven M

    2015-11-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) plays a crucial role in the assimilation and re-assimilation of ammonia derived from a wide variety of metabolic processes during plant growth and development. Here, three developmentally regulated isoforms of GS holoenzyme in the leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings are described using native-PAGE with a transferase activity assay. The isoforms showed different mobilities in gels, with GSII>GSIII>GSI. The cytosolic GSI was composed of three subunits, GS1, GSr1, and GSr2, with the same molecular weight (39.2kDa), but different pI values. GSI appeared at leaf emergence and was active throughout the leaf lifespan. GSII and GSIII, both located in the chloroplast, were each composed of a single 42.1kDa subunit with different pI values. GSII was active mainly in green leaves, while GSIII showed brief but higher activity in green leaves grown under field conditions. LC-MS/MS experiments revealed that GSII and GSIII have the same amino acid sequence, but GSII has more modification sites. With a modified blue native electrophoresis (BNE) technique and in-gel catalytic activity analysis, only two GS isoforms were observed: one cytosolic and one chloroplastic. Mass calibrations on BNE gels showed that the cytosolic GS1 holoenzyme was ~490kDa and likely a dodecamer, and the chloroplastic GS2 holoenzyme was ~240kDa and likely a hexamer. Our experimental data suggest that the activity of GS isoforms in wheat is regulated by subcellular localization, assembly, and modification to achieve their roles during plant development.

  10. New isoforms and assembly of glutamine synthetase in the leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaochun; Wei, Yihao; Shi, Lanxin; Ma, Xinming; Theg, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) plays a crucial role in the assimilation and re-assimilation of ammonia derived from a wide variety of metabolic processes during plant growth and development. Here, three developmentally regulated isoforms of GS holoenzyme in the leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings are described using native-PAGE with a transferase activity assay. The isoforms showed different mobilities in gels, with GSII>GSIII>GSI. The cytosolic GSI was composed of three subunits, GS1, GSr1, and GSr2, with the same molecular weight (39.2kDa), but different pI values. GSI appeared at leaf emergence and was active throughout the leaf lifespan. GSII and GSIII, both located in the chloroplast, were each composed of a single 42.1kDa subunit with different pI values. GSII was active mainly in green leaves, while GSIII showed brief but higher activity in green leaves grown under field conditions. LC-MS/MS experiments revealed that GSII and GSIII have the same amino acid sequence, but GSII has more modification sites. With a modified blue native electrophoresis (BNE) technique and in-gel catalytic activity analysis, only two GS isoforms were observed: one cytosolic and one chloroplastic. Mass calibrations on BNE gels showed that the cytosolic GS1 holoenzyme was ~490kDa and likely a dodecamer, and the chloroplastic GS2 holoenzyme was ~240kDa and likely a hexamer. Our experimental data suggest that the activity of GS isoforms in wheat is regulated by subcellular localization, assembly, and modification to achieve their roles during plant development. PMID:26307137

  11. Zinc and copper uptake by plants under two transpiration rates. Part I. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Tani, F H; Barrington, S

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the environmental risk of irrigating crops with treated wastewater, an experiment was conducted using two growth chambers, each offering a different vapour pressure deficit (VPD) for high and low transpiration rates (TR), respectively. One of the two sets of 24 pots planted with 6 week old wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), was placed in each growth chamber, and irrigated in triplicates for 20 days with 8 Zn and Cu solutions (0 and 25 mg Zn/L combined with 0, 5, 15 and 30 mg Cu/L). Water losses from planted and non-planted pots served to measure evapo-transpiration and evaporation, respectively. Pots were monitored for Cu and Zn uptake by collecting three plants (shoot and grain)/pots after 0, 10 and 20 days, and roots in each pot after 20 days, and analyzing these plant parts for dry mass, and Cu and Zn levels. Transpiration rate was not affected by any Cu/Zn treatment, but Cu and Zn uptake increase with the time, irrigation solution level and higher TR, with the roots retaining most Cu and Zn, compared to the shoot followed by the grain. For the shoot and grain, Cu had a significant synergetic effect on Zn uptake, when Zn had slight but insignificant antagonistic effects on Cu uptake. For the roots, Cu and Zn had significant synergetic effect on each other. Regression equations obtained from the data indicate that Cu and Zn levels normally found in treated wastewater (0.08 mg/L) are 300 times lower than those used for the most concentrated experimental solutions (30 and 25 mg/L, respectively) and may, on a long term basis, be beneficial rather than toxic to wheat plants and do not acidify soil pH.

  12. Proteomic analysis of peripheral layers during wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain development.

    PubMed

    Tasleem-Tahir, Ayesha; Nadaud, Isabelle; Girousse, Christine; Martre, Pierre; Marion, Didier; Branlard, Gérard

    2011-02-01

    Grains of hexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum (cv. Récital), were collected at 15 stages of development, from anthesis to physiological maturity, 0-700°C days (degree days after anthesis). Two hundred and seven proteins of grain peripheral layers (inner pericarp, hyaline, testa and aleurone layer) were identified by 2-DE, MALDI-TOF MS and data mining, then were classified in 16 different functional categories. Study of the protein expression over time allowed identification of five main profiles and four distinct phases of development. Composite expression curves indicated that there was a shift from metabolic processes, translation, transcription and ATP interconversion towards storage and defence processes. Protein synthesis, protein turnover, signal transduction, membrane transport and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were the mediating functions of this shift. A picture of the dynamic processes taking place in peripheral layers during grain development was obtained in this study. It should further help in the construction of proteome reference maps for the developing peripheral layers.

  13. Relevance for food sciences of quantitative spatially resolved element profile investigations in wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain.

    PubMed

    Pongrac, Paula; Kreft, Ivan; Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Regvar, Marjana; Germ, Mateja; Vavpetic, Primoz; Grlj, Natasa; Jeromel, Luka; Eichert, Diane; Budic, Bojan; Pelicon, Primoz

    2013-07-01

    Bulk element concentrations of whole grain and element spatial distributions at the tissue level were investigated in wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain grown in Zn-enriched soil. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were used for bulk analysis, whereas micro-proton-induced X-ray emission was used to resolve the two-dimensional localization of the elements. Soil Zn application did not significantly affect the grain yield, but did significantly increase the grain Ca, Fe and Zn concentrations, and decrease the grain Na, P and Mo concentrations; bulk Mg, S, K, Mn, Cu, Cd and Pb concentrations remained unchanged. These changes observed in bulk element concentrations are the reflection of tissue-specific variations within the grain, revealing that Zn application to soil can lead to considerable alterations in the element distributions within the grain, which might ultimately influence the quality of the milling fractions. Spatially resolved investigations into the partitioning of the element concentrations identified the tissues with the highest element concentrations, which is of utmost importance for accurate prediction of element losses during the grain milling and polishing processes.

  14. Arsenate (As) uptake by and distribution in two cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Geng, Chun-Nu; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Tong, Yi-Ping; Smith, Sally E; Smith, F A

    2006-01-01

    Two cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (Jing 411 and Lovrin 10) were used to investigate arsenate (As) uptake and distribution in plants grown in hydroponic culture and in the soil. Results showed that without As addition, Lovrin 10 had higher biomass than Jing 411 in the soil pot experiment; in the hydroponic experiment Lovrin 10 had similar root biomass to and lower shoot biomass than Jing 411. Increasing P supply from 32 to 161 microM resulted in lower tissue As concentrations, and increasing As supply from 0 to 2,000 microM resulted in lower tissue P concentrations. Increasing P supply tended to increase shoot-to-root ratios of As concentrations, and increasing As supply tended to decrease shoot-to-root ratios of As concentrations. Both cultivars invested more in root production under P deficient conditions than under P sufficient conditions. Lovrin 10 invested more biomass production to roots than Jing 411, which might be partly responsible for higher shoot P and As concentrations and higher shoot-to-root ratios of As concentrations. Moreover, Lovrin 10 allocated less As to roots than Jing 411 and the difference disappeared with decreasing P supply.

  15. Nitrogen and Photosynthesis in the Flag Leaf of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Evans, J R

    1983-06-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Yecora 70) plants were grown with various concentrations of nitrate nitrogen available to the roots. Sampling of flag leaves began after they had reached full expansion and continued throughout senescence. Rates of gas exchange, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuP(2)) carboxylase activity, and the amounts of chlorophyll, soluble protein, nitrogen, and phosphorus were determined for each flag leaf. Rate of CO(2) assimilation was uniquely related to total leaf nitrogen irrespective of nutrient treatment, season, and leaf age. Assimilation rate increased with leaf nitrogen, but the slope of the relationship declined markedly when leaf nitrogen exceeded 125 millimoles nitrogen per square meter. Chlorophyll content and RuP(2) carboxylase activity were approximately proportional to leaf nitrogen content. As leaves aged, RuP(2) carboxylase activity and calculated Hill activity declined in parallel. With normal ambient partial pressure of CO(2), the intercellular partial pressure of CO(2) was always such that rate of assimilation appeared colimited by RuP(2) carboxylation and RuP(2) regeneration capacity.The initial slope of rate of CO(2) assimilation against intercellular partial pressure of CO(2) varied nonlinearly with carboxylase activity. It is suggested that this was due to a finite conductance to CO(2) diffusion in the wall and liquid phase which causes a drop in CO(2) partial pressure between the intercellular spaces and the site of carboxylation. A double reciprocal plot was used to obtain an estimate of the transfer conductance.

  16. Novel nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction in wheat (Triticum aestivum) induces vigorous plants.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Ali; Kumar, Ajay; Mergoum, Mohamed; Pirseyedi, Seyed Mostafa; Hegstad, Justin B; Mazaheri, Mona; Kianian, Shahryar F

    2016-03-01

    Interspecific hybridization can be considered an accelerator of evolution, otherwise a slow process, solely dependent on mutation and recombination. Upon interspecific hybridization, several novel interactions between nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes emerge which provide additional sources of diversity. The magnitude and essence of intergenomic interactions between nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes remain unknown due to the direction of many crosses. This study was conducted to address the role of nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions as a source of variation upon hybridization. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) alloplasmic lines carrying the cytoplasm of Aegilops mutica along with an integrated approach utilizing comparative quantitative trait locus (QTL) and epigenome analysis were used to dissect this interaction. The results indicate that cytoplasmic genomes can modify the magnitude of QTL controlling certain physiological traits such as dry matter weight. Furthermore, methylation profiling analysis detected eight polymorphic regions affected by the cytoplasm type. In general, these results indicate that novel nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions can potentially trigger an epigenetic modification cascade in nuclear genes which eventually change the genetic network controlling physiological traits. These modified genetic networks can serve as new sources of variation to accelerate the evolutionary process. Furthermore, this variation can synthetically be produced by breeders in their programs to develop epigenomic-segregating lines. PMID:26860316

  17. Molecular characterization of of alpha-gliadin genes from wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides).

    PubMed

    Qi, Peng-Fei; Yue, Yuan-Wen; Long, Hai; Wei, Yu-Ming; Yan, Ze-Hong; Zheng, You-liang

    2006-12-01

    According to the two distal and conserved regions of known alpha-gliadin genes, gene-specific primers for alpha-gliadin were designed, and the coding regions of four gliadin genes (i.e. GliTd-1, GliTd-2, GliTd-3 and GliTd-4) with the length of about 800 bp were isolated from the genomic DNA of wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides). No introns were observed. Sequence comparison indicated that these genes should be classified as alpha-gliadins. GliTd-3 (GenBank accession No.DQ140351) and GliTd-4 (DQ140352) were potentially functional, whereas GliTd-1 (DQ140349) and GliTd-2 (DQ140350) were both pseudogenes by the definition of in-frame stop codons and frameshifts. Six conserved cysteine residues were observed. Sequence analysis suggested that the motif units of repetitive domain for the four newly detected genes were different from the known genes, and the QQQP sequence before the position 60 was more toxic to coeliac patients. Codons for proline were strongly biased. Codons (CAG and CAA) for glutamine were clustered into the specific regions, and the high percentage of pseudogenes resulted from the mutation of CAG --> TAG.

  18. Movement of 14C-labeled Sugars into Kernels of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Sakri, Faisal A. K.; Shannon, Jack C.

    1975-01-01

    An anatomical study of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) kernels 14 days after anthesis revealed that the tracheary elements of the pericarp vascular bundle are not in direct continuity with those of the rachilla. The phloem was continuous from the rachilla into the crease of the pericarp. Shortly after exposure of the flag leaf to 14CO2, relatively high proportion of the 14C extracted from the pericarp and endosperm was found in glucose and fructose. With additional time, the percentage of 14C in the monosaccharides declined and that in sucrose increased to a maximum 3 hours after 14CO2 exposure. The monosaccharides comprised about one-half of the soluble sugars extracted from the pericarp. Based on these observations, it appeared that sucrose hydrolysis might be prerequisite to sugar movement from the terminal phloem elements in the pericarp and into the endosperm. However, when 14C-fructosyl-sucrose was injected into the peduncle, there was little additional randomization of the 14C between the glucose and fructose moieties of sucrose extracted from the pericarp and endosperm compared to the rachis sucrose. If we assume that injected sucose was transported to the kernels via the phloem, then either sucrose moves out of the terminal phloem elements in the pericarp and into the endosperm unaltered, or if hydrolysis and resynthesis are a prerequisite to transport into the endosperm, the products of hydrolysis are not freely available for isomerization. Images PMID:16659185

  19. Effects of As on As uptake, speciation, and nutrient uptake by winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under hydroponic conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quanji; Hu, Chengxiao; Tan, Qiling; Sun, Xuecheng; Su, Jingjun; Liang, Yuexiang

    2008-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of arsenic (As) stress on growth, nutrition and As uptake, and speciation in shoots and roots of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Winter wheat has high tolerance to As. Most As is accumulated in the roots, and an As concentration of 4,421 mg/kg was observed at a solution concentration of 20 mg/L As. Arsenic concentrations in roots were approximately 40-100 times greater than those in shoots. Arsenic in winter wheat roots and shoots occurred as both As3+ and As5+ species, although As3+ was the main species in winter wheat tissues. Arsenic significantly decreased the biomass of winter wheat shoots and roots and affected absorption and transport of micro- and macro-elements in winter wheat tissue. Arsenic treatment significantly increased the concentrations of total Magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in shoots and enhanced the transport of Mg and Ca from roots to shoots but decreased potassium (K), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) concentrations in both shoots and roots, particularly the concentration of P. Concentrations of iron, copper, and zinc in winter wheat shoots were negatively related to As rates, with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.93, 0.94, and 0.97, respectively.

  20. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Tetraploid Wheats (Triticum turgidum L.) Estimated by SSR, DArT and Pedigree Data

    PubMed Central

    Laidò, Giovanni; Mangini, Giacomo; Taranto, Francesca; Gadaleta, Agata; Blanco, Antonio; Cattivelli, Luigi; Marone, Daniela; Mastrangelo, Anna M.; Papa, Roberto; De Vita, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Levels of genetic diversity and population genetic structure of a collection of 230 accessions of seven tetraploid Triticum turgidum L. subspecies were investigated using six morphological, nine seed storage protein loci, 26 SSRs and 970 DArT markers. The genetic diversity of the morphological traits and seed storage proteins was always lower in the durum wheat compared to the wild and domesticated emmer. Using Bayesian clustering (K = 2), both of the sets of molecular markers distinguished the durum wheat cultivars from the other tetraploid subspecies, and two distinct subgroups were detected within the durum wheat subspecies, which is in agreement with their origin and year of release. The genetic diversity of morphological traits and seed storage proteins was always lower in the improved durum cultivars registered after 1990, than in the intermediate and older ones. This marked effect on diversity was not observed for molecular markers, where there was only a weak reduction. At K >2, the SSR markers showed a greater degree of resolution than for DArT, with their identification of a greater number of groups within each subspecies. Analysis of DArT marker differentiation between the wheat subspecies indicated outlier loci that are potentially linked to genes controlling some important agronomic traits. Among the 211 loci identified under selection, 109 markers were recently mapped, and some of these markers were clustered into specific regions on chromosome arms 2BL, 3BS and 4AL, where several genes/quantitative trait loci (QTLs) are involved in the domestication of tetraploid wheats, such as the tenacious glumes (Tg) and brittle rachis (Br) characteristics. On the basis of these results, it can be assumed that the population structure of the tetraploid wheat collection partially reflects the evolutionary history of Triticum turgidum L. subspecies and the genetic potential of landraces and wild accessions for the detection of unexplored alleles. PMID:23826256

  1. Rmg7, a New Gene for Resistance to Triticum Isolates of Pyricularia oryzae Identified in Tetraploid Wheat.

    PubMed

    Tagle, Analiza Grubanzo; Chuma, Izumi; Tosa, Yukio

    2015-04-01

    A single gene for resistance, designated Rmg7 (Resistance to Magnaporthe grisea 7), was identified in a tetraploid wheat accession, St24 (Triticum dicoccum, KU120), against Br48, a Triticum isolate of Pyricularia oryzae. Two other wheat accessions, St17 (T. dicoccum, KU112) and St25 (T. dicoccum, KU122), were also resistant against Br48 and showed a similar disease reaction pattern to St24. Crosses between these resistant accessions yielded no susceptible F2 seedlings, suggesting that St24, St17, and St25 carry the same resistance gene. Furthermore, a single avirulence gene corresponding to Rmg7 was detected in a segregation analysis of random F1 progenies between Br48 and MZ5-1-6, an Eleusine isolate virulent to St24 at a higher temperature. This avirulence gene was recognized not only by St24, but also by St17 and St25, thus supporting the preceding results indicating that all three accessions carry Rmg7. This resistance gene may have potential in future wheat breeding programs.

  2. Rmg7, a New Gene for Resistance to Triticum Isolates of Pyricularia oryzae Identified in Tetraploid Wheat.

    PubMed

    Tagle, Analiza Grubanzo; Chuma, Izumi; Tosa, Yukio

    2015-04-01

    A single gene for resistance, designated Rmg7 (Resistance to Magnaporthe grisea 7), was identified in a tetraploid wheat accession, St24 (Triticum dicoccum, KU120), against Br48, a Triticum isolate of Pyricularia oryzae. Two other wheat accessions, St17 (T. dicoccum, KU112) and St25 (T. dicoccum, KU122), were also resistant against Br48 and showed a similar disease reaction pattern to St24. Crosses between these resistant accessions yielded no susceptible F2 seedlings, suggesting that St24, St17, and St25 carry the same resistance gene. Furthermore, a single avirulence gene corresponding to Rmg7 was detected in a segregation analysis of random F1 progenies between Br48 and MZ5-1-6, an Eleusine isolate virulent to St24 at a higher temperature. This avirulence gene was recognized not only by St24, but also by St17 and St25, thus supporting the preceding results indicating that all three accessions carry Rmg7. This resistance gene may have potential in future wheat breeding programs. PMID:25870924

  3. Cellular and Subcellular Immunohistochemical Localization and Quantification of Cadmium Ions in Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Nan, Tiegui; Tan, Guiyu; Zhao, Hongwei; Tan, Weiming; Meng, Fanyun; Li, Zhaohu; Li, Qing X.; Wang, Baomin

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of metallic ions in plant tissues is associated with their toxicity and is important for understanding mechanisms of toxicity tolerance. A quantitative histochemical method can help advance knowledge of cellular and subcellular localization and distribution of heavy metals in plant tissues. An immunohistochemical (IHC) imaging method for cadmium ions (Cd2+) was developed for the first time for the wheat Triticum aestivum grown in Cd2+-fortified soils. Also, 1-(4-Isothiocyanobenzyl)-ethylenediamine-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (ITCB-EDTA) was used to chelate the mobile Cd2+. The ITCB-EDTA/Cd2+ complex was fixed with proteins in situ via the isothiocyano group. A new Cd2+-EDTA specific monoclonal antibody, 4F3B6D9A1, was used to locate the Cd2+-EDTA protein complex. After staining, the fluorescence intensities of sections of Cd2+-positive roots were compared with those of Cd2+-negative roots under a laser confocal scanning microscope, and the location of colloidal gold particles was determined with a transmission electron microscope. The results enable quantification of the Cd2+ content in plant tissues and illustrate Cd2+ translocation and cellular and subcellular responses of T. aestivum to Cd2+ stress. Compared to the conventional metal-S coprecipitation histochemical method, this new IHC method is quantitative, more specific and has less background interference. The subcellular location of Cd2+ was also confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The IHC method is suitable for locating and quantifying Cd2+ in plant tissues and can be extended to other heavy metallic ions. PMID:25941807

  4. Characterization of a cysteine protease from wheat Triticum aestivum (cv. Giza 164).

    PubMed

    Fahmy, Afaf S; Ali, Ahmed A; Mohamed, Saleh A

    2004-02-01

    Enzymes, especially proteases, have become an important and indispensable part of the processes used by the modern food and feed industry to produce a large and diversified range of products for human and animal consumption. A cysteine protease, used extensively in the food industry, was purified from germinated wheat Triticum aestivum (cv. Giza 164) grains through a simple reproducible method consisting of extraction, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 61000+/-1200-62000+/-1500 by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. The cysteine protease had an isoelectric point and pH optimum at 4.4 and 4.0, respectively. The enzyme exhibited more activity toward azocasein than the other examined substrates with K(m) 2.8+/-0.15 mg azocasein/ml. In addition, it had a temperature optimum of 50 degrees C and based on a heat stability study 55% of its initial activity remained after preincubation of the enzyme at 50 degrees C for 30 min prior to substrate addition. All the examined metal cations inhibited the enzyme except Co(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+) and Li(+). The proteolytic activity of the enzyme was inhibited by thiol-specific inhibitors, whereas iodoacetate and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate caused a competitive inhibition with Ki values 6+/-0.3 mM and 21+/-1.2 microM, respectively. Soybean trypsin inhibitor had no effect on the enzyme. The enzyme activity remained almost constant for 150 days of storage at -20 degrees C. The properties of this enzyme, temperature and pH optima, substrate specificity, stability and sensitivity to inhibitors or activators, meet the prerequisites needed for food industries. PMID:14607490

  5. Quantification of benzoxazinone derivatives in wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties grown under contrasting conditions in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Mogensen, Betty B; Krongaard, Teddy; Mathiassen, Solvejg K; Kudsk, Per

    2006-02-22

    Three varieties of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) were grown in both conventional and organic farming systems. The contents of the benzoxazinone derivatives 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA), 2-beta-d-glucopyranosyloxy-4-hydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA-Glc), 6-methoxybenzoxazolin-2-one (MBOA), 2-hydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (HMBOA), benzoxazolin-2-one (BOA), and 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (HBOA) were analyzed at five growth stages (BBCH 9-10, 12, 21, 31, and 53). Major differences were found between the varieties, with Stakado exhibiting the highest contents. In contrast, only minor and erratic differences were found between the two farming systems, suggesting that the inherent differences in the content of benzoxazinone derivatives of the varieties were not significantly affected by the use of pesticides and synthetic fertilizers. The concentration of benzoxazinone derivatives in the foliage was considerably higher at the early growth stages than later in the growing season, with DIMBOA being the most abundant of the benzoxazinone derivatives. An increase in the concentration was observed in early spring compared to late autumn, suggesting that plants synthesized benzoxazinone derivatives at the commencement of growth in early spring. The concentrations in the roots were considerably lower than in the foliage at the early growth stages but remained relatively constant over time, resulting in a higher concentration than in the foliage at the late growth stages. The results are discussed in relation to previous findings that predominantly originate from experiments done under controlled conditions in either growth cabinets or greenhouses.

  6. cis-Jasmone induces accumulation of defence compounds in wheat, Triticum aestivum.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Maria C Blassioli; Birkett, Michael A; Gordon-Weeks, Ruth; Smart, Lesley E; Martin, Janet L; Pye, Barry J; Bromilow, Richard; Pickett, John A

    2008-01-01

    Liquid phase extraction (LPE) and vapor phase extraction (VPE) methodologies were used to evaluate the impact of the plant activator, cis-jasmone, on the secondary metabolism of wheat, Triticum aestivum, var. Solstice. LPE allowed the measurement of benzoxazinoids, i.e. 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA), 2-hydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (HMBOA) and 6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2-one (MBOA), and phenolic acids such as trans-p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid and cis- and trans-ferulic acid. Using LPE, a significantly higher level of DIMBOA was found in aerial parts and roots of T. aestivum following treatment with cis-jasmone, when compared with untreated plants. Similar results were obtained for phenolic acids, such as trans-ferulic acid and vanillic acid in roots. Using VPE, it was possible to measure levels of 2-hydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (HBOA), benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA), ferulic acid, syringic acid and coumaric acid. The levels of HBOA in aerial parts and roots were significantly greater in cis-jasmone treated plants compared to untreated plants. cis-Jasmone is known to be a plant activator in terms of production of defence-related volatile semiochemicals that repel aphids and increase the foraging activity of aphid parasitoids. These results show, for the first time, that cis-jasmone also induces selective production of secondary metabolites that are capable of directly reducing development of pests, diseases and weeds.

  7. Cellular and Subcellular Immunohistochemical Localization and Quantification of Cadmium Ions in Wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Nan, Tiegui; Tan, Guiyu; Zhao, Hongwei; Tan, Weiming; Meng, Fanyun; Li, Zhaohu; Li, Qing X; Wang, Baomin

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of metallic ions in plant tissues is associated with their toxicity and is important for understanding mechanisms of toxicity tolerance. A quantitative histochemical method can help advance knowledge of cellular and subcellular localization and distribution of heavy metals in plant tissues. An immunohistochemical (IHC) imaging method for cadmium ions (Cd2+) was developed for the first time for the wheat Triticum aestivum grown in Cd2+-fortified soils. Also, 1-(4-Isothiocyanobenzyl)-ethylenediamine-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (ITCB-EDTA) was used to chelate the mobile Cd2+. The ITCB-EDTA/Cd2+ complex was fixed with proteins in situ via the isothiocyano group. A new Cd2+-EDTA specific monoclonal antibody, 4F3B6D9A1, was used to locate the Cd2+-EDTA protein complex. After staining, the fluorescence intensities of sections of Cd2+-positive roots were compared with those of Cd2+-negative roots under a laser confocal scanning microscope, and the location of colloidal gold particles was determined with a transmission electron microscope. The results enable quantification of the Cd2+ content in plant tissues and illustrate Cd2+ translocation and cellular and subcellular responses of T. aestivum to Cd2+ stress. Compared to the conventional metal-S coprecipitation histochemical method, this new IHC method is quantitative, more specific and has less background interference. The subcellular location of Cd2+ was also confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The IHC method is suitable for locating and quantifying Cd2+ in plant tissues and can be extended to other heavy metallic ions.

  8. Silicon alleviates Cd stress of wheat seedlings (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Claudio) grown in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Rizwan, M; Meunier, J-D; Davidian, J-C; Pokrovsky, O S; Bovet, N; Keller, C

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the potential role of silicon in improving tolerance and decreasing cadmium (Cd) toxicity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. durum) either through a reduced Cd uptake or exclusion/sequestration in non-metabolic tissues. For this, plants were grown in hydroponic conditions for 10 days either in presence or absence of 1 mM Si and for 11 additional days in various Cd concentrations (0, 0.5, 5.0 and 50 μM). After harvesting, morphological and physiological parameters as well as elemental concentrations were recorded. Cadmium caused reduction in growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments and mineral nutrient concentrations both in shoots and roots. Shoot and root contents of malate, citrate and aconitate increased, while contents of phosphate, nitrate and sulphate decreased with increasing Cd concentrations in plants. Addition of Si to the nutrient solution mitigated these adverse effects: Cd concentration in shoots decreased while concentration of Cd adsorbed at the root cell apoplasmic level increased together with Zn uptake by roots. Overall, total Cd uptake decreased in presence of Si. There was no co-localisation of Cd and Si either at the shoot or at the root levels. No Cd was detected in leaf phytoliths. In roots, Cd was mainly detected in the cortical parenchyma and Si at the endodermis level, while analysis of the outer thin root surface of the plants grown in the 50 μM Cd + 1 mM Si treatment highlighted non-homogeneous Cd and Si enrichments. These data strongly suggest the existence of a root localised protection mechanism consisting in armoring the root surface by Si- and Cd-bearing compounds and in limiting root-shoot translocation. PMID:26370813

  9. Silicon alleviates Cd stress of wheat seedlings (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Claudio) grown in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Rizwan, M; Meunier, J-D; Davidian, J-C; Pokrovsky, O S; Bovet, N; Keller, C

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the potential role of silicon in improving tolerance and decreasing cadmium (Cd) toxicity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. durum) either through a reduced Cd uptake or exclusion/sequestration in non-metabolic tissues. For this, plants were grown in hydroponic conditions for 10 days either in presence or absence of 1 mM Si and for 11 additional days in various Cd concentrations (0, 0.5, 5.0 and 50 μM). After harvesting, morphological and physiological parameters as well as elemental concentrations were recorded. Cadmium caused reduction in growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments and mineral nutrient concentrations both in shoots and roots. Shoot and root contents of malate, citrate and aconitate increased, while contents of phosphate, nitrate and sulphate decreased with increasing Cd concentrations in plants. Addition of Si to the nutrient solution mitigated these adverse effects: Cd concentration in shoots decreased while concentration of Cd adsorbed at the root cell apoplasmic level increased together with Zn uptake by roots. Overall, total Cd uptake decreased in presence of Si. There was no co-localisation of Cd and Si either at the shoot or at the root levels. No Cd was detected in leaf phytoliths. In roots, Cd was mainly detected in the cortical parenchyma and Si at the endodermis level, while analysis of the outer thin root surface of the plants grown in the 50 μM Cd + 1 mM Si treatment highlighted non-homogeneous Cd and Si enrichments. These data strongly suggest the existence of a root localised protection mechanism consisting in armoring the root surface by Si- and Cd-bearing compounds and in limiting root-shoot translocation.

  10. Generation of amphidiploids from hybrids of wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum as a source of genetic variation for wheat improvement.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Csilla; Yang, Cai-yun; Kasprzak, Paul; Hubbart, Stella; Scholefield, Duncan; Mehra, Surbhi; Skipper, Emma; King, Ian; King, Julie

    2015-02-01

    We aim to improve diversity of domesticated wheat by transferring genetic variation for important target traits from related wild and cultivated grass species. The present study describes the development of F1 hybrids between wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum and production of new amphidiploids. Amphidiploid lines were produced from 20 different distant relatives. Both colchicine and caffeine were successfully used to double the chromosome numbers. The genomic constitution of the newly formed amphidiploids derived from seven distant relatives was determined using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Altogether, 42 different plants were analysed, 19 using multicolour GISH separating the chromosomes from the A, B, and D genomes of wheat, as well as the distant relative, and 23 using single colour GISH. Restructuring of the allopolyploid genome, both chromosome losses and aneuploidy, was detected in all the genomes contained by the amphidiploids. From the observed chromosome numbers there is an indication that in amphidiploids the B genome of wheat suffers chromosome losses less frequently than the other wheat genomes. Phenotyping to realize the full potential of the wheat-related grass germplasm is underway, linking the analyzed genotypes to agronomically important target traits.

  11. DNA methylation pattern of Photoperiod-B1 is associated with photoperiod insensitivity in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Sun, Han; Guo, Zhiai; Gao, Lifeng; Zhao, Guangyao; Zhang, Wenping; Zhou, Ronghua; Wu, Yongzhen; Wang, Haiyang; An, Hailong; Jia, Jizeng

    2014-11-01

    As one of the three key components of the 'Green Revolution', photoperiod insensitivity is vital for improved adaptation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars to a wider geographical range. Photoperiod-B1a (Ppd-B1a) is one of the major genes that confers photoperiod insensitivity in 'Green Revolution' varieties, and has made a significant contribution to wheat yield improvement. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the photoperiod insensitivity of Ppd-B1a alleles from an epigenetic perspective using a combination of bisulfite genomic sequencing, orthologous comparative analysis, association analysis, linkage analysis and gene expression analysis. Based on the study of a large collection of wheat germplasm, we report two methylation haplotypes of Ppd-B1 and demonstrate that the higher methylation haplotype (haplotype a) was associated with increased copy numbers and higher expression levels of the Ppd-B1 gene, earlier heading and photoperiod insensitivity. Furthermore, assessment of the distribution frequency of the different methylation haplotypes suggested that the methylation patterns have undergone selection during the wheat breeding process. Our study suggests that DNA methylation in the regulatory region of the Ppd-B1 alleles, which is closely related to copy number variation, plays a significant role in wheat breeding, to confer photoperiod insensitivity and better adaptation to a wider geographical range.

  12. Seed coating with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as an ecotechnologicalapproach for sustainable agricultural production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rui S; Rocha, Inês; Ma, Ying; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has become of great interest in agriculture due to their potential roles in reducing the need for agrochemicals, while improving plant growth and nutrition. Nevertheless, the application of AM fungi by dispersing inocula in granular form to open agricultural fields is not feasible because nontargeted spreading of inocula over large surface areas results in high cost per plant. Seed coating has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of inoculum needed, resulting in cost reduction and increased efficiency. The aim of this study was to assess whether seed coating with AM fungal inoculum is a feasible delivery system for production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat seeds were coated with inoculum of Rhizophagus irregularis BEG140 and grown under different fertilization conditions: (1) none, (2) partial, or (3) complete. Data indicated that mycorrhizal inoculation via seed coating significantly increased the dry weight of shoot and seed spikes of wheat associated with reduced fertilization. Assessment of nutritional status of wheat showed that plants inoculated with R. irregularis via seed coating displayed enhanced stem concentrations of potassium (K), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn). There were no significant differences in root colonization between plants conventionally inoculated with R. irregularis in soil and those inoculated via seed coating. Seed coating with AM fungi may be as effective as conventional soil inoculation and may contribute to reduce the utilization of chemical fertilizers. The application of AM via seed coating is proposed as an ecotechnological approach for sustainable agricultural wheat production. PMID:27077274

  13. Seed coating with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as an ecotechnologicalapproach for sustainable agricultural production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rui S; Rocha, Inês; Ma, Ying; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has become of great interest in agriculture due to their potential roles in reducing the need for agrochemicals, while improving plant growth and nutrition. Nevertheless, the application of AM fungi by dispersing inocula in granular form to open agricultural fields is not feasible because nontargeted spreading of inocula over large surface areas results in high cost per plant. Seed coating has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of inoculum needed, resulting in cost reduction and increased efficiency. The aim of this study was to assess whether seed coating with AM fungal inoculum is a feasible delivery system for production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat seeds were coated with inoculum of Rhizophagus irregularis BEG140 and grown under different fertilization conditions: (1) none, (2) partial, or (3) complete. Data indicated that mycorrhizal inoculation via seed coating significantly increased the dry weight of shoot and seed spikes of wheat associated with reduced fertilization. Assessment of nutritional status of wheat showed that plants inoculated with R. irregularis via seed coating displayed enhanced stem concentrations of potassium (K), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn). There were no significant differences in root colonization between plants conventionally inoculated with R. irregularis in soil and those inoculated via seed coating. Seed coating with AM fungi may be as effective as conventional soil inoculation and may contribute to reduce the utilization of chemical fertilizers. The application of AM via seed coating is proposed as an ecotechnological approach for sustainable agricultural wheat production.

  14. Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of a new fertility restorer gene Rf8 for Triticum timopheevi cytoplasm in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Pallavi; Tomar, S M S; Vinod; Singh, Vikas K; Balyan, H S

    2013-12-01

    A study on mode of inheritance and mapping of fertility restorer (Rf) gene(s) using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was conducted in a cross of male sterile line 2041A having Triticum timopheevi cytoplasm and a restorer line PWR4099 of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The F1 hybrid was completely fertile indicating that fertility restoration is a dominant trait. Based on the pollen fertility and seed set of bagged spikes in F2 generation, the individual plants were classified into fertile and sterile groups. Out of 120 F2 plants, 97 were fertile and 23 sterile (based on pollen fertility) while 98 plants set ≥ 5 seeds/spike and 22 produced ≤ 4 or no seed. The observed frequency fits well into Mendelian ratio of 3 fertile: 1 sterile with χ(2) value of 2.84 for pollen fertility and 2.17 for seed setting indicating that the fertility restoration is governed by a single dominant gene in PWR4099. The three linked SSR markers, Xwmc503, Xgwm296 and Xwmc112 located on the chromosome 2DS were placed at a distance of 3.3, 5.8 and 6.7 cM, respectively, from the Rf gene. Since, no known Rf gene is located on the chromosome arm 2DS, the Rf gene in PWR4099 is a new gene and proposed as Rf8. The closest SSR marker, Xwmc503, linked to the Rf8 was validated in a set of Rf, maintainer and cytoplasmic male sterile lines. The closely linked SSR marker Xwmc503 may be used in marker-assisted backcross breeding facilitating the transfer of fertility restoration gene Rf8 into elite backgrounds with ease.

  15. Genetic variability of the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits in spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. em Thell.).

    PubMed

    Caballero, L; Martín, L M; Alvarez, J B

    2004-03-01

    The low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit composition of a collection of 403 accessions of spelt wheat ( Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. em. Thell) was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Extensive variation was found, including 46 different patterns for zone B and 16 for zone C. Patterns within zone B exhibited from two to six bands and patterns in zone C had between four and six bands in SDS-PAGE gels. A higher number of bands was observed when urea was added to the gels. Zone B exhibited between six and 11 bands, and we identified 14 new patterns in this zone. For zone C, up to ten new patterns that comprised between five and nine bands were detected. For both zones, 86 patterns were found. The variability detected in this material is greater than that detected in other hulled wheats.

  16. Evolution and Distribution of Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities during Preharvest Sprouting of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the Field.

    PubMed

    Olaerts, Heleen; Roye, Chiara; Derde, Liesbeth J; Sinnaeve, Georges; Meza, Walter R; Bodson, Bernard; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-07-20

    To date, research on preharvest sprouted (PHS) wheat has mostly been conducted on kernels germinated under laboratory conditions, which differ widely from conditions in the field. To obtain detailed knowledge of the evolution of hydrolytic enzyme activities in PHS wheat (Triticum aestivum), a broad collection of samples from three varieties was obtained by harvesting before, at, and after maturity. Delaying harvest time coupled with periods of heavy rainfall caused sprouting in the kernels, observed as a drop in Falling Number and an increase in α-amylase activity. The appearance of α- and β-amylase, peptidase, and endoxylanase activity during field sprouting was independent from each other. Consequently, Falling Number could not be used to predict activity of other hydrolytic enzymes. When differentiating endogenous from kernel-associated microbial enzymes, results showed that α- and β-amylase and peptidase activity of PHS kernels were predominantly of endogenous origin, whereas endoxylanase activity was largely from microbial origin. PMID:27341479

  17. Evolution and Distribution of Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities during Preharvest Sprouting of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the Field.

    PubMed

    Olaerts, Heleen; Roye, Chiara; Derde, Liesbeth J; Sinnaeve, Georges; Meza, Walter R; Bodson, Bernard; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-07-20

    To date, research on preharvest sprouted (PHS) wheat has mostly been conducted on kernels germinated under laboratory conditions, which differ widely from conditions in the field. To obtain detailed knowledge of the evolution of hydrolytic enzyme activities in PHS wheat (Triticum aestivum), a broad collection of samples from three varieties was obtained by harvesting before, at, and after maturity. Delaying harvest time coupled with periods of heavy rainfall caused sprouting in the kernels, observed as a drop in Falling Number and an increase in α-amylase activity. The appearance of α- and β-amylase, peptidase, and endoxylanase activity during field sprouting was independent from each other. Consequently, Falling Number could not be used to predict activity of other hydrolytic enzymes. When differentiating endogenous from kernel-associated microbial enzymes, results showed that α- and β-amylase and peptidase activity of PHS kernels were predominantly of endogenous origin, whereas endoxylanase activity was largely from microbial origin.

  18. Scarlet-Rz1, an EMS-generated hexaploid wheat with tolerance to the soilborne necrotrophic pathogens Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 and R. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Okubara, Patricia Ann; Steber, Camille M; Demacon, Victor L; Walter, Nathalie L; Paulitz, Timothy C; Kidwell, Kimberlee K

    2009-07-01

    The necrotrophic root pathogens Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 and R. oryzae cause Rhizoctonia root rot and damping-off, yield-limiting diseases that pose barriers to the adoption of conservation tillage in wheat production systems. Existing control practices are only partially effective, and natural genetic resistance to Rhizoctonia has not been identified in wheat or its close relatives. We report the first genetic resistance/tolerance to R. solani AG-8 and R. oryzae in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) germplasm 'Scarlet-Rz1'. Scarlet-Rz1 was derived from the allohexaploid spring wheat cultivar Scarlet using EMS mutagenesis. Tolerant seedlings displayed substantial root and shoot growth after 14 days in the presence of 100-400 propagules per gram soil of R. solani AG-8 and R. oryzae in greenhouse assays. BC(2)F(4) individuals of Scarlet-Rz1 showed a high and consistent degree of tolerance. Seedling tolerance was transmissible and appeared to be dominant or co-dominant. Scarlet-Rz1 is a promising genetic resource for developing Rhizoctonia-tolerant wheat cultivars because the tolerance trait immediately can be deployed into wheat breeding germplasm through cross-hybridization, thereby avoiding difficulties with transfer from secondary or tertiary relatives as well as constraints associated with genetically modified plants. Our findings also demonstrate the utility of chemical mutagenesis for generating tolerance to necrotrophic pathogens in allohexaploid wheat.

  19. Effect of Triticum turgidum subsp. turanicum wheat on irritable bowel syndrome: a double-blinded randomised dietary intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Sofi, Francesco; Whittaker, Anne; Gori, Anna Maria; Cesari, Francesca; Surrenti, Elisabetta; Abbate, Rosanna; Gensini, Gian Franco; Benedettelli, Stefano; Casini, Alessandro

    2014-06-14

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of a replacement diet with organic, semi-whole-grain products derived from Triticum turgidum subsp. turanicum (ancient) wheat on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms and inflammatory/biochemical parameters. A double-blinded randomised cross-over trial was performed using twenty participants (thirteen females and seven males, aged 18-59 years) classified as having moderate IBS. Participants received products (bread, pasta, biscuits and crackers) made either from ancient or modern wheat for 6 weeks in a random order. Symptoms due to IBS were evaluated using two questionnaires, which were compiled both at baseline and on a weekly basis during the intervention period. Blood analyses were carried out at the beginning and end of each respective intervention period. During the intervention period with ancient wheat products, patients experienced a significant decrease in the severity of IBS symptoms, such as abdominal pain (P< 0·0001), bloating (P= 0·004), satisfaction with stool consistency (P< 0·001) and tiredness (P< 0·0001). No significant difference was observed after the intervention period with modern wheat products. Similarly, patients reported significant amelioration in the severity of gastrointestinal symptoms only after the ancient wheat intervention period, as measured by the intensity of pain (P= 0·001), the frequency of pain (P< 0·0001), bloating (P< 0·0001), abdominal distension (P< 0·001) and the quality of life (P< 0·0001). Interestingly, the inflammatory profile showed a significant reduction in the circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, IL-17, interferon-γ, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor after the intervention period with ancient wheat products, but not after the control period. In conclusion, significant improvements in both IBS symptoms and the inflammatory profile were reported after the ingestion of ancient wheat

  20. Identification of the TaBTF3 gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and the effect of its silencing on wheat chloroplast, mitochondria and mesophyll cell development.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong-Zhen; Liu, Guo-Qin; Li, Cheng-Wei; Kang, Guo-Zhang; Guo, Tian-Cai

    2012-10-01

    The full-length cDNA (882bp) and DNA (1742bp) sequences encoding a basic transcription factor 3, designated as TaBTF3, were first isolated from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Subcellular localization studies revealed that the TaBTF3 protein was mainly located in the cytoplasm and nucleus. In TaBTF3-silenced transgenic wheat seedlings obtained using the Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) method, the chlorophyll pigment content was markedly reduced. However, the malonaldehyde (MDA) and H(2)O(2) contents were enhanced, and the structure of the wheat mesophyll cell was seriously damaged. Furthermore, transcripts of the chloroplast- and mitochondrial-encoded genes were significantly reduced in TaBTF3-silenced transgenic wheat plants. These results suggest that the TaBTF3 gene might function in the development of the wheat chloroplast, mitochondria and mesophyll cell. This paper is the first report to describe the involvement of TaBTF3 in maintaining the normal plant mesophyll cell structure.

  1. Population- and genome-specific patterns of linkage disequilibrium and SNP variation in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are ideally suited for the construction of high-resolution genetic maps, studying population evolutionary history and performing genome-wide association mapping experiments. Here, we used a genome-wide set of 1536 SNPs to study linkage disequilibrium (LD) and population structure in a panel of 478 spring and winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum) from 17 populations across the United States and Mexico. Results Most of the wheat oligo pool assay (OPA) SNPs that were polymorphic within the complete set of 478 cultivars were also polymorphic in all subpopulations. Higher levels of genetic differentiation were observed among wheat lines within populations than among populations. A total of nine genetically distinct clusters were identified, suggesting that some of the pre-defined populations shared significant proportion of genetic ancestry. Estimates of population structure (FST) at individual loci showed a high level of heterogeneity across the genome. In addition, seven genomic regions with elevated FST were detected between the spring and winter wheat populations. Some of these regions overlapped with previously mapped flowering time QTL. Across all populations, the highest extent of significant LD was observed in the wheat D-genome, followed by lower LD in the A- and B-genomes. The differences in the extent of LD among populations and genomes were mostly driven by differences in long-range LD ( > 10 cM). Conclusions Genome- and population-specific patterns of genetic differentiation and LD were discovered in the populations of wheat cultivars from different geographic regions. Our study demonstrated that the estimates of population structure between spring and winter wheat lines can identify genomic regions harboring candidate genes involved in the regulation of growth habit. Variation in LD suggests that breeding and selection had a different impact on each wheat genome both within and among populations. The

  2. Differentiation between homoeologous chromosomes 1A of wheat and 1Am of Triticum monococcum and its recognition by the wheat Ph1 locus.

    PubMed Central

    Dubcovsky, J; Luo, M; Dvorak, J

    1995-01-01

    In most allopolyploid plants, only homogenetic chromosome pairing occurs in meiosis, as a result of the recognition of genome differentiation by the genetic system regulating meiotic chromosome pairing. The nature of differentiation between chromosomes of closely related genomes is examined here by investigating recombination between wheat chromosome 1A and the closely related homoeologous chromosome 1Am of Triticum monococcum. The recognition of the differentiation between these chromosomes by the Ph1 locus, which prevents heterogenetic chromosome pairing in wheat, is also investigated. Chromosomes 1A and 1Am are shown to be colinear, and it is concluded that they are differentiated "substructurally." This substructural differentiation is argued to be recognized by the Ph1 locus. In the absence of Ph1, the distribution and frequencies of crossing over between the 1A and 1Am homoeologues were similar to the distribution and frequencies of crossing over between 1A homologues. The cytogenetic and evolutionary significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:11607556

  3. Study on the Immunoreactivity of Triticum monococcum (Einkorn) Wheat in Patients with Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis for the Production of Hypoallergenic Foods.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Carla; Bolla, Michela; Chignola, Roberto; Senna, Gianenrico; Rossin, Giacomo; Caruso, Beatrice; Tomelleri, Carlo; Cecconi, Daniela; Brandolini, Andrea; Zoccatelli, Gianni

    2015-09-23

    Wheat [Triticum aestivum (T.a.)] ingestion can cause a specific allergic reaction, which is called wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). The major allergen involved is ω-5 gliadin, a gluten protein coded by genes located on the B genome. Our aim was to study the immunoreactivity of proteins in Triticum monococcum (einkorn, T.m.), a diploid ancestral wheat lacking B chromosomes, for possible use in the production of hypoallergenic foods. A total of 14 patients with a clear history of WDEIA and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to ω-5 gliadin were enrolled. Skin prick test (SPT) with a commercial wheat extract and an in-house T.a. gluten diagnostic solution tested positive for 43 and 100% of the cases, respectively. No reactivity in patients tested with solutions prepared from four T.m. accessions was observed. The immunoblotting of T.m. gluten proteins performed with the sera of patients showed different IgE-binding profiles with respect to T.a., confirming the absence of ω-5 gliadin. A general lower immunoreactivity of T.m. gluten proteins with scarce cross-reactivity to ω-5 gliadin epitopes was assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Given the absence of reactivity by SPT and the limited cross-reactivity with ω-5 gliadin, T.m. might represent a potential candidate in the production of hypoallergenic bakery products for patients sensitized to ω-5 gliadin. Further analyses need to be carried out regarding its safety.

  4. Study on the Immunoreactivity of Triticum monococcum (Einkorn) Wheat in Patients with Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis for the Production of Hypoallergenic Foods.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Carla; Bolla, Michela; Chignola, Roberto; Senna, Gianenrico; Rossin, Giacomo; Caruso, Beatrice; Tomelleri, Carlo; Cecconi, Daniela; Brandolini, Andrea; Zoccatelli, Gianni

    2015-09-23

    Wheat [Triticum aestivum (T.a.)] ingestion can cause a specific allergic reaction, which is called wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). The major allergen involved is ω-5 gliadin, a gluten protein coded by genes located on the B genome. Our aim was to study the immunoreactivity of proteins in Triticum monococcum (einkorn, T.m.), a diploid ancestral wheat lacking B chromosomes, for possible use in the production of hypoallergenic foods. A total of 14 patients with a clear history of WDEIA and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to ω-5 gliadin were enrolled. Skin prick test (SPT) with a commercial wheat extract and an in-house T.a. gluten diagnostic solution tested positive for 43 and 100% of the cases, respectively. No reactivity in patients tested with solutions prepared from four T.m. accessions was observed. The immunoblotting of T.m. gluten proteins performed with the sera of patients showed different IgE-binding profiles with respect to T.a., confirming the absence of ω-5 gliadin. A general lower immunoreactivity of T.m. gluten proteins with scarce cross-reactivity to ω-5 gliadin epitopes was assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Given the absence of reactivity by SPT and the limited cross-reactivity with ω-5 gliadin, T.m. might represent a potential candidate in the production of hypoallergenic bakery products for patients sensitized to ω-5 gliadin. Further analyses need to be carried out regarding its safety. PMID:26332577

  5. Comparative studies of mitochondrial proteomics reveal an intimate protein network of male sterility in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Zhang, Yingxin; Song, Qilu; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Junsheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-10-01

    Plant male sterility has often been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the mechanism in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has not been elucidated. This study set out to probe the mechanism of physiological male sterility (PHYMS) induced by the chemical hybridizing agent (CHA)-SQ-1, and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) of wheat at the proteomic level. A total of 71 differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins were found to be involved in pollen abortion and further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of fight/time of flight mass spectrometry). These proteins were implicated in different cellular responses and metabolic processes, with obvious functional tendencies toward the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, protein synthesis and degradation, oxidation stress, the cell division cycle, and epigenetics. Interactions between identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, enabling a more complete insight into biological pathways involved in anther abortion and pollen defects. Accordingly, a mitochondria-mediated male sterility protein network in wheat is proposed; this network was further confirmed by physiological data, RT-PCR (real-time PCR), and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) assay. The results provide intriguing insights into the metabolic pathway of anther abortion induced by CHA-SQ-1 and also give useful clues to identify the crucial proteins of PHYMS and CMS in wheat.

  6. Comparative studies of mitochondrial proteomics reveal an intimate protein network of male sterility in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Zhang, Yingxin; Song, Qilu; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Junsheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    Plant male sterility has often been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the mechanism in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has not been elucidated. This study set out to probe the mechanism of physiological male sterility (PHYMS) induced by the chemical hybridizing agent (CHA)-SQ-1, and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) of wheat at the proteomic level. A total of 71 differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins were found to be involved in pollen abortion and further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of fight/time of flight mass spectrometry). These proteins were implicated in different cellular responses and metabolic processes, with obvious functional tendencies toward the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, protein synthesis and degradation, oxidation stress, the cell division cycle, and epigenetics. Interactions between identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, enabling a more complete insight into biological pathways involved in anther abortion and pollen defects. Accordingly, a mitochondria-mediated male sterility protein network in wheat is proposed; this network was further confirmed by physiological data, RT-PCR (real-time PCR), and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) assay. The results provide intriguing insights into the metabolic pathway of anther abortion induced by CHA-SQ-1 and also give useful clues to identify the crucial proteins of PHYMS and CMS in wheat. PMID:26136264

  7. Gaseous pollutants from brick kiln industry decreased the growth, photosynthesis, and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Adrees, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Shah, Aamir Mehmood; Abbas, Farhat; Saleem, Farhan; Rizwan, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Jabeen, Fariha; Ali, Shafaqat

    2016-05-01

    Gaseous pollutant emissions from brick kiln industries deteriorate the current state of ambient air quality in Pakistan and worldwide. These gaseous pollutants affect the health of plants and may decrease plant growth and yield. A field experiment that was conducted to monitor the concentration of gaseous pollutants emitted mainly from brick kilns in the ambient air and associated impacts on the growth and physiological attributes of the two wheat (Triticum spp.) cultivars. Plants were grown at three sites, including control (Ayub Agriculture Research Institute, AARI), low pollution (LP) site (Small Estate Industry), and high pollution (HP) site (Sidar Bypass), of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Monitoring of ambient air pollution at experimental sites was carried out using the state-of-art ambient air analyzers. Plants were harvested after 120 days of germination and were analyzed for different growth attributes. Results showed that the hourly average concentration of gaseous air pollutants CO, NO2, SO2, and PM10 at HP site were significantly higher than the LP and control sites. Similarly, gaseous pollutants decreased plant height, straw and grain yield, photosynthesis and increased physical injury, and metal concentrations in the grains. However, wheat response toward gaseous pollutants did not differ between cultivars (Galaxy and 8173) studied. Overall, the results indicated that brick kiln emissions could reduce the performance of wheat grown in the soils around kilns and confirm the adverse impacts of pollutants on the growth, yield, and quality of the wheat.

  8. Gaseous pollutants from brick kiln industry decreased the growth, photosynthesis, and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Adrees, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Shah, Aamir Mehmood; Abbas, Farhat; Saleem, Farhan; Rizwan, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Jabeen, Fariha; Ali, Shafaqat

    2016-05-01

    Gaseous pollutant emissions from brick kiln industries deteriorate the current state of ambient air quality in Pakistan and worldwide. These gaseous pollutants affect the health of plants and may decrease plant growth and yield. A field experiment that was conducted to monitor the concentration of gaseous pollutants emitted mainly from brick kilns in the ambient air and associated impacts on the growth and physiological attributes of the two wheat (Triticum spp.) cultivars. Plants were grown at three sites, including control (Ayub Agriculture Research Institute, AARI), low pollution (LP) site (Small Estate Industry), and high pollution (HP) site (Sidar Bypass), of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Monitoring of ambient air pollution at experimental sites was carried out using the state-of-art ambient air analyzers. Plants were harvested after 120 days of germination and were analyzed for different growth attributes. Results showed that the hourly average concentration of gaseous air pollutants CO, NO2, SO2, and PM10 at HP site were significantly higher than the LP and control sites. Similarly, gaseous pollutants decreased plant height, straw and grain yield, photosynthesis and increased physical injury, and metal concentrations in the grains. However, wheat response toward gaseous pollutants did not differ between cultivars (Galaxy and 8173) studied. Overall, the results indicated that brick kiln emissions could reduce the performance of wheat grown in the soils around kilns and confirm the adverse impacts of pollutants on the growth, yield, and quality of the wheat. PMID:27048492

  9. Comparative studies of mitochondrial proteomics reveal an intimate protein network of male sterility in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Zhang, Yingxin; Song, Qilu; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Junsheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-10-01

    Plant male sterility has often been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the mechanism in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has not been elucidated. This study set out to probe the mechanism of physiological male sterility (PHYMS) induced by the chemical hybridizing agent (CHA)-SQ-1, and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) of wheat at the proteomic level. A total of 71 differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins were found to be involved in pollen abortion and further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of fight/time of flight mass spectrometry). These proteins were implicated in different cellular responses and metabolic processes, with obvious functional tendencies toward the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, protein synthesis and degradation, oxidation stress, the cell division cycle, and epigenetics. Interactions between identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, enabling a more complete insight into biological pathways involved in anther abortion and pollen defects. Accordingly, a mitochondria-mediated male sterility protein network in wheat is proposed; this network was further confirmed by physiological data, RT-PCR (real-time PCR), and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) assay. The results provide intriguing insights into the metabolic pathway of anther abortion induced by CHA-SQ-1 and also give useful clues to identify the crucial proteins of PHYMS and CMS in wheat. PMID:26136264

  10. Effect of lead stress on mineral content and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lamhamdi, Mostafa; El Galiou, Ouiam; Bakrim, Ahmed; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Aarab, Ahmed; Lafont, René

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is the most common heavy metal contaminant in the environment. Pb is not an essential element for plants, but they absorb it when it is present in their environment, especially in rural areas when the soil is polluted by automotive exhaust and in fields contaminated with fertilizers containing heavy metal impurities. To investigate lead effects on nutrient uptake and metabolism, two plant species, spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and wheat (Triticum aestivum), were grown under hydroponic conditions and stressed with lead nitrate, Pb(NO3)2, at three concentrations (1.5, 3, and 15 mM). Lead is accumulated in a dose-dependent manner in both plant species, which results in reduced growth and lower uptake of all mineral ions tested. Total amounts and concentrations of most mineral ions (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu and Zn) are reduced, although Mn concentrations are increased, as its uptake is reduced less relative to the whole plant's growth. The deficiency of mineral nutrients correlates in a strong decrease in the contents of chlorophylls a and b and proline in both species, but these effects are less pronounced in spinach than in wheat. By contrast, the effects of lead on soluble proteins differ between species; they are reduced in wheat at all lead concentrations, whereas they are increased in spinach, where their value peaks at 3 mM Pb. The relative lead uptake by spinach and wheat, and the different susceptibility of these two species to lead treatment are discussed.

  11. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci associated with important agronomic traits in the spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cross ‘Louise’ by ‘Penawawa’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the genetic factors underlying agronomic traits in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is essential to making gains from selection during the breeding process. A set of 188 recombinant inbred lines from a ‘Louise’ by ‘Penawawa’ mapping population was grown in two crop years at two loc...

  12. A consensus framework map of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) suitable for linkage disequilibrium analysis and genome-wide association mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomics applications in durum (Triticum durum Desf.) wheat have the potential to boost exploitation of genetic resources and to advance understanding of the genetics of important complex traits (e.g. resilience to environmental and biotic stresses). A dense and accurate consensus map specific for ...

  13. [Characteristics of alpha-amylase isozymes in cytologenetically different wheat cultivars].

    PubMed

    Netsvetaev, V P; Badaeva, E D

    2014-07-01

    The isoenzyme composition of alpha-amylase is studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in Tris-glycine (pH 8.3) system in wheat cultivars with different genome composition. We show that durum wheat (Triticum durum, 2n=4x=28, BBAA) lacks the isoenzymes encoded by 6D and 7D chromosomes that are present in common wheat zymograms (Triticum aestivum, 2n=6x=42, BBAADD). A similar pattern is observed in a synthetic allohexaploid carrying the BBAA genomes of wheat and the HchHch genome of barley (Hordeum chilense). Our method of electrophoresis fails to reveal additional variants of alpha-amylase encoded by the barley genome, although C-banding analysis confirms the genomic structure BBAAHChHCh of this allopolyploid. The electrophoretic spectrum of the spring common wheat cultivar Dobrynya with the wheat-Agropyron translocation 7DL-7AiL contains all of the alpha-amylase isoenzymes typical for common wheat (2n=6x=42, BBAADD) except for the zymotype encoded by the long arm of chromosome 7D. This observation confirms the results of cytogenetic analysis that identified a 7DL-7AiL translocation in this cultivar. No additional alpha-amylase isoenzymes encoded by Agropyron chromosome have been observed. Our data indicate that analysis of wheat-alien hybrids or introgressive forms should be carried out using a complex of different methods. PMID:25720140

  14. Osmotic regulation of 10 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes at soil water deficits.

    PubMed

    Hongbo, Shao; Zongsuo, Liang; Mingan, Shao

    2006-02-01

    Drought is a worldwide problem, seriously influencing plant (crop) productivity. Wheat is a stable food for 35% of the world population, moreover about 60% of land area on the globe belongs to arid and semi-arid zone. Wheat drought resistance is a multi-gene-controlling quantitative character and wheat final production in field is realized mainly by physiological regulation under the condition of multi-environmental factor interaction. Exploring drought resistance physiological mechanisms for different wheat genotypes is of importance to finding new drought resistance gene resources and conventional breeding and the basis for wheat drought resistance biotechnological breeding and platform. Osmotic adjustment regulation is the main component for physiological machinery of wheat drought resistance. By pot-cultivating experiments, investigation of osmotic adjustment comparison for 10 wheat genotypes at soil water deficits (75% FC, 55% FC, 45% FC, respectively), was conducted. The main results were as followed: (1) K(+) content in 10 wheat genotypes at three levels of soil water stress and at the same soil water deficit was very different. Five of these 10 wheat genotypes had higher K K(+) content under the condition of 75% FC. (2) Five of these 10 wheat genotypes possessed greater soluble sugar content at 55% FC soil water level. (3) Proline (Pro) content in five wheat genotypes was higher at 75% FC. (4) Five of these 10 wheat genotypes had lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content at 45% FC at seedling stage. Osmotic adjustment of wheat different genotypes was discussed in terms of different content of osmotic solutes.

  15. Structural analysis of wheat wax (Triticum aestivum, c.v. 'Naturastar' L.): from the molecular level to three dimensional crystals.

    PubMed

    Koch, K; Barthlott, W; Koch, S; Hommes, A; Wandelt, K; Mamdouh, W; De-Feyter, S; Broekmann, P

    2006-01-01

    In order to elucidate the self assembly process of plant epicuticular waxes, and the molecular arrangement within the crystals, re-crystallisation of wax platelets was studied on biological and non-biological surfaces. Wax platelets were extracted from the leaf blades of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., c.v. 'Naturastar', Poaceae). Waxes were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Octacosan-1-ol was found to be the most abundant chemical component of the wax mixture (66 m%) and also the determining compound for the shape of the wax platelets. The electron diffraction pattern showed that both the wax mixture and pure octacosan-1-ol are crystalline. The re-crystallisation of the natural wax mixture and the pure octacosan-1-ol were studied by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Crystallisation of wheat waxes and pure octacosano-1-ol on the non polar highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) led to the formation of platelet structures similar to those found on the plant surface. In contrast, irregular wax morphologies and flat lying plates were formed on glass, silicon, salt crystals (NaCl) and mica surfaces. Movement of wheat wax through isolated Convallaria majalis cuticles led to typical wax platelets of wheat, arranged in the complex patterns typical for C. majalis. STM of pure octacosan-1-ol monolayers on HOPG showed that the arrangement of the molecules strictly followed the hexagonal structure of the substrate crystal. Re-crystallisation of wheat waxes on non-polar crystalline HOPG substrate showed that technical surfaces could be used to generate microstructured, biomimetic surfaces. AFM and SEM studies proved that a template effect of the substrate determined the orientation of the re-grown crystals. These effects of the structure and polarity of the substrate on the morphology of the epicuticular waxes are relevant for

  16. High Transferability of Homoeolog-Specific Markers between Bread Wheat and Newly Synthesized Hexaploid Wheat Lines

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Deying; Luo, Jiangtao; Li, Zenglin; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Lianquan; Ning, Shunzong; Yuan, Zhongwei; Zheng, Youliang; Hao, Ming; Liu, Dengcai

    2016-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) has a complex allohexaploid genome, which makes it difficult to differentiate between the homoeologous sequences and assign them to the chromosome A, B, or D subgenomes. The chromosome-based draft genome sequence of the ‘Chinese Spring’ common wheat cultivar enables the large-scale development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers specific for homoeologs. Based on high-confidence ‘Chinese Spring’ genes with known functions, we developed 183 putative homoeolog-specific markers for chromosomes 4B and 7B. These markers were used in PCR assays for the 4B and 7B nullisomes and their euploid synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) line that was newly generated from a hybridization between Triticum turgidum (AABB) and the wild diploid species Aegilops tauschii (DD). Up to 64% of the markers for chromosomes 4B or 7B in the SHW background were confirmed to be homoeolog-specific. Thus, these markers were highly transferable between the ‘Chinese Spring’ bread wheat and SHW lines. Homoeolog-specific markers designed using genes with known functions may be useful for genetic investigations involving homoeologous chromosome tracking and homoeolog expression and interaction analyses. PMID:27611704

  17. High Transferability of Homoeolog-Specific Markers between Bread Wheat and Newly Synthesized Hexaploid Wheat Lines.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Deying; Luo, Jiangtao; Li, Zenglin; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Lianquan; Ning, Shunzong; Yuan, Zhongwei; Zheng, Youliang; Hao, Ming; Liu, Dengcai

    2016-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) has a complex allohexaploid genome, which makes it difficult to differentiate between the homoeologous sequences and assign them to the chromosome A, B, or D subgenomes. The chromosome-based draft genome sequence of the 'Chinese Spring' common wheat cultivar enables the large-scale development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers specific for homoeologs. Based on high-confidence 'Chinese Spring' genes with known functions, we developed 183 putative homoeolog-specific markers for chromosomes 4B and 7B. These markers were used in PCR assays for the 4B and 7B nullisomes and their euploid synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) line that was newly generated from a hybridization between Triticum turgidum (AABB) and the wild diploid species Aegilops tauschii (DD). Up to 64% of the markers for chromosomes 4B or 7B in the SHW background were confirmed to be homoeolog-specific. Thus, these markers were highly transferable between the 'Chinese Spring' bread wheat and SHW lines. Homoeolog-specific markers designed using genes with known functions may be useful for genetic investigations involving homoeologous chromosome tracking and homoeolog expression and interaction analyses. PMID:27611704

  18. Triticum mosaic virus exhibits limited population variation yet shows evidence of parallel evolution after replicated serial passage in wheat.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Melissa; French, Roy; Graybosch, Robert A; Tatineni, Satyanarayana

    2016-05-01

    An infectious cDNA clone of Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) (genus Poacevirus; family Potyviridae) was used to establish three independent lineages in wheat to examine intra-host population diversity levels within protein 1 (P1) and coat protein (CP) cistrons over time. Genetic variation was assessed at passages 9, 18 and 24 by single-strand conformation polymorphism, followed by nucleotide sequencing. The founding P1 region genotype was retained at high frequencies in most lineage/passage populations, while the founding CP genotype disappeared after passage 18 in two lineages. We found that rare TriMV genotypes were present only transiently and lineages followed independent evolutionary trajectories, suggesting that genetic drift dominates TriMV evolution. These results further suggest that experimental populations of TriMV exhibit lower mutant frequencies than that of Wheat streak mosaic virus (genus Tritimovirus; family Potyviridae) in wheat. Nevertheless, there was evidence for parallel evolution at a synonymous site in the TriMV CP cistron.

  19. Effects of temperature - heavy metal interactions, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ergün, N; Özçubukçu, S; Kolukirik, M; Temizkan, Ö

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the effect of heat and chromium (Cr) heavy metal interactions on wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Ç-1252 and Gun91) was investigated by measuring total chlorophyll and carotenoid levels, catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) antioxidant enzyme activities, and MYB73, ERF1 and TaSRG gene expression. Examination of pigment levels demonstrated a decrease in total chlorophyll in both species of wheat under combined heat and heavy metal stress, while the carotenoid levels showed a slight increase. APX activity increased in both species in response to heavy metal stress, but the increase in APX activity in the Gun91 seedlings was higher than that in the Ç-1252 seedlings. CAT activity increased in Gun91 seedlings but decreased in Ç-1252 seedlings. These results showed that Gun91 seedling had higher resistance to Cr and Cr + heat stresses than the Ç-1252 seedling. The quantitative molecular analyses implied that the higher resistance was related to the overexpression of TaMYB73, TaERF1 and TaSRG transcription factors. The increase in the expression levels of these transcription factors was profound under combined Cr and heat stress. This study suggests that TaMYB73, TaERF1 and TaSRG transcription factors regulate Cr and heat stress responsive genes in wheat.

  20. Predictions of heading date in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using QTL-based parameters of an ecophysiological model.

    PubMed

    Bogard, Matthieu; Ravel, Catherine; Paux, Etienne; Bordes, Jacques; Balfourier, François; Chapman, Scott C; Le Gouis, Jacques; Allard, Vincent

    2014-11-01

    Prediction of wheat phenology facilitates the selection of cultivars with specific adaptations to a particular environment. However, while QTL analysis for heading date can identify major genes controlling phenology, the results are limited to the environments and genotypes tested. Moreover, while ecophysiological models allow accurate predictions in new environments, they may require substantial phenotypic data to parameterize each genotype. Also, the model parameters are rarely related to all underlying genes, and all the possible allelic combinations that could be obtained by breeding cannot be tested with models. In this study, a QTL-based model is proposed to predict heading date in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Two parameters of an ecophysiological model (V sat and P base , representing genotype vernalization requirements and photoperiod sensitivity, respectively) were optimized for 210 genotypes grown in 10 contrasting location × sowing date combinations. Multiple linear regression models predicting V sat and P base with 11 and 12 associated genetic markers accounted for 71 and 68% of the variance of these parameters, respectively. QTL-based V sat and P base estimates were able to predict heading date of an independent validation data set (88 genotypes in six location × sowing date combinations) with a root mean square error of prediction of 5 to 8.6 days, explaining 48 to 63% of the variation for heading date. The QTL-based model proposed in this study may be used for agronomic purposes and to assist breeders in suggesting locally adapted ideotypes for wheat phenology.

  1. Comprehensive analysis of the transcription of starch synthesis genes and the transcription factor RSR1 in wheat (Triticum aestivum) endosperm.

    PubMed

    Kang, Guo-Zhang; Xu, Wei; Liu, Guo-Qin; Peng, Xiao-Qi; Guo, Tian-Cai

    2013-02-01

    The cDNA sequences of 26 starch synthesis genes were identified in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and their transcript levels were measured using quantitative real-time RT-PCR to assess the function of individual genes and the regulatory mechanism in wheat endosperm. The expression patterns of 26 genes in wheat endosperm were classified into three groups. The genes in group 1 were richly expressed in the early stage of grain development and may be involved in the construction of fundamental cell machinery, synthesis of glucan primers, and initiation of starch granules. The genes in group 2 were highly expressed during the middle and late stages of grain development, and their expression profiles were similar to the accumulation rate of endosperm starch; these genes are presumed to play a crucial role in starch production. The genes in group 3 were scantily expressed throughout the grain development period and might be associated with transitory starch synthesis. Transcripts of the negative transcription factor TaRSR1 were high at the early and late stages of grain development but low during the middle stage. The expression pattern of TaRSR1 was almost opposite to those of the group 2 starch synthesis genes, indicating that TaRSR1 might negatively regulate the expression of many endosperm starch synthesis genes during grain development.

  2. Ecotoxicological effects of polycyclic musks and cadmium on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Chen, Cuihong; Zhou, Qixing; Bao, Yanyu; Li, Yaning; Wang, Ping

    2010-01-01

    Single and joint toxic effects of polycyclic musks including 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyran (HHCB) and 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-l,2,3,4-tetrahydronapthalene (AHTN) and cadmium (Cd) on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) were investigated. The results showed that the toxicity sequence of HHCB toxic to wheat seed germination and seedling growth was similar to that of AHTN, that is, germination rate > shoot elongation > root elongation, while the toxicity of Cd was in the sequence of root elongation > shoot elongation > germination rate, according to the LC50 and EC50 values. It is suggested that polycyclic musks and Cd had different toxicological mechanisms. Root and shoot elongation of wheat might be good bioindicators for the contamination of polycyclic musks and Cd in soil. The mixture of polycyclic musks and Cd had synergistic effects on T. aestivum according to the equi-toxic mixture approach when root elongation was selected as the toxicological endpoint. Thus, the joint toxicity of HHCB and Cd was significantly higher than the single toxicity of HHCB or Cd, which was also confirmed by the EC50 mix value of the mixture (EC50 mix = 0.530 TUmix). The EC(50mix) value of the mixture of AHTN and Cd was 0.614 TUmix, which indicated that the mixture toxicity was strengthened when AHTN coexisted with Cd.

  3. Predictions of heading date in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using QTL-based parameters of an ecophysiological model

    PubMed Central

    Bogard, Matthieu; Ravel, Catherine; Paux, Etienne; Bordes, Jacques; Balfourier, François; Chapman, Scott C.; Le Gouis, Jacques; Allard, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of wheat phenology facilitates the selection of cultivars with specific adaptations to a particular environment. However, while QTL analysis for heading date can identify major genes controlling phenology, the results are limited to the environments and genotypes tested. Moreover, while ecophysiological models allow accurate predictions in new environments, they may require substantial phenotypic data to parameterize each genotype. Also, the model parameters are rarely related to all underlying genes, and all the possible allelic combinations that could be obtained by breeding cannot be tested with models. In this study, a QTL-based model is proposed to predict heading date in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Two parameters of an ecophysiological model (V sat and P base, representing genotype vernalization requirements and photoperiod sensitivity, respectively) were optimized for 210 genotypes grown in 10 contrasting location × sowing date combinations. Multiple linear regression models predicting V sat and P base with 11 and 12 associated genetic markers accounted for 71 and 68% of the variance of these parameters, respectively. QTL-based V sat and P base estimates were able to predict heading date of an independent validation data set (88 genotypes in six location × sowing date combinations) with a root mean square error of prediction of 5 to 8.6 days, explaining 48 to 63% of the variation for heading date. The QTL-based model proposed in this study may be used for agronomic purposes and to assist breeders in suggesting locally adapted ideotypes for wheat phenology. PMID:25148833

  4. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) NAM proteins regulate the translocation of iron, zinc, and nitrogen compounds from vegetative tissues to grain.

    PubMed

    Waters, Brian M; Uauy, Cristobal; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Grusak, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    The NAM-B1 gene is a NAC transcription factor that affects grain nutrient concentrations in wheat (Triticum aestivum). An RNAi line with reduced expression of NAM genes has lower grain protein, iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) concentrations. To determine whether decreased remobilization, lower plant uptake, or decreased partitioning to grain are responsible for this phenotype, mineral dynamics were quantified in wheat tissues throughout grain development. Control and RNAi wheat were grown in potting mix and hydroponics. Mineral (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, S, and Zn) and nitrogen (N) contents of organs were determined at regular intervals to quantify the net remobilization from vegetative tissues and the accumulation of nutrients in grain. Total nutrient accumulation was similar between lines, but grain Fe, Zn, and N were at lower concentrations in the NAM knockdown line. In potting mix, net remobilization of N, Fe, and Zn from vegetative tissues was impaired in the RNAi line. In hydroponics with ample nutrients, net remobilization was not observed, but grain Fe and Zn contents and concentrations remained lower in the RNAi line. When Fe or Zn was withheld post-anthesis, both lines demonstrated remobilization. These results suggest that a major effect of the NAM genes is an increased efflux of nutrients from the vegetative tissues and a higher partitioning of nutrients to grain. PMID:19858116

  5. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings secrete proteases from the roots and, after protein addition, grow well on medium without inorganic nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, B; Godlewski, M; Zimny, J; Zimny, A

    2008-11-01

    This paper reports on the role of proteases secreted by roots in nitrogen capture by plants. The study was conducted on aseptically cultivated wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum cv. Tacher) obtained from embryos isolated from grains. Seedlings were cultivated for 21 days on deionised water, Murashige Skoog medium (MS), MS without inorganic nitrogen (IN), and MS without IN, in which IN was replaced by casein (0.01%, 0.1% or 1%). Comparison of seedlings grown on these media showed that casein entirely compensated for the lack of inorganic nitrogen in the medium. Shoots and roots of seedlings cultivated on MS medium with this protein had higher fresh weight than those cultivated on MS medium without casein. The increase in fresh weight of seedlings was correlated with casein concentration and proteolytic activity in the medium. In conclusion, wheat that uses proteases secreted by the roots can directly utilise proteins in the medium as a source of nitrogen without prior digestion by microbial proteases and without protein mineralisation. These results suggest the important role of organic nitrogen fertilisers in increasing wheat yield. PMID:18950429

  6. Variability and genetics of spacer DNA sequences between the ribosomal-RNA genes of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    May, C E; Appels, R

    1987-09-01

    Using restriction enzyme digests of genomic DNA extracted from the leaves of 25 hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.) cultivars and their hybrids, restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the spacer DNA which separates the ribosomal-RNA genes have been examined. (From one to three thousand of these genes are borne on chromosomes 1B and 6B of hexaploid wheat). The data show that there are three distinct alleles of the 1B locus, designated Nor-B1a, Nor-B1b, and Nor-B1c, and at least five allelic variants of the 6B locus, designated Nor-B2a, Nor-B2b, Nor-B2c, Nor-B2d, and Nor-B2e. A further, previously reported allele on 6B has been named Nor-B2f. Chromosome 5D has only one allelic variant, Nor-D3. Whereas the major spacer variants of the 1B alleles apparently differ by the loss or gain of one or two of the 133 bp sub-repeat units within the spacer DNA, the 6B allelic variants show major differences in their compositions and lengths. This may be related to the greater number of rDNA repeat units at this locus. The practical implications of these differences and their application to wheat breeding are discussed.

  7. Fluoranthene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, inhibits light as well as dark reactions of photosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Tomar, Rupal Singh; Jajoo, Anjana

    2014-11-01

    The toxic effect of fluoranthene (FLT) on seed germination, growth of seedling and photosynthesis processes of wheat (Triticum aestivum) was investigated. Wheat seeds were exposed to 5 µM and 25 µM FLT concentrations for 25 days and it was observed that FLT had inhibiting effect on rate of seed germination. The germination rate of wheat seeds decreased by 11% at 25 µM FLT concentration. Root/shoot growth and biomass production declined significantly even at low concentrations of FLT. Chlorophyll a fluorescence and gas exchange parameters were measured after 25 days to evaluate the effects of FLT on Photosystem II (PSII) activity and CO2 assimilation rate. The process of CO2 assimilation decreased more effectively by FLT as compared to the yield of PSII. A negative correlation was found between plant net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, carboxylation capacity and biomass production with FLT. It is concluded that inhibiting effects of FLT on photosynthesis are contributed more by inhibition in the process of CO2 fixation rather than inhibition of photochemical events.

  8. Effects of temperature - heavy metal interactions, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ergün, N; Özçubukçu, S; Kolukirik, M; Temizkan, Ö

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the effect of heat and chromium (Cr) heavy metal interactions on wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Ç-1252 and Gun91) was investigated by measuring total chlorophyll and carotenoid levels, catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) antioxidant enzyme activities, and MYB73, ERF1 and TaSRG gene expression. Examination of pigment levels demonstrated a decrease in total chlorophyll in both species of wheat under combined heat and heavy metal stress, while the carotenoid levels showed a slight increase. APX activity increased in both species in response to heavy metal stress, but the increase in APX activity in the Gun91 seedlings was higher than that in the Ç-1252 seedlings. CAT activity increased in Gun91 seedlings but decreased in Ç-1252 seedlings. These results showed that Gun91 seedling had higher resistance to Cr and Cr + heat stresses than the Ç-1252 seedling. The quantitative molecular analyses implied that the higher resistance was related to the overexpression of TaMYB73, TaERF1 and TaSRG transcription factors. The increase in the expression levels of these transcription factors was profound under combined Cr and heat stress. This study suggests that TaMYB73, TaERF1 and TaSRG transcription factors regulate Cr and heat stress responsive genes in wheat. PMID:25475983

  9. Comparative effects of glyphosate and atrazine in chloroplast ultrastructure of wheat and downy brome. [Triticum aestivum; Bromus tectorum

    SciTech Connect

    Auge, R.M.; Gealy, D.R.; Ogg, A.G.; Franceschi, V.R.

    1987-04-01

    Developing and mature leaves of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. Daws) and the weed species downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) were subjected to 10 mM (foliar application) and 1 mM (root application) herbicide solutions. Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) and atrazine (2-chloro-4-(ethyl-amino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine) were prepared in a carrier composed of 5% soybean oil concentrate, 35% acetone and 60% water. Penetration experiments with /sup 3/H-labelled herbicides assessed what percentage of herbicide entered leaves, and microautoradiography was used to determine qualitatively how much herbicide was present in the sections viewed with TEM. Tissue was excised at 4, 18, 62 and 200 hours, and then either freeze-substituted or fixed chemically. Ultrastructural effects of each herbicide on chloroplasts from leaves of newly-germinated seedlings and of well-tillered plants are depicted and discussed. Temporal differences in response of chloroplasts to each herbicide are noted.

  10. Dynamics of rhizosphere properties and antioxidative responses in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghua; Wang, Li; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Hairong

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we performed a rhizobox experiment to examine the dynamic changes in the rhizosphere properties and antioxidant enzyme responses of Triticum aestivum L. under three levels of cadmium stress. A set of micro-techniques (i.e., Rhizobox and Rhizon SMS) were applied for the dynamically non-destructive collection of the rhizosphere soil solution to enable the observation at a high temporal resolution. The dynamics of soluble cadmium and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the rhizosphere soil solutions of the Triticum aestivum L. were characterised by the sequence week 0 after sowing (WAS0)<3 weeks after sowing (WAS3)<10 weeks after sowing (WAS10), whereas the soil solution pH was found to follow an opposite distribution pattern. Systematically, both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in the leaves of the Triticum aestivum L. increased concomitantly with increasing cadmium levels (p>0.05) and growth duration (p<0.05), whilst ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity was induced to an elevated level at moderate cadmium stress with a decrease at high cadmium stress (p>0.05). These results suggested the enhancement of DOC production and the greater antioxidant enzyme activities were two important protective mechanisms of Triticum aestivum L. under cadmium stress, whereas rhizosphere acidification might be an important mechanism for the mobilisation of soil cadmium. The results also revealed that plant-soil interactions strongly influence the soil solution chemistry in the rhizosphere of Triticum aestivum L., that, in turn, can stimulate chemical and biochemical responses in the plants. In most cases, these responses to cadmium stress were sensitive and might allow us to develop strategies for reducing the risks of the cadmium contamination to crop production.

  11. [Chromosomal localization of the speltoidy gene, introgressed into bread wheat from Aegilops speltoides Tausch., and its interaction with the Q gene of Triticum spelta L].

    PubMed

    Simonov, A V; Pshenichnikova, T A

    2012-11-01

    The differences between bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and spelt (Triticum spelta L.) in the shape of the spike and threshing character are determined by the allelic status of one major Q gene, mapped to the long arm of chromosome 5A. This gene is a member of the APETALA2 family of transcription factors and plays an important role in domestication of wheat. In the present study, using monosomic analysis, we determined the chromosomal localization of the Q(S)gene, introgressed into bread wheat from Aegilops speltoides Tausch. and homoallelic to the Q gene. It was demonstrated that the Q(S) gene was located in chromosome 5A of the bread wheat line from the Arsenal collection. This gene conferred spike speltoidy in the line itself, as well as in its hybrids with bread wheat cultivars. The Q(S) gene dominated over the bread wheat Q gene and was equally effective in the homo-, hemi-, and heterozygous states. In hybrids between the introgression line and a number of spring spelt accessions, interaction between the Q and Q(S) genes was observed, manifested as the formation of superspeltoid spike.

  12. Biological responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants to the herbicide simetryne in soils.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Yang, Yi; Jia, Lin Xian; Lin, Jing Ling; Liu, Ying; Pan, Bo; Lin, Yong

    2016-05-01

    The rotation of rice and wheat is widely used and highly endorsed, and simetryne (s-triazine herbicide) is one of the principal herbicides widely used in this rotation for weed and grass control. However, little is known regarding the mechanism of the ecological and physiological effects of simetryne on wheat crops. In this study, we performed a comprehensive investigation of crop response to simetryne to elucidate the accumulation and phytotoxicity of the herbicide in wheat crops. Wheat plants exposed to 0.8 to 8.0mgkg(-1) simetryne for 7 d exhibited suppressed growth and decreased chlorophyll content. With simetryne concentration in the soil varied from 0.8mgkg(-1) to 8.0mgkg(-1), simetryne was progressively accumulated by the wheat plants. The accumulation of simetryne in the wheat plants not only induced the over production of ROS and injured the membrane lipids but also stimulated the production of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). A test of enzymatic activity and gene expression illustrated that the wheat plants were wise enough to motivate the antioxidant enzymes through both molecular and physiological mechanisms to alleviate the simetryne-induced stress. This study offers an illuminating insight into the effective adaptive response of the wheat plants to the simetryne stress.

  13. Ozone gas affects the physical and chemical properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ozone can oxidize hydroxyl groups present at C2, C3, and C6 positions on the starch molecule and affect its physicochemical properties. In this experiment, bread wheat flour and isolated wheat starch were treated with ozone gas (1,500 ppm, gas flow rate 2.5 L/minutes) for 45 minutes and 30 minutes, ...

  14. Biological responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants to the herbicide simetryne in soils.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Yang, Yi; Jia, Lin Xian; Lin, Jing Ling; Liu, Ying; Pan, Bo; Lin, Yong

    2016-05-01

    The rotation of rice and wheat is widely used and highly endorsed, and simetryne (s-triazine herbicide) is one of the principal herbicides widely used in this rotation for weed and grass control. However, little is known regarding the mechanism of the ecological and physiological effects of simetryne on wheat crops. In this study, we performed a comprehensive investigation of crop response to simetryne to elucidate the accumulation and phytotoxicity of the herbicide in wheat crops. Wheat plants exposed to 0.8 to 8.0mgkg(-1) simetryne for 7 d exhibited suppressed growth and decreased chlorophyll content. With simetryne concentration in the soil varied from 0.8mgkg(-1) to 8.0mgkg(-1), simetryne was progressively accumulated by the wheat plants. The accumulation of simetryne in the wheat plants not only induced the over production of ROS and injured the membrane lipids but also stimulated the production of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). A test of enzymatic activity and gene expression illustrated that the wheat plants were wise enough to motivate the antioxidant enzymes through both molecular and physiological mechanisms to alleviate the simetryne-induced stress. This study offers an illuminating insight into the effective adaptive response of the wheat plants to the simetryne stress. PMID:26803524

  15. Identifying genetic markers of wheat (Triticum aestivum) associated with flavor preference using a mouse model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole wheat products provide critical nutrients for human health, though differences in wheat flavor are not well understood. Using the house mouse as a model system, flavor was examined using a two-choice feeding system and the Student’s t statistic. To eliminate the confounding effect of processin...

  16. Genetic markers of wheat (Triticum aestivum) associated with flavor preference using a mouse (Mus musculus) model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole wheat products provide critical nutrients for human health, differences in wheat flavor are not well understood. Using the house mouse as a model system, flavor preference and discrimination were examined using a two-choice feeding system and 24-h trials and the Student’s t statistic. To elimi...

  17. Internal structure of carbonized wheat (Triticum spp.) grains-relationships to kernel texture and ploidy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification of wheat grains to the genus level is problematic in many archaeobotanical samples, yet this is key to better understanding wheat phylogeny and agricultural trajectories. This study was conducted to see if the pronounced differences in kernel texture (grain hardness) which exist a...

  18. Antagonist effects of Bacillus spp. strains against Fusarium graminearum for protection of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum).

    PubMed

    Zalila-Kolsi, Imen; Ben Mahmoud, Afif; Ali, Hacina; Sellami, Sameh; Nasfi, Zina; Tounsi, Slim; Jamoussi, Kaïs

    2016-11-01

    Bacillus species are attractive due to their potential use in the biological control of fungal diseases. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BLB369, Bacillus subtilis strain BLB277, and Paenibacillus polymyxa strain BLB267 were isolated and identified using biochemical and molecular (16S rDNA, gyrA, and rpoB) approaches. They could produce, respectively, (iturin and surfactin), (surfactin and fengycin), and (fusaricidin and polymyxin) exhibiting broad spectrum against several phytopathogenic fungi. In vivo examination of wheat seed germination, plant height, phenolic compounds, chlorophyll, and carotenoid contents proved the efficiency of the bacterial cells and the secreted antagonist activities to protect Tunisian durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) cultivar Om Rabiia against F. graminearum fungus. Application of single bacterial culture medium, particularly that of B. amyloliquefaciens, showed better protection than combinations of various culture media. The tertiary combination of B. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis, and P. polymyxa bacterial cells led to the highest protection rate which could be due to strains synergistic or complementary effects. Hence, combination of compatible biocontrol agents could be a strategic approach to control plant diseases. PMID:27664733

  19. Competition between plant and bacterial cells at the microscale regulates the dynamics of nitrogen acquisition in wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    PubMed Central

    Jones, David L; Clode, Peta L; Kilburn, Matt R; Stockdale, Elizabeth A; Murphy, Daniel V

    2013-01-01

    The ability of plants to compete effectively for nitrogen (N) resources is critical to plant survival. However, controversy surrounds the importance of organic and inorganic sources of N in plant nutrition because of our poor ability to visualize and understand processes happening at the root–microbial–soil interface. Using high-resolution nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry stable isotope imaging (NanoSIMS-SII), we quantified the fate of 15N over both space and time within the rhizosphere. We pulse-labelled the soil surrounding wheat (Triticum aestivum) roots with either or 15N-glutamate and traced the movement of 15N over 24 h. Imaging revealed that glutamate was rapidly depleted from the rhizosphere and that most 15N was captured by rhizobacteria, leading to very high 15N microbial enrichment. After microbial capture, approximately half of the 15N-glutamate was rapidly mineralized, leading to the excretion of , which became available for plant capture. Roots proved to be poor competitors for 15N-glutamate and took up N mainly as . Spatial mapping of 15N revealed differential patterns of 15N uptake within bacteria and the rapid uptake and redistribution of 15N within roots. In conclusion, we demonstrate the rapid cycling and transformation of N at the soil–root interface and that wheat capture of organic N is low in comparison to inorganic N under the conditions tested. PMID:23845035

  20. Accumulation of cadmium in near-isogenic lines of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum): the role of transpiration.

    PubMed

    Quinn, C J; Mohammad, A; Macfie, S M

    2011-10-01

    Concentrations of cadmium in the grain of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) are often above the internationally acceptable limit of 0.2 mg kg(-1). Cultivars that vary in concentrations of cadmium in the grain have been identified but the physiology behind differential accumulation has not been determined. Three pairs of near-isogenic lines (isolines) of durum wheat that vary in aboveground cadmium accumulation (8982-TL 'high' and 'low', W9260-BC 'high' and 'low', and W9261-BG 'high' and 'low') were used to test the hypothesis that the greater amounts of cadmium in shoots of the 'high' isolines are correlated with greater volumes of water transpired. In general, cadmium content was positively correlated with transpiration only in the 'low' isolines. Although shoots of the 'high' isolines of W9260-BC and W9261-BG contained higher concentrations of cadmium than did their corresponding 'low' isolines, they did not transpire larger volumes of water. In addition, isolines of 8982-TL transpired less water than did the other pairs of isolines yet both 'high' and 'low' isolines of 8982-TL contained higher amounts of cadmium than did the other pairs. The difference between 'high' and 'low' isolines appears to be related to the relative contribution of transpiration to cadmium translocation to the shoot. Increased transpiration was associated with increased cadmium content in the 'low' isolines but in the 'high' isolines increased cadmium in the shoot occurred independently of the volume of water transpired.

  1. Differential CO2 effect on primary carbon metabolism of flag leaves in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    PubMed

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Erice, Gorka; Sanz-Sáez, Alvaro; Abadie, Cyril; Gilard, Françoise; Gil-Quintana, Erena; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Staudinger, Christiana; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Araus, Jose L; Bourguignon, Jacques; Irigoyen, Juan J; Tcherkez, Guillaume

    2015-12-01

    C sink/source balance and N assimilation have been identified as target processes conditioning crop responsiveness to elevated CO2 . However, little is known about phenology-driven modifications of C and N primary metabolism at elevated CO2 in cereals such as wheat. Here, we examined the differential effect of elevated CO2 at two development stages (onset of flowering, onset of grain filling) in durum wheat (Triticum durum, var. Sula) using physiological measurements (photosynthesis, isotopes), metabolomics, proteomics and (15) N labelling. Our results show that growth at elevated CO2 was accompanied by photosynthetic acclimation through a lower internal (mesophyll) conductance but no significant effect on Rubisco content, maximal carboxylation or electron transfer. Growth at elevated CO2 altered photosynthate export and tended to accelerate leaf N remobilization, which was visible for several proteins and amino acids, as well as lysine degradation metabolism. However, grain biomass produced at elevated CO2 was larger and less N rich, suggesting that nitrogen use efficiency rather than photosynthesis is an important target for improvement, even in good CO2 -responsive cultivars. PMID:26081746

  2. The alpha-tubulin gene family in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and differential gene expression during cold acclimation.

    PubMed

    Ridha Farajalla, Mohammed; Gulick, Patrick J

    2007-05-01

    The alpha-tubulins and beta-tubulins are the major constituents of microtubules, which have been recognized as important structural elements in cell growth and morphogenesis, and, recently, for their role in regulation and signal transduction. We have identified 15 full-length cDNAs for the members of the alpha-tubulin gene family in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The genes were clustered into 5 homeologous groups of 3 genes. Representatives of the 5 homeologous groups were mapped to different chromosome arms, and the genome of origin was determined for each gene. Changes in mRNA levels were observed for the paralogous members of the gene family during cold acclimation. Three members of the family had initial decreases in mRNA levels in response to cold treatment, which were followed by increases, each with a different pattern of reinduction. One gene-family member showed increased mRNA for up to 14 d during cold acclimation and had decreased levels after 36 d of cold treatment; a fifth paralogous member of the gene family had slowly declining mRNA levels up to 36 d. Subtle differences in the level of gene expression among homeologs and large differences among paralogs were detected by comparing the relative abundance of wheat alpha-tubulin expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in public databases. PMID:17612619

  3. Cloning and Characterization of Low-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunit Alleles from Chinese Wheat Landraces (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Manli; Zhang, Xin; Yao, Guoliang; Sun, Genlou

    2014-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) are of great importance in processing quality and participate in the formation of polymers in wheat. In this study, eight new LMW-GS alleles were isolated from Chinese wheat landraces (Triticum aestivum L.) and designated as Glu-A3-1a, Glu-A3-1b, Glu-B3-1a, Glu-B3-1b, Glu-B3-1c, Glu-D3-1a, Glu-D3-1b, and Glu-D3-1c, which were located at the Glu-A3, Glu-B3, and Glu-D3 loci, respectively. Based on the proteins encoded, the number of deduced amino acids of Glu-B3 alleles was approximately 50 more than those of Glu-A3 and Glu-D3 alleles. The first cysteine of Glu-A3 and Glu-D3 alleles was located at the N-terminal domain, while that of Glu-B3 alleles was found in the repetitive domain, which may lead to the different functioning in forming disulfide bonds. All the eight genes were LMW-m types and the new allele of Glu-B3-1a which had nine cysteine residues may be the desirable LMW-GS gene for improving bread-making quality. PMID:24982945

  4. Nitrogen balance for wheat canopies (Triticum aestivum cv. Veery 10) grown under elevated and ambient CO2 concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Bloom, A. J.; Bugbee, B. B.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that elevated CO2 concentration would increase NO3- absorption and assimilation using intact wheat canopies (Triticum aestivum cv. Veery 10). Nitrate consumption, the sum of plant absorption and nitrogen loss, was continuously monitored for 23 d following germination under two CO2 concentrations (360 and 1000 micromol mol-1 CO2) and two root zone NO3- concentrations (100 and 1000 mmol m3 NO3-). The plants were grown at high density (1780 m-2) in a 28 m3 controlled environment chamber using solution culture techniques. Wheat responded to 1000 micromol mol-1 CO2 by increasing carbon allocation to root biomass production. Elevated CO2 also increased root zone NO3- consumption, but most of this increase did not result in higher biomass nitrogen. Rather, nitrogen loss accounted for the greatest part of the difference in NO3- consumption between the elevated and ambient [CO2] treatments. The total amount of NO3(-)-N absorbed by roots or the amount of NO3(-)-N assimilated per unit area did not significantly differ between elevated and ambient [CO2] treatments. Instead, specific leaf organic nitrogen content declined, and NO3- accumulated in canopies growing under 1000 micromol mol-1 CO2. Our results indicated that 1000 micromol mol-1 CO2 diminished NO3- assimilation. If NO3- assimilation were impaired by high [CO2], then this offers an explanation for why organic nitrogen contents are often observed to decline in elevated [CO2] environments.

  5. Differential CO2 effect on primary carbon metabolism of flag leaves in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    PubMed

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Erice, Gorka; Sanz-Sáez, Alvaro; Abadie, Cyril; Gilard, Françoise; Gil-Quintana, Erena; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Staudinger, Christiana; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Araus, Jose L; Bourguignon, Jacques; Irigoyen, Juan J; Tcherkez, Guillaume

    2015-12-01

    C sink/source balance and N assimilation have been identified as target processes conditioning crop responsiveness to elevated CO2 . However, little is known about phenology-driven modifications of C and N primary metabolism at elevated CO2 in cereals such as wheat. Here, we examined the differential effect of elevated CO2 at two development stages (onset of flowering, onset of grain filling) in durum wheat (Triticum durum, var. Sula) using physiological measurements (photosynthesis, isotopes), metabolomics, proteomics and (15) N labelling. Our results show that growth at elevated CO2 was accompanied by photosynthetic acclimation through a lower internal (mesophyll) conductance but no significant effect on Rubisco content, maximal carboxylation or electron transfer. Growth at elevated CO2 altered photosynthate export and tended to accelerate leaf N remobilization, which was visible for several proteins and amino acids, as well as lysine degradation metabolism. However, grain biomass produced at elevated CO2 was larger and less N rich, suggesting that nitrogen use efficiency rather than photosynthesis is an important target for improvement, even in good CO2 -responsive cultivars.

  6. Can Triticum urartu (Poaceae) be identified by pollen analysis? Implications for detecting the ancestor of the extinct two-grained einkorn-like wheat

    PubMed Central

    López-Merino, Lourdes; Leroy, Suzanne A G; Haldorsen, Sylvi; Heun, Manfred; Reynolds, Alan

    2015-01-01

    The domestication of the one-grained einkorn (Triticum monococcum) in the Near East is relatively well known. However, an independent two-grained einkorn-like domestication has been archaeobotanically detected and scarce information is available. Triticum urartu, a wild wheat, was not fully described until the 1970s because the phenology does not allow it to be distinguished easily from wild einkorn (Triticum boeoticum subsp. thaoudar), although a genetic separation exists. Both species are mostly two grained and could potentially be the relatives of the extinct two-grained form. Pollen grains of several genetically well-identified wheat species, including T. urartu and T. boeoticum subsp. thaoudar, were studied by measuring the grain diameter and examining the exine sculpturing with phase-contrast microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to gain an insight into differences enabling taxonomic identification. This work showed that, although T. urartu pollen is smaller on average, grain diameter is not sufficient because of the size overlap between the species, but T. urartu presents a different exine sculpturing (scabrate) from other Triticum spp. (aerolate). This outcome is useful for taxonomists and archaeobotanists. First, it will allow a simple re-classification of herbarium materials. Second, further research could establish whether T. urartu was cultivated. © 2015 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2015, 177, 278–289. PMID:25821246

  7. Durum wheat (Triticum Durum Desf.) lines show different abilities to form masked mycotoxins under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Cirlini, Martina; Generotti, Silvia; Dall'Erta, Andrea; Lancioni, Pietro; Ferrazzano, Gianluca; Massi, Andrea; Galaverna, Gianni; Dall'Asta, Chiara

    2013-12-24

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent trichothecene in Europe and its occurrence is associated with infections of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat. Resistance to FHB is a complex character and high variability occurs in the relationship between DON content and FHB incidence. DON conjugation to glucose (DON-3-glucoside, D3G) is the primary plant mechanism for resistance towards DON accumulation. Although this mechanism has been already described in bread wheat and barley, no data are reported so far about durum wheat, a key cereal in the pasta production chain. To address this issue, the ability of durum wheat to detoxify and convert deoxynivalenol into D3G was studied under greenhouse controlled conditions. Four durum wheat varieties (Svevo, Claudio, Kofa and Neodur) were assessed for DON-D3G conversion; Sumai 3, a bread wheat variety carrying a major QTL for FHB resistance (QFhs.ndsu-3B), was used as a positive control. Data reported hereby clearly demonstrate the ability of durum wheat to convert deoxynivalenol into its conjugated form, D3G.

  8. Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum Desf.) Lines Show Different Abilities to Form Masked Mycotoxins under Greenhouse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cirlini, Martina; Generotti, Silvia; Dall’Erta, Andrea; Lancioni, Pietro; Ferrazzano, Gianluca; Massi, Andrea; Galaverna, Gianni; Dall’Asta, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent trichothecene in Europe and its occurrence is associated with infections of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat. Resistance to FHB is a complex character and high variability occurs in the relationship between DON content and FHB incidence. DON conjugation to glucose (DON-3-glucoside, D3G) is the primary plant mechanism for resistance towards DON accumulation. Although this mechanism has been already described in bread wheat and barley, no data are reported so far about durum wheat, a key cereal in the pasta production chain. To address this issue, the ability of durum wheat to detoxify and convert deoxynivalenol into D3G was studied under greenhouse controlled conditions. Four durum wheat varieties (Svevo, Claudio, Kofa and Neodur) were assessed for DON-D3G conversion; Sumai 3, a bread wheat variety carrying a major QTL for FHB resistance (QFhs.ndsu-3B), was used as a positive control. Data reported hereby clearly demonstrate the ability of durum wheat to convert deoxynivalenol into its conjugated form, D3G. PMID:24368326

  9. In Vitro Transcripts of Wild-Type and Fluorescent Protein-Tagged Triticum mosaic virus (Family Potyviridae) are Biologically Active in Wheat.

    PubMed

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; McMechan, Anthony J; Bartels, Melissa; Hein, Gary L; Graybosch, Robert A

    2015-11-01

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) (genus Poacevirus, family Potyviridae) is a recently described eriophyid mite-transmitted wheat virus. In vitro RNA transcripts generated from full-length cDNA clones of TriMV proved infectious on wheat. Wheat seedlings inoculated with in vitro transcripts elicited mosaic and mottling symptoms similar to the wild-type virus, and the progeny virus was efficiently transmitted by wheat curl mites, indicating that the cloned virus retained pathogenicity, movement, and wheat curl mite transmission characteristics. A series of TriMV-based expression vectors was constructed by engineering a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or red fluorescent protein (RFP) open reading frame with homologous NIa-Pro cleavage peptides between the P1 and HC-Pro cistrons. We found that GFP-tagged TriMV with seven or nine amino acid cleavage peptides efficiently processed GFP from HC-Pro. TriMV-GFP vectors were stable in wheat for more than 120 days and for six serial passages at 14-day intervals by mechanical inoculation and were transmitted by wheat curl mites similarly to the wild-type virus. Fluorescent protein-tagged TriMV was observed in wheat leaves, stems, and crowns. The availability of fluorescent protein-tagged TriMV will facilitate the examination of virus movement and distribution in cereal hosts and the mechanisms of cross protection and synergistic interactions between TriMV and Wheat streak mosaic virus.

  10. Enhanced root and shoot growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by Trichoderma harzianum from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Cigdem

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that Trichoderma species can be used as biocontrol and plant growth promote agent. In this study, Trichoderma harzianum isolates were evaluated for their growth promotion effects on wheat in greenhouse experiments. Two isolates of T. harzianum were used. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. Seeds were inoculated with conidial suspensions of each isolate. Wheat plants grown in steriled soil in pots. T. harzianum T8 and T15 isolates increased wheat length, root dry weight and shoot dry weight according to untreated control. Turkish isolates T8 and T15 did not produce damage in seeds nor in plants.

  11. Identification of kernel proteins associated with the resistance to fusarium head blight in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Perlikowski, Dawid; Wiśniewska, Halina; Góral, Tomasz; Kwiatek, Michał; Majka, Maciej; Kosmala, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    Numerous potential components involved in the resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals have been indicated, however, our knowledge regarding this process is still limited and further work is required. Two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines differing in their levels of resistance to FHB were analyzed to identify the most crucial proteins associated with resistance in this species. The presented work involved analysis of protein abundance in the kernel bulks of more resistant and more susceptible wheat lines using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry identification of proteins, which were differentially accumulated between the analyzed lines, after inoculation with F. culmorum under field conditions. All the obtained two-dimensional patterns were demonstrated to be well-resolved protein maps of kernel proteomes. Although, 11 proteins were shown to have significantly different abundance between these two groups of plants, only two are likely to be crucial and have a potential role in resistance to FHB. Monomeric alpha-amylase and dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitors, both highly accumulated in the more resistant line, after inoculation and in the control conditions. Fusarium pathogens can use hydrolytic enzymes, including amylases to colonize kernels and acquire nitrogen and carbon from the endosperm and we suggest that the inhibition of pathogen amylase activity could be one of the most crucial mechanisms to prevent infection progress in the analyzed wheat line with a higher resistance. Alpha-amylase activity assays confirmed this suggestion as it revealed the highest level of enzyme activity, after F. culmorum infection, in the line more susceptible to FHB.

  12. TLXI, a novel type of xylanase inhibitor from wheat (Triticum aestivum) belonging to the thaumatin family

    PubMed Central

    Fierens, Ellen; Rombouts, Sigrid; Gebruers, Kurt; Goesaert, Hans; Brijs, Kristof; Beaugrand, Johnny; Volckaert, Guido; Van Campenhout, Steven; Proost, Paul; Courtin, Christophe M.; Delcour, Jan A.

    2007-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) contains a previously unknown type of xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) inhibitor, which is described in the present paper for the first time. Based on its >60% similarity to TLPs (thaumatin-like proteins) and the fact that it contains the Prosite PS00316 thaumatin family signature, it is referred to as TLXI (thaumatin-like xylanase inhibitor). TLXI is a basic (pI≥9.3 in isoelectric focusing) protein with a molecular mass of approx. 18–kDa (determined by SDS/PAGE) and it occurs in wheat with varying extents of glycosylation. The TLXI gene sequence encodes a 26-amino-acid signal sequence followed by a 151-amino-acid mature protein with a calculated molecular mass of 15.6–kDa and pI of 8.38. The mature TLXI protein was expressed successfully in Pichia pastoris, resulting in a 21–kDa (determined by SDS/PAGE) recombinant protein (rTLXI). Polyclonal antibodies raised against TLXI purified from wheat react with epitopes of rTLXI as well as with those of thaumatin, demonstrating high structural similarity between these three proteins. TLXI has a unique inhibition specificity. It is a non-competitive inhibitor of a number of glycoside hydrolase family 11 xylanases, but it is inactive towards glycoside hydrolase family 10 xylanases. Progress curves show that TLXI is a slow tight-binding inhibitor, with a Ki of approx. 60–nM. Except for zeamatin, an α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor from maize (Zea mays), no other enzyme inhibitor is currently known among the TLPs. TLXI thus represents a novel type of inhibitor within this group of proteins. PMID:17269932

  13. Identification of Kernel Proteins Associated with the Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Góral, Tomasz; Kwiatek, Michał; Majka, Maciej; Kosmala, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    Numerous potential components involved in the resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals have been indicated, however, our knowledge regarding this process is still limited and further work is required. Two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines differing in their levels of resistance to FHB were analyzed to identify the most crucial proteins associated with resistance in this species. The presented work involved analysis of protein abundance in the kernel bulks of more resistant and more susceptible wheat lines using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry identification of proteins, which were differentially accumulated between the analyzed lines, after inoculation with F. culmorum under field conditions. All the obtained two-dimensional patterns were demonstrated to be well-resolved protein maps of kernel proteomes. Although, 11 proteins were shown to have significantly different abundance between these two groups of plants, only two are likely to be crucial and have a potential role in resistance to FHB. Monomeric alpha-amylase and dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitors, both highly accumulated in the more resistant line, after inoculation and in the control conditions. Fusarium pathogens can use hydrolytic enzymes, including amylases to colonize kernels and acquire nitrogen and carbon from the endosperm and we suggest that the inhibition of pathogen amylase activity could be one of the most crucial mechanisms to prevent infection progress in the analyzed wheat line with a higher resistance. Alpha-amylase activity assays confirmed this suggestion as it revealed the highest level of enzyme activity, after F. culmorum infection, in the line more susceptible to FHB. PMID:25340555

  14. Isolation and characterization of rubisco small subunit gene promoter from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Shalini; Stasolla, Claudio; Brûlé-Babel, Anita; Ayele, Belay T

    2015-01-01

    Choice of an appropriate promoter is critical to express target genes in intended tissues and developmental stages. However, promoters capable of directing gene expression in specific tissues and stages are not well characterized in monocot species. To identify such a promoter in wheat, this study isolated a partial sequence of the wheat small subunit of RuBisCO (TarbcS) promoter. In silico analysis revealed the presence of elements that are characteristic to rbcS promoters of other, mainly dicot, species. Transient expression of the TarbcS:GUS in immature wheat embryos and tobacco leaves but not in the wheat roots indicate the functionality of the TarbcS promoter fragment in directing the expression of target genes in green plant tissues.

  15. Identification and characterization of the three homeologues of a new sucrose transporter in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sucrose transporters (SUTs) play important roles in regulating the translocation of assimilates from source to sink tissues. Identification and characterization of new SUTs in economically important crops such as wheat provide insights into their role in determining seed yield. To date, however, only one SUT of wheat has been reported and functionally characterized. The present study reports the isolation and characterization of a new SUT, designated as TaSUT2, and its homeologues (TaSUT2A, TaSUT2B and TaSUT2D) in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Results TaSUT2A and TaSUT2B genes each encode a protein with 506 amino acids, whereas TaSUT2D encodes a protein of 508 amino acids. The molecular mass of these proteins is predicted to be ~ 54 kDA. Topological analysis of the amino acid sequences of the three homeologues revealed that they contain 12 transmembrane spanning helices, which are described as distinct characteristic features of glycoside-pentoside-hexuronide cation symporter family that includes all known plant SUTs, and a histidine residue that appears to be localized at and associated conformationally with the sucrose binding site. Yeast SUSY7/ura3 strain cells transformed with TaSUT2A, TaSUT2B and TaSUT2D were able to uptake sucrose and grow on a medium containing sucrose as a sole source of carbon; however, our subcellular localization study with plant cells revealed that TaSUT2 is localized to the tonoplast. The expression of TaSUT2 was detected in the source, including flag leaf blade, flag leaf sheath, peduncle, glumes, palea and lemma, and sink (seed) tissues. The relative contributions of the three genomes of wheat to the total expression of TaSUT2 appear to differ with tissues and developmental stages. At the cellular level, TaSUT2 is expressed mainly in the vein of developing seeds and subepidermal mesophyll cells of the leaf blade. Conclusion This study demonstrated that TaSUT2 is a new wheat SUT protein. Given that TaSUT2 is

  16. Expression partitioning of homeologs and tandem duplications contribute to salt tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yumei; Liu, Zhenshan; Khan, Abul Awlad; Lin, Qi; Han, Yao; Mu, Ping; Liu, Yiguo; Zhang, Hongsheng; Li, Lingyan; Meng, Xianghao; Ni, Zhongfu; Xin, Mingming

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress dramatically reduces crop yield and quality, but the molecular mechanisms underlying salt tolerance remain largely unknown. To explore the wheat transcriptional response to salt stress, we performed high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of 10-day old wheat roots under normal condition and 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after salt stress (HASS) in both a salt-tolerant cultivar and salt-sensitive cultivar. The results demonstrated global gene expression reprogramming with 36,804 genes that were up- or down-regulated in wheat roots under at least one stress condition compared with the controls and revealed the specificity and complexity of the functional pathways between the two cultivars. Further analysis showed that substantial expression partitioning of homeologous wheat genes occurs when the plants are subjected to salt stress, accounting for approximately 63.9% (2,537) and 66.1% (2,624) of the homeologous genes in 'Chinese Spring' (CS) and 'Qing Mai 6' (QM). Interestingly, 143 salt-responsive genes have been duplicated and tandemly arrayed on chromosomes during wheat evolution and polyploidization events, and the expression patterns of 122 (122/143, 85.3%) tandem duplications diverged dynamically over the time-course of salinity exposure. In addition, constitutive expression or silencing of target genes in Arabidopsis and wheat further confirmed our high-confidence salt stress-responsive candidates. PMID:26892368

  17. Expression partitioning of homeologs and tandem duplications contribute to salt tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yumei; Liu, Zhenshan; Khan, Abul Awlad; Lin, Qi; Han, Yao; Mu, Ping; Liu, Yiguo; Zhang, Hongsheng; Li, Lingyan; Meng, Xianghao; Ni, Zhongfu; Xin, Mingming

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress dramatically reduces crop yield and quality, but the molecular mechanisms underlying salt tolerance remain largely unknown. To explore the wheat transcriptional response to salt stress, we performed high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of 10-day old wheat roots under normal condition and 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after salt stress (HASS) in both a salt-tolerant cultivar and salt-sensitive cultivar. The results demonstrated global gene expression reprogramming with 36,804 genes that were up- or down-regulated in wheat roots under at least one stress condition compared with the controls and revealed the specificity and complexity of the functional pathways between the two cultivars. Further analysis showed that substantial expression partitioning of homeologous wheat genes occurs when the plants are subjected to salt stress, accounting for approximately 63.9% (2,537) and 66.1% (2,624) of the homeologous genes in ‘Chinese Spring’ (CS) and ‘Qing Mai 6’ (QM). Interestingly, 143 salt-responsive genes have been duplicated and tandemly arrayed on chromosomes during wheat evolution and polyploidization events, and the expression patterns of 122 (122/143, 85.3%) tandem duplications diverged dynamically over the time-course of salinity exposure. In addition, constitutive expression or silencing of target genes in Arabidopsis and wheat further confirmed our high-confidence salt stress-responsive candidates. PMID:26892368

  18. De Novo Sequencing and Characterization of the Transcriptome of Dwarf Polish Wheat (Triticum polonicum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Xiaolu; Peng, Fan; Wang, Ruijiao; Jiang, Yulin; Zeng, Jian; Fan, Xing; Kang, Houyang; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Xiao, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Construction as well as characterization of a polish wheat transcriptome is a crucial step to study useful traits of polish wheat. In this study, a transcriptome, including 76,014 unigenes, was assembled from dwarf polish wheat (DPW) roots, stems, and leaves using the software of Trinity. Among these unigenes, 61,748 (81.23%) unigenes were functionally annotated in public databases and classified into differentially functional types. Aligning this transcriptome against draft wheat genome released by the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC), 57,331 (75.42%) unigenes, including 26,122 AB-specific and 2,622 D-specific unigenes, were mapped on A, B, and/or D genomes. Compared with the transcriptome of T. turgidum, 56,343 unigenes were matched with 103,327 unigenes of T. turgidum. Compared with the genomes of rice and barley, 14,404 and 7,007 unigenes were matched with 14,608 genes of barley and 7,708 genes of rice, respectively. On the other hand, 2,148, 1,611, and 2,707 unigenes were expressed specifically in roots, stems, and leaves, respectively. Finally, 5,531 SSR sequences were observed from 4,531 unigenes, and 518 primer pairs were designed. PMID:27429972

  19. De Novo Sequencing and Characterization of the Transcriptome of Dwarf Polish Wheat (Triticum polonicum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Chao; Wang, Xiaolu; Peng, Fan; Wang, Ruijiao; Jiang, Yulin; Zeng, Jian; Fan, Xing; Kang, Houyang; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Xiao, Xue; Zhou, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Construction as well as characterization of a polish wheat transcriptome is a crucial step to study useful traits of polish wheat. In this study, a transcriptome, including 76,014 unigenes, was assembled from dwarf polish wheat (DPW) roots, stems, and leaves using the software of Trinity. Among these unigenes, 61,748 (81.23%) unigenes were functionally annotated in public databases and classified into differentially functional types. Aligning this transcriptome against draft wheat genome released by the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC), 57,331 (75.42%) unigenes, including 26,122 AB-specific and 2,622 D-specific unigenes, were mapped on A, B, and/or D genomes. Compared with the transcriptome of T. turgidum, 56,343 unigenes were matched with 103,327 unigenes of T. turgidum. Compared with the genomes of rice and barley, 14,404 and 7,007 unigenes were matched with 14,608 genes of barley and 7,708 genes of rice, respectively. On the other hand, 2,148, 1,611, and 2,707 unigenes were expressed specifically in roots, stems, and leaves, respectively. Finally, 5,531 SSR sequences were observed from 4,531 unigenes, and 518 primer pairs were designed. PMID:27429972

  20. Readily available phosphorous and nitrogen counteract for arsenic uptake and distribution in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Brackhage, Carsten; Huang, Jen-How; Schaller, Jörg; Elzinga, Evert J; Dudel, E Gert

    2014-01-01

    Elevated arsenic content in food crops pose a serious human health risk. Apart from rice wheat being another main food crop is possibly cultivated on contaminated sites. But for wheat uptake mechanisms are not entirely understood especially with regard to nutrient fertilization and different moisture regimes taking into account heavy rainfall events due to climate change. Here we show that especially higher P-fertilization under changing redox conditions may enhance arsenic uptake. This counteracts with higher N-fertilization reducing arsenic transfer and translocation into aboveground plant parts for both higher P-fertilization and reducing soil conditions. Arsenic speciation did not change in grain but for leaves P-fertilization together with reducing conditions increased the As(V) content compared to other arsenic species. Our results indicate important dependencies of nutrient fertilization, moisture conditions and substrate type on As accumulation of wheat as one of the most important crop plants worldwide with implications for agricultural practices. PMID:24821134

  1. Readily available phosphorous and nitrogen counteract for arsenic uptake and distribution in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Brackhage, Carsten; Huang, Jen-How; Schaller, Jörg; Elzinga, Evert J.; Dudel, E. Gert

    2014-01-01

    Elevated arsenic content in food crops pose a serious human health risk. Apart from rice wheat being another main food crop is possibly cultivated on contaminated sites. But for wheat uptake mechanisms are not entirely understood especially with regard to nutrient fertilization and different moisture regimes taking into account heavy rainfall events due to climate change. Here we show that especially higher P-fertilization under changing redox conditions may enhance arsenic uptake. This counteracts with higher N-fertilization reducing arsenic transfer and translocation into aboveground plant parts for both higher P-fertilization and reducing soil conditions. Arsenic speciation did not change in grain but for leaves P-fertilization together with reducing conditions increased the As(V) content compared to other arsenic species. Our results indicate important dependencies of nutrient fertilization, moisture conditions and substrate type on As accumulation of wheat as one of the most important crop plants worldwide with implications for agricultural practices. PMID:24821134

  2. Readily available phosphorous and nitrogen counteract for arsenic uptake and distribution in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brackhage, Carsten; Huang, Jen-How; Schaller, Jörg; Elzinga, Evert J.; Dudel, E. Gert

    2014-05-01

    Elevated arsenic content in food crops pose a serious human health risk. Apart from rice wheat being another main food crop is possibly cultivated on contaminated sites. But for wheat uptake mechanisms are not entirely understood especially with regard to nutrient fertilization and different moisture regimes taking into account heavy rainfall events due to climate change. Here we show that especially higher P-fertilization under changing redox conditions may enhance arsenic uptake. This counteracts with higher N-fertilization reducing arsenic transfer and translocation into aboveground plant parts for both higher P-fertilization and reducing soil conditions. Arsenic speciation did not change in grain but for leaves P-fertilization together with reducing conditions increased the As(V) content compared to other arsenic species. Our results indicate important dependencies of nutrient fertilization, moisture conditions and substrate type on As accumulation of wheat as one of the most important crop plants worldwide with implications for agricultural practices.

  3. Growth, photosynthetic activity and oxidative stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum) after exposure of lead to soil.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy R; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2012-03-01

    The present study was conducted to assess quantitative information about lead (Pb) contamination in soil on the growth and physiology of wheat. Solutions with three different concentrations of Pb as [Pb(NO3)2 at 500, 1000 and 2500 microM] were incorporated into the soil to achieve Pb-stressed conditions in comparison to unstressed, water treated, control variant. Wheat growth measured in terms of root length, shoot length and dry weight exhibited a significant decline with increasing Pb concentrations in the soil. Root and shoot length and seedling weight declined in the range of -23-51, -17-44, and -21-44% in response to 500 to 2500 microM Pb. In addition, there was a significant reduction in the levels of photosynthetic pigments-chlorophyll a (16-66%) and b (10-24%) and total chlorophyll content (by 14-39%) in plants growing in Pb-contaminated soil. It indicated a negative effect on photosynthetic activity in wheat and was confirmed by reduced photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) in the range of - 3-37% in response to 500 to 2500 microM Pb. The reduction in wheat growth in Pb-contaminated soil was accompanied by induction of oxidative stress as indicated by enhanced lipid peroxidation ir. terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) content (by 18-40%) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content (by 34-123%) and alterations in the activity of enzymes, superoxide dismutases (SOD) and guaiacol peroxidases (GPX) in wheat roots. The study concludes that Pb in soil inhibits growth and phototsynthetic activity in wheat through induction of oxidative stress.

  4. Heading Date QTL in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Coincide with Major Developmental Genes VERNALIZATION1 and PHOTOPERIOD1

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yuan Feng; Johnson, Jerry; Harrison, Steve; Marshall, David

    2016-01-01

    In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), time from planting to spike emergence is influenced by genes controlling vernalization requirement and photoperiod response. Characterizing the available genetic diversity of known and novel alleles of VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) and PHOTOPERIOD1 (PPD1) in winter wheat can inform approaches for breeding climate resilient cultivars. This study identified QTL for heading date (HD) associated with multiple VRN1 and PPD1 loci in a population developed from a cross between two early flowering winter wheat cultivars. When the population was grown in the greenhouse after partial vernalization treatment, major heading date QTLs co-located with the VRN-A1 and VRN-B1 loci. Copy number variation at the VRN-A1 locus influenced HD such that RIL having three copies required longer cold exposure to transition to flowering than RIL having two VRN-A1 copies. Sequencing vrn-B1 winter alleles of the parents revealed multiple polymorphisms in the first intron that were the basis of mapping a major HD QTL coinciding with VRN-B1. A 36 bp deletion in the first intron of VRN-B1 was associated with earlier HD after partial vernalization in lines having either two or three haploid copies of VRN-A1. The VRN1 loci interacted significantly and influenced time to heading in field experiments in Louisiana, Georgia and North Carolina. The PPD1 loci were significant determinants of heading date in the fully vernalized treatment in the greenhouse and in all field environments. Heading date QTL were associated with alleles having large deletions in the upstream regions of PPD-A1 and PPD-D1 and with copy number variants at the PPD-B1 locus. The PPD-D1 locus was determined to have the largest genetic effect, followed by PPD-A1 and PPD-B1. Our results demonstrate that VRN1 and PPD1 alleles of varying strength allow fine tuning of flowering time in diverse winter wheat growing environments. PMID:27163605

  5. Improving water use efficiency of wheat (triticum aestivum l. Giza 168) crop using 15N tracer technique under Egyptian environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refaie Emara, Eman Ibrahim; Hamed, Lamy Mamdoh Mohamed; Bocchi, Stefano; Galal, Yehia

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean environment is characterized by low and erratic rainfall amount which varies between (200-600 mm.year-1), and characterized also by high temperature which increase the rate of evapotranspiration from the cultivated soil. Under these conditions which have a great influence on crop production, there is a great needing to increase the crop water use efficiency. In this context, two field experiments were carried out in northern Cairo-Egypt, during November and December 2012 and April 2013, with two different textured soils. The soil in the first location (30° 16' N latitude, 30° 56' E longitude) is clay soil, while in the second one (30° 24' N latitude, 31° 35' E longitude) is sandy soil. The interaction effect of soil types, soil water regimes, nitrogen fertilizer application rates and timing on nitrogen balance of soil were studied, in terms of nitrogen gained by plant portions, remained in soil and losses through different ways for the wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L. Giza 168). The aim of this research is to increase the water use efficiency of wheat crop, in addition to identify the most proper and effective combinations of above-studied variables that provide a satisfactory grain wheat yield and finally to minimize the use of chemical nitrogen fertilizers. Three water regimes (100%, 75% and 50% of crop water requirements) using drip irrigation system and the application methods of Nitrogen rates, 100%, 80% and 60% of recommended rates, which are 178 Kg of Nitrogen for the clay soil and 238 Kg of Nitrogen for sandy soil, were applied to the two experimental fields. Ineed, two modes of agricultural management, mode A and B, were applied. Each mode is different than the other in terms of seedling and tillering practices, where mode A performed with 25% at seedling, 25% at tillering and 50% at jointing while mode B performed with 35% at seedling and 65% at tillering. The greatest limitation to growth and Nitrogen use efficiency was the amount

  6. Molecular evolution of Wcor15 gene enhanced our understanding of the origin of A, B and D genomes in Triticum aestivum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangfang; Si, Hongqi; Wang, Chengcheng; Sun, Genlou; Zhou, Erting; Chen, Can; Ma, Chuanxi

    2016-08-16

    The allohexaploid bread wheat originally derived from three closely related species with A, B and D genome. Although numerous studies were performed to elucidate its origin and phylogeny, no consensus conclusion has reached. In this study, we cloned and sequenced the genes Wcor15-2A, Wcor15-2B and Wcor15-2D in 23 diploid, 10 tetraploid and 106 hexaploid wheat varieties and analyzed their molecular evolution to reveal the origin of the A, B and D genome in Triticum aestivum. Comparative analyses of sequences in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheats suggest that T. urartu, Ae. speltoides and Ae. tauschii subsp. strangulata are most likely the donors of the Wcor15-2A, Wcor15-2B and Wcor15-2D locus in common wheat, respectively. The Wcor15 genes from subgenomes A and D were very conservative without insertion and deletion of bases during evolution of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid. Non-coding region of Wcor15-2B gene from B genome might mutate during the first polyploidization from Ae. speltoides to tetraploid wheat, however, no change has occurred for this gene during the second allopolyploidization from tetraploid to hexaploid. Comparison of the Wcor15 gene shed light on understanding of the origin of the A, B and D genome of common wheat.

  7. Molecular evolution of Wcor15 gene enhanced our understanding of the origin of A, B and D genomes in Triticum aestivum

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fangfang; Si, Hongqi; Wang, Chengcheng; Sun, Genlou; Zhou, Erting; Chen, Can; Ma, Chuanxi

    2016-01-01

    The allohexaploid bread wheat originally derived from three closely related species with A, B and D genome. Although numerous studies were performed to elucidate its origin and phylogeny, no consensus conclusion has reached. In this study, we cloned and sequenced the genes Wcor15-2A, Wcor15-2B and Wcor15-2D in 23 diploid, 10 tetraploid and 106 hexaploid wheat varieties and analyzed their molecular evolution to reveal the origin of the A, B and D genome in Triticum aestivum. Comparative analyses of sequences in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheats suggest that T. urartu, Ae. speltoides and Ae. tauschii subsp. strangulata are most likely the donors of the Wcor15-2A, Wcor15-2B and Wcor15-2D locus in common wheat, respectively. The Wcor15 genes from subgenomes A and D were very conservative without insertion and deletion of bases during evolution of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid. Non-coding region of Wcor15-2B gene from B genome might mutate during the first polyploidization from Ae. speltoides to tetraploid wheat, however, no change has occurred for this gene during the second allopolyploidization from tetraploid to hexaploid. Comparison of the Wcor15 gene shed light on understanding of the origin of the A, B and D genome of common wheat. PMID:27526862

  8. Molecular evolution of Wcor15 gene enhanced our understanding of the origin of A, B and D genomes in Triticum aestivum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangfang; Si, Hongqi; Wang, Chengcheng; Sun, Genlou; Zhou, Erting; Chen, Can; Ma, Chuanxi

    2016-01-01

    The allohexaploid bread wheat originally derived from three closely related species with A, B and D genome. Although numerous studies were performed to elucidate its origin and phylogeny, no consensus conclusion has reached. In this study, we cloned and sequenced the genes Wcor15-2A, Wcor15-2B and Wcor15-2D in 23 diploid, 10 tetraploid and 106 hexaploid wheat varieties and analyzed their molecular evolution to reveal the origin of the A, B and D genome in Triticum aestivum. Comparative analyses of sequences in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheats suggest that T. urartu, Ae. speltoides and Ae. tauschii subsp. strangulata are most likely the donors of the Wcor15-2A, Wcor15-2B and Wcor15-2D locus in common wheat, respectively. The Wcor15 genes from subgenomes A and D were very conservative without insertion and deletion of bases during evolution of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid. Non-coding region of Wcor15-2B gene from B genome might mutate during the first polyploidization from Ae. speltoides to tetraploid wheat, however, no change has occurred for this gene during the second allopolyploidization from tetraploid to hexaploid. Comparison of the Wcor15 gene shed light on understanding of the origin of the A, B and D genome of common wheat. PMID:27526862

  9. Isolation and molecular characterization of ERF1, an ethylene response factor gene from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum), potentially involved in salt-stress responses.

    PubMed

    Makhloufi, Emna; Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Marande, William; Mila, Isabelle; Hanana, Mohsen; Bergès, Hélène; Mzid, Rim; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2014-12-01

    As food crop, wheat is of prime importance for human society. Nevertheless, our understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms controlling wheat productivity conditions has been, so far, hampered by the lack of sufficient genomic resources. The present work describes the isolation and characterization of TdERF1, an ERF gene from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum). The structural features of TdERF1 supported the hypothesis that it is a novel member of the ERF family in durum wheat and, considering its close similarity to TaERF1 of Triticum aestivum, it probably plays a similar role in mediating responses to environmental stresses. TdERF1 displayed an expression pattern that discriminated between two durum wheat genotypes contrasted with regard to salt-stress tolerance. The high number of cis-regulatory elements related to stress responses present in the TdERF1 promoter and the ability of TdERF1 to regulate the transcription of ethylene and drought-responsive promoters clearly indicated its potential role in mediating plant responses to a wide variety of environmental constrains. TdERF1 was also regulated by abscisic acid, ethylene, auxin, and salicylic acid, suggesting that it may be at the crossroads of multiple hormone signalling pathways. Four TdERF1 allelic variants have been identified in durum wheat genome, all shown to be transcriptionally active. Interestingly, the expression of one allelic form is specific to the tolerant genotype, further supporting the hypothesis that this gene is probably associated with the susceptibility/tolerance mechanism to salt stress. In this regard, the TdERF1 gene may provide a discriminating marker between tolerant and sensitive wheat varieties.

  10. In vivo studies on artificial induction of thermotolerance to detached panicles of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Asthir, Bavita; Bhatia, Surekha

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism imparting thermotolerance by gibberellic acid (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA) is still unresolved using either spraying technique or in vitro conditions. Alternative way of studying these effects under near in vivo conditions is through the use of liquid culturing technique. Effects of GA3 and ABA (100 μM) on sucrose metabolism (invertase and sucrose synthase) and aminotransferases (GOT and GPT) in relation to starch and protein accumulation were studied in detached panicles of three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars PBW 343, C 306 (heat tolerant) and WH 542 (heat susceptible) cultured in a liquid medium. Ears were subjected to heat shock treatment (45 °C for 2 h) and then maintained at 25 °C for 5 days. Heat shock treatment resulted in a significant decline in starch content but caused a marked build -up of total free sugars and protein content in grains of all cultivars. However, activities of acid and neutral invertases increased only in tolerant cultivars but reduced in susceptible cultivar. Following treatment with GA3 contents of starch and free sugars increased in grains maintained at 25 °C but free sugar content decreased in stressed grains compared to control. ABA application showed inhibitory effect on starch accumulation under normal temperature but was promotory under stress conditions. Concomitantly, soluble protein content also increased in conjunction with an increase in the activities of glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT). Apparently, the wheat grain responds to heat shock mediated disruption of carbon metabolism by a compensatory effect on nitrogen metabolism. GA3 stimulated grain sink activity both under stress and non stress condition while ABA was promotory only under stress condition. PMID:24426056

  11. Competition between plant and bacterial cells at the microscale regulates the dynamics of nitrogen acquisition in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Jones, David L; Clode, Peta L; Kilburn, Matt R; Stockdale, Elizabeth A; Murphy, Daniel V

    2013-11-01

    The ability of plants to compete effectively for nitrogen (N) resources is critical to plant survival. However, controversy surrounds the importance of organic and inorganic sources of N in plant nutrition because of our poor ability to visualize and understand processes happening at the root-microbial-soil interface. Using high-resolution nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry stable isotope imaging (NanoSIMS-SII), we quantified the fate of ¹⁵N over both space and time within the rhizosphere. We pulse-labelled the soil surrounding wheat (Triticum aestivum) roots with either ¹⁵NH₄⁺ or ¹⁵N-glutamate and traced the movement of ¹⁵N over 24 h. Imaging revealed that glutamate was rapidly depleted from the rhizosphere and that most ¹⁵N was captured by rhizobacteria, leading to very high ¹⁵N microbial enrichment. After microbial capture, approximately half of the ¹⁵N-glutamate was rapidly mineralized, leading to the excretion of NH₄⁺, which became available for plant capture. Roots proved to be poor competitors for ¹⁵N-glutamate and took up N mainly as ¹⁵NH₄⁺. Spatial mapping of ¹⁵N revealed differential patterns of ¹⁵N uptake within bacteria and the rapid uptake and redistribution of ¹⁵N within roots. In conclusion, we demonstrate the rapid cycling and transformation of N at the soil-root interface and that wheat capture of organic N is low in comparison to inorganic N under the conditions tested.

  12. Triticum Mosaic Virus: A New Virus Isolated From Wheat in Kansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006 a mechanically-transmissible and previously uncharacterized virus was isolated in Kansas from wheat with mosaic symptoms. The physio-chemical properties of the virus were examined by purification on cesium chloride density gradients, electron microscopy, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylalmid...

  13. [Alleles at storage protein loci in Triticum spelta L. accessions and their occurrence in related wheats].

    PubMed

    Kozub, N A; Boguslavskiĭ, R L; Sozinov, I A; Tverdokhleb, E V; Ksinias, I N; Blium, Ia B; Sozinov, A A

    2014-01-01

    Variation at eight storage protein loci was analyzed in the collection of T. spelta accessions from the National Centre of Plant Genetic Resources of Ukraine, most of which are European spelts. The analysis allowed identification of seven alleles at the Gli-B1 locus, five alleles at the Gli-A1 and Glu-B1 loci, three alleles at the Gli-A3 locus, two at the Gli-D1, Gli-B5, Glu-A1, and Glu-D1 loci. The majority of alleles are encountered among common wheat cultivars, only five alleles were specific for spelts. The high frequency of the alleles Gli-B1hs* and h encoding the 45-type gamma-gliadin in European spelts and durum wheat cultivars, as well as the occurrence of these alleles in T. dicoccum, in particular, in accessions from Switzerland and Germany, supports von Büren's hypothesis that European spelt resulted from hybridization between a tetraploid wheat with the 45-type y-gliadin and a hexaploid wheat. Analysis of genetic distances based on the genotypes at eight storage protein loci permitted differentiation of the Asian spelt accession from European spelts.

  14. [Competitiveness of hard wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) varieties against ripgut brome (Bromus rigidus Roth)].

    PubMed

    Hamal, A; Benbella, M; Rzozi, S B; Bouhache, M; Msatef, Y

    2001-01-01

    Varieties with an excellent competitiveness against ripgut brome (Bromus rigidus Roth.) would be very important to reinforce others methods to control ripgut brome weed. This study was carried out in 1999-2000 season in a greenhouse experiment to test the aggressiveness degree of six varieties of hard wheat (Oum Rabia, Isly, Marzak, Karim, Sebou, and Massa) combined with ripgut brome. Plant density was fixed at 16 plants of wheat or Bromus for pure crop and 8 plants for wheat and 8 for Bromus mixture. The results showed that the numbers of kernels/spikes were higher in the mixture for on pure composition. For the kernel weight, the result was opposite except for Isly and Marzak varieties. Karim and Isly varieties obtained the highest grain yield and were more competitive in mixture composition but Sebou and Massa varieties were less competitive against ripgut brome. Results of ripgut brome productivity and water use efficiency were similar and were used to determine the aggressiveness coefficient of hard wheat varieties against ripgut brome. The reduction of the shoot dry matter of brome was 22 to 56% at flowering. The grain yield of brome was reduced from 57 to 81%.

  15. Response of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) quality traits and yield to sowing date.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mukhtar; Fayyaz-ul-Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The unpredictability and large fluctuation of the climatic conditions in rainfed regions do affect spring wheat yield and grain quality. These variations offer the opportunity for the production of better quality wheat. The effect of variable years, locations and sowing managements on wheat grain yield and quality was studied through field experiments using three genotypes, three locations for two years under rainfed conditions. The two studied years as contrasting years at three locations and sowing dates depicted variability in temperature and water stress during grain filling which resulted considerable change in grain yield and quality. Delayed sowing, years (2009-10) and location (Talagang) with high temperature and water stress resulted increased proline, and grain quality traits i.e. grain protein (GP) and grain ash (GA) than optimum conditions (during 2008-09, at Islamabad and early sowing). However, opposite trend was observed for dry gluten (DG), sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), SPAD content and grain yield irrespective of genotypes. The influence of variable climatic conditions was dominant in determining the quality traits and inverse relationship was observed among some quality traits and grain yield. It may be concluded that by selecting suitable locations and different sowing managements for subjecting the crop to desirable environmental conditions (temperature and water) quality traits of wheat crop could be modified. PMID:25927839

  16. Alkali pretreatment of wheat straw (Triticum aestivum) at boiling temperature for producing a bioethanol precursor.

    PubMed

    Barman, Dhirendra Nath; Haque, Md Azizul; Kang, Tae Ho; Kim, Min Keun; Kim, Jungho; Kim, Hoon; Yun, Han Dae

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of dilute sodium hydroxide (NaOH) on wheat straw at boiling temperature for removing lignin and increasing the yield of reducing sugar. Various concentrations of NaOH (0.5% to 2%) were used for pretreating wheat straw at 105 °C for 10 min. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed that the 2% NaOH-pretreated sample exposed more cellulose fiber. The maximum respective removal of lignin and hemicellulose was 70.3% and 68.2% from the 2% NaOH-pretreated liquor. The reducing sugar yield was 84.6% using an enzyme dose containing 20 FPU of cellulase, 40 IU of β-glucosidase and 4 FXU of xylanase/g of substrate. However, 2% NaOH-treated wheat straw had the lowest crystalline index of 52.5%, due to destructured cellulose fibers. The results indicate the effectiveness of producing the bioethanol precursor from wheat straw by using 2% NaOH at boiling temperature.

  17. Genes critical for the induction of cold acclimation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic studies have shown that cold acclimation in wheat and its relatives start at different temperatures. To gain insight into the underlying mechanisms that regulate the induction of cold-acclimation process in cereals we compared the expression of genes in winter-habit (winter Norstar and w...

  18. Response of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) quality traits and yield to sowing date.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mukhtar; Fayyaz-ul-Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The unpredictability and large fluctuation of the climatic conditions in rainfed regions do affect spring wheat yield and grain quality. These variations offer the opportunity for the production of better quality wheat. The effect of variable years, locations and sowing managements on wheat grain yield and quality was studied through field experiments using three genotypes, three locations for two years under rainfed conditions. The two studied years as contrasting years at three locations and sowing dates depicted variability in temperature and water stress during grain filling which resulted considerable change in grain yield and quality. Delayed sowing, years (2009-10) and location (Talagang) with high temperature and water stress resulted increased proline, and grain quality traits i.e. grain protein (GP) and grain ash (GA) than optimum conditions (during 2008-09, at Islamabad and early sowing). However, opposite trend was observed for dry gluten (DG), sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), SPAD content and grain yield irrespective of genotypes. The influence of variable climatic conditions was dominant in determining the quality traits and inverse relationship was observed among some quality traits and grain yield. It may be concluded that by selecting suitable locations and different sowing managements for subjecting the crop to desirable environmental conditions (temperature and water) quality traits of wheat crop could be modified.

  19. Screening of Bangladeshi winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars for sensitivity to ozone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sensitivity to ozone of ten Bangladeshi wheat cultivars was tested by exposing plants to eight ozone exposure regimes in controlled environment chambers. Visible leaf injury, dry weight, chlorophyll, carotenoid content, leaf greenness (SPAD value), quantum yield of photochemistry and stomatal re...

  20. First report of wheat blast caused by magnaporthe oryzae pathotype triticum in Bangladesh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat blast or ‘brusone’, caused by the ascomycetous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae B.C. Couch (synonym Pyricularia oryzae Cavara), was first identified in 1985 in Brazil. M. oryzae is composed of a range of morphologically identical but genetically different host-specific pathotypes that are specialized...

  1. Mapping QTL for the traits associated with heat tolerance in Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High temperature (heat) stress during grain filling is a major problem in most of the wheat growing areas. Developing heat-tolerant cultivars is becoming a principal breeding goal in the Southern and Central Great Plain areas of USA. Traits associated with high temperature tolerance can be used to d...

  2. Epiphytic pink-pigmented methylotrophic bacteria enhance germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) by producing phytohormone.

    PubMed

    Meena, Kamlesh K; Kumar, Manish; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Yandigeri, Mahesh S; Singh, Dhananjaya P; Saxena, Anil K; Arora, Dilip K

    2012-05-01

    Methylotrophic bacteria were isolated from the phyllosphere of different crop plants such as sugarcane, pigeonpea, mustard, potato and radish. The methylotrophic isolates were differentiated based on growth characteristics and colony morphology on methanol supplemented ammonium mineral salts medium. Amplification of the mxaF gene helped in the identification of the methylotrophic isolates as belonging to the genus Methylobacterium. Cell-free culture filtrates of these strains enhanced seed germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum) with highest values of 98.3% observed using Methylobacterium sp. (NC4). Highest values of seedling length and vigour were recorded with Methylobacterium sp. (NC28). HPLC analysis of production by bacterial strains ranged from 1.09 to 9.89 μg ml(-1) of cytokinins in the culture filtrate. Such cytokinin producing beneficial methylotrophs can be useful in developing bio-inoculants through co-inoculation of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs with other compatible bacterial strains, for improving plant growth and productivity, in an environment-friendly manner. PMID:22200783

  3. Responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and turnip (Brassica rapa) to the combined exposure of carbaryl and ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Lima, Maria P R; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2015-07-01

    The increase of ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the Earth's surface as a result of increased ozone layer depletion has affected crop production systems and, in combination with pesticides used in agricultural activities, can lead to greater risks to the environment. The impact of UV radiation and carbaryl singly and in combination on Triticum aestivum (wheat) and Brassica rapa (turnip) was studied. The combined exposure was analyzed using the MixTox tool and was based on the conceptual model of independent action, where possible deviations to synergism or antagonism and dose-ratio or dose-level response pattern were also considered. Compared with the control, carbaryl and UV radiation individually led to reductions in growth, fresh and dry weight, and water content for both species. Combined treatment of UV and carbaryl was more deleterious compared with single exposure. For T. aestivum length, no interaction between the 2 stressors was found (independent action), and a dose-level deviation was the best description for the weight parameters. For B. rapa, dose-ratio deviations from the conceptual model were found when length and dry weight were analyzed, and a higher than expected effect on the fresh weight (synergism) occurred with combined exposure. PMID:25754078

  4. The role of the F-box gene TaFBA1 from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shumei; Sun, Xiudong; Yin, Suhong; Kong, Xiangzhu; Zhou, Shan; Xu, Ying; Luo, Yin; Wang, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Drought is one of the most important factors limiting plant growth and development. We identified a gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under drought stress named TaFBA1. TaFBA1 encodes a putative 325-amino-acid F-box protein with a conserved N-terminal F-box domain and a C-terminal AMN1 domain. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that TaFBA1 transcript accumulation was upregulated by high-salinity, water stress, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. To evaluate the functions of TaFBA1 in the regulation of drought stress responses, we produced transgenic tobacco lines overexpressing TaFBA1. Under water stress conditions, the transgenic tobacco plants had a higher germination rate, higher relative water content, net photosynthesis rate (Pn), less chlorophyll loss, and less growth inhibition than WT. These results demonstrate the high tolerance of the transgenic plants to drought stress compared to the WT. The enhanced oxidative stress tolerance of these plants, which may be involved in their drought tolerance, was indicated by their lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, MDA content, and cell membrane damage under drought stress compared to WT. The antioxidant enzyme activities were higher in the transgenic plants than in WT, which may be related to the upregulated expression of some antioxidant genes via overexpression of TaFBA1.

  5. Effect of CO/sub 2/ enrichment on growth and reproduction of wheat grown under low oxygen. [Triticum aestivum

    SciTech Connect

    Musgrave, M.E.; Scheld, H.W.; Strain, B.R.

    1987-04-01

    Two cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cvs Sonoita and Yecoro Rojo) were grown to maturity in a Phytotron B chamber within four sub-chambers which imposed two CO/sub 2/ levels (350 or 1000 ppm) at either ambient (21%) or low oxygen (5%). Techniques of growth analysis were used to characterize changes in plant carbon budgets imposed by the gas regimes. Large increases in leaf area were seen in the low oxygen treatments, due primarily to a stimulation of tillering. No necrosis was observed in roots developing at 5% oxygen but rather root development increased dramatically. Flowering was much delayed in the low oxygen, 350 ppm carbon dioxide regime and the spikes which did develop did not mature. While one cultivar (Sonoita) did not respond to CO/sub 2/ enrichment (1000 ppm) at ambient oxygen in terms of increases in leaf area and head number, carbon dioxide enrichment overcame the low oxygen effect on flowering in both cultivars. The results demonstrate a previously unknown interaction between carbon dioxide enrichment and low oxygen as they affect reproduction and may help elucidate the nature of low-oxygen-induced infertility.

  6. Responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and turnip (Brassica rapa) to the combined exposure of carbaryl and ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Lima, Maria P R; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2015-07-01

    The increase of ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the Earth's surface as a result of increased ozone layer depletion has affected crop production systems and, in combination with pesticides used in agricultural activities, can lead to greater risks to the environment. The impact of UV radiation and carbaryl singly and in combination on Triticum aestivum (wheat) and Brassica rapa (turnip) was studied. The combined exposure was analyzed using the MixTox tool and was based on the conceptual model of independent action, where possible deviations to synergism or antagonism and dose-ratio or dose-level response pattern were also considered. Compared with the control, carbaryl and UV radiation individually led to reductions in growth, fresh and dry weight, and water content for both species. Combined treatment of UV and carbaryl was more deleterious compared with single exposure. For T. aestivum length, no interaction between the 2 stressors was found (independent action), and a dose-level deviation was the best description for the weight parameters. For B. rapa, dose-ratio deviations from the conceptual model were found when length and dry weight were analyzed, and a higher than expected effect on the fresh weight (synergism) occurred with combined exposure.

  7. Low irradiances affect abscisic acid, indole-3-acidic acid, and cytokinin levels of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nan, R.; Carman, J. G.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1999-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants were grown under four irradiance levels: 1,400, 400, 200, and 100 micromol m-2 s-1. Leaves and roots were sampled before, during, and after the boot stage, and levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin, zeatin riboside, dihydrozeatin, dihydrozeatin riboside, isopentenyl adenine, and isopentenyl adenosine were quantified using noncompetitive indirect ELISA systems. Levels of IAA in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 100 micromol m-2 s-1 of irradiance were 0.7 and 2.9 micromol kg-1 dry mass (DM), respectively. These levels were 0.2 and 1.0 micromol kg-1 DM, respectively, when plants were exposed to 1,400 micromol m-2 s-1. Levels of ABA in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 100 micromol m-2 s-1 were 0.65 and 0.55 micromol kg-1 DM, respectively. They were 0.24 micromol kg-1 DM (both leaves and roots) when plants were exposed to 1,400 micromol m-2 s-1. Levels of isopentenyl adenosine in leaves (24.3 nmol kg-1 DM) and roots (29.9 nmol kg-1 DM) were not affected by differences in the irradiance regime. Similar values were obtained in a second experiment. Other cytokinins could not be detected (<10 nmol kg 1 DM) in either experiment with the sample sizes used (150-600 mg DM for roots and shoots, respectively).

  8. The Effects of N Nutrition on the Water Relations and Gas Exchange Characteristics of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jack A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize leaf photosynthetic and stomatal responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown under two N-nutritional regimes. High- and low-N regimes were imposed on growth-chamber-grown plants by fertilizing with nutrient solutions containing 12 or 1 millimolar nitrogen, respectively. Gas-exchange measurements indicated not only greater photosynthetic capacity of high-N plants under well-watered conditions, but also a greater sensitivity of CO2 exchange rate and leaf conductance to CO2 and leaf water potential compared to low-N plants. Increased sensitivity of high-N plants was associated with greater tissue elasticity, lower values of leaf osmotic pressure and greater aboveground biomass. These N-nutritional-related changes resulted in greater desiccation (lowered relative water content) of high-N plants as leaf water potential fell, and were implicated as being important in causing greater sensitivity of high-N leaf gas exchange to reductions in water potential. Water use efficiency of leaves, calculated as CO2 exchange rate/transpiration, increased from 9.1 to 13 millimoles per mole and 7.9 to 9.1 millimoles per mole for high- and low-N plants as water became limiting. Stomatal oscillations were commonly observed in the low-N treatment at low leaf water potentials and ambient CO2 concentrations, but disappeared as CO2 was lowered and stomata opened. PMID:16664606

  9. Alleviation of salt stress by halotolerant and halophilic plant growth-promoting bacteria in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Orhan, Furkan

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, 18 halotolerant and halophilic bacteria have been investigated for their plant growth promoting abilities in vitro and in a hydroponic culture. The bacterial strains have been investigated for ammonia, indole-3-acetic acid and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate-deaminase production, phosphate solubilisation and nitrogen fixation activities. Of the tested bacteria, eight were inoculated with Triticum aestivum in a hydroponic culture. The investigated bacterial strains were found to have different plant-growth promoting activities in vitro. Under salt stress (200mM NaCl), the investigated bacterial strains significantly increased the root and shoot length and total fresh weight of the plants. The growth rates of the plants inoculated with bacterial strains ranged from 62.2% to 78.1%. Identifying of novel halophilic and halotolerant bacteria that promote plant growth can be used as alternatives for salt sensitive plants. Extensive research has been conducted on several halophilic and halotolerant bacterial strains to investigate their plant growth promoting activities. However, to the best of my knowledge, this is the first study to inoculate these bacterial strains with wheat. PMID:27133557

  10. Microbial Diversity of Type I Sourdoughs Prepared and Back-Slopped with Wholemeal and Refined Soft (Triticum aestivum) Wheat Flours.

    PubMed

    Taccari, Manuela; Aquilanti, Lucia; Polverigiani, Serena; Osimani, Andrea; Garofalo, Cristiana; Milanović, Vesna; Clementi, Francesca

    2016-08-01

    The fermentation of type I sourdough was studied for 20 d with daily back-slopping under laboratory and artisan bakery conditions using 1 wholemeal and 2 refined soft wheat (Triticum aestivum) flours. The sourdough bacterial and yeast diversity and dynamics were investigated by plate counting and a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent PCR-DGGE approach. The pH, total titrable acidity, and concentration of key organic acids (phytic, lactic, and acetic) were measured. Three flours differed for both chemical and rheological properties. A microbial succession was observed, with the atypical sourdough species detected at day 0 (i.e. Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc holzapfelii/citreum group for bacteria and Candida silvae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus for yeasts) being progressively replaced by taxa more adapted to the sourdough ecosystem (Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus alimentarius/paralimentarius, Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In mature sourdoughs, a notably different species composition was observed. As sourdoughs propagated with the same flour at laboratory and artisan bakery level were compared, the influence of both the substrate and the propagation environment on microbial diversity was assumed. PMID:27332783

  11. Hybrid dwarfness in crosses between wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.): a new look at an old phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Tikhenko, N; Rutten, T; Tsvetkova, N; Voylokov, A; Börner, A

    2015-03-01

    The existence of hybrid dwarfs from intraspecific crosses in wheat (Triticum aestivum) was described 100 years ago, and the genetics underlying hybrid dwarfness are well understood. In this study, we report a dwarf phenotype in interspecific hybrids between wheat and rye (Secale cereale). We identified two rye lines that produce hybrid dwarfs with wheat and have none of the hitherto known hybrid dwarfing genes. Genetic analyses revealed that both rye lines carry a single allelic gene responsible for the dwarf phenotype. This gene was designated Hdw-R1 (Hybrid dwarf-R1). Application of gibberellic acid (GA3 ) to both intraspecific (wheat-wheat) and interspecific (wheat-rye) hybrids showed that hybrid dwarfness cannot be overcome by treatment with this phytohormone. Histological analysis of shoot apices showed that wheat-rye hybrids with the dwarf phenotype at 21 and 45 days after germination failed to develop further. Shoot apices of dwarf plants did not elongate, did not form new primordia and had a dome-shaped appearance in the seed. The possible relationship between hybrid dwarfness and the genes responsible for the transition from vegetative to generative growth stage is discussed.

  12. The dynamic process of interspecific interactions of competitive nitrogen capture between intercropped wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Chunjie; Dong, Yan; Li, Haigang; Shen, Jianbo; Zhang, Fusuo

    2014-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/faba bean (Vicia faba L.) intercropping shows significant overyielding and high nitrogen (N)-use efficiency, but the dynamics of plant interactions have rarely been estimated. The objective of the present study was to investigate the temporal dynamics of competitive N acquisition between intercropped wheat and faba bean with the logistic model. Wheat and faba bean were grown together or alone with limited N supply in pots. Data of shoot and root biomass and N content measured from 14 samplings were fitted to logistic models to determine instantaneous rates of growth and N uptake. The superiority of instantaneous biomass production and N uptake shifted from faba bean to wheat with their growth. Moreover, the shift of superiority on N uptake occurred 7-12 days earlier than that of biomass production. Interspecific competition stimulated intercropped wheat to have a much earlier and stronger superiority on instantaneous N uptake compared with isolated wheat. The modeling methodology characterized the temporal dynamics of biomass production and N uptake of intercropped wheat and faba bean in different planting systems, which helps to understand the underlying process of plant interaction for intercropping plants.

  13. The Dynamic Process of Interspecific Interactions of Competitive Nitrogen Capture between Intercropped Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/faba bean (Vicia faba L.) intercropping shows significant overyielding and high nitrogen (N)-use efficiency, but the dynamics of plant interactions have rarely been estimated. The objective of the present study was to investigate the temporal dynamics of competitive N acquisition between intercropped wheat and faba bean with the logistic model. Wheat and faba bean were grown together or alone with limited N supply in pots. Data of shoot and root biomass and N content measured from 14 samplings were fitted to logistic models to determine instantaneous rates of growth and N uptake. The superiority of instantaneous biomass production and N uptake shifted from faba bean to wheat with their growth. Moreover, the shift of superiority on N uptake occurred 7–12 days earlier than that of biomass production. Interspecific competition stimulated intercropped wheat to have a much earlier and stronger superiority on instantaneous N uptake compared with isolated wheat. The modeling methodology characterized the temporal dynamics of biomass production and N uptake of intercropped wheat and faba bean in different planting systems, which helps to understand the underlying process of plant interaction for intercropping plants. PMID:25541699

  14. Whole genome association mapping of plant height in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zanke, Christine D; Ling, Jie; Plieske, Jörg; Kollers, Sonja; Ebmeyer, Erhard; Korzun, Viktor; Argillier, Odile; Stiewe, Gunther; Hinze, Maike; Neumann, Kerstin; Ganal, Martin W; Röder, Marion S

    2014-01-01

    The genetic architecture of plant height was investigated in a set of 358 recent European winter wheat varieties plus 14 spring wheat varieties based on field data in eight environments. Genotyping of diagnostic markers revealed the Rht-D1b mutant allele in 58% of the investigated varieties, while the Rht-B1b mutant was only present in 7% of the varieties. Rht-D1 was significantly associated with plant height by using a mixed linear model and employing a kinship matrix to correct for population stratification. Further genotyping data included 732 microsatellite markers, resulting in 770 loci, of which 635 markers were placed on the ITMI map plus a set of 7769 mapped SNP markers genotyped with the 90 k iSELECT chip. When Bonferroni correction was applied, a total of 153 significant marker-trait associations (MTAs) were observed for plant height and the SSR markers (-log10 (P-value) ≥ 4.82) and 280 (-log10 (P-value) ≥ 5.89) for the SNPs. Linear regression between the most effective markers and the BLUEs for plant height indicated additive effects for the MTAs of different chromosomal regions. Analysis of syntenic regions in the rice genome revealed closely linked rice genes related to gibberellin acid (GA) metabolism and perception, i.e. GA20 and GA2 oxidases orthologous to wheat chromosomes 1A, 2A, 3A, 3B, 5B, 5D and 7B, ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase orthologous to wheat chromosome 7A, ent-kaurene synthase on wheat chromosome 2B, as well as GA-receptors like DELLA genes orthologous to wheat chromosomes 4B, 4D and 7A and genes of the GID family orthologous to chromosomes 2B and 5B. The data indicated that besides the widely used GA-insensitive dwarfing genes Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 there is a wide spectrum of loci available that could be used for modulating plant height in variety development.

  15. Whole genome association mapping of plant height in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zanke, Christine D; Ling, Jie; Plieske, Jörg; Kollers, Sonja; Ebmeyer, Erhard; Korzun, Viktor; Argillier, Odile; Stiewe, Gunther; Hinze, Maike; Neumann, Kerstin; Ganal, Martin W; Röder, Marion S

    2014-01-01

    The genetic architecture of plant height was investigated in a set of 358 recent European winter wheat varieties plus 14 spring wheat varieties based on field data in eight environments. Genotyping of diagnostic markers revealed the Rht-D1b mutant allele in 58% of the investigated varieties, while the Rht-B1b mutant was only present in 7% of the varieties. Rht-D1 was significantly associated with plant height by using a mixed linear model and employing a kinship matrix to correct for population stratification. Further genotyping data included 732 microsatellite markers, resulting in 770 loci, of which 635 markers were placed on the ITMI map plus a set of 7769 mapped SNP markers genotyped with the 90 k iSELECT chip. When Bonferroni correction was applied, a total of 153 significant marker-trait associations (MTAs) were observed for plant height and the SSR markers (-log10 (P-value) ≥ 4.82) and 280 (-log10 (P-value) ≥ 5.89) for the SNPs. Linear regression between the most effective markers and the BLUEs for plant height indicated additive effects for the MTAs of different chromosomal regions. Analysis of syntenic regions in the rice genome revealed closely linked rice genes related to gibberellin acid (GA) metabolism and perception, i.e. GA20 and GA2 oxidases orthologous to wheat chromosomes 1A, 2A, 3A, 3B, 5B, 5D and 7B, ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase orthologous to wheat chromosome 7A, ent-kaurene synthase on wheat chromosome 2B, as well as GA-receptors like DELLA genes orthologous to wheat chromosomes 4B, 4D and 7A and genes of the GID family orthologous to chromosomes 2B and 5B. The data indicated that besides the widely used GA-insensitive dwarfing genes Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 there is a wide spectrum of loci available that could be used for modulating plant height in variety development. PMID:25405621

  16. Over-Expression of a Tobacco Nitrate Reductase Gene in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Increases Seed Protein Content and Weight without Augmenting Nitrogen Supplying

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiao-Qiang; Nie, Xuan-Li; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Heavy nitrogen (N) application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR) in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, “Nongda146” and “Jimai6358”, by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed), respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s) in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying. PMID:24040315

  17. Antioxidative and anticarcinogenic activities of methylpheophorbide a, isolated from wheat grass (Triticum aestivum Linn.).

    PubMed

    Das, Priyabrata; Mandal, Suvra; Gangopadhyay, Sudeshna; Das, Kalipada; Mitra, Arpita Ghosh; Dasgupta, Swati; Mukhopadhyay, Soma; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis

    2016-01-01

    Methylphophorbide a (MPa) has been isolated from the ethanol extract of the wheat grass plant. Its antioxidative efficacy is evaluated by hydroxyl radical scavenging activities and reducing capacity which are significantly up regulated in comparison with aqueous extract of the plant. The compound shows iron-binding capacity where the Fe(2+) binds with MPa by two types of binding patterns with dissociation constants 157.17 and 27.89. It has antioxidative and cytotoxic effects on HeLa and Hep G2 cells. The cancerous cell survivability decreases with increasing concentration of MPa. These findings have provided evidence for the traditional use of the wheat grass plant in the treatment of cancers, oxidative stress and iron overloaded disorders.

  18. RAPD markers associated with drought tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Pakniyat, H; Tavakol, E

    2007-09-15

    Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) were used to search genetic diversity and markers associated with drought tolerance in 20 bread wheat cultivars. These cultivars are extensively being used by farmers in Iran, 6 of them are known as drought tolerant. Initial screens involved growing 10 cultivars at seedling stage under drought conditions (-5 and -8 bar) exerted by PEG 6000 in a hydroponic experiment. These tests confirmed the tolerance of the 6 above mentioned cultivars. Thirty 10-mer RAPD primers were used for fingerprinting of the cultivars of which primers P6 (TCGGCGGTTC) and P7 (CTGCATCGTG) produced respectively a 920 and a 750 bp band present in drought tolerant (absent in others) cultivars. These bands may be associated with drought tolerance in bread wheat.

  19. Ferulic acid from aleurone determines the antioxidant potency of wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Mateo Anson, Nuria; van den Berg, Robin; Havenaar, Rob; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R M M

    2008-07-23

    Grain is an important source of phytochemicals, which have potent antioxidant capacity. They have been implicated in the beneficial health effect of whole grains in reducing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to identify the most important antioxidant fractions of wheat grain. It was found that the aleurone content of these fractions was highly correlated with the antioxidant capacity of the fractions (r = 0.96, p < 0.0001). Ferulic acid appeared to be the major contributor to the antioxidant capacity in fractions with higher antioxidant capacity. The contribution of protein was rather limited. It was concluded that the antioxidant potency of wheat grain fractions is predominantly determined by aleurone content, which can be attributed to the presence of relatively large amounts of phenolic compounds, primarily ferulic acid.

  20. Selenium promotes sulfur accumulation and plant growth in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Paulo F; de Figueiredo, Marislaine A; Yang, Yong; Luo, Hongmei; Giri, Shree; Hart, Jonathan J; Faquin, Valdemar; Guilherme, Luiz R G; Thannhauser, Theorodore W; Li, Li

    2016-09-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for animals and humans and a target for biofortification in crops. Sulfur (S) is a crucial nutrient for plant growth. To gain better understanding of Se and S nutrition and interaction in plants, the effects of Se dosages and forms on plant growth as well as on S level in seven wheat lines were examined. Low dosages of both selenate and selenite supplements were found to enhance wheat shoot biomass and show no inhibitory effect on grain production. The stimulation on plant growth was correlated with increased APX antioxidant enzyme activity. Se forms were found to exert different effects on S metabolism in wheat plants. Selenate treatment promoted S accumulation, which was not observed with selenite supplement. An over threefold increase of S levels following selenate treatment at low dosages was observed in shoots of all wheat lines. Analysis of the sulfate transporter gene expression revealed an increased transcription of SULTR1;1, SULTR1;3 and SULTR4;1 in roots following 10 μM Na2 SeO4 treatment. Mass spectrometry-based targeted protein quantification confirmed the gene expression results and showed enhanced protein levels. The results suggest that Se treatment mimics S deficiency to activate specific sulfate transporter expression to stimulate S uptake, resulting in the selenate-induced S accumulation. This study supports that plant growth and nutrition benefit from low dosages of Se fertilization and provides information on the basis underlying Se-induced S accumulation in plants. PMID:27152969

  1. Catalogue of alleles of gliadin-coding loci in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    PubMed

    Melnikova, N V; Kudryavtseva, A V; Kudryavtsev, A M

    2012-02-01

    Gliadins are seed storage proteins which are characterized by high intervarietal polymorphism and can be used as genetic markers. As a result of our work, a considerably extended catalogue of allelic variants of gliadin component blocks was compiled for durum wheat; 74 allelic variants for four gliadin-coding loci were identified for the first time. The extended catalogue includes a total of 131 allelic variants: 16 for locus Gli-A1(d), 19 for locus Gli-B1(d), 41 for locus Gli-A2(d), and 55 for locus Gli-B2(d). The electrophoretic pattern of the standard cultivar and a diagram are provided for every block identified. The number of alleles per family is quite small for loci Gli-A1(d) and Gli-B1(d) of durum wheat, as contrasted to loci Gli-A2(d) and Gli-B2(d) that are characterized by large families including many alleles. The presence of large block families determines a higher diversity of durum wheat for loci Gli-A2(d) and Gli-B2(d) as compared to Gli-A1(d) and Gli-B1(d). The catalogue of allelic variants of gliadin component blocks can be used by seed farmers to identify durum wheat cultivars and evaluate their purity; by breeders, to obtain homogenous cultivars and control the initial stages of selection; by gene bank experts, to preserve native varieties and the original biotypic composition of cultivars. PMID:21946233

  2. Enzyme affinity to cell types in wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) before and after hydrothermal pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat straw used for bioethanol production varies in enzymatic digestibility according to chemical structure and composition of cell walls and tissues. In this work, the two biologically different wheat straw organs, leaves and stems, are described together with the effects of hydrothermal pretreatment on chemical composition, tissue structure, enzyme adhesion and digestion. To highlight the importance of inherent cell wall characteristics and the diverse effects of mechanical disruption and biochemical degradation, separate leaves and stems were pretreated on lab-scale and their tissue structures maintained mostly intact for image analysis. Finally, samples were enzymatically hydrolysed to correlate digestibility to chemical composition, removal of polymers, tissue composition and disruption, particle size and enzyme adhesion as a result of pretreatment and wax removal. For comparison, industrially pretreated wheat straw from Inbicon A/S was included in all the experiments. Results Within the same range of pretreatment severities, industrial pretreatment resulted in most hemicellulose and epicuticular wax/cutin removal compared to lab-scale pretreated leaves and stems but also in most re-deposition of lignin on the surface. Tissues were furthermore degraded from tissues into individual cells while lab-scale pretreated samples were structurally almost intact. In both raw leaves and stems, endoglucanase and exoglucanase adhered most to parenchyma cells; after pretreatment, to epidermal cells in all the samples. Despite heavy tissue disruption, industrially pretreated samples were not as susceptible to enzymatic digestion as lab-scale pretreated leaves while lab-scale pretreated stems were the least digestible. Conclusions Despite preferential enzyme adhesion to epidermal cells after hydrothermal pretreatment, our results suggest that the single most important factor determining wheat straw digestibility is the fraction of parenchyma cells rather than

  3. An Assessment of Heavy Ion Irradiation Mutagenesis for Reverse Genetics in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Timothy L.; Powell, Jonathan J.; Stiller, Jiri; Weese, Terri L.; Abe, Tomoko; Zhao, Guangyao; Jia, Jizeng; McIntyre, C. Lynne; Li, Zhongyi; Manners, John M.; Kazan, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Reverse genetic techniques harnessing mutational approaches are powerful tools that can provide substantial insight into gene function in plants. However, as compared to diploid species, reverse genetic analyses in polyploid plants such as bread wheat can present substantial challenges associated with high levels of sequence and functional similarity amongst homoeologous loci. We previously developed a high-throughput method to identify deletions of genes within a physically mutagenized wheat population. Here we describe our efforts to combine multiple homoeologous deletions of three candidate disease susceptibility genes (TaWRKY11, TaPFT1 and TaPLDß1). We were able to produce lines featuring homozygous deletions at two of the three homoeoloci for all genes, but this was dependent on the individual mutants used in crossing. Intriguingly, despite extensive efforts, viable lines possessing homozygous deletions at all three homoeoloci could not be produced for any of the candidate genes. To investigate deletion size as a possible reason for this phenomenon, we developed an amplicon sequencing approach based on synteny to Brachypodium distachyon to assess the size of the deletions removing one candidate gene (TaPFT1) in our mutants. These analyses revealed that genomic deletions removing the locus are relatively large, resulting in the loss of multiple additional genes. The implications of this work for the use of heavy ion mutagenesis for reverse genetic analyses in wheat are discussed. PMID:25719507

  4. Genotoxic Effects of Superconducting Static Magnetic Fields (SMFs) on Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Pollen Mother Cells (PMCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pingping; Yin, Ruochun; Chen, Zhiyou; Wu, Lifang; Yu, Zengliang

    2007-04-01

    The effects of superconducting static magnetic fields (SMFs) on the pollen mother cells (PMCs) of wheat were investigated in order to evaluate the possible genotoxic effect of such non-ionizing radiation. The seeds of wheat were exposed to static magnetic fields with either different magnetic flux densities (0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 Tesla) for 5 h or different durations (1, 3 and 5 h) at a magnetic flux density of 7 Tesla. The seeds were germinated at 23oC after exposure and the seedlings were transplanted into the field. The PMCs from young wheat ears were taken and slides were made following the conventional method. The genotoxic effect was evaluated in terms of micronucleus (MN), chromosomal bridge, lagging chromosome and fragments in PMCs. Although the exposed groups of a low field intensity (below 5 Tesla) showed no statistically significant difference in the aberration frequency compared with the unexposed control groups and sham exposed groups, a significant increase in the chromosomal bridge, lagging chromosome, triple-polar segregation or micronucleus was observed at a field strength of 5 Tesla or 7 Tesla, respectively. The analysis of dose-effect relationships indicated that the increased frequency of meiotic abnormal cells correlated with the flux density of the magnetic field and duration, but no linear relationship was observed. Such statistically significant differences indicated a potential genotoxic effect of high static magnetic fields above 5 T.

  5. The optimal atmospheric CO2 concentration for the growth of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming

    2015-07-20

    This study examined the optimal atmospheric CO2 concentration of the CO2 fertilization effect on the growth of winter wheat with growth chambers where the CO2 concentration was controlled at 400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 ppm respectively. I found that initial increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration dramatically enhanced winter wheat growth through the CO2 fertilization effect. However, this CO2 fertilization effect was substantially compromised with further increase in CO2 concentration, demonstrating an optimal CO2 concentration of 889.6, 909.4, and 894.2 ppm for aboveground, belowground, and total biomass, respectively, and 967.8 ppm for leaf photosynthesis. Also, high CO2 concentrations exceeding the optima not only reduced leaf stomatal density, length and conductance, but also changed the spatial distribution pattern of stomata on leaves. In addition, high CO2 concentration also decreased the maximum carboxylation rate (Vc(max)) and the maximum electron transport rate (J(max)) of leaf photosynthesis. However, the high CO2 concentration had little effect on leaf length and plant height. The optimal CO2 fertilization effect found in this study can be used as an indicator in selecting and breeding new wheat strains in adapting to future high atmospheric CO2 concentrations and climate change. PMID:26253981

  6. Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Benzoxazinoid Glycosides from Rhizopus-Elicited Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Seedlings.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Wouter J C; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Duran, Katharina; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-08-17

    Benzoxazinoids function as defense compounds and have been suggested to possess health-promoting effects. In this work, the mass spectrometric behavior of benzoxazinoids from the classes benzoxazin-3-ones (with subclasses lactams, hydroxamic acids, and methyl derivatives) and benzoxazolinones was studied. Wheat seeds were germinated with simultaneous elicitation by Rhizopus. The seedling extract was screened for the presence of benzoxazinoid (glycosides) using reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection coupled in line to multiple-stage mass spectrometry (RP-UHPLC-PDA-MS(n)). Benzoxazin-3-ones from the different subclasses showed distinctly different ionization and fragmentation behaviors. These features were incorporated into a newly proposed decision guideline to aid the classification of benzoxazinoids. Glycosides of the methyl derivative 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one were tentatively identified for the first time in wheat. We conclude that wheat seedlings germinated with simultaneous fungal elicitation contain a diverse array of benzoxazinoids, mainly constituted by benzoxazin-3-one glycosides. PMID:27431363

  7. The optimal atmospheric CO2 concentration for the growth of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming

    2015-07-20

    This study examined the optimal atmospheric CO2 concentration of the CO2 fertilization effect on the growth of winter wheat with growth chambers where the CO2 concentration was controlled at 400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 ppm respectively. I found that initial increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration dramatically enhanced winter wheat growth through the CO2 fertilization effect. However, this CO2 fertilization effect was substantially compromised with further increase in CO2 concentration, demonstrating an optimal CO2 concentration of 889.6, 909.4, and 894.2 ppm for aboveground, belowground, and total biomass, respectively, and 967.8 ppm for leaf photosynthesis. Also, high CO2 concentrations exceeding the optima not only reduced leaf stomatal density, length and conductance, but also changed the spatial distribution pattern of stomata on leaves. In addition, high CO2 concentration also decreased the maximum carboxylation rate (Vc(max)) and the maximum electron transport rate (J(max)) of leaf photosynthesis. However, the high CO2 concentration had little effect on leaf length and plant height. The optimal CO2 fertilization effect found in this study can be used as an indicator in selecting and breeding new wheat strains in adapting to future high atmospheric CO2 concentrations and climate change.

  8. Dynamic changes of rhizosphere properties and antioxidant enzyme responses of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in mercury-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghua; Sun, Hongfei; Li, Hairong; Yang, Linsheng; Ye, Bixiong; Wang, Wuyi

    2013-10-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the dynamic changes in the rhizosphere properties and antioxidant enzyme responses of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in three levels of Hg-contaminated soils. The concentrations of soluble Hg and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the rhizosphere soil solutions of the wheat plants were characterised by the sequence before sowing>trefoil stage>stooling stage, whereas the soil solution pH was found to follow an opposite distribution pattern. The activities of antioxidant enzymes in wheat plants under Hg stress were substantially altered. Greater superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were observed in the wheat plants grown in a highly polluted soil than in a slightly polluted soil (with increases of 11-27% at the trefoil stage and 26-70% at the stooling stage); however, increasing concentrations of Hg up to seriously polluted level led to reduced enzyme activities. The present results suggest that wheat plants could positively adapt to environmental Hg stress, with rhizosphere acidification, the enhancement of DOC production and greater antioxidant enzyme activities perhaps being three important mechanisms involved in the metal uptake/tolerance in the rhizospheres of wheat plants grown in Hg-contaminated soils.

  9. [Genealogical Analysis of the Use of Aegilops (Aegilops L.) Genetic Material in Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.)].

    PubMed

    Martynov, S P; Dobrotvorskaya, T V; Mitrofanova, O P

    2015-09-01

    A genealogical analysis of accessions in the global gene pool of the wheat database GRIS4.0 showed that the use of the genetic material of Aegilops in wheat breeding began about half a century ago. During this time, more than 1350 varieties and 9000 lines, the pedigree of which contains Aegilops species, were created in different regions of the world. The spatial and temporal dynamics of the distribution of wheat varieties containing the genetic material of Aegilops was investigated. Analysis of the data showed that most commercial varieties with a pedigree including Ae. tauschii and/or Ae. umbellulata were created and grown in North America. More than 70% of the varieties were produced with Ae. ventricosa, which is common in western and central Europe. A gradual increase in the proportion of varieties with Aegilops genetic material was recorded from 1962 to 2011. The percentage of varieties created with the involvement of Ae. umbellulata increased from 1-5% in the 1960s to 25-29% in the 2000s. Those created with Ae. tauschii increased from 0% to 14-18%, and those created with Ae. ventricosa increased from 1% to 34-37%. The increases in the number of these varieties indicates that the resistance genes from Aegilops species retain their effectiveness. Genealogical analysis of the varieties in which resistance genes from Aegilops were postulated revealed that varieties or lines that were sources of identified genes were often absent in the pedigree. This may be due to an incorrect pedigree record or errors in the identification of resistance genes by phytopathological testing and/or the use of molecular markers, or confusion in nurseries. Preliminary analysis of pedigrees provides an opportunity to reveal discrepancies between the pedigree and postulated genes.

  10. The determination of tocopherols and isoprenoid quinones in the grain and seedlings of wheat (Triticum vulgare)

    PubMed Central

    Hall, G. S.; Laidman, D. L.

    1968-01-01

    1. A comparison is made of several procedures for the extraction of tocopherols and isoprenoid quinones from plant tissues. 2. Gradient-elution column chromatography on acid-washed alumina efficiently separates the isoprenoid quinones and tocopherols into groups that can then be assayed spectrophotometrically or, with the tocopherols, separated into their individual components and determined by gas–liquid chromatography. 3. This improved analytical procedure was used to study the distribution of the tocopherols and of ubiquinone in the ungerminated wheat grain. PMID:5667256

  11. 20-Hydroxyecdysone protects wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.) against lead stress.

    PubMed

    Lamhamdi, Mostafa; Lafont, René; Rharrabe, Kacem; Sayah, Fouad; Aarab, Ahmed; Bakrim, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) is the most abundant phytoecdysteroid (PE) produced by plants, where it represents a protective molecule against insect attack. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of 20E on the growth, metabolic enzymes and antioxidant systems of wheat seedlings under lead stress induced by Pb(NO3)2 (3 mM). Pre-treatment concentrations (0, 1, 3 and 5 μM) of 20E were applied for two days, then wheat seedlings were transferred for 5 days to a treatment solution containing lead nitrate. When plants were grown without pre-treatment, germination and growth were impaired, while signs of oxidative stress were observed. 20E pre-treatment (3 or 5 μM) was able to efficiently protect seedlings from Pb toxicity by reducing Pb uptake and Pb-induced oxidative stress, as well by enhancing Pb excretion. Thus, 20E pre-treatment maintains normal germination, elongation, biomass, and metabolism in spite of the presence of Pb. Our results show that 20E protects oxidative balance and enhances the anti-oxidative systems, and more specifically the ascorbate-glutathione system. To our knowledge, this study shows for the first time that 20E treatment induces metabolic changes that allow the plants to resist heavy metal stress.

  12. Breeding schemes for the implementation of genomic selection in wheat (Triticum spp.).

    PubMed

    Bassi, Filippo M; Bentley, Alison R; Charmet, Gilles; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Crossa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade the breeding technology referred to as 'genomic selection' (GS) has been implemented in a variety of species, with particular success in animal breeding. Recent research shows the potential of GS to reshape wheat breeding. Many authors have concluded that the estimated genetic gain per year applying GS is several times that of conventional breeding. GS is, however, a new technology for wheat breeding and many programs worldwide are still struggling to identify the best strategy for its implementation. This article provides practical guidelines on the key considerations when implementing GS. A review of the existing GS literature for a range of species is provided and used to prime breeder-oriented considerations on the practical applications of GS. Furthermore, this article discusses potential breeding schemes for GS, genotyping considerations, and methods for effective training population design. The components of selection intensity, progress toward inbreeding in half- or full-sibs recurrent schemes, and the generation of selection are also presented.

  13. In Silico Studies of C3 Metabolic Pathway Proteins of Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    PubMed Central

    Naeem, Muhammad Kashif; Rauf, Sobiah; Iqbal, Hina; Nawaz Shah, Muhammad Kausar; Mir, Asif

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthesis is essential for plant productivity and critical for plant growth. More than 90% of plants have a C3 metabolic pathway primarily for carbon assimilation. Improving crop yields for food and fuel is a major challenge for plant biology. To enhance the production of wheat there is need to adopt the strategies that can create the change in plants at the molecular level. During the study we have employed computational bioinformatics and interactomics analysis of C3 metabolic pathway proteins in wheat. The three-dimensional protein modeling provided insight into molecular mechanism and enhanced understanding of physiological processes and biological systems. Therefore in our study, initially we constructed models for nine proteins involving C3 metabolic pathway, as these are not determined through wet lab experiment (NMR, X-ray Crystallography) and not available in RCSB Protein Data Bank and UniProt KB. On the basis of docking interaction analysis, we proposed the schematic diagram of C3 metabolic pathway. Accordingly, there also exist vice versa interactions between 3PGK and Rbcl. Future site and directed mutagenesis experiments in C3 plants could be designed on the basis of our findings to confirm the predicted protein interactions. PMID:23484105

  14. Changes in the nuclear proteome of developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    PubMed Central

    Bonnot, Titouan; Bancel, Emmanuelle; Chambon, Christophe; Boudet, Julie; Branlard, Gérard; Martre, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Wheat grain end-use value is determined by complex molecular interactions that occur during grain development, including those in the cell nucleus. However, our knowledge of how the nuclear proteome changes during grain development is limited. Here, we analyzed nuclear proteins of developing wheat grains collected during the cellularization, effective grain-filling, and maturation phases of development, respectively. Nuclear proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Image analysis revealed 371 and 299 reproducible spots in gels with first dimension separation along pH 4–7 and pH 6–11 isoelectric gradients, respectively. The relative abundance of 464 (67%) protein spots changed during grain development. Abundance profiles of these proteins clustered in six groups associated with the major phases and phase transitions of grain development. Using nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to analyse 387 variant and non-variant protein spots, 114 different proteins were identified that were classified into 16 functional classes. We noted that some proteins involved in the regulation of transcription, like HMG1/2-like protein and histone deacetylase HDAC2, were most abundant before the phase transition from cellularization to grain-filling, suggesting that major transcriptional changes occur during this key developmental phase. The maturation period was characterized by high relative abundance of proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002999. PMID:26579155

  15. Transcriptional profiling of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots identifies novel, dehydration-responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Kav, Nat N V; Deyholos, Michael K

    2007-05-01

    We used a long-oligonucleotide microarray to identify transcripts that increased or decreased in abundance in roots of dehydration-tolerant hexaploid bread wheat, in response to withholding of water. We observed that the major classes of dehydration-responsive genes (e.g. osmoprotectants, compatible solutes, proteases, glycosyltransferases/hydrolases, signal transducers components, ion transporters) were generally similar to those observed previously in other species and osmotic stresses. More specifically, we highlighted increases in transcript expression for specific genes including those putatively related to the synthesis of asparagine, trehalose, oligopeptide transporters, metal-binding proteins, the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt and transcription factors. Conversely, we noted a decrease in transcript abundance for diverse classes of glutathione and sulphur-related enzymes, specific amino acids, as well as MATE-efflux carrier proteins. From these data, we identified a novel, dehydration-induced putative AP2/ERF transcription factor, which we predict to function as a transcriptional repressor. We also identified a dehydration-induced 'little protein' (LitP; predicted mass: 8 kDa) that is highly conserved across spermatophytes. Using qRT-PCR, we compared the expression patterns of selected genes between two related wheat genotypes that differed in their susceptibility to dehydration, and confirmed that these novel genes were highly inducible by water limitation in both genotypes, although the magnitude of induction differed.

  16. Evaluation of some drought resistance criteria at seedling stage in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Tavakol, E; Pakniyat, H

    2007-04-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate some of the drought resistance criteria at seedling stage in wheat. A factorial experiment in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was used with two factors consisted of stress levels (0, -5 and -8 bar) using PEG 6000 and genotypes (10 genotypes of bread wheat; Azar 2, Gahar, Koohdasht, Bow, Zagros, Cham, Niknejad, E1 Neilairi, Bohoih and Giza 164) in three replications in a hydroponic condition. Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Water Use Efficiency (WUE), Biological Yield (BY), Shoot Dry Weight (SDW), Root Dry Weight (RDW), Root/Shoot weight ratio (R/S), Root Length (RL), Relative Water Content (RWC), Wilting Percentage (WP) and first and 2nd Leaves Extention Rate (LER1 and LER2) were measured at seedling stage. Increasing stress levels caused reduction in BY, SDW, RDW, RL, RWC, LER1 and LER2, but an increase in WUE, DWR, R/S and WP. Azar2, Gahar, Koohdasht, Zagros and Bow were in favorite condition in regard to STI, WUE and other criteria. Therefore, they are drought tolerant and might be suitable genotypes at water deficit conditions. Niknejad, E1 Neilairi and Cham were moderate and Giza 164 and Bohoih were sensitive genotypes to drought conditions. This research revealed that at -5 bar, WUE, BY, SDW, R/S and LER2 and at -8 bar, WUE, BY and WP were suitable criteria for selection of drought resistant genotypes at seedling stage.

  17. Activation of latent nucleolus organizers induced by experimental polyploidization in cells of hexaploid wheat Triticum aestivum L.

    PubMed

    Lazareva, E M; Khoudoleeva, O A; Chentsov YuS; Polyakov VYu

    2000-01-01

    The effect of prolonged colchicine-induced polyploidization on activation of latent nucleolus-organizing regions (NOR) of chromosomes was studied in diploid meristematic cells and polyploid root cells of Triticum aestivum L. It has been shown that control diploid and tetraploid cells have maximal number of nucleoli equal to four, which corresponds to the number of nucleolar chromosomes (NC) with active (visualized by staining with AgNO3) NOR (two pairs of homologous chromosomes 1B and 6B). Treatment of wheat seedlings with colchicine for 30 h results in following changes in polyploid cells: (1) impregnation of NOR with silver is observed on homologues of either chromosomes 1A or 5D in all tetraploid metaphase plates (4n, 2x, 4c), which is indicative of the NOR activation on this chromosome in pre-mitotic polyploid interphase; (2) In tetraploid metaphase, NOR in all four homologues of activated chromosomes or in only two of them may be stained; (3) maximal number of nucleoli in tetraploid nuclei is increased till 12, which confirms activation of transcription of additional rRNA gene clusters in polyploids; (4) activation of the rRNA gene expression is induced by the cell polyploidization rather than by colchicine, since in the colchicine-treated diploid cells both maximal number of nucleoli and the number of metaphase chromosomes with active NOR is not changed as compared with control. The obtained data allow us to suggest that structural "separation" of NC in polyploid nuclei stimulates activation of latent NOR. PMID:11093578

  18. Structural analysis of xylanase inhibitor protein I (XIP-I), a proteinaceous xylanase inhibitor from wheat (Triticum aestivum, var. Soisson).

    PubMed Central

    Payan, Françoise; Flatman, Ruth; Porciero, Sophie; Williamson, Gary; Juge, Nathalie; Roussel, Alain

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of proteinaceous inhibitors exhibiting specificity towards microbial xylanases has recently been discovered in cereals. The three-dimensional structure of xylanase inhibitor protein I (XIP-I) from wheat (Triticum aestivum, var. Soisson) was determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.8 A (1 A=0.1 nm) resolution. The inhibitor possesses a (beta/alpha)(8) barrel fold and has structural features typical of glycoside hydrolase family 18, namely two consensus regions, approximately corresponding to the third and fourth barrel strands, and two non-proline cis -peptide bonds, Ser(36)-Phe and Trp(256)-Asp (in XIP-I numbering). However, detailed structural analysis of XIP-I revealed several differences in the region homologous with the active site of chitinases. The catalytic glutamic acid residue of family 18 chitinases [Glu(127) in hevamine, a chitinase/lysozyme from the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis)] is conserved in the structure of the inhibitor (Glu(128)), but its side chain is fully engaged in salt bridges with two neighbouring arginine residues. Gly(81), located in subsite -1 of hevamine, where the reaction intermediate is formed, is replaced by Tyr(80) in XIP-I. The tyrosine side chain fills the subsite area and makes a strong hydrogen bond with the side chain of Glu(190) located at the opposite side of the cleft, preventing access of the substrate to the catalytic glutamic acid. The structural differences in the inhibitor cleft structure probably account for the lack of activity of XIP-I towards chitin. PMID:12617724

  19. Dynamics of small RNA profiles of virus and host origin in wheat cultivars synergistically infected by Wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus: virus infection caused a drastic shift in the endogenous small RNA profile.

    PubMed

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Riethoven, Jean-Jack M; Graybosch, Robert A; French, Roy; Mitra, Amitava

    2014-01-01

    Co-infection of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV, a Tritimovirus) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV, a Poacevirus) of the family Potyviridae causes synergistic interaction. In this study, the effects of the synergistic interaction between WSMV and TriMV on endogenous and virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) were examined in susceptible ('Arapahoe') and temperature-sensitive resistant ('Mace') wheat cultivars at 18°C and 27°C. Single and double infections in wheat caused a shift in the profile of endogenous small RNAs from 24 nt being the most predominant in healthy plants to 21 nt in infected wheat. Massive amounts of 21 and 22 nt vsiRNAs accumulated in singly and doubly infected Arapahoe at both temperatures and in Mace at 27°C but not 18°C. The plus- and minus-sense vsiRNAs were distributed throughout the genomic RNAs in Arapahoe at both temperature regimens and in Mace at 27°C, although some regions served as hot-spots, spawning an excessive number of vsiRNAs. The vsiRNA peaks were conserved among cultivars, suggesting that the Dicer-like enzymes in susceptible and resistant cultivars similarly accessed the genomic RNAs of WSMV or TriMV. Accumulation of large amounts of vsiRNAs in doubly infected plants suggests that the silencing suppressor proteins encoded by TriMV and WSMV do not prevent the formation of vsiRNAs; thus, the synergistic effect observed is independent from RNA-silencing mediated vsiRNA biogenesis. The high-resolution map of endogenous and vsiRNAs from WSMV- and/or TriMV-infected wheat cultivars may form a foundation for understanding the virus-host interactions, the effect of synergistic interactions on host defense, and virus resistance mechanisms in wheat.

  20. Dynamics of Small RNA Profiles of Virus and Host Origin in Wheat Cultivars Synergistically Infected by Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus and Triticum Mosaic Virus: Virus Infection Caused a Drastic Shift in the Endogenous Small RNA Profile

    PubMed Central

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Riethoven, Jean-Jack M.; Graybosch, Robert A.; French, Roy; Mitra, Amitava

    2014-01-01

    Co-infection of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV, a Tritimovirus) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV, a Poacevirus) of the family Potyviridae causes synergistic interaction. In this study, the effects of the synergistic interaction between WSMV and TriMV on endogenous and virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) were examined in susceptible (‘Arapahoe’) and temperature-sensitive resistant (‘Mace’) wheat cultivars at 18°C and 27°C. Single and double infections in wheat caused a shift in the profile of endogenous small RNAs from 24 nt being the most predominant in healthy plants to 21 nt in infected wheat. Massive amounts of 21 and 22 nt vsiRNAs accumulated in singly and doubly infected Arapahoe at both temperatures and in Mace at 27°C but not 18°C. The plus- and minus-sense vsiRNAs were distributed throughout the genomic RNAs in Arapahoe at both temperature regimens and in Mace at 27°C, although some regions served as hot-spots, spawning an excessive number of vsiRNAs. The vsiRNA peaks were conserved among cultivars, suggesting that the Dicer-like enzymes in susceptible and resistant cultivars similarly accessed the genomic RNAs of WSMV or TriMV. Accumulation of large amounts of vsiRNAs in doubly infected plants suggests that the silencing suppressor proteins encoded by TriMV and WSMV do not prevent the formation of vsiRNAs; thus, the synergistic effect observed is independent from RNA-silencing mediated vsiRNA biogenesis. The high-resolution map of endogenous and vsiRNAs from WSMV- and/or TriMV-infected wheat cultivars may form a foundation for understanding the virus-host interactions, the effect of synergistic interactions on host defense, and virus resistance mechanisms in wheat. PMID:25365307

  1. Genetic map of Triticum turgidum based on a hexaploid wheat population without genetic recombination for D genome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A synthetic doubled-haploid hexaploid wheat population, SynDH1, derived from the spontaneous chromosome doubling of triploid F1 hybrid plants obtained from the cross of hybrids Triticum turgidum ssp. durum line Langdon (LDN) and ssp. turgidum line AS313, with Aegilops tauschii ssp. tauschii accession AS60, was previously constructed. SynDH1 is a tetraploidization-hexaploid doubled haploid (DH) population because it contains recombinant A and B chromosomes from two different T. turgidum genotypes, while all the D chromosomes from Ae. tauschii are homogenous across the whole population. This paper reports the construction of a genetic map using this population. Results Of the 606 markers used to assemble the genetic map, 588 (97%) were assigned to linkage groups. These included 513 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers, 72 simple sequence repeat (SSR), one insertion site-based polymorphism (ISBP), and two high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) markers. These markers were assigned to the 14 chromosomes, covering 2048.79 cM, with a mean distance of 3.48 cM between adjacent markers. This map showed good coverage of the A and B genome chromosomes, apart from 3A, 5A, 6A, and 4B. Compared with previously reported maps, most shared markers showed highly consistent orders. This map was successfully used to identify five quantitative trait loci (QTL), including two for spikelet number on chromosomes 7A and 5B, two for spike length on 7A and 3B, and one for 1000-grain weight on 4B. However, differences in crossability QTL between the two T. turgidum parents may explain the segregation distortion regions on chromosomes 1A, 3B, and 6B. Conclusions A genetic map of T. turgidum including 588 markers was constructed using a synthetic doubled haploid (SynDH) hexaploid wheat population. Five QTLs for three agronomic traits were identified from this population. However, more markers are needed to increase the density and resolution of this map in the

  2. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Gao, Jingwen; Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  3. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  4. Asymmetric somatic hybridization between wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Avena sativa L.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Fengning; Xia, Guangmin; Chen, Huimin

    2003-06-01

    Protoplasts from cell suspensions ofyoung-embryo-derived calli, which were nonregenerable for long-term subculture and protoplasts from embryogenic calli with the regeneration capacity of 75% ofthe same wheat Jinan 177, were mixed as recipient. Protoplasts from embryogenic calli of Avena sativa (with the regeneration capacity ofless than 10%) irradiated with UV at an intensity of 300 muW/cm(2) for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, 3 min, 5 min were used as the donor. Protoplasts ofthe recipient and the donor were fused by PEG method. Many calli and normal green plants were regenerated at high frequency, and were verified as somatic hybrids by chromosome counting, isozyme, 5S rDNA spacer sequence analysis and GISH (genomic in situ hybridization). Fusion combination between protoplasts either from the cell suspensions or from the calli and UV-treated Avena sativa protoplasts could not regenerate green plants. PMID:18763139

  5. Differential expression of molybdenum transport and assimilation genes between two winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhaojun; Hu, Chengxiao; Liu, Hongen; Tan, Qiling; Sun, Xuecheng

    2014-09-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential trace element for higher plants. Winter wheat cultivar 97003 has a higher Mo efficiency than 97014 under Mo-deficiency stress. Mo efficiency is related to Mo uptake, transfer and assimilation in plants. Several genes are involved in regulating Mo uptake, transfer and assimilation in plants. To obtain a better understanding of the aforementioned difference in Mo uptake, we have conducted a hydroponic trail to investigate the expression of genes related to Mo uptake, transfer and assimilation in the above two cultivars. The results indicate a closed relationship between Mo uptake and TaSultr5.1, TaSultr5.2 and TaCnx1 expression, according to a stepwise regression analysis of the time course of Mo uptake in the two cultivars. Meanwhile, expression of TaSultr5.2 in roots also showed a positive relationship with Mo uptake rates. 97003 had stronger Mo uptake than 97014 at low Mo-application rates (less than 1 μmol Mo L(-1)) due to the higher expression of TaSultr5.2, TaSultr5.1 and TaCnx1 in roots. On the contrary, Mo uptake of 97003 was weaker than 97014 at high Mo application rates (ranging from 5 to 20 μmol Mo L(-1)), which was related to significant down-regulation of TaSultr5.2 and TaCnx1 genes in roots of 97003 compared to 97014. Therefore, we speculated that the differential-expression intensities of TaSultr5.2, TaSultr5.1 and TaCnx1 could be the cause of the difference in Mo uptake between the two winter wheat cultivars at low and high Mo application levels.

  6. Cloning and comparative analysis of carotenoid β-hydroxylase genes provides new insights into carotenoid metabolism in tetraploid (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and hexaploid (Triticum aestivum) wheat grains.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaoqiong; Zhang, Wenjun; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Tian, Li

    2012-12-01

    Carotenoid β-hydroxylases attach hydroxyl groups to the β-ionone rings (β-rings) of carotenoid substrates, resulting in modified structures and functions of carotenoid molecules. We cloned and characterized two genes (each with three homeologs), HYD1 and HYD2, which encode β-hydroxylases in wheat. The results from bioinformatic and nested degenerate PCR analyses collectively suggest that HYD1 and HYD2 may represent the entire complement of non-heme di-iron β-hydroxylases in wheat. The homeologs of wheat HYDs exhibited major β-ring and minor ε-ring hydroxylation activities in carotenoid-accumulating E. coli strains. Distinct expression patterns were observed for different HYD genes and homeologs in vegetative tissues and developing grains of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat, suggesting their functional divergence and differential regulatory control in tissue-, grain development-, and ploidy-specific manners. An intriguing observation was that the expression of HYD1, particularly HYD-B1, reached highest levels at the last stage of tetraploid and hexaploid grain development, suggesting that carotenoids (at least xanthophylls) were still actively synthesized in mature grains. This result challenges the common perception that carotenoids are simply being turned over during wheat grain development after their initial biosynthesis at the early grain development stages. Overall, this improved understanding of carotenoid biosynthetic gene expression and carotenoid metabolism in wheat grains will contribute to the improvement of the nutritional value of wheat grains for human consumption.

  7. Cloning and comparative analysis of carotenoid β-hydroxylase genes provides new insights into carotenoid metabolism in tetraploid (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and hexaploid (Triticum aestivum) wheat grains.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaoqiong; Zhang, Wenjun; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Tian, Li

    2012-12-01

    Carotenoid β-hydroxylases attach hydroxyl groups to the β-ionone rings (β-rings) of carotenoid substrates, resulting in modified structures and functions of carotenoid molecules. We cloned and characterized two genes (each with three homeologs), HYD1 and HYD2, which encode β-hydroxylases in wheat. The results from bioinformatic and nested degenerate PCR analyses collectively suggest that HYD1 and HYD2 may represent the entire complement of non-heme di-iron β-hydroxylases in wheat. The homeologs of wheat HYDs exhibited major β-ring and minor ε-ring hydroxylation activities in carotenoid-accumulating E. coli strains. Distinct expression patterns were observed for different HYD genes and homeologs in vegetative tissues and developing grains of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat, suggesting their functional divergence and differential regulatory control in tissue-, grain development-, and ploidy-specific manners. An intriguing observation was that the expression of HYD1, particularly HYD-B1, reached highest levels at the last stage of tetraploid and hexaploid grain development, suggesting that carotenoids (at least xanthophylls) were still actively synthesized in mature grains. This result challenges the common perception that carotenoids are simply being turned over during wheat grain development after their initial biosynthesis at the early grain development stages. Overall, this improved understanding of carotenoid biosynthetic gene expression and carotenoid metabolism in wheat grains will contribute to the improvement of the nutritional value of wheat grains for human consumption. PMID:23015203

  8. Relationship between male sterility and β-1,3-glucanase activity and callose deposition-related gene expression in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, H Z; Zhang, G S; Zhu, W W; Ba, Q S; Niu, N; Wang, J W; Ma, S C; Wang, J S

    2015-01-26

    In previous studies, we first isolated one different protein β-1,3-glucanase using two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry from normal wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and chemical hybridization agent-induced male sterility (CIMS) wheat. In this experiment, β-1,3-glucanase activity and the expression of a callose deposition-related gene, UDP-glucose phosphorylase (UGPase), were determinate in normal, CIMS, and genetic male sterility (GS) wheat. β-1,3-glucanase activity was significantly different between the fertile and sterile lines during callose synthesis and degradation, but there was no difference between CIMS and GS wheat. The UGPase gene of callose deposition was highly expressed in the meiophase and sharply decreased in the tetrad stage. However, the expression of the UGPase gene was significantly different between the fertile and sterile lines. These data indicated that β-1,3-glucanase activity and the expression of the UGPase gene play important roles in the male sterility of wheat. Consequently, pollen mother cells (PMCs) might degenerate at the early meiosis stage, and differences in UGPase gene expression and β-1,3-glucanase activity might eventually result in complete pollen collapse. In addition, the critical period of anther abortion might be the meiosis stage to the tetrad stage rather than what we previously thought, the mononuclear period.

  9. TaSCL14, a novel wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) GRAS gene, regulates plant growth, photosynthesis, tolerance to photooxidative stress, and senescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kunmei; Li, Hongwei; Chen, Yaofeng; Zheng, Qi; Li, Bin; Li, Zhensheng

    2015-01-20

    Rates of photosynthesis, tolerance to photooxidative stress, and senescence are all important physiological factors that affect plant development and thus agricultural productivity. GRAS proteins play essential roles in plant growth and development as well as in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. So far few GRAS genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have been characterized. A previous transcriptome analysis indicated that the expression of a GRAS gene (TaSCL14) was induced by high-light stress in Xiaoyan 54 (XY54), a common wheat cultivar with strong tolerance to high-light stress. In this study, TaSCL14 gene was isolated from XY54 and mapped on chromosome 4A. TaSCL14 was expressed in various wheat organs, with high levels in stems and roots. Our results confirmed that TaSCL14 expression was indeed responsive to high-light stress. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of TaSCL14 in wheat was performed to help characterize its potential functions. Silencing of TaSCL14 resulted in inhibited plant growth, decreased photosynthetic capacity, and reduced tolerance to photooxidative stress. In addition, silencing of TaSCL14 in wheat promoted leaf senescence induced by darkness. These results suggest that TaSCL14 may act as a multifunctional regulator involved in plant growth, photosynthesis, tolerance to photooxidative stress, and senescence.

  10. Cloning of new members of heat shock protein HSP101 gene family in wheat (Triticum aestivum (L.) Moench) inducible by heat, dehydration, and ABA(1).

    PubMed

    Campbell, J L; Klueva, N Y; Zheng, H G; Nieto-Sotelo, J; Ho, T D; Nguyen, H T

    2001-01-26

    We have cloned two cDNAs, TaHSP101B and TaHSP101C, encoding two heat stress-inducible members of HSP101/ClpB family in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum (L.) Moench.). Proteins encoded by these cDNAs are highly similar at the primary sequence level and diverged from the previously reported TaHSP101 (designated TaHSP101A) both in the consensus ATP/GTP-binding region II and in the carboxy terminal region. The HSP101 gene was determined to be a single copy gene or a member of a small gene family in hexaploid wheat. Messages encoding HSP101 proteins were inducible by heat stress treatments in both wheat leaves and roots. Accumulation of the TaHSP101C mRNA was less abundant than that of TaHSP101B mRNA. We are showing for the first time that in addition to heat stress, expression of HSP101 mRNAs in wheat leaves was induced by a 2-h dehydration and a treatment with 5x10(-5)M ABA, but not affected by chilling or wounding, indicating that HSP101 proteins may be involved in both heat and drought responses in wheat. PMID:11342108

  11. Functional abilities of cultivable plant growth promoting bacteria associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crops

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Fernanda da S.; da Costa, Pedro B.; de Souza, Rocheli; Beneduzi, Anelise; Lisboa, Bruno B.; Vargas, Luciano K.; Passaglia, Luciane M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the pursuit of sustainable agriculture, bioinoculants usage as providers of a crop's needs is a method to limit environmental damage. In this study, a collection of cultivable putative plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria associated with wheat crops was obtained and this bacterial sample was characterized in relation to the functional diversity of certain PGP features. The isolates were obtained through classical cultivation methods, identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and characterized for PGP traits of interest. Functional diversity characterization was performed using Categorical Principal Component Analysis (CatPCA) and Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). The most abundant genera found among the 346 isolates were Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Enterobacter. Occurrence of PGP traits was affected by genus, niche, and sampling site. A large number of genera grouped together with the ability to produce indolic compounds; phosphate solubilization and siderophores production formed a second group related to fewer genera, in which the genus Burkholderia has a great importance. The results obtained may help future studies aiming prospection of putative plant growth promoting bacteria regarding the desired organism and PGP trait. PMID:27007904

  12. Structural Variation and Content of Arabinoxylans in Endosperm and Bran of Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.).

    PubMed

    Marcotuli, Ilaria; Hsieh, Yves S-Y; Lahnstein, Jelle; Yap, Kuok; Burton, Rachel Anita; Blanco, Antonio; Fincher, Geoffrey Bruce; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-04-13

    Arabinoxylans are one group of dietary fiber components in cereal grains, and specific health benefits have been linked with their molecular fine structures and hence with physicochemical properties such as solubility in aqueous media. To characterize the fiber quality for functional foods, starchy endosperm and bran fractions from 11 durum wheat lines were analyzed for total and water-soluble arabinoxylans, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, and bound ferulic acid. The arabinoxylan contents ranged from 11 to 16.4% (w/w) in bran and from 1.5 to 1.8% in the starchy endosperm. Of the starchy endosperm arabinoxylans, 37% was soluble in water. No correlation was found between arabinoxylan content and bound ferulic acid in bran, although a relatively high level of this antioxidant was found in endosperm (38.3 μg/g endosperm flour). Enzymatic fingerprinting was performed to define the major fine structural features of arabinoxylans from both regions of the grain. Five major oligosaccharides released by xylanase hydrolysis were identified and characterized in the 11 durum lines. In addition, DP5, DP6, and DP7 oligosaccharides containing five, six, and seven pentosyl residues, respectively, were purified. PMID:27018210

  13. RNA-seq transcriptional profiling of Herbaspirillum seropedicae colonizing wheat (Triticum aestivum) roots.

    PubMed

    Pankievicz, V C S; Camilios-Neto, D; Bonato, P; Balsanelli, E; Tadra-Sfeir, M Z; Faoro, H; Chubatsu, L S; Donatti, L; Wajnberg, G; Passetti, F; Monteiro, R A; Pedrosa, F O; Souza, E M

    2016-04-01

    Herbaspirillum seropedicae is a diazotrophic and endophytic bacterium that associates with economically important grasses promoting plant growth and increasing productivity. To identify genes related to bacterial ability to colonize plants, wheat seedlings growing hydroponically in Hoagland's medium were inoculated with H. seropedicae and incubated for 3 days. Total mRNA from the bacteria present in the root surface and in the plant medium were purified, depleted from rRNA and used for RNA-seq profiling. RT-qPCR analyses were conducted to confirm regulation of selected genes. Comparison of RNA profile of root attached and planktonic bacteria revealed extensive metabolic adaptations to the epiphytic life style. These adaptations include expression of specific adhesins and cell wall re-modeling to attach to the root. Additionally, the metabolism was adapted to the microxic environment and nitrogen-fixation genes were expressed. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis was activated, and PHB granules were stored as observed by microscopy. Genes related to plant growth promotion, such as auxin production were expressed. Many ABC transporter genes were regulated in the bacteria attached to the roots. The results provide new insights into the adaptation of H. seropedicae to the interaction with the plant. PMID:26801330

  14. Concentration of benzoxazinoids in roots of field-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Stochmal, Anna; Kus, Jan; Martyniuk, Stefan; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2006-02-22

    Benzoxazinones are naturally occurring secondary metabolites of some Gramineae plants, responsible for their resistance to some pathogenic fungi and for their allelopathic action. Six varieties of winter wheat grown in fields under organic or conventional systems and 11 old accessions were tested for two consecutive seasons and three plant development stages for the concentration in their roots of cyclic hydroxamic acids and their degradation products. This is the first report of six benzoxazinones analyzed in plants grown in the field. An analytical technique employing LC-DAD was used for determination. It was shown that 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one, its degradation product 6-methoxybenzoxazolin-2-one, and the lactam 2-hydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-2-one were predominant compounds in all tested samples. Their concentrations significantly differed with plant development stage and season, but no significant differences were found between varieties and between plant cultivation systems. The concentrations of 2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA) and its degradation product benzoxazolin-2-one (BOA) were much lower, ranging from 60 to 430 mg/kg of dry matter, depending on accession, stage of development, and season. There was no significant difference found between plants grown in different cultivation systems, but there were significant differences between old and new varieties; concentrations of DIBOA and its derivatives were significantly lower in old accessions. It was concluded that the concentrations of DIBOA and BOA, which are precursors of highly fungicidal 2-aminophenol, 2-amino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one, and 2-acetylamino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one, are theoretically high enough to protect plants against some soilborne pathogens.

  15. Stability of some quality traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Mut, Zeki; Aydin, Nevzat; Bayramoglu, H Orhan; Ozcan, Hasan

    2010-07-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine some quality traits such as thousand grain weight (TGW), hectoliter weight (HW), grain protein content (GPC), Zeleny sedimentation volume (ZSV) and stability of quality traits of 25 bread wheat genotypes. The experiment was conducted at seven environmental conditions during 2 growing periods (2003-2004 and 2004-2005) using randomized complete block design with four replicates. The ANOVA showed that out of the total sum of squares, 48.4, 28.0 and 23.6% for TGW, 71.4, 14.9 and 13.7% for HW, 54.4, 23.0 and 22.6% for GPC, 44.7, 41.7 and 13.6% for ZSV was attributable to E, G and G x E interaction effects, respectively. Thousand grain weight, hectoliter weight, grain protein content and Zeleny sedimentasyon volume of genotypes changed from 34.5 to 41.4 g, from 76.5 to 80.4 Kg, from 11.49 to 13.37% and from 22.1 to 46.0 ml, respectively. Seven stability parameters, covering a wide range of statistical approaches, were used so as to predict the genotypes. The study of genotypic stability showed that Bezostaya and advanced lines numbered 11 and 24 had high stability for quality traits and proved to be the best within the pool of the studied genotypes. Also, 8 and 17 numbered genotypes demonstrated high stability for TGW, HW, GPC and HW, GPC and ZSV, respectively. PMID:21186725

  16. Effect of low temperature on chlorophyll biosynthesis in albinism line of wheat (Triticum aestivum) FA85.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Gang; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Jing-Ya; Liang, Guang-Wang; Liu, Ying-Tuan; Guo, Ai-Guang

    2012-07-01

    The 'stage albinism line of winter wheat' FA85 exhibits a severe block in chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis with prolonged low-temperature treatment. The correlations between leaf color and low temperature provide more comprehensive understanding of low temperature as an environmental signal that regulate the metabolic changes in the entire Chl-synthesizing pathway. In this study, we investigated differences in Chl biosynthesis between leaves of Aibian1 and FA85 by measuring their Chl precursors and heme content, transcripts for key genes of Chl biosynthesis and key enzyme activities. With prolonged low-temperature treatment, the Chl content gradually decreased, but Chl precursors, including protoporphyrin IX, Mg-protoporphyrin IX and protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), simultaneously accumulated. Parallel to the decline in Chl content, the protoporphyrin IX distribution toward Chl synthesis was less than that in heme synthesis in the leaves of FA85. Corresponding to the change of protoporphyrin IX distribution, the relative changes in magnesium chelatase (EC 6.6.1.1) and ferrochelatase (EC 4.99.1.1) activities in the leaves of FA85 also indirectly reflected channeling of the metabolic flow into heme rather than Chl. A drastic loss in the transcripts for Pchlide oxidoreductase (EC 1.3.1.33) and Chl synthase (EC 2.5.1.62) accounted for a decrease in the metabolic flux and the re-direction of metabolites. The high-level accumulations of Chl precursors and traces of Chl in the leaves of FA85 suggest that a severe block between the steps from Pchlide to Chl formation during Chl biosynthesis is partially derived from the transcriptional downregulation of Pchlide oxidoreductase and Chl synthase.

  17. A genome-wide analysis of the auxin/indole-3-acetic acid gene family in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Linyi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Han, Xiao; Zhang, Lei; Li, Xin; Zhan, Haixian; Ma, Jian; Luo, Peigao; Zhang, Wenping; Cui, Lei; Li, Xiaoyan; Chang, Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family plays key roles in the primary auxin-response process and controls a number of important traits in plants. However, the characteristics of the Aux/IAA gene family in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have long been unknown. In this study, a comprehensive identification of the Aux/IAA gene family was performed using the latest draft genome sequence of the bread wheat “Chinese Spring.” Thirty-four Aux/IAA genes were identified, 30 of which have duplicated genes on the A, B or D sub-genome, with a total of 84 Aux/IAA sequences. These predicted Aux/IAA genes were non-randomly distributed in all the wheat chromosomes except for chromosome 2D. The information of wheat Aux/IAA proteins is also described. Based on an analysis of phylogeny, expression and adaptive evolution, we prove that the Aux/IAA family in wheat has been replicated twice in the two allopolyploidization events of bread wheat, when the tandem duplication also occurred. The duplicated genes have undergone an evolutionary process of purifying selection, resulting in the high conservation of copy genes among sub-genomes and functional redundancy among several members of the TaIAA family. However, functional divergence probably existed in most TaIAA members due to the diversity of the functional domain and expression pattern. Our research provides useful information for further research into the function of Aux/IAA genes in wheat. PMID:26483801

  18. Alleviation of chromium toxicity by glycinebetaine is related to elevated antioxidant enzymes and suppressed chromium uptake and oxidative stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Ali, Shafaqat; Chaudhary, Aaifa; Rizwan, Muhammad; Anwar, Hafiza Tania; Adrees, Muhammad; Farid, Mujahid; Irshad, Muhammad Kashif; Hayat, Tahir; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad

    2015-07-01

    Little information is available on the role of glycinebetaine (GB) in chromium (Cr) tolerance while Cr toxicity is widespread problem in crops grown on Cr-contaminated soils. In this study, we investigated the influence of GB on Cr tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in sand and soil mediums. Three concentrations of chromium (0, 0.25, and 0.5 mM) were tested with and without foliar application of GB (0.1 M). Chromium alone led to a significant growth inhibition and content of chlorophyll a, b, proteins and enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Glycinebetaine foliar application successfully alleviated the toxic effects of Cr on wheat plants and enhanced growth characteristics, biomass, proteins, and chlorophyll contents. Glycinebetaine also reduced Cr accumulation in wheat plants especially in grains and enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes in both shoots and roots. This study provides evidence that GB application contributes to decreased Cr concentrations in wheat plants and its importance in the detoxification of heavy metals.

  19. Construction and evaluation of cDNA libraries for large-scale expressed sequence tag sequencing in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, D; Choi, D W; Wanamaker, S; Fenton, R D; Chin, A; Malatrasi, M; Turuspekov, Y; Walia, H; Akhunov, E D; Kianian, P; Otto, C; Simons, K; Deal, K R; Echenique, V; Stamova, B; Ross, K; Butler, G E; Strader, L; Verhey, S D; Johnson, R; Altenbach, S; Kothari, K; Tanaka, C; Shah, M M; Laudencia-Chingcuanco, D; Han, P; Miller, R E; Crossman, C C; Chao, S; Lazo, G R; Klueva, N; Gustafson, J P; Kianian, S F; Dubcovsky, J; Walker-Simmons, M K; Gill, K S; Dvorák, J; Anderson, O D; Sorrells, M E; McGuire, P E; Qualset, C O; Nguyen, H T; Close, T J

    2004-10-01

    A total of 37 original cDNA libraries and 9 derivative libraries enriched for rare sequences were produced from Chinese Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), five other hexaploid wheat genotypes (Cheyenne, Brevor, TAM W101, BH1146, Butte 86), tetraploid durum wheat (T. turgidum L.), diploid wheat (T. monococcum L.), and two other diploid members of the grass tribe Triticeae (Aegilops speltoides Tausch and Secale cereale L.). The emphasis in the choice of plant materials for library construction was reproductive development subjected to environmental factors that ultimately affect grain quality and yield, but roots and other tissues were also included. Partial cDNA expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were examined by various measures to assess the quality of these libraries. All ESTs were processed to remove cloning system sequences and contaminants and then assembled using CAP3. Following these processing steps, this assembly yielded 101,107 sequences derived from 89,043 clones, which defined 16,740 contigs and 33,213 singletons, a total of 49,953 "unigenes." Analysis of the distribution of these unigenes among the libraries led to the conclusion that the enrichment methods were effective in reducing the most abundant unigenes and to the observation that the most diverse libraries were from tissues exposed to environmental stresses including heat, drought, salinity, or low temperature. PMID:15514038

  20. Low molecular weight glutenin subunit gene Glu-B3h confers superior dough strength and breadmaking quality in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaping; Zhen, Shoumin; Luo, Nana; Han, Caixia; Lu, Xiaobing; Li, Xiaohui; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu; Yan, Yueming

    2016-01-01

    Low molecular weight glutenin subunit is one of the important quality elements in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Although considerable allelic variation has been identified, the functional properties of individual alleles at Glu-3 loci are less studied. In this work, we performed the first comprehensive study on the molecular characteristics and functional properties of the Glu-B3h gene using the wheat cultivar CB037B and its Glu-B3 deletion line CB037C. The results showed that the Glu-B3h deletion had no significant effects on plant morphological or yield traits, but resulted in a clear reduction in protein body number and size and main quality parameters, including inferior mixing property, dough strength, loaf volume, and score. Molecular characterization showed that the Glu-B3h gene consists of 1179 bp, and its encoded B-subunit has a longer repetitive domain and an increased number of α-helices, as well as higher expression, which could contribute to superior flour quality. The SNP-based allele-specific PCR markers designed for the Glu-B3h gene were developed and validated with bread wheat holding various alleles at Glu-B3 locus, which could effectively distinguish the Glu-B3h gene from others at the Glu-B3 locus, and have potential applications for wheat quality improvement through marker-assisted selection. PMID:27273251

  1. Exogenous Nitric Oxide (NO) Interferes with Lead (Pb)-Induced Toxicity by Detoxifying Reactive Oxygen Species in Hydroponically Grown Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Roots.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy R; Mahajan, Priyanka; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Rishi, Valbha

    2015-01-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) is a bioactive signaling molecule that mediates a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study investigated the role of NO (as SNP [sodium nitroprusside]) in ameliorating lead (Pb)-toxicity in Triticum aestivum (wheat) roots. Pb (50 and 250 μM) alone and in combination with SNP (100 μM) was given to hydroponically grown wheat roots for a period of 0-8 h. NO supplementation reduced the accumulation of oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, hydroxyl ions and superoxide anion) and decreased the antioxidant enzyme activity in wheat roots particularly up to 6 h, thereby suggesting its role as an antioxidant. NO ameliorated Pb-induced membrane damage in wheat roots as evidenced by decreased ion-leakage and in situ histochemical localization. Pb-exposure significantly decreased in vivo NO level. The study concludes that exogenous NO partially ameliorates Pb-toxicity, but could not restore the plant growth on prolonged Pb-exposure.

  2. Exogenous Nitric Oxide (NO) Interferes with Lead (Pb)-Induced Toxicity by Detoxifying Reactive Oxygen Species in Hydroponically Grown Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Roots.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy R; Mahajan, Priyanka; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Rishi, Valbha

    2015-01-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) is a bioactive signaling molecule that mediates a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study investigated the role of NO (as SNP [sodium nitroprusside]) in ameliorating lead (Pb)-toxicity in Triticum aestivum (wheat) roots. Pb (50 and 250 μM) alone and in combination with SNP (100 μM) was given to hydroponically grown wheat roots for a period of 0-8 h. NO supplementation reduced the accumulation of oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, hydroxyl ions and superoxide anion) and decreased the antioxidant enzyme activity in wheat roots particularly up to 6 h, thereby suggesting its role as an antioxidant. NO ameliorated Pb-induced membrane damage in wheat roots as evidenced by decreased ion-leakage and in situ histochemical localization. Pb-exposure significantly decreased in vivo NO level. The study concludes that exogenous NO partially ameliorates Pb-toxicity, but could not restore the plant growth on prolonged Pb-exposure. PMID:26402793

  3. A sampling system for estimating the cultivation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) from LANDSAT data. M.S. Thesis - 21 Jul. 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Moreira, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Using digitally processed MSS/LANDSAT data as auxiliary variable, a methodology to estimate wheat (Triticum aestivum L) area by means of sampling techniques was developed. To perform this research, aerial photographs covering 720 sq km in Cruz Alta test site at the NW of Rio Grande do Sul State, were visually analyzed. LANDSAT digital data were analyzed using non-supervised and supervised classification algorithms; as post-processing the classification was submitted to spatial filtering. To estimate wheat area, the regression estimation method was applied and different sample sizes and various sampling units (10, 20, 30, 40 and 60 sq km) were tested. Based on the four decision criteria established for this research, it was concluded that: (1) as the size of sampling units decreased the percentage of sampled area required to obtain similar estimation performance also decreased; (2) the lowest percentage of the area sampled for wheat estimation with relatively high precision and accuracy through regression estimation was 90% using 10 sq km s the sampling unit; and (3) wheat area estimation by direct expansion (using only aerial photographs) was less precise and accurate when compared to those obtained by means of regression estimation.

  4. Construction and Evaluation of cDNA Libraries for Large-Scale Expressed Sequence Tag Sequencing in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, D.; Choi, D. W.; Wanamaker, S.; Fenton, R. D.; Chin, A.; Malatrasi, M.; Turuspekov, Y.; Walia, H.; Akhunov, E. D.; Kianian, P.; Otto, C.; Simons, K.; Deal, K. R.; Echenique, V.; Stamova, B.; Ross, K.; Butler, G. E.; Strader, L.; Verhey, S. D.; Johnson, R.; Altenbach, S.; Kothari, K.; Tanaka, C.; Shah, M. M.; Laudencia-Chingcuanco, D.; Han, P.; Miller, R. E.; Crossman, C. C.; Chao, S.; Lazo, G. R.; Klueva, N.; Gustafson, J. P.; Kianian, S. F.; Dubcovsky, J.; Walker-Simmons, M. K.; Gill, K. S.; Dvořák, J.; Anderson, O. D.; Sorrells, M. E.; McGuire, P. E.; Qualset, C. O.; Nguyen, H. T.; Close, T. J.

    2004-01-01

    A total of 37 original cDNA libraries and 9 derivative libraries enriched for rare sequences were produced from Chinese Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), five other hexaploid wheat genotypes (Cheyenne, Brevor, TAM W101, BH1146, Butte 86), tetraploid durum wheat (T. turgidum L.), diploid wheat (T. monococcum L.), and two other diploid members of the grass tribe Triticeae (Aegilops speltoides Tausch and Secale cereale L.). The emphasis in the choice of plant materials for library construction was reproductive development subjected to environmental factors that ultimately affect grain quality and yield, but roots and other tissues were also included. Partial cDNA expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were examined by various measures to assess the quality of these libraries. All ESTs were processed to remove cloning system sequences and contaminants and then assembled using CAP3. Following these processing steps, this assembly yielded 101,107 sequences derived from 89,043 clones, which defined 16,740 contigs and 33,213 singletons, a total of 49,953 “unigenes.” Analysis of the distribution of these unigenes among the libraries led to the conclusion that the enrichment methods were effective in reducing the most abundant unigenes and to the observation that the most diverse libraries were from tissues exposed to environmental stresses including heat, drought, salinity, or low temperature. PMID:15514038

  5. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration on growth, photosynthetic characteristics and biomass of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Lunar Palace 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chen; Liu, Hui; Liu, Hong; Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Shao, Lingzhi; Liu, Guanghui; Yu, Juan

    Short- and long-term effects of elevated CO2 concentration on growth, photosynthetic characteristics and biomass of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are examined during 90 days in Lunar Palace 1. While a short-term exposure to elevated CO2 induces a large increase in photosynthesis in wheat plants, long-term growth in elevated CO2 often results in a smaller increase due to reduced photosynthetic capacity. In this study, it was also shown that, net photosynthesis per unit leaf area was raised at an increased CO2 concentration partly due to a decrease in photorespiration, partly due to an increased substrate supply. Transpiration was reduced due to a lower stomatal conductance. The growth response of whole plants to a high CO2 concentration will be the main subject of this paper. Firstly, an estimation is made to what extent a doubling in CO2 concentration affects wheat plant growth in Lunar Palace 1. Secondly, the mechanisms behind this growth stimulation will be assessed. Finally, in those cases where wheat plants are grown over a range of environmental conditions, we select that condition where control plants are growing fastest. Thus, this study may be a matter of interest for researchers in both space and unban agriculture fields.

  6. Exogenous Nitric Oxide (NO) Interferes with Lead (Pb)-Induced Toxicity by Detoxifying Reactive Oxygen Species in Hydroponically Grown Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Roots

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy R.; Mahajan, Priyanka; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Rishi, Valbha

    2015-01-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) is a bioactive signaling molecule that mediates a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study investigated the role of NO (as SNP [sodium nitroprusside]) in ameliorating lead (Pb)-toxicity in Triticum aestivum (wheat) roots. Pb (50 and 250 μM) alone and in combination with SNP (100 μM) was given to hydroponically grown wheat roots for a period of 0–8 h. NO supplementation reduced the accumulation of oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, hydroxyl ions and superoxide anion) and decreased the antioxidant enzyme activity in wheat roots particularly up to 6 h, thereby suggesting its role as an antioxidant. NO ameliorated Pb-induced membrane damage in wheat roots as evidenced by decreased ion-leakage and in situ histochemical localization. Pb-exposure significantly decreased in vivo NO level. The study concludes that exogenous NO partially ameliorates Pb-toxicity, but could not restore the plant growth on prolonged Pb-exposure. PMID:26402793

  7. Identifying QTL for high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in the spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar ‘Louise’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over time, many single, all-stage resistance genes to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are circumvented by race changes in the pathogen. In contrast, high-temperature, adult-plant resistance (HTAP), which only is expressed during the adult-plant stag...

  8. The house mouse (Mus musculus L.) exerts strong differential grain consumption preferences among hard red and white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties in a single-elimination tournament design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) plays a central role in the health and nutrition of humans. Yet, little is known about possible flavor differences among different varieties. We have developed a model system using the house mouse (Mus musculus) to determine feeding preferences as a prelude to extending res...

  9. Integrated analysis of seed proteome and mRNA oxidation reveals distinct post-transcriptional features regulating dormancy in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Rampitsch, Christof; Chitnis, Vijaya R; Humphreys, Gavin D; Jordan, Mark C; Ayele, Belay T

    2013-10-01

    Wheat seeds can be released from a dormant state by after-ripening; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still mostly unknown. We previously identified transcriptional programmes involved in the regulation of after-ripening-mediated seed dormancy decay in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here, we show that seed dormancy maintenance and its release by dry after-ripening in wheat is associated with oxidative modification of distinct seed-stored mRNAs that mainly correspond to oxidative phosphorylation, ribosome biogenesis, nutrient reservoir and α-amylase inhibitor activities, suggesting the significance of post-transcriptional repression of these biological processes in regulating seed dormancy. We further show that after-ripening induced seed dormancy release in wheat is mediated by differential expression of specific proteins in both dry and hydrated states, including those involved in proteolysis, cellular signalling, translation and energy metabolism. Among the genes corresponding to these proteins, the expression of those encoding α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor and starch synthase appears to be regulated by mRNA oxidation. Co-expression analysis of the probesets differentially expressed and oxidized during dry after-ripening along with those corresponding to proteins differentially regulated between dormant and after-ripened seeds produced three co-expressed gene clusters containing more candidate genes potentially involved in the regulation of seed dormancy in wheat. Two of the three clusters are enriched with elements that are either abscisic acid (ABA) responsive or recognized by ABA-regulated transcription factors, indicating the association between wheat seed dormancy and ABA sensitivity.

  10. Heavy metal accumulation in soil amended with roadside pond sediment and uptake by winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. PBW 343).

    PubMed

    Karak, Tanmoy; Bhattacharyya, Pradip

    2010-01-01

    The risks of heavy metal accumulation and the dynamics related to roadside pond sediment application in comparison to control of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated in field experiments. Selective sequential extraction procedures revealed that application of pond sediment in soil increases the labile pools of the studied heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). Risk assessment codes concluded that Cu and Pb were in the high-risk zone in both pond sediment and soil amended with pond sediment, whereas Zn and Cu were found in the medium-risk zone for control soil. Heavy metal accumulation by wheat straw and grain (39.38, 1.18, 23.73, 0.36, 0.18, and 16.8 mg kg⁻¹ for Zn, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Pb, respectively, for wheat grain) was significantly increased through application of pond sediment. However, metal accumulation did not thwart the enhancement of wheat yield when pond sediment was applied. Health risk indexes of analyzed heavy metals were found to be within the Indian permissible limit for foodstuffs. Pond sediments help to fortify wheat grain by increasing the concentration of Zn and Cu as a source of micronutrients in the diet. However, a significant increase of Pb in wheat grain through pond sediment could be a health concern for its long-term application. Therefore, pond sediment would be a valuable resource for agriculture as an alternative organic supplement, but long-term use may require the cessation of the excavated sediment as agricultural landfill in order to restrict heavy metal contamination through it.

  11. Identification of markers linked to the Ug99 stem rust resistance gene Sr28 in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici can cause devastating yield losses in wheat. Over the last several decades, stem rust has been controlled worldwide through the use of genetic resistance. Stem rust race TTKSK (Ug99), first detected in Uganda in 1998, threatens global wheat ...

  12. Heavy metal and metalloid concentrations in components of 25 wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties in the vicinity of lead smelters in Henan province, China.

    PubMed

    Xing, Weiqin; Zhang, Hongyi; Scheckel, Kirk G; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Soil contamination and human impacts have been reported in the vicinity of lead (Pb) smelters in Henan, China. However, no information is available on crop uptake of soil contaminants near these smelters. Grains, glume, rachis, and stem/leaf samples of 25 wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties were collected from a small, smelter-impacted agricultural area of Beishe Village, Henan Province, and were analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), Pb, and zinc (Zn) concentrations. The study aim was to evaluate the level of contaminant uptake in wheat and ostensibly observe if specific varieties of wheat were more susceptible to uptake. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in whole grain flour were 0.0915, 0.192, 3.22, 0.280, and 32.5 mg kg(-1), respectively. Grain concentrations of all 25 varieties for Cd as well as 16 varieties for Pb exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) for consumption. Mean pollution indexes (MPI) (element concentration of wheat grain/MPC for As, Cd or Pb) of the grains varied 0.562-2.15. As, Pb, and Cd contributed 5.22, 40.0, and 54.8 % to the MPI for all 25 varieties, respectively. This survey highlights Cd and Pb contamination of wheat grains in the vicinity of lead smelters in Henan Province, and likely other farm villages in the area. Further work is needed to examine uptake and contamination of other crops and vegetables impacted from the lead smelters in Henan Province and the absorption of toxic elements from food sources by local inhabitants.

  13. Heavy metal and metalloid concentrations in components of 25 wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties in the vicinity of lead smelters in Henan province, China.

    PubMed

    Xing, Weiqin; Zhang, Hongyi; Scheckel, Kirk G; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Soil contamination and human impacts have been reported in the vicinity of lead (Pb) smelters in Henan, China. However, no information is available on crop uptake of soil contaminants near these smelters. Grains, glume, rachis, and stem/leaf samples of 25 wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties were collected from a small, smelter-impacted agricultural area of Beishe Village, Henan Province, and were analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), Pb, and zinc (Zn) concentrations. The study aim was to evaluate the level of contaminant uptake in wheat and ostensibly observe if specific varieties of wheat were more susceptible to uptake. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in whole grain flour were 0.0915, 0.192, 3.22, 0.280, and 32.5 mg kg(-1), respectively. Grain concentrations of all 25 varieties for Cd as well as 16 varieties for Pb exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) for consumption. Mean pollution indexes (MPI) (element concentration of wheat grain/MPC for As, Cd or Pb) of the grains varied 0.562-2.15. As, Pb, and Cd contributed 5.22, 40.0, and 54.8 % to the MPI for all 25 varieties, respectively. This survey highlights Cd and Pb contamination of wheat grains in the vicinity of lead smelters in Henan Province, and likely other farm villages in the area. Further work is needed to examine uptake and contamination of other crops and vegetables impacted from the lead smelters in Henan Province and the absorption of toxic elements from food sources by local inhabitants. PMID:26661959

  14. Chemical, biochemical, and biological impact of untreated domestic sewage water use on Vertisol and its consequences on wheat (Triticum aestivum) productivity.

    PubMed

    Saha, J K; Panwar, N; Srivastava, Ajay; Biswas, A K; Kundu, S; Rao, A Subba

    2010-02-01

    In the peri-urban areas of central India, sewage water is a valuable resource for agricultural production. In this study, impact of domestic sewage water irrigation for 5 years on Vertisol with no previous history of sewage irrigation was investigated in an ongoing field experiment at Bhopal (India) under subtropical monsoon type climate. The wheat (Triticum aestivum) crop was grown during post-rainy winter season with 30 cm of irrigation (groundwater or sewage water) and four nutrient treatments (T(1), 0; T(2), 100%; T(3), 50%; and T(4), 50% of general recommended doses of NPK + FYM at 10 Mg/ha). Results showed that sewage irrigation of about 150 cm over a period of 5 years resulted significant increases in salinity as well as available fractions of N, P, K, and micronutrients, viz., Zn, Fe, and Mn in soils. Carbon and phosphorus applied through sewage water were accumulated more in subsoil layer compared to topmost plough layer. Soil microbiological activity, as indicated by soil respiration, microbial biomass C, as well as dehydrogenase enzyme activity was higher in sewage water-irrigated soils. There was also significant increase in fungal and actinomycetes as well as total coliform population in such soils. Nutrients supplied through sewage water were not able to raise the productivity of wheat to the level that obtained through fertilizers at the recommended level which indicated that additional nutrients through fertilizers are required to obtain higher productivity of wheat under sewage farming. Protein and Zn content in wheat grains were more when the crop was grown with sewage irrigation. Overall results show that except for increase in coliform population, short duration (5 years) of municipal sewage water irrigation did not have any appreciable harmful effect on soil quality as well as crop productivity; rather, it proved beneficial in improving soil fertility, wheat productivity, and produce quality. PMID:19219646

  15. Molecular, physicochemical and rheological characteristics of introgressive Triticale/Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum lines with wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution.

    PubMed

    Salmanowicz, Bolesław P; Langner, Monika; Wiśniewska, Halina; Apolinarska, Barbara; Kwiatek, Michał; Błaszczyk, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    Three sets of hexaploid introgressive triticale lines, with Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (cultivated einkorn wheat) genes and a bread wheat chromosome 1D substituted for chromosome 1A, and one set of secondary triticale lines were evaluated for grain and flour physicochemical and dough rheological characteristics in two generations (F7 and F8). Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed the 1D/1A chromosome substitution. The presence or absence of einkorn high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits and the wheat Glu-D1d locus encoding the 5 + 10 subunits was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), capillary zone electrophoresis, and allele-specific molecular markers. Significant differences were found among physicochemical properties (with the exception of the Hagberg falling number) of all introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines and the secondary triticale lines. The wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution also affected these properties. The results showed that in all introgressive triticale lines, the protein and gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation value, and water absorption capacity, were increased. The rheological parameters estimated using micro-farinograph, reomixer, and Kieffer dough extensibility systems also showed an appreciable increase in dough-mixing properties, maximum resistance to extension (Rmax), and dough extensibility. Introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines with 5 + 10 subunits have particularly favorable rheological parameters. The results obtained in this study suggest that the cultivated einkorn genome Am, in the context of hexaploid secondary triticale lines and with a wheat 1D/1A substitution, has the potential to improve gluten polymer interactions and be a valuable genetic resource for triticale quality improvement. PMID:23896593

  16. Molecular, physicochemical and rheological characteristics of introgressive Triticale/Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum lines with wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution.

    PubMed

    Salmanowicz, Bolesław P; Langner, Monika; Wiśniewska, Halina; Apolinarska, Barbara; Kwiatek, Michał; Błaszczyk, Lidia

    2013-07-26

    Three sets of hexaploid introgressive triticale lines, with Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (cultivated einkorn wheat) genes and a bread wheat chromosome 1D substituted for chromosome 1A, and one set of secondary triticale lines were evaluated for grain and flour physicochemical and dough rheological characteristics in two generations (F7 and F8). Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed the 1D/1A chromosome substitution. The presence or absence of einkorn high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits and the wheat Glu-D1d locus encoding the 5 + 10 subunits was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), capillary zone electrophoresis, and allele-specific molecular markers. Significant differences were found among physicochemical properties (with the exception of the Hagberg falling number) of all introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines and the secondary triticale lines. The wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution also affected these properties. The results showed that in all introgressive triticale lines, the protein and gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation value, and water absorption capacity, were increased. The rheological parameters estimated using micro-farinograph, reomixer, and Kieffer dough extensibility systems also showed an appreciable increase in dough-mixing properties, maximum resistance to extension (Rmax), and dough extensibility. Introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines with 5 + 10 subunits have particularly favorable rheological parameters. The results obtained in this study suggest that the cultivated einkorn genome Am, in the context of hexaploid secondary triticale lines and with a wheat 1D/1A substitution, has the potential to improve gluten polymer interactions and be a valuable genetic resource for triticale quality improvement.

  17. Molecular, Physicochemical and Rheological Characteristics of Introgressive Triticale/Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum Lines with Wheat 1D/1A Chromosome Substitution

    PubMed Central

    Salmanowicz, Bolesław P.; Langner, Monika; Wiśniewska, Halina; Apolinarska, Barbara; Kwiatek, Michał; Błaszczyk, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    Three sets of hexaploid introgressive triticale lines, with Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (cultivated einkorn wheat) genes and a bread wheat chromosome 1D substituted for chromosome 1A, and one set of secondary triticale lines were evaluated for grain and flour physicochemical and dough rheological characteristics in two generations (F7 and F8). Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed the 1D/1A chromosome substitution. The presence or absence of einkorn high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits and the wheat Glu-D1d locus encoding the 5 + 10 subunits was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), capillary zone electrophoresis, and allele-specific molecular markers. Significant differences were found among physicochemical properties (with the exception of the Hagberg falling number) of all introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines and the secondary triticale lines. The wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution also affected these properties. The results showed that in all introgressive triticale lines, the protein and gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation value, and water absorption capacity, were increased. The rheological parameters estimated using micro-farinograph, reomixer, and Kieffer dough extensibility systems also showed an appreciable increase in dough-mixing properties, maximum resistance to extension (Rmax), and dough extensibility. Introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines with 5 + 10 subunits have particularly favorable rheological parameters. The results obtained in this study suggest that the cultivated einkorn genome Am, in the context of hexaploid secondary triticale lines and with a wheat 1D/1A substitution, has the potential to improve gluten polymer interactions and be a valuable genetic resource for triticale quality improvement. PMID:23896593

  18. Characterization of Triticum aestivum Abscisic Acid Receptors and a Possible Role for These in Mediating Fusairum Head Blight Susceptibility in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Cameron S.; Rajagopalan, Nandhakishore; Risseeuw, Eddy P.; Surpin, Marci; Ball, Fraser J.; Barber, Carla J.; Buhrow, Leann M.; Clark, Shawn M.; Page, Jonathan E.; Todd, Chris D.; Abrams, Suzanne R.; Loewen, Michele C.

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a well-characterized plant hormone, known to mediate developmental aspects as well as both abiotic and biotic stress responses. Notably, the exogenous application of ABA has recently been shown to increase susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, the causative agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and other cereals. However roles and mechanisms associated with ABA’s modulation of pathogen responses remain enigmatic. Here the identification of putative ABA receptors from available genomic databases for Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) and Brachypodium distachyon (a model cereal) are reported. A number of these were cloned for recombinant expression and their functionality as ABA receptors confirmed by in vitro assays against protein phosphatases Type 2Cs. Ligand selectivity profiling of one of the wheat receptors (Ta_PYL2DS_FL) highlighted unique activities compared to Arabidopsis AtPYL5. Mutagenic analysis showed Ta_PYL2DS_FL amino acid D180 as being a critical contributor to this selectivity. Subsequently, a virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach was used to knockdown wheat Ta_PYL4AS_A (and similar) in planta, yielding plants with increased early stage resistance to FHB progression and decreased mycotoxin accumulation. Together these results confirm the existence of a family of ABA receptors in wheat and Brachypodium and present insight into factors modulating receptor function at the molecular level. That knockdown of Ta_PYL4AS_A (and similar) leads to early stage FHB resistance highlights novel targets for investigation in the future development of disease resistant crops. PMID:27755583

  19. Nitrate reductase-mediated early nitric oxide burst alleviates oxidative damage induced by aluminum through enhancement of antioxidant defenses in roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Sun, Chengliang; Lu, Lingli; Liu, Lijuan; Liu, Wenjing; Yu, Yan; Liu, Xiaoxia; Hu, Yan; Jin, Chongwei; Lin, Xianyong

    2014-03-01

    • Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule involved in the physiological processes of plants. The role of NO release in the tolerance strategies of roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum) under aluminum (Al) stress was investigated using two genotypes with different Al resistances. • An early NO burst at 3 h was observed in the root tips of the Al-tolerant genotype Jian-864, whereas the Al-sensitive genotype Yang-5 showed no NO accumulation at 3 h but an extremely high NO concentration after 12 h. Stimulating NO production at 3 h in the root tips of Yang-5 with the NO donor relieved Al-induced root inhibition and callose production, as well as oxidative damage and ROS accumulation, while elimination of the early NO burst by NO scavenger aggravated root inhibition in Jian-864. • Synthesis of early NO in roots of Jian-864 was mediated through nitrate reductase (NR) but not through NO synthase. Elevated antioxidant enzyme activities were induced by Al stress in both wheat genotypes and significantly enhanced by NO donor, but suppressed by NO scavenger or NR inhibitor. • These results suggest that an NR-mediated early NO burst plays an important role in Al resistance of wheat through modulating enhanced antioxidant defense to adapt to Al stress.

  20. Characterization of agronomic and quality traits and HSW-G5 compositions from the progenies of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with different protein content.

    PubMed

    Bian, M; Sun, D K; Sun, D F; Sun, G L

    2015-01-01

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) play an essential role in wheat processing quality. In this study, we evaluated the genetic pattern with HMW-GS composition between generations and examined whether agronomic and quality traits were correlated with each other. A wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar with high protein content and 2 cultivars with low protein content were subjected to a reciprocal cross. Sixteen agronomic and 4 quality characteristics were investigated. A total of 216 seeds from each F2 generation were chosen randomly and analyzed for HMW-GS composition using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Agronomic and quality characteristics were not significantly different between reciprocal crosses, indicating no cytoplasmic effect on the characteristics studied. The separation ratio of 2 HMW-GS loci was 9:3:3:1, indicating no linkage between any 2 loci. The novel HMW-GS N was detected in cultivar R145, which did not follow the Mendelian segregation ratio. A Glu-A1a(1) band was not detected in 1 individual from Tian8901xR145. Average grain weight per spike was significantly correlated with quality characteristics and may be a suitable criterion for selecting high protein content in wheat breeding programs. PMID:25867343

  1. Variation of the phytotoxicity of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination with leaching conditions.

    PubMed

    Phoungthong, Khamphe; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2016-03-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA) has long been regarded as an alternative building material in the construction industry. However, the pollutants contained in the bottom ash could potentially leach out and contaminate the local environment, which presents an obstacle to the reuse of the materials. To evaluate the environmental feasibility of using MSWIBA as a recycled material in construction, the leaching derived ecotoxicity was assessed. The leaching behavior of MSWIBA under various conditions, including the extractant type, leaching time, liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, and leachate pH were investigated, and the phytotoxicity of these leachates on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination was determined. Moreover, the correlation between the germination index and the concentrations of various chemical constituents in the MSWIBA leachates was assessed using multivariate statistics with principal component analysis and Pearson's correlation analysis. It was found that, heavy metal concentrations in the leachate were pH and L/S ratio dependent, but were less affected by leaching time. Heavy metals were the main pollutants present in wheat seeds. Heavy metals (especially Ba, Cr, Cu and Pb) had a substantial inhibitory effect on wheat seed germination and root elongation. To safely use MSWIBA in construction, the potential risk and ecotoxicity of leached materials must be addressed.

  2. A matrix attachment region is located upstream from the high-molecular-weight glutenin gene Bx7 in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Rampitsch, C; Jordan, M C; Cloutier, S

    2000-06-01

    A 2.2-kb nucleotide sequence rich in AT, located upstream from the Bx7 allele of the high-molecular-weight glutenin Glu-B1 locus in wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Glenlea) was cloned following amplification by PCR. The 5' region of this sequence contains motifs typically found in matrix attachment regions (MARs) in other plants. We have shown that part of the 2.2-kb DNA binds to wheat nuclear matrix (NM) in vitro, at least as strongly as a known MAR (Adh1) from maize suggesting that there is a MAR upstream of Bx7. This MAR is approximately 800 bases in length running from -750 to -1560 bases, relative to the start codon. Although the MAR is associated with a tissue-specific gene and is beside a strong tissue-specific promoter, the MAR sequence did not lead to tissue-specific expression of the beta-glucuronidase marker gene under the control of the rice actin promoter in various tissues. Presence of the MAR was only slightly beneficial with respect to expression levels, which were not greatly altered in transient expression assays in various wheat tissues although a slight increase in the number of foci was observed in leaves, which have low transformation efficiencies.

  3. Variation of the phytotoxicity of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination with leaching conditions.

    PubMed

    Phoungthong, Khamphe; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2016-03-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA) has long been regarded as an alternative building material in the construction industry. However, the pollutants contained in the bottom ash could potentially leach out and contaminate the local environment, which presents an obstacle to the reuse of the materials. To evaluate the environmental feasibility of using MSWIBA as a recycled material in construction, the leaching derived ecotoxicity was assessed. The leaching behavior of MSWIBA under various conditions, including the extractant type, leaching time, liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, and leachate pH were investigated, and the phytotoxicity of these leachates on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination was determined. Moreover, the correlation between the germination index and the concentrations of various chemical constituents in the MSWIBA leachates was assessed using multivariate statistics with principal component analysis and Pearson's correlation analysis. It was found that, heavy metal concentrations in the leachate were pH and L/S ratio dependent, but were less affected by leaching time. Heavy metals were the main pollutants present in wheat seeds. Heavy metals (especially Ba, Cr, Cu and Pb) had a substantial inhibitory effect on wheat seed germination and root elongation. To safely use MSWIBA in construction, the potential risk and ecotoxicity of leached materials must be addressed. PMID:26745383

  4. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of a novel 6&1-FEH from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) preferentially degrading small graminans like bifurcose.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Akira; Yoshida, Midori; Van den Ende, Wim

    2005-09-26

    Like barley and other cereals, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accumulates branched graminan-type fructans containing both beta-(2,1) and beta-(2,6) fructosyl linkages, mainly with a quite low degree of polymerization (DP). 1&6-kestotetraose (bifurcose) is the major fructan oligosaccharide accumulating in crown tissues and leaves of cereals exposed to chilling. The fructan exohydrolase (FEH) cDNAs 1-FEH w1 and w2 were previously cloned from wheat crowns sampled in mid-November. Here, we report the cloning and functional analysis of another FEH cDNA from a mid-November wheat crown cDNA library. The cDNA encodes a long open reading frame (ORF) of 595 amino acids. Like other FEHs, it has a low iso-electric point (5.2) and it groups together with cell-wall type invertases and not with vacuolar invertases. The deduced amino acid sequence shows 67% identity to wheat 1-FEH w1 and w2. Functional characterization of the recombinant proteins in Pichia pastoris demonstrated that the recombinant enzyme had FEH activity towards the pure compounds 1-kestose, 6-kestose, 1,1-nystose and 1,1,1-kestopentaose. However, when incubated with its putative natural substrates (a mixture of low DP graminans from wheat crowns), it was shown that 1&6-kestotetraose (bifurcose) was preferentially removed from the graminan mixture. High DP wheat graminan and bacterial levan were only poor substrates. No hydrolase activities could be detected towards sucrose and high DP inulin, convincingly demonstrating that the enzyme is not a classic invertase or 1-FEH. The enzyme was termed 6&1-FEH w1. Northern blot analyses showed that 6&1-FEH w1 was expressed in crown tissue from autumn through winter under snow, while the expression levels in leaves were minimal or not detectable. The results strongly suggest that this unique FEH might play an important role in the degradation of branched, low DP wheat graminan (like bifurcose) in wheat crowns in the high fructan content season.

  5. Molecular Genetic Maps in Wild Emmer Wheat, Triticum dicoccoides: Genome-Wide Coverage, Massive Negative Interference, and Putative Quasi-Linkage

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Junhua; Korol, Abraham B.; Fahima, Tzion; Röder, Marion S.; Ronin, Yefim I.; Li, Youchun C.; Nevo, Eviatar

    2000-01-01

    The main objectives of the study reported here were to construct a molecular map of wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, to characterize the marker-related anatomy of the genome, and to evaluate segregation and recombination patterns upon crossing T. dicoccoides with its domesticated descendant Triticum durum (cultivar Langdon). The total map length exceeded 3000 cM and possibly covered the entire tetraploid genome (AABB). Clusters of molecular markers were observed on most of the 14 chromosomes. AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers manifested a random distribution among homologous groups, but not among genomes and chromosomes. Genetic differentiation between T. dicoccoides and T. durum was attributed mainly to the B genome as revealed by AFLP markers. The segregation-distorted markers were mainly clustered on 4A, 5A, and 5B chromosomes. Homeoalleles, differentially conferring the vigor of gametes, might be responsible for the distortion on 5A and 5B chromosomes. Quasilinkage, deviation from free recombination between markers of nonhomologous chromosomes, was discovered. Massive negative interference was observed in most of the chromosomes (an excess of double crossovers in adjacent intervals relative to the expected rates on the assumption of no interference). The general pattern of distribution of islands of negative interference included near-centromeric location, spanning the centromere, and median/subterminal location. [An appendix describing the molecular marker loci is available as an online supplement at http://www.genome.org.] PMID:11042150

  6. Kinetics of carotenoids degradation during the storage of einkorn (Triticum monococcum L. ssp. monococcum) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. aestivum) flours.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Alyssa; Brandolini, Andrea

    2008-12-10

    To evaluate the effect of storage temperature, the degradation kinetics of carotenoids in wholemeal and white flour of einkorn cv. Monlis and bread wheat cv. Serio, stored at -20, 5, 20, 30, and 38 degrees C, was assessed by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. In Monlis, the carotenoids content (8.1 and 9.8 mg/kg for wholemeal and white flour, respectively) was 8-fold higher than in Serio (1.0 and 1.1 mg/kg). Only lutein and zeaxanthin were detected in bread wheat, while significant quantities of (alpha and beta)-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin were observed in einkorn. Carotenoids degradation was influenced by temperature and time, following first-order kinetics. The degradation rate was similar in wholemeal and white flour; however, loss of lutein and total carotenoids was faster in Serio than in Monlis. The activation energy E(a) ranged from 35.2 to 52.5 kJ/mol. Temperatures not exceeding 20 degrees C better preserve carotenoids content and are recommended for long-term storage.

  7. Confocal Raman microscopic characterization of the molecular species responsible for the grain cohesion of Triticum aestivum wheat: effect of chemical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piot, Olivier; Saadi, Abdelbasset; Autran, Jean-Claude; Manfait, Michel

    1999-04-01

    Raman microspectroscopy is a very well appropriate technique for the characterization of the molecules responsible of the wheat grain cohesion, since it is non-destructive and can be readily applied in-situ. The cohesion of the kernel or starchy endosperm depends on a protein content located at the interstices of starch granules. The separation between the kernel and the envelope depends on the composition of the aleurone cells layer, in phenolic acids and pentosans. Confocal Raman microscopy has been performed on kernel sections of various Triticum aestivum samples. Raman spectra recorded at different parts of such sections are very specific, such as spectra of the starchy endosperm protein. The technique has been also used to study the effect of chemical treatment on the binding of the constituents of the aleurone cells walls. In addition, certain marker bands of starch and proteins have been used to construct spectral images.

  8. Relationships between digestibilities of food components and characteristics of wheats (Triticum aestivum) introduced as the only cereal source in a broiler chicken diet.

    PubMed

    Carré, B; Idi, A; Maisonnier, S; Melcion, J P; Oury, F X; Gomez, J; Pluchard, P

    2002-07-01

    1. The aim of the experiment was to establish relationships between chemical or physical characteristics of wheats (Triticum aestivum) and digestibilities of food components in broiler chickens fed on wheat-based diets. Twenty-two wheat samples, each differing by their cultivar origin, were included at 550 g/kg in diets offered to male Ross broiler chicks. The other main ingredients were soya bean meal (340 g/kg) and rapeseed oil (68.5 g/kg). Diets were given as pellets. 2. In vitro viscosities of wheats measured as potential applied viscosity (PAV) or real applied viscosity (RAV) varied between 1.91 and 6.03, or between 0.95 and 3.81 ml/g (dry matter basis), respectively. Hardness of wheats varied between 17 (soft) and 95 (very hard), and lipase activity of wheats varied from 1 to 13.6 (relative scale). 3. PAV and RAV values were not significantly correlated with hardness. PAV and RAV values were correlated with (80:20) ethanol:water insoluble, water soluble arabinoxylans (r = 0.961, 0.932, respectively), with the amount of water retained by cell walls (r = 0.656, 0.492, respectively), and with lipase activity (r = 0.600, 0.532, respectively. 4. Hardness was correlated with ash (r = -0.484), nitrogen (r = 0.534), mean particle size of wheat flours (r = 0.631), and specific energy of pelleting (r = -0.574). 5. Wheat diets were evaluated in two assays with 3-week-old chicks, with 11 diets per assay. In each assay, a balance experiment was carried out using the total collection method. Growth performance was also measured during the balance experiment. 6. In vitro viscosity parameters were negatively correlated with diet AMEn (P < 0.05), lipid digestibility (P < 0.05) and, to a lesser extent, protein digestibility (P < 0.05). In vitro viscosity data were positively correlated with food:gain ratio (P < 0.05) and water loss parameters (P < 0.05), and were not significantly (P > 0.05) correlated with starch digestibility. 7. Wheat hardness-related parameters were

  9. Empirical rheology and pasting properties of soft-textured durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and hard-textured common wheat (T. aestivum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puroindoline (PIN) proteins are the molecular basis for wheat kernel texture classification and affect flour milling performance. This study aimed at investigating the effect of PINs on kernel physical characteristics and dough rheological properties of common wheat (Alpowa cv, soft wheat) and durum...

  10. Genome-wide quantitative trait locus mapping identifies multiple major loci for brittle rachis and threshability in Tibetan semi-wild wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. tibetanum Shao).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yun-Feng; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Luo, Wei; Kong, Xing-Chen; Qi, Peng-Fei; Wang, Ji-Rui; Wei, Yu-Ming; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Liu, Ya-Xi; Peng, Yuan-Ying; Chen, Guo-Yue; Dai, Shou-Fen; Zheng, You-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan semi-wild wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. tibetanum Shao) is a semi-wild hexaploid wheat resource that is only naturally distributed in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Brittle rachis and hard threshing are two important characters of Tibetan semi-wild wheat. A whole-genome linkage map of T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum was constructed using a recombinant inbred line population (Q1028×ZM9023) with 186 lines, 564 diversity array technology markers, and 117 simple sequence repeat markers. Phenotypic data on brittle rachis and threshability, as two quantitative traits, were evaluated on the basis of the number of average spike rachis fragments per spike and percent threshability in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping performed using inclusive composite interval mapping analysis clearly identified four QTLs for brittle rachis and three QTLs for threshability. However, three loci on 2DS, 2DL, and 5AL showed pleiotropism for brittle rachis and threshability; they respectively explained 5.3%, 18.6%, and 18.6% of phenotypic variation for brittle rachis and 17.4%, 13.2%, and 35.2% of phenotypic variation for threshability. A locus on 3DS showed an independent effect on brittle rachis, which explained 38.7% of the phenotypic variation. The loci on 2DS and 3DS probably represented the effect of Tg and Br1, respectively. The locus on 5AL was in very close proximity to the Q gene, but was different from the predicted q in Tibetan semi-wild wheat. To our knowledge, the locus on 2DL has never been reported in common wheat but was prominent in T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum accession Q1028. It remarkably interacted with the locus on 5AL to affect brittle rachis. Several major loci for brittle rachis and threshability were identified in Tibetan semi-wild wheat, improving the understanding of these two characters and suggesting the occurrence of special evolution in Tibetan semi-wild wheat.

  11. Mutual impacts of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and earthworms (Eisenia fetida) on the bioavailability of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soil.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuyan; Fang, Shuhong; Zhu, Lingyan; Liu, Li; Liu, Zhengtao; Zhang, Yahui

    2014-01-01

    Wheat and earthworms were exposed individually and together to soils contaminated with 11 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Wheat accumulated PFASs from soil with root concentration factors and bioconcentration factors that decreased as the number of perfluorinated carbons in the molecule increased. Earthworms accumulated PFASs from soil with biota-to-soil accumulation factors that increased with the number of carbons. Translocation factors (TF) of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) in wheat peaked at perfluorohexanoic acid and decreased significantly as the number of carbons increased or decreased. Perfluorohexane sulfonate produced the greatest TF of the three perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) examined. Wheat increased the bioaccumulation of all 11 PFASs in earthworms and earthworms increased the bioaccumulation in wheat of PFCAs containing seven or less perfluorinated carbons, decreased bioaccumulation of PFCAs with more than seven carbons, and decreased bioaccumulation of PFSAs. In general, the co-presence of wheat and earthworms enhanced the bioavailability of PFASs in soil.

  12. FAR5, a fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase, is involved in primary alcohol biosynthesis of the leaf blade cuticular wax in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Meiling; Sun, Yulin; Wang, Yanting; Li, Tingting; Chai, Guaiqiang; Jiang, Wenhui; Shan, Liwei; Li, Chunlian; Xiao, Enshi; Wang, Zhonghua

    2015-03-01

    A waxy cuticle that serves as a protective barrier against non-stomatal water loss and environmental damage coats the aerial surfaces of land plants. It comprises a cutin polymer matrix and waxes. Cuticular waxes are complex mixtures of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and their derivatives. Results show that primary alcohols are the major components of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaf blade cuticular waxes. Here, the characterization of TaFAR5 from wheat cv Xinong 2718, which is allelic to TAA1b, an anther-specific gene, is reported. Evidence is presented for a new function for TaFAR5 in the biosynthesis of primary alcohols of leaf blade cuticular wax in wheat. Expression of TaFAR5 cDNA in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) led to production of C22:0 primary alcohol. The transgenic expression of TaFAR5 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv MicroTom leaves resulted in the accumulation of C26:0, C28:0, and C30:0 primary alcohols. TaFAR5 encodes an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR). Expression analysis revealed that TaFAR5 was expressed at high levels in the leaf blades, anthers, pistils, and seeds. Fully functional green fluorescent protein-tagged TaFAR5 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the site of primary alcohol biosynthesis. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the TaFAR5 protein possessed a molecular mass of 58.4kDa, and it was also shown that TaFAR5 transcript levels were regulated in response to drought, cold, and abscisic acid (ABA). Overall, these data suggest that TaFAR5 plays an important role in the synthesis of primary alcohols in wheat leaf blade.

  13. Heterologous expression of a plastid EF-Tu reduces protein thermal aggregation and enhances CO2 fixation in wheat (Triticum aestivum) following heat stress.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianming; Momcilović, Ivana; Clemente, Thomas E; Nersesian, Natalya; Trick, Harold N; Ristic, Zoran

    2008-10-01

    Heat stress is a major constraint to wheat production and negatively impacts grain quality, causing tremendous economic losses, and may become a more troublesome factor due to global warming. At the cellular level, heat stress causes denaturation and aggregation of proteins and injury to membranes leading to alterations in metabolic fluxes. Protein aggregation is irreversible, and protection of proteins from thermal aggregation is a strategy a cell uses to tolerate heat stress. Here we report on the development of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum) events, expressing a maize gene coding for plastidal protein synthesis elongation factor (EF-Tu), which, compared to non-transgenic plants, display reduced thermal aggregation of leaf proteins, reduced heat injury to photosynthetic membranes (thylakoids), and enhanced rate of CO(2) fixation after exposure to heat stress. The results support the concept that EF-Tu ameliorates negative effects of heat stress by acting as a molecular chaperone. This is the first demonstration of the introduction of a plastidal EF-Tu in plants that leads to protection against heat injury and enhanced photosynthesis after heat stress. This is also the first demonstration that a gene other than HSP gene can be used for improvement of heat tolerance and that the improvement is possible in a species that has a complex genome, hexaploid wheat. The results strongly suggest that heat tolerance of wheat, and possibly other crop plants, can be improved by modulating expression of plastidal EF-Tu and/or by selection of genotypes with increased endogenous levels of this protein.

  14. Analysis of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) harboring a maize (Zea mays L.) gene for plastid EF-Tu: segregation pattern, expression and effects of the transgene.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianming; Ristic, Zoran

    2010-06-01

    We previously reported that transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) carrying a maize (Zea mays L.) gene (Zmeftu1) for chloroplast protein synthesis elongation factor, EF-Tu, displays reduced thermal aggregation of leaf proteins, reduced injury to photosynthetic membranes (thylakoids), and enhanced rate of CO(2) fixation following exposure to heat stress (18 h at 45 degrees C) [Fu et al. in Plant Mol Biol 68:277-288, 2008]. In the current study, we investigated the segregation pattern and expression of the transgene Zmeftu1 and determined the grain yield of transgenic plants after exposure to a brief heat stress (18 h at 45 degrees C). We also assessed thermal aggregation of soluble leaf proteins in transgenic plants, testing the hypothesis that increased levels of EF-Tu will lead to a non-specific protection of leaf proteins against thermal aggregation. The transgenic wheat displayed a single-gene pattern of segregation of Zmeftu1. Zmeftu1 was expressed, and the transgenic plants synthesized and accumulated three anti-EF-Tu cross-reacting polypeptides of similar molecular mass but different pI, suggesting the possibility of posttranslational modification of this protein. The transgenic plants also showed better grain yield after exposure to heat stress compared with their non-transgenic counterparts. Soluble leaf proteins of various molecular masses displayed lower thermal aggregation in transgenic than in non-transgenic wheat. The results suggest that overexpression of chloroplast EF-Tu can be beneficial to wheat tolerance to heat stress. Moreover, the results also support the hypothesis that EF-Tu contributes to heat tolerance by acting as a molecular chaperone and protecting heat-labile proteins from thermal aggregation in a non-specific manner.

  15. Kinetic properties of cell wall bound superoxide dismutase in leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) following stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) infection.

    PubMed

    Asthir, Bavita; Koundal, A; Bains, N S

    2011-10-01

    Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici) is the most devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accounting huge economical losses to the industry worldwide. HD 2329 was a widely grown wheat cultivar which had become highly susceptible to stripe rust and was used to understand the biochemical aspects of the host pathogen interaction through characterization of superoxide dismutase (SOD). In the present study, two types of SOD, ionically or covalently bound to the particulate fraction were found in the stripe rust infected and uninfected wheat leaves of susceptible cultivar HD 2329. Cell walls of leaves contained a high level of SOD, of which 41-44% was extractable by 2 M NaCl and 10-13% by 0.5% EDTA in infected and uninfected leaves. The NaCl-released SOD constituted the predominant fraction. It exhibited maximum activity at pH 9.0, had a Km value of 1.82-2.51 for uninfected and 1.77-2.37 mM for infected, respectively with pyrogallol as the substrate, and a Vmax of 9.55-21.4 and 12.4-24.1 delta A min(-1)g(-1)FW. A temperature optimum of 20 degrees C was observed for SOD of both uninfected and infected leaves. SOD showed differential response to metal ions, suggesting their distinctive nature. Inhibition of wall bound SOD by iodine and its partial regeneration of activity by mercaptoethanol suggested the involvement of cysteine in active site of the enzyme. These two forms showed greater differences with respect to thermodynamic properties like energy of activation (Ea) and enthalpy change (delta H), while entropy change (delta S) and free energy change (delta G) were similar. The results further showed that pathogen infection of the leaves of susceptible wheat cultivar induced a decrease in the SOD activity and kinetics which might be critical during the response of plant cells to the infection. PMID:22165293

  16. Kinetic properties of cell wall bound superoxide dismutase in leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) following stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) infection.

    PubMed

    Asthir, Bavita; Koundal, A; Bains, N S

    2011-10-01

    Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici) is the most devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accounting huge economical losses to the industry worldwide. HD 2329 was a widely grown wheat cultivar which had become highly susceptible to stripe rust and was used to understand the biochemical aspects of the host pathogen interaction through characterization of superoxide dismutase (SOD). In the present study, two types of SOD, ionically or covalently bound to the particulate fraction were found in the stripe rust infected and uninfected wheat leaves of susceptible cultivar HD 2329. Cell walls of leaves contained a high level of SOD, of which 41-44% was extractable by 2 M NaCl and 10-13% by 0.5% EDTA in infected and uninfected leaves. The NaCl-released SOD constituted the predominant fraction. It exhibited maximum activity at pH 9.0, had a Km value of 1.82-2.51 for uninfected and 1.77-2.37 mM for infected, respectively with pyrogallol as the substrate, and a Vmax of 9.55-21.4 and 12.4-24.1 delta A min(-1)g(-1)FW. A temperature optimum of 20 degrees C was observed for SOD of both uninfected and infected leaves. SOD showed differential response to metal ions, suggesting their distinctive nature. Inhibition of wall bound SOD by iodine and its partial regeneration of activity by mercaptoethanol suggested the involvement of cysteine in active site of the enzyme. These two forms showed greater differences with respect to thermodynamic properties like energy of activation (Ea) and enthalpy change (delta H), while entropy change (delta S) and free energy change (delta G) were similar. The results further showed that pathogen infection of the leaves of susceptible wheat cultivar induced a decrease in the SOD activity and kinetics which might be critical during the response of plant cells to the infection.

  17. FAR5, a fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase, is involved in primary alcohol biosynthesis of the leaf blade cuticular wax in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Meiling; Sun, Yulin; Wang, Yanting; Li, Tingting; Chai, Guaiqiang; Jiang, Wenhui; Shan, Liwei; Li, Chunlian; Xiao, Enshi; Wang, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    A waxy cuticle that serves as a protective barrier against non-stomatal water loss and environmental damage coats the aerial surfaces of land plants. It comprises a cutin polymer matrix and waxes. Cuticular waxes are complex mixtures of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and their derivatives. Results show that primary alcohols are the major components of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaf blade cuticular waxes. Here, the characterization of TaFAR5 from wheat cv Xinong 2718, which is allelic to TAA1b, an anther-specific gene, is reported. Evidence is presented for a new function for TaFAR5 in the biosynthesis of primary alcohols of leaf blade cuticular wax in wheat. Expression of TaFAR5 cDNA in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) led to production of C22:0 primary alcohol. The transgenic expression of TaFAR5 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv MicroTom leaves resulted in the accumulation of C26:0, C28:0, and C30:0 primary alcohols. TaFAR5 encodes an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR). Expression analysis revealed that TaFAR5 was expressed at high levels in the leaf blades, anthers, pistils, and seeds. Fully functional green fluorescent protein-tagged TaFAR5 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the site of primary alcohol biosynthesis. SDS–PAGE analysis indicated that the TaFAR5 protein possessed a molecular mass of 58.4kDa, and it was also shown that TaFAR5 transcript levels were regulated in response to drought, cold, and abscisic acid (ABA). Overall, these data suggest that TaFAR5 plays an important role in the synthesis of primary alcohols in wheat leaf blade. PMID:25468933

  18. Identification and mapping QTL for high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar 'Stephens'.

    PubMed

    Santra, D K; Chen, X M; Santra, M; Campbell, K G; Kidwell, K K

    2008-09-01

    High-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance from the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar 'Stephens' has protected wheat crops from stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici for 30 years. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for HTAP resistance in Stephens through genetic linkage analysis and identify DNA markers linked to the QTL for use in marker-assisted breeding. Mapping populations consisted of 101 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) through single-seed descent from 'Stephens' (resistant) x 'Michigan Amber' (susceptible). F(5), F(6) and F(7) RILs were evaluated for stripe rust resistance at Pullman, WA in 1996, 1997 and 1998, respectively, whereas F(8) RILs were evaluated at Mt Vernon, WA, USA in 2005. The 101 F(8) RILs were evaluated with 250 resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP), 245 simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 1 sequence tagged site (STS) markers for genetic linkage map construction. Two QTL, which explained 48-61% of the total phenotypic variation of the HTAP resistance in Stephens, were identified. QYrst.wgp-6BS.1 was within a 3.9-cM region flanked by Xbarc101 and Xbarc136. QYrst.wgp-6BS.2 was mapped in a 17.5-cM region flanked by Xgwm132 and Xgdm113. Both two QTL were physically mapped to the short arm of chromosome 6B, but in different bins. Validation and polymorphism tests of the flanking markers in 43 wheat genotypes indicated that the molecular markers associated with these QTL should be useful in marker-assisted breeding programs to efficiently incorporate HTAP resistance into new wheat cultivars.

  19. The role of thioredoxin h in protein metabolism during wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongxiang; Wang, Shaoxin; Xu, Fangfang; Li, Yongchun; Ren, Jiangping; Wang, Xiang; Niu, Hongbin; Yin, Jun

    2013-06-01

    Thioredoxin h can regulate the redox environment in the cell and play an important role in the germination of cereals. In the present study, the thioredoxin s antisense transgenic wheat with down-regulation of thioredoxin h was used to study the role of thioredoxin h in protein metabolism during germination of wheat seeds, and to explore the mechanism of the thioredoxin s antisense transgenic wheat seeds having high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. The qRT-PCR results showed that the expression of protein disulfide isomerase in the thioredoxin s antisense transgenic wheat was up-regulated, which induced easily forming glutenin macropolymers and the resistance of storage proteins to degradation. The expression of serine protease inhibitor was also up-regulated in transgenic wheat, which might be responsible for the decreased activity of thiocalsin during the germination. The expression of WRKY6 in transgenic wheat was down-regulated, which was consistent with the decreased activity of glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase. In transgenic wheat, the activities of glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase were down-regulated, indicating that the metabolism of amino acid was lower than that in wild-type wheat during seed germination. A putative model for the role of thioredoxin h in protein metabolism during wheat seed germination was proposed and discussed.

  20. Proteomic profiling analysis reveals that glutathione system plays important roles responding to osmotic stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wen; Zhang, Daijing; Gao, Xiaolong; Shao, Yun; Tong, Doudou

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important crops in the world, and osmotic stress has become one of the main factors affecting wheat production. Understanding the mechanism of the response of wheat to osmotic stress would be greatly significant. In the present study, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) was used to analyze the changes of protein expression in the wheat roots exposed to different osmotic stresses. A total of 2,228 expressed proteins, including 81 differentially expressed proteins, between osmotic stress and control, were found. The comprehensive analysis of these differentially expressed proteins revealed that osmotic stress increased the variety of expressed proteins and suppressed the quantity of expressed proteins in wheat roots. Furthermore, the proteins for detoxifying and reactive oxygen species scavenging, especially the glutathione system, played important roles in maintaining organism balance in response to osmotic stress in wheat roots. Thus, the present study comprehensively describes the protein expression changes in wheat roots in response to osmotic stress, providing firmer foundation to further study the mechanism of osmotic resistance in wheat. PMID:27602297

  1. Cereal cyst nematode screening in locally adapted spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm of the Pacific Northwest, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field screenings were performed to determine if there is resistance to Heterodera filipjevi in locally adapted wheat germplasm which could be introgressed into new WA wheat varieties. A field naturally infested with Heterodera filipjevi located in Colton, WA, was selected for this experiment. Cultiv...

  2. Preliminary assessment of resistance among U.S. wheat cultivars to the Triticum pathotype of Magnaporthe oryzae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of blast disease on several graminaceous plants. The M. oryzae population causing wheat blast has not been officially reported outside South America. U.S. wheat production is at risk to this pathogen if it is introduced and established. Proactive testing of U.S...

  3. Introgression of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance from Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis Eig) into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust and stripe rust are devastating wheat diseases, causing significant yield losses in many regions of the world. The use of resistant varieties is the most efficient way to protect wheat crops from these diseases. Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis or AES), which is a diploid wild relati...

  4. Proteomic profiling analysis reveals that glutathione system plays important roles responding to osmotic stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wen; Zhang, Daijing; Gao, Xiaolong; Shao, Yun; Tong, Doudou

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important crops in the world, and osmotic stress has become one of the main factors affecting wheat production. Understanding the mechanism of the response of wheat to osmotic stress would be greatly significant. In the present study, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) was used to analyze the changes of protein expression in the wheat roots exposed to different osmotic stresses. A total of 2,228 expressed proteins, including 81 differentially expressed proteins, between osmotic stress and control, were found. The comprehensive analysis of these differentially expressed proteins revealed that osmotic stress increased the variety of expressed proteins and suppressed the quantity of expressed proteins in wheat roots. Furthermore, the proteins for detoxifying and reactive oxygen species scavenging, especially the glutathione system, played important roles in maintaining organism balance in response to osmotic stress in wheat roots. Thus, the present study comprehensively describes the protein expression changes in wheat roots in response to osmotic stress, providing firmer foundation to further study the mechanism of osmotic resistance in wheat.

  5. Genome-wide association mapping of fusarium head blight resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using genotyping by sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most important wheat diseases worldwide and host resistance displays complex genetic control. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 273 winter wheat breeding lines from the mid-western and eastern regions of the US to identify chromosomal re...

  6. Proteomic profiling analysis reveals that glutathione system plays important roles responding to osmotic stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianhui; Dong, Wen; Zhang, Daijing; Gao, Xiaolong; Jiang, Lina; Shao, Yun; Tong, Doudou; Li, Chunxi

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important crops in the world, and osmotic stress has become one of the main factors affecting wheat production. Understanding the mechanism of the response of wheat to osmotic stress would be greatly significant. In the present study, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) was used to analyze the changes of protein expression in the wheat roots exposed to different osmotic stresses. A total of 2,228 expressed proteins, including 81 differentially expressed proteins, between osmotic stress and control, were found. The comprehensive analysis of these differentially expressed proteins revealed that osmotic stress increased the variety of expressed proteins and suppressed the quantity of expressed proteins in wheat roots. Furthermore, the proteins for detoxifying and reactive oxygen species scavenging, especially the glutathione system, played important roles in maintaining organism balance in response to osmotic stress in wheat roots. Thus, the present study comprehensively describes the protein expression changes in wheat roots in response to osmotic stress, providing firmer foundation to further study the mechanism of osmotic resistance in wheat. PMID:27602297

  7. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) response to a zinc fertilizer applied as zinc lignosulfonate adhered to a NPK fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Martín-Ortiz, Diego; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Gárate, Agustín

    2010-07-14

    The efficacy as Zn fertilizers for wheat of zinc lignosulfonate (ZnLS) products adhered to NPK was evaluated by three plant experimental designs. In the first and second assays, wheat plants were grown under controlled conditions with perlite and a calcareous soil as substrate, respectively. Shoot dry matter and Zn concentration showed that NPK + ZnLS was a better Zn source for wheat than NPK + ZnSO(4) under our experimental conditions. A third experiment was conducted under field conditions on a calcareous soil with a low Zn level. Wheat samples were taken at five growth stages of the crop. Although at early stages NPK + ZnLS was the most efficient source of Zn, at harvest no significant differences among treatments were found. Despite that, NPK + ZnLS showed evidence of being a useful Zn source for wheat crop under calcareous conditions. PMID:20527916

  8. Gluten of spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum subspecies spelta) as a source of peptides promoting viability and product yield of mouse hybridoma cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Franek, Frantisek

    2004-06-30

    The enzymic hydrolysate of gluten from spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum subsp. spelta), an ancient protein-rich wheat subspecies, was subjected to repeated chromatography runs on the small pore size exclusion chromatography matrix, Biogel P-2. Two small peptide fractions were purified by rechromatography. The amino acid analyses carried out upon total hydrolysis of these fractions have shown a very high proportion of glutamic acid/glutamine, leucine, and methionine. The biological activity of the peptide fractions was tested on a model hybridoma at a concentration range from 0.02 to 0.2%. The most striking effect of peptide fractions, apparent even at the lowest concentrations tested, was a significantly higher persistence of viable cells on day 6, i.e., at the decline phase of the cultures. Culture viability values in the presence of peptide fractions were 64-74%, in comparison with 56% in the control culture. The results of this work are consistent with the concept that peptide molecules may act as antiapoptotic agents, survival factors, rather than serving as metabolic substrates.

  9. Characterization of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expansin gene, TaEXPB23, involved in the abiotic stress response and phytohormone regulation.

    PubMed

    Han, Yang yang; Li, Ai xiu; Li, Feng; Zhao, Mei rong; Wang, Wei

    2012-05-01

    Expansins are proteins that are generally accepted to be key regulators of cell wall extension and plant growth. We examined the expression pattern of TaEXPB23, a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expansin gene, under exogenous phytohormone and abiotic stress treatments. In addition, we evaluated its function in the tolerance to salt stress and high temperature (HT) by overexpressing it in transgenic tobacco plants. In subcellular localization assays, TaEXPB23 localized to the cell wall. Expression analysis demonstrated that the transcription pattern of TaEXPB23 corresponded to wheat coleoptile growth. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that TaEXPB23 transcript expression was upregulated by exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salt stress, but downregulated by exogenous gibberellins (GA₃), ethylene (ET), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and α-naphthlcetic acid (NAA). Overexpression of TaEXPB23 in tobacco (tabacum) conferred tolerance to salt stress by enhancing water retention ability (WRA) and decreasing osmotic potential (OP). However, transgenic plants overexpressing TaEXPB23 did not show any improvement in the tolerance to HT stress. These results suggested that TaEXPB23 is regulated by phytohormones and is involved in the regulation of salt stress tolerance.

  10. Comparative phosphoproteome analysis of the developing grains in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under well-watered and water-deficit conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Ma, Cao-Ying; Lv, Dong-Wen; Zhen, Shou-Min; Li, Xiao-Hui; Yan, Yue-Ming

    2014-10-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum), one of the most important cereal crops, is often threatened by drought. In this study, water deficit significantly reduced the height of plants and yield of grains. To explore further the effect of drought stress on the development and yield of grains, we first performed a large scale phosphoproteome analysis of developing grains in wheat. A total of 590 unique phosphopeptides, representing 471 phosphoproteins, were identified under well-watered conditions. Motif-X analysis showed that four motifs were enriched, including [sP], [Rxxs], [sDxE], and [sxD]. Through comparative phosphoproteome analysis between well-watered and water-deficit conditions, we found that 63 unique phosphopeptides, corresponding to 61 phosphoproteins, showed significant changes in phosphorylation level (≥2-fold intensities). Functional analysis suggested that some of these proteins may be involved in signal transduction, embryo and endosperm development of grains, and drought response and defense under water-deficit conditions. Moreover, we also found that some chaperones may play important roles in protein refolding or degradation when the plant is subjected to water stress. These results provide a detailed insight into the stress response and defense mechanisms of developmental grains at the phosphoproteome level. They also suggested some potential candidates for further study of transgenosis and drought stress as well as incorporation into molecular breeding for drought resistance.

  11. Effects of two systemic fungicides: Artea (Propiconazole+cyproconazole) and Punch (Flusilazole) on the physiology and the respiratory metabolism of durum wheat (Triticum durum L.).

    PubMed

    Bensoltane, S; Youbi, M; Djebar, H; Djebar, M R

    2006-01-01

    The present work aimed at the study of the effects of Artea and Punch; two systemic fungicides on durum Wheat (Triticum durum L. cv. GTA dur). Seeds were grown in a medium containing respectively 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of Artea and Punch under controlled conditions. After measuring root number and length, eight-day-old-root tips were used to determine Catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), Ascorbate-Peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11) and Guaïacol-Peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) enzymatic activities. Root respiratory activity was also determined using a polarographic method (Clark electrode). Fungicide treatment triggered a decrease in root number and length for both fungicides. On the other hand, treatment with Artea and Punch resulted in an enhancement of the respiratory activity and increased antioxidative enzymatic levels in durum wheat roots. Activities of Catalase, Ascorbate-Peroxydase and Guaïacol-Peroxydase increased proportionally and were more meaningful at high concentrations (75 and 100 ppm) compared with controls. Modulations in respiratory metabolism and antioxidant system could probably be the result of Artea/Punch-induced toxicity which could lead to an oxidative stress status. The present study enhances previous works relevant to the toxic effects induced by systemic fungicides on plants.

  12. Low crop plant population densities promote pollen-mediated gene flow in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Willenborg, Christian J; Brûlé-Babel, Anita L; Van Acker, Rene C

    2009-12-01

    Transgenic wheat is currently being field tested with the intent of eventual commercialization. The development of wheat genotypes with novel traits has raised concerns regarding the presence of volunteer wheat populations and the role they may play in facilitating transgene movement. Here, we report the results of a field experiment that investigated the potential of spring wheat plant population density and crop height to minimize gene flow from a herbicide-resistant (HR) volunteer population to a non-HR crop. Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) between the HR volunteer wheat population and four conventional spring wheat genotypes varying in height was assessed over a range of plant population densities. Natural hybridization events between the two cultivars were detected by phenotypically scoring plants in F(1) populations followed by verification with Mendelian segregation ratios in the F(1:2) families. PMGF was strongly associated with crop yield components, but showed no association with flowering synchrony. Maximum observed PMGF was always less than 0.6%, regardless of crop height and density. The frequency of PMGF in spring wheat decreased exponentially with increasing plant population density, but showed no dependence on either crop genotype or height. However, increasing plant densities beyond the recommended planting rate of 300 cropped wheat plants m(-2) provided no obvious benefit to reducing PMGF. Nevertheless, our results demonstrate a critical plant density of 175-200 cropped wheat plants m(-2) below which PMGF frequencies rise exponentially with decreasing plant density. These results will be useful in the development of mechanistic models and best management practices that collectively facilitate the coexistence of transgenic and nontransgenic wheat crops. PMID:19387859

  13. Introgression of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance from Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis Eig) into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Millet, E; Manisterski, J; Ben-Yehuda, P; Distelfeld, A; Deek, J; Wan, A; Chen, X; Steffenson, B J

    2014-06-01

    Leaf rust and stripe rust are devastating wheat diseases, causing significant yield losses in many regions of the world. The use of resistant varieties is the most efficient way to protect wheat crops from these diseases. Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis or AES), which is a diploid wild relative of wheat, exhibits a high frequency of leaf and stripe rust resistance. We used the resistant AES accession TH548 and induced homoeologous recombination by the ph1b allele to obtain resistant wheat recombinant lines carrying AES chromosome segments in the genetic background of the spring wheat cultivar Galil. The gametocidal effect from AES was overcome by using an "anti-gametocidal" wheat mutant. These recombinant lines were found resistant to highly virulent races of the leaf and stripe rust pathogens in Israel and the United States. Molecular DArT analysis of the different recombinant lines revealed different lengths of AES segments on wheat chromosome 6B, which indicates the location of both resistance genes.

  14. Introgression of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance from Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis Eig) into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Millet, E; Manisterski, J; Ben-Yehuda, P; Distelfeld, A; Deek, J; Wan, A; Chen, X; Steffenson, B J

    2014-06-01

    Leaf rust and stripe rust are devastating wheat diseases, causing significant yield losses in many regions of the world. The use of resistant varieties is the most efficient way to protect wheat crops from these diseases. Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis or AES), which is a diploid wild relative of wheat, exhibits a high frequency of leaf and stripe rust resistance. We used the resistant AES accession TH548 and induced homoeologous recombination by the ph1b allele to obtain resistant wheat recombinant lines carrying AES chromosome segments in the genetic background of the spring wheat cultivar Galil. The gametocidal effect from AES was overcome by using an "anti-gametocidal" wheat mutant. These recombinant lines were found resistant to highly virulent races of the leaf and stripe rust pathogens in Israel and the United States. Molecular DArT analysis of the different recombinant lines revealed different lengths of AES segments on wheat chromosome 6B, which indicates the location of both resistance genes. PMID:25209724

  15. TdERF1, an ethylene response factor associated with dehydration responses in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum).

    PubMed

    Makhloufi, Emna; Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Pirrello, Julien; Bernadac, Anne; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    Water deficit and increasing salinization reduce productivity of wheat, the leading crop for human diet. While the complete genome sequence of this crop has not been deciphered, a BAC library screening allowed the isolation of TdERF1, the first ethylene response factor gene from durum wheat. This gene is putatively involved in mediating salt stress tolerance and its characterization provides clues toward understanding the mechanisms underlying the adaptation/tolerance of durum wheat to suboptimal growth conditions. TdERF1 expression is differentially induced by high salt treatment in 2 durum wheat varieties, the salt-tolerant Grecale (GR) and the salt-sensitive Om Rabiaa (OR). To further extend these findings, we show here that the expression of this ERF is correlated with physiological parameters, such as the accumulation of osmo-regulators and membrane integrity, that discriminate between the 2 contrasted wheat genotypes. The data confirm that GR and OR are 2 contrasted wheat genotypes with regard to salt-stress and show that TdERF1 is also induced by water stress with an expression pattern clearly discriminating between the 2 genotypes. These findings suggest that TdERF1 might be involved in responses to salt and water stress providing a potential genetic marker discriminating between tolerant and sensitive wheat varieties.

  16. Identification and Comparative Analysis of microRNA in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Callus Derived from Mature and Immature Embryos during In vitro Culture

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Zongli; Chen, Junying; Xu, Haixia; Dong, Zhongdong; Chen, Feng; Cui, Dangqun

    2016-01-01

    Feasible and efficient tissue culture plays an important role in plant genetic engineering. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) immature embryos (IMEs) are preferred for tissue culture to mature embryos (MEs) because IMEs easily generate embryogenic callus, producing large number of plants. The molecular mechanisms of regulation and the biological pathways involved in embryogenic callus formation in wheat remain unclear. Here, microRNAs (miRNAs) potentially involved in embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis were identified through deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) and analyzed with bioinformatics tools. Six sRNA libraries derived from calli of IMEs and MEs after 3, 6, or 15 d of culture (DC) were constructed and sequenced. A total of 85 known miRNAs were identified, of which 30, 33, and 18 were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) between the IME and ME libraries at 3, 6, and 15 DC, respectively. Additionally, 171 novel and 41 candidate miRNAs were also identified, of the novel miRNA, 69, 67, and 37 were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) between the two types of libraries at 3, 6, and 15 DC, respectively. The expression patterns of eight known and eight novel miRNAs were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Gene ontology annotation of differentially expressed miRNA targets provided information regarding the underlying molecular functions, biological processes, and cellular components involved in embryogenic callus development. Functional miRNAs, such as miR156, miR164, miR1432, miR398, and miR397, differentially expressed in IMEs and MEs might be related to embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis. This study suggests that miRNA plays an important role in embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis in wheat, and our data provide a useful resource for further research. PMID:27625667

  17. Increase in growth, productivity and nutritional status of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711) and enrichment in soil fertility applied with organic matrix entrapped urea.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Bauddh, Kuldeep; Kumar, Sanjeev; Sainger, Manish; Sainger, Poonam A; Singh, Rana P

    2013-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during two consequent years in semi-arid, subtropical climate of Rohtak district situated in North-West Indian state Haryana to evaluate the effects of eco-friendly organic matrix entrapped urea (OMEU) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711). The OMEU prepared in granular form contained cow dung, rice bran (grain cover of Oryza sativa), neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves and clay soil (diameter of particles < 0.002 mm) in 1:1:1:1 ratios and saresh (plant gum of Acacia sp.) as binder entrapping half of the recommended dose of urea. A basal application of organic matrix entrapped urea showed increase in plant growth in terms of fresh and dry weights, root length, root number, leaf number, tillers, plant height earlet number, earlet length and productivity in terms of grain yield and straw yield over free form of urea (FU) and no fertilizer (NF) application. The OMEU increased total soluble proteins, organic N and free ammonium content in the leaves at 45 and 60 days. The nutritional status of wheat grains in OMEU applied plants was almost similar to that observed for FU applied plants. An increase in organic carbon and available phosphorus (P) was observed in OMEU applied plots on harvest whereas pH was slightly decreased over FU applied plots. The microbial population and activity in terms of fungal and bacterial colony count and activities soil dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase were significantly higher in OMEU applied plots as compared to the FU applied plots. Our data indicate that OMEU which are low cost, biodegradable and non-toxic can be used to replace the expensive chemical fertilizers for wheat cultivation in semi-arid, subtropical climate. PMID:24006800

  18. Identification and Comparative Analysis of microRNA in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Callus Derived from Mature and Immature Embryos during In vitro Culture.

    PubMed

    Chu, Zongli; Chen, Junying; Xu, Haixia; Dong, Zhongdong; Chen, Feng; Cui, Dangqun

    2016-01-01

    Feasible and efficient tissue culture plays an important role in plant genetic engineering. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) immature embryos (IMEs) are preferred for tissue culture to mature embryos (MEs) because IMEs easily generate embryogenic callus, producing large number of plants. The molecular mechanisms of regulation and the biological pathways involved in embryogenic callus formation in wheat remain unclear. Here, microRNAs (miRNAs) potentially involved in embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis were identified through deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) and analyzed with bioinformatics tools. Six sRNA libraries derived from calli of IMEs and MEs after 3, 6, or 15 d of culture (DC) were constructed and sequenced. A total of 85 known miRNAs were identified, of which 30, 33, and 18 were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) between the IME and ME libraries at 3, 6, and 15 DC, respectively. Additionally, 171 novel and 41 candidate miRNAs were also identified, of the novel miRNA, 69, 67, and 37 were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) between the two types of libraries at 3, 6, and 15 DC, respectively. The expression patterns of eight known and eight novel miRNAs were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Gene ontology annotation of differentially expressed miRNA targets provided information regarding the underlying molecular functions, biological processes, and cellular components involved in embryogenic callus development. Functional miRNAs, such as miR156, miR164, miR1432, miR398, and miR397, differentially expressed in IMEs and MEs might be related to embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis. This study suggests that miRNA plays an important role in embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis in wheat, and our data provide a useful resource for further research. PMID:27625667

  19. Isolation of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mutant in ABA 8'-hydroxylase gene: effect of reduced ABA catabolism on germination inhibition under field condition.

    PubMed

    Chono, Makiko; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Seki, Masako; Fujita, Masaya; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Oda, Shunsuke; Kojima, Hisayo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kawakami, Naoto

    2013-03-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seeds on the mother plant under moist condition, is a serious problem in cereals. To investigate the effect of reduced abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism on germination in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), we cloned the wheat ABA 8'-hydroxyase gene which was highly expressed during seed development (TaABA8'OH1) and screened for mutations that lead to reduced ABA catabolism. In a screen for natural variation, one insertion mutation in exon 5 of TaABA8'OH1 on the D genome (TaABA8'OH1-D) was identified in Japanese cultivars including 'Tamaizumi'. However, a single mutation in TaABA8'OH1-D had no clear effect on germination inhibition in double haploid lines. In a screen for a mutation, one deletion mutant lacking the entire TaABA8'OH1 on the A genome (TaABA8'OH1-A), TM1833, was identified from gamma-ray irradiation lines of 'Tamaizumi'. TM1833 (a double mutant in TaABA8'OH1-A and TaABA8'OH1-D) showed lower TaABA8'OH1 expression, higher ABA content in embryos during seed development under field condition and lower germination than those in 'Tamaizumi' (a single mutant in TaABA8'OH1-D). These results indicate that reduced ABA catabolism through mutations in TaABA8'OH1 may be effective in germination inhibition in field-grown wheat.

  20. Isolation of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mutant in ABA 8′-hydroxylase gene: effect of reduced ABA catabolism on germination inhibition under field condition

    PubMed Central

    Chono, Makiko; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Seki, Masako; Fujita, Masaya; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Oda, Shunsuke; Kojima, Hisayo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kawakami, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seeds on the mother plant under moist condition, is a serious problem in cereals. To investigate the effect of reduced abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism on germination in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), we cloned the wheat ABA 8′-hydroxyase gene which was highly expressed during seed development (TaABA8′OH1) and screened for mutations that lead to reduced ABA catabolism. In a screen for natural variation, one insertion mutation in exon 5 of TaABA8′OH1 on the D genome (TaABA8′OH1-D) was identified in Japanese cultivars including ‘Tamaizumi’. However, a single mutation in TaABA8′OH1-D had no clear effect on germination inhibition in double haploid lines. In a screen for a mutation, one deletion mutant lacking the entire TaABA8′OH1 on the A genome (TaABA8′OH1-A), TM1833, was identified from gamma-ray irradiation lines of ‘Tamaizumi’. TM1833 (a double mutant in TaABA8′OH1-A and TaABA8′OH1-D) showed lower TaABA8′OH1 expression, higher ABA content in embryos during seed development under field condition and lower germination than those in ‘Tamaizumi’ (a single mutant in TaABA8′OH1-D). These results indicate that reduced ABA catabolism through mutations in TaABA8′OH1 may be effective in germination inhibition in field-grown wheat. PMID:23641187

  1. Increase in growth, productivity and nutritional status of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711) and enrichment in soil fertility applied with organic matrix entrapped urea.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Bauddh, Kuldeep; Kumar, Sanjeev; Sainger, Manish; Sainger, Poonam A; Singh, Rana P

    2013-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during two consequent years in semi-arid, subtropical climate of Rohtak district situated in North-West Indian state Haryana to evaluate the effects of eco-friendly organic matrix entrapped urea (OMEU) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711). The OMEU prepared in granular form contained cow dung, rice bran (grain cover of Oryza sativa), neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves and clay soil (diameter of particles < 0.002 mm) in 1:1:1:1 ratios and saresh (plant gum of Acacia sp.) as binder entrapping half of the recommended dose of urea. A basal application of organic matrix entrapped urea showed increase in plant growth in terms of fresh and dry weights, root length, root number, leaf number, tillers, plant height earlet number, earlet length and productivity in terms of grain yield and straw yield over free form of urea (FU) and no fertilizer (NF) application. The OMEU increased total soluble proteins, organic N and free ammonium content in the leaves at 45 and 60 days. The nutritional status of wheat grains in OMEU applied plants was almost similar to that observed for FU applied plants. An increase in organic carbon and available phosphorus (P) was observed in OMEU applied plots on harvest whereas pH was slightly decreased over FU applied plots. The microbial population and activity in terms of fungal and bacterial colony count and activities soil dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase were significantly higher in OMEU applied plots as compared to the FU applied plots. Our data indicate that OMEU which are low cost, biodegradable and non-toxic can be used to replace the expensive chemical fertilizers for wheat cultivation in semi-arid, subtropical climate.

  2. Identification and Comparative Analysis of microRNA in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Callus Derived from Mature and Immature Embryos during In vitro Culture

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Zongli; Chen, Junying; Xu, Haixia; Dong, Zhongdong; Chen, Feng; Cui, Dangqun

    2016-01-01

    Feasible and efficient tissue culture plays an important role in plant genetic engineering. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) immature embryos (IMEs) are preferred for tissue culture to mature embryos (MEs) because IMEs easily generate embryogenic callus, producing large number of plants. The molecular mechanisms of regulation and the biological pathways involved in embryogenic callus formation in wheat remain unclear. Here, microRNAs (miRNAs) potentially involved in embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis were identified through deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) and analyzed with bioinformatics tools. Six sRNA libraries derived from calli of IMEs and MEs after 3, 6, or 15 d of culture (DC) were constructed and sequenced. A total of 85 known miRNAs were identified, of which 30, 33, and 18 were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) between the IME and ME libraries at 3, 6, and 15 DC, respectively. Additionally, 171 novel and 41 candidate miRNAs were also identified, of the novel miRNA, 69, 67, and 37 were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) between the two types of libraries at 3, 6, and 15 DC, respectively. The expression patterns of eight known and eight novel miRNAs were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Gene ontology annotation of differentially expressed miRNA targets provided information regarding the underlying molecular functions, biological processes, and cellular components involved in embryogenic callus development. Functional miRNAs, such as miR156, miR164, miR1432, miR398, and miR397, differentially expressed in IMEs and MEs might be related to embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis. This study suggests that miRNA plays an important role in embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis in wheat, and our data provide a useful resource for further research.

  3. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in the flag leaf and developing seed of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate various biological processes in plants. Considerable data are available on miRNAs involved in the development of rice, maize and barley. In contrast, little is known about miRNAs and their functions in the development of wheat. In this study, five small RNA (sRNA) libraries from wheat seedlings, flag leaves, and developing seeds were developed and sequenced to identify miRNAs and understand their functions in wheat development. Results Twenty-four known miRNAs belonging to 15 miRNA families were identified from 18 MIRNA loci in wheat in the present study, including 15 miRNAs (9 MIRNA loci) first identified in wheat, 13 miRNA families (16 MIRNA loci) being highly conserved and 2 (2 MIRNA loci) moderately conserved. In addition, fifty-five novel miRNAs were also identified. The potential target genes for 15 known miRNAs and 37 novel miRNAs were predicted using strict criteria, and these target genes are involved in a wide range of biological functions. Four of the 15 known miRNA families and 22 of the 55 novel miRNAs were preferentially expressed in the developing seeds with logarithm (log2) of the fold change of 1.0 ~ 7.6, and half of them were seed-specific, suggesting that they participate in regulating wheat seed development and metabolism. From 5 days post-anthesis to 20 days post-anthesis, miR164 and miR160 increased in abundance in the developing seeds, whereas miR169 decreased, suggesting their coordinating functions in the different developmental stages of wheat seed. Moreover, 8 known miRNA families and 28 novel miRNAs exhibited tissue-biased expression in wheat flag leaves, with the logarithm of the fold changes of 0.1 ~ 5.2. The putative targets of these tissue-preferential miRNAs were involved in various metabolism and biological processes, suggesting complexity of the regulatory networks in different tissues. Our data also suggested that wheat flag leaves have more complicated regulatory networks of miRNAs than

  4. Delimitation of the Earliness per se D1 (Eps-D1) flowering gene to a subtelomeric chromosomal deletion in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Zikhali, Meluleki; Wingen, Luzie U; Griffiths, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Earliness per se (Eps) genes account for the variation in flowering time when vernalization and photoperiod requirements are satisfied. Genomics and bioinformatics approaches were used to describe allelic variation for 40 Triticum aestivum genes predicted, by synteny with Brachypodium distachyon, to be in the 1DL Eps region. Re-sequencing 1DL genes revealed that varieties carrying early heading alleles at this locus, Spark and Cadenza, carry a subtelomeric deletion including several genes. The equivalent region in Rialto and Avalon is intact. A bimodal distribution in the segregating Spark X Rialto single seed descent (SSD) populations enabled the 1DL QTL to be defined as a discrete Mendelian factor, which we named Eps-D1. Near isogenic lines (NILs) and NIL derived key recombinants between markers flanking Eps-D1 suggest that the 1DL deletion contains the gene(s) underlying Eps-D1. The deletion spans the equivalent of the Triticum monoccocum Eps-A (m) 1 locus, and hence includes MODIFIER OF TRANSCRIPTION 1 (MOT1) and FTSH PROTEASE 4 (FTSH4), the candidates for Eps-A (m) 1. The deletion also contains T. aestivum EARLY FLOWERING 3-D1 (TaELF3-D1) a homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock gene EARLY FLOWERING 3. Eps-D1 is possibly a homologue of Eps-B1 on chromosome 1BL. NILs carrying the Eps-D1 deletion have significantly reduced total TaELF3 expression and altered TaGIGANTEA (TaGI) expression compared with wild type. Altered TaGI expression is consistent with an ELF3 mutant, hence we propose TaELF3-D1 as the more likely candidate for Eps-D1. This is the first direct fine mapping of Eps effect in bread wheat.

  5. Delimitation of the Earliness per se D1 (Eps-D1) flowering gene to a subtelomeric chromosomal deletion in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    PubMed Central

    Zikhali, Meluleki; Wingen, Luzie U.; Griffiths, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Earliness per se (Eps) genes account for the variation in flowering time when vernalization and photoperiod requirements are satisfied. Genomics and bioinformatics approaches were used to describe allelic variation for 40 Triticum aestivum genes predicted, by synteny with Brachypodium distachyon, to be in the 1DL Eps region. Re-sequencing 1DL genes revealed that varieties carrying early heading alleles at this locus, Spark and Cadenza, carry a subtelomeric deletion including several genes. The equivalent region in Rialto and Avalon is intact. A bimodal distribution in the segregating Spark X Rialto single seed descent (SSD) populations enabled the 1DL QTL to be defined as a discrete Mendelian factor, which we named Eps-D1. Near isogenic lines (NILs) and NIL derived key recombinants between markers flanking Eps-D1 suggest that the 1DL deletion contains the gene(s) underlying Eps-D1. The deletion spans the equivalent of the Triticum monoccocum Eps-A m 1 locus, and hence includes MODIFIER OF TRANSCRIPTION 1 (MOT1) and FTSH PROTEASE 4 (FTSH4), the candidates for Eps-A m 1. The deletion also contains T. aestivum EARLY FLOWERING 3-D1 (TaELF3-D1) a homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock gene EARLY FLOWERING 3. Eps-D1 is possibly a homologue of Eps-B1 on chromosome 1BL. NILs carrying the Eps-D1 deletion have significantly reduced total TaELF3 expression and altered TaGIGANTEA (TaGI) expression compared with wild type. Altered TaGI expression is consistent with an ELF3 mutant, hence we propose TaELF3-D1 as the more likely candidate for Eps-D1. This is the first direct fine mapping of Eps effect in bread wheat. PMID:26476691

  6. Heavy metal accumulation in different varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in soil amended with domestic sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Muhammad K; Kazi, Tasneem G; Arain, Muhammad B; Afridi, Hassan I; Jalbani, Nusrat; Kandhro, Ghulam A; Shah, Abdul Q; Baig, Jameel A

    2009-05-30

    The concentrations of heavy metals (HMs) in plants served to indicate the metal contamination status of the site, and also revealed the abilities of various plant species to take up and accumulate them from the soil dressed with sewage sludge. A study to comprehend the mobility and transport of HMs from soil and soil amended with untreated sewage sludge to different newly breaded varieties of wheat (Anmol, TJ-83, Abadgar and Mehran-89) in Pakistan. A pot-culture experiment was conducted to study the transfer of HMs to wheat grains, grown in soil (control) and soil amended with sewage sludge (test samples). The total and ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid (EDTA)-extractable HMs in agricultural soil and soil amended with domestic sewage sludge (SDWS) and wheat grains were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometer/electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer, prior to microwave-assisted wet acid digestion method. The edible part of wheat plants (grains) from test samples presented high concentration of all HMs understudy (mgkg(-1)). Significant correlations were found between metals in exchangeable fractions of soil and SDWS, with total metals in control and test samples of wheat grains. The bio-concentration factors of all HMs were high in grains of two wheat varieties, TJ-83 and Mehran-89, as compared to other varieties, Anmol and Abadgar grown in the same agricultural plots.

  7. Elucidation of defense-related signaling responses to spot blotch infection in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Sahu, Ranabir; Sharaff, Murali; Pradhan, Maitree; Sethi, Avinash; Bandyopadhyay, Tirthankar; Mishra, Vinod K; Chand, Ramesh; Chowdhury, Apurba K; Joshi, Arun K; Pandey, Shree P

    2016-04-01

    Spot blotch disease, caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana, is an important threat to wheat, causing an annual loss of ~17%. Under epidemic conditions, these losses may be 100%, yet the molecular responses of wheat to spot blotch remain almost uncharacterized. Moreover, defense-related phytohormone signaling genes have been poorly characterized in wheat. Here, we have identified 18 central components of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET), and enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) signaling pathways as well as the genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway in wheat. In time-course experiments, we characterized the reprogramming of expression of these pathways in two contrasting genotypes: Yangmai #6 (resistant to spot blotch) and Sonalika (susceptible to spot blotch). We further evaluated the performance of a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) by crossing Yangmai#6 and Sonalika (parents) and subsequent selfing to F10 under field conditions in trials at multiple locations. We characterized the reprogramming of defense-related signaling in these RILs as a consequence of spot blotch attack. During resistance to spot blotch attack, wheat strongly elicits SA signaling (SA biogenesis as well as the NPR1-dependent signaling pathway), along with WRKY33 transcription factor, followed by an enhanced expression of phenylpropanoid pathway genes. These may lead to accumulation of phenolics-based defense metabolites that may render resistance against spot blotch. JA signaling may synergistically contribute to the resistance. Failure to elicit SA (and possibly JA) signaling may lead to susceptibility against spot blotch infection in wheat.

  8. Microbial-enhanced Selenium and Iron Biofortification of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)--Applications in Phytoremediation and Biofortification.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Muhammad; El-Mehdawi, Ali Farag; Anwar, Aneela; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H; Faisal, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for humans and other mammals. Most dietary Se is derived from crops. To develop a Se biofortification strategy for wheat, the effect of selenate fertilization and bacterial inoculation on Se uptake and plant growth was investigated. YAM2, a bacterium with 99% similarity to Bacillus pichinotyi, showed many plant growth promoting characteristics. Inoculation with YAM2 enhanced wheat growth, both in the presence and absence of selenate: YAM2-inoculated plants showed significantly higher dry weight, shoot length and spike length compared to un-inoculated plants. Selenate also stimulated wheat growth; Un-inoculated Se-treated plants showed a significantly higher dry weight and shoot length compared to control plants without Se. Bacterial inoculation significantly enhanced Se concentration in wheat kernels (167%) and stems (252%), as well as iron (Fe) levels in kernels (70%) and stems (147%), compared to un-inoculated plants. Inoculated Se-treated plants showed a significant increase in acid phosphatase activity, which may have contributed to the enhanced growth. In conclusion; Inoculation with Bacillus sp. YAM2 is a promising Se biofortification strategy for wheat and potentially other crops.

  9. Comparative toxicity of nonylphenol, nonylphenol-4-ethoxylate and nonylphenol-10-ethoxylate to wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingming; Wang, Feifei; Xue, Changhui; Wang, Caixia; Chi, Shengqi; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2016-09-01

    Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs) are a group of surfactants that are widely used in industrial and household products and often detected in the environment. The metabolite of NPEOs, named nonylphenol (NP), has proven to be an endocrine disruptor, and its environmental behavior and eco-toxicity have been widely investigated in previous studies. However, to the best of our knowledge, insight into the toxicity differences of NP and NPEOs on important crops remains limited. Therefore, this study investigated the comparative toxicity of NP, nonylphenol-4-ethoxylate (NP4EO), and nonylphenol-10-ethoxylate (NP10EO) on wheat seedlings using hydroponic experiments. The results indicated that NP is most toxic to wheat followed by NP4EO, and NP10EO is the least toxic to wheat. The adverse effects of NP on wheat were observed for all the tested parameters including germination, shoot length, root length, chlorophyll, lipid peroxidation, and enzymatic activities. To gain insight into the molecular response, we analyzed the transcript abundance of SOD-Cu/Zn and CAT with NP, NP4EO, and NP10EO exposure using quantitative real-time PCR. The data revealed that both genes exhibited up- or down-regulated expression patterns that were consistent with the activities of the two enzymes. This result further conformed that NP is most toxic to wheat plants. PMID:27162129

  10. Field study on the uptake and translocation of PBDEs by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in soils amended with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Li, Helian; Qu, Ronghui; Yan, Liangguo; Guo, Weilin; Ma, Yibing

    2015-03-01

    Field experiments were conducted to explore the effects of different sewage sludge amendment strategies on the accumulation and translocation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in soil-wheat systems. Two types of application methods (single or annual application) and four annual application rates (5, 10, 20, and 40 t ha(-1) year(-1)) were investigated. BDE 209 was detected in all of the sewage sludge amended soils and different parts of wheat plants collected from the contaminated soils. However, the other seven PBDE congeners (BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 99, BDE 100, BDE 153, BDE 154, and BDE 183) were not detected or were only observed at very low levels. A single application of sewage sludge in large quantities would likely increase accumulation of BDE 209 in soil and its subsequent uptake and translocation by wheat. The concentrations of BDE 209 in soils, wheat roots and straws increased with the increasing sewage sludge application rate. There is a negative correlation between the root accumulation factors (the ratios of concentrations in wheat roots to those in soils) and soil total organic carbon (R(2)=0.84,P<0.05), demonstrating that the bioavailability of BDE 209 was controlled by the soil total organic carbon. BDE 209 concentrations in the grains from the sewage sludge amended soils were not significantly different from those of the control soils, suggesting that atmospheric deposition was the main source of BDE 209 detected in the grains.

  11. An Efficient Approach for the Development of Locus Specific Primers in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Its Application to Re-Sequencing of Genes Involved in Frost Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Babben, Steve; Perovic, Dragan; Koch, Michael; Ordon, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Recent declines in costs accelerated sequencing of many species with large genomes, including hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Although the draft sequence of bread wheat is known, it is still one of the major challenges to developlocus specific primers suitable to be used in marker assisted selection procedures, due to the high homology of the three genomes. In this study we describe an efficient approach for the development of locus specific primers comprising four steps, i.e. (i) identification of genomic and coding sequences (CDS) of candidate genes, (ii) intron- and exon-structure reconstruction, (iii) identification of wheat A, B and D sub-genome sequences and primer development based on sequence differences between the three sub-genomes, and (iv); testing of primers for functionality, correct size and localisation. This approach was applied to single, low and high copy genes involved in frost tolerance in wheat. In summary for 27 of these genes for which sequences were derived from Triticum aestivum, Triticum monococcum and Hordeum vulgare, a set of 119 primer pairs was developed and after testing on Nulli-tetrasomic (NT) lines, a set of 65 primer pairs (54.6%), corresponding to 19 candidate genes, turned out to be specific. Out of these a set of 35 fragments was selected for validation via Sanger's amplicon re-sequencing. All fragments, with the exception of one, could be assigned to the original reference sequence. The approach presented here showed a much higher specificity in primer development in comparison to techniques used so far in bread wheat and can be applied to other polyploid species with a known draft sequence.

  12. An Efficient Approach for the Development of Locus Specific Primers in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Its Application to Re-Sequencing of Genes Involved in Frost Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Babben, Steve; Perovic, Dragan; Koch, Michael; Ordon, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Recent declines in costs accelerated sequencing of many species with large genomes, including hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Although the draft sequence of bread wheat is known, it is still one of the major challenges to developlocus specific primers suitable to be used in marker assisted selection procedures, due to the high homology of the three genomes. In this study we describe an efficient approach for the development of locus specific primers comprising four steps, i.e. (i) identification of genomic and coding sequences (CDS) of candidate genes, (ii) intron- and exon-structure reconstruction, (iii) identification of wheat A, B and D sub-genome sequences and primer development based on sequence differences between the three sub-genomes, and (iv); testing of primers for functionality, correct size and localisation. This approach was applied to single, low and high copy genes involved in frost tolerance in wheat. In summary for 27 of these genes for which sequences were derived from Triticum aestivum, Triticum monococcum and Hordeum vulgare, a set of 119 primer pairs was developed and after testing on Nulli-tetrasomic (NT) lines, a set of 65 primer pairs (54.6%), corresponding to 19 candidate genes, turned out to be specific. Out of these a set of 35 fragments was selected for validation via Sanger's amplicon re-sequencing. All fragments, with the exception of one, could be assigned to the original reference sequence. The approach presented here showed a much higher specificity in primer development in comparison to techniques used so far in bread wheat and can be applied to other polyploid species with a known draft sequence. PMID:26565976

  13. The composition of grain and forage from glyphosate tolerant wheat MON 71800 is equivalent to that of conventional wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Obert, Janet C; Ridley, William P; Schneider, Ronald W; Riordan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A; Trujillo, William A; Breeze, Matthew L; Sorbet, Roy; Astwood, James D

    2004-03-10

    Glyphosate tolerant wheat MON 71800, simply referred to as MON 71800, contains a 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) protein from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (CP4 EPSPS) that has a reduced affinity for glyphosate as compared to the endogenous plant EPSPS enzyme. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the compositional equivalence of MON 71800 to its nontransgenic parent as well as to conventional wheat varieties. The compositional assessment evaluated the levels of proximates, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, secondary metabolites, and antinutrients in wheat forage and grain grown during two field seasons across a total of eight sites in the United States and Canada. These data demonstrated that with respect to these important nutritional components, the forage and grain from MON 71800 were equivalent to those of its nontransgenic parent and commercial wheat varieties. These data, together with the previously established safety of the CP4 EPSPS protein, support the conclusion that glyphosate tolerant wheat MON 71800 is as safe and nutritious as commercial wheat varieties.

  14. Chromium uptake and toxicity effects on growth and metabolic activities in wheat, Triticum aestivum L. cv. UP 2003.

    PubMed

    Sharma, D C; Sharma, C P

    1996-07-01

    Chromium (Cr) at graded levels when added in sand culture of wheat (T. aestivum L. cv. UP2003) under glasshouse conditions resulted in reduction in biomass, chlorophyll and activities of catalase and peroxidase while enhanced acid phosphatase and ribonuclease activities. Elevated levels of Cr supply significantly reduced the concentration of inorganic phosphorus. With an increase in Cr supply the uptake of chromium also increased significantly in different plant parts especially in roots. Above metabolic lesions due to Cr in wheat provided evidence that the element in nutrient medium if present in excess may be inhibitory to plant growth and development.

  15. Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Phenological Development, Low-Temperature Tolerance, Grain Quality, and Agronomic Characters in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Fowler, D B; N'Diaye, A; Laudencia-Chingcuanco, D; Pozniak, C J

    2016-01-01

    Plants must respond to environmental cues and schedule their development in order to react to periods of abiotic stress and commit fully to growth and reproduction under favorable conditions. This study was initiated to identify SNP markers for characters expressed from the seedling stage to plant maturity in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes adapted to western Canada. Three doubled haploid populations with the winter cultivar 'Norstar' as a common parent were developed and genotyped with a 90K Illumina iSelect SNP assay and a 2,998.9 cM consensus map with 17,541 markers constructed. High heritability's reflected large differences among the parents and relatively low genotype by environment interactions for all characters considered. Significant QTL were detected for the 15 traits examined. However, different QTL for days to heading in controlled environments and the field provided a strong reminder that growth and development are being orchestrated by environmental cues and caution should be exercised when extrapolating conclusions from different experiments. A QTL on chromosome 6A for minimum final leaf number, which determines the rate of phenological development in the seedling stage, was closely linked to QTL for low-temperature tolerance, grain quality, and agronomic characters expressed up to the time of maturity. This suggests phenological development plays a critical role in programming subsequent outcomes for many traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for the lines in each population and QTL with additive effects were identified suggesting that genes for desirable traits could be stacked using Marker Assisted Selection. QTL were identified for characters that could be transferred between the largely isolated western Canadian spring and winter wheat gene pools demonstrating the opportunities offered by Marker Assisted Selection to act as bridges in the identification and transfer of useful genes among related genetic islands

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of a proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene by chemically induced male sterility in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Yu, Y A; Zhang, G S; Zhang, J; Ju, L; Zhu, Q D; Song, Y L; Wang, J W; Niu, N; Ma, S C

    2015-10-05

    Although a number of studies have shown that chemical hybridizing agents (CHAs) affect anther growth and regulate cell-cycle progression, little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is an essential factor in DNA replication, and in many other processes in eukaryotic cells. In this study, the open reading frame of TaPCNA, the PCNA in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), was cloned by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Sequence analysis revealed that this gene was 792-bp long and encoded a protein with 234 amino acids. Alignment of the TaPCNA-predicted sequence revealed a high degree of identity with PCNAs from other plant species. A subcellular localization assay indicated that TaPCNA was localized in the nucleus. The TaPCNA was cloned into the prokaryotic expression plasmid pET32a, and the recombinant plasmid was transformed into BL21 (DE3). TaPCNA expression was induced by 0.5 mM isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside and verified using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blot assays, which indicated that the fusion protein was successfully expressed. The gene involved in the G1-to-S transition, Histone H4, was downregulated by 1376- CIMS, which is a chemically induced male sterility line. However, a semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that TaPCNA expression was upregulated in 1376-CIMS. Our results suggest that CHAs (SQ-1) induce DNA damage in wheat anthers. DNA damage results in either the delay or arrest of cell-cycle progression, which affects anther development. This study will help to elucidate the mechanisms of SQ-1-induced male sterility.

  17. Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Phenological Development, Low-Temperature Tolerance, Grain Quality, and Agronomic Characters in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, D. B.; N'Diaye, A.; Laudencia-Chingcuanco, D.; Pozniak, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Plants must respond to environmental cues and schedule their development in order to react to periods of abiotic stress and commit fully to growth and reproduction under favorable conditions. This study was initiated to identify SNP markers for characters expressed from the seedling stage to plant maturity in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes adapted to western Canada. Three doubled haploid populations with the winter cultivar ‘Norstar’ as a common parent were developed and genotyped with a 90K Illumina iSelect SNP assay and a 2,998.9 cM consensus map with 17,541 markers constructed. High heritability’s reflected large differences among the parents and relatively low genotype by environment interactions for all characters considered. Significant QTL were detected for the 15 traits examined. However, different QTL for days to heading in controlled environments and the field provided a strong reminder that growth and development are being orchestrated by environmental cues and caution should be exercised when extrapolating conclusions from different experiments. A QTL on chromosome 6A for minimum final leaf number, which determines the rate of phenological development in the seedling stage, was closely linked to QTL for low-temperature tolerance, grain quality, and agronomic characters expressed up to the time of maturity. This suggests phenological development plays a critical role in programming subsequent outcomes for many traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for the lines in each population and QTL with additive effects were identified suggesting that genes for desirable traits could be stacked using Marker Assisted Selection. QTL were identified for characters that could be transferred between the largely isolated western Canadian spring and winter wheat gene pools demonstrating the opportunities offered by Marker Assisted Selection to act as bridges in the identification and transfer of useful genes among related genetic

  18. The structural and photosynthetic characteristics of the exposed peduncle of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): an important photosynthate source for grain-filling

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In wheat (Triticum aestivum L), the flag leaf has been thought of as the main source of assimilates for grain growth, whereas the peduncle has commonly been thought of as a transporting organ. The photosynthetic characteristics of the exposed peduncle have therefore been neglected. In this study, we investigated the anatomical traits of the exposed peduncle during wheat grain ontogenesis, and we compared the exposed peduncle to the flag leaf with respect to chloroplast ultrastructure, photosystem II (PSII) quantum yield, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase; EC 4.1.1.31) activity. Results Transmission electron microscope observations showed well-developed chloroplasts with numerous granum stacks at grain-filling stages 1, 2 and 3 in both the flag leaf and the exposed peduncle. In the exposed peduncle, the membranes constituting the thylakoids were very distinct and plentiful, but in the flag leaf, there was a sharp breakdown at stage 4 and complete disintegration of the thylakoid membranes at stage 5. PSII quantum yield assays revealed that the photosynthetic efficiency remained constant at stages 1, 2 and 3 and then declined in both organs. However, the decline occurred more dramatically in the flag leaf than in the exposed peduncle. An enzyme assay showed that at stages 1 and 2 the PEPCase activity was lower in the exposed peduncle than in the flag leaf; but at stages 3, 4 and 5 the value was higher in the exposed peduncle, with a particularly significant difference observed at stage 5. Subjecting the exposed part of the peduncle to darkness following anthesis reduced the rate of grain growth. Conclusion Our results suggest that the exposed peduncle is a photosynthetically active organ that produces photosynthates and thereby makes a crucial contribution to grain growth, particularly during the late stages of grain-filling. PMID:20618993

  19. Developmental Changes in Composition and Morphology of Cuticular Waxes on Leaves and Spikes of Glossy and Glaucous Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Guaiqiang; Li, Chunlian; Hu, Yingang; Chen, Xinhong; Wang, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    The glossy varieties (A14 and Jing 2001) and glaucous varieties (Fanmai 5 and Shanken 99) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were selected for evaluation of developmental changes in the composition and morphology of cuticular waxes on leaves and spikes. The results provide us with two different wax development patterns between leaf and spike. The general accumulation trend of the total wax load on leaf and spike surfaces is first to increase and then decrease during the development growth period, but these changes were caused by different compound classes between leaf and spike. Developmental changes of leaf waxes were mainly the result of variations in composition of alcohols and alkanes. In addition, diketones were the third important contributor to the leaf wax changes in the glaucous varieties. Alkanes and diketones were the two major compound classes that caused the developmental changes of spike waxes. For leaf waxes, β- and OH-β-diketones were first detected in flag leaves from 200-day-old plants, and the amounts of β- and OH-β-diketones were significantly higher in glaucous varieties compared with glossy varieties. In spike waxes, β-diketone existed in all varieties, but OH-β-diketone was detectable only in the glaucous varieties. Unexpectedly, the glaucous variety Fanmai 5 yielded large amounts of OH-β-diketone. There was a significant shift in the chain length distribution of alkanes between early stage leaf and flag leaf. Unlike C28 alcohol being the dominant chain length in leaf waxes, the dominant alcohol chain length of spikes was C24 or C26 depending on varieties. Epicuticular wax crystals on wheat leaf and glume were comprised of platelets and tubules, and the crystal morphology changed constantly throughout plant growth, especially the abaxial leaf crystals. Moreover, our results suggested that platelets and tubules on glume surfaces could be formed rapidly within a few days. PMID:26506246

  20. Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Phenological Development, Low-Temperature Tolerance, Grain Quality, and Agronomic Characters in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Fowler, D B; N'Diaye, A; Laudencia-Chingcuanco, D; Pozniak, C J

    2016-01-01

    Plants must respond to environmental cues and schedule their development in order to react to periods of abiotic stress and commit fully to growth and reproduction under favorable conditions. This study was initiated to identify SNP markers for characters expressed from the seedling stage to plant maturity in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes adapted to western Canada. Three doubled haploid populations with the winter cultivar 'Norstar' as a common parent were developed and genotyped with a 90K Illumina iSelect SNP assay and a 2,998.9 cM consensus map with 17,541 markers constructed. High heritability's reflected large differences among the parents and relatively low genotype by environment interactions for all characters considered. Significant QTL were detected for the 15 traits examined. However, different QTL for days to heading in controlled environments and the field provided a strong reminder that growth and development are being orchestrated by environmental cues and caution should be exercised when extrapolating conclusions from different experiments. A QTL on chromosome 6A for minimum final leaf number, which determines the rate of phenological development in the seedling stage, was closely linked to QTL for low-temperature tolerance, grain quality, and agronomic characters expressed up to the time of maturity. This suggests phenological development plays a critical role in programming subsequent outcomes for many traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for the lines in each population and QTL with additive effects were identified suggesting that genes for desirable traits could be stacked using Marker Assisted Selection. QTL were identified for characters that could be transferred between the largely isolated western Canadian spring and winter wheat gene pools demonstrating the opportunities offered by Marker Assisted Selection to act as bridges in the identification and transfer of useful genes among related genetic islands

  1. Water stress causes differential effects on germination indices, total soluble sugar and proline content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different cultivars differ inherently in their response to drought and those cultivars best adapted to growth in arid and semiarid conditions form the most uniform and vigorous stands when grown under water deficits. The seeds of five wheat cultivars (GA-2002, Chakwal-97, Uqab-2000, Chakwal-50 and W...

  2. Novel Structural and Functional Motifs in cellulose synthase (CesA) Genes of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Simerjeet; Dhugga, Kanwarpal S; Gill, Kulvinder; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the primary determinant of mechanical strength in plant tissues. Late-season lodging is inversely related to the amount of cellulose in a unit length of the stem. Wheat is the most widely grown of all the crops globally, yet information on its CesA gene family is limited. We have identified 22 CesA genes from bread wheat, which include homoeologs from each of the three genomes, and named them as TaCesAXA, TaCesAXB or TaCesAXD, where X denotes the gene number and the last suffix stands for the respective genome. Sequence analyses of the CESA proteins from wheat and their orthologs from barley, maize, rice, and several dicot species (Arabidopsis, beet, cotton, poplar, potato, rose gum and soybean) revealed motifs unique to monocots (Poales) or dicots. Novel structural motifs CQIC and SVICEXWFA were identified, which distinguished the CESAs involved in the formation of primary and secondary cell wall (PCW and SCW) in all the species. We also identified several new motifs specific to monocots or dicots. The conserved motifs identified in this study possibly play functional roles specific to PCW or SCW formation. The new insights from this study advance our knowledge about the structure, function and evolution of the CesA family in plants in general and wheat in particular. This information will be useful in improving culm strength to reduce lodging or alter wall composition to improve biofuel production. PMID:26771740

  3. Novel Structural and Functional Motifs in cellulose synthase (CesA) Genes of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Simerjeet; Dhugga, Kanwarpal S; Gill, Kulvinder; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the primary determinant of mechanical strength in plant tissues. Late-season lodging is inversely related to the amount of cellulose in a unit length of the stem. Wheat is the most widely grown of all the crops globally, yet information on its CesA gene family is limited. We have identified 22 CesA genes from bread wheat, which include homoeologs from each of the three genomes, and named them as TaCesAXA, TaCesAXB or TaCesAXD, where X denotes the gene number and the last suffix stands for the respective genome. Sequence analyses of the CESA proteins from wheat and their orthologs from barley, maize, rice, and several dicot species (Arabidopsis, beet, cotton, poplar, potato, rose gum and soybean) revealed motifs unique to monocots (Poales) or dicots. Novel structural motifs CQIC and SVICEXWFA were identified, which distinguished the CESAs involved in the formation of primary and secondary cell wall (PCW and SCW) in all the species. We also identified several new motifs specific to monocots or dicots. The conserved motifs identified in this study possibly play functional roles specific to PCW or SCW formation. The new insights from this study advance our knowledge about the structure, function and evolution of the CesA family in plants in general and wheat in particular. This information will be useful in improving culm strength to reduce lodging or alter wall composition to improve biofuel production.

  4. Combined meta-genomics analyses unravel candidate genes for the grain dietary fiber content in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Quraishi, Umar Masood; Murat, Florent; Abrouk, Mickael; Pont, Caroline; Confolent, Carole; Oury, François Xavier; Ward, Jane; Boros, Danuta; Gebruers, Kurt; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M; Bedo, Zoltan; Saulnier, Luc; Guillon, Fabienne; Balzergue, Sandrine; Shewry, Peter R; Feuillet, Catherine; Charmet, Gilles; Salse, Jerome

    2011-03-01

    Grain dietary fiber content in wheat not only affects its end use and technological properties including milling, baking and animal feed but is also of great importance for health benefits. In this study, integration of association genetics (seven detected loci on chromosomes 1B, 3A, 3D, 5B, 6B, 7A, 7B) and meta-QTL (three consensus QTL on chromosomes 1B, 3D and 6B) analyses allowed the identification of seven chromosomal regions underlying grain dietary fiber content in bread wheat. Based either on a diversity panel or on bi-parental populations, we clearly demonstrate that this trait is mainly driven by a major locus located on chromosome 1B associated with a log of p value >13 and a LOD score >8, respectively. In parallel, we identified 73 genes differentially expressed during the grain development and between genotypes with contrasting grain fiber contents. Integration of quantitative genetics and transcriptomic data allowed us to propose a short list of candidate genes that are conserved in the rice, sorghum and Brachypodium chromosome regions orthologous to the seven wheat grain fiber content QTL and that can be considered as major candidate genes for future improvement of the grain dietary fiber content in bread wheat breeding programs.

  5. Genetic mapping of stem rust resistance gene Sr13 in tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, can cause significant yield losses. To combat the disease breeders have deployed resistance genes both individually and in combinations to extend the resistance durability. A new race, TTKSK (Ug99), identified in Uganda in 1999, is virulent...

  6. MIAG12: A Triticum timopheevii-derived powdery mildew resistance gene in common wheat on chromosome 7AL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat powdery mildew is an economically important disease in cool and humid 2 environments. Powdery mildew causes yield losses as high as 48 percent through a reduction in 3 tiller survival, kernels per head and kernel size. Race-specific host resistance is the most 4 consistent, environmentally fri...

  7. Efficacy of zinc compounds in controlling Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol formation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; de Souza, Stephany Ramos; Costa, Maíra E B; Santos, Cristina M R; Scussel, Vildes M

    2015-07-16

    The efficiency of zinc compounds (zinc sulfate, ZnSO4 and zinc oxide, ZnO in regular and nanosize, respectively) on wheat plants was evaluated against growth of Fusarium graminearum and DON formation. In addition, any possible effects on the grain microstructures were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the remaining residue of Zn on wheat plants was analyzed. The plants were inoculated with F. graminearum and treated with Zn compounds (100mM) onto spikelets at the anthesis stage. When wheat plants reached maturation, grains were harvested and evaluated for Fusarium (number of colonies, CFU/g), DON formation, and SEM observation, followed by determination of possible remaining Zn residue. The groups treated with ZnSO4 and ZnO-NP showed a reduction in number of CFU of F. graminearum when compared to the control. Similarly for DON formation, i.e. the toxin was reduced to non-detected levels in the treated group. ZnO-NP efficiently reduced F. graminearum and DON formation in the grains at low concentration. Zn remained within the international recommended level for consumption and the treatment did not cause any damage to wheat grains. New strategies of control using Zn compounds in addition to conventional treatments could increase the efficiency against FBH and DON formation.

  8. Influence of salinity and temperature on uptake of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) by hydroponically grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongxia; Qu, Baocheng; Guan, Yue; Jiang, Jingqiu; Chen, Xiuying

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have recently attracted increasing concerns due to their ubiquitous existence, adverse effects and persistence in environment. This study employed four perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) to examine effects of salinity and temperature on the PFAS uptake in wheat, one of the major crops in the North China Plain. Wheat plants were grown in the spiked-PFCA hydroponic culture system at different salinities and temperatures. As expected, salinity and temperature significantly impacted the root uptake and translocation of wheat to four PFCAs, and the concentrations for each of PFCAs in wheat root and shoot increased with increasing salinity and temperature, respectively. PFCA concentrations at high salinity or high temperature were up to thrice those found at low salinity or low temperature. Except for perfluorobutanoic acid, the amount of PFCAs in root was always higher than that in shoot at the ranges of salinity and temperature tested. Additionally salinity and temperature were also capable of influencing the transfer factors (TFs) of four PFCAs, and significant increase was observed in the TFs in response to the increases in salinity and temperature.

  9. Novel Structural and Functional Motifs in cellulose synthase (CesA) Genes of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Simerjeet; Dhugga, Kanwarpal S.; Gill, Kulvinder; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the primary determinant of mechanical strength in plant tissues. Late-season lodging is inversely related to the amount of cellulose in a unit length of the stem. Wheat is the most widely grown of all the crops globally, yet information on its CesA gene family is limited. We have identified 22 CesA genes from bread wheat, which include homoeologs from each of the three genomes, and named them as TaCesAXA, TaCesAXB or TaCesAXD, where X denotes the gene number and the last suffix stands for the respective genome. Sequence analyses of the CESA proteins from wheat and their orthologs from barley, maize, rice, and several dicot species (Arabidopsis, beet, cotton, poplar, potato, rose gum and soybean) revealed motifs unique to monocots (Poales) or dicots. Novel structural motifs CQIC and SVICEXWFA were identified, which distinguished the CESAs involved in the formation of primary and secondary cell wall (PCW and SCW) in all the species. We also identified several new motifs specific to monocots or dicots. The conserved motifs identified in this study possibly play functional roles specific to PCW or SCW formation. The new insights from this study advance our knowledge about the structure, function and evolution of the CesA family in plants in general and wheat in particular. This information will be useful in improving culm strength to reduce lodging or alter wall composition to improve biofuel production. PMID:26771740

  10. Influence of salinity and temperature on uptake of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) by hydroponically grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongxia; Qu, Baocheng; Guan, Yue; Jiang, Jingqiu; Chen, Xiuying

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have recently attracted increasing concerns due to their ubiquitous existence, adverse effects and persistence in environment. This study employed four perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) to examine effects of salinity and temperature on the PFAS uptake in wheat, one of the major crops in the North China Plain. Wheat plants were grown in the spiked-PFCA hydroponic culture system at different salinities and temperatures. As expected, salinity and temperature significantly impacted the root uptake and translocation of wheat to four PFCAs, and the concentrations for each of PFCAs in wheat root and shoot increased with increasing salinity and temperature, respectively. PFCA concentrations at high salinity or high temperature were up to thrice those found at low salinity or low temperature. Except for perfluorobutanoic acid, the amount of PFCAs in root was always higher than that in shoot at the ranges of salinity and temperature tested. Additionally salinity and temperature were also capable of influencing the transfer factors (TFs) of four PFCAs, and significant increase was observed in the TFs in response to the increases in salinity and temperature. PMID:27186505

  11. Fine mapping and marker development for the crossability gene SKr on chromosome 5BS of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Alfares, Walid; Bouguennec, Annaig; Balfourier, François; Gay, Georges; Bergès, Hélène; Vautrin, Sonia; Sourdille, Pierre; Bernard, Michel; Feuillet, Catherine

    2009-10-01

    Most elite wheat varieties cannot be crossed with related species thereby restricting greatly the germplasm that can be used for alien introgression in breeding programs. Inhibition to crossability is controlled genetically and a number of QTL have been identified to date, including the major gene Kr1 on 5BL and SKr, a strong QTL affecting crossability between wheat and rye on chromosome 5BS. In this study, we used a recombinant SSD population originating from a cross between the poorly crossable cultivar Courtot (Ct) and the crossable line MP98 to characterize the major dominant effect of SKr and map the gene at the distal end of the chromosome near the 5B homeologous GSP locus. Colinearity with barley and rice was used to saturate the SKr region with new markers and establish orthologous relationships with a 54-kb region on rice chromosome 12. In total, five markers were mapped within a genetic interval of 0.3 cM and 400 kb of BAC contigs were established on both sides of the gene to lay the foundation for map-based cloning of SKr. Two SSR markers completely linked to SKr were used to evaluate a collection of crossable wheat progenies originating from primary triticale breeding programs. The results confirm the major effect of SKr on crossability and the usefulness of the two markers for the efficient introgression of crossability in elite wheat varieties. PMID:19652174

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel glyoxalase I gene TaGly I in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Lin, Fanyun; Xu, Jianhong; Shi, Jianrong; Li, Hongwei; Li, Bin

    2010-02-01

    Methylglyoxal is a kind of poisonous metabolite that can react with RNA, DNA and protein, which generally results in a number of side advert effects to cell. Glyoxalase I is a member of glyoxalase system that can detoxify methylglyoxal. An EST encoding a glyoxalase I was isolated from a SSH (suppression subtractive hybridization)-cDNA library of wheat spike inoculated by Fusarium graminearum. The corresponding full length gene, named TaGly I, was cloned, sequenced and characterized. Its genomic sequence consists of 2,719 bp, including seven exons and six introns, and its coding sequence is 929 bp with an open reading frame encoding 291 amino acids. Sequence alignment showed that there were two glyoxalase I domains in the deduced protein sequence. By using specific primers, TaGly I was mapped to chromosome 7D of wheat via a set of durum wheat 'Langdon' D-genome disomic-substitution lines. The result of Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that TaGly I was induced by the inoculation of Fusarium graminearum in wheat spikes. Additionally, it was also induced by high concentration of NaCl and ZnCl2. When TaGly I was overexpressed in tobacco leaves via Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection, the transgenic tobacco showed stronger tolerance to ZnCl2 stress relative to transgenic control with GFP. The above facts indicated that TaGly I might play a role in response to diverse stresses in plants.

  13. Sequencing chromosome 5D of Aegilops tauschii and comparison with its allopolyploid descendant bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Bala A; Lucas, Stuart J; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Budak, Hikmet

    2015-08-01

    Flow cytometric sorting of individual chromosomes and chromosome-based sequencing reduces the complexity of large, repetitive Triticeae genomes. We flow-sorted chromosome 5D of Aegilops tauschii, the D genome donor of bread wheat and sequenced it by Roche 454 GS FLX platform to approximately 2.2x coverage. Repetitive sequences represent 81.09% of the survey sequences of this chromosome, and Class I retroelements are the prominent type, with a particular abundance of LTR/Gypsy superfamily. Nonrepetitive sequences were assembled to cover 17.76% of the total chromosome regions. Up to 6188 nonrepetitive gene loci were predicted to be encoded by the 5D chromosome. The numbers and chromosomal distribution patterns of tRNA genes suggest abundance in tRNA(L) (ys) and tRNA(M) (et) species, while the nonrepetitive assembly reveals tRNA(A) (la) species as the most abundant type. A comparative analysis of the genomic sequences of bread wheat and Aegilops chromosome 5D indicates conservation of gene content. Orthologous unique genes, matching Aegilops 5D sequences, numbered 3730 in barley, 5063 in Brachypodium, 4872 in sorghum and 4209 in rice. In this study, we provide a chromosome-specific view into the structure and organization of the 5D chromosome of Ae. tauschii, the D genome ancestor of bread wheat. This study contributes to our understanding of the chromosome-level evolution of the wheat genome and presents a valuable resource in wheat genomics due to the recent hybridization of Ae. tauschii genome with its tetraploid ancestor.

  14. Changes in the water status and osmotic solute contents in response to drought and salicylic acid treatments in four different cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Loutfy, Naglaa; El-Tayeb, Mohamed A; Hassanen, Ahmed M; Moustafa, Mahmoud F M; Sakuma, Yoh; Inouhe, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) controls growth and stress responses in plants. It also induces drought tolerance in plants. In this paper, four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars with different drought responses were treated with SA in three levels of drain (90, 60, 30% of maximum field capacity) to examine its interactive effects on drought responses and contents of osmotic solutes that may be involved in growth and osmotic adjustment. Under drought condition, the cultivars Geza 164 and Sakha 69 had the plant biomass and leaf relative water content (LRWC) greater than the cultivars Gemaza 1 and Gemaza 3. In all cultivars, drought stress decreased the biomass, LRWC, and the contents of inorganic solutes (Ca, K, Mg) and largely increased the contents of organic solutes (soluble sugars and proline). By contrast, SA increased the biomass, LRWC and the inorganic and organic solute contents, except proline. Correlation analysis revealed that the LRWC correlated positively with the inorganic solute contents but negatively with proline in all cultivars. SA caused maximum accumulations of soluble sugars in roots under drought. These results indicated that SA-enhanced tolerance might involve solute accumulations but independently of proline biosynthesis. Drought-sensitive cultivars had a trait lowering Ca and K levels especially in shoots. Possible functions of the ions and different traits of cultivars were discussed.

  15. The uptake of NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ by intact wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings. I. Induction and kinetics of transport systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyal, S. S.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The inducibility and kinetics of the NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ transporters in roots of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum cv Yercora Rojo) were characterized using precise methods approaching constant analysis of the substrate solutions. A microcomputer-controlled automated high performance liquid chromatography system was used to determine the depletion of each N species (initially at 1 millimolar) from complete nutrient solutions. Uptake rate analyses were performed using computerized curve-fitting techniques. More precise estimates were obtained for the time required for the extent of the induction of each transporter. Up to 10 and 6 hours, respectively, were required to achieve apparent full induction of the NO3- and NO2- transporters. Evidence for substrate inducibility of the NH4+ transporters requiring 5 hours is presented. The transport of NO3- was mediated by a dual system (or dual phasic), whereas only single systems were found for transport of NO2- and NH4+. The Km values for NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ were, respectively, 0.027, 0.054, and 0.05 millimolar. The Km for mechanism II of NO3- transport could not be defined in this study as it exhibited only apparent first order kinetics up to 1 millimolar.

  16. In Vivo Determination of Parameters of Nitrate Utilization in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Seedlings Grown with Low Concentration of Nitrate in the Nutrient Solution 1

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Gianni R.; Collet, Gérald F.

    1981-01-01

    Six genotypes of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) differing in grain protein concentration were grown on a nutrient solution containing low concentrations of NO3− (2 millimolar). Total NO3− uptake varied between genotypes but was not related to grain protein content. An in vivo nitrate reductase assay was used to determine the affinity of the enzyme for NO3−, and large phenotypic variations were observed. In vivo estimations of the concentration and size of the metabolic pool were variable. However, the three genotypes with the higher ratios of metabolic pool size to leaf total NO3− concentration were the high protein varieties. It is proposed that a high affinity of nitrate reductase for nitrate might be a biochemical marker for the capacity of the plant to continue assimilating NO3− for a longer period during the last stage of growth. The potential use of such physiological criteria as markers is discussed, in particular with respect to breeding programs for the development of plants with efficient nitrogen utilization. PMID:16662085

  17. The sequence of change within the photosynthetic apparatus of wheat following short-term exposure to ozone. [Triticum aestivum L. cv Avalon

    SciTech Connect

    Farage, P.K.; Long, S.P.; Baker, N.R. ); Lechner, E.G. )

    1991-02-01

    The basis of inhibition of photosynthesis by single acute O{sub 3} exposures was investigated in vivo using analyses based on leaf gas exchange measurements. The fully expanded second leaves of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv Avalon) were fumigated with either 200 or 400 nanomoles per mole O{sub 3} for between 4 and 16 hours. This reduced significantly the light-saturated rate of Co{sub 2} uptake and was accompanied by a parallel decrease in stomatal conductance. However, the stomatal limitation only increased significantly during the first 8 hours of exposure to 400 nanomoles per mole O{sub 3}; no significant increase occurred for any of the other treatments. Analysis of the response of CO{sub 2} uptake to the internal Co{sub 2} concentration implied that the predominant factor responsible for the reduction in light-saturated CO{sub 2} uptake was a decrease in the efficiency of carboxylation. At saturating concentrations of Co{sub 2}, photosynthesis was inhibited by no more than 22% after 16 hours, indicating that the capacity for regeneration of ribulose bisphosphate was less susceptible to O{sub 3}. Ozone fumigations also had a less pronounced effect on light-limited photosynthesis. The photochemical efficiency of photosystem II estimated from the ratio of variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence and the atrazine-binding capacity of isolated thylakoids demonstrated that photochemical reactions were not responsible for the initial inhibition of CO{sub 2} uptake.

  18. Expression, purification and refolding of active durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) secretory phospholipase A2 from inclusion bodies of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Verlotta, Angelo; Trono, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Recently, a durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) secretory phospholipase A2 (TdsPLA2III) was identified in leaves as potentially involved in plant responses to conditions of limiting water supply. Therefore, to allow future functional studies on TdsPLA2III and shed further light on the involvement of sPLA2 isoforms in specific plant functions, here we report a protocol for the overexpression of TdsPLA2III in Escherichia coli in the form of inclusion bodies, and for its purification and refolding. The use of the Gateway system (Invitrogen) allows the expression of a large quantity of the mature form (without the signal peptide) of TdsPLA2III with an N-terminal 6×His-tag, for purification using Ni-affinity chromatography. The purified recombinant 6×His-TdsPLA2III fusion protein is then refolded using a step-wise dialysis approach. About 40mg purified and active protein was obtained from 1L of cell culture. This recombinant 6×His-TdsPLA2III protein shows PLA2 activity, as it can hydrolyze linoleate from the sn-2 position of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. Moreover, it has some features that are typical of other known plant sPLA2s: Ca(2+)-dependence, inhibition by the disulfide bond reducing agent dithiothreitol, and resistance to high temperature.

  19. Genome-Wide Analysis of Microsatellite Markers Based on Sequenced Database in Chinese Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Han, Bin; Wang, Changbiao; Tang, Zhaohui; Ren, Yongkang; Li, Yali; Zhang, Dayong; Dong, Yanhui; Zhao, Xinghua

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are distributed across both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and have been widely used for genetic studies and molecular marker-assisted breeding in crops. Though an ordered draft sequence of hexaploid bread wheat have been announced, the researches about systemic analysis of SSRs for wheat still have not been reported so far. In the present study, we identified 364,347 SSRs from among 10,603,760 sequences of the Chinese spring wheat (CSW) genome, which were present at a density of 36.68 SSR/Mb. In total, we detected 488 types of motifs ranging from di- to hexanucleotides, among which dinucleotide repeats dominated, accounting for approximately 42.52% of the genome. The density of tri- to hexanucleotide repeats was 24.97%, 4.62%, 3.25% and 24.65%, respectively. AG/CT, AAG/CTT, AGAT/ATCT, AAAAG/CTTTT and AAAATT/AATTTT were the most frequent repeats among di- to hexanucleotide repeats. Among the 21 chromosomes of CSW, the density of repeats was highest on chromosome 2D and lowest on chromosome 3A. The proportions of di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotide repeats on each chromosome, and even on the whole genome, were almost identical. In addition, 295,267 SSR markers were successfully developed from the 21 chromosomes of CSW, which cover the entire genome at a density of 29.73 per Mb. All of the SSR markers were validated by reverse electronic-Polymerase Chain Reaction (re-PCR); 70,564 (23.9%) were found to be monomorphic and 224,703 (76.1%) were found to be polymorphic. A total of 45 monomorphic markers were selected randomly for validation purposes; 24 (53.3%) amplified one locus, 8 (17.8%) amplified multiple identical loci, and 13 (28.9%) did not amplify any fragments from the genomic DNA of CSW. Then a dendrogram was generated based on the 24 monomorphic SSR markers among 20 wheat cultivars and three species of its diploid ancestors showing that monomorphic SSR markers represented a promising source to

  20. Recurrent selection for wider seedling leaves increases early biomass and leaf area in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Richards, R A; Condon, A G; Liu, D C; Rebetzke, G J

    2015-03-01

    The breeding of wheat with greater early vigour has potential to increase water- and nutrient-use efficiency, as well as to improve weed competitiveness to raise crop yields profitably. Given that wheat is inherently conservative in its early growth, a sustained breeding effort was initiated to increase genetically seedling leaf area in developing novel high vigour germplasm. A recurrent selection programme was initiated by intercrossing a genetically diverse set of 28 vigorous wheat lines identified globally. These were intercrossed at random and S1:2 progeny with the largest leaf 1 and 2 widths were intermated to develop new populations for assessment of early growth. This procedure was repeated for up to 60 segregating families per cycle across six cycles over 15 years. Thirty random S1:2 progeny were retained from each cycle and seed-increased together to produce seed for early vigour assessment in multiple sowings. The most vigorous wheat seedlings were identified in later cycles, with some lines producing more than double the leaf area and biomass of elite commercial wheat varieties. Phenotypic selection for greater leaf width was associated with a realized significant (P<0.01) linear increase per seedling of 0.41 mm per cycle (+7.1%) for mean leaf width, and correlated linear increases in total leaf area and biomass of 4.48 cm(2) per cycle (+10.3%) and 10.8 mg per cycle (+5.3%), respectively. Genetic gains in widths of leaves 2 (+8.4%) and 3 (+11.5%) were significantly (P<0.01) greater than for leaf 1 (+5.3%). Selection for greater leaf width was associated with linear increases in coleoptile tiller leaf area, small curvilinear increases in leaf 1 length, and reductions in numbers of leaves and mainstem tillers. Genetic variances were large and heritabilities high for leaf width and total leaf area in each cycle, but reduced linearly in size with selection across cycles. Coupling diverse germplasm with a simple, inexpensive, and repeatable selection process

  1. Behavior and bioefficacy of tribenuron-methyl in wheat (Triticum astevum L.) under irrigated agro-ecosystem in India.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Irani; Das, T K; Kumar, A; Sarkar, Bipasa; Sharma, K K

    2015-10-01

    Possible bioaccumulation of pesticides in crop produce may cause ill effects on animals and humans. Tribenuron-methyl is a new post-emergence herbicide and is highly efficient to control the broad-leaf weeds in cereals, pasture, and plantation crops. There are scarce studies on its bioefficacy, sensitivity to weeds, tolerance to wheat, and persistence in crop produce, which are important information required before recommending an herbicide for use by the farmers. Weed control efficiency of an herbicide is dose-sensitive and site/soil-specific. Tribenuron-methyl (75% DF) was applied at 22.5 and 45.0 g a.i./ha along with the surfactant 300.12 mL/ha as a tank mixes after 30 days of sowing in wheat as post-emergence herbicide. The samples of wheat foliage, soil, and grains at harvest were processed and analyzed for residues by high-performance liquid chromatography using a UV detector at 240 nm. The study revealed that there was a significant reduction in weed population and dry matter accumulation due to tribenuron-methyl application at a higher dose (45.0 g/ha) compared to a lower dose (of 22.5 g/ha). The weed density was found to be from 16.1 to 44.3 no/m(2) for application rate of 22.5 g/ha while at the 45.0 g/ha application, the weed density was 5.3-5.9 as compared to untreated control, where 184.3-120.5 no/m(2) was observed. The yield varied from 4.30 to 4.80 t/ha as compared to 2.25-3.55 t/ha in unweeded control with the LSD value being 21.5-16.3 to 0.27-0.19. Residues were below detectable level (BDL, <0.005 mg/kg) of tribenuron-methyl since they were detected in wheat grains at 22.5 g a.i./ha rates. However, 0.012 μg/g residues were detected in wheat foliage at an application rate of 45.0 g a.i./ha. It can be concluded that it is safe to use tribenuron-methyl at 22.5 g a.i./ha on wheat crop as post-emergence herbicide.

  2. Behavior and bioefficacy of tribenuron-methyl in wheat (Triticum astevum L.) under irrigated agro-ecosystem in India.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Irani; Das, T K; Kumar, A; Sarkar, Bipasa; Sharma, K K

    2015-10-01

    Possible bioaccumulation of pesticides in crop produce may cause ill effects on animals and humans. Tribenuron-methyl is a new post-emergence herbicide and is highly efficient to control the broad-leaf weeds in cereals, pasture, and plantation crops. There are scarce studies on its bioefficacy, sensitivity to weeds, tolerance to wheat, and persistence in crop produce, which are important information required before recommending an herbicide for use by the farmers. Weed control efficiency of an herbicide is dose-sensitive and site/soil-specific. Tribenuron-methyl (75% DF) was applied at 22.5 and 45.0 g a.i./ha along with the surfactant 300.12 mL/ha as a tank mixes after 30 days of sowing in wheat as post-emergence herbicide. The samples of wheat foliage, soil, and grains at harvest were processed and analyzed for residues by high-performance liquid chromatography using a UV detector at 240 nm. The study revealed that there was a significant reduction in weed population and dry matter accumulation due to tribenuron-methyl application at a higher dose (45.0 g/ha) compared to a lower dose (of 22.5 g/ha). The weed density was found to be from 16.1 to 44.3 no/m(2) for application rate of 22.5 g/ha while at the 45.0 g/ha application, the weed density was 5.3-5.9 as compared to untreated control, where 184.3-120.5 no/m(2) was observed. The yield varied from 4.30 to 4.80 t/ha as compared to 2.25-3.55 t/ha in unweeded control with the LSD value being 21.5-16.3 to 0.27-0.19. Residues were below detectable level (BDL, <0.005 mg/kg) of tribenuron-methyl since they were detected in wheat grains at 22.5 g a.i./ha rates. However, 0.012 μg/g residues were detected in wheat foliage at an application rate of 45.0 g a.i./ha. It can be concluded that it is safe to use tribenuron-methyl at 22.5 g a.i./ha on wheat crop as post-emergence herbicide. PMID:26341501

  3. Isolation and in-silico characterization of Peroxidase isoenzymes from Wheat (Triticum aestivum) against Karnal Bunt (Tilletia indica).

    PubMed

    Purwar, Shalini; Gupta, Ankit; Vajpayee, Geetika; Sundaram, Shanthy

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of Peroxidase and its physiological significance under Karnal Bunt (KB) were determined in resistant (HD-29) and susceptible genotype (WH-542) of wheat during different developmental stages. The enzymes were expressed constitutively in both the susceptible and resistant genotype. In gel assay and differential expression analysis of POD was significantly higher (p >0.05) in Sv and S2, than the S1 and S3 stages. in silico analysis of Peroxidase for eg. physico-chemical properties, secondary structural features and phylogenetic classification for comparative analysis. Motif and Domain analysis of Peroxidase by MEME, to be important for the biological functions, and studies of evolution. Our results clearly indicate that the enhanced expression of POD at the WS2 stage, which reinforces its role in stage dependent immunity against Karnal bunt and role of POD metabolism provides genotype and stage dependant structural barrier resistance in wheat against KB. PMID:24616560

  4. The pattern and control of isoprenoid quinone and tocopherol metabolism in the germinating grain of wheat (Triticum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Hall, G S; Laidman, D L

    1968-07-01

    1. The syntheses of ubiquinone-9 and plastoquinone-9 were used as parameters respectively of mitochondrial and proplastid development in the germinating wheat grain. 2. The changes in the amounts of the tocopherols were also studied and the possible biological significance of these changes is discussed. During germination, the dimethyl tocopherols of the resting grain are probably not utilized for the synthesis of alpha-tocopherol. 3. It was demonstrated that ubiquinone synthesis, and hence probably mitochondrial development, in the aleurone cells during germination, is independent of control by gibberellic acid from the embryo. 4. The influence of light on the syntheses of the isoprenoid quinones in the etiolated wheat shoot was investigated. In particular, illumination did not stimulate the synthesis of either alpha-tocopherol or alpha-tocopherolquinone.

  5. Growth, physiology and yield of durum wheat (Triticum durum) treated with sewage sludge under water stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Boudjabi, Sonia; Kribaa, Mohammed; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2015-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid areas, low soil fertility and water deficit considerably limit crop production. The use of sewage sludge as an organic amendment could contribute to the improvement of soil fertility and hence the agronomic production. The study aims to highlight the behaviour of durum wheat to the application of sewage sludge associated with water stress. The assessment focused on morphophysiological parameters of the wheat plant and yield. Under greenhouse conditions, the variety Mohamed Ben Bachir was treated by four water stress levels (100 %, 80 %, 50 % and 30 %). Each stress level comprised five fertilizer treatments: 20, 50 and 100 t/ha of dry sludge, 35 kg/ha of urea, and a control with no fertilization. Results revealed a significant loss in water content and chlorophyll a in leaves. Water stress negatively affected the development of wheat plants by reducing significantly seed yield, leaf area and biomass produced. Plant’s responses to water stress manifested by an accumulation of proline and a decrease in total phosphorus. However, the increasing doses of sewage sludge limited the effect of water stress. Our findings showed an increase in the amount of chlorophyll pigments, leaf area, total phosphorus, biomass and yield. In addition, excessive accumulation of proline (1.11 ± 1.03 µg/g DM) was recorded as a result of the high concentration of sludge (100 t/ha DM). The application of sewage sludge is beneficial for the wheat crop, but the high accumulation of proline in plants treated with high dose of sludge suggests to properly consider this fact. The application of sludge should be used with caution in soils where water is limited. Because the combined effect of these two factors could result in a fatal osmotic stress to crop development. PMID:26417365

  6. Mechanisms regulating grain contamination with trichothecenes translocated from the stem base of wheat (Triticum aestivum) infected with Fusarium culmorum.

    PubMed

    Winter, Mark; Koopmann, Birger; Döll, Katharina; Karlovsky, Petr; Kropf, Ute; Schlüter, Klaus; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Factors limiting trichothecene contamination of mature wheat grains after Fusarium infection are of major interest in crop production. In addition to ear infection, systemic translocation of deoxynivalenol (DON) may contribute to mycotoxin levels in grains after stem base infection with toxigenic Fusarium spp. However, the exact and potential mechanisms regulating DON translocation into wheat grains from the plant base are still unknown. We analyzed two wheat cultivars differing in susceptibility to Fusarium head blight (FHB), which were infected at the stem base with Fusarium culmorum in climate chamber experiments. Fungal DNA was found only in the infected stem base tissue, whereas DON and its derivative, DON-3-glucoside (D3G), were detected in upper plant parts. Although infected stem bases contained more than 10,000 μg kg⁻¹ dry weight (DW) of DON and mean levels of DON after translocation in the ear and husks reached 1,900 μg kg⁻¹ DW, no DON or D3G was detectable in mature grains. D3G quantification revealed that DON detoxification took mainly place in the stem basis, where ≤ 50% of DON was metabolized into D3G. Enhanced expression of a gene putatively encoding a uridine diphosphate-glycosyltransferase (GenBank accession number FG985273) was observed in the stem base after infection with F. culmorum. Resistance to F. culmorum stem base infection, DON glycosylation in the stem base, and mycotoxin translocation were unrelated to cultivar resistance to FHB. Histological studies demonstrated that the vascular transport of DON labeled with fluorescein as a tracer from the peduncle to the grain was interrupted by a barrier zone at the interface between grain and rachilla, formerly described as "xylem discontinuity". This is the first study to demonstrate the effective control of influx of systemically translocated fungal mycotoxins into grains at the rachilla-seed interface by the xylem discontinuity tissue in wheat ears.

  7. Growth, physiology and yield of durum wheat (Triticum durum) treated with sewage sludge under water stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Boudjabi, Sonia; Kribaa, Mohammed; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2015-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid areas, low soil fertility and water deficit considerably limit crop production. The use of sewage sludge as an organic amendment could contribute to the improvement of soil fertility and hence the agronomic production. The study aims to highlight the behaviour of durum wheat to the application of sewage sludge associated with water stress. The assessment focused on morphophysiological parameters of the wheat plant and yield. Under greenhouse conditions, the variety Mohamed Ben Bachir was treated by four water stress levels (100 %, 80 %, 50 % and 30 %). Each stress level comprised five fertilizer treatments: 20, 50 and 100 t/ha of dry sludge, 35 kg/ha of urea, and a control with no fertilization. Results revealed a significant loss in water content and chlorophyll a in leaves. Water stress negatively affected the development of wheat plants by reducing significantly seed yield, leaf area and biomass produced. Plant's responses to water stress manifested by an accumulation of proline and a decrease in total phosphorus. However, the increasing doses of sewage sludge limited the effect of water stress. Our findings showed an increase in the amount of chlorophyll pigments, leaf area, total phosphorus, biomass and yield. In addition, excessive accumulation of proline (1.11 ± 1.03 µg/g DM) was recorded as a result of the high concentration of sludge (100 t/ha DM). The application of sewage sludge is beneficial for the wheat crop, but the high accumulation of proline in plants treated with high dose of sludge suggests to properly consider this fact. The application of sludge should be used with caution in soils where water is limited. Because the combined effect of these two factors could result in a fatal osmotic stress to crop development.

  8. Characterization of a Putative New Semi-Dominant Reduced Height Gene, Rht_NM9, in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan; Xing, Liping; Xing, Shujuan; Hu, Ping; Cui, Chaofan; Zhang, Mingyi; Xiao, Jin; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Ruiqi; Wang, Xiue; Chen, Peidu; Cao, Aizhong

    2015-12-20

    Plant height is an important agronomic trait in cereal crops, and can affect both plant architecture and grain yield. New dwarfing genes are required for improving the genetic diversity of wheat. In this study, a novel dwarf mutant, NM9, was created by treating seeds of the wheat variety NAU9918 with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). NM9 showed obvious phenotypic changes, which were distinct from those caused by other dwarfing genes, especially the reduced plant height, increased effective tiller number, and elongated spike and grain length. The reduced plant height in NM9 was attributable to a semi-dominant dwarfing gene Rht_NM9, which was flanked by two closely linked SNP markers, SNP34 and SNP41, covering an 8.86-Mb region on the chromosome arm 2AS. The results of gibberellic acid (GA) sensitivity evaluation, comparative genomics analysis and allelism test indicated that Rht_NM9 was neither allelic to Rht7 and Rht21 nor homoeoallelic to Rht8, so Rht_NM9 was proposed to be a new dwarfing locus on the homoeologous group 2 chromosomes of wheat. Rht_NM9 has a negative effect on plant height and positive effects on effective tiller number and grain size, thus, Rht_NM9 could be used for elucidating the mechanisms underlying plant architecture and grain development.

  9. Sorting the Wheat from the Chaff: Identifying miRNAs in Genomic Survey Sequences of Triticum aestivum Chromosome 1AL

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Stuart J.; Budak, Hikmet

    2012-01-01

    Individual chromosome-based studies of bread wheat are beginning to provide valuable structural and functional information about one of the world’s most important crops. As new genome sequences become available, identifying miRNA coding sequences is arguably as important a task as annotating protein coding sequences, but one that is not as well developed. We compared conservation-based identification of conserved miRNAs in 1.5× coverage survey sequences of wheat chromosome 1AL with a predictive method based on pre-miRNA hairpin structure alone. In total, 42 sequences expected to encode conserved miRNAs were identified on chromosome 1AL, including members of several miRNA families that have not previously been reported to be expressed in T. aestivum. In addition, we demonstrate that a number of sequences previously annotated as novel wheat miRNAs are closely related to transposable elements, particularly Miniature Inverted Terminal repeat Elements (MITEs). Some of these TE-miRNAs may well have a functional role, but separating true miRNA coding sequences from TEs in genomic sequences is far from straightforward. We propose a strategy for annotation to minimize the risk of mis-identifying TE sequences as miRNAs. PMID:22815845

  10. Degradation of bifenthrin and pirimiphos-methyl residues in stored wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) by ozonation.

    PubMed

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Bortolotto, Tiago; Scussel, Vildes M

    2016-07-15

    Pesticide insecticides are used on wheat grains in storage units but their efficiency is hindered by persistent residues in the grains. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of ozone (O3) gas treatment on the degradation of residual bifenthrin and pirimiphos-methyl insecticides commonly used in storage wheat grains, as well as to evaluate degradation of their by-products. The residues of bifenthrin decreased after 180 min of exposure in a concentration of 60 μmol/mol (a 37.5 ± 7.4% reduction) with 20% moisture content and 0.9 water activity. On the other hand, under the same experimental conditions, the pirimiphos-methyl residues significantly decreased in the wheat grains (71.1 ± 8.6%) after 30 min of exposure. After O3 gas treatment, three by-products of pirimiphos-methyl (m/z=306.1) containing different molecular mass to charge ratios (m/z=278.1, 301.1 and 319.2) were identified by LC-MS. O3 is a strong oxidizer that has shown the potential to reduce pesticide residues in stored grain in order to ensure food quality and safety.

  11. Characterization of a Putative New Semi-Dominant Reduced Height Gene, Rht_NM9, in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan; Xing, Liping; Xing, Shujuan; Hu, Ping; Cui, Chaofan; Zhang, Mingyi; Xiao, Jin; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Ruiqi; Wang, Xiue; Chen, Peidu; Cao, Aizhong

    2015-12-20

    Plant height is an important agronomic trait in cereal crops, and can affect both plant architecture and grain yield. New dwarfing genes are required for improving the genetic diversity of wheat. In this study, a novel dwarf mutant, NM9, was created by treating seeds of the wheat variety NAU9918 with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). NM9 showed obvious phenotypic changes, which were distinct from those caused by other dwarfing genes, especially the reduced plant height, increased effective tiller number, and elongated spike and grain length. The reduced plant height in NM9 was attributable to a semi-dominant dwarfing gene Rht_NM9, which was flanked by two closely linked SNP markers, SNP34 and SNP41, covering an 8.86-Mb region on the chromosome arm 2AS. The results of gibberellic acid (GA) sensitivity evaluation, comparative genomics analysis and allelism test indicated that Rht_NM9 was neither allelic to Rht7 and Rht21 nor homoeoallelic to Rht8, so Rht_NM9 was proposed to be a new dwarfing locus on the homoeologous group 2 chromosomes of wheat. Rht_NM9 has a negative effect on plant height and positive effects on effective tiller number and grain size, thus, Rht_NM9 could be used for elucidating the mechanisms underlying plant architecture and grain development. PMID:26743986

  12. Identification of novel and useful EST-SSR markers from de novo transcriptome sequence of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Z J; Peng, Z S; Yang, H

    2016-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are highly informative, polymorphic, and co-dominant Mendelian markers that provide an important genomic resource for genetic research. Recently, the use of large-scale transcriptome sequence has become a reliable and efficient approach for the identification and development of new EST-SSR markers. In this study, 8389 potential SSRs with a minimum of five repetitions for all motifs were identified from 121,210 unigenes. Gene ontology analysis indicated that the unigenes containing SSR loci participate in various biological processes of regulation, growth, development, metabolism, and apoptosis in wheat. As in many other plants, trinucleotide repeats were found to be the most abundant repeat units with a frequency of 62.33%. A subset of 300 EST-SSRs was randomly selected for the applicability of EST-SSRs to be evaluated. Of the 300 primer pairs tested, 177 (59%) yielded unambiguous PCR products among five wheat cultivars. Using the Chinese Spring nulli-tetrasomic line, 131 of the 177 EST-SSR primer pairs yielded products and 178 loci were found to be located on all the 21 wheat chromosomes. These findings suggest that the novel EST-SSR markers, as a basis for future genetic linkage and gene tagging analysis, are a valuable tool for genetic mapping, marker assisted selection, and comparative genome analysis. PMID:26909990

  13. Fertilizer-dependent efficiency of Pseudomonads for improving growth, yield, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Shaharoona, Baby; Naveed, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Zahir, Zahir A

    2008-05-01

    Acquisition of nutrients by plants is primarily dependent on root growth and bioavailability of nutrients in the rooting medium. Most of the beneficial bacteria enhance root growth, but their effectiveness could be influenced by the nutrient status around the roots. In this study, two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase containing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. fluorescens biotype F were tested for their effect on growth, yield, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat under simultaneously varying levels of all the three major nutrients N, P, and K (at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of recommended doses). Results of pot and field trials revealed that the efficacy of these strains for improving growth and yield of wheat reduced with the increasing rates of NPK added to the soil. In most of the cases, significant negative linear correlations were recorded between percentage increases in growth and yield parameters of wheat caused by inoculation and increasing levels of applied NPK fertilizers. It is highly likely that under low fertilizer application, the ACC-deaminase activity of PGPR might have caused reduction in the synthesis of stress (nutrient)-induced inhibitory levels of ethylene in the roots through ACC hydrolysis into NH(3) and alpha-ketobutyrate. The results of this study imply that these Pseudomonads could be employed in combination with appropriate doses of fertilizers for better plant growth and savings of fertilizers. PMID:18340443

  14. Identification of novel and useful EST-SSR markers from de novo transcriptome sequence of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Z J; Peng, Z S; Yang, H

    2016-02-19

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are highly informative, polymorphic, and co-dominant Mendelian markers that provide an important genomic resource for genetic research. Recently, the use of large-scale transcriptome sequence has become a reliable and efficient approach for the identification and development of new EST-SSR markers. In this study, 8389 potential SSRs with a minimum of five repetitions for all motifs were identified from 121,210 unigenes. Gene ontology analysis indicated that the unigenes containing SSR loci participate in various biological processes of regulation, growth, development, metabolism, and apoptosis in wheat. As in many other plants, trinucleotide repeats were found to be the most abundant repeat units with a frequency of 62.33%. A subset of 300 EST-SSRs was randomly selected for the applicability of EST-SSRs to be evaluated. Of the 300 primer pairs tested, 177 (59%) yielded unambiguous PCR products among five wheat cultivars. Using the Chinese Spring nulli-tetrasomic line, 131 of the 177 EST-SSR primer pairs yielded products and 178 loci were found to be located on all the 21 wheat chromosomes. These findings suggest that the novel EST-SSR markers, as a basis for future genetic linkage and gene tagging analysis, are a valuable tool for genetic mapping, marker assisted selection, and comparative genome analysis.

  15. Effect of organic and conventional crop rotation, fertilization, and crop protection practices on metal contents in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Julia; Sanderson, Roy; Cakmak, Ismail; Ozturk, Levent; Shotton, Peter; Carmichael, Andrew; Haghighi, Reza Sadrabadi; Tetard-Jones, Catherine; Volakakis, Nikos; Eyre, Mick; Leifert, Carlo

    2011-05-11

    The effects of organic versus conventional crop management practices (crop rotation, crop protection, and fertility management strategies) on wheat yields and grain metal (Al, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentrations were investigated in a long-term field trial. The interactions between crop management practices and the season that the crop was grown were investigated using univariate and redundancy analysis approaches. Grain yields were highest where conventional fertility management and crop protection practices were used, but growing wheat after a previous crop of grass/clover was shown to partially compensate for yield reductions due to the use of organic fertility management. All metals except for Pb were significantly affected by crop management practices and the year that the wheat was grown. Grain Cd and Cu levels were higher on average when conventional fertility management practices were used. Al and Cu were higher on average when conventional crop protection practices were used. The results demonstrate that there is potential to manage metal concentrations in the diet by adopting specific crop management practices shown to affect crop uptake of metals.

  16. Fertilizer-dependent efficiency of Pseudomonads for improving growth, yield, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Shaharoona, Baby; Naveed, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Zahir, Zahir A

    2008-05-01

    Acquisition of nutrients by plants is primarily dependent on root growth and bioavailability of nutrients in the rooting medium. Most of the beneficial bacteria enhance root growth, but their effectiveness could be influenced by the nutrient status around the roots. In this study, two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase containing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. fluorescens biotype F were tested for their effect on growth, yield, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat under simultaneously varying levels of all the three major nutrients N, P, and K (at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of recommended doses). Results of pot and field trials revealed that the efficacy of these strains for improving growth and yield of wheat reduced with the increasing rates of NPK added to the soil. In most of the cases, significant negative linear correlations were recorded between percentage increases in growth and yield parameters of wheat caused by inoculation and increasing levels of applied NPK fertilizers. It is highly likely that under low fertilizer application, the ACC-deaminase activity of PGPR might have caused reduction in the synthesis of stress (nutrient)-induced inhibitory levels of ethylene in the roots through ACC hydrolysis into NH(3) and alpha-ketobutyrate. The results of this study imply that these Pseudomonads could be employed in combination with appropriate doses of fertilizers for better plant growth and savings of fertilizers.

  17. Comparative analysis of potassium deficiency-responsive transcriptomes in low potassium susceptible and tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Ruan, Li; Zhang, Jiabao; Xin, Xiuli; Zhang, Congzhi; Ma, Donghao; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Bingzi

    2015-01-01

    Potassium (K(+)) deficiency as a common abiotic stress can inhibit the growth of plants and thus reduce the agricultural yields. Nevertheless, scarcely any development has been promoted in wheat transcriptional changes under K(+) deficiency. Here we investigated root transcriptional changes in two wheat genotypes, namely, low-K(+) tolerant "Tongzhou916" and low-K(+) susceptible "Shiluan02-1". There were totally 2713 and 2485 probe sets displayed expression changes more than 1.5-fold in Tongzhou916 and Shiluan02-1, respectively. Low-K(+) responsive genes mainly belonged to the categories as follows: metabolic process, cation binding, transferase activity, ion transporters and so forth. We made a comparison of gene expression differences between the two wheat genotypes. There were 1321 and 1177 up-regulated genes in Tongzhou916 and Shiluan02-1, respectively. This result indicated that more genes took part in acclimating to low-K(+) stress in Tongzhou916. In addition, there were more genes associated with jasmonic acid, defense response and potassium transporter up-regulated in Tongzhou916. Moreover, totally 19 genes encoding vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase, ethylene-related, auxin response, anatomical structure development and nutrient reservoir were uniquely up-regulated in Tongzhou916. For their important role in root architecture, K(+) uptake and nutrient storage, unique genes above may make a great contribution to the strong low-K(+) tolerance in Tongzhou916.

  18. Efficacy of putrescine and benzyladenine on photosynthesis and productivity in relation to drought tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sunita; Agarwal, Vishnu Prakash; Gupta, N K

    2012-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to find out the efficacy of putrescine and benzyladenine on photosynthesis and productivity in wheat. Seeds of wheat genotype HD 2329 (widely adapted under irrigated condition) were grown in ceramic pots under standard package and practices. Putrescine (0.1 mM) and benzyladenine (0.05 mM) were sprayed on the aerial portion of these plants at the time of anthesis. After spray, half of the plants were subjected to water stress by withholding irrigation. The non stressed plants were irrigated to keep the soil humidity at field capacity. Results showed that drought stress severly reduced the photosynthetic attributes, water status and chlorophyll content which were significantly improved by foliar application of putrescine/benzyladenine. The levels of free proline, amino acids and soluble sugars were higher under water stress conditions which were enhanced further by putrescine/benzyladenine. Memrane injury was also reduced by both the chemicals. Yield and yield attributes reduced under water stress conditions, but putrescine and benzyladenine treated plants exhibited significantly higher values over control. Most of these parameters were found significantly correlated with grain yield. It is suggested that both benyzladenine and putrescine were able to impart drought tolerance in wheat but the response of putrescine was more promising owing to better management of various physio-biochemical processes, particularly under water stress conditions. PMID:24082495

  19. [Genealogical Analysis of the Use of Two Wheatgrass (Agropyron) Species in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Breeding for Disease Resistance].

    PubMed

    Martynova, S P; Dobrotvorskaya, T V; Krupnov, V A

    2016-02-01

    During the last 80 years, in order to increase the genetic variability of wheat, translocations containing nine elongated wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum) and eight intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium) genes, which control resistance to pathogens, were transferred to this crop culture. Genealogical and statistical analysis of 1500 varieties developed using the wheatgrass gave evidence of the continuing increase in the proportion of such varieties in the total number of wheat varieties over the last half-century. Translocations from Ag. elongatum most commonly occur in the pedigrees of the varieties from the United States, less frequently they can be found in Australian and Chinese varieties, and they are extremely rare--in European and African ones. Ag. intermedium most frequently occurs in the pedigrees of the Eastern European varieties, mainly in those from Russia, as well as in the varieties from China. The observed uneven distribution of such varieties may be associated with either the effectiveness of the translocation in the development of resistance to the local populations of pathogens or with the effect of the translocation on the adaptive traits of plants. By computer tracking of pedigrees, we performed an inventory of the translocation donors from A. elongatum and A. intermedium used in the breeding programs in the United States, Russia, Australia, India, and China. The most widely occurring combinations of the gene complex Lr24/Sr24 of Ag. elongatum with other resistance genes were revealed. In Russia there were developed varieties in which the 6D chromosome was substituted by the 6Ai chromosome of Ag. intermedium, which controls disease resistance and the adaptivity of plants. The identification and introgression of new translocations indicates that the possibilities of using wheatgrass species for broadening of genetic variability of wheat are far from being exhausted.

  20. [Genealogical Analysis of the Use of Two Wheatgrass (Agropyron) Species in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Breeding for Disease Resistance].

    PubMed

    Martynova, S P; Dobrotvorskaya, T V; Krupnov, V A

    2016-02-01

    During the last 80 years, in order to increase the genetic variability of wheat, translocations containing nine elongated wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum) and eight intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium) genes, which control resistance to pathogens, were transferred to this crop culture. Genealogical and statistical analysis of 1500 varieties developed using the wheatgrass gave evidence of the continuing increase in the proportion of such varieties in the total number of wheat varieties over the last half-century. Translocations from Ag. elongatum most commonly occur in the pedigrees of the varieties from the United States, less frequently they can be found in Australian and Chinese varieties, and they are extremely rare--in European and African ones. Ag. intermedium most frequently occurs in the pedigrees of the Eastern European varieties, mainly in those from Russia, as well as in the varieties from China. The observed uneven distribution of such varieties may be associated with either the effectiveness of the translocation in the development of resistance to the local populations of pathogens or with the effect of the translocation on the adaptive traits of plants. By computer tracking of pedigrees, we performed an inventory of the translocation donors from A. elongatum and A. intermedium used in the breeding programs in the United States, Russia, Australia, India, and China. The most widely occurring combinations of the gene complex Lr24/Sr24 of Ag. elongatum with other resistance genes were revealed. In Russia there were developed varieties in which the 6D chromosome was substituted by the 6Ai chromosome of Ag. intermedium, which controls disease resistance and the adaptivity of plants. The identification and introgression of new translocations indicates that the possibilities of using wheatgrass species for broadening of genetic variability of wheat are far from being exhausted. PMID:27215032

  1. The Multifarious PGPR Serratia marcescens CDP-13 Augments Induced Systemic Resistance and Enhanced Salinity Tolerance of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajnish Prakash; Jha, Prabhat Nath

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the plant growth promoting (PGP) potential of a bacterial isolate CDP-13 isolated from 'Capparis decidua' plant, and its ability to protect plants from the deleterious effect of biotic and abiotic stressors. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate was identified as Serratia marcescens. Among the PGP traits, the isolate was found to be positive for ACC deaminase activity, phosphate solubilization, production of siderophore, indole acetic acid production, nitrogen fixation, and ammonia production. CDP-13 showed growth at an increased salt (NaCl) concentration of up to 6%, indicating its potential to survive and associate with plants growing in saline soil. The inoculation of S. marcescens enhanced the growth of wheat plant under salinity stress (150-200 mM). It significantly reduced inhibition of plant growth (15 to 85%) caused by salt stressors. Application of CDP-13 also modulated concentration (20 to 75%) of different osmoprotectants (proline, malondialdehyde, total soluble sugar, total protein content, and indole acetic acid) in plants suggesting its role in enabling plants to tolerate salt stressors. In addition, bacterial inoculation also reduced the disease severity caused by fungal infection, which illustrated its ability to confer induced systemic resistance (ISR) in host plants. Treatment of wheat plants with the test organism caused alteration in anti-oxidative enzymes activities (Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, and Peroxidase) under various salinity levels, and therefore minimizes the salinity-induced oxidative damages to the plants. Colonization efficiency of strain CDP-13 was confirmed by CFU count, epi-fluorescence microscopy, and ERIC-PCR-based DNA fingerprinting approach. Hence, the study indicates that bacterium CDP-13 enhances plant growth, and has potential for the amelioration of salinity stress in wheat plants. Likewise, the results also provide insights into biotechnological approaches to using PGPR

  2. The Multifarious PGPR Serratia marcescens CDP-13 Augments Induced Systemic Resistance and Enhanced Salinity Tolerance of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajnish Prakash; Jha, Prabhat Nath

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the plant growth promoting (PGP) potential of a bacterial isolate CDP-13 isolated from ‘Capparis decidua’ plant, and its ability to protect plants from the deleterious effect of biotic and abiotic stressors. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate was identified as Serratia marcescens. Among the PGP traits, the isolate was found to be positive for ACC deaminase activity, phosphate solubilization, production of siderophore, indole acetic acid production, nitrogen fixation, and ammonia production. CDP-13 showed growth at an increased salt (NaCl) concentration of up to 6%, indicating its potential to survive and associate with plants growing in saline soil. The inoculation of S. marcescens enhanced the growth of wheat plant under salinity stress (150–200 mM). It significantly reduced inhibition of plant growth (15 to 85%) caused by salt stressors. Application of CDP-13 also modulated concentration (20 to 75%) of different osmoprotectants (proline, malondialdehyde, total soluble sugar, total protein content, and indole acetic acid) in plants suggesting its role in enabling plants to tolerate salt stressors. In addition, bacterial inoculation also reduced the disease severity caused by fungal infection, which illustrated its ability to confer induced systemic resistance (ISR) in host plants. Treatment of wheat plants with the test organism caused alteration in anti-oxidative enzymes activities (Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, and Peroxidase) under various salinity levels, and therefore minimizes the salinity-induced oxidative damages to the plants. Colonization efficiency of strain CDP-13 was confirmed by CFU count, epi-fluorescence microscopy, and ERIC-PCR-based DNA fingerprinting approach. Hence, the study indicates that bacterium CDP-13 enhances plant growth, and has potential for the amelioration of salinity stress in wheat plants. Likewise, the results also provide insights into biotechnological approaches to using

  3. Role of Bacterial Communities in the Natural Suppression of Rhizoctonia solani Bare Patch Disease of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chuntao; Hulbert, Scot H.; Schroeder, Kurtis L.; Mavrodi, Olga; Mavrodi, Dmitri; Dhingra, Amit; Schillinger, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Rhizoctonia bare patch and root rot disease of wheat, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-8, develops as distinct patches of stunted plants and limits the yield of direct-seeded (no-till) wheat in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. At the site of a long-term cropping systems study near Ritzville, WA, a decline in Rhizoctonia patch disease was observed over an 11-year period. Bacterial communities from bulk and rhizosphere soil of plants from inside the patches, outside the patches, and recovered patches were analyzed by using pyrosequencing with primers designed for 16S rRNA. Taxa in the class Acidobacteria and the genus Gemmatimonas were found at higher frequencies in the rhizosphere of healthy plants outside the patches than in that of diseased plants from inside the patches. Dyella and Acidobacteria subgroup Gp7 were found at higher frequencies in recovered patches. Chitinophaga, Pedobacter, Oxalobacteriaceae (Duganella and Massilia), and Chyseobacterium were found at higher frequencies in the rhizosphere of diseased plants from inside the patches. For selected taxa, trends were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), and observed shifts of frequencies in the rhizosphere over time were duplicated in cycling experiments in the greenhouse that involved successive plantings of wheat in Rhizoctonia-inoculated soil. Chryseobacterium soldanellicola was isolated from the rhizosphere inside the patches and exhibited significant antagonism against R. solani AG-8 in vitro and in greenhouse tests. In conclusion, we identified novel bacterial taxa that respond to conditions affecting bare patch disease symptoms and that may be involved in suppression of Rhizoctonia root rot and bare batch disease. PMID:24056471

  4. Lentinula edodes removes phenols from olive-mill wastewater: impact on durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) germinability.

    PubMed

    D'Annibale, A; Casa, R; Pieruccetti, F; Ricci, M; Marabottini, R

    2004-02-01

    Olive-mill wastewater (OMW) exhibits highly phytotoxic properties, mainly due to phenols. A valuable option for OMW disposal is its agricultural use provided that phytotoxic effects are removed. The present investigation was aimed at evaluating the efficacy of the lignin-degrading fungus Lentinula edodes in achieving OMW detoxification. Germinability experiments on durum wheat showed that OMW phytotoxicity was significantly reduced by L. edodes cultures. Germinability on undiluted and twofold diluted OMW from fungal cultures was 34+/-5% and 57+/-6%, respectively, while on related incubation controls it was almost completely suppressed. These results suggest that fungal cultures of L. edodes would decrease the phytotoxicity of this waste. PMID:14637346

  5. RNA-Seq and iTRAQ Reveal the Dwarfing Mechanism of Dwarf Polish Wheat (Triticum polonicum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Xiao, Xue; Wang, Xiaolu; Zeng, Jian; Kang, Houyang; Fan, Xing; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    The dwarfing mechanism of Rht-dp in dwarf Polish wheat (DPW) is unknown. Each internode of DPW was significantly shorter than it in high Polish wheat (HPW), and the dwarfism was insensitive to photoperiod, abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA), cytokinin (CK), auxin and brassinolide (BR). To understand the mechanism, three sets of transcripts, DPW, HPW, and a chimeric set (a combination of DPW and HPW), were constructed using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Based on the chimeric transcripts, 2,446 proteins were identified using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). A total of 108 unigenes and 12 proteins were considered as dwarfism-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), respectively. Among of these DEGs and DEPs, 6 DEGs and 6 DEPs were found to be involved in flavonoid and S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) metabolisms; 5 DEGs and 3 DEPs were involved in cellulose metabolism, cell wall plasticity and cell expansion; 2 DEGs were auxin transporters; 2 DEPs were histones; 1 DEP was a peroxidase. These DEGs and DEPs reduced lignin and cellulose contents, increased flavonoid content, possibly decreased S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) and polyamine contents and increased S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) content in DPW stems, which could limit auxin transport and reduce extensibility of the cell wall, finally limited cell expansion (the cell size of DPW was significantly smaller than HPW cells) and caused dwarfism in DPW. PMID:27194943

  6. Comparison of Four Chemometric Techniques for Estimating Leaf Nitrogen Concentrations in Winter Wheat ( Triticum Aestivum) Based on Hyperspectral Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zh.; Nie, Ch.; Wei, Ch.; Xu, X.; Song, X.; Wang, J.

    2016-05-01

    Four chemometric techniques for estimating LNC in winter wheat were compared by spectral features. The predictive power and impact of sample size were evaluated. Key results include: (1) partial least squares regression (PLSR) and support vector machines regression (SVR) performed better than the other two methods, with coefficient of determination ( r 2) values in the calibration set of 0.82 and 0.81 and the normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) values in the validation set of 5.48 and 5.94%, respectively; (2) the lowest accuracy was achieved using stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR), with r 2 and NRMSE values of 0.78 and 6.52%, respectively; (3) the predictive power of the back propagation neural network (BPN) was enhanced as sample size increased. Sample size less than 80 is not recommended when using BPN. These results suggest that PLSR and SVR are preferred choices to estimate LNC in winter wheat, and BPN is recommended when a sufficient sample size is available.

  7. RNA-Seq and iTRAQ Reveal the Dwarfing Mechanism of Dwarf Polish Wheat (Triticum polonicum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Xiao, Xue; Wang, Xiaolu; Zeng, Jian; Kang, Houyang; Fan, Xing; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    The dwarfing mechanism of Rht-dp in dwarf Polish wheat (DPW) is unknown. Each internode of DPW was significantly shorter than it in high Polish wheat (HPW), and the dwarfism was insensitive to photoperiod, abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA), cytokinin (CK), auxin and brassinolide (BR). To understand the mechanism, three sets of transcripts, DPW, HPW, and a chimeric set (a combination of DPW and HPW), were constructed using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Based on the chimeric transcripts, 2,446 proteins were identified using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). A total of 108 unigenes and 12 proteins were considered as dwarfism-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), respectively. Among of these DEGs and DEPs, 6 DEGs and 6 DEPs were found to be involved in flavonoid and S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) metabolisms; 5 DEGs and 3 DEPs were involved in cellulose metabolism, cell wall plasticity and cell expansion; 2 DEGs were auxin transporters; 2 DEPs were histones; 1 DEP was a peroxidase. These DEGs and DEPs reduced lignin and cellulose contents, increased flavonoid content, possibly decreased S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) and polyamine contents and increased S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) content in DPW stems, which could limit auxin transport and reduce extensibility of the cell wall, finally limited cell expansion (the cell size of DPW was significantly smaller than HPW cells) and caused dwarfism in DPW. PMID:27194943

  8. Purification, cloning and functional differences of a third fructan 1-exohydrolase (1-FEHw3) from wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Van Riet, Liesbet; Altenbach, Denise; Vergauwen, Rudy; Clerens, Stefan; Kawakami, Akira; Yoshida, Midori; Van den Ende, Wim; Wiemken, Andres; Van Laere, André

    2008-06-01

    A third fructan exohydrolase isoform (1-FEHw3) was purified from wheat stems by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, ConA affinity and ion-exchange chromatography. Homogeneity of the preparation was indicated by the presence of a single band (70 kDa) after SDS-PAGE. The enzyme hydrolyzed mainly beta2-1 linkages in fructans and was inhibited by sucrose. A cDNA could be obtained after reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based strategies and screening of a cDNA library. Functionality tests of the cDNA performed after heterologous expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris showed that the encoded protein has essentially the same characteristics as the native enzyme. Homology with previously described 1-FEH isoforms from wheat was high (97% identity), and the enzyme showed minor differences to the previously published enzymes. The relative abundance of 1-FEH transcripts in different tissues was investigated by using quantitative RT-PCR.

  9. Individual and combined effects of waterlogging and alkalinity on yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) imposed at three critical stages.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Praveen Kumar; Sharma, S K; Choi, I Y

    2010-07-01

    Response of wheat genotype HD 2329 to individual and combined effects of alkalinity and waterlogging (WL) at tillering, panicle emergence and anthesis stage was studied. Both stresses increased Na accumulation and reduced K uptake which leads to higher Na(+)/K(+) ratio in the leaves. Yield was decreased under all the stress treatments and highly correlated with Na(+)/K(+) ratio at all the three growth stages (r = -0.83, -0.82 and -0.73, respectively) with maximum reduction under pH 9.4 + WL. Increase in pH from 7.2 to 9.1 and 9.4 delayed complete panicle emergence (4 and 8 days) and flowering (1 and 2 days) at both, tillering and panicle emergence stages. Dual stress further increased days, required for complete panicle emergence and flowering. These results suggested that high Na(+)/K(+) ratio of plant tissue may be the critical factor for growth and development of wheat under WL, alkalinity and dual stress. Due to this delay in flowering and panicle emergence, times required for maturity of grains shorten, resulted in lower grain yield. PMID:23572981

  10. Vacuolar cysteine proteases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are common to leaf senescence induced by different factors.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Dana E; Bartoli, Carlos G; Grbic, Vojislava; Guiamet, Juan J

    2007-01-01

    Cellular proteins are extensively degraded during leaf senescence, and this correlates with an up-regulation of protease gene expression, particularly cysteine proteases. The objectives of this work were (i) to detect cysteine proteases associated with senescence of wheat leaves under different conditions and (ii) to find out their subcellular location. Activity labelling of cysteine proteases with the biotinylated inhibitor DCG-04 detected five bands at 27, 36, 39, 42, and 46 kDa in leaves of wheat senescing under continuous darkness. In-gel activity assays showed that these proteases are only active in an acid milieu (pH 4), and their activity increased several-fold in senescing leaves. Fractionation experiments showed that the senescence-associated cysteine proteases of 36, 39, 42, and 46 kDa localize to a vacuolar-enriched fraction. The vacuolar cysteine proteases of 36, 39, and 42 kDa increased in activity in attached flag leaves senescing naturally during post-anthesis, and in attached leaves of plants subjected to a period of water deficit. Thus, the activity of these vacuolar cysteine proteases is associated with developmental (post-anthesis) senescence and with senescence induced by stress factors (i.e. protracted darkness or drought). This suggests that vacuoles are involved in senescence-associated cellular degradation, and that different senescence-inducing factors may converge on a single degradation pathway.

  11. Kinetics of phosphorus and potassium release from rock phosphate and waste mica enriched compost and their effect on yield and nutrient uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Nishanth, D; Biswas, D R

    2008-06-01

    An attempt was made to study the efficient use of rice straw and indigenous source of phosphorus and potassium in crop production through composting technology. Various enriched composts were prepared using rice straw, rock phosphate (RP), waste mica and bioinoculant (Aspergillus awamori) and kinetics of release of phosphorus and potassium from enriched composts and their effect on yield and nutrient uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum) were carried out. Results showed sharp increases in release in water-soluble P and K from all the composts at 8th to 12th day of leaching, thereafter, it decreased gradually. Maximum release of water-soluble P and K were obtained in ordinary compost than enriched composts during the initial stages of leaching, but their differences narrowed down at latter stages. Data in pot experiments revealed that enriched composts performed poorly than diammonium phosphate during initial stages of crop growth, but they out yielded at the latter stages, particularly at maturity stage, as evident from their higher yield, uptake, nutrient recoveries and fertility status of P and K in soils. Moreover, enriched composts prepared with RP and waste mica along with A. awamori resulted in significantly higher biomass yield, uptake and recoveries of P and K as well as available P and K in soils than composts prepared without inoculant. Results indicated that enriched compost could be an alternate technology for the efficient management of rice straw, low-grade RP and waste mica in crop production, which could help to reduce the reliance on costly chemical fertilizers. PMID:17905580

  12. Molecular characterization and sequence diversity of genes encoding the large subunit of the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Rose, Meghan K; Huang, Xiu-Qiang; Brûlé-Babel, Anita

    2016-02-01

    The large subunit of ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), the rate limiting enzyme in starch biosynthesis in Triticum aestivum L., is encoded by the ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase large subunit (AGP-L) gene. This was the first report on the development of three genome-specific primer sets for isolating the complete genomic sequence of all three homoeologous AGP-L genes on group 1 chromosomes. All three AGP-L genes consisted of 15 introns and 15 exons. The lengths of the structural genes from start to stop codon were 3334 bp for AGP-L-A1, 3351 bp for AGP-L-B1, and 3340 bp for AGP-L-D1. The coding region was 1569 bases long in all three genomes. All three AGP-L genes encoded 522 amino acid residues including the transit peptide sequences with 62 amino acid residues and the mature protein with 460 amino acid residues. The mature protein of three AGP-L genes was highly conserved. Three AGP-L genes were sequenced in 47 diverse spring and winter wheat genotypes. One and two haplotypes were found for AGP-L-D1 and AGP-L-A1, respectively. In total, 67 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and 13 indels (insertions or deletions) forming five haplotypes were identified for AGP-L-B1. All 13 indels and 58 of the 67 SNPs among the 47 genotypes were located in the non-coding regions, while the remaining nine SNPs were synonymous substitutions in the coding region. Significant LD was found among the 45 SNPs and ten indels located from intron 2 to intron 3. Association analysis indicated that four SNPs were strongly associated with seed number per spike and thousand kernel weight.

  13. Significant changes in cell and chloroplast development in young wheat leaves (Triticum aestivum cv Hereward) grown in elevated CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, E.J.; Leech, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Cell and chloroplast development were characterized in young Triticum aestivum cv Hereward leaves grown at ambient (350 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1}) or at elevated (650 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1}) CO{sub 2}. In elevated CO{sub 2}, cell and chloroplast expansion was accelerated by 10 and 25%, respectively, in the first leaf of 7-d-old wheat plants without disruption to the leaf developmental pattern. Elevated CO{sub 2} did not affect the number of chloroplasts in relation to mesophyll cell size or the linear relationship between chloroplast number or size and mesophyll cell size. No major changes in leaf anatomy or in chloroplast ultrastructure were detected as a result of growth in elevated CO{sub 2}, but there was a marked reduction in starch accumulation. In leaf sections fluorescently tagged antisera were used to visualize and quantitate the amount of cytochrome f, the {alpha}- and {beta}-subunits of the coupling factor 1 in ATP synthase, D1 protein of the photosystem II reaction center, the 33-kD protein of the extrinsic oxygen-evolving complex, subunit II of photosystem I, and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. A significant finding was that in 10 to 20% of the mesophyll cells grown in elevated CO{sub 2} the 33-kD protein of the extrinsic oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II and cytochrome f were deficient by 75%, but the other proteins accumulated normally. 29 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Multi-approaches analysis reveals local adaptation in the emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides) at macro- but not micro-geographical scale.

    PubMed

    Volis, Sergei; Ormanbekova, Danara; Yermekbayev, Kanat; Song, Minshu; Shulgina, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Detecting local adaptation and its spatial scale is one of the most important questions of evolutionary biology. However, recognition of the effect of local selection can be challenging when there is considerable environmental variation across the distance at the whole species range. We analyzed patterns of local adaptation in emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, at two spatial scales, small (inter-population distance less than one km) and large (inter-population distance more than 50 km) using several approaches. Plants originating from four distinct habitats at two geographic scales (cold edge, arid edge and two topographically dissimilar core locations) were reciprocally transplanted and their success over time was measured as 1) lifetime fitness in a year of planting, and 2) population growth four years after planting. In addition, we analyzed molecular (SSR) and quantitative trait variation and calculated the QST/FST ratio. No home advantage was detected at the small spatial scale. At the large spatial scale, home advantage was detected for the core population and the cold edge population in the year of introduction via measuring life-time plant performance. However, superior performance of the arid edge population in its own environment was evident only after several generations via measuring experimental population growth rate through genotyping with SSRs allowing counting the number of plants and seeds per introduced genotype per site. These results highlight the importance of multi-generation surveys of population growth rate in local adaptation testing. Despite predominant self-fertilization of T. dicoccoides and the associated high degree of structuring of genetic variation, the results of the QST - FST comparison were in general agreement with the pattern of local adaptation at the two spatial scales detected by reciprocal transplanting.

  15. Multi-approaches analysis reveals local adaptation in the emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides) at macro- but not micro-geographical scale.

    PubMed

    Volis, Sergei; Ormanbekova, Danara; Yermekbayev, Kanat; Song, Minshu; Shulgina, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Detecting local adaptation and its spatial scale is one of the most important questions of evolutionary biology. However, recognition of the effect of local selection can be challenging when there is considerable environmental variation across the distance at the whole species range. We analyzed patterns of local adaptation in emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, at two spatial scales, small (inter-population distance less than one km) and large (inter-population distance more than 50 km) using several approaches. Plants originating from four distinct habitats at two geographic scales (cold edge, arid edge and two topographically dissimilar core locations) were reciprocally transplanted and their success over time was measured as 1) lifetime fitness in a year of planting, and 2) population growth four years after planting. In addition, we analyzed molecular (SSR) and quantitative trait variation and calculated the QST/FST ratio. No home advantage was detected at the small spatial scale. At the large spatial scale, home advantage was detected for the core population and the cold edge population in the year of introduction via measuring life-time plant performance. However, superior performance of the arid edge population in its own environment was evident only after several generations via measuring experimental population growth rate through genotyping with SSRs allowing counting the number of plants and seeds per introduced genotype per site. These results highlight the importance of multi-generation surveys of population growth rate in local adaptation testing. Despite predominant self-fertilization of T. dicoccoides and the associated high degree of structuring of genetic variation, the results of the QST - FST comparison were in general agreement with the pattern of local adaptation at the two spatial scales detected by reciprocal transplanting. PMID:25793512

  16. Microbial activity and water-soluble trace element species in the rhizosphere of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. USU-Perigee).

    PubMed

    Turmel, Marie-Claude; Courchesne, François; Cloutier-Hurteau, Benoît

    2011-04-01

    The influence of microbial activity on the concentration and speciation of trace elements (TEs) was assessed in a study on the bioavailability of TEs for edible plants. A growth chamber experiment with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. USU-Perigee) was conducted and the bulk (Bk) and the rhizosphere (Rz) soil components were collected at maturity. A characterization of the microbial activity and population was made by measuring the microbial biomass, enzymes (acid phosphatase, arylsulfatase, dehydrogenase and urease) and 16S rDNA DGGE profiles. In soil water extracts, major solutes (H(+), Ca, Mg, Na, NH(4), K, Cl, NO(3), SO(4), total N, DON and DOC) and trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Ce, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Tl, and Zn) including monomeric Al species, free Cu(2+) and labile Zn were determined. The partition of the variation indicated that 12.1% of the distribution of TEs in the Bk soil was significantly and exclusively explained by chemical properties while this value was less than 0.1% for the Rz soil. To the contrary, microbial properties contributed significantly to 12.3% of the distribution of TEs in the Rz soil whereas it explained less than 0.1% for the Bk soil. Detailed redundancy analyses identified several potential mechanisms (e.g. weathering of primary mineral, solubilisation of sesquioxides, bacterial effect on the redox status) explaining the fate of TEs in the Bk and Rz soils. This study revealed that microbial activity is strongly associated to the speciation of trace elements in the Rz of edible plants and points to some microbial processes influencing TE speciation.

  17. Physiological and Comparative Proteomic Analysis Reveals Different Drought Responses in Roots and Leaves of Drought-Tolerant Wild Wheat (Triticum boeoticum)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Sultan, Muhammad Abdul Rab Faisal; Liu, Xiang li; Zhang, Jin; Yu, Fei; Zhao, Hui xian

    2015-01-01

    To determine the proteomic-level responses of drought tolerant wild wheat (Triticum boeoticum), physiological and comparative proteomic analyses were conducted using the roots and the leaves of control and short term drought-stressed plants. Drought stress was imposed by transferring hydroponically grown seedlings at the 3-leaf stage into 1/2 Hoagland solution containing 20% PEG-6000 for 48 h. Root and leaf samples were separately collected at 0 (control), 24, and 48 h of drought treatment for analysis. Physiological analysis indicated that abscisic acid (ABA) level was greatly increased in the drought-treated plants, but the increase was greater and more rapid in the leaves than in the roots. The net photosynthetic rate of the wild wheat leaves was significantly decreased under short-term drought stress. The deleterious effects of drought on the studied traits mainly targeted photosynthesis. Comparative proteomic analysis identified 98 and 85 differently changed protein spots (DEPs) (corresponding to 87 and 80 unique proteins, respectively) in the leaves and the roots, respectively, with only 6 mutual unique proteins in the both organs. An impressive 86% of the DEPs were implicated in detoxification and defense, carbon metabolism, amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, proteins metabolism, chaperones, transcription and translation, photosynthesis, nucleotide metabolism, and signal transduction. Further analysis revealed some mutual and tissue-specific responses to short-term drought in the leaves and the roots. The differences of drought-response between the roots and the leaves mainly included that signal sensing and transduction-associated proteins were greatly up-regulated in the roots. Photosynthesis and carbon fixation ability were decreased in the leaves. Glycolysis was down-regulated but PPP pathway enhanced in the roots, resulting in occurrence of complex changes in energy metabolism and establishment of a new homeostasis. Protein metabolism was down

  18. Cloning, expression analysis, and functional characterization of two secretory phospholipases A2 in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    PubMed

    Mazzucotelli, Elisabetta; Trono, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    We previously isolated four cDNAs in durum wheat, TdsPLA2I, TdsPLA2II, TdsPLA2III and TdsPLA2IV, that encode proteins with homology to plant secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) (Verlotta et al., Int. J. Mol. Sci., 14, 2013, 5146-5169). In this study, we have further characterized TdsPLA2II and TdsPLA2III sequences that, on the basis of our previous findings, might encode sPLA2 isoforms with different features. Functional analysis revealed that, similarly to other known sPLA2s, TdsPLA2II and TdsPLA2III have an optimum at pH 9.0, require Ca(2+), are heat stable, and are inhibited by the disulfide-bond-reducing agent dithiothreitol. However, differences emerged between these TdsPLA2 isoforms. Transcript analysis revealed that the TdsPLA2III gene is highly up-regulated under different environmental stresses; conversely, the TdsPLA2II gene is expressed at constant levels under almost all of the stress conditions examined. Moreover, TdsPLA2II is saturated at micromolar substrate and Ca(2+) concentrations, whereas TdsPLA2III requires millimolar concentrations to reach maximal activity. This suggests that TdsPLA2II normally functions under optimal conditions in vivo, whereas TdsPLA2III is only partially activated, depending on the specific phospholipid and Ca(2+) levels. Altogether these data lead to the hypothesis that in vivo TdsPLA2II and TdsPLA2III are differently regulated at both molecular and biochemical level and that TdsPLA2III plays a major role in durum wheat response to adverse environmental conditions.

  19. LIB spectroscopic and biochemical analysis to characterize lead toxicity alleviative nature of silicon in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Durgesh Kumar; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan; Dubey, Nawal Kishore; Chauhan, Devendra Kumar; Rai, Awadesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The responses of wheat seedling treated with silicon (Si; 10 μM) and lead (Pb; 100 μM) for 7 days have been investigated by analyzing growth, Pb uptake, chlorophyll fluorescence, oxidative stress, antioxidants and nutrients regulation. Results indicated that, Pb significantly (P<0.05) declined growth of seedlings which was accompanied by uptake of Pb. Under Pb stress, fluorescence parameters: Fv/Fm ratio and qP were significantly (P<0.05) decreased while NPQ was increased. Si addition alleviated Pb-induced decrease in growth and alterations in photosynthesis, and also significantly (P<0.05) lowered Pb uptake. Under Pb treatment, oxidative stress markers: hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation were enhanced while DPPH(•) scavenging capacity and total phenolic compounds (TPCs) were decreased significantly, however, Si addition improved the status of antioxidants. The non-protein thiols (NP-SH) showed enhanced level under Pb stress. Pb stress considerably disturbed status of the nutrients as decrease in Ca, P, Mg, Zn and Ni contents while an increase in K, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Na contents were noticed. Si addition maintained status of all the nutrients remarkably. The quickest method of element analysis: LIBS spectra revealed significantly lower uptake of Pb in seedlings grown under Si and Pb combination and same was correlated with the data of AAS. Overall results pointed out that excess Pb uptake disturbed status of nutrients, photosynthetic performance, antioxidant capacity, hence severe oxidative damage to lipids occurred. Further, Si supplementation successfully regulated these parameters by inhibiting Pb uptake hence maintained growth of wheat seedlings. Similar pattern of data recorded by the LIBS, AAS and ICAP-AES confirmed that LIBS may be one of the promising and authentic tools to monitor the mineral and metal distribution in the plants without hampering or disturbing the environment due to its eco-friendly and non-invasive nature.

  20. Expression and in silico characterization of Phenylalanine ammonium lyase against karnal bunt (Tilletia indica) in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Purwar, Shalini; Sundaram, Shanthy; Sinha, Sukrat; Gupta, Ankit; Dobriyall, Neha; Kumar, Anil

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the lignifications process and its physiological significance under Karnal Bunt (KB), the changes in enzymes responsible for lignifications likes, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), were determined in resistant (HD-29) and susceptible genotype (WH-542) of wheat during different developmental stages. The PAL gene was cloned and sequenced. The expression of PAL gene was measured by means of semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The enzyme was expressed constitutively in both the susceptible and resistant genotype. However, the activity was higher in all the developmental stages of resistant genotype, indicating that this genotype has a significant higher basal level of these enzymes as compared to the susceptible line and could be used as marker(s) to define KB resistance. The activity of PAL was significantly higher in WSv stage (Z=16). Structural comparisons based on alignments of all the protein sequences using the clustal W program and searches for conserved motifs using the MEME program have revealed broad conservation of main motifs characteristic of the plant PAL. MSA and phylogenetic analyses of different plants PAL demonstrate that all PAL cluster divided in to two main cluster. The PAL also possesses a specific consensus sequences [GS]- [STG]-[LIVM]-[STG]-[SAC]-S-G-[DH]-L-x-[PN]-L-[SA]-x(2,3)-[SAGVTL]. The pathway might be associated with the enhancement of structural defense barrier due to lignifications of cell wall as evident from the enhanced synthesis of lignin in all the stages of resistant genotype. Our results clearly indicate the possible role of enzymes of Phenyl propanoid pathway metabolism provides genotype and stage dependant structural barrier resistance in wheat against KB. PMID:24497728

  1. Genetic mapping of stem rust resistance gene Sr13 in tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Kristin; Abate, Zewdie; Chao, Shiaoman; Zhang, Wenjun; Rouse, Matt; Jin, Yue; Elias, Elias; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Wheat stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, can cause significant yield losses. To combat the disease breeders have deployed resistance genes both individually and in combinations to increase resistance durability. A new race, TTKSK (Ug99), identified in Uganda in 1999, is virulent on most of the resistance genes currently deployed, and is rapidly spreading to other regions of the world. It is therefore important to identify, map, and deploy resistance genes that are still effective against TTKSK. One of these resistance genes, Sr13, was previously assigned to the long arm of chromosome 6A, but its precise map location was not known. In this study, the genome location of Sr13 was determined in four tetraploid wheat (T. turgidum ssp. durum) mapping populations involving the TTKSK resistant varieties Kronos, Kofa, Medora and Sceptre. Our results showed that resistance was linked to common molecular markers in all four populations, suggesting that these durum lines carry the same resistance gene. Based on its chromosome location and infection types against different races of stem rust, this gene is postulated to be Sr13. Sr13 was mapped within a 1.2 to 2.8 cM interval (depending on the mapping population) between EST markers CD926040 and BE471213, which corresponds to a 285-kb region in rice chromosome 2, and a 3.1-Mb region in Brachypodium chromosome 3. These maps will be the foundation for developing high-density maps, identifying diagnostic markers, and positional cloning of Sr13. PMID:20857083

  2. Differential Activity and Expression Profile of Antioxidant Enzymes and Physiological Changes in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Under Drought.

    PubMed

    Sheoran, Sonia; Thakur, Vidisha; Narwal, Sneh; Turan, Rajita; Mamrutha, H M; Singh, Virender; Tiwari, Vinod; Sharma, Indu

    2015-11-01

    Wheat crop may experience water deficit at crucial stages during its life cycle, which induces oxidative stress in the plants. The antioxidant status of the plant plays an important role in providing tolerance against the water stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of water stress on physiological traits, antioxidant activity and transcript profile of antioxidant enzyme related genes in four wheat genotypes (C306, AKAW3717, HD2687, PBW343) at three crucial stages of plants under medium (75% of field capacity) and severe stress (45% of field capacity) in pots. Drought was applied by withholding water for 10 days at a particular growth stage viz. tillering, anthesis and 15 days after anthesis (15DAA). For physiological traits, a highly significant effect of water stress at a particular stage and genotypic variations for resistance to drought tolerance was observed. Under severe water stress, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased while the relative water content (RWC) and chlorophyll index decreased significantly in all the genotypes. The drought susceptibility index (DSI) of the genotypes varied from 0.18 to 1.9. The drought treatment at the tillering and anthesis stages was found more sensitive in terms of reduction in thousand grain weight (TGW) and grain yield. Antioxidant enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POX)] increased with the decrease in osmotic potential in drought tolerant genotypes C306 and AKAW3717. Moreover, the transcript profile of Mn-SOD upregulated significantly and was consistent with the trend of the variation in SOD activity, which suggests that Mn-SOD might play an important role in drought tolerance. PMID:26319568

  3. Improved tolerance to drought stress after anthesis due to priming before anthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) var. Vinjett.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Vignjevic, Marija; Jiang, Dong; Jacobsen, Susanne; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2014-12-01

    Drought stress occurring during the reproductive growth stage leads to considerable reductions in crop production and has become an important limiting factor for food security globally. In order to explore the possible role of drought priming (pre-exposure of the plants to mild drought stress) on the alleviation of a severe drought stress event later in development, wheat plants were subjected to single or double mild drought episodes (soil relative water content around 35-40%) before anthesis and/or to a severe drought stress event (soil relative water content around 20-25%) 15 d after anthesis. Here, single or double drought priming before anthesis resulted in higher grain yield than in non-primed plants under drought stress during grain filling. The photosynthesis rate and ascorbate peroxidase activity were higher while malondialdehyde content was lower in primed plants than in the non-primed plants under drought stress during grain filling. Proteins in flag leaves differently expressed by the priming and drought stress were mainly related to photosynthesis, stress defence, metabolism, molecular chaperone, and cell structure. Furthermore, the protein abundance of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) small subunit, Rubisco activase and ascorbate peroxidase were upregulated in primed plants compared with non-primed plants under drought stress during grain filling. In conclusion, the altered protein expression and upregulated activities of photosynthesis and ascorbate peroxidase in primed plants may indicate their potential roles in alleviating a later-occurring drought stress episode, thereby contributing to higher wheat grain yield under drought stress during grain filling.

  4. Differential Activity and Expression Profile of Antioxidant Enzymes and Physiological Changes in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Under Drought.

    PubMed

    Sheoran, Sonia; Thakur, Vidisha; Narwal, Sneh; Turan, Rajita; Mamrutha, H M; Singh, Virender; Tiwari, Vinod; Sharma, Indu

    2015-11-01

    Wheat crop may experience water deficit at crucial stages during its life cycle, which induces oxidative stress in the plants. The antioxidant status of the plant plays an important role in providing tolerance against the water stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of water stress on physiological traits, antioxidant activity and transcript profile of antioxidant enzyme related genes in four wheat genotypes (C306, AKAW3717, HD2687, PBW343) at three crucial stages of plants under medium (75% of field capacity) and severe stress (45% of field capacity) in pots. Drought was applied by withholding water for 10 days at a particular growth stage viz. tillering, anthesis and 15 days after anthesis (15DAA). For physiological traits, a highly significant effect of water stress at a particular stage and genotypic variations for resistance to drought tolerance was observed. Under severe water stress, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased while the relative water content (RWC) and chlorophyll index decreased significantly in all the genotypes. The drought susceptibility index (DSI) of the genotypes varied from 0.18 to 1.9. The drought treatment at the tillering and anthesis stages was found more sensitive in terms of reduction in thousand grain weight (TGW) and grain yield. Antioxidant enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POX)] increased with the decrease in osmotic potential in drought tolerant genotypes C306 and AKAW3717. Moreover, the transcript profile of Mn-SOD upregulated significantly and was consistent with the trend of the variation in SOD activity, which suggests that Mn-SOD might play an important role in drought tolerance.

  5. Cloning, expression analysis, and functional characterization of two secretory phospholipases A2 in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    PubMed

    Mazzucotelli, Elisabetta; Trono, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    We previously isolated four cDNAs in durum wheat, TdsPLA2I, TdsPLA2II, TdsPLA2III and TdsPLA2IV, that encode proteins with homology to plant secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) (Verlotta et al., Int. J. Mol. Sci., 14, 2013, 5146-5169). In this study, we have further characterized TdsPLA2II and TdsPLA2III sequences that, on the basis of our previous findings, might encode sPLA2 isoforms with different features. Functional analysis revealed that, similarly to other known sPLA2s, TdsPLA2II and TdsPLA2III have an optimum at pH 9.0, require Ca(2+), are heat stable, and are inhibited by the disulfide-bond-reducing agent dithiothreitol. However, differences emerged between these TdsPLA2 isoforms. Transcript analysis revealed that the TdsPLA2III gene is highly up-regulated under different environmental stresses; conversely, the TdsPLA2II gene is expressed at constant levels under almost all of the stress conditions examined. Moreover, TdsPLA2II is saturated at micromolar substrate and Ca(2+) concentrations, whereas TdsPLA2III requires millimolar concentrations to reach maximal activity. This suggests that TdsPLA2II normally functions under optimal conditions in vivo, whereas TdsPLA2III is only partially activated, depending on the specific phospholipid and Ca(2+) levels. Altogether these data lead to the hypothesis that in vivo TdsPLA2II and TdsPLA2III are differently regulated at both molecular and biochemical level and that TdsPLA2III plays a major role in durum wheat response to adverse environmental conditions. PMID:26706080

  6. Genetic analysis of grain attributes, milling performance, and end-use quality traits in hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class and culinary end-uses. Of interest to wheat breeders is to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for wheat kernel texture, milling performance, or end-use quality because it is imperative for wheat breeders to ascertain the genetic architecture ...

  7. Supplemental exogenous NPK application alters biochemical processes to improve yield and drought tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Rana Nauman; Waraich, E A; Ali, H; Nawaz, F; Ashraf, M Y; Ahmad, R; Awan, M I; Ahmad, S; Irfan, M; Hussain, S; Ahmad, Z

    2016-02-01

    The recent food security issues, combined with the threats from climate change, demand future farming systems to be more precise and accurate to fulfill the ever increasing global food requirements. The role of nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) in stimulating plant growth and development is well established; however, little is known about their function, if applied in combination, in improving crop yields under environmental stresses like drought. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of combined foliar spray of supplemental NPK (NPKc) on physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enhance the drought tolerance potential of wheat for improved yield. Foliar NPKc markedly influenced the accumulation of osmoprotectants and activity of both nitrogen assimilation and antioxidant enzymes. It significantly improved the concentration of proline (66 %), total soluble sugars (37 %), and total soluble proteins (10 %) and enhanced the activity of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, catalase, and peroxidase by 47, 45, 19, and 8 %, respectively, with respect to no spray under water-deficit conditions which, in turn, improve the yield and yield components. The accumulation of osmolytes and activity of antioxidant machinery were more pronounced in drought tolerant (Bhakkar-02) than sensitive genotype (Shafaq-06). PMID:26432272

  8. Contrasting effects of water salinity and ozone concentration on two cultivars of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) in Mediterranean conditions.

    PubMed

    Gerosa, Giacomo; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Finco, Angelo; Monga, Robert; Fusaro, Isa; Faoro, Franco

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports the results of an Open-Top Chambers experiment on the responses of two durum wheat cultivars (Neodur and Virgilio) exposed to two different levels of ozone (charcoal-filtered air and ozone-enriched air) and irrigation water salinity (tap water as control and a 75 mM NaCl solution once a week). The stomatal conductance of the flag leaves was measured on four dates during May. Flag leaf samples were collected to detect ozone visible leaf injuries. At the end of the growing season, the yield/biomass and grain quality parameters were assessed. Saline irrigation caused significant reductions in gs, yield and grain quality in Neodur, while Virgilio was more tolerant. The yield response to ozone was almost negligible, with Virgilio, despite the higher susceptibility to visible leaf injuries, being more productive than Neodur. The responses to the combined stress were not consistent, with the main tendencies undoubtedly driven by the saline irrigation factor.

  9. Conservation tillage, optimal water and organic nutrient supply enhance soil microbial activities during wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) cultivation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Singh, Geeta; Singh, Rana P

    2011-04-01

    The field experiments were conducted on sandy loam soil at New Delhi, during 2007 and 2008 to investigate the effect of conservation tillage, irrigation regimes (sub-optimal, optimal and supra-optimal water regimes), and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices on soil biological parameters in wheat cultivation. The conservation tillage soils has shown significant (p<0.05) increase in soil respiration (81.1%), soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) (104%) and soil dehydrogenase (DH) (59.2%) compared to the conventional tillage soil. Optimum water supply (3-irrigations) enhanced soil respiration over sub-optimum and supra-optimum irrigations by 13.32% and 79% respectively. Soil dehydrogenase (DH) activity in optimum water regime has also increased by 23.33% and 8.18% respectively over the other two irrigation regimes. Similarly, SMBC has also increased by 12.14% and 27.17% respectively in soil with optimum water supply compared to that of sub-optimum and supra-optimum water regime fields. The maximum increase in soil microbial activities is found when sole organic source (50% Farm Yard Manure+25% biofertilizer+25% Green Manure) has been used in combination with the conservation tillage and the optimum water supply. Study demonstrated that microbial activity could be regulated by tillage, water and nitrogen management in the soil in a sustainable manner.

  10. Implications of high-temperature events and water deficits on protein profiles in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) grain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fen; Jørgensen, Anders D; Li, Huawei; Søndergaard, Ib; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Jiang, Dong; Wollenweber, Bernd; Jacobsen, Susanne

    2011-05-01

    Increased climatic variability is resulting in an increase of both the frequency and the magnitude of extreme climate events. Therefore, cereals may be exposed to more than one stress event in the growing season, which may ultimately affect crop yield and quality. Here, effects are reported of interaction of water deficits and/or a high-temperature event (32°C) during vegetative growth (terminal spikelet) with either of these stress events applied during generative growth (anthesis) in wheat. Influence of combinations of stress on protein fractions (albumins, globulins, gliadins and glutenins) in grains and stress-induced changes on the albumin and gliadin proteomes were investigated by 2-DE and MS. The synthesis of individual protein fractions was shown to be affected by both the type and time of the applied stresses. Identified drought or high-temperature-responsive proteins included proteins involved in primary metabolism, storage and stress response such as late embryogenesis abundant proteins, peroxiredoxins and α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors. Several proteins, e.g. heat shock protein and 14-3-3 protein changed in abundance only under multiple high temperatures.

  11. Effect of environmental stress during grain filling on the soluble proteome of wheat (Triticum aestivum) dough liquor.

    PubMed

    Sancho, Ana I; Gillabert, Muriel; Tapp, Henri; Shewry, Peter R; Skeggs, Peter K; Mills, E N Clare

    2008-07-01

    The influence of genotype and environment on a soluble wheat dough liquor proteome was studied for four cultivars grown under field conditions and under hot/dry and cool/wet regimes by two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Although the four cultivars had similar patterns, differences in the relative abundances of some components were observed. Similarly, some differences were observed between the control samples and the samples grown under cool/wet and hot/dry conditions. These included differences in the abundances of storage proteins belonging to the 7S globulin (vicilin-like) and alpha-globulin families and of protective proteins including members of the serpin, described as allergens, and chitinase families. A number of novel annotations were made as compared to previous work on the dough liquor of cv. Hereward, including two 19 kDa alpha-globulins, precursors of endochitinases A and C, and several polypeptides belonging to the 7S globulin (vicilin-like) family.

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF QTLs ON CHROMOSOME 1B FOR GRAIN QUALITY TRAITS IN BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.).

    PubMed

    Shahzad, M; Khan, S H; Khan, A S; Sajjad, M; Rehman, A; Khan, A I

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed considering the importance of grain quality traits, genetic diversity and marker-trait association analysis in wheat. A significant amount of genetic diversity was found for various seed traits though the genotypes included in the study were found structured. The extent of polymorphism was high with a range of 2-13 alleles and average of 6.5 alleles per locus. Population structure was detected with 30 unlinked SSRs that divided the population of 92 genotypes in three sub-populations. Extensive LD extent was found on chromosome 1B with 42 SSRs specific for 1B chromosome. Marker-trait associations were determined using mixed linear model, where, population structure and kinship calculated on the basis of unlinked markers were covariated with 1B specific markers and traits data. Eight QTLs for five traits including protein, gluten contents, test weight bread and chapati making quality. Protein content, test weight, bread quality and Glu-B1 were found significantly associated with primers WMC419 (32 cM); WMC128 (30 cM), WMC419 (32 cM); WMC818 (17 cM) and WMC416 (44 cM), respectively.

  13. Detection of QTLs for traits associated with pre-harvest sprouting resistance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Liangzi; Hayashi, Kazuki; Tokui, Mayumi; Mori, Masahiko; Miura, Hideho; Onishi, Kazumitsu

    2016-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is one of the serious problems for wheat production, especially in rainy regions. Although seed dormancy is the most critical trait for PHS resistance, the control of heading time should also be considered to prevent seed maturation during unfavorable conditions. In addition, awning is known to enhance water absorption by the spike, causing PHS. In this study, we conducted QTL analysis for three PHS resistant related traits, seed dormancy, heading time and awn length, by using recombinant inbred lines from ‘Zenkouji-komugi’ (high PHS resistance) × ‘Chinese Spring’ (weak PHS resistance). QTLs for seed dormancy were detected on chromosomes 1B (QDor-1B) and 4A (QDor-4A), in addition to a QTL on chromosome 3A, which was recently cloned as TaMFT-3A. In addition, the accumulation of the QTLs and their epistatic interactions contributed significantly to a higher level of dormancy. QDor-4A is co-located with the Hooded locus for awn development. Furthermore, an effective QTL, which confers early heading by the Zenkouji-komugi allele, was detected on the short arm of chromosome 7B, where the Vrn-B3 locus is located. Understanding the genetic architecture of traits associated with PHS resistance will facilitate the marker assisted selection to breed new varieties with higher PHS resistance. PMID:27162497

  14. Plant growth and cation composition of two cultivars of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) differing in P uptake efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y G; Smith, S E; Smith, F A

    2001-06-01

    Phosphorus (P)-zinc (Zn) interactions were investigated in two wheat cultivars (Brookton versus Krichauff) differing in P uptake efficiency. The experiment was done in a growth chamber. Rock phosphate (RP) or CaHPO4 (CaP) were used as P sources, and ammonium nitrate (AN) or nitrate only (NO) were used as nitrogen sources. Two Zn levels were used, 0.22 mg x kg(-1) (LZ) and 2.2 mg ZnSO4.7H2O x kg(-1) (HZ), respectively. P availability significantly affected plant biomass production, but Zn supply had little effect. Plants fed ammonium nitrate had significantly lower concentrations of cations than those fed nitrate only. Cultivar Brookton (with higher P uptake efficiency) consistently had lower concentrations of cations than cv. Krichauff (with low P uptake efficiency) under limited P supply. The differences in concentrations of cations increased with the decrease in P availability, but were not affected by Zn supply. The ratio of potassium in roots to shoots of cultivar Brookton was always higher than in cultivar Krichauff. Based on these findings, it is postulated that the lower concentrations of cations in cultivar Brookton are related to root exudation of organic anions, and a conceptual model is established to describe the regulation of root exudation of organic anions and concentrations of cations.

  15. Generation of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accumulating heterologous endo-xylanase or ferulic acid esterase in the endosperm

    SciTech Connect

    Harholt, Jesper; Bach, Inga C; Lind-Bouquin, Solveig; Nunan, Kylie J.; Madrid, Susan M.; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Holm, Preben B.; Scheller, Henrik V.

    2009-12-08

    Endo-xylanase (from Bacillus subtilis) or ferulic acid esterase (from Aspergillus niger) were expressed in wheat under the control of the endosperm specific 1DX5 glutenin promoter. Constructs both with and without the endoplasmic reticulum retention signal KDEL were used. Transgenic plants were recovered in all four cases but no qualitative differences could be observed whether KDEL was added or not. Endo-xylanase activity in transgenic grains was increased between two and three fold relative to wild type. The grains were shriveled and had a 25-33% decrease in mass. Extensive analysis of the cell walls showed a 10-15% increase in arabinose to xylose ratio, a 50% increase in the proportion of water extractable arabinoxylan, and a shift in the MW of the water extractable arabinoxylan from being mainly larger than 85 kD to being between 2 kD and 85 kD. Ferulic acid esterase expressing grains were also shriveled and the seed weight was decreased by 20-50%. No ferulic acid esterase activity could be detected in wild type grains whereas ferulic acid esterase activity was detected in transgenic lines. The grain cell walls had 15-40% increase in water unextractable arabinoxylan and a decrease in monomeric ferulic acid between 13 and 34%. In all the plants the observed changes are consistent with a plant response that serves to minimize the effect of the heterologously expressed enzymes by increasing arabinoxylan biosynthesis and cross-linking.

  16. Supplemental exogenous NPK application alters biochemical processes to improve yield and drought tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Rana Nauman; Waraich, E A; Ali, H; Nawaz, F; Ashraf, M Y; Ahmad, R; Awan, M I; Ahmad, S; Irfan, M; Hussain, S; Ahmad, Z

    2016-02-01

    The recent food security issues, combined with the threats from climate change, demand future farming systems to be more precise and accurate to fulfill the ever increasing global food requirements. The role of nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) in stimulating plant growth and development is well established; however, little is known about their function, if applied in combination, in improving crop yields under environmental stresses like drought. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of combined foliar spray of supplemental NPK (NPKc) on physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enhance the drought tolerance potential of wheat for improved yield. Foliar NPKc markedly influenced the accumulation of osmoprotectants and activity of both nitrogen assimilation and antioxidant enzymes. It significantly improved the concentration of proline (66 %), total soluble sugars (37 %), and total soluble proteins (10 %) and enhanced the activity of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, catalase, and peroxidase by 47, 45, 19, and 8 %, respectively, with respect to no spray under water-deficit conditions which, in turn, improve the yield and yield components. The accumulation of osmolytes and activity of antioxidant machinery were more pronounced in drought tolerant (Bhakkar-02) than sensitive genotype (Shafaq-06).

  17. Genetic dissection of grain yield and physical grain quality in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under water-limited environments.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Dion; Izanloo, Ali; Reynolds, Matthew; Kuchel, Haydn; Langridge, Peter; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2012-07-01

    In the water-limited bread wheat production environment of southern Australia, large advances in grain yield have previously been achieved through the introduction and improved understanding of agronomic traits controlled by major genes, such as the semi-dwarf plant stature and photoperiod insensitivity. However, more recent yield increases have been achieved through incremental genetic advances, of which, breeders and researchers do not fully understand the underlying mechanism(s). A doubled haploid population was utilised, derived from a cross between RAC875, a relatively drought-tolerant breeders' line and Kukri, a locally adapted variety more intolerant of drought. Experiments were performed in 16 environments over four seasons in southern Australia, to physiologically dissect grain yield and to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits. Two stage multi-environment trial analysis identified three main clusters of experiments (forming distinctive environments, ENVs), each with a distinctive growing season rainfall patterns. Kernels per square metre were positively correlated with grain yield and influenced by kernels per spikelet, a measure of fertility. QTL analysis detected nine loci for grain yield across these ENVs, individually accounting for between 3 and 18% of genetic variance within their respective ENVs, with the RAC875 allele conferring increased grain yield at seven of these loci. These loci were partially dissected by the detection of co-located QTL for other traits, namely kernels per square metre. While most loci for grain yield have previously been reported, their deployment and effect within local germplasm are now better understood. A number of novel loci can be further exploited to aid breeders' efforts in improving grain yield in the southern Australian environment.

  18. Proteomic Profiling of the Interactions of Cd/Zn in the Roots of Dwarf Polish Wheat (Triticum polonicum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Xiaolu; Wang, Chao; Wang, Ruijiao; Peng, Fan; Xiao, Xue; Zeng, Jian; Fan, Xing; Kang, Houyang; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Cd and Zn have been shown to interact antagonistically or synergistically in various plants. In the present study of dwarf polish wheat (DPW)roots, Cd uptake was inhibited by Zn, and Zn uptake was inhibited by Cd, suggesting that Cd and Zn interact antagonistically in this plant. A study of proteomic changes showed that Cd, Zn, and Cd+Zn stresses altered the expression of 206, 303, and 190 proteins respectively. Among these, 53 proteins were altered significantly in response to all these stresses (Cd, Zn, and Cd+Zn), whereas 58, 131, and 47 proteins were altered in response to individual stresses (Cd, Zn, and Cd+Zn, respectively). Sixty-one differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were induced in response to both Cd and Zn stresses; 33 proteins were induced in response to both Cd and Cd+Zn stresses; and 57 proteins were induced in response to both Zn and Cd+Zn stresses. These results indicate that Cd and Zn induce differential molecular responses, which result in differing interactions of Cd/Zn. A number of proteins that mainly participate in oxidation-reduction and GSH, SAM, and sucrose metabolisms were induced in response to Cd stress, but not Cd+Zn stress. This result indicates that these proteins participate in Zn inhibition of Cd uptake and ultimately cause Zn detoxification of Cd. Meanwhile, a number of proteins that mainly participate in sucrose and organic acid metabolisms and oxidation-reduction were induced in response to Zn stress but not Cd+Zn stress. This result indicates that these proteins participate in Cd inhibition of Zn uptake and ultimately cause the Cd detoxification of Zn. Other proteins induced in response to Cd, Zn, or Cd+Zn stress, participate in ribosome biogenesis, DNA metabolism, and protein folding/modification and may also participate in the differential defense mechanisms.

  19. Proteomic Profiling of the Interactions of Cd/Zn in the Roots of Dwarf Polish Wheat (Triticum polonicum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Xiaolu; Wang, Chao; Wang, Ruijiao; Peng, Fan; Xiao, Xue; Zeng, Jian; Fan, Xing; Kang, Houyang; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Cd and Zn have been shown to interact antagonistically or synergistically in various plants. In the present study of dwarf polish wheat (DPW)roots, Cd uptake was inhibited by Zn, and Zn uptake was inhibited by Cd, suggesting that Cd and Zn interact antagonistically in this plant. A study of proteomic changes showed that Cd, Zn, and Cd+Zn stresses altered the expression of 206, 303, and 190 proteins respectively. Among these, 53 proteins were altered significantly in response to all these stresses (Cd, Zn, and Cd+Zn), whereas 58, 131, and 47 proteins were altered in response to individual stresses (Cd, Zn, and Cd+Zn, respectively). Sixty-one differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were induced in response to both Cd and Zn stresses; 33 proteins were induced in response to both Cd and Cd+Zn stresses; and 57 proteins were induced in response to both Zn and Cd+Zn stresses. These results indicate that Cd and Zn induce differential molecular responses, which result in differing interactions of Cd/Zn. A number of proteins that mainly participate in oxidation-reduction and GSH, SAM, and sucrose metabolisms were induced in response to Cd stress, but not Cd+Zn stress. This result indicates that these proteins participate in Zn inhibition of Cd uptake and ultimately cause Zn detoxification of Cd. Meanwhile, a number of proteins that mainly participate in sucrose and organic acid metabolisms and oxidation-reduction were induced in response to Zn stress but not Cd+Zn stress. This result indicates that these proteins participate in Cd inhibition of Zn uptake and ultimately cause the Cd detoxification of Zn. Other proteins induced in response to Cd, Zn, or Cd+Zn stress, participate in ribosome biogenesis, DNA metabolism, and protein folding/modification and may also participate in the differential defense mechanisms.

  20. Proteomic Profiling of the Interactions of Cd/Zn in the Roots of Dwarf Polish Wheat (Triticum polonicum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Xiaolu; Wang, Chao; Wang, Ruijiao; Peng, Fan; Xiao, Xue; Zeng, Jian; Fan, Xing; Kang, Houyang; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Cd and Zn have been shown to interact antagonistically or synergistically in various plants. In the present study of dwarf polish wheat (DPW)roots, Cd uptake was inhibited by Zn, and Zn uptake was inhibited by Cd, suggesting that Cd and Zn interact antagonistically in this plant. A study of proteomic changes showed that Cd, Zn, and Cd+Zn stresses altered the expression of 206, 303, and 190 proteins respectively. Among these, 53 proteins were altered significantly in response to all these stresses (Cd, Zn, and Cd+Zn), whereas 58, 131, and 47 proteins were altered in response to individual stresses (Cd, Zn, and Cd+Zn, respectively). Sixty-one differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were induced in response to both Cd and Zn stresses; 33 proteins were induced in response to both Cd and Cd+Zn stresses; and 57 proteins were induced in response to both Zn and Cd+Zn stresses. These results indicate that Cd and Zn induce differential molecular responses, which result in differing interactions of Cd/Zn. A number of proteins that mainly participate in oxidation-reduction and GSH, SAM, and sucrose metabolisms were induced in response to Cd stress, but not Cd+Zn stress. This result indicates that these proteins participate in Zn inhibition of Cd uptake and ultimately cause Zn detoxification of Cd. Meanwhile, a number of proteins that mainly participate in sucrose and organic acid metabolisms and oxidation-reduction were induced in response to Zn stress but not Cd+Zn stress. This result indicates that these proteins participate in Cd inhibition of Zn uptake and ultimately cause the Cd detoxification of Zn. Other proteins induced in response to Cd, Zn, or Cd+Zn stress, participate in ribosome biogenesis, DNA metabolism, and protein folding/modification and may also participate in the differential defense mechanisms. PMID:27683584

  1. Proteomic Profiling of the Interactions of Cd/Zn in the Roots of Dwarf Polish Wheat (Triticum polonicum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Xiaolu; Wang, Chao; Wang, Ruijiao; Peng, Fan; Xiao, Xue; Zeng, Jian; Fan, Xing; Kang, Houyang; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Cd and Zn have been shown to interact antagonistically or synergistically in various plants. In the present study of dwarf polish wheat (DPW)roots, Cd uptake was inhibited by Zn, and Zn uptake was inhibited by Cd, suggesting that Cd and Zn interact antagonistically in this plant. A study of proteomic changes showed that Cd, Zn, and Cd+Zn stresses altered the expression of 206, 303, and 190 proteins respectively. Among these, 53 proteins were altered significantly in response to all these stresses (Cd, Zn, and Cd+Zn), whereas 58, 131, and 47 proteins were altered in response to individual stresses (Cd, Zn, and Cd+Zn, respectively). Sixty-one differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were induced in response to both Cd and Zn stresses; 33 proteins were induced in response to both Cd and Cd+Zn stresses; and 57 proteins were induced in response to both Zn and Cd+Zn stresses. These results indicate that Cd and Zn induce differential molecular responses, which result in differing interactions of Cd/Zn. A number of proteins that mainly participate in oxidation-reduction and GSH, SAM, and sucrose metabolisms were induced in response to Cd stress, but not Cd+Zn stress. This result indicates that these proteins participate in Zn inhibition of Cd uptake and ultimately cause Zn detoxification of Cd. Meanwhile, a number of proteins that mainly participate in sucrose and organic acid metabolisms and oxidation-reduction were induced in response to Zn stress but not Cd+Zn stress. This result indicates that these proteins participate in Cd inhibition of Zn uptake and ultimately cause the Cd detoxification of Zn. Other proteins induced in response to Cd, Zn, or Cd+Zn stress, participate in ribosome biogenesis, DNA metabolism, and protein folding/modification and may also participate in the differential defense mechanisms. PMID:27683584

  2. Effect of copper on growth, yield and concentration of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ratan; Mehrotra, N K; Nautiyal, B D; Kumar, Praveen; Singh, P K

    2009-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted at six graded levels of copper (Cu) viz., 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mg kg(-1) to test the response of wheat plants grown in a copper-responsive alluvial soil (entisol) under glass house conditions. The growth attributes like plant height, fresh and dry matter yield, percent dry matter enhanced with increasing Cu levels and was maximum at 1.5 mg kg(-1) Cu while the number of tillers was minimum at this level. The grain yield at 1.5 mg kg(-1) Cu was enhanced by 62.9% from the control. The increase in weight of 1000 grains ranged from 33.93 to 41.35 g in comparison to control (32.58 g). Harvest index (%) also increased and ranged from 39.42 to 47.73 in different treatments in comparison to control (35.92). Both 1000 grain weight and harvest index were maximum in the plants at 1.5 mg kg(-1) copper. Cu concentrations in leaves, grain and straw enhanced with increasing levels of Cu application. The Fe concentration in leaves was significantly reduced by Cu application and the reduction was 10.3% at 2.5 mg kg(-1) Cu and was not influenced in by Cu application in grain and straw. The Mn concentration was not affected by Cu application in any of the plant part studied. However, Zn concentration decreased significantly at higher levels of Cu (2.0 and 2.5 mg kg(-1)) in leaves and remained unaffected in the grain and straw.

  3. Spectral Discrimination of Salinity and Fertilizer Stress in Wheat (Triticum Sativa L.) using Photosynthesis Parameters and Hpyerspectral Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, S. H.; Houborg, R.; Tester, M.; McCabe, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    Multidisciplinary research has long sought the ability to estimate the parameters of plant functions such as photosynthetic capacity under stress conditions from remotely sensed data. Yet, the main goal has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effects of saline water irrigation and the rate of fertilizer application on the photosynthetic response of wheat in a greenhouse based experiment. After two weeks of germination, the plants were subjected to irrigation with sea water blended with high quality reverse osmosis (RO) water. Three levels of water salinity having electrical conductivities (EC) of 0.3, 7.0, 14.0 dSm-1 were obtained by mixing sea water with RO water and plants were irrigated to approximately 70% of field capacity without excess drainage. Three levels of NPK fertilizer at the rate of null, half and full recommended doses were also employed in the experiment. The two key determinants of photosynthetic capacity, the maximum rates of RuBP carboxylation (Vcmax) and the maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport based on NADPH requirement (Jmax), were obtained through standard gas exchange technique.CO2 response curves of net CO2 assimilation (An) against variable CO2 concentrations in the intracellular spaces (Ci) at constant environmental conditions were drawn and a Sharkey model was fit to the obtained data. Hyperspectral reflectance (λ = 350-2500 nm) of fresh leaves were obtained and the hyperspectral characteristics and their correlations with the photosynthetic parameters were drawn. Unique contributions from different spectral regions of the hyperspectral data were analyzed. Our results revealed that saline irrigation adversely affects some of the biochemical photosynthetic parameters while favors others and it can be reflected in shifts in patterns at various regions of the hyperspectral data. These results suggest a promising strategy for developing remote sensing methods to characterize photosynthetic activity of

  4. Hydrogen isotope composition of leaf wax n-alkanes in glaucous and non-glaucous varieties of wheat (Triticum spp.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Eley, Yvette; Frizell-Armitage, Amelia; Uauy, Cristobal

    2015-04-01

    The use of the 2H/1H composition of terrestrial plants in climate and ecology studies depends on fundamental understanding of the processes within the plant that control fractionation of these two isotopes. Little is currently known about the extent of 2H/1H fractionation at different steps of biosynthesis, after the initial H uptake following leaf water photolysis. Knowing this effect is particularly important when seeking to interpret the 2H/1H composition of leaf wax biomarkers from plants that differ in the amount and type of individual compound classes in their leaf waxes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the link between the quantity and distribution of n-alkyl lipids in leaf waxes and their isotopic composition. We used a genetic approach to suppress glaucousness in 2 varieties of wheat (Alchemy and Malacca), which resulted in glaucous and non-glaucous phenotypes of both varieties. Both phenotypes were then grown outdoors under identical environmental conditions in central Norfolk, UK. At the end of the growing season, the plants were sampled for soil water, leaf water, and leaf wax isotopic measurements. Comparison of the leaf wax composition of the non-glaucous and glaucous phenotypes revealed that the non-glaucous varieties were characterised by the absence of diketones and a greater concentration of n-alkanes and primary alcohols.. Our results showed very small differences between glaucous and non-glaucous varieties with regard to soil (mean values, <2 per mil) and leaf (<1 per mil) water 2H/1H. Conversely, there was 15-20 and 10-15 per mil 2H-depletion in the C29 and C31 n-alkanes, respectively, from the non-glaucous phenotype. This 2H-depletion in the non-glaucous phenotype demonstrated that the suppression of diketone production and the increase in n-alkane and primary alcohol concentrations are linked with a shift in the 2H/1H composition of n-alkanes. The initial results of this work suggest that plants using the same environmental water

  5. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which precludes conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft whit...

  6. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: milling performance and end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which preclude conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft white...

  7. Regulation of invertase activity in different root zones of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings in the course of osmotic adjustment under water deficit conditions.

    PubMed

    Königshofer, Helga; Löppert, Hans-Georg

    2015-07-01

    Osmotic adjustment of roots is an essential adaptive mechanism to sustain water uptake and root growth under water deficit. In this paper, the role of invertases (β-fructofuranosidase, EC 3.2.1.26) in osmotic adjustment was investigated in the root tips (cell division and elongation zone) and the root maturation zone of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Josef) in the course of osmotic stress imposed by 20% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. The two root zones investigated differed distinctly in the response of invertases to water deprivation. In the root tips, the activity of the vacuolar and cell wall-bound invertases increased markedly under water stress resulting in the accumulation of hexoses (glucose and fructose) that contributed significantly to osmotic adjustment. A transient rise in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) preceded the enhancement of invertases upon exposure to osmotic stress. Treatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) abolished the stress induced H2O2 production and suppressed the stimulation of the vacuolar invertase activity, whereas the activity of the cell wall-bound invertase was not influenced by DPI. As a consequence of the inhibitory effect of DPI on the vacuolar invertase, hexose levels and osmotic adjustment were also markedly decreased in the root tips under water deficit in the presence of DPI. These data suggest that H2O2 probably generated by a NADPH oxidase is required as a signalling molecule for the up-regulation of the vacuolar invertase activity in the root tips under osmotic stress, thereby enhancing the capacity for osmotic adjustment. In the root maturation zone, an early H2O2 signal could not be detected in response to PEG application. Only an increase in the glucose level that was not paralleled by fructose and a slight stimulation of the activity of the vacuolar invertase occurred in the maturation zone after water deprivation. The stress induced accumulation of glucose in the maturation zone was not

  8. Regulation of invertase activity in different root zones of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings in the course of osmotic adjustment under water deficit conditions.

    PubMed

    Königshofer, Helga; Löppert, Hans-Georg

    2015-07-01

    Osmotic adjustment of roots is an essential adaptive mechanism to sustain water uptake and root growth under water deficit. In this paper, the role of invertases (β-fructofuranosidase, EC 3.2.1.26) in osmotic adjustment was investigated in the root tips (cell division and elongation zone) and the root maturation zone of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Josef) in the course of osmotic stress imposed by 20% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. The two root zones investigated differed distinctly in the response of invertases to water deprivation. In the root tips, the activity of the vacuolar and cell wall-bound invertases increased markedly under water stress resulting in the accumulation of hexoses (glucose and fructose) that contributed significantly to osmotic adjustment. A transient rise in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) preceded the enhancement of invertases upon exposure to osmotic stress. Treatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) abolished the stress induced H2O2 production and suppressed the stimulation of the vacuolar invertase activity, whereas the activity of the cell wall-bound invertase was not influenced by DPI. As a consequence of the inhibitory effect of DPI on the vacuolar invertase, hexose levels and osmotic adjustment were also markedly decreased in the root tips under water deficit in the presence of DPI. These data suggest that H2O2 probably generated by a NADPH oxidase is required as a signalling molecule for the up-regulation of the vacuolar invertase activity in the root tips under osmotic stress, thereby enhancing the capacity for osmotic adjustment. In the root maturation zone, an early H2O2 signal could not be detected in response to PEG application. Only an increase in the glucose level that was not paralleled by fructose and a slight stimulation of the activity of the vacuolar invertase occurred in the maturation zone after water deprivation. The stress induced accumulation of glucose in the maturation zone was not

  9. Systematic Investigation of FLOWERING LOCUS T-Like Poaceae Gene Families Identifies the Short-Day Expressed Flowering Pathway Gene, TaFT3 in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Halliwell, Joanna; Borrill, Philippa; Gordon, Anna; Kowalczyk, Radoslaw; Pagano, Marina L.; Saccomanno, Benedetta; Bentley, Alison R.; Uauy, Cristobal; Cockram, James

    2016-01-01

    To date, a small number of major flowering time loci have been identified in the related Triticeae crops, bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Natural genetic variants at these loci result in major phenotypic changes which have adapted crops to the novel environments encountered during the spread of agriculture. The polyploid nature of bread and durum wheat means that major flowering time loci in which recessive alleles confer adaptive advantage in related diploid species have not been readily identified. One such example is the PPD-H2 flowering time locus encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T 3 (HvFT3) in the diploid crop barley, for which recessive mutant alleles confer delayed flowering under short day (SD) photoperiods. In autumn-sown barley, such alleles aid the repression of flowering over the winter, which help prevent the development of cold-sensitive floral organs until the onset of inductive long day (LD) photoperiods the following spring. While the identification of orthologous loci in wheat could provide breeders with alternative mechanisms to fine tune flowering time, systematic identification of wheat orthologs of HvFT3 has not been reported. Here, we characterize the FT gene families in six Poaceae species, identifying novel members in all taxa investigated, as well as FT3 homoeologs from the A, B and D genomes of hexaploid (TaFT3) and tetraploid wheat. Sequence analysis shows TaFT3 homoeologs display high similarity to the HvFT3 coding region (95–96%) and predicted protein (96–97%), with conservation of intron/exon structure across the five cereal species investigated. Genetic mapping and comparative analyses in hexaploid and tetraploid wheat find TaFT3 homoeologs map to the long arms of the group 1 chromosomes, collinear to HvFT3 in barley and FT3 orthologs in rice, foxtail millet and brachypodium. Genome-specific expression analyses show FT3 homoeologs in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat are upregulated

  10. Systematic Investigation of FLOWERING LOCUS T-Like Poaceae Gene Families Identifies the Short-Day Expressed Flowering Pathway Gene, TaFT3 in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Halliwell, Joanna; Borrill, Philippa; Gordon, Anna; Kowalczyk, Radoslaw; Pagano, Marina L; Saccomanno, Benedetta; Bentley, Alison R; Uauy, Cristobal; Cockram, James

    2016-01-01

    To date, a small number of major flowering time loci have been identified in the related Triticeae crops, bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Natural genetic variants at these loci result in major phenotypic changes which have adapted crops to the novel environments encountered during the spread of agriculture. The polyploid nature of bread and durum wheat means that major flowering time loci in which recessive alleles confer adaptive advantage in related diploid species have not been readily identified. One such example is the PPD-H2 flowering time locus encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T 3 (HvFT3) in the diploid crop barley, for which recessive mutant alleles confer delayed flowering under short day (SD) photoperiods. In autumn-sown barley, such alleles aid the repression of flowering over the winter, which help prevent the development of cold-sensitive floral organs until the onset of inductive long day (LD) photoperiods the following spring. While the identification of orthologous loci in wheat could provide breeders with alternative mechanisms to fine tune flowering time, systematic identification of wheat orthologs of HvFT3 has not been reported. Here, we characterize the FT gene families in six Poaceae species, identifying novel members in all taxa investigated, as well as FT3 homoeologs from the A, B and D genomes of hexaploid (TaFT3) and tetraploid wheat. Sequence analysis shows TaFT3 homoeologs display high similarity to the HvFT3 coding region (95-96%) and predicted protein (96-97%), with conservation of intron/exon structure across the five cereal species investigated. Genetic mapping and comparative analyses in hexaploid and tetraploid wheat find TaFT3 homoeologs map to the long arms of the group 1 chromosomes, collinear to HvFT3 in barley and FT3 orthologs in rice, foxtail millet and brachypodium. Genome-specific expression analyses show FT3 homoeologs in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat are upregulated under

  11. Development of COS-SNP and HRM markers for cost efficient and reliable haplotype-based detection of Lr14a in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks. & Henn.) is a major disease affecting durum wheat production. The Lr14a leaf rust resistant gene present in the durum wheat cv. Creso and its derivative Colosseo is one of the best characterized leaf rust resistance sources presently deployed in durum wheat breed...

  12. Reticulate evolution, introgression, and intertribal gene capture in an allohexaploid grass.

    PubMed

    Mason-Gamer, Roberta J

    2004-02-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetic studies of polyploid plants have successfully clarified complex patterns of reticulate evolution. In this study of Elymus repens, an allohexaploid member of the wheat tribe Triticeae, chloroplast and nuclear DNA data reveal an extreme reticulate pattern, revealing at least five distinct gene lineages coexisting within the species, acquired through a possible combination of allohexaploidy and introgression from both within and beyond the Triticeae. Earlier cytogenetic studies of E. repens suggested that Hordeum (genome H) and Pseudoroegneria (St) were genome donors to E. repens. Chloroplast DNA data presented here (from the rpoA gene and from the region between trnT and trnF) identify three potential maternal genome donors (Pseudoroegneria, Thinopyrum, and Dasypyrum), and information from previous molecular work suggests that, of these, Pseudoroegneria is the most likely maternal donor. Nuclear starch synthase gene data indicate that both Hordeum and Pseudoroegneria have contributed to the nuclear genome of E. repens, in agreement with cytogenetic data. However, these data also show unexpected contributions from Taeniatherum, and from two additional donors of unknown identity. One of the sequences of unknown origin falls within the Triticeae, but is not closely associated with any of the sampled diploid genera. The second falls outside of the clade containing Triticeae and its outgroup Bromus, suggesting the acquisition of genetic material from a surprisingly divergent source. Bias toward the amplification of certain starch synthase variants has complicated attempts to thoroughly sample from within individuals, but the data clearly indicate a complex pattern of reticulate evolution, consistent not only with allohexaploidy, but also with introgression from unexpectedly divergent sources.

  13. The house mouse (Mus musculus L.) exerts strong differential grain consumption preferences among hard red and white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties in a single-elimination tournament design.

    PubMed

    Morris, Craig F; Fuerst, E Patrick; McLean, Derek J; Momont, Kathleen; James, Caleb P

    2014-11-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plays a central role in the health and nutrition of humans. Yet, little is known about possible flavor differences among different varieties. We have developed a model system using the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) to determine feeding preferences as a prelude to extending results to human sensory analysis. Here, we examine the application of a single-elimination tournament design to the analysis of consumption preferences of a set of hard red and hard white spring wheat varieties. A single-elimination tournament design in this case pairs 2 wheat varieties and only 1 of the 2 is advanced to further tests. Preferred varieties were advanced until an overall "winner" was identified; conversely, less desirable varieties were advanced such that an overall "loser" was identified. Hollis and IDO702 were the winner and loser, respectively, for the hard red varieties, and Clear White 515 and WA8123 were the winner and loser, respectively, for the hard white varieties. When using the more powerful protocol of 14 mice and a 4-d trial, differences in mean daily consumption preferences of 2 varieties were separated at P-values as small as 2 × 10(-8) . The single-elimination tournament design is an efficient means of identifying the most and least desirable varieties among a larger set of samples. One application for identifying the 2 extremes in preference within a group of varieties would be to use them as parents of a population to identify quantitative trait loci for preference.

  14. Wheat - Aegilops introgressions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aegilops is the most closely related genus to Triticum in the tribe Triticeae. Aegilops speltoides Tausch (B genome donor) and Ae. tauschii Coss. (D genome donor) contributed two of the three genomes present in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD genomes). The Aegilops genus c...

  15. [Effects of soil HHCB and Cd contamination on the growth of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum) and the pollutants accumulation in plants].

    PubMed

    Chen, Cui-Hong; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Zhang, Zhi-Neng; Cai, Zhang

    2011-02-01

    Using outdoor pot-culture experiment,biomasses of wheat seedlings and accumulation of HHCB and/or Cd in parts of wheat seedlings cultured in alluvial soil and cinnamon soil were investigated. The biomasses of wheat seedlings in different treatments followed the order as single HHCB treatment > HHCB and Cd treatment > single Cd treatment. The accumulation of HHCB in wheat seedlings cultured in alluvial soil was more than that in cinnamon soil, and effect of Cd on accumulation of HHCB in wheat seedlings cultured in alluvial soil was different to that in cinnamon soil. In alluvial soil, the accumulation of HHCB in different parts of wheat seedlings followed the sequence that root > stem > leaf. Cd significantly induced the accumulation of HHCB in wheat roots, but inhibited that of HHCB in wheat stems and leaves, and the highest inhibition rate was 44.07%. In cinnamon soil, the accumulation of HHCB in different parts of wheat seedlings followed the sequence that root > leaf > stem. The effect of Cd on accumulation of HHCB in wheat roots was not significant, but the median and high concentrations of Cd induced accumulation of HHCB in wheat stems and leaves significantly, and the highest induction rate was 35.95%. Besides, the accumulation of Cd in alluvial soil was lower than that in cinnamon soil, and HHCB could significantly induce the accumulation of Cd in wheat seedlings cultured in two different soils. The increasing rates of Cd accumulation in roots, stems and leaves in alluvial soil were 30.84%, 61.82% and 61.82%, and those in cinnamon soil were 41.53%, 184.16% and 206.18%, respectively. It is indicated that HHCB in cinnamon soil induced more accumulation of Cd in wheat seedlings than that in alluvial soil.

  16. Identification of three wheat globulin genes by screening a Triticum aestivum BAC genomic library with cDNA from a diabetes-associated globulin

    PubMed Central

    Loit, Evelin; Melnyk, Charles W; MacFarlane, Amanda J; Scott, Fraser W; Altosaar, Illimar

    2009-01-01

    Background Exposure to dietary wheat proteins in genetically susceptible individuals has been associated with increased risk for the development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Recently, a wheat protein encoded by cDNA WP5212 has been shown to be antigenic in mice, rats and humans with autoimmune T1D. To investigate the genomic origin of the identified wheat protein cDNA, a hexaploid wheat genomic library from Glenlea cultivar was screened. Results Three unique wheat globulin genes, Glo-3A, Glo3-B and Glo-3C, were identified. We describe the genomic structure of these genes and their expression pattern in wheat seeds. The Glo-3A gene shared 99% identity with the cDNA of WP5212 at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid level, indicating that we have identified the gene(s) encoding wheat protein WP5212. Southern analysis revealed the presence of multiple copies of Glo-3-like sequences in all wheat samples, including hexaploid, tetraploid and diploid species wheat seed. Aleurone and embryo tissue specificity of WP5212 gene expression, suggested by promoter region analysis, which demonstrated an absence of endosperm specific cis elements, was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-WP5212 antibodies. Conclusion Taken together, the results indicate that a diverse group of globulins exists in wheat, some of which could be associated with the pathogenesis of T1D in some susceptible individuals. These data expand our knowledge of specific wheat globulins and will enable further elucidation of their role in wheat biology and human health. PMID:19615078

  17. Enrichment of provitamin A content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by introduction of the bacterial carotenoid biosynthetic genes CrtB and CrtI.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Zeng, Jian; Li, Yin; Hu, Wei; Chen, Ling; Miao, Yingjie; Deng, Pengyi; Yuan, Cuihong; Ma, Cheng; Chen, Xi; Zang, Mingli; Wang, Qiong; Li, Kexiu; Chang, Junli; Wang, Yuesheng; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2014-06-01

    Carotenoid content is a primary determinant of wheat nutritional value and affects its end-use quality. Wheat grains contain very low carotenoid levels and trace amounts of provitamin A content. In order to enrich the carotenoid content in wheat grains, the bacterial phytoene synthase gene (CrtB) and carotene desaturase gene (CrtI) were transformed into the common wheat cultivar Bobwhite. Expression of CrtB or CrtI alone slightly increased the carotenoid content in the grains of transgenic wheat, while co-expression of both genes resulted in a darker red/yellow grain phenotype, accompanied by a total carotenoid content increase of approximately 8-fold achieving 4.76 μg g(-1) of seed dry weight, a β-carotene increase of 65-fold to 3.21 μg g(-1) of seed dry weight, and a provitamin A content (sum of α-carotene, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin) increase of 76-fold to 3.82 μg g(-1) of seed dry weight. The high provitamin A content in the transgenic wheat was stably inherited over four generations. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that enhancement of provitamin A content in transgenic wheat was also a result of the highly coordinated regulation of endogenous carotenoid biosynthetic genes, suggesting a metabolic feedback regulation in the wheat carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. These transgenic wheat lines are not only valuable for breeding wheat varieties with nutritional benefits for human health but also for understanding the mechanism regulating carotenoid biosynthesis in wheat endosperm.

  18. Novel microRNAs uncovered by deep sequencing of small RNA transcriptomes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brachypodium distachyon is a promising model for studying temperate grasses, most importantly wheat. Small RNA (smRNAs), especially 21 nt and 24 nt smRNAs, play essential roles in plant development and physiology. We performed seep sequencing of smRNA repertoires in Brachypodium and wheat and found ...

  19. Differential response of NADP-dehydrogenases and carbon metabolism in leaves and roots of two durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars (Karim and Azizi) with different sensitivities to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Bouthour, Donia; Kalai, Tawba; Chaffei, Haouari C; Gouia, Houda; Corpas, Francisco J

    2015-05-01

    Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) is a common Mediterranean species of considerable agronomic importance. Salinity is one of the major threats to sustainable agricultural production mainly because it limits plant productivity. After exposing the Karim and Azizi durum wheat cultivars, which are of agronomic significance in Tunisia, to 100mM NaCl salinity, growth parameters (dry weight and length), proline content and chlorophylls were evaluated in their leaves and roots. In addition, we analyzed glutathione content and key enzymatic activities, including phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), involved in the carbon metabolism and NADPH-generating system. The sensitivity index indicates that cv Karim was more tolerant to salinity than cv Azizi. This higher tolerance was corroborated at the biochemical level, as cv Karim showed a greater capacity to accumulate proline, especially in leaves, while the enzyme activities studied were differentially regulated in both organs, with NADP-ICDH being the only activity to be unaffected in all organs. In summary, the data indicate that higher levels of proline accumulation and the differential responses of some key enzymes involved in the carbon metabolism and NADPH regeneration contribute to the salinity tolerance mechanism and lead to increased biomass accumulation in cv Karim.

  20. Harnessing Next Generation Sequencing in Climate Change: RNA-Seq Analysis of Heat Stress-Responsive Genes in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ranjeet R; Goswami, Suneha; Sharma, Sushil K; Kala, Yugal K; Rai, Gyanendra K; Mishra, Dwijesh C; Grover, Monendra; Singh, Gyanendra P; Pathak, Himanshu; Rai, Anil; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Rai, Raj D

    2015-10-01

    Wheat is a staple food worldwide and provides 40% of the calories in the diet. Climate change and global warming pose a threat to wheat production, however, and demand a deeper understanding of how heat stress might impact wheat production and wheat biology. However, it is difficult to identify novel heat stress associated genes when the genomic information is not available. Wheat has a very large and complex genome that is about 37 times the size of the rice genome. The present study sequenced the whole transcriptome of the wheat cv. HD2329 at the flowering stage, under control (22°±3°C) and heat stress (42°C, 2 h) conditions using Illumina HiSeq and Roche GS-FLX 454 platforms. We assembled more than 26.3 and 25.6 million high-quality reads from the control and HS-treated tissues transcriptome sequences respectively. About 76,556 (control) and 54,033 (HS-treated) contigs were assembled and annotated de novo using different assemblers and a total of 21,529 unigenes were obtained. Gene expression profile showed significant differential expression of 1525 transcripts under heat stress, of which 27 transcripts showed very high (>10) fold upregulation. Cellular processes such as metabolic processes, protein phosphorylation, oxidations-reductions, among others were highly influenced by heat stress. In summary, these observations significantly enrich the transcript dataset of wheat available on public domain and show a de novo approach to discover the heat-responsive transcripts of wheat, which can accelerate the progress of wheat stress-genomics as well as the course of wheat breeding programs in the era of climate change.

  1. Harnessing Next Generation Sequencing in Climate Change: RNA-Seq Analysis of Heat Stress-Responsive Genes in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ranjeet R; Goswami, Suneha; Sharma, Sushil K; Kala, Yugal K; Rai, Gyanendra K; Mishra, Dwijesh C; Grover, Monendra; Singh, Gyanendra P; Pathak, Himanshu; Rai, Anil; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Rai, Raj D

    2015-10-01

    Wheat is a staple food worldwide and provides 40% of the calories in the diet. Climate change and global warming pose a threat to wheat production, however, and demand a deeper understanding of how heat stress might impact wheat production and wheat biology. However, it is difficult to identify novel heat stress associated genes when the genomic information is not available. Wheat has a very large and complex genome that is about 37 times the size of the rice genome. The present study sequenced the whole transcriptome of the wheat cv. HD2329 at the flowering stage, under control (22°±3°C) and heat stress (42°C, 2 h) conditions using Illumina HiSeq and Roche GS-FLX 454 platforms. We assembled more than 26.3 and 25.6 million high-quality reads from the control and HS-treated tissues transcriptome sequences respectively. About 76,556 (control) and 54,033 (HS-treated) contigs were assembled and annotated de novo using different assemblers and a total of 21,529 unigenes were obtained. Gene expression profile showed significant differential expression of 1525 transcripts under heat stress, of which 27 transcripts showed very high (>10) fold upregulation. Cellular processes such as metabolic processes, protein phosphorylation, oxidations-reductions, among others were highly influenced by heat stress. In summary, these observations significantly enrich the transcript dataset of wheat available on public domain and show a de novo approach to discover the heat-responsive transcripts of wheat, which can accelerate the progress of wheat stress-genomics as well as the course of wheat breeding programs in the era of climate change. PMID:26406536

  2. Harnessing Next Generation Sequencing in Climate Change: RNA-Seq Analysis of Heat Stress-Responsive Genes in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Suneha; Sharma, Sushil K.; Kala, Yugal K.; Rai, Gyanendra K.; Mishra, Dwijesh C.; Grover, Monendra; Singh, Gyanendra P.; Pathak, Himanshu; Rai, Anil; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Rai, Raj D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Wheat is a staple food worldwide and provides 40% of the calories in the diet. Climate change and global warming pose a threat to wheat production, however, and demand a deeper understanding of how heat stress might impact wheat production and wheat biology. However, it is difficult to identify novel heat stress associated genes when the genomic information is not available. Wheat has a very large and complex genome that is about 37 times the size of the rice genome. The present study sequenced the whole transcriptome of the wheat cv. HD2329 at the flowering stage, under control (22° ± 3°C) and heat stress (42°C, 2 h) conditions using Illumina HiSeq and Roche GS-FLX 454 platforms. We assembled more than 26.3 and 25.6 million high-quality reads from the control and HS-treated tissues transcriptome sequences respectively. About 76,556 (control) and 54,033 (HS-treated) contigs were assembled and annotated de novo using different assemblers and a total of 21,529 unigenes were obtained. Gene expression profile showed significant differential expression of 1525 transcripts under heat stress, of which 27 transcripts showed very high (>10) fold upregulation. Cellular processes such as metabolic processes, protein phosphorylation, oxidations-reductions, among others were highly influenced by heat stress. In summary, these observations significantly enrich the transcript dataset of wheat available on public domain and show a de novo approach to discover the heat-responsive transcripts of wheat, which can accelerate the progress of wheat stress-genomics as well as the course of wheat breeding programs in the era of climate change. PMID:26406536

  3. The Effect of Rates and Times of Nitrogen Fertilizer on N Accumulation and Remobilization Efficiency at Flag Leaf in Two Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum and Triticum.durum) Cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrani, A.; Sarvestani, Z. Tahmasebi; Bagheri, A. R.; Abad, H. Heidari Sharif

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the physiological basis of absorption and transportation of nitrogen by plants has specific importance. In this experiment, a bread cultivar and durum wheat cultivar, were treated with different rates and times of nitrogen application, by using split factorial with on the basis of randomized complete block design with three replications at Shiraz region during 2004-2005. Main plots were consisted of two levels of cultivars (Falat and Yavaros) and sub plots included nitrogen rates (40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1) and times of nitrogen application (T1 = all N fertilizer at planting, T2 = 1/2 at planting+1/2 during booting stage and T3 = 1/3 at planting+1/3 during booting stage+1/3 at heading stage). The results showed that there were significant differences between cultivars in flag leaf nitrogen content in maturity stage, N remobilization and its efficiency from flag leaf to grains and also grain protein percentage. Durum wheat was more efficient in nitrogen remobilization and therefore, had a higher grain protein percentage. Increasing in rates and times of nitrogen application had significant effect on most of the measured traits. There were significant interactions between cultivars, rates and times of N application, indicating that durum wheat was more efficient in N remobilization from flag leaf to the grain. It appeared that, N remobilization efficiency was the main factor affecting the grain protein percentage, under the conditions of low N absorption and drought after flowering, in this experiment.

  4. The fate of chromosomes and alleles in an allohexaploid Brassica population.

    PubMed

    Mason, Annaliese S; Nelson, Matthew N; Takahira, Junko; Cowling, Wallace A; Alves, Gustavo Moreira; Chaudhuri, Arkaprava; Chen, Ning; Ragu, Mohana E; Dalton-Morgan, Jessica; Coriton, Olivier; Huteau, Virginie; Eber, Frédérique; Chèvre, Anne-Marie; Batley, Jacqueline

    2014-05-01

    Production of allohexaploid Brassica (2n = AABBCC) is a promising goal for plant breeders due to the potential for hybrid heterosis and useful allelic contributions from all three of the Brassica genomes present in the cultivated diploid (2n = AA, 2n = BB, 2n = CC) and allotetraploid (2n = AABB, 2n = AACC, and 2n = BBCC) crop species (canola, cabbages, mustards). We used high-throughput SNP molecular marker assays, flow cytometry, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to characterize a population of putative allohexaploids derived from self-pollination of a hybrid from the novel cross (B. napus × B. carinata) × B. juncea to investigate whether fertile, stable allohexaploid Brassica can be produced. Allelic segregation in the A and C genomes generally followed Mendelian expectations for an F2 population, with minimal nonhomologous chromosome pairing. However, we detected no strong selection for complete 2n = AABBCC chromosome complements, with weak correlations between DNA content and fertility (r(2) = 0.11) and no correlation between missing chromosomes or chromosome segments and fertility. Investigation of next-generation progeny resulting from one highly fertile F2 plant using FISH revealed general maintenance of high chromosome numbers but severe distortions in karyotype, as evidenced by recombinant chromosomes and putative loss/duplication of A- and C-genome chromosome pairs. Our results show promise for the development of meiotically stable allohexaploid lines, but highlight the necessity of selection for 2n = AABBCC karyotypes. PMID:24558262

  5. The fate of chromosomes and alleles in an allohexaploid Brassica population.

    PubMed

    Mason, Annaliese S; Nelson, Matthew N; Takahira, Junko; Cowling, Wallace A; Alves, Gustavo Moreira; Chaudhuri, Arkaprava; Chen, Ning; Ragu, Mohana E; Dalton-Morgan, Jessica; Coriton, Olivier; Huteau, Virginie; Eber, Frédérique; Chèvre, Anne-Marie; Batley, Jacqueline

    2014-05-01

    Production of allohexaploid Brassica (2n = AABBCC) is a promising goal for plant breeders due to the potential for hybrid heterosis and useful allelic contributions from all three of the Brassica genomes present in the cultivated diploid (2n = AA, 2n = BB, 2n = CC) and allotetraploid (2n = AABB, 2n = AACC, and 2n = BBCC) crop species (canola, cabbages, mustards). We used high-throughput SNP molecular marker assays, flow cytometry, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to characterize a population of putative allohexaploids derived from self-pollination of a hybrid from the novel cross (B. napus × B. carinata) × B. juncea to investigate whether fertile, stable allohexaploid Brassica can be produced. Allelic segregation in the A and C genomes generally followed Mendelian expectations for an F2 population, with minimal nonhomologous chromosome pairing. However, we detected no strong selection for complete 2n = AABBCC chromosome complements, with weak correlations between DNA content and fertility (r(2) = 0.11) and no correlation between missing chromosomes or chromosome segments and fertility. Investigation of next-generation progeny resulting from one highly fertile F2 plant using FISH revealed general maintenance of high chromosome numbers but severe distortions in karyotype, as evidenced by recombinant chromosomes and putative loss/duplication of A- and C-genome chromosome pairs. Our results show promise for the development of meiotically stable allohexaploid lines, but highlight the necessity of selection for 2n = AABBCC karyotypes.

  6. Growth stage-based modulation in physiological and biochemical attributes of two genetically diverse wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars grown in salinized hydroponic culture.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Hydroponic experiment was conducted to appraise variation in the salt tolerance potential of two wheat cultivars (salt tolerant, S-24, and moderately salt sensitive, MH-97) at different growth stages. These two wheat cultivars are not genetically related as evident from randomized polymorphic DNA analysis (random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)) which revealed 28% genetic diversity. Salinity stress caused a marked reduction in grain yield of both wheat cultivars. However, cv. S-24 was superior to cv. MH-97 in maintaining grain yield under saline stress. Furthermore, salinity caused a significant variation in different physiological attributes measured at different growth stages. Salt stress caused considerable reduction in different water relation attributes of wheat plants. A significant reduction in leaf water, osmotic, and turgor potentials was recorded in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Maximal reduction in leaf water potential was recorded at the reproductive stage in both wheat cultivars. In contrast, maximal turgor potential was observed at the boot stage. Salt-induced adverse effects of salinity on different water relation attributes were more prominent in cv. MH-97 as compared to those in cv. S-24. Salt stress caused a substantial decrease in glycine betaine and alpha tocopherols. These biochemical attributes exhibited significant salt-induced variation at different growth stages in both wheat cultivars. For example, maximal accumulation of glycine betaine was evident at the early growth stages (vegetative and boot). However, cv. S-24 showed higher accumulation of this organic osmolyte, and this could be the reason for maintenance of higher turgor than that of cv. MH-97 under stress conditions. Salt stress significantly increased the endogenous levels of toxic ions (Na(+) and Cl(-)) and decreased essential cations (K(+) and Ca(2+)) in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Furthermore, K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratios

  7. Growth stage-based modulation in physiological and biochemical attributes of two genetically diverse wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars grown in salinized hydroponic culture.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Hydroponic experiment was conducted to appraise variation in the salt tolerance potential of two wheat cultivars (salt tolerant, S-24, and moderately salt sensitive, MH-97) at different growth stages. These two wheat cultivars are not genetically related as evident from randomized polymorphic DNA analysis (random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)) which revealed 28% genetic diversity. Salinity stress caused a marked reduction in grain yield of both wheat cultivars. However, cv. S-24 was superior to cv. MH-97 in maintaining grain yield under saline stress. Furthermore, salinity caused a significant variation in different physiological attributes measured at different growth stages. Salt stress caused considerable reduction in different water relation attributes of wheat plants. A significant reduction in leaf water, osmotic, and turgor potentials was recorded in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Maximal reduction in leaf water potential was recorded at the reproductive stage in both wheat cultivars. In contrast, maximal turgor potential was observed at the boot stage. Salt-induced adverse effects of salinity on different water relation attributes were more prominent in cv. MH-97 as compared to those in cv. S-24. Salt stress caused a substantial decrease in glycine betaine and alpha tocopherols. These biochemical attributes exhibited significant salt-induced variation at different growth stages in both wheat cultivars. For example, maximal accumulation of glycine betaine was evident at the early growth stages (vegetative and boot). However, cv. S-24 showed higher accumulation of this organic osmolyte, and this could be the reason for maintenance of higher turgor than that of cv. MH-97 under stress conditions. Salt stress significantly increased the endogenous levels of toxic ions (Na(+) and Cl(-)) and decreased essential cations (K(+) and Ca(2+)) in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Furthermore, K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratios

  8. Influence of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit composition at Glu-B1 locus on secondary and micro structures of gluten in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Liu, Tianhong; Yu, Jing; Li, Liqun; Feng, Yi; Li, Xuejun

    2016-04-15

    Glutenin is one of the critical gluten proteins that affect the processing quality of wheat dough. High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) affect rheological behavior of wheat dough. This research demonstrated the effects of four variations of HMW-GS composition at the Glu-B1 locus on secondary and micro structures of gluten and rheological properties of wheat dough, using the bread wheat Xinong 1330 and its three near-isogenic lines (NILs). Results indicated that the Amide I bands of the four wheat lines shifted slightly, but the secondary structure, such as content of α-helices, β-sheets, disulfide bands, tryptophan bands and tyrosine bands, differed significantly among the four NILs. The micro structure of gluten in NIL 2 (Bx14+By15) and NIL 3 (Bx17+By18) showed more cross linkage, with two contrasting patterns. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the content of β-sheets and disulfide bonds has a significant relationship with dough stability, which suggests that the secondary structures could be used as predictors of wheat quality.

  9. Antibiosis and non-preference of Sitobion avenae (F.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on leaves and ears of commercial cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Silva, A M; Sampaio, M V; de Oliveira, R S; Korndorfer, A P; Ferreira, S E; Polastro, G C; Dias, P A S

    2013-06-01

    Little is known on the resistance of wheat cultivars to Sitobion avenae (F.) in Brazil. The goal of this work was to assess the behavior and biology of S. avenae on four commercial wheat cultivars to verify the existence of resistance by antibiosis in leaves and ears and non-preference in the ears. The smallest net fecundity rates of S. avenae in wheat leaves have been found in the cultivars Embrapa 22 and BRS264, which did not differ between themselves. The intrinsic rate of increase of S. avenae was smaller in leaves of Embrapa 22 than in cultivars BRS254 and BRS Timbaúva. The smallest net fecundity rates of S. avenae in wheat ears were observed in the cultivars BRS254 and Embrapa 22. The intrinsic rate of increase of the aphid in the ear of cultivar Embrapa 22 was smaller than in BRS Timbaúva and BRS264, but did not differ from BRS254. The organ of the wheat plant in which the aphid was reared influences antibiosis resistance, but the cultivar BRS Timbaúva was considered susceptible and Embrapa 22 resistant to S. avenae in both plant organs tested. Ears of wheat cultivars tested did not show differences in the mechanism of resistance by non-preference to S. avenae.

  10. Tracing the transcriptomic changes in synthetic Trigenomic allohexaploids of Brassica using an RNA-Seq approach.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin; Zou, Jun; Meng, Jinling; Mei, Shiyong; Wang, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Polyploidization has played an important role in plant evolution and speciation, and newly formed allopolyploids have experienced rapid transcriptomic changes. Here, we compared the transcriptomic differences between a synthetic Brassica allohexaploid and its parents using a high-throughput RNA-Seq method. A total of 35,644,409 sequence reads were generated, and 32,642 genes were aligned from the data. Totals of 29,260, 29,060, and 29,697 genes were identified in Brassicarapa, Brassicacarinata, and Brassica allohexaploid, respectively. We compared 7,397 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between Brassica hexaploid and its parents, as well as 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid. We hypothesized that the higher ploidy level as well as secondary polyploidy might have influenced these changes. The majority of the 3,184 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its paternal parent, B. rapa, were involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, plant-pathogen interactions, photosynthesis, and circadian rhythm. Among the 2,233 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its maternal parent, B. carinata, several played roles in plant-pathogen interactions, plant hormone signal transduction, ribosomes, limonene and pinene degradation, photosynthesis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. There were more significant differences in gene expression between the allohexaploid and its paternal parent than between it and its maternal parent, possibly partly because of cytoplasmic and maternal effects. Specific functional categories were enriched among the 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid compared with the additive genes; the categories included response to stimulus, immune system process, cellular process, metabolic process, rhythmic process, and pigmentation. Many transcription factor genes, methyltransferases, and methylation genes showed differential expression between Brassica hexaploid and its parents. Our results demonstrate that the Brassica

  11. Different genome-specific chromosome stabilities in synthetic Brassica allohexaploids revealed by wide crosses with Orychophragmus

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xian-Hong; Wang, Jing; Li, Zai-Yun

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims In sexual hybrids between cultivated Brassica species and another crucifer, Orychophragmus violaceus (2n = 24), parental genome separation during mitosis and meiosis is under genetic control but this phenomenon varies depending upon the Brassica species. To further investigate the mechanisms involved in parental genome separation, complex hybrids between synthetic Brassica allohexaploids (2n = 54, AABBCC) from three sources and O. violaceus were obtained and characterized. Methods Genomic in situ hybridization, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) were used to explore chromosomal/genomic components and rRNA gene expression of the complex hybrids and their progenies. Key Results Complex hybrids with variable fertility exhibited phenotypes that were different from the female allohexaploids and expressed some traits from O. violaceus. These hybrids were mixoploids (2n = 34–46) and retained partial complements of allohexaploids, including whole chromosomes of the A and B genomes and some of the C genome but no intact O. violaceus chromosomes; AFLP bands specific for O. violaceus, novel for two parents and absent in hexaploids were detected. The complex hybrids produced progenies with chromosomes/genomic complements biased to B. juncea (2n = 36, AABB) and novel B. juncea lines with two genomes of different origins. The expression of rRNA genes from B. nigra was revealed in all allohexaploids and complex hybrids, showing that the hierarchy of nucleolar dominance (B. nigra, BB > B. rapa, AA > B. oleracea, CC) in Brassica allotetraploids was still valid in these plants. Conclusions The chromosomes of three genomes in these synthetic Brassica allohexaploids showed different genome-specific stabilities (B > A > C) under induction of alien chromosome elimination in crosses with O. violaceus, which was possibly affected by nucleolar dominance. PMID:19403626

  12. Influence of Zn-contaminated soils in the antioxidative defence system of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and maize (Zea mays) at different exposure times: potential use as biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Blázquez, Nieves; García-Gómez, Concepción; Fernández, María Dolores

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant responses of wheat and maize growing in Zn-treated soils (200, 450 and 900 mg kg(-1)) at different exposure times (7, 14, 21 and 35 days). The Zn concentration in the plants increased with an increase in the Zn concentration in the soil, thereby causing an increase in the accumulation of Mg and Mn. The emergence of wheat and the growth of maize were inhibited by Zn. The chlorophyll levels increased in wheat, whereas the opposite effect was observed in maize. Regarding enzymatic activities, Zn only provoked pronounced increases in the ascorbate peroxidase activity in maize at the early exposure times and occasionally in the superoxide dismutase (14 days) and catalase (7 and 35 days) activities in wheat. The most notable effect of the exposure of plants to Zn was an inhibition of antioxidative activities after 35 days in both plant species. The reduced glutathione levels increased in wheat and maize after 35 days and the protein levels in wheat after 7 and 35 days. The only significant alteration of lipid peroxidation was a decrease in the malondialdehyde level in wheat after 35 days. Results of this work suggest that Zn may generate oxidative stress by interfering with the plant antioxidant defence system (peroxidases, catalases and superoxide dismutase) responsible for free radical detoxification. The enzymatic activities, particularly ascorbate peroxidase, and the content of reduced glutathione could be considered good biomarkers of serious stress by Zn in soils.

  13. The influences of selected soil properties on Pb availability and its transfer to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a polluted calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Safari, Yaser; Delavar, Mohammad-Amir; Zhang, Chaosheng; Esfandiarpour-Boroujeni, Isa; Owliaie, Hamid-Reza

    2015-12-01

    Accumulated anthropogenic heavy metals in the surface layer of agricultural soils may be transferred through the food chain via plant uptake processes. The objectives of this study were to assess the spatial distribution of lead (Pb) in the soils and wheat plants and to determine the soil properties which may affect the Pb transferring from soil to wheat plants in Zanjan Zinc Town area, northwestern Iran. A total of 110 topsoil samples (0-20 cm) were systematically collected from an agricultural area near a large metallurgical factory for the analyses of physico-chemical properties and total and bioavailable Pb concentrations. Furthermore, a total of 65 wheat samples collected at the same soil sampling locations were analyzed for Pb concentration in different plant parts. The results showed that elevated Pb concentrations were mostly found in soils located surrounding the industrial source of pollution. The bioavailable Pb concentration in the studied soils was up to 128.4 mg kg(-1), which was relatively high considering the observed soil alkalinity. 24.6% of the wheat grain samples exceeded the FAO/WHO maximum permitted concentration of Pb in wheat grain (0.2 mg kg(-1)). Correlation analyses revealed that soil organic matter, soil pH, and clay content showed insignificant correlation with Pb concentration in the soil and wheat grains, whereas calcium carbonate content showed significantly negative correlations with both total and bioavailable Pb in the soil, and Pb content in wheat grains, demonstrating the strong influences of calcium carbonate on Pb bioavailability in the polluted calcareous soils. PMID:26612564

  14. Coexpression of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit 1Ax1 and puroindoline improves dough mixing properties in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum).

    PubMed

    Li, Yin; Wang, Qiong; Li, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xin; Sun, Fusheng; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Wei; Feng, Zhijuan; Chang, Junli; Chen, Mingjie; Wang, Yuesheng; Li, Kexiu; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2012-01-01

    Wheat end-use quality mainly derives from two interrelated characteristics: the compositions of gluten proteins and grain hardness. The composition of gluten proteins determines dough rheological properties and thus confers the unique viscoelastic property on dough. One group of gluten proteins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), plays an important role in dough functional properties. On the other hand, grain hardness, which influences the milling process of flour, is controlled by Puroindoline a (Pina) and Puroindoline b (Pinb) genes. However, little is known about the combined effects of HMW-GS and PINs on dough functional properties. In this study, we crossed a Pina-expressing transgenic line with a 1Ax1-expressing line of durum wheat and screened out lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina or lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. Dough mixing analysis of these lines demonstrated that expression of 1Ax1 improved both dough strength and over-mixing tolerance, while expression of PINA detrimentally affected the dough resistance to extension. In lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina, faster hydration of flour during mixing was observed possibly due to the lower water absorption and damaged starch caused by PINA expression. In addition, expression of 1Ax1 appeared to compensate the detrimental effect of PINA on dough resistance to extension. Consequently, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat had combined effects on dough mixing behaviors with a better dough strength and resistance to extension than those from lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. The results in our study suggest that simultaneous modulation of dough strength and grain hardness in durum wheat could significantly improve its breadmaking quality and may not even impair its pastamaking potential. Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread) and may improve the economic values of durum

  15. The influences of selected soil properties on Pb availability and its transfer to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a polluted calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Safari, Yaser; Delavar, Mohammad-Amir; Zhang, Chaosheng; Esfandiarpour-Boroujeni, Isa; Owliaie, Hamid-Reza

    2015-12-01

    Accumulated anthropogenic heavy metals in the surface layer of agricultural soils may be transferred through the food chain via plant uptake processes. The objectives of this study were to assess the spatial distribution of lead (Pb) in the soils and wheat plants and to determine the soil properties which may affect the Pb transferring from soil to wheat plants in Zanjan Zinc Town area, northwestern Iran. A total of 110 topsoil samples (0-20 cm) were systematically collected from an agricultural area near a large metallurgical factory for the analyses of physico-chemical properties and total and bioavailable Pb concentrations. Furthermore, a total of 65 wheat samples collected at the same soil sampling locations were analyzed for Pb concentration in different plant parts. The results showed that elevated Pb concentrations were mostly found in soils located surrounding the industrial source of pollution. The bioavailable Pb concentration in the studied soils was up to 128.4 mg kg(-1), which was relatively high considering the observed soil alkalinity. 24.6% of the wheat grain samples exceeded the FAO/WHO maximum permitted concentration of Pb in wheat grain (0.2 mg kg(-1)). Correlation analyses revealed that soil organic matter, soil pH, and clay content showed insignificant correlation with Pb concentration in the soil and wheat grains, whereas calcium carbonate content showed significantly negative correlations with both total and bioavailable Pb in the soil, and Pb content in wheat grains, demonstrating the strong influences of calcium carbonate on Pb bioavailability in the polluted calcareous soils.

  16. Effects of molybdenum on water utilization, antioxidative defense system and osmotic-adjustment ability in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Wu, Songwei; Hu, Chengxiao; Tan, Qiling; Nie, Zhaojun; Sun, Xuecheng

    2014-10-01

    Molybdenum (Mo), as an essential trace element in plants, plays an essential role in abiotic stress tolerance of plants. To obtain a better understanding of drought tolerance enhanced by Mo, a hydroponic trial was conducted to investigate the effects of Mo on water utilization, antioxidant enzymes, non-enzymatic antioxidants, and osmotic-adjustment products in the Mo-efficient '97003' and Mo-inefficient '97014' under PEG simulated drought stress. Our results indicate that Mo application significantly enhanced Pn, chlorophyll, dry matter, grain yield, biomass, RWC and WUE and decreased Tr, Gs and water loss of wheat under drought stress, suggesting that Mo application improved the water utilization capacity in wheat. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and the contents of non-enzymatic anti