Science.gov

Sample records for allosteric modulators pams

  1. Probing the Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 (mGlu5) Positive Allosteric Modulator (PAM) Binding Pocket: Discovery of Point Mutations That Engender a “Molecular Switch” in PAM Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Karen J.; Nguyen, Elizabeth D.; Reiff, Sean D.; Squire, Emma F.; Stauffer, Shaun R.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Meiler, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) is a promising novel approach for the treatment of schizophrenia and cognitive disorders. Allosteric binding sites are topographically distinct from the endogenous ligand (orthosteric) binding site, allowing for co-occupation of a single receptor with the endogenous ligand and an allosteric modulator. Negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) inhibit and positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) enhance the affinity and/or efficacy of the orthosteric agonist. The molecular determinants that govern mGlu5 modulator affinity versus cooperativity are not well understood. Focusing on the modulators based on the acetylene scaffold, we sought to determine the molecular interactions that contribute to PAM versus NAM pharmacology. Generation of a comparative model of the transmembrane-spanning region of mGlu5 served as a tool to predict and interpret the impact of mutations in this region. Application of an operational model of allosterism allowed for determination of PAM and NAM affinity estimates at receptor constructs that possessed no detectable radioligand binding as well as delineation of effects on affinity versus cooperativity. Novel mutations within the transmembrane domain (TM) regions were identified that had differential effects on acetylene PAMs versus 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine, a prototypical NAM. Three conserved amino acids (Y658, T780, and S808) and two nonconserved residues (P654 and A809) were identified as key determinants of PAM activity. Interestingly, we identified two point mutations in TMs 6 and 7 that, when mutated, engender a mode switch in the pharmacology of certain PAMs. PMID:23444015

  2. Design and Synthesis of γ- and δ-Lactam M1 Positive Allosteric Modulators (PAMs): Convulsion and Cholinergic Toxicity of an M1-Selective PAM with Weak Agonist Activity.

    PubMed

    Davoren, Jennifer E; Garnsey, Michelle; Pettersen, Betty; Brodney, Michael A; Edgerton, Jeremy R; Fortin, Jean-Philippe; Grimwood, Sarah; Harris, Anthony R; Jenkinson, Stephen; Kenakin, Terry; Lazzaro, John T; Lee, Che-Wah; Lotarski, Susan M; Nottebaum, Lisa; O'Neil, Steven V; Popiolek, Michael; Ramsey, Simeon; Steyn, Stefanus J; Thorn, Catherine A; Zhang, Lei; Webb, Damien

    2017-08-10

    Recent data demonstrated that activation of the muscarinic M 1 receptor by a subtype-selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM) contributes to the gastrointestinal (GI) and cardiovascular (CV) cholinergic adverse events (AEs) previously attributed to M 2 and M 3 activation. These studies were conducted using PAMs that also exhibited allosteric agonist activity, leaving open the possibility that direct activation by allosteric agonism, rather than allosteric modulation, could be responsible for the adverse effects. This article describes the design and synthesis of lactam-derived M 1 PAMs that address this hypothesis. The lead molecule from this series, compound 1 (PF-06827443), is a potent, low-clearance, orally bioavailable, and CNS-penetrant M 1 -selective PAM with minimal agonist activity. Compound 1 was tested in dose escalation studies in rats and dogs and was found to induce cholinergic AEs and convulsion at therapeutic indices similar to previous compounds with more agonist activity. These findings provide preliminary evidence that positive allosteric modulation of M 1 is sufficient to elicit cholinergic AEs.

  3. Discovery of dual positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the metabotropic glutamate 2 receptor and CysLT1 antagonists for treating migraine headache.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Maria-Jesus; Benesh, Dana R; Knobelsdorf, James A; Khilevich, Albert; Cortez, Guillermo S; Mokube, Fese; Aicher, Thomas D; Groendyke, Todd M; Marmsater, Fredrik P; Tang, Tony P; Johnson, Kirk W; Clemens-Smith, Amy; Muhlhauser, Mark A; Swanson, Steven; Catlow, John; Emkey, Renee; Johnson, Michael P; Schkeryantz, Jeffrey M

    2017-01-15

    Pyridylmethylsulfonamide series were the first reported example of positive allosteric modulators (PAM) of the mGlu 2 receptor. The hydroxyacetophenone scaffold is a second series of mGlu 2 PAMs we have identified. This series of molecules are potent mGlu 2 potentiators and possess significant CysLT1 (cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1) antagonist activity, showing in vivo efficacy in a dural plasma protein extravasation (PPE) model of migraine. In this paper, we describe the dual SAR, pharmacokinetics and preclinical in vivo efficacy data for a tetrazole containing hydroxyacetophenone scaffold. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analgesic effect of ADX71441, a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of GABAB receptor in a rat model of bladder pain.

    PubMed

    Kannampalli, Pradeep; Poli, Sonia-Maria; Boléa, Christelle; Sengupta, Jyoti N

    2017-11-01

    Therapeutic use of GABA B receptor agonists for conditions like chronic abdominal pain, overactive bladder (OAB) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is severely affected by poor blood-brain barrier permeability and potential side effects. ADX71441 is a novel positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of the GABA B receptor that has shown encouraging results in pre-clinical models of anxiety, pain, OAB and alcohol addiction. The present study investigates the analgesic effect of ADX71441 to noxious stimulation of the urinary bladder and colon in rats. In female Sprague-Dawley rats, systemic (i.p), but not intrathecal (i.t), administration of ADX71441 produced a dose-dependent decrease in viscero-motor response (VMR) to graded urinary bladder distension (UBD) and colorectal distension (CRD). Additionally, intra-cerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of ADX71441 significantly decreased the VMRs to noxious UBD. In electrophysiology experiments, the drug did not attenuate the responses of UBD-sensitive pelvic nerve afferent (PNA) fibers to UBD. In contrast, ADX71441 significantly decreased the responses of UBD-responsive lumbosacral (LS) spinal neurons in spinal intact rats. However, ADX71441 did not attenuate these LS neurons in cervical (C1-C2) spinal transected rats. During cystometrogram (CMG) recordings, ADX71441 (i.p.) significantly decreased the VMR to slow infusion without affecting the number of voiding contraction. These results indicate that ADX71441 modulate bladder nociception via its effect at the supra-spinal sites without affecting the normal bladder motility and micturition reflex in naïve adult rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Allosteric Modulation of Purine and Pyrimidine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Göblyös, Anikó; IJzerman, Adriaan P.

    2011-01-01

    Among the purine and pyrimidine receptors, the discovery of small molecular allosteric modulators has been most highly advanced for the A1 and A3 ARs. These AR modulators have allosteric effects that are structurally separated from the orthosteric effects in SAR studies. The benzoylthiophene derivatives tend to act as allosteric agonists, as well as selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the A1 AR. A 2-amino-3-aroylthiophene derivative T-62 has been under development as a PAM of the A1 AR for the treatment of chronic pain. Several structurally distinct classes of allosteric modulators of the human A3 AR have been reported: 3-(2-pyridinyl)isoquinolines, 2,4-disubstituted quinolines, 1H-imidazo-[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amines, endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol and the food dye Brilliant Black BN. Site-directed mutagenesis of A1 and A3 ARs has identified residues associated with the allosteric effect, distinct from those that affect orthosteric binding. A few small molecular allosteric modulators have been reported for several of the P2X ligand-gated ion channels and the G protein-coupled P2Y receptor nucleotides. Metal ion modulation of the P2X receptors has been extensively explored. The allosteric approach to modulation of purine and pyrimidine receptors looks promising for development of drugs that are event-specific and site-specific in action. PMID:21586360

  6. Discovery of a novel 2,4-dimethylquinoline-6-carboxamide M4 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) chemotype via scaffold hopping.

    PubMed

    Long, Madeline F; Engers, Julie L; Chang, Sichen; Zhan, Xiaoyan; Weiner, Rebecca L; Luscombe, Vincent B; Rodriguez, Alice L; Cho, Hyekyung P; Niswender, Colleen M; Bridges, Thomas M; Conn, P Jeffrey; Engers, Darren W; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-11-15

    This Letter details our efforts to replace the 3-amino moiety, an essential pharmacophore for M 4 PAM activity in most M 4 PAMs to date, within the thieno[2,3-b]pyridine core, as the β-amino carboxamide motif has been shown to engender poor solubility, varying degrees of P-gp efflux and represents a structural alert. A scaffold hopping exercise identified a novel 2,4-dimethylquinoline carboxamide core that provided M 4 PAM activity and good CNS penetration without an amino moiety. In addition, MacMillan photoredox catalysis chemistry was essential for construction of the 2,4-dimethylquinoline core. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Design and Synthesis of an Orally Active Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype-2 (mGluR2) Positive Allosteric Modulator (PAM) that Decreases Cocaine Self-administration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dhanya, Raveendra-Panickar; Sidique, Shyama; Sheffler, Douglas J.; Nickols, Hilary Highfield; Herath, Ananda; Yang, Li; Dahl, Russell; Ardecky, Robert; Semenova, Svetlana; Markou, Athina; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Cosford, Nicholas D. P.

    2010-01-01

    The modification of 3′-((2-cyclopentyl-6,7-dimethyl-1-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yloxy)methyl)biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid (BINA, 1) by incorporating heteroatoms into the structure and replacing the cyclopentyl moiety led to the development of new mGluR2 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) with optimized potency and superior drug-like properties. These analogues are more potent than 1 in vitro, and are highly selective for mGluR2 vs. other mGluR subtypes. They have significantly improved pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, with excellent oral bioavailability and brain penetration. The benzisothiazol-3-one derivative 14 decreased cocaine self-administration in rats, providing proof-of-concept for the use of mGluR2 PAMs for the treatment of cocaine dependence. PMID:21155570

  8. Development of allosteric modulators of GPCRs for treatment of CNS disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nickols, Hilary Highfield; Conn, P. Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of allosteric modulators of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) provides a promising new strategy with potential for developing novel treatments for a variety of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Traditional drug discovery efforts targeting GPCRs have focused on developing ligands for orthosteric sites which bind endogenous ligands. Allosteric modulators target a site separate from the orthosteric site to modulate receptor function. These allosteric agents can either potentiate (positive allosteric modulator, PAM) or inhibit (negative allosteric modulator, NAM) the receptor response and often provide much greater subtype selectivity than do orthosteric ligands for the same receptors. Experimental evidence has revealed more nuanced pharmacological modes of action of allosteric modulators, with some PAMs showing allosteric agonism in combination with positive allosteric modulation in response to endogenous ligand (ago-potentiators) as well as “bitopic” ligands that interact with both the allosteric and orthosteric sites. Drugs targeting the allosteric site allow for increased drug selectivity and potentially decreased adverse side effects. Promising evidence has demonstrated potential utility of a number of allosteric modulators of GPCRs in multiple CNS disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease, as well as psychiatric or neurobehavioral diseases such as anxiety, schizophrenia, and addiction. PMID:24076101

  9. Allosteric Modulation of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jakubík, Jan; El-Fakahany, Esam E.

    2010-01-01

    An allosteric modulator is a ligand that binds to an allosteric site on the receptor and changes receptor conformation to produce increase (positive cooperativity) or decrease (negative cooperativity) in the binding or action of an orthosteric agonist (e.g., acetylcholine). Since the identification of gallamine as the first allosteric modulator of muscarinic receptors in 1976, this unique mode of receptor modulation has been intensively studied by many groups. This review summarizes over 30 years of research on the molecular mechanisms of allosteric interactions of drugs with the receptor and for new allosteric modulators of muscarinic receptors with potential therapeutic use. Identification of positive modulators of acetylcholine binding and function that enhance neurotransmission and the discovery of highly selective allosteric modulators are mile-stones on the way to novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease and other disorders involving impaired cognitive function. PMID:27713379

  10. Enhancing NMDA Receptor Function: Recent Progress on Allosteric Modulators.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lulu; Zhou, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are subtype glutamate receptors that play important roles in excitatory neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Their hypo- or hyperactivation are proposed to contribute to the genesis or progression of various brain diseases, including stroke, schizophrenia, depression, and Alzheimer's disease. Past efforts in targeting NMDARs for therapeutic intervention have largely been on inhibitors of NMDARs. In light of the discovery of NMDAR hypofunction in psychiatric disorders and perhaps Alzheimer's disease, efforts in boosting NMDAR activity/functions have surged in recent years. In this review, we will focus on enhancing NMDAR functions, especially on the recent progress in the generation of subunit-selective, allosteric positive modulators (PAMs) of NMDARs. We shall also discuss the usefulness of these newly developed NMDAR-PAMs.

  11. Nootropic α7 nicotinic receptor allosteric modulator derived from GABAA receptor modulators

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Herman J.; Whittemore, Edward R.; Tran, Minhtam B.; Hogenkamp, Derk J.; Broide, Ron S.; Johnstone, Timothy B.; Zheng, Lijun; Stevens, Karen E.; Gee, Kelvin W.

    2007-01-01

    Activation of brain α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs) has broad therapeutic potential in CNS diseases related to cognitive dysfunction, including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. In contrast to direct agonist activation, positive allosteric modulation of α7 nAChRs would deliver the clinically validated benefits of allosterism to these indications. We have generated a selective α7 nAChR-positive allosteric modulator (PAM) from a library of GABAA receptor PAMs. Compound 6 (N-(4-chlorophenyl)-α-[[(4-chloro-phenyl)amino]methylene]-3-methyl-5-isoxazoleacet-amide) evokes robust positive modulation of agonist-induced currents at α7 nAChRs, while preserving the rapid native characteristics of desensitization, and has little to no efficacy at other ligand-gated ion channels. In rodent models, it corrects sensory-gating deficits and improves working memory, effects consistent with cognitive enhancement. Compound 6 represents a chemotype for allosteric activation of α7 nAChRs, with therapeutic potential in CNS diseases with cognitive dysfunction. PMID:17470817

  12. Allosteric Modulation of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Karen J; Sexton, Patrick M; Christopoulos, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are prototypical Family A G protein coupled-receptors. The five mAChR subtypes are widespread throughout the periphery and the central nervous system and, accordingly, are widely involved in a variety of both physiological and pathophysiological processes. There currently remains an unmet need for better therapeutic agents that can selectively target a given mAChR subtype to the relative exclusion of others. The main reason for the lack of such selective mAChR ligands is the high sequence homology within the acetylcholine-binding site (orthosteric site) across all mAChRs. However, the mAChRs possess at least one, and likely two, extracellular allosteric binding sites that can recognize small molecule allosteric modulators to regulate the binding and function of orthosteric ligands. Extensive studies of prototypical mAChR modulators, such as gallamine and alcuronium, have provided strong pharmacological evidence, and associated structure-activity relationships (SAR), for a “common” allosteric site on all five mAChRs. These studies are also supported by mutagenesis experiments implicating the second extracellular loop and the interface between the third extracellular loop and the top of transmembrane domain 7 as contributing to the common allosteric site. Other studies are also delineating the pharmacology of a second allosteric site, recognized by compounds such as staurosporine. In addition, allosteric agonists, such as McN-A-343, AC-42 and N-desmethylclozapine, have also been identified. Current challenges to the field include the ability to effectively detect and validate allosteric mechanisms, and to quantify allosteric effects on binding affinity and signaling efficacy to inform allosteric modulator SAR. PMID:19305798

  13. Discovery of a class of calcium sensing receptor positive allosteric modulators; 1-(benzothiazol-2-yl)-1-phenylethanols.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Magnus; Jensen, Jacob; Bertozzi, Sine M; Currier, Erika A; Ma, Jian-Nong; Burstein, Ethan S; Olsson, Roger

    2010-10-01

    1-(Benzothiazol-2-yl)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol (1) was identified as a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of the CaSR in a functional cell-based assay. This compound belongs to a class of compounds that is structurally distinct from other known positive allosteric modulators, for example, the phenylalkylamines cinacalcet, a modified analog (13) potently suppressed parathyroid hormone (PTH) release in rats, consistent with its profile as a PAM of CaSRs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigating Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 Allosteric Modulator Cooperativity, Affinity, and Agonism: Enriching Structure-Function Studies and Structure-Activity Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Karen J.; Noetzel, Meredith J.; Rook, Jerri M.; Vinson, Paige N.; Stauffer, Shaun R.; Rodriguez, Alice L.; Emmitte, Kyle A.; Zhou, Ya; Chun, Aspen C.; Felts, Andrew S.; Chauder, Brian A.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Niswender, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Drug discovery programs increasingly are focusing on allosteric modulators as a means to modify the activity of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) targets. Allosteric binding sites are topographically distinct from the endogenous ligand (orthosteric) binding site, which allows for co-occupation of a single receptor with the endogenous ligand and an allosteric modulator that can alter receptor pharmacological characteristics. Negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) inhibit and positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) enhance the affinity and/or efficacy of orthosteric agonists. Established approaches for estimation of affinity and efficacy values for orthosteric ligands are not appropriate for allosteric modulators, and this presents challenges for fully understanding the actions of novel modulators of GPCRs. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) is a family C GPCR for which a large array of allosteric modulators have been identified. We took advantage of the many tools for probing allosteric sites on mGlu5 to validate an operational model of allosterism that allows quantitative estimation of modulator affinity and cooperativity values. Affinity estimates derived from functional assays fit well with affinities measured in radioligand binding experiments for both PAMs and NAMs with diverse chemical scaffolds and varying degrees of cooperativity. We observed modulation bias for PAMs when we compared mGlu5-mediated Ca2+ mobilization and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation data. Furthermore, we used this model to quantify the effects of mutations that reduce binding or potentiation by PAMs. This model can be applied to PAM and NAM potency curves in combination with maximal fold-shift data to derive reliable estimates of modulator affinities. PMID:22863693

  15. Status of the payload assist module /PAM/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordahl, C. A.

    1980-04-01

    The current configurations of the PAM-D and PAM-A spinning solid upper-stage systems are described. The PAM-D, which is now contracted for use by a number of communications satellite systems, is capable of launching spacecraft weights up to 2750 lb into a 27-deg geosynchronous transfer orbit from the Space Shuttle orbit. It is also compatible with launches as a third stage on the Delta Expendable Launch Vehicle. This system is well into its qualification program, with its first launch on Delta scheduled for October 1980 and its first launch on Space Transportation System (STS) in August 1982. The large PAM-A system, capable of placing a 4400-lb spacecraft in the same geosynchronous transfer orbit, is being configured for the Intelsat V mission, scheduled for its first STS launch in August 1982. Launch preparation, on-orbit operation, and flight performance, as well as procurement methods for these systems are also described.

  16. The influence of allosteric modulators and transmembrane mutations on desensitisation and activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Chatzidaki, Anna; D'Oyley, Jarryl M.; Gill-Thind, JasKiran K.; Sheppard, Tom D.; Millar, Neil S.

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by binding at an extracellular orthosteric site. Previous studies have described several positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that are selective for homomeric α7 nAChRs. These include type I PAMs, which exert little or no effect on the rate of receptor desensitisation, and type II PAMs, which cause a dramatic loss of agonist-induced desensitisation. Here we report evidence that transmembrane mutations in α7 nAChRs have diverse effects on receptor activation and desensitisation by allosteric ligands. It has been reported previously that the L247T mutation, located toward the middle of the second transmembrane domain (at the 9′ position), confers reduced levels of desensitisation. In contrast, the M260L mutation, located higher up in the TM2 domain (at the 22′ position), does not show any difference in desensitisation compared to wild-type receptors. We have found that in receptors containing the L247T mutation, both type I PAMs and type II PAMs are converted into non-desensitising agonists. In contrast, in receptors containing the M260L mutation, this effect is seen only with type II PAMs. These findings, indicating that the M260L mutation has a selective effect on type II PAMs, have been confirmed both with previously described PAMs and also with a series of novel α7-selective PAMs. The novel PAMs examined in this study have close chemical similarity but diverse pharmacological properties. For example, they include compounds displaying effects on receptor desensitisation that are typical of classical type I and type II PAMs but, in addition, they include compounds with intermediate properties. PMID:25998276

  17. The influence of allosteric modulators and transmembrane mutations on desensitisation and activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Chatzidaki, Anna; D'Oyley, Jarryl M; Gill-Thind, JasKiran K; Sheppard, Tom D; Millar, Neil S

    2015-10-01

    Acetylcholine activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by binding at an extracellular orthosteric site. Previous studies have described several positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that are selective for homomeric α7 nAChRs. These include type I PAMs, which exert little or no effect on the rate of receptor desensitisation, and type II PAMs, which cause a dramatic loss of agonist-induced desensitisation. Here we report evidence that transmembrane mutations in α7 nAChRs have diverse effects on receptor activation and desensitisation by allosteric ligands. It has been reported previously that the L247T mutation, located toward the middle of the second transmembrane domain (at the 9' position), confers reduced levels of desensitisation. In contrast, the M260L mutation, located higher up in the TM2 domain (at the 22' position), does not show any difference in desensitisation compared to wild-type receptors. We have found that in receptors containing the L247T mutation, both type I PAMs and type II PAMs are converted into non-desensitising agonists. In contrast, in receptors containing the M260L mutation, this effect is seen only with type II PAMs. These findings, indicating that the M260L mutation has a selective effect on type II PAMs, have been confirmed both with previously described PAMs and also with a series of novel α7-selective PAMs. The novel PAMs examined in this study have close chemical similarity but diverse pharmacological properties. For example, they include compounds displaying effects on receptor desensitisation that are typical of classical type I and type II PAMs but, in addition, they include compounds with intermediate properties. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. M1-positive allosteric modulators lacking agonist activity provide the optimal profile for enhancing cognition.

    PubMed

    Moran, Sean P; Dickerson, Jonathan W; Cho, Hyekyung P; Xiang, Zixiu; Maksymetz, James; Remke, Daniel H; Lv, Xiaohui; Doyle, Catherine A; Rajan, Deepa H; Niswender, Colleen M; Engers, Darren W; Lindsley, Craig W; Rook, Jerri M; Conn, P Jeffrey

    2018-03-14

    Highly selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the M 1 subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor have emerged as an exciting new approach for improving cognitive function in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. However, excessive activation of M 1 is known to induce seizure activity and have actions in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that could impair cognitive function. We now report a series of pharmacological, electrophysiological, and behavioral studies in which we find that recently reported M 1 PAMs, PF-06764427 and MK-7622, have robust agonist activity in cell lines and agonist effects in the mouse PFC, and have the potential to overactivate the M 1 receptor and disrupt PFC function. In contrast, structurally distinct M 1 PAMs (VU0453595 and VU0550164) are devoid of agonist activity in cell lines and maintain activity dependence of M 1 activation in the PFC. Consistent with the previously reported effect of PF-06764427, the ago-PAM MK-7622 induces severe behavioral convulsions in mice. In contrast, VU0453595 does not induce behavioral convulsions at doses well above those required for maximal efficacy in enhancing cognitive function. Furthermore, in contrast to the robust efficacy of VU0453595, the ago-PAM MK-7622 failed to improve novel object recognition, a rodent assay of cognitive function. These findings suggest that in vivo cognition-enhancing efficacy of M 1 PAMs can be observed with PAMs lacking intrinsic agonist activity and that intrinsic agonist activity of M 1 PAMs may contribute to adverse effects and reduced efficacy in improving cognitive function.

  19. Biased allosteric agonism and modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5: Implications for optimizing preclinical neuroscience drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Sengmany, Kathy; Singh, Junaid; Stewart, Gregory D; Conn, P Jeffrey; Christopoulos, Arthur; Gregory, Karen J

    2017-03-15

    Allosteric modulators, that exhibit no intrinsic agonist activity, offer the advantage of spatial and temporal fine-tuning of endogenous agonist activity, allowing the potential for increased selectivity, reduced adverse effects and improved clinical outcomes. Some allosteric ligands can differentially activate and/or modulate distinct signaling pathways arising from the same receptor, phenomena referred to as 'biased agonism' and 'biased modulation'. Emerging evidence for CNS disorders with glutamatergic dysfunction suggests the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu 5 ) is a promising target. Current mGlu 5 allosteric modulators have largely been classified based on modulation of intracellular calcium (iCa 2+ ) responses to orthosteric agonists alone. We assessed eight mGlu 5 allosteric modulators previously classified as mGlu 5 PAMs or PAM-agonists representing four distinct chemotypes across multiple measures of receptor activity, to explore their potential for engendering biased agonism and/or modulation. Relative to the reference orthosteric agonist, DHPG, the eight allosteric ligands exhibited distinct biased agonism fingerprints for iCa 2+ mobilization, IP 1 accumulation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in HEK293A cells stably expressing mGlu 5 and in cortical neuron cultures. VU0424465, DPFE and VU0409551 displayed the most disparate biased signaling fingerprints in both HEK293A cells and cortical neurons that may account for the marked differences observed previously for these ligands in vivo. Select mGlu 5 allosteric ligands also showed 'probe dependence' with respect to their cooperativity with different orthosteric agonists, as well as biased modulation for the magnitude of positive cooperativity observed. Unappreciated biased agonism and modulation may contribute to unanticipated effects (both therapeutic and adverse) when translating from recombinant systems to preclinical models. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Metabotropic

  20. Competitive binding at a nicotinic receptor transmembrane site of two α7-selective positive allosteric modulators with differing effects on agonist-evoked desensitization.

    PubMed

    Collins, Toby; Young, Gareth T; Millar, Neil S

    2011-12-01

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have attracted considerable interest as a novel area of therapeutic drug discovery. Two types of α7-selective PAMs have been identified (type I and type II). Whilst both potentiate peak agonist-induced responses, they have different effects on the rate of agonist-induced receptor desensitization. Type I PAMs have little or no effect on the rapid rate of desensitization that is characteristic of α7 nAChRs, whereas type II PAMs cause dramatic slowing of receptor desensitization. Previously, we have obtained evidence indicating that PNU-120596, a type II PAM, causes potentiation by interacting with an allosteric transmembrane site. In contrast, other studies have demonstrated the importance of the 'M2-M3 segment' in modulating the effects of the type I PAM NS1738 and have led to the proposal that NS1738 may interact with the extracellular N-terminal domain. Here, our aim has been to compare the mechanism of allosteric potentiation of α7 nAChRs by NS1738 and PNU-120596. Functional characterization of a series of mutated α7 nAChRs indicates that mutation of amino acids within a proposed intrasubunit transmembrane cavity have a broadly similar effect on these two PAMs. In addition, we have employed a functional assay designed to examine the ability of ligands to act competitively at either the orthosteric or allosteric binding site of α7 nAChRs. These data, together with computer docking simulations, lead us to conclude that both the type I PAM NS1738 and the type II PAM PNU-120596 bind competitively at a mutually exclusive intrasubunit transmembrane site. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Allosteric Modulation of GABAA Receptor Subtypes: Effects on Visual Recognition and Visuospatial Working Memory in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Paul L; Ator, Nancy A; Rallapalli, Sundari K; Biawat, Poonam; Clayton, Terry; Cook, James M; Weed, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Non-selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) are known to impair anterograde memory. The role of the various GABAAR subtypes in the memory-impairing effects of non-selective GABAAR PAMs has not been fully elucidated. The current study assessed, in rhesus monkeys, effects of modulation of α1, α2/3, and α5GABAARs on visual recognition and spatial working memory using delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) and self-ordered spatial search (SOSS) procedures, respectively. The DMTS procedure (n=8) involved selecting a previously presented ‘sample' image from a set of multiple images presented after a delay. The SOSS procedure (n=6) involved touching a number of boxes without repeats. The non-selective GABAAR PAM triazolam and the α1GABAA preferential PAMS zolpidem and zaleplon reduced accuracy in both procedures, whereas the α5GABAA preferential PAMs SH-053-2′F-R-CH3 and SH-053-2′F-S-CH3, and the α2/3GABAA preferential PAM TPA023B were without effects on accuracy or trial completion. The low-efficacy α5GABAAR negative allosteric modulator (NAM) PWZ-029 slightly increased only DMTS accuracy, whereas the high-efficacy α5GABAAR NAMs RY-23 and RY-24 did not affect accuracy under either procedure. Finally, the slopes of the accuracy dose-effect curves for triazolam, zolpidem, and zaleplon increased with box number in the SOSS procedure, but were equivalent across DMTS delays. The present results suggest that (1) α1GABAARs, compared with α2/3 and α5GABAARs, are primarily involved in the impairment, by non-selective GABAAR PAMs, of visual recognition and visuospatial working memory in nonhuman primates; and (2) relative cognitive impairment produced by positive modulation of GABAARs increases with number of locations to be remembered, but not with the delay for remembering. PMID:23722241

  2. Novel Allosteric Modulators of G Protein-coupled Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, Patrick R.; Sexton, Patrick M.; Christopoulos, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are allosteric proteins, because their signal transduction relies on interactions between topographically distinct, yet conformationally linked, domains. Much of the focus on GPCR allostery in the new millennium, however, has been on modes of targeting GPCR allosteric sites with chemical probes due to the potential for novel therapeutics. It is now apparent that some GPCRs possess more than one targetable allosteric site, in addition to a growing list of putative endogenous modulators. Advances in structural biology are also shedding new insights into mechanisms of allostery, although the complexities of candidate allosteric drugs necessitate rigorous biological characterization. PMID:26100627

  3. Characterization of the novel positive allosteric modulator, LY2119620, at the muscarinic M(2) and M(4) receptors.

    PubMed

    Croy, Carrie H; Schober, Douglas A; Xiao, Hongling; Quets, Anne; Christopoulos, Arthur; Felder, Christian C

    2014-07-01

    The M(4) receptor is a compelling therapeutic target, as this receptor modulates neural circuits dysregulated in schizophrenia, and there is clinical evidence that muscarinic agonists possess both antipsychotic and procognitive efficacy. Recent efforts have shifted toward allosteric ligands to maximize receptor selectivity and manipulate endogenous cholinergic and dopaminergic signaling. In this study, we present the pharmacological characterization of LY2119620 (3-amino-5-chloro-N-cyclopropyl-4-methyl-6-[2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-oxoethoxy] thieno[2,3-b]pyridine-2-carboxamide), a M(2)/M(4) receptor-selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM), chemically evolved from hits identified through a M4 allosteric functional screen. Although unsuitable as a therapeutic due to M(2) receptor cross-reactivity and, thus, potential cardiovascular liability, LY2119620 surpassed previous congeners in potency and PAM activity and broadens research capabilities through its development into a radiotracer. Characterization of LY2119620 revealed evidence of probe dependence in both binding and functional assays. Guanosine 5'-[γ-(35)S]-triphosphate assays displayed differential potentiation depending on the orthosteric-allosteric pairing, with the largest cooperativity observed for oxotremorine M (Oxo-M) LY2119620. Further [(3)H]Oxo-M saturation binding, including studies with guanosine-5'-[(β,γ)-imido]triphosphate, suggests that both the orthosteric and allosteric ligands can alter the population of receptors in the active G protein-coupled state. Additionally, this work expands the characterization of the orthosteric agonist, iperoxo, at the M(4) receptor, and demonstrates that an allosteric ligand can positively modulate the binding and functional efficacy of this high efficacy ligand. Ultimately, it was the M(2) receptor pharmacology and PAM activity with iperoxo that made LY2119620 the most suitable allosteric partner for the M(2) active-state structure recently solved

  4. Positive allosteric modulators of the μ-opioid receptor: a novel approach for future pain medications

    PubMed Central

    Burford, N T; Traynor, J R; Alt, A

    2015-01-01

    Morphine and other agonists of the μ-opioid receptor are used clinically for acute and chronic pain relief and are considered to be the gold standard for pain medication. However, these opioids also have significant side effects, which are also mediated via activation of the μ-opioid receptor. Since the latter half of the twentieth century, researchers have sought to tease apart the mechanisms underlying analgesia, tolerance and dependence, with the hope of designing drugs with fewer side effects. These efforts have revolved around the design of orthosteric agonists with differing pharmacokinetic properties and/or selectivity profiles for the different opioid receptor types. Recently, μ-opioid receptor-positive allosteric modulators (μ-PAMs) were identified, which bind to a (allosteric) site on the μ-opioid receptor separate from the orthosteric site that binds an endogenous agonist. These allosteric modulators have little or no detectable functional activity when bound to the receptor in the absence of orthosteric agonist, but can potentiate the activity of bound orthosteric agonist, seen as an increase in apparent potency and/or efficacy of the orthosteric agonist. In this review, we describe the potential advantages that a μ-PAM approach might bring to the design of novel therapeutics for pain that may lack the side effects currently associated with opioid therapy. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24460691

  5. Delineation of the functional properties and the mechanism of action of AA29504, an allosteric agonist and positive allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Olander, Emma Rie; Madjroh, Nawid; Bunch, Lennart; Söderhielm, Pella Cecilia; Jensen, Anders A

    2018-04-01

    The retigabine analog 2-amino-4-[(2,4,6-trimethylbenzylamino)-phenyl]-carbamic acid ethyl ester (AA29504) is a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of γ-aminobutyric acid A receptors (GABA A Rs), and the modulator has been used in ex vivo/in vivo studies to probe the physiological roles of native δ-containing GABA A Rs. In this study, the functional properties and mode of action of AA29504 were investigated at human GABA A Rs expressed in Xenopus oocytes by two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology. AA29504 was found to be an allosteric GABA A R agonist displaying low intrinsic activities at 3-30 μM. AA29504 was essentially equipotent as a PAM at the 13 GABA A R subtypes tested (EC 50 : 0.45-5.2 μM), however GABA EC 5 -evoked currents through αβδ subtypes were modulated to substantially higher levels than those through αβγ 2S subtypes (relative to GABA I max ). While the δ/γ 2S -difference clearly was key for this differential GABA efficacy modulation, studies of the AA29504-mediated modulation of different α 4,5,6 -containing αβ, αβγ 2S and αβδ GABA A Rs revealed the α-subunit identity to be another important determinant. Based on its functional properties at numerous mutant GABA A Rs and on in silico analysis of its low-energy conformations, AA29504 is proposed to act through an allosteric site in the transmembrane β (+) /α (-) interface in the GABA A R also targeted by etomidate and several other modulators. In contrast to these modulators, however, AA29504 did not display substantial β 2 /β 3 -over-β 1 GABA A R preference, which challenges the notion of ligands targeting this site always possessing this subtype-selectivity profile. Hence, the detailed pharmacological profiling of AA29504 both highlights the complexity of allosteric GABA A R modulation and provides valuable information about this modulator as a pharmacological tool. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Allosteric modulation of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by HEPES.

    PubMed

    Weltzin, Maegan M; Huang, Yanzhou; Schulte, Marvin K

    2014-06-05

    A number of new positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been reported that enhance responses of neuronal alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes to orthosteric ligands. PAMs represent promising new leads for the development of therapeutic agents for disorders involving alterations in nicotinic neurotransmission including Autism, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. During our recent studies of alpha4beta2 PAMs, we identified a novel effect of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES). The effects of HEPES were evaluated in a phosphate buffered recording solution using two-electrode voltage clamp techniques and alpha4beta2 and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine induced responses of high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors were potentiated 190% by co-exposure to HEPES. Responses were inhibited at higher concentrations (bell-shaped concentration/response curve). Coincidentally, at concentrations of HEPES typically used in oocyte recording (5-10mM), the potentiating effects of HEPES are matched by its inhibitory effects, thus producing no net effect. Mutagenesis results suggest HEPES potentiates the high-sensitivity stoichiometry of the alpha4beta2 receptors through action at the beta2+/beta2- interface and is dependent on residue beta2D218. HEPES did not potentiate low-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors and did not produce any observable effect on acetylcholine induced responses on alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Allosteric modulation of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by HEPES✩

    PubMed Central

    Weltzin, Maegan M; Huang, Yanzhou; Schulte, Marvin K

    2013-01-01

    A number of new positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been reported that enhance responses of neuronal alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes to orthosteric ligands. PAMs represent promising new leads for the development of therapeutic agents for disorders involving alterations in nicotinic neurotransmission including Autism, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. During our recent studies of alpha4beta2 PAMs, we identified a novel effect of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES). The effects of HEPES were evaluated in a phosphate buffered recording solution using two-electrode voltage clamp techniques and alpha4beta2 and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine induced responses of high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors were potentiated 190% by co-exposure to HEPES. Responses were inhibited at higher concentrations (bell-shaped concentration/response curve). Coincidentally, at concentrations of HEPES typically used in oocyte recording (5–10 mM), the potentiating effects of HEPES are matched by its inhibitory effects, thus producing no net effect. Mutagenesis results suggest HEPES potentiates the high-sensitivity stoichiometry of the alpha4beta2 receptors through action at the beta2+/beta2− interface and is dependent on residue beta2D218. HEPES did not potentiate low-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors and did not produce any observable effect on acetylcholine induced responses on alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. PMID:22732654

  8. The MDAC payload assist modules /PAM-A and PAM-D/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordahl, C. A.

    The current configurations of the PAM-D and PAM-A spinning solid upper-stage systems are described. The PAM-D, which is now contracted for use by a number of communications satellite systems, is capable of launching spacecraft weights up to 2750 lb into a 27-deg geosynchronous transfer orbit from the Space Shuttle orbit. It is also compatible with launches as a third stage on the Delta Expendable Launch Vehicle. This system has completed its Delta/PAM qualification program, and the first launch took place in November 1980. The first launch on the Space Transportation System (STS) is scheduled for October 1982. The larger PAM-A system, capable of placing a 4400-lb spacecraft in the same geosynchronous transfer orbit, is being configured for the Intelsat V mission, scheduled for its first STS launch in 1984. Launch preparation, on-orbit operation, and flight performance, as well as procurement methods for these systems are also described.

  9. THE ANTIPSYCHOTIC POTENTIAL OF MUSCARINIC ALLOSTERIC MODULATION

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Thomas M.; LeBois, Evan P.; Hopkins, Corey R.; Wood, Michael R.; Jones, Carrie K.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The cholinergic hypothesis of schizophrenia emerged over 50 years ago based on clinical observations with both anticholinergics and pan-muscarinic agonists. Not until the 1990s did the cholinergic hypothesis of schizophrenia receive renewed enthusiasm based on clinical data with xanomeline, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1/M4-preferring orthosteric agonist. In a clinical trial with Alzheimer’s patients, xanomeline not only improved cognitive performance, but also reduced psychotic behaviors. This encouraging data spurred a second clinical trial in schizophrenic patients, wherein xanomeline significantly improved the positive, negative and cognitive symptom clusters. However, the question remained: Was the antipsychotic efficacy due to activation of M1, M4 or both M1/M4? Classical orthosteric ligands lacked the muscarinic receptor subtype selectivity required to address this key question. More recently, functional assays have allowed for the discovery of ligands that bind at allosteric sites, binding sites distinct from the orthosteric (acetylcholine) site, which are structurally less conserved and thereby afford high levels of receptor subtype selectivity. Recently, allosteric ligands, with unprecedented selectivity for either M1 or M4, have been discovered and have demonstrated comparable efficacy to xanomeline in preclinical antipsychotic and cognition models. These data suggest that selective allosteric activation of either M1 or M4 has antipsychotic potential through distinct, yet complimentary mechanisms. PMID:20520852

  10. Molecular interactions of type I and type II positive allosteric modulators with the human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: an in silico study.

    PubMed

    Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Arias, Hugo R

    2018-02-16

    The binding site locations and structural components for type I and type II positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) have not been fully characterized yet. In this regard, homology models of the human α7 nAChR and hα7/m5-HT 3A chimera, built using the crystal structure of the serotonin type 3A receptor (5-ΗΤ 3Α R), were used for molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations to study the molecular interactions of selected type I (5-hydroxyindol, NS-1738, and LY-2087101) and type II (PNU-120596, PAM-2, and TBS-516) PAMs. The docking results indicate: (1) a site located in the extracellular domain (ECD) for type I PAMs such as NS-1738 and LY-2087101, but not for 5-HI; (2) an overlapping site in the ECD-transmembrane domain (TMD) junction for all studied PAMs. Additional docking results on the hα7/m5-HT 3A chimera supported experimental results indicating that the ECD site might be relevant for type I PAM activity; and (3) two TMD sites, an intrasubunit site that recognizes type II PAMs, and an intersubunit pocket with high specificity for 5-HI (type I PAM). The in silico α7TSLMF mutant results support the view that M1-Ser223 and M3-Ile281 are key residues for the interaction of PAM-2 and PNU-120596 with the intrasubunit cavity. Our in silico results are in agreement with experimental data showing that the intrasubunit cavity is relevant for the activity of type II PAMs, and suggest that the ECD-TMD junction and intersubunit sites could be significant for the activity of type I PAMs.

  11. Exploring the active conformation of cyclohexane carboxylate positive allosteric modulators of the type 4 metabotropic glutamate receptor.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Xavier; Harrak, Youssef; Trapero, Ana; González-Bulnes, Patricia; Malhaire, Fanny; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Goudet, Cyril; Giraldo, Jesús; Llebaria, Amadeu

    2014-12-01

    The active conformation of a family of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 4 (mGlu4 ) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) with the cyclohexane 1,2-dicarboxylic scaffold present in cis-2-(3,5-dichlorophenylcarbamoyl)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (VU0155041) was investigated by testing structurally similar six-membered ring compounds that have a locked conformation. The norbornane and cyclohexane molecules designed as mGlu4 conformational probes and the enantiomers of the trans diastereomer were computationally characterized and tested in mGlu4 pharmacological assays. The results support a VU0155041 active conformation, with the chair cyclohexane having the aromatic amide substituent in an axial position and the carboxylate in an equatorial position. Moreover, the receptor displays enantiomeric discrimination of the chiral PAMs. The constructed pharmacophore characterized a highly constrained mGlu4 allosteric binding site, thus providing a step forward in structure-based drug design for mGlu4 PAMs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Interaction between positive allosteric modulators and trapping blockers of the NMDA receptor channel

    PubMed Central

    Emnett, Christine M; Eisenman, Lawrence N; Mohan, Jayaram; Taylor, Amanda A; Doherty, James J; Paul, Steven M; Zorumski, Charles F; Mennerick, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Memantine and ketamine are clinically used, open-channel blockers of NMDA receptors exhibiting remarkable pharmacodynamic similarities despite strikingly different clinical profiles. Although NMDA channel gating constitutes an important difference between memantine and ketamine, it is unclear how positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) might affect the pharmacodynamics of these NMDA blockers. Experimental Approach We used two different PAMs: SGE-201, an analogue of an endogenous oxysterol, 24S-hydroxycholesterol, along with pregnenolone sulphate (PS), to test on memantine and ketamine responses in single cells (oocytes and cultured neurons) and networks (hippocampal slices), using standard electrophysiological techniques. Key Results SGE-201 and PS had no effect on steady-state block or voltage dependence of a channel blocker. However, both PAMs increased the actions of memantine and ketamine on phasic excitatory post-synaptic currents, but neither revealed underlying pharmacodynamic differences. SGE-201 accelerated the re-equilibration of blockers during voltage jumps. SGE-201 also unmasked differences among the blockers in neuronal networks – measured either by suppression of activity in multi-electrode arrays or by neuroprotection against a mild excitotoxic insult. Either potentiating NMDA receptors while maintaining the basal activity level or increasing activity/depolarization without potentiating NMDA receptor function is sufficient to expose pharmacodynamic blocker differences in suppressing network function and in neuroprotection. Conclusions and Implications Positive modulation revealed no pharmacodynamic differences between NMDA receptor blockers at a constant voltage, but did expose differences during spontaneous network activity. Endogenous modulator tone of NMDA receptors in different brain regions may underlie differences in the effects of NMDA receptor blockers on behaviour. PMID:25377730

  13. Sex-Dependent Anti-Stress Effect of an α5 Subunit Containing GABAA Receptor Positive Allosteric Modulator.

    PubMed

    Piantadosi, Sean C; French, Beverly J; Poe, Michael M; Timić, Tamara; Marković, Bojan D; Pabba, Mohan; Seney, Marianne L; Oh, Hyunjung; Orser, Beverley A; Savić, Miroslav M; Cook, James M; Sibille, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Current first-line treatments for stress-related disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) act on monoaminergic systems and take weeks to achieve a therapeutic effect with poor response and low remission rates. Recent research has implicated the GABAergic system in the pathophysiology of depression, including deficits in interneurons targeting the dendritic compartment of cortical pyramidal cells. Objectives: The present study evaluates whether SH-053-2'F-R-CH3 (denoted "α5-PAM"), a positive allosteric modulator selective for α5-subunit containing GABA A receptors found predominantly on cortical pyramidal cell dendrites, has anti-stress effects. Methods: Female and male C57BL6/J mice were exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) and treated with α5-PAM acutely (30 min prior to assessing behavior) or chronically before being assessed behaviorally. Results: Acute and chronic α5-PAM treatments produce a pattern of decreased stress-induced behaviors (denoted as "behavioral emotionality") across various tests in female, but not in male mice. Behavioral Z -scores calculated across a panel of tests designed to best model the range and heterogeneity of human symptomatology confirmed that acute and chronic α5-PAM treatments consistently produce significant decreases in behavioral emotionality in several independent cohorts of females. The behavioral responses to α5-PAM could not be completely accounted for by differences in drug brain disposition between female and male mice. In mice exposed to UCMS, expression of the Gabra5 gene was increased in the frontal cortex after acute treatment and in the hippocampus after chronic treatment with α5-PAM in females only, and these expression changes correlated with behavioral emotionality. Conclusion: We showed that acute and chronic positive modulation of α5 subunit-containing GABA A receptors elicit anti-stress effects in a sex-dependent manner, suggesting novel therapeutic modalities.

  14. A Duplexed High-Throughput Screen to Identify Allosteric Modulators of the Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 and Glucagon Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Lindsey C.; Days, Emily L.; Turney, Maxine; Mi, Dehui; Lindsley, Craig W.; Weaver, C. David; Niswender, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Injectable, degradation-resistant peptide agonists for the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R), such as exenatide and liraglutide, activate the GLP-1R via a complex orthosteric-binding site and are effective therapeutics for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Orally bioavailable orthosteric small-molecule agonists are unlikely to be developed, whereas positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) may offer an improved therapeutic profile. We hypothesize that allosteric modulators of the GLP-1R would increase the potency and efficacy of native GLP-1 in a spatial and temporally preserved manner and/or may improve efficacy or side effects of injectable analogs. We report the design, optimization, and initial results of a duplexed high-throughput screen in which cell lines overexpressing either the GLP-1R or the glucagon receptor were coplated, loaded with a calcium-sensitive dye, and probed in a three-phase assay to identify agonists, antagonists, and potentiators of GLP-1, and potentiators of glucagon. 175,000 compounds were initially screened, and progression through secondary assays yielded 98 compounds with a variety of activities at the GLP-1R. Here, we describe five compounds possessing different patterns of modulation of the GLP-1R. These data uncover PAMs that may offer a drug-development pathway to enhancing in vivo efficacy of both endogenous GLP-1 and peptide analogs. PMID:24525870

  15. M1 muscarinic allosteric modulators slow prion neurodegeneration and restore memory loss.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Sophie J; Bourgognon, Julie-Myrtille; Sanger, Helen E; Verity, Nicholas; Mogg, Adrian J; White, David J; Butcher, Adrian J; Moreno, Julie A; Molloy, Colin; Macedo-Hatch, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer M; Wess, Jurgen; Pawlak, Robert; Read, David J; Sexton, Patrick M; Broad, Lisa M; Steinert, Joern R; Mallucci, Giovanna R; Christopoulos, Arthur; Felder, Christian C; Tobin, Andrew B

    2017-02-01

    The current frontline symptomatic treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is whole-body upregulation of cholinergic transmission via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. This approach leads to profound dose-related adverse effects. An alternative strategy is to selectively target muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, particularly the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1 mAChR), which was previously shown to have procognitive activity. However, developing M1 mAChR-selective orthosteric ligands has proven challenging. Here, we have shown that mouse prion disease shows many of the hallmarks of human AD, including progressive terminal neurodegeneration and memory deficits due to a disruption of hippocampal cholinergic innervation. The fact that we also show that muscarinic signaling is maintained in both AD and mouse prion disease points to the latter as an excellent model for testing the efficacy of muscarinic pharmacological entities. The memory deficits we observed in mouse prion disease were completely restored by treatment with benzyl quinolone carboxylic acid (BQCA) and benzoquinazoline-12 (BQZ-12), two highly selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of M1 mAChRs. Furthermore, prolonged exposure to BQCA markedly extended the lifespan of diseased mice. Thus, enhancing hippocampal muscarinic signaling using M1 mAChR PAMs restored memory loss and slowed the progression of mouse prion disease, indicating that this ligand type may have clinical benefit in diseases showing defective cholinergic transmission, such as AD.

  16. A Positive Allosteric Modulator of the Serotonin 5-HT2C Receptor for Obesity.

    PubMed

    García-Cárceles, Javier; Decara, Juan M; Vázquez-Villa, Henar; Rodríguez, Ramón; Codesido, Eva; Cruces, Jacobo; Brea, José; Loza, María I; Alén, Francisco; Botta, Joaquin; McCormick, Peter J; Ballesteros, Juan A; Benhamú, Bellinda; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; López-Rodríguez, María L

    2017-12-14

    The 5-HT 2C R agonist lorcaserin, clinically approved for the treatment of obesity, causes important side effects mainly related to subtype selectivity. In the search for 5-HT 2C R allosteric modulators as safer antiobesity drugs, a chemical library from Vivia Biotech was screened using ExviTech platform. Structural modifications of identified hit VA240 in synthesized analogues 6-41 afforded compound 11 (N-[(1-benzyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl]pyridin-3-amine, VA012), which exhibited dose-dependent enhancement of serotonin efficacy, no significant off-target activities, and low binding competition with serotonin or other orthosteric ligands. PAM 11 was very active in feeding inhibition in rodents, an effect that was not related to the activation of 5-HT 2A R. A combination of 11 with the SSRI sertraline increased the anorectic effect. Subchronic administration of 11 reduced food intake and body weight gain without causing CNS-related malaise. The behavior of compound 11 identified in this work supports the interest of a serotonin 5-HT 2C R PAM as a promising therapeutic approach for obesity.

  17. M1 muscarinic allosteric modulators slow prion neurodegeneration and restore memory loss

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Sophie J.; Bourgognon, Julie-Myrtille; Sanger, Helen E.; Verity, Nicholas; Mogg, Adrian J.; White, David J.; Butcher, Adrian J.; Moreno, Julie A.; Macedo-Hatch, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer M.; Wess, Jurgen; Pawlak, Robert; Read, David J.; Sexton, Patrick M.; Broad, Lisa M.; Steinert, Joern R.; Mallucci, Giovanna R.; Felder, Christian C.

    2016-01-01

    The current frontline symptomatic treatment for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is whole-body upregulation of cholinergic transmission via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. This approach leads to profound dose-related adverse effects. An alternative strategy is to selectively target muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, particularly the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1 mAChR), which was previously shown to have procognitive activity. However, developing M1 mAChR–selective orthosteric ligands has proven challenging. Here, we have shown that mouse prion disease shows many of the hallmarks of human AD, including progressive terminal neurodegeneration and memory deficits due to a disruption of hippocampal cholinergic innervation. The fact that we also show that muscarinic signaling is maintained in both AD and mouse prion disease points to the latter as an excellent model for testing the efficacy of muscarinic pharmacological entities. The memory deficits we observed in mouse prion disease were completely restored by treatment with benzyl quinolone carboxylic acid (BQCA) and benzoquinazoline-12 (BQZ-12), two highly selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of M1 mAChRs. Furthermore, prolonged exposure to BQCA markedly extended the lifespan of diseased mice. Thus, enhancing hippocampal muscarinic signaling using M1 mAChR PAMs restored memory loss and slowed the progression of mouse prion disease, indicating that this ligand type may have clinical benefit in diseases showing defective cholinergic transmission, such as AD. PMID:27991860

  18. An Integrated Approach for Screening and Identification of Positive Allosteric Modulators of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors.

    PubMed

    Jambrina, Enrique; Cerne, Rok; Smith, Emery; Scampavia, Louis; Cuadrado, Maria; Findlay, Jeremy; Krambis, Michael J; Wakulchik, Mark; Chase, Peter; Brunavs, Michael; Burris, Kevin D; Gallagher, Peter; Spicer, Timothy P; Ursu, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are ionotropic glutamate receptors that play an important role in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory formation. Malfunctioning of NMDARs, in particular the reduction in NMDAR activity, is thought to be implicated in major neurological disorders. NMDAR positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) represent potential therapeutic interventions for restoring normal NMDAR function. We report a novel screening approach for identification and characterization of NMDAR-PAMs. The approach combines high-throughput fluorescence imaging with automated electrophysiological recording of glutamate-evoked responses in HEK-293 cells expressing NR1/NR2A NMDAR subunits. Initial high-throughput screening (HTS) of a chemical library containing >810,000 compounds using a calcium flux assay in 1536-well plate format identified a total of 864 NMDAR-PAMs. Concentration response determination in both calcium flux and automated electrophysiological assays found several novel chemical series with EC50 values between 0.49 and 10 µM. A small subset (six series) was selected and analyzed for pharmacological properties, subtype selectivity, mode of action, and activity at native NMDARs. Our approach demonstrates the successful application of HTS functional assays that led to identification of NMDAR-PAMs providing the foundation for further medicinal chemistry work that may lead to novel therapies for treatment of cognitive impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  19. Zinc as Allosteric Ion Channel Modulator: Ionotropic Receptors as Metalloproteins

    PubMed Central

    Peralta, Francisco Andrés; Huidobro-Toro, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential metal to life. This transition metal is a structural component of many proteins and is actively involved in the catalytic activity of cell enzymes. In either case, these zinc-containing proteins are metalloproteins. However, the amino acid residues that serve as ligands for metal coordination are not necessarily the same in structural proteins compared to enzymes. While crystals of structural proteins that bind zinc reveal a higher preference for cysteine sulfhydryls rather than histidine imidazole rings, catalytic enzymes reveal the opposite, i.e., a greater preference for the histidines over cysteines for catalysis, plus the influence of carboxylic acids. Based on this paradigm, we reviewed the putative ligands of zinc in ionotropic receptors, where zinc has been described as an allosteric modulator of channel receptors. Although these receptors do not strictly qualify as metalloproteins since they do not normally bind zinc in structural domains, they do transitorily bind zinc at allosteric sites, modifying transiently the receptor channel’s ion permeability. The present contribution summarizes current information showing that zinc allosteric modulation of receptor channels occurs by the preferential metal coordination to imidazole rings as well as to the sulfhydryl groups of cysteine in addition to the carboxyl group of acid residues, as with enzymes and catalysis. It is remarkable that most channels, either voltage-sensitive or transmitter-gated receptor channels, are susceptible to zinc modulation either as positive or negative regulators. PMID:27384555

  20. Optical interferometric synthesis of PAM4 signals based on dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianfeng; Du, Jiangbing; Ren, Rongrong; Ruan, Zhengshang; He, Zuyuan

    2017-11-01

    In this work, optical interferometric synthesis and demodulation of four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) signals by using commercial dual-drive Mach-Zehnder Modulator (DD-MZM) is proposed and studied. Simulations are carried out and signal quality is evaluated in terms of eye jitter, linearity and so on for the PAM4 signals generated by the proposed DD-MZM with improved performance unfolded. Experimental generation of the optically synthesized PAM4 signals up to 50 Gbaud (100 Gbps) is achieved. The transmission of the PAM4 signals over 5-Km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) is carried out with error-free below the FEC limit (3.8E-3) without digital equalization at 90 Gbps. The linear-amplifier-free configuration by DD-MZM leads to simplified implementation and improved performance for high speed PAM4 signal generation, which would be of great significance for short reach optical interconnection.

  1. KK-92A, a novel GABAB receptor positive allosteric modulator, attenuates nicotine self-administration and cue-induced nicotine seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Sturchler, Emmanuel; Kaczanowska, Katarzyna; Cameron, Michael; Finn, M G; Griffin, Patrick; McDonald, Patricia; Markou, Athina

    2017-05-01

    GABA B receptors (GABA B R) play a critical role in GABAergic neurotransmission in the brain and are thought to be one of the most promising targets for the treatment of drug addiction. GABA B R positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have shown promise as potential anti-addictive therapies, as they lack the sedative and muscle relaxant properties of full GABA B receptor agonists such as baclofen. The present study was aimed at developing novel, selective, and potent GABA B R PAMs with efficacy on abuse-related effects of nicotine. We synthetized ~100 analogs of BHF177, a GABA B R PAM that has been shown to inhibit nicotine taking and seeking, and tested their activity in multiple cell-based functional assays. Among these compounds, KK-92A displayed superior PAM properties at the GABA B R. Interestingly, our results revealed the existence of pathway-selective differential modulation of GABA B R signaling by the structurally related GABA B R allosteric modulators BHF177 and KK-92A. In vivo, similarly to BHF177, KK-92A inhibited intravenous nicotine self-administration under both fixed- and progressive-ratio schedules of reinforcement in rats. In contrast to BHF177, KK-92A had no effect on food self-administration. Furthermore, KK-92A decreased cue-induced nicotine-seeking behavior without affecting food seeking. These results indicate that KK-92A is a selective GABA B R PAM with efficacy in inhibition of the primary reinforcing and incentive motivational effects of nicotine, and attenuation of nicotine seeking, further confirming that GABA B R PAMs may be useful antismoking medications.

  2. Identification of glutathione conjugates of acetylene-containing positive allosteric modulators of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Xiaoliang; Huang, Xiaohua Stella; Degnan, Andrew P; Snyder, Lawrence B; Yang, Fukang; Huang, Hong; Shu, Yue-Zhong; Johnson, Benjamin M

    2015-04-01

    A recent medicinal chemistry campaign to identify positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) led to the discovery of potent compounds featuring an oxazolidinone structural core flanked by biaryl acetylene and haloaryl moieties. However, biotransformation studies of some of these mGluR5 PAMs demonstrated the formation of glutathione (GSH) conjugates. The conjugates in question were formed independently of NADPH as the main products in liver microsomes and liver cytosol (rat and human) and exhibited masses that were 307 u greater than their respective substrates, indicating the involvement of a reductive step in the formation of these metabolites. To further characterize the relevant metabolic sequences, GSH conjugates of (4R,5R)-5-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-(5-(pyrazin-2-ylethynyl)pyridin-3-yl)oxazolidin-2-one and (4R,5R)-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-(6-((3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)ethynyl)pyridin-2-yl)oxazolidin-2-one were biosynthesized and isolated. Subsequent analysis by NMR showed that GSH had reacted with the acetylene carbon atoms of these mGluR5 PAMs, suggesting a conjugate addition mechanism and implicating cytosolic and microsomal GSH S-transferases (GSTs) in catalysis. Interestingly, five closely related mGluR5 PAMs were not similarly prone to the formation of GSH conjugates in vitro. These compounds also featured acetylenes, but were flanked by either phenyl or cyclohexyl rings, which indicated that the formation of GSH conjugates was influenced by proximal functional groups that modulated the electron density of the triple bond and/or differences in enzyme-substrate specificity. These results informed an ongoing drug-discovery effort to identify mGluR5 PAMs with drug-like properties and a low risk of reactivity with endogenous thiols. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  3. Sex-Dependent Anti-Stress Effect of an α5 Subunit Containing GABAA Receptor Positive Allosteric Modulator

    PubMed Central

    Piantadosi, Sean C.; French, Beverly J.; Poe, Michael M.; Timić, Tamara; Marković, Bojan D.; Pabba, Mohan; Seney, Marianne L.; Oh, Hyunjung; Orser, Beverley A.; Savić, Miroslav M.; Cook, James M.; Sibille, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Current first-line treatments for stress-related disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) act on monoaminergic systems and take weeks to achieve a therapeutic effect with poor response and low remission rates. Recent research has implicated the GABAergic system in the pathophysiology of depression, including deficits in interneurons targeting the dendritic compartment of cortical pyramidal cells. Objectives: The present study evaluates whether SH-053-2’F-R-CH3 (denoted “α5-PAM”), a positive allosteric modulator selective for α5-subunit containing GABAA receptors found predominantly on cortical pyramidal cell dendrites, has anti-stress effects. Methods: Female and male C57BL6/J mice were exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) and treated with α5-PAM acutely (30 min prior to assessing behavior) or chronically before being assessed behaviorally. Results: Acute and chronic α5-PAM treatments produce a pattern of decreased stress-induced behaviors (denoted as “behavioral emotionality”) across various tests in female, but not in male mice. Behavioral Z-scores calculated across a panel of tests designed to best model the range and heterogeneity of human symptomatology confirmed that acute and chronic α5-PAM treatments consistently produce significant decreases in behavioral emotionality in several independent cohorts of females. The behavioral responses to α5-PAM could not be completely accounted for by differences in drug brain disposition between female and male mice. In mice exposed to UCMS, expression of the Gabra5 gene was increased in the frontal cortex after acute treatment and in the hippocampus after chronic treatment with α5-PAM in females only, and these expression changes correlated with behavioral emotionality. Conclusion: We showed that acute and chronic positive modulation of α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors elicit anti-stress effects in a sex-dependent manner, suggesting novel therapeutic modalities

  4. Homology modeling, docking, and molecular dynamics simulation of the receptor GALR2 and its interactions with galanin and a positive allosteric modulator.

    PubMed

    Hui, Wen-Qi; Cheng, Qi; Liu, Tian-Yu; Ouyang, Qin

    2016-04-01

    Galanin receptor type 2 (GALR2) is a class A G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), and it has been reported that orthosteric ligands and positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of GALR2 could potentially be used to treat epilepsy. So far, the X-ray structure of this receptor has not been resolved, and knowledge of the 3D structure of GALR2 may prove informative in attempts to design novel ligands and to explore the mechanism for the allosteric modulation of this receptor. In this study, homology modeling was used to obtain several GALR2 models using known templates. ProSA-web Z-scores and Ramachandran plots as well as pre-screening against a test dataset of known compounds were all utilized to select the best model of GALR2. Molecular dockings of galanin (a peptide) and a nonpeptide ligand were carried out to choose the (GALR2 model)-galanin complex that showed the closest agreement with the corresponding experimental data. Finally, a 50-ns MD simulation was performed to study the interactions between the GALR2 model and the synthetic and endogenous ligands. The results from docking and MD simulation showed that, besides the reported residues, Tyr160(4.60), Ile105(3.32), Ala274(7.35), and Tyr163(ECL2) also appear to play important roles in the binding of galanin. The potential allosteric binding pockets in the GALR2 model were then investigated via MD simulation. The results indicated that the mechanism for the allosteric modulation caused by PAMs is the binding of the PAM at pocket III, which is formed by galanin, ECL2, TM2, TM3, and ECL1; this results in the disruption of the Na(+)-binding site and/or the Na(+) ion pathway, leading to GALR2 agonism.

  5. Ground processing of the McDonnell Douglas Payload Assist Module (PAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, C. E.; Maclean, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The payload assist module (PAM) ground processing operations which have evolved since they were started in 1982 are described. The objective of the changes was to reduce the prelaunch testing of the airborne support equipment to increase the throughput of PAM systems while not compromising the reliability of the system when functioned on-orbit. The changes that resulted from the initial cargo element ground processing, the on-orbit performance of the systems, plus the postflight refurbishment and recertification of the airborne support equipment resulted in significant reductions in labor expenditures and work shifts required to prepare a PAM system for flight.

  6. Anionic Lipids Allosterically Modulate Multiple Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Conformational Equilibria*

    PubMed Central

    daCosta, Corrie J. B.; Medaglia, Sarah A.; Lavigne, Nadine; Wang, Shuzhi; Carswell, Casey L.; Baenziger, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Anionic lipids influence the ability of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor to gate open in response to neurotransmitter binding, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We show here that anionic lipids with relatively small headgroups, and thus the greatest ability to influence lipid packing/bilayer physical properties, are the most effective at stabilizing an agonist-activatable receptor. The differing abilities of anionic lipids to stabilize an activatable receptor stem from differing abilities to preferentially favor resting over both uncoupled and desensitized conformations. Anionic lipids thus modulate multiple acetylcholine receptor conformational equilibria. Our data suggest that both lipids and membrane physical properties act as classic allosteric modulators influencing function by interacting with and thus preferentially stabilizing different native acetylcholine receptor conformational states. PMID:19815550

  7. Amino acid and peptide prodrugs of diphenylpropanones positive allosteric modulators of α7 nicotinic receptors with analgesic activity.

    PubMed

    Balsera, Beatriz; Mulet, José; Sala, Salvador; Sala, Francisco; de la Torre-Martínez, Roberto; González-Rodríguez, Sara; Plata, Adrián; Naesens, Lieve; Fernández-Carvajal, Asia; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio; Criado, Manuel; Pérez de Vega, María Jesús; González-Muñiz, Rosario

    2018-01-01

    α7 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ion channels implicated in a number of CNS pathological processes, including pain and psychiatric, cognitive and inflammatory diseases. Comparing with orthosteric agonism, positive allosteric modulation of these channels constitutes an interesting approach to achieve selectivity versus other nicotinic receptors. We have recently described new chalcones and 1,3-diphenylpropanones as positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α7 nAChRs, which proved to have good analgesic activities but poor pharmacokinetic properties. Here we report the preparation of amino acid and peptide derivatives as prodrugs of these modulators with the aim of improving their in vivo biological activity. While the valine derivative showed very short half life in aqueous solutions to be considered a prodrug, Val-Val and Val-Pro-Val are suitable precursors of the parent 1,3-diphenylpropanones, via chemical and enzymatic transformation, respectively. Compounds 19 (Val-Val) and 21 (Val-Pro-Val), prodrugs of the 2',5',4-trihydroxy-1,3-diphenylpropan-1-one 3, showed significant antinociceptive activity in in vivo assays. The best compound, 21, displayed a better profile in the analgesia test than its parent compound 3, exhibiting about the same potency but long-lasting effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Reduction of excessive alcohol drinking by a novel GABAB receptor positive allosteric modulator ADX71441 in mice.

    PubMed

    Hwa, Lara S; Kalinichev, Mikhail; Haddouk, Hasnaà; Poli, Sonia; Miczek, Klaus A

    2014-01-01

    A promising pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorders has been positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor B (GABAB R) since GABAB R PAMs reduce ethanol drinking and self-administration in rodents. The current studies investigated a novel, selective GABAB R PAM, ADX71441, in comparison to naltrexone in a protocol of ethanol binge-like drinking, drinking-in-the-dark (DID), and in a model of long-term, excessive drinking, intermittent access to ethanol (IA). Male C57BL/6 J mice were given doses of ADX71441 (3, 10, 30 mg/kg, p.o.) before the fourth test day of repeated DID access to 20 % ethanol. Another group of mice had a history of 4 weeks of IA before ADX71441 (3, 10, 17 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment. The opioid antagonist, naltrexone (0.1, 1, 10 mg/kg, i.p.), was administered to different groups of mice in both protocols as a positive control. In both DID and IA protocols, ADX71441 showed a selective and potent reduction of ethanol drinking, but not water drinking, while naltrexone had a more modest and transient effect on reducing ethanol drinking. The long-lasting effect of ADX71441 agrees with its plasma pharmacokinetics in showing peak concentrations at 2 h followed by a slow decay lasting well beyond 8 h. These findings support previous studies demonstrating that GABAB R PAMs decrease voluntary ethanol intake without altering water intake. ADX71441 may be a worthwhile candidate for developing a treatment of alcoholism, yet its site of action in the brain and long-term pharmacological effects require further exploration.

  9. Low-power DAC-less PAM-4 transmitter using a cascaded microring modulator.

    PubMed

    Dubé-Demers, Raphaël; LaRochelle, Sophie; Shi, Wei

    2016-11-15

    Future super-computer interconnect systems and data centers request ultrahigh data rate links at low cost and power consumption, for which transmitters with a high level of integration and spectral efficient formats are key components. We report 60 Gb/s pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM-4) of an optical signal using a dual-microring silicon photonics circuit, making a low-power, digital-to-analog converter (DAC)-less PAM modulator. The power consumption is evaluated below 100 fJ/bit, including thermal adjustments. To the best of our knowledge, these results feature the lowest reported power consumption for PAM signaling in a DAC-less scheme for data rate beyond 40 Gb/s.

  10. Power penalties for multi-level PAM modulation formats at arbitrary bit error rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliteevskiy, Nikolay A.; Wood, William A.; Downie, John D.; Hurley, Jason; Sterlingov, Petr

    2016-03-01

    There is considerable interest in combining multi-level pulsed amplitude modulation formats (PAM-L) and forward error correction (FEC) in next-generation, short-range optical communications links for increased capacity. In this paper we derive new formulas for the optical power penalties due to modulation format complexity relative to PAM-2 and due to inter-symbol interference (ISI). We show that these penalties depend on the required system bit-error rate (BER) and that the conventional formulas overestimate link penalties. Our corrections to the standard formulas are very small at conventional BER levels (typically 1×10-12) but become significant at the higher BER levels enabled by FEC technology, especially for signal distortions due to ISI. The standard formula for format complexity, P = 10log(L-1), is shown to overestimate the actual penalty for PAM-4 and PAM-8 by approximately 0.1 and 0.25 dB respectively at 1×10-3 BER. Then we extend the well-known PAM-2 ISI penalty estimation formula from the IEEE 802.3 standard 10G link modeling spreadsheet to the large BER case and generalize it for arbitrary PAM-L formats. To demonstrate and verify the BER dependence of the ISI penalty, a set of PAM-2 experiments and Monte-Carlo modeling simulations are reported. The experimental results and simulations confirm that the conventional formulas can significantly overestimate ISI penalties at relatively high BER levels. In the experiments, overestimates up to 2 dB are observed at 1×10-3 BER.

  11. Positive allosteric modulation of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as a new approach to smoking reduction: evidence from a rat model of nicotine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiu

    2013-11-01

    The α4β2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) plays a central role in the mediation of nicotine reinforcement. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) at α4β2 nAChRs facilitate the intrinsic efficiency of these receptors, although they do not directly activate the receptors. α4β2 PAMs are hypothesized to reduce nicotine self-administration in subjects engaged in routine nicotine consumption. The present study tested this hypothesis using a rat model of nicotine self-administration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in daily 1-h sessions to intravenously self-administer nicotine (0.03 mg/kg per infusion, free base) on a fixed-ratio 5 schedule. The effects of the α4β2 PAM desformylflustrabromine (dFBr), α4β2 agonist 5-iodo-A-85380, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine on nicotine intake were examined. The ability of dFBr and 5-iodo-A-85380 to substitute for nicotine was also assessed. dFBr and 5-iodo-A-85380 dose-dependently reduced nicotine self-administration without changing lever responses for food. Galantamine decreased the self-administration of nicotine and food at high doses. Unlike 5-iodo-A-85380, dFBr failed to substitute for nicotine in supporting self-administration behavior. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of dFBr in reducing nicotine intake and the inability of dFBr to support self-administration behavior. These findings suggest that positive allosteric modulation of α4β2 nAChRs may be a promising target for the treatment of nicotine addiction. Moreover, α4β2 PAMs, in contrast to agonist medications, may have clinical advantages because they may have little liability for abuse because of their lack of reinforcing actions on their own.

  12. 3-Furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide, a positive allosteric modulator of the α7 nicotinic receptor, reverses schizophrenia-like cognitive and social deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    Potasiewicz, Agnieszka; Hołuj, Małgorzata; Kos, Tomasz; Popik, Piotr; Arias, Hugo R; Nikiforuk, Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    The cognitive impairments and negative symptoms experienced by schizophrenia patients still await effective treatment. Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs) have gain considerable attention in this regard. It has been recently proposed that positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α7 nAChRs may represent an alternative strategy to that based on orthosteric agonists. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of PAM-2 (3-furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide) against cognitive deficits and negative-like symptoms in a rat model of schizophrenia based on administration of ketamine, a NMDAR antagonist. The activity of PAM-2 was compared to that elicited by DMXBA, an α7 nAChR partial agonist. For this purpose, the attentional set-shifting task (ASST) and the novel object recognition task (NORT) were used. The efficacies of PAM-2 and DMXBA against ketamine-induced social withdrawal were assessed using the social interaction test (SIT). The results demonstrated that PAM-2 and DMXBA ameliorated ketamine-induced cognitive impairments on the ASST and NORT as well as produced pro-social activities in the SIT. Moreover, the co-administration of inactive doses of PAM-2 and antipsychotic drugs, clozapine or risperidone, reversed ketamine-induced deficits. The present findings provide further support for the concept that α7-PAMs could be used either alone or in combination with antipsychotics for schizophrenia therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. New screening strategy and analysis for identification of allosteric modulators for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor using GLP-1 (9-36) amide.

    PubMed

    Nakane, Atsushi; Gotoh, Yusuke; Ichihara, Junji; Nagata, Hidetaka

    2015-12-15

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is an important physiologic regulator of insulin secretion and a major therapeutic target for diabetes mellitus. GLP-1 (7-36) amide (active form of GLP-1) is truncated to GLP-1 (9-36) amide, which has been described as a weak agonist of GLP-1R and the major form of GLP-1 in the circulation. New classes of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) for GLP-1R may offer improved therapeutic profiles. To identify these new classes, we developed novel and robust primary and secondary high-throughput screening (HTS) systems in which PAMs were identified to enhance the GLP-1R signaling induced by GLP-1 (9-36) amide. Screening enabled identification of two compounds, HIT-465 and HIT-736, which possessed new patterns of modulation of GLP-1R. We investigated the ability of these compounds to modify GLP-1R signaling enhanced GLP-1 (9-36) amide- and/or GLP-1 (7-36) amide-mediated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation. These compounds also had unique profiles with regard to allosteric modulation of multiple downstream signaling (PathHunter β-arrestin signaling, PathHunter internalization signaling, microscopy-based internalization assay). We found allosteric modulation patterns to be obviously different among HIT-465, HIT-736, and Novo Nordisk compound 2. This work may enable the design of new classes of drug candidates by targeting modulation of GLP-1 (7-36) amide and GLP-1 (9-36) amide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Structural Basis of ATP as an Allosteric Modulator

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Shen, Qiancheng; Li, Shuai; Nussinov, Ruth; Zhang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) is generally regarded as a substrate for energy currency and protein modification. Recent findings uncovered the allosteric function of ATP in cellular signal transduction but little is understood about this critical behavior of ATP. Through extensive analysis of ATP in solution and proteins, we found that the free ATP can exist in the compact and extended conformations in solution, and the two different conformational characteristics may be responsible for ATP to exert distinct biological functions: ATP molecules adopt both compact and extended conformations in the allosteric binding sites but conserve extended conformations in the substrate binding sites. Nudged elastic band simulations unveiled the distinct dynamic processes of ATP binding to the corresponding allosteric and substrate binding sites of uridine monophosphate kinase, and suggested that in solution ATP preferentially binds to the substrate binding sites of proteins. When the ATP molecules occupy the allosteric binding sites, the allosteric trigger from ATP to fuel allosteric communication between allosteric and functional sites is stemmed mainly from the triphosphate part of ATP, with a small number from the adenine part of ATP. Taken together, our results provide overall understanding of ATP allosteric functions responsible for regulation in biological systems. PMID:25211773

  15. Therapeutic effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 positive allosteric modulator CDPPB on phencyclidine-induced cognitive deficits in mice.

    PubMed

    Horio, Mao; Fujita, Yuko; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2013-10-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of CDPPB (3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide), a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu₅), on cognitive deficits in mice after repeated administration of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP). In the novel object recognition test, PCP (10 mg/kg/day for 10 days)-induced cognitive deficits in mice were not improved by a single administration of CDPPB (10 mg/kg/day). However, PCP (10 mg/kg/day for 10 days)-induced cognitive deficits in mice were significantly improved by subsequent subchronic (14 days) administration of CDPPB (10 mg/kg/day), but not of CDPPB (1.0 mg/kg/day). This study suggests that PCP-induced cognitive deficits in mice are improved by subsequent subchronic administration of CDPPB. Therefore, mGlu₅ PAMs would be potential therapeutic drugs for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. © 2012 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  16. Synaptic depression via mGluR1 positive allosteric modulation suppresses cue-induced cocaine craving

    PubMed Central

    Loweth, Jessica A.; Scheyer, Andrew F.; Milovanovic, Mike; LaCrosse, Amber L.; Flores-Barrera, Eden; Werner, Craig T.; Li, Xuan; Ford, Kerstin A.; Le, Tuan; Olive, M. Foster; Szumlinski, Karen K.; Tseng, Kuei Y.; Wolf, Marina E.

    2014-01-01

    Cue-induced cocaine craving is a major cause of relapse in abstinent addicts. In rats, cue-induced craving progressively intensifies (incubates) during withdrawal from extended-access cocaine self-administration. After ~1 month of withdrawal, incubated craving is mediated by Ca2+-permeable AMPARs (CP-AMPARs) that accumulate in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We found that decreased mGluR1 surface expression in the NAc precedes and enables CP-AMPAR accumulation. Thus, restoring mGluR1 tone by administering repeated injections of an mGluR1 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) prevented CP-AMPAR accumulation and incubation, whereas blocking mGluR1 transmission at even earlier withdrawal times accelerated CP-AMPAR accumulation. In studies conducted after prolonged withdrawal, when CP-AMPAR levels and cue-induced craving are high, we found that systemic administration of an mGluR1 PAM attenuated the expression of incubated craving by reducing CP-AMPAR transmission in the NAc to control levels. These results demonstrate a strategy whereby recovering addicts could use a systemically active compound to protect against cue-induced relapse. PMID:24270186

  17. Structural basis for modulation of a G-protein-coupled receptor by allosteric drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dror, Ron O.; Green, Hillary F.; Valant, Celine; Borhani, David W.; Valcourt, James R.; Pan, Albert C.; Arlow, Daniel H.; Canals, Meritxell; Lane, J. Robert; Rahmani, Raphaël; Baell, Jonathan B.; Sexton, Patrick M.; Christopoulos, Arthur; Shaw, David E.

    2013-11-01

    The design of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) allosteric modulators, an active area of modern pharmaceutical research, has proved challenging because neither the binding modes nor the molecular mechanisms of such drugs are known. Here we determine binding sites, bound conformations and specific drug-receptor interactions for several allosteric modulators of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2 receptor), a prototypical family A GPCR, using atomic-level simulations in which the modulators spontaneously associate with the receptor. Despite substantial structural diversity, all modulators form cation-π interactions with clusters of aromatic residues in the receptor extracellular vestibule, approximately 15Å from the classical, `orthosteric' ligand-binding site. We validate the observed modulator binding modes through radioligand binding experiments on receptor mutants designed, on the basis of our simulations, either to increase or to decrease modulator affinity. Simulations also revealed mechanisms that contribute to positive and negative allosteric modulation of classical ligand binding, including coupled conformational changes of the two binding sites and electrostatic interactions between ligands in these sites. These observations enabled the design of chemical modifications that substantially alter a modulator's allosteric effects. Our findings thus provide a structural basis for the rational design of allosteric modulators targeting muscarinic and possibly other GPCRs.

  18. Chromatin Loops as Allosteric Modulators of Enhancer-Promoter Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Boryana; Fudenberg, Geoffrey; Imakaev, Maxim; Mirny, Leonid A.

    2014-01-01

    The classic model of eukaryotic gene expression requires direct spatial contact between a distal enhancer and a proximal promoter. Recent Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C) studies show that enhancers and promoters are embedded in a complex network of looping interactions. Here we use a polymer model of chromatin fiber to investigate whether, and to what extent, looping interactions between elements in the vicinity of an enhancer-promoter pair can influence their contact frequency. Our equilibrium polymer simulations show that a chromatin loop, formed by elements flanking either an enhancer or a promoter, suppresses enhancer-promoter interactions, working as an insulator. A loop formed by elements located in the region between an enhancer and a promoter, on the contrary, facilitates their interactions. We find that different mechanisms underlie insulation and facilitation; insulation occurs due to steric exclusion by the loop, and is a global effect, while facilitation occurs due to an effective shortening of the enhancer-promoter genomic distance, and is a local effect. Consistently, we find that these effects manifest quite differently for in silico 3C and microscopy. Our results show that looping interactions that do not directly involve an enhancer-promoter pair can nevertheless significantly modulate their interactions. This phenomenon is analogous to allosteric regulation in proteins, where a conformational change triggered by binding of a regulatory molecule to one site affects the state of another site. PMID:25340767

  19. Antipsychotic drug-like effects of the selective M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor positive allosteric modulator VU0152100.

    PubMed

    Byun, Nellie E; Grannan, Michael; Bubser, Michael; Barry, Robert L; Thompson, Analisa; Rosanelli, John; Gowrishankar, Raajaram; Kelm, Nathaniel D; Damon, Stephen; Bridges, Thomas M; Melancon, Bruce J; Tarr, James C; Brogan, John T; Avison, Malcolm J; Deutch, Ariel Y; Wess, Jürgen; Wood, Michael R; Lindsley, Craig W; Gore, John C; Conn, P Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K

    2014-06-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that selective M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) activators may offer a novel strategy for the treatment of psychosis. However, previous efforts to develop selective M4 activators were unsuccessful because of the lack of M4 mAChR subtype specificity and off-target muscarinic adverse effects. We recently developed VU0152100, a highly selective M4 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) that exerts central effects after systemic administration. We now report that VU0152100 dose-dependently reverses amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in rats and wild-type mice, but not in M4 KO mice. VU0152100 also blocks amphetamine-induced disruption of the acquisition of contextual fear conditioning and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex. These effects were observed at doses that do not produce catalepsy or peripheral adverse effects associated with non-selective mAChR agonists. To further understand the effects of selective potentiation of M4 on region-specific brain activation, VU0152100 alone and in combination with amphetamine were evaluated using pharmacologic magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI). Key neural substrates of M4-mediated modulation of the amphetamine response included the nucleus accumbens (NAS), caudate-putamen (CP), hippocampus, and medial thalamus. Functional connectivity analysis of phMRI data, specifically assessing correlations in activation between regions, revealed several brain networks involved in the M4 modulation of amphetamine-induced brain activation, including the NAS and retrosplenial cortex with motor cortex, hippocampus, and medial thalamus. Using in vivo microdialysis, we found that VU0152100 reversed amphetamine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine levels in NAS and CP. The present data are consistent with an antipsychotic drug-like profile of activity for VU0152100. Taken together, these data support the development of selective M4 PAMs as a new approach to the treatment of psychosis

  20. Antipsychotic Drug-Like Effects of the Selective M4 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Positive Allosteric Modulator VU0152100

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Nellie E; Grannan, Michael; Bubser, Michael; Barry, Robert L; Thompson, Analisa; Rosanelli, John; Gowrishankar, Raajaram; Kelm, Nathaniel D; Damon, Stephen; Bridges, Thomas M; Melancon, Bruce J; Tarr, James C; Brogan, John T; Avison, Malcolm J; Deutch, Ariel Y; Wess, Jürgen; Wood, Michael R; Lindsley, Craig W; Gore, John C; Conn, P Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that selective M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) activators may offer a novel strategy for the treatment of psychosis. However, previous efforts to develop selective M4 activators were unsuccessful because of the lack of M4 mAChR subtype specificity and off-target muscarinic adverse effects. We recently developed VU0152100, a highly selective M4 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) that exerts central effects after systemic administration. We now report that VU0152100 dose-dependently reverses amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in rats and wild-type mice, but not in M4 KO mice. VU0152100 also blocks amphetamine-induced disruption of the acquisition of contextual fear conditioning and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex. These effects were observed at doses that do not produce catalepsy or peripheral adverse effects associated with non-selective mAChR agonists. To further understand the effects of selective potentiation of M4 on region-specific brain activation, VU0152100 alone and in combination with amphetamine were evaluated using pharmacologic magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI). Key neural substrates of M4-mediated modulation of the amphetamine response included the nucleus accumbens (NAS), caudate-putamen (CP), hippocampus, and medial thalamus. Functional connectivity analysis of phMRI data, specifically assessing correlations in activation between regions, revealed several brain networks involved in the M4 modulation of amphetamine-induced brain activation, including the NAS and retrosplenial cortex with motor cortex, hippocampus, and medial thalamus. Using in vivo microdialysis, we found that VU0152100 reversed amphetamine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine levels in NAS and CP. The present data are consistent with an antipsychotic drug-like profile of activity for VU0152100. Taken together, these data support the development of selective M4 PAMs as a new approach to the treatment of psychosis

  1. Optical PAM-4 signal generation using a silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator.

    PubMed

    Shao, Sizhu; Ding, Jianfeng; Zheng, Lingchen; Zou, Kaiheng; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Fan; Yang, Lin

    2017-09-18

    An analytic model is proposed to study the linearity performance of the silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator. According to the simulation results, we optimize the width of the silicon rib waveguide and the location of the PN junction to improve the linearity performance. The fabricated silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator has a spurious free dynamic range of 113.3 dB.Hz 2/3 and 88.9 dB.Hz 1/2 for the third-order intermodulation distortion and the second-order harmonic distortion. We also demonstrate the optical four-level pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM-4) signal generation through the device. The generated optical PAM-4 signal is characterized at the rates up to 35 Gbaud. The BERs of the optical PAM-4 signals can reach 5.2╳10 -6 at 20 Gbaud and 6.6╳10 -5 at 32 Gbaud, which are much lower than the threshold of hard decision forward error correction (3.8 ╳10 -3 ).

  2. The In Vivo Effects of the CB1-Positive Allosteric Modulator GAT229 on Intraocular Pressure in Ocular Normotensive and Hypertensive Mice.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Elizabeth A; Szczesniak, Anna-Maria; Straiker, Alex J; Kulkarni, Pushkar M; Pertwee, Roger G; Thakur, Ganesh A; Baldridge, William H; Kelly, Melanie E M

    2017-10-01

    Orthosteric cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB 1 ) activation leads to decreases in intraocular pressure (IOP). However, use of orthosteric CB 1 agonists chronically has several disadvantages, limiting their usefulness as clinically relevant drugs. Allosteric modulators interact with topographically distinct sites to orthosteric ligands and may be useful to circumvent some of these disadvantages. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the novel CB 1 -positive allosteric modulator (PAM) GAT229 on IOP. IOP was measured using rebound tonometry in anesthetized normotensive C57Bl/6 mice and in a genetic model of ocular hypertension [nose, eyes, ears (nee) mice] before drug administration, and at 1, 6, and 12 h thereafter. In normotensive mice, topical administration of 5 μL GAT229 alone at either 0.2% or 2% did not reduce IOP. However, a subthreshold dose (0.25%) of the nonselective orthosteric CB 1 agonist WIN 55,212-2, when combined with 0.2% GAT229, significantly reduced IOP compared with vehicle at 6 and 12 h. Similarly, combination of subthreshold Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (a nonselective orthosteric CB 1 agonist; 1 mg/kg) with topical 0.2% GAT229 produced IOP lowering at 6 h. In nee mice, administration of topical 0.2% GAT229 or 10 mg/kg GAT229 alone was sufficient to lower IOP at 6 and 12 h, and 12 h, respectively. The CB 1 PAM GAT229 reduces IOP in ocular hypertensive mice and enhanced CB 1 -mediated IOP reduction when combined with subthreshold CB 1 orthosteric ligands in normotensive mice. Administration of CB 1 PAMs may provide a novel approach to reduce IOP with fewer of the disadvantages associated with orthosteric CB 1 activation.

  3. Pro-cognitive activity in rats of 3-furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide, a positive allosteric modulator of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Potasiewicz, A; Kos, T; Ravazzini, F; Puia, G; Arias, H R; Popik, P; Nikiforuk, A

    2015-11-01

    α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs) may represent useful targets for cognitive improvement. The aim of this study is to compare the pro-cognitive activity of selective α7-nAChR ligands, including the partial agonists, DMXBA and A-582941, as well as the positive allosteric modulator, 3-furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide (PAM-2). The attentional set-shifting task (ASST) and the novel object recognition task (NORT) in rats, were used to evaluate the pro-cognitive activity of each ligand [i.e., PAM-2 (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg·kg(-1) ), DMXBA and A-582941 (0.3 and 1.0 mg·kg(-1) )], in the absence and presence of methyllycaconitine (MLA), a selective competitive antagonist. To determine potential drug interactions, an inactive dose of PAM-2 (0.5 mg·kg(-1) ) was co-injected with inactive doses of either agonist - DMXBA: 0.1 (NORT); 0.3 mg·kg(-1) (ASST) or A-582941: 0.1 mg·kg(-1) . PAM-2, DMXBA, and A-582941 improved cognition in a MLA-dependent manner, indicating that the observed activities are mediated by α7 nAChRs. Interestingly, the co-injection of inactive doses of PAM-2 and DMXBA or A-582941 also improved cognition, suggesting drug interactions. Moreover, PAM-2 reversed the scopolamine-induced NORT deficit. The electrophysiological results also support the view that PAM-2 potentiates the α7 nAChR currents elicited by a fixed concentration (3 μM) of DMXBA with apparent EC50 = 34 ± 3 μM and Emax = 225 ± 5 %. Our results support the view that α7 nAChRs are involved in cognition processes and that PAM-2 is a novel promising candidate for the treatment of cognitive disorders. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Comparison of PAM and CAP modulations robustness against mode partition noise in optical links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepniak, Grzegorz

    2017-08-01

    Mode partition noise (MPN) of the laser employed at the transmitter can significantly degrade the transmission performance. In the paper, we introduce a simulation model of MPN in vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) and simulate transmission of pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and carrierless amplitude phase (CAP) signals in multimode fiber (MMF) link. By turning off other effects, like relative intensity noise (RIN), we focus solely on the influence of MPN on transmission performance degradation. Robustness of modulation and equalization type against MPN is studied.

  5. FUNCTIONAL INSIGHT INTO DEVELOPMENT OF POSITIVE ALLOSTERIC MODULATORS OF AMPA RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Autumn M.; Harms, Jonathan E.; Partin, Kathryn M.; Benveniste, Morris

    2014-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) ionotropic glutamate receptors facilitate synaptic plasticity and contribute essentially to learning and memory, properties which make AMPA receptors targets for drug discovery and development. One region at which several different classes of positive allosteric modulators bind lies at the dimer interface between the ligand-binding core of the second, membrane-proximal, extracellular domain of AMPA receptors. This solvent-accessible binding pocket has been the target of drug discovery efforts, leading to the recent delineation of five “subsites” which differentially allow access to modulator moieties, and for which distinct modulator affinities and apparent efficacies are attributed. Here we use the voltage-clamp technique in conjunction with rapid drug application to study the effects of mutants lining subsites “A” and “B” of the allosteric modulator pocket to assess affinity and efficacy of allosteric modulation by cyclothiazide, CX614, CMPDA and CMPDB. A novel analysis of the decay of current produced by the onset of desensitization has allowed us to estimate both affinity and efficacy from single concentrations of modulator. Such an approach may be useful for effective high throughput screening of new target compounds. PMID:24878241

  6. Attenuation of Compulsive-Like Behavior Through Positive Allosteric Modulation of α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Non-Induced Compulsive-Like Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Swarup; Mucha, Mckenzie; Khatri, Shailesh N.; Glenon, Richard; Schulte, Marvin K.; Bult-Ito, Abel

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinic α4β2 receptors are the most abundant subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in brain regions implicated in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). These receptors are known to modify normal and addictive behaviors by modulating neuronal excitability. Desformylflustrabromine (dFBr) is a novel, positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of high acetylcholine sensitivity (HS) and low acetylcholine sensitivity (LS) α4β2 nAChRs. The present study tested the hypothesis that positive allosteric modulation of α4β2 receptors by dFBr will attenuate compulsive-like behavior in a non-induced compulsive-like mouse model. Male mice (Mus musculus) selected for compulsive-like nesting behavior (NB; 48 animals; 12 per group) received acute (once) and chronic (every day for 32 days) subcutaneous injection of dFBr at 2, 4 and 6 mg/kg doses. Saline was used as a control (0 mg/kg). Compulsive-like NB was assessed after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 24 h, while compulsive-like marble burying (MB) and anxiety-like open field (OF) behaviors were performed 2 h after dFBr administration. In the acute administration protocol, dFBr dose dependently attenuated NB and MB. Rapid effects (1–2 h after drug administration) of dFBr on MB and NB were observed for the chronic administration which was in congruence with the acute study. Chronic administration also revealed sustained suppression of NB by dFBr following 5 weeks of treatment. In both the acute and chronic regimen dFBr did not modulate OF behaviors. This research demonstrates the novel role of positive allosteric modulation of α4β2 nicotinic receptors by dFBr as a translational potential for OCD. PMID:28105008

  7. Attenuation of Compulsive-Like Behavior Through Positive Allosteric Modulation of α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Non-Induced Compulsive-Like Mice.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Swarup; Mucha, Mckenzie; Khatri, Shailesh N; Glenon, Richard; Schulte, Marvin K; Bult-Ito, Abel

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic α4β2 receptors are the most abundant subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in brain regions implicated in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). These receptors are known to modify normal and addictive behaviors by modulating neuronal excitability. Desformylflustrabromine (dFBr) is a novel, positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of high acetylcholine sensitivity (HS) and low acetylcholine sensitivity (LS) α4β2 nAChRs. The present study tested the hypothesis that positive allosteric modulation of α4β2 receptors by dFBr will attenuate compulsive-like behavior in a non-induced compulsive-like mouse model. Male mice ( Mus musculus ) selected for compulsive-like nesting behavior (NB; 48 animals; 12 per group) received acute (once) and chronic (every day for 32 days) subcutaneous injection of dFBr at 2, 4 and 6 mg/kg doses. Saline was used as a control (0 mg/kg). Compulsive-like NB was assessed after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 24 h, while compulsive-like marble burying (MB) and anxiety-like open field (OF) behaviors were performed 2 h after dFBr administration. In the acute administration protocol, dFBr dose dependently attenuated NB and MB. Rapid effects (1-2 h after drug administration) of dFBr on MB and NB were observed for the chronic administration which was in congruence with the acute study. Chronic administration also revealed sustained suppression of NB by dFBr following 5 weeks of treatment. In both the acute and chronic regimen dFBr did not modulate OF behaviors. This research demonstrates the novel role of positive allosteric modulation of α4β2 nicotinic receptors by dFBr as a translational potential for OCD.

  8. "Molecular Switches" on mGluR Allosteric Ligands That Modulate Modes of Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Michael R.; Hopkins, Corey R.; Brogan, John T.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.

    2013-01-01

    G-Protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the largest class of drug targets, accounting for more than 40% of marketed drugs; however, discovery efforts for many GPCRs have failed to provide viable drug candidates. Historically, drug discovery efforts have focused on developing ligands that act at the orthosteric site of the endogenous agonist. Recently, efforts have focused on functional assay paradigms and the discovery of ligands that act at allosteric sites to modulate receptor function in either a positive, negative, or neutral manner. Allosteric modulators have numerous advantages over orthosteric ligands, including high subtype selectivity; the ability to mimic physiological conditions; the lack of densensitization, downregulation, and internalization; and reduced side effects. Despite these virtues, challenging issues have now arisen for allosteric modulators of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs): shallow SAR, ligand-directed trafficking, and the identification of subtle “molecular switches” that modulate the modes of pharmacology. Here, we will discuss the impact of modest structural changes to multiple mGluR allosteric ligands scaffolds that unexpectedly modulate pharmacology and raise concerns over metabolism and the pharmacology of metabolites. PMID:21341760

  9. The AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulator S 47445 rescues in vivo CA3-CA1 long-term potentiation and structural synaptic changes in old mice.

    PubMed

    Giralt, Albert; Gómez-Climent, María Ángeles; Alcalá, Rafael; Bretin, Sylvie; Bertrand, Daniel; María Delgado-García, José; Pérez-Navarro, Esther; Alberch, Jordi; Gruart, Agnès

    2017-09-01

    Positive allosteric modulators of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) are small molecules that decrease deactivation of AMPARs via an allosteric site. These molecules keep the receptor in an active state. Interestingly, this type of modulator has been proposed for treating cognitive decline in ageing, dementias, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). S 47445 (8-cyclopropyl-3-[2-(3-fluorophenyl)ethyl]-7,8-dihydro-3H-[1,3]oxazino[6,5-g][1,2,3]benzotriazine-4,9-dione) is a novel AMPAR positive allosteric modulator (AMPA-PAM). Here, the mechanisms by which S 47445 could improve synaptic strength and connectivity were studied and compared between young and old mice. A single oral administration of S 47445 at 10 mg/kg significantly increased long-term potentiation (LTP) in CA3-CA1 hippocampal synapses in alert young mice in comparison to control mice. Moreover, chronic treatment with S 47445 at 10 mg/kg in old alert animals significantly counteracted the deficit of LTP due to age. Accordingly, chronic treatment with S 47445 at 10 mg/kg seems to preserve synaptic cytoarchitecture in old mice as compared with young control mice. It was shown that the significant decreases in number and size of pre-synaptic buttons stained for VGlut1, and post-synaptic dendritic spines stained for spinophilin, observed in old mice were significantly prevented after chronic treatment with 10 mg/kg of S 47445. Altogether, by its different effects on LTP, VGlut1-positive particles, and spinophilin, S 47445 is able to modulate both the structure and function of hippocampal excitatory synapses known to be involved in learning and memory processes. These results open a new window for the treatment of specific age-dependent cognitive decline and dementias such as AD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing Allosteric Modulation of CB1 at the Receptor and Cellular Levels

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Caitlin E.; Kendall, Debra A.

    2017-01-01

    The cannabinoid CB1 receptor is abundant in the central nervous system and regulates neuronal transmission and other key physiological processes including those leading to pain, inflammation, memory, and feeding behavior. CB1 is activated by the endogenous ligands, arachidonoyl ethanolamine and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, by various synthetic ligands (e.g., CP55940), and by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa. These CB1 ligands are orthosteric and transduce downstream signals by binding CB1 and primarily inducing Gi coupling, but Gs and β-arrestin coupling are also possible. Recently, allosteric modulators for CB1 were discovered that bind to topographically distinct sites and can noncompetitively impact the potency and efficacy of orthosteric compounds. These offer the exciting potential for mechanistic analyses and for developing therapeutics. Yet, it is critical to elucidate whether a compound is a positive allosteric modulator or a negative allosteric modulator of orthosteric ligand-induced CB1 profiles to understand pathway specificity and ameliorate diseases. In this chapter, we present equilibrium and kinetic binding analysis to reveal the impact of allosteric modulators on CB1. Also described are activities consistent with CB1 activation (or inactivation) and include cellular internalization of CB1 and downstream signaling patterns. Since many CB1 allosteric modulators do not enhance G protein coupling, it is critical to distinguish CB1 activation and biased signaling patterns via β-arrestin from CB1 inactivation. These strategies can illuminate pathway specificity and are valuable for the fine-tuning of CB1 function. PMID:28750809

  11. Expression and modulation of nerve growth factor in murine keratinocytes (PAM 212)

    SciTech Connect

    Tron, V.A.; Coughlin, M.D.; Jang, D.E.

    1990-04-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a polypeptide that is required for normal development and maintenance of the sympathetic and sensory nervous systems. Skin has been shown to contain relatively high amounts of NGF, which is in keeping with the finding that the quantity of NGF in a tissue is proportional to the extent of sympathetic innervation of that organ. Since the keratinocyte, a major cellular constituent of the skin, is known to produce other growth factors and cytokines, our experiments were designed to determine whether keratinocytes are a source of NGF. Keratinocyte-conditioned media from the keratinocyte cell line PAM 212more » contained NGF-like activity, approximately 2-3 ng/ml, as detected by the neurite outgrowth assay. Freshly isolated BALB/c keratinocytes contained approximately 0.1 ng/ml. Using a cDNA probe directed against NGF, we demonstrated the presence of a 1.3-kb NGF mRNA in both PAM 212 and BALB/c keratinocytes. Since ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a potentially important modulating factor for cytokines in skin, we examined the effect of UV on NGF mRNA expression. Although UV initially inhibited the expression of keratinocyte NGF mRNA (4 h), by 24 h an induction of NGF mRNA was seen. The NGF signal could also be induced by phorbol esters. Thus, keratinocytes synthesize and express NGF, and its expression is modulated by UVB and phorbol esters.« less

  12. Discovery of VU0467485/AZ13713945: An M4 PAM Evaluated as a Preclinical Candidate for the Treatment of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wood, Michael R; Noetzel, Meredith J; Melancon, Bruce J; Poslusney, Michael S; Nance, Kellie D; Hurtado, Miguel A; Luscombe, Vincent B; Weiner, Rebecca L; Rodriguez, Alice L; Lamsal, Atin; Chang, Sichen; Bubser, Michael; Blobaum, Anna L; Engers, Darren W; Niswender, Colleen M; Jones, Carrie K; Brandon, Nicholas J; Wood, Michael W; Duggan, Mark E; Conn, P Jeffrey; Bridges, Thomas M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-02-09

    Herein, we report the structure-activity relationships within a series of potent, selective, and orally bioavailable muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 4 (M 4 ) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). Compound 6c (VU0467485) possesses robust in vitro M 4 PAM potency across species and in vivo efficacy in preclinical models of schizophrenia. Coupled with an attractive DMPK profile and suitable predicted human PK, 6c (VU0467485) was evaluated as a preclinical development candidate.

  13. Discovery of VU0467485/AZ13713945: An M4 PAM Evaluated as a Preclinical Candidate for the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report the structure–activity relationships within a series of potent, selective, and orally bioavailable muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 4 (M4) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). Compound 6c (VU0467485) possesses robust in vitro M4 PAM potency across species and in vivo efficacy in preclinical models of schizophrenia. Coupled with an attractive DMPK profile and suitable predicted human PK, 6c (VU0467485) was evaluated as a preclinical development candidate. PMID:28197318

  14. Modulation of hemoglobin dynamics by an allosteric effector

    DOE PAGES

    Lal, Jyotsana; Maccarini, Marco; Fouquet, Peter; ...

    2016-12-15

    Hemoglobin (Hb) is an extensively studied paradigm of proteins that alter their function in response to allosteric effectors. Models of its action have been used as prototypes for structure-function relationships in many proteins, and models for the molecular basis of its function have been deeply studied and extensively argued. Recent reports suggest that dynamics may play an important role in its function. Relatively little is known about the slow, correlated motions of hemoglobin subunits in various structural states because experimental and computational strategies for their characterization are challenging. Allosteric effectors such as inositol hexaphosphate (IHP) bind to both deoxy-Hb andmore » HbCO, albeit at different sites, leading to a lowered oxygen affinity. The manner in which these effectors impact oxygen binding is unclear and may involve changes in structure, dynamics or both. Here we use neutron spin echo (NSE) measurements accompanied by wideangle x-ray scattering (WAXS) to show that binding of IHP to HbCO results in an increase in the rate of coordinated motions of Hb subunits relative to one another with little if any change in large scale structure. This increase of large-scale dynamics seems to be coupled with a decrease in the average magnitude of higher frequency modes of individual residues. Furthermore, these observations indicate that enhanced dynamic motions contribute to the functional changes induced by IHP and suggest that they may be responsible for the lowered oxygen affinity triggered by these effectors.« less

  15. Modulation of hemoglobin dynamics by an allosteric effector

    PubMed Central

    Maccarini, Marco; Fouquet, Peter; Ho, Nancy T.; Ho, Chien; Makowski, Lee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hemoglobin (Hb) is an extensively studied paradigm of proteins that alter their function in response to allosteric effectors. Models of its action have been used as prototypes for structure‐function relationships in many proteins, and models for the molecular basis of its function have been deeply studied and extensively argued. Recent reports suggest that dynamics may play an important role in its function. Relatively little is known about the slow, correlated motions of hemoglobin subunits in various structural states because experimental and computational strategies for their characterization are challenging. Allosteric effectors such as inositol hexaphosphate (IHP) bind to both deoxy‐Hb and HbCO, albeit at different sites, leading to a lowered oxygen affinity. The manner in which these effectors impact oxygen binding is unclear and may involve changes in structure, dynamics or both. Here we use neutron spin echo measurements accompanied by wide‐angle X‐ray scattering to show that binding of IHP to HbCO results in an increase in the rate of coordinated motions of Hb subunits relative to one another with little if any change in large scale structure. This increase of large‐scale dynamics seems to be coupled with a decrease in the average magnitude of higher frequency modes of individual residues. These observations indicate that enhanced dynamic motions contribute to the functional changes induced by IHP and suggest that they may be responsible for the lowered oxygen affinity triggered by these effectors. PMID:27977887

  16. Desformylflustrabromine Modulates α4β2 Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor High- and Low-Sensitivity Isoforms at Allosteric Clefts Containing the β2 Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Weltzin, Maegan M.

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in expression patterns of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have been demonstrated to alter cholinergic neurotransmission and are implicated in neurologic disorders, including autism, nicotine addiction, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) represent promising new leads in the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of these disorders. This study investigates the involvement of the β2-containing subunit interfaces of α4β2 receptors in the modulation of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced responses by the PAM desformylflustrabromine (dFBr). Eight amino acids on the principal face of the β2 subunit were mutated to alanine to explore the involvement of this region in the potentiation of ACh-induced currents by dFBr. ACh-induced responses obtained from wild-type and mutant α4β2 receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes were recorded in the presence and absence of dFBr using two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology. Wild-type and mutant receptors were expressed in both high and low ACh sensitivity isoforms by using biased injection ratios of 1:5 or 5:1 α4 to β2 complementary RNA. Mutations were made in the B, C, and A loops of the principal face of the β2 subunit, which are regions not involved in the binding of ACh. Mutant β2(Y120A) significantly eliminated dFBr potency in both isoform preparations. Several other mutations altered dFBr potentiation levels in both preparations. Our findings support the involvement of the principal face of the β2 subunit in dFBr modulation of ACh-induced responses. Findings from this study will aid in the improved design of dFBr-like PAMs for potential therapeutic use. PMID:26025967

  17. Orally Active Metabotropic Glutamate Subtype 2 Receptor Positive Allosteric Modulators: Structure-Activity Relationships and Assessment in a Rat Model of Nicotine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Sidique, Shyama; Dhanya, Raveendra-Panickar; Sheffler, Douglas J.; Nickols, Hilary Highfield; Yang, Li; Dahl, Russell; Mangravita-Novo, Arianna; Smith, Layton H.; D’Souza, Manoranjan S.; Semenova, Svetlana; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Markou, Athina; Cosford, Nicholas D. P.

    2012-01-01

    Compounds that modulate metabotropic glutamate subtype 2 (mGlu2) receptors have the potential to treat several disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) including drug dependence. Herein we describe the synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies around a series of mGlu2 receptor positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). The effects of N-substitution (R1) and substitutions on the aryl ring (R2) were identified as key areas for SAR exploration (Figure 3). Investigation of the effects of varying substituents in both the isoindolinone (2) and benzisothiazolone (3) series led to compounds with improved in vitro potency and/or efficacy. In addition, several analogues exhibited promising pharmacokinetic (PK) properties. Furthermore, compound 2 was shown to dose-dependently decrease nicotine self-administration in rats following oral administration. Our data, showing for the first time efficacy of an mGlu2 receptor PAM in this in vivo model, suggest potential utility for the treatment of nicotine dependence in humans. PMID:23009245

  18. Molecular mechanism of allosteric modulation at GPCRs: insight from a binding kinetics study at the human A1 adenosine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong; Venhorst, Suzanne N; Massink, Arnault; van Veldhoven, Jacobus P D; Vauquelin, Georges; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Heitman, Laura H

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Many GPCRs can be allosterically modulated by small-molecule ligands. This modulation is best understood in terms of the kinetics of the ligand–receptor interaction. However, many current kinetic assays require at least the (radio)labelling of the orthosteric ligand, which is impractical for studying a range of ligands. Here, we describe the application of a so-called competition association assay at the adenosine A1 receptor for this purpose. Experimental Approach We used a competition association assay to examine the binding kinetics of several unlabelled orthosteric agonists of the A1 receptor in the absence or presence of two allosteric modulators. We also tested three bitopic ligands, in which an orthosteric and an allosteric pharmacophore were covalently linked with different spacer lengths. The relevance of the competition association assay for the binding kinetics of the bitopic ligands was also explored by analysing simulated data. Key Results The binding kinetics of an unlabelled orthosteric ligand were affected by the addition of an allosteric modulator and such effects were probe- and concentration-dependent. Covalently linking the orthosteric and allosteric pharmacophores into one bitopic molecule had a substantial effect on the overall on- or off-rate. Conclusion and Implications The competition association assay is a useful tool for exploring the allosteric modulation of the human adenosine A1 receptor. This assay may have general applicability to study allosteric modulation at other GPCRs as well. PMID:25040887

  19. Resolving the contribution of the uncoupled phycobilisomes to cyanobacterial pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry signals.

    PubMed

    Acuña, Alonso M; Snellenburg, Joris J; Gwizdala, Michal; Kirilovsky, Diana; van Grondelle, Rienk; van Stokkum, Ivo H M

    2016-01-01

    Pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry is extensively used to characterize photosynthetic organisms on the slow time-scale (1-1000 s). The saturation pulse method allows determination of the quantum yields of maximal (F(M)) and minimal fluorescence (F(0)), parameters related to the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus. Also, when the sample undergoes a certain light treatment during the measurement, the fluorescence quantum yields of the unquenched and the quenched states can be determined. In the case of cyanobacteria, however, the recorded fluorescence does not exclusively stem from the chlorophyll a in photosystem II (PSII). The phycobilins, the pigments of the cyanobacterial light-harvesting complexes, the phycobilisomes (PB), also contribute to the PAM signal, and therefore, F(0) and F(M) are no longer related to PSII only. We present a functional model that takes into account the presence of several fluorescent species whose concentrations can be resolved provided their fluorescence quantum yields are known. Data analysis of PAM measurements on in vivo cells of our model organism Synechocystis PCC6803 is discussed. Three different components are found necessary to fit the data: uncoupled PB (PB(free)), PB-PSII complexes, and free PSI. The free PSII contribution was negligible. The PB(free) contribution substantially increased in the mutants that lack the core terminal emitter subunits allophycocyanin D or allophycocyanin F. A positive correlation was found between the amount of PB(free) and the rate constants describing the binding of the activated orange carotenoid protein to PB, responsible for non-photochemical quenching.

  20. Sensitivity evaluation of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to uranium by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry.

    PubMed

    Herlory, Olivier; Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Gilbin, Rodolphe

    2013-09-15

    Although ecotoxicological studies tend to address the toxicity thresholds of uranium in freshwaters, there is a lack of information on the effects of the metal on physiological processes, particularly in aquatic plants. Knowing that uranium alters photosynthesis via impairment of the water photo-oxidation process, we determined whether pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry was a relevant tool for assessing the impact of uranium on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and investigated how and to what extent uranium hampered photosynthetic performance. Photosynthetic activity and quenching were assessed from fluorescence induction curves generated by PAM fluorometry, after 1 and 5h of uranium exposure in controlled conditions. The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium, through alteration of the water photo-oxidation process as revealed by F0/Fv. Limiting re-oxidation of the plastoquinone pool, uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition of the PSII quantum efficiency ( [Formula: see text] , EC50=303 ± 64 μg UL(-1) after 5h of exposure) was observed. Non-photochemical quenching (qN) was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter (EC50=142 ± 98 μg UL(-1) after 5h of exposure), indicating that light energy not used in photochemistry was dissipated in non-radiative processes. It was shown that parameters which stemmed from fluorescence induction kinetics are valuable indicators for evaluating the impact of uranium on PSII in green algae. PAM fluorometry provided a rapid and reasonably sensitive method for assessing stress response to uranium in microalgae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Allosteric modulation of ATP-gated P2X receptor channels

    PubMed Central

    Coddou, Claudio; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.; Huidobro-Toro, J. Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Seven mammalian purinergic receptor subunits, denoted P2X1 to P2X7, and several spliced forms of these subunits have been cloned. When heterologously expressed, these cDNAs encode ATP-gated non-selective cation channels organized as trimers. All activated receptors produce cell depolarization and promote Ca2+ influx through their pores and indirectly by activating voltage-gated calcium channels. However, the biophysical and pharmacological properties of these receptors differ considerably, and the majority of these subunits are also capable of forming heterotrimers with other members of the P2X receptor family, which confers further different properties. These channels have three ATP binding domains, presumably located between neighboring subunits, and occupancy of at least two binding sites is needed for their activation. In addition to the orthosteric binding sites for ATP, these receptors have additional allosteric sites that modulate the agonist action at receptors, including sites for trace metals, protons, neurosteroids, reactive oxygen species and phosphoinositides. The allosteric regulation of P2X receptors is frequently receptor-specific and could be a useful tool to identify P2X members in native tissues and their roles in signaling. The focus of this review is on common and receptor-specific allosteric modulation of P2X receptors and the molecular base accounting for allosteric binding sites. PMID:21639805

  2. Approaches for Probing Allosteric Interactions at 7 Transmembrane Spanning Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Michael T.; Vinson, Paige N.; Niswender, Colleen M.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, allosteric modulation of 7 transmembrane spanning receptors (7TMRs) has become a highly productive and exciting field of receptor pharmacology and drug discovery efforts. Positive and negative allosteric modulators (PAMs and NAMs, respectively) present a number of pharmacological and therapeutic advantages over conventional orthosteric ligands, including improved receptor-subtype selectivity, a lower propensity to induce receptor desensitization, the preservation of endogenous temporal and spatial activation of receptors, greater chemical flexibility for optimization of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic parameters, and saturability of effect at target receptors, thus improving safety concerns and risk of overdose. Additionally, the relatively new concept of allosteric modulator-mediated receptor signal bias opens up a number of intriguing possibilities for PAMs, NAMs, and allosteric agonists, including the potential to selectively activate therapeutically beneficial signaling cascades, which could yield a superior tissue selectivity and side effect profile of allosteric modulators. However, there are a number of considerations and caveats that must be addressed when screening for and characterizing the properties of 7TMR allosteric modulators. Mode of pharmacology, methodology used to monitor receptor activity, detection of appropriate downstream analytes, selection of orthosteric probe, and assay time-course must all be considered when implementing any high-throughput screening campaign or when characterizing the properties of active compounds. Yet compared to conventional agonist/antagonist drug discovery programs, these elements of assay design are often a great deal more complicated when working with 7TMRs allosteric modulators. Moreover, for classical pharmacological methodologies and analyses, like radioligand binding and the assessment of compound affinity, the properties of allosteric modulators yield data that are more nuanced than

  3. Allosteric modulation of endogenous metabolites as an avenue for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Wootten, Denise; Savage, Emilia E; Valant, Celine; May, Lauren T; Sloop, Kyle W; Ficorilli, James; Showalter, Aaron D; Willard, Francis S; Christopoulos, Arthur; Sexton, Patrick M

    2012-08-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of cell surface receptors and a key drug target class. Recently, allosteric drugs that can co-bind with and modulate the activity of the endogenous ligand(s) for the receptor have become a major focus of the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry for the development of novel GPCR therapeutic agents. This class of drugs has distinct properties compared with drugs targeting the endogenous (orthosteric) ligand-binding site that include the ability to sculpt cellular signaling and to respond differently in the presence of discrete orthosteric ligands, a behavior termed "probe dependence." Here, using cell signaling assays combined with ex vivo and in vivo studies of insulin secretion, we demonstrate that allosteric ligands can cause marked potentiation of previously "inert" metabolic products of neurotransmitters and peptide hormones, a novel consequence of the phenomenon of probe dependence. Indeed, at the muscarinic M(2) receptor and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor, allosteric potentiation of the metabolites, choline and GLP-1(9-36)NH(2), respectively, was ~100-fold and up to 200-fold greater than that seen with the physiological signaling molecules acetylcholine and GLP-1(7-36)NH(2). Modulation of GLP-1(9-36)NH(2) was also demonstrated in ex vivo and in vivo assays of insulin secretion. This work opens up new avenues for allosteric drug discovery by directly targeting modulation of metabolites, but it also identifies a behavior that could contribute to unexpected clinical outcomes if interaction of allosteric drugs with metabolites is not part of their preclinical assessment.

  4. 13-Methylarachidonic Acid Is a Positive Allosteric Modulator of Endocannabinoid Oxygenation by Cyclooxygenase*

    PubMed Central

    Kudalkar, Shalley N.; Nikas, Spyros P.; Kingsley, Philip J.; Xu, Shu; Galligan, James J.; Rouzer, Carol A.; Banerjee, Surajit; Ji, Lipin; Eno, Marsha R.; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Marnett, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) oxygenates arachidonic acid (AA) and the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and arachidonylethanolamide to prostaglandins, prostaglandin glyceryl esters, and prostaglandin ethanolamides, respectively. A structural homodimer, COX-2 acts as a conformational heterodimer with a catalytic and an allosteric monomer. Prior studies have demonstrated substrate-selective negative allosteric regulation of 2-AG oxygenation. Here we describe AM-8138 (13(S)-methylarachidonic acid), a substrate-selective allosteric potentiator that augments 2-AG oxygenation by up to 3.5-fold with no effect on AA oxygenation. In the crystal structure of an AM-8138·COX-2 complex, AM-8138 adopts a conformation similar to the unproductive conformation of AA in the substrate binding site. Kinetic analysis suggests that binding of AM-8138 to the allosteric monomer of COX-2 increases 2-AG oxygenation by increasing kcat and preventing inhibitory binding of 2-AG. AM-8138 restored the activity of COX-2 mutants that exhibited very poor 2-AG oxygenating activity and increased the activity of COX-1 toward 2-AG. Competition of AM-8138 for the allosteric site prevented the inhibition of COX-2-dependent 2-AG oxygenation by substrate-selective inhibitors and blocked the inhibition of AA or 2-AG oxygenation by nonselective time-dependent inhibitors. AM-8138 selectively enhanced 2-AG oxygenation in intact RAW264.7 macrophage-like cells. Thus, AM-8138 is an important new tool compound for the exploration of allosteric modulation of COX enzymes and their role in endocannabinoid metabolism. PMID:25648895

  5. Challenges in the development of an M4 PAM in vivo tool compound: The discovery of VU0467154 and unexpected DMPK profiles of close analogs.

    PubMed

    Wood, Michael R; Noetzel, Meredith J; Poslusney, Michael S; Melancon, Bruce J; Tarr, James C; Lamsal, Atin; Chang, Sichen; Luscombe, Vincent B; Weiner, Rebecca L; Cho, Hyekyung P; Bubser, Michael; Jones, Carrie K; Niswender, Colleen M; Wood, Michael W; Engers, Darren W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Duggan, Mark E; Conn, P Jeffrey; Bridges, Thomas M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-01-15

    This letter describes the chemical optimization of a novel series of M 4 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) based on a 5-amino-thieno[2,3-c]pyridazine core, developed via iterative parallel synthesis, and culminating in the highly utilized rodent in vivo tool compound, VU0467154 (5). This is the first report of the optimization campaign (SAR and DMPK profiling) that led to the discovery of VU0467154, and details all of the challenges faced in allosteric modulator programs (steep SAR, species differences in PAM pharmacology and subtle structural changes affecting CNS penetration). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 positive allosteric modulator CDPPB on rats tested with the paired associates learning task in touchscreen-equipped operant conditioning chambers.

    PubMed

    Lins, Brittney R; Howland, John G

    2016-03-15

    Effective treatments for the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia are critically needed. Positive allosteric modulation (PAM) of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) is one strategy currently under investigation to improve these symptoms. Examining cognition using touchscreen-equipped operant chambers may increase translation between preclinical and clinical research through analogous behavioral testing paradigms in rodents and humans. We used acute CDPPB (1-30mg/kg) treatment to examine the effects of mGluR5 PAM in the touchscreen paired associates learning (PAL) task using well-trained rats with and without co-administration of acute MK-801 (0.15mg/kg). CDPPB had no consistent effects on task performance when administered alone and failed to reverse the MK-801 induced impairments at any of the examined doses. Overall, the disruptive effects of MK-801 on PAL were consistent with previous research but increasing mGluR5 signaling is not beneficial in the PAL task. Future research should test whether administration of CDPPB during PAL acquisition increases performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Muscarinic and Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonists and Allosteric Modulators for the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Carrie K; Byun, Nellie; Bubser, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs) are emerging as important targets for the development of novel treatments for the symptoms associated with schizophrenia. Preclinical and early proof-of-concept clinical studies have provided strong evidence that activators of specific mAChR (M1 and M4) and nAChR (α7 and α2β4) subtypes are effective in animal models of antipsychotic-like activity and/or cognitive enhancement, and in the treatment of positive and cognitive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. While early attempts to develop selective mAChR and nAChR agonists provided important preliminary findings, these compounds have ultimately failed in clinical development due to a lack of true subtype selectivity and subsequent dose-limiting adverse effects. In recent years, there have been major advances in the discovery of highly selective activators for the different mAChR and nAChR subtypes with suitable properties for optimization as potential candidates for clinical trials. One novel strategy has been to identify ligands that activate a specific receptor subtype through actions at sites that are distinct from the highly conserved ACh-binding site, termed allosteric sites. These allosteric activators, both allosteric agonists and positive allosteric modulators, of mAChR and nAChR subtypes demonstrate unique mechanisms of action and high selectivity in vivo, and may provide innovative treatment strategies for schizophrenia. PMID:21956443

  8. Allosteric Modulation of AMPK Enzymatic Activity: In Vitro Characterization.

    PubMed

    Ward, J; Reyes, A R; Kurumbail, R G

    2017-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric serine/threonine protein kinase found in nearly all eukaryotes that functions as a master energy sensor in cells. During times of cell stress and changes in the AMP/ATP ratio, AMPK becomes activated and phosphorylates a multitude of protein substrates involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, cell growth and autophagy. The endogenous ligand AMP is known to bind to the γ-subunit and activates the enzyme via three distinct mechanisms (1) enhancing phosphorylation by upstream kinases of Thr172 in the activation loop (a site critical for AMPK activity), (2) protecting Thr172 from dephosphorylation by phosphatases, and (3) allosteric activation of the kinase activity. Given the important regulatory role for AMPK in various cellular processes and the multiple known modes of activation, there is great interest in identifying small-molecule activators of this kinase and a need for assays to identify and characterize compounds. Here we describe several assay formats that have been used for identifying and characterizing small-molecule AMPK activators. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Benzotriazinone and benzopyrimidinone derivatives as potent positive allosteric AMPA receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Rudolf; Rachwal, Stanislaw; Lee, Steven; Zhong, Sheng; Li, Yong-Xin; Haroldsen, Peter; Herbst, Todd; Tanimura, Susan; Varney, Mark; Johnson, Steven; Rogers, Gary; Street, Leslie J

    2011-10-15

    AMPA receptors (AMPARs) have been demonstrated to be an important therapeutic CNS target. A series of substituted benzotriazinone and benzopyrimidinone derivatives were prepared with the aim to improve in vivo activity over the previously reported bis-benzoxazinone based AMPAKINE series from our laboratory. These compounds were shown to be potent, positive allosteric AMPAR modulators that have better in vivo activity and improved metabolic stability over the analogous benzoxazinone derivatives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Substituted benzoxazinones as potent positive allosteric AMPA receptor modulators: part II.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Rudolf; Rachwal, Stanislaw; Tedder, Martina E; Li, Yong-Xin; Zhong, Sheng; Hampson, Aidan; Ulas, Jolanta; Varney, Mark; Nielsson, Lena; Rogers, Gary

    2011-07-01

    AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are an important therapeutic target in the CNS. A series of substituted benzoxazinone derivatives with good to very good in vitro activity as positive allosteric AMPAR modulators was synthesized and evaluated. The appropriate substituent choice on the benzoxazinone fragment improved the affinity towards the AMPA receptor significantly in comparison to our lead molecule CX614. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric modulators in animal behavior studies.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Anshul A; Yakel, Jerrel L

    2013-10-15

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated cation-conducting transmembrane channels from the cys-loop receptor superfamily. The neuronal subtypes of these receptors (e.g. the α7 and α4β2 subtypes) are involved in neurobehavioral processes such as anxiety, the central processing of pain, food intake, nicotine seeking behavior, and a number of cognitive functions like learning and memory. Neuronal nAChR dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of many neurological disorders, and behavioral studies in animals are useful models to assess the effects of compounds that act on these receptors. Allosteric modulators are ligands that bind to the receptors at sites other than the orthosteric site where acetylcholine, the endogenous agonist for the nAChRs, binds. While conventional ligands for the neuronal nAChRs have been studied for their behavioral effects in animals, allosteric modulators for these receptors have only recently gained attention, and research on their behavioral effects is growing rapidly. Here we will discuss the behavioral effects of allosteric modulators of the neuronal nAChRs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Effects of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric modulators in animal behavior studies

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Anshul. A.; Yakel, Jerrel L.

    2013-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated cation-conducting transmembrane channels from the cys-loop receptor superfamily. The neuronal subtypes of these receptors (e.g. the α7 and α4β2 subtypes) are involved in neurobehavioral processes such as anxiety, the central processing of pain, food intake, nicotine seeking behavior, and a number of cognitive functions like learning and memory. Neuronal nAChR dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of many neurological disorders, and behavioral studies in animals are useful models to assess the effects of compounds that act on these receptors. Allosteric modulators are ligands that bind to the receptors at sites other than the orthosteric site where acetylcholine, the endogenous agonist for the nAChRs, binds. While conventional ligands for the neuronal nAChRs have been studied for their behavioral effects in animals, allosteric modulators for these receptors have only recently gained attention, and research on their behavioral effects is growing rapidly. Here we will discuss the behavioral effects of allosteric modulators of the neuronal nAChRs. PMID:23732296

  13. Intra-subunit flexibility underlies activation and allosteric modulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Chrisman, Paul A; Podair, Julie I; Jobe, Emily M; Levandoski, Mark M

    2014-04-01

    Allosteric modulation is a general feature of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, yet the structural components and movements important for conversions among functional states are not well understood. In this study, we examine the communication between the binding sites for agonist and the modulator morantel (Mor) of neuronal α3β2 receptors, measuring evoked currents of receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes with the two-electrode voltage-clamp method. We hypothesized that movement along an interface of β sheets connecting the agonist and modulator sites is necessary for allosteric modulation. To address this, we created pairs of substituted cysteines that span the cleft formed where the outer β sheet meets the β sheet constituting the (-)-face of the α3 subunit; the three pairs were L158C-A179C, L158C-G181C and L158C-K183C. Employing a disulfide trapping approach in which bonds are formed between neighboring cysteines under oxidation conditions, we found that oxidation treatments decreased the amplitude of currents evoked by either the agonist (ACh) or co-applied agonist and modulator (ACh + Mor), by as much as 51%, consistent with the introduced bond decreasing channel efficacy. Reduction treatment increased evoked currents up to 89%. The magnitude of the oxidation effects depended on whether agonists were present during oxidation and on the cysteine pair. Additionally, the cysteine mutations themselves decreased Mor potentiation, implicating these residues in modulation. Our findings suggest that these β sheets in the α3 subunit move with respect to each other during activation and modulation, and the residues studied highlight the contribution of this intramolecular allosteric pathway to receptor function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel α5GABA(A)R-positive allosteric modulator reverses hyperactivation of the dopamine system in the MAM model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gill, Kathryn M; Lodge, Daniel J; Cook, James M; Aras, Shamim; Grace, Anthony A

    2011-08-01

    We have shown previously that aberrant hippocampal (HPC) output underlies the dopamine (DA) dysfunction observed in the methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) developmental model of schizophrenia in the rodent. This alteration of HPC activity was proposed to result from a reduction in parvalbumin (PV)-expressing GABAergic interneurons and consequent destabilization of the output of pyramidal neurons, as well as disrupted activation across a broad neural network. In vivo extracellular recordings were performed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and ventral HPC of saline- (SAL) and MAM-treated animals. A novel benzodiazepine-positive allosteric modulator (PAM), selective for the α5 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor, SH-053-2'F-R-CH3, was tested for its effects on the output of the HPC, leading to dopamine system hyperactivity in MAM-treated animals. In addition, the effect of SH-053-2'F-R-CH3 on the hyperactive locomotor response to amphetamine in MAM animals was examined. We demonstrate that treatment with the α5GABA(A)R PAM reduced the number of spontaneously active DA neurons in the VTA of MAM animals to levels observed in SAL rats, both when administered systemically and when directly infused into the ventral HPC. Moreover, HPC neurons in both SAL and MAM animals showed diminished cortical-evoked responses following α5GABA(A)R PAM treatment. In addition, the increased locomotor response to amphetamine observed in MAM rats was reduced following α5GABA(A)R treatment. This study supports a novel treatment of schizophrenia that targets abnormal HPC output, which in turn normalizes dopaminergic neuronal activity.

  15. mGlu5 positive allosteric modulation normalizes synaptic plasticity defects and motor phenotypes in a mouse model of Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gogliotti, Rocco G.; Senter, Rebecca K.; Rook, Jerri M.; Ghoshal, Ayan; Zamorano, Rocio; Malosh, Chrysa; Stauffer, Shaun R.; Bridges, Thomas M.; Bartolome, Jose M.; Daniels, J. Scott; Jones, Carrie K.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Niswender, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that shares many symptomatic and pathological commonalities with idiopathic autism. Alterations in protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity (PSDSP) are a hallmark of a number of syndromic forms of autism; in the present work, we explore the consequences of disruption and rescue of PSDSP in a mouse model of RS. We report that expression of a key regulator of synaptic protein synthesis, the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) protein, is significantly reduced in both the brains of RS model mice and in the motor cortex of human RS autopsy samples. Furthermore, we demonstrate that reduced mGlu5 expression correlates with attenuated DHPG-induced long-term depression in the hippocampus of RS model mice, and that administration of a novel mGlu5 positive allosteric modulator (PAM), termed VU0462807, can rescue synaptic plasticity defects. Additionally, treatment of Mecp2-deficient mice with VU0462807 improves motor performance (open-field behavior and gait dynamics), corrects repetitive clasping behavior, as well as normalizes cued fear-conditioning defects. Importantly, due to the rationale drug discovery approach used in its development, our novel mGlu5 PAM improves RS phenotypes and synaptic plasticity defects without evoking the overt adverse effects commonly associated with potentiation of mGlu5 signaling (i.e. seizures), or affecting cardiorespiratory defects in RS model mice. These findings provide strong support for the continued development of mGlu5 PAMs as potential therapeutic agents for use in RS, and, more broadly, for utility in idiopathic autism. PMID:26936821

  16. Structural basis for negative allosteric modulation of GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Feng; Mou, Tung-Chung; Dorsett, Katherine N.; Volkmann, Robert A.; Menniti, Frank S.; Sprang, Stephen R.; Hansen, Kasper B.

    2016-01-01

    Summary NMDA receptors mediate excitatory synaptic transmission and regulate synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system, but their dysregulation is also implicated in numerous brain disorders. Here, we describe GluN2A-selective negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) that inhibit NMDA receptors by stabilizing the apo-state of the GluN1 ligand binding domain (LBD), which is incapable of triggering channel gating. We describe structural determinants of NAM binding in crystal structures of the GluN1/2A LBD heterodimer, and analyses of NAM-bound LBD structures corresponding to active and inhibited receptor states reveal a molecular switch in the modulatory binding site that mediate the allosteric inhibition. NAM binding causes displacement of a valine in GluN2A and the resulting steric effects can be mitigated by the transition from glycine-bound to apo-state of the GluN1 LBD. This work provides mechanistic insight to allosteric NMDA receptor inhibition, thereby facilitating the development of novel classes NMDA receptor modulators as therapeutic agents. PMID:27618671

  17. Structural Basis for Negative Allosteric Modulation of GluN2A-Containing NMDA Receptors.

    PubMed

    Yi, Feng; Mou, Tung-Chung; Dorsett, Katherine N; Volkmann, Robert A; Menniti, Frank S; Sprang, Stephen R; Hansen, Kasper B

    2016-09-21

    NMDA receptors mediate excitatory synaptic transmission and regulate synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system, but their dysregulation is also implicated in numerous brain disorders. Here, we describe GluN2A-selective negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) that inhibit NMDA receptors by stabilizing the apo state of the GluN1 ligand-binding domain (LBD), which is incapable of triggering channel gating. We describe structural determinants of NAM binding in crystal structures of the GluN1/2A LBD heterodimer, and analyses of NAM-bound LBD structures corresponding to active and inhibited receptor states reveal a molecular switch in the modulatory binding site that mediate the allosteric inhibition. NAM binding causes displacement of a valine in GluN2A and the resulting steric effects can be mitigated by the transition from glycine bound to apo state of the GluN1 LBD. This work provides mechanistic insight to allosteric NMDA receptor inhibition, thereby facilitating the development of novel classes NMDA receptor modulators as therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 4-Positive Allosteric Modulator VU0364770 Produces Efficacy Alone and in Combination with l-DOPA or an Adenosine 2A Antagonist in Preclinical Rodent Models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Carrie K.; Bubser, Michael; Thompson, Analisa D.; Dickerson, Jonathan W.; Turle-Lorenzo, Nathalie; Amalric, Marianne; Blobaum, Anna L.; Bridges, Thomas M.; Morrison, Ryan D.; Jadhav, Satyawan; Engers, Darren W.; Italiano, Kimberly; Bode, Jacob; Daniels, J. Scott; Lindsley, Craig W.; Hopkins, Corey R.; Conn, P. Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder associated with severe motor impairments caused by the loss of dopaminergic innervation of the striatum. Previous studies have demonstrated that positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu4), including N-phenyl-7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxamide, can produce antiparkinsonian-like effects in preclinical models of PD. However, these early mGlu4 PAMs exhibited unsuitable physiochemical properties for systemic dosing, requiring intracerebroventricular administration and limiting their broader utility as in vivo tools to further understand the role of mGlu4 in the modulation of basal ganglia function relevant to PD. In the present study, we describe the pharmacologic characterization of a systemically active mGlu4 PAM, N-(3-chlorophenyl)picolinamide (VU0364770), in several rodent PD models. VU0364770 showed efficacy alone or when administered in combination with l-DOPA or an adenosine 2A (A2A) receptor antagonist currently in clinical development (preladenant). When administered alone, VU0364770 exhibited efficacy in reversing haloperidol-induced catalepsy, forelimb asymmetry-induced by unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the median forebrain bundle, and attentional deficits induced by bilateral 6-OHDA nigrostriatal lesions in rats. In addition, VU0364770 enhanced the efficacy of preladenant to reverse haloperidol-induced catalepsy when given in combination. The effects of VU0364770 to reverse forelimb asymmetry were also potentiated when the compound was coadministered with an inactive dose of l-DOPA, suggesting that mGlu4 PAMs may provide l-DOPA-sparing activity. The present findings provide exciting support for the potential role of selective mGlu4 PAMs as a novel approach for the symptomatic treatment of PD and a possible augmentation strategy with either l-DOPA or A2A antagonists. PMID:22088953

  19. Allosteric Modulation of GPCRs: New Insights and Potential Utility for Treatment of Schizophrenia and Other CNS Disorders.

    PubMed

    Foster, Daniel J; Conn, P Jeffrey

    2017-05-03

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play critical roles in regulating brain function. Recent advances have greatly expanded our understanding of these receptors as complex signaling machines that can adopt numerous conformations and modulate multiple downstream signaling pathways. While agonists and antagonists have traditionally been pursued to target GPCRs, allosteric modulators provide several mechanistic advantages, including the ability to distinguish between closely related receptor subtypes. Recently, the discovery of allosteric ligands that confer bias and modulate some, but not all, of a given receptor's downstream signaling pathways can provide pharmacological modulation of brain circuitry with remarkable precision. In addition, allosteric modulators with unprecedented specificity have been developed that can differentiate between subpopulations of a given receptor subtype based on the receptor's dimerization state. These advances are not only providing insight into the biological roles of specific receptor populations, but hold great promise for treating numerous CNS disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular and cellular factors control signal transduction via switchable allosteric modulator proteins (SAMPs).

    PubMed

    Babel, Heiko; Bischofs, Ilka B

    2016-04-27

    Rap proteins from Bacilli directly target response regulators of bacterial two-component systems and modulate their activity. Their effects are controlled by binding of signaling peptides to an allosteric site. Hence Raps exemplify a class of monomeric signaling receptors, which we call switchable allosteric modulator proteins (SAMPs). These proteins have potential applications in diverse biomedical and biotechnical settings, but a quantitative understanding of the impact of molecular and cellular factors on signal transduction is lacking. Here we introduce mathematical models that elucidate how signals are propagated though the network upon receptor stimulation and control the level of active response regulator. Based on a systematic parameter analysis of the models, we show that key features of the dose-response behavior at steady state are controlled either by the molecular properties of the modulator or the signaling context. In particular, we find that the biochemical activity (i.e. non-enzymatic vs. enzymatic) and allosteric properties of the modulator control the response amplitude. The Hill coefficient and the EC50 are controlled in addition by the relative ligand affinities. By tuning receptor properties, either graded or more switch-like (memory-less) response functions can be fashioned. Furthermore, we show that other contextual factors (e.g. relative concentrations of network components and kinase activity) have a substantial impact on the response, and we predict that there exists a modulator concentration which is optimal for response amplitude. We discuss data on Rap-Phr systems in B. subtilis to show how our models can contribute to an integrated view of SAMP signaling by combining biochemical, structural and physiological insights. Our results also suggest that SAMPs could be evolved or engineered to implement diverse response behaviors. However-without additional regulatory controls-they can generate rather variable cellular outputs.

  1. Identification of novel allosteric modulator binding sites in NMDA receptors: A molecular modeling study.

    PubMed

    Kane, Lucas T; Costa, Blaise M

    2015-09-01

    The dysfunction of N-methyl-d-Aspartate receptors (NMDARs), a subtype of glutamate receptors, is correlated with schizophrenia, stroke, and many other neuropathological disorders. However, not all NMDAR subtypes equally contribute towards these disorders. Since NMDARs composed of different GluN2 subunits (GluN2A-D) confer varied physiological properties and have different distributions in the brain, pharmacological agents that target NMDARs with specific GluN2 subunits have significant potential for therapeutic applications. In our previous research, we have identified a family of novel allosteric modulators that differentially potentiate and/or inhibit NMDARs of differing GluN2 subunit composition. To further elucidate their molecular mechanisms, in the present study, we have identified four potential binding sites for novel allosteric modulators by performing molecular modeling, docking, and in silico mutations. The molecular determinants of the modulator binding sites (MBS), analysis of particular MBS electrostatics, and the specific loss or gain of binding after mutations have revealed modulators that have strong potential affinities for specific MBS on given subunits and the role of key amino acids in either promoting or obstructing modulator binding. These findings will help design higher affinity GluN2 subunit-selective pharmaceuticals, which are currently unavailable to treat psychiatric and neurological disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel dualistic profile of an allosteric AMPA receptor modulator identified through studies on recombinant receptors, mouse hippocampal synapses and crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, G B; Harbak, B; Hede, S E; Gouliaev, A H; Olsen, L; Frydenvang, K; Egebjerg, J; Kastrup, J S; Holm, M M

    2015-12-03

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors receive increasing interest as therapeutic drugs and have long served as important experimental tools in the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying glutamate-mediated neurotransmission. The aim of this study was to investigate functional and structural aspects of a novel analog of the AMPA receptor PAM cyclothiazide (CTZ) on recombinant and native glutamate receptors. We expressed rat GluA4flip and flop in Xenopus oocytes and characterized NS1376 and CTZ under two-electrode voltage-clamp. The dose-response analyses revealed dual effects of NS1376. The modulator induced 30-fold and 42-fold reductions in glutamate potency and increased the glutamate efficacy by 3.2-fold and 5.3-fold at GluA4flip and GluA4flop, respectively. Rapid application of glutamate to excised outside-out patches showed that NS1376 markedly attenuated desensitization, supporting the increased efficacy observed in the oocytes. Furthermore, when applied to acutely isolated mouse brain slices, NS1376 reduced the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in the hippocampus to 51.6 ± 4.3% of baseline, likely as a consequence of reduced glutamate potency. However, the modulator displayed no effects on a sub-maximal long-term potentiation (LTP) protocol. We confirmed that CTZ increases presynaptic transmitter release, a property which was not shared by NS1376. Finally, we obtained detailed molecular information through X-ray structures, docking and molecular dynamics, which revealed that NS1376 interacts at the dimer interface of the ligand-binding domain in a manner overall similar to CTZ. NS1376 reveals that minor structural changes in CTZ can result in an altered modulatory profile, both enhancing agonist efficacy while markedly reducing agonist potency. These unique properties add new aspects to the complexity of allosteric modulations in neuronal systems. Copyright

  3. Subtype-selective allosteric modulators of muscarinic receptors for the treatment of CNS disorders

    PubMed Central

    Conn, P. Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K.; Lindsley, Craig W.

    2010-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) have long been viewed as viable targets for novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other disorders involving impaired cognitive function. More recent evidence indicates that mAChR activators might also have utility in treating psychosis and other symptoms associated with schizophrenia and other central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Efforts to develop mAChR subtype-selective agonists have been hampered by difficulty in achieving high selectivity for individual mAChR subtypes important for CNS function (M1 and M4) and adverse effects due to activation of peripheral mAChRs (especially M2 and M3). Major advances have now been achieved in the discovery of allosteric agonists and positive allosteric modulators of M1 and M4 that show greater selectivity for individual mAChR subtypes than do previous mAChR agonists. Early studies indicate that these allosteric mAChR activators have properties needed for optimization as potential clinical candidates and have robust effects in animal models that predict efficacy in the treatment of AD, schizophrenia and related disorders. PMID:19201489

  4. Allosteric modulation of the muscarinic M4 receptor as an approach to treating schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, W. Y.; McKinzie, D. L.; Bose, S.; Mitchell, S. N.; Witkin, J. M.; Thompson, R. C.; Christopoulos, A.; Lazareno, S.; Birdsall, N. J. M.; Bymaster, F. P.; Felder, C. C.

    2008-01-01

    Current antipsychotics provide symptomatic relief for patients suffering from schizophrenia and related psychoses; however, their effectiveness is variable and many patients discontinue treatment due to side effects. Although the etiology of schizophrenia is still unclear, a leading hypothesis implicates an imbalanced dopaminergic system. Muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors regulate dopamine levels in key areas of the brain involved in psychosis, with the M4 subtype emerging as a key regulator of dopaminergic hyperactivity. Unfortunately, no selective small molecule tools exist to provide pharmacological validation of this hypothesis. Here, we describe the discovery of a small molecule modulator, LY2033298, that is highly selective for human M4 receptors by virtue of targeting an allosteric site on this receptor. Pharmacological assays confirmed the selectivity of LY2033298 for the M4 receptor and revealed the highest degree of positive allosteric enhancement of ACh potency thus far identified. Radioligand binding assays also show this compound to directly potentiate agonist binding while having minimal effects on antagonist binding. Mutational analysis identified a key amino acid (D432) in the third extracellular loop of the human M4 receptor to be critical for selectivity and agonist potentiation by LY2033298. Importantly, LY2033298 was active in animal models predictive of clinical antipsychotic drug efficacy indicating its potential use as a first-in-class, selective, allosteric muscarinic antipsychotic agent. PMID:18678919

  5. Complex pharmacology of novel allosteric free fatty acid 3 receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Brian D; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Murdoch, Hannah; Jenkins, Laura; Hansen, Anders Højgaard; Madsen, Ole; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme

    2014-08-01

    Analysis of the roles of the short chain fatty acid receptor, free fatty acid 3 receptor (FFA3), has been severely limited by the low potency of its endogenous ligands, the crossover of function of these on the closely related free fatty acid 2 receptor, and a dearth of FFA3-selective synthetic ligands. From a series of hexahydroquinolone-3-carboxamides, we demonstrate that 4-(furan-2-yl)-2-methyl-5-oxo-N-(o-tolyl)-1,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydroquinoline-3-carboxamide is a selective and moderately potent positive allosteric modular (PAM)-agonist of the FFA3 receptor. Modest chemical variations within this series resulted in compounds completely lacking activity, acting as FFA3 PAMs, or appearing to act as FFA3-negative allosteric modulators. However, the pharmacology of this series was further complicated in that certain analogs displaying overall antagonism of FFA3 function actually appeared to generate their effects via a combined positive allosteric binding cooperativity and negative allosteric effect on orthosteric ligand maximal signaling response. These studies show that various PAM-agonist and allosteric modulators of FFA3 can be identified and characterized. However, within the current chemical series, considerable care must be taken to define the pharmacological characteristics of specific compounds before useful predictions of their activity and their use in defining specific roles of FFA3 in either in vitro and in vivo settings can be made. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  6. 112 Gb/s transmission with a directly-modulated laser using FFT-based synthesis of orthogonal PAM and DMT signals.

    PubMed

    Ling, William A; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Daghighian, Henry M; Lyubomirsky, Ilya

    2015-07-27

    We report the experimental measurement of 112 Gb/s transmission back-to-back and through 12 km of S-SMF with a single directly-modulated laser (DML) using the novel modulation format Orthogonal PAM-DMT. This work demonstrates a record DML-based 112 Gb/s receiver sensitivity of -7.1 dBm at a BER of 10(-3), outperforming conventional PAM and DMT by approximately 2.5 dB.

  7. Falcarindiol allosterically modulates GABAergic currents in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Wyrembek, Paulina; Negri, Roberto; Kaczor, Przemysław; Czyżewska, Marta; Appendino, Giovanni; Mozrzymas, Jerzy Wladyslaw

    2012-04-27

    Falcarindiol (1), a C-17 polyacetylenic diol, shows a pleiotropic profile of bioactivity, but the mechanism(s) underlying its actions are largely unknown. Large amounts of 1 co-occur in water hemlock (Oenanthe crocata) along with the convulsant polyacetylenic toxin oenanthotoxin (2), a potent GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R) inhibitor. Since these compounds are structurally and biogenetically related, it was considered of interest to evaluate whether 1 could affect GABAergic activity, and for this purpose a model of hippocampal cultured neurons was used. Compound 1 significantly increased the amplitude of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents, accelerated their onset, and prolonged the decay kinetics. This compound enhanced also the amplitude of currents elicited by 3 μM GABA and accelerated their fading, reducing, however, currents evoked by a saturating (10 mM) GABA concentration. Moreover, kinetic analysis of responses to 10 mM GABA revealed that 1 upregulated the rate and extent of desensitization and slowed the current onset and deactivation. Taken together, these data show that 1 exerts a potent modulatory action on GABA(A)Rs, possibly by modulating agonist binding and desensitization, overall potentially decreasing the toxicity of co-occurring GABA-inhibiting convulsant toxins. © 2012 American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy

  8. Real-time characterization of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 ) allosteric modulators reveals novel mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Cawston, Erin E; Redmond, William J; Breen, Courtney M; Grimsey, Natasha L; Connor, Mark; Glass, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 ) has an allosteric binding site. The drugs ORG27569 {5-chloro-3-ethyl-N-[2-[4-(1-piperidinyl)phenyl]ethyl]-1H-indole-2-carboxamide} and PSNCBAM-1 {1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-[3-(6-pyrrolidin-1-ylpyridin-2-yl)phenyl]urea} have been extensively characterized with regard to their effects on signalling of the orthosteric ligand CP55,940 {(-)-cis-3-[2-hydroxy-4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)phenyl]-trans-4-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexanol}, and studies have suggested that these allosteric modulators increase binding affinity but act as non-competitive antagonists in functional assays. To gain a deeper understanding of allosteric modulation of CB1 , we examined real-time signalling and trafficking responses of the receptor in the presence of allosteric modulators. Studies of CB1 signalling were carried out in HEK 293 and AtT20 cells expressing haemagglutinin-tagged human and rat CB1 . We measured real-time accumulation of cAMP, activation and desensitization of potassium channel-mediated cellular hyperpolarization and CB1 internalization. ORG27569 and PSNCBAM-1 produce a complex, concentration and time-dependent modulation of agonist-mediated regulation of cAMP levels, as well as an increased rate of desensitization of CB1 -mediated cellular hyperpolarization and a decrease in agonist-induced receptor internalization. Contrary to previous studies characterizing allosteric modulators at CB1, this study suggests that the mechanism of action is not non-competitive antagonism of signalling, but rather that enhanced binding results in an increased rate of receptor desensitization and reduced internalization, which results in time-dependent modulation of cAMP signalling. The observed effect of the allosteric modulators is therefore dependent on the time frame over which the signalling response occurs. This finding may have important consequences for the potential therapeutic application of these compounds. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Targeted Chemical Wedges Reveal the Role of Allosteric DNA Modulation in Protein — DNA Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Rocco; Donato, Leslie J.; Brezinski, Mary L.; Stafford, Ryan L.; Hoff, Helena; Thorson, Jon S.; Dervan, Peter B.; Ansari, Aseem Z.

    2011-01-01

    The cooperative assembly of multiprotein complexes results from allosteric modulations of DNA structure as well as direct intermolecular contacts between proteins. Such cooperative binding plays a critical role in imparting exquisite sequence specificity on the homeobox transcription factor (Hox) family of developmental transcription factors. A well-characterized example includes the interaction of Hox proteins with extradenticle (Exd), a highly conserved DNA binding transcription factor. Although direct interactions are important, the contribution of indirect interactions toward cooperative assembly of Hox and Exd remains unresolved. Here we use minor groove binding polyamides as structural wedges to induce perturbations at specific base steps within the Exd binding site. We find that allosteric modulation of DNA structure contributes nearly 1.5 kcal/mol to the binding of Exd to DNA, even in the absence of direct Hox contacts. In contrast to previous studies, the sequence-targeted chemical wedges reveal the role of DNA geometry in cooperative assembly of Hox–Exd complexes. Programmable polyamides may well serve as general probes to investigate the role of DNA modulation in the cooperative and highly specific assembly of other protein–DNA complexes. PMID:18422304

  10. Preclinical to Human Translational Pharmacology of the Novel M1 Positive Allosteric Modulator MK-7622.

    PubMed

    Uslaner, Jason M; Kuduk, Scott D; Wittmann, Marion; Lange, Henry S; Fox, Steven V; Min, Chris; Pajkovic, Natasa; Harris, Dawn; Cilissen, Caroline; Mahon, Chantal; Mostoller, Kate; Warrington, Steve; Beshore, Douglas C

    2018-03-21

    The current standard of care for treating Alzheimer's disease is acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, which nonselectively increase cholinergic signaling by indirectly enhancing activity of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. These drugs improve cognitive function in patients, but also produce unwanted side-effects that limit their efficacy. In an effort to selectively improve cognition and avoid the cholinergic side-effects associated with the standard of care, various efforts have been aimed at developing selective M1 muscarinic receptor activators. Herein we describe the preclinical and clinical pharmacodynamic effects of the M1 muscarinic receptor positive allosteric modulator, MK-7622. MK-7622 attenuated the cognitive impairing effects of the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine and altered qEEG in both rhesus macaque and human. For both scopolamine reversal and qEEG, the effective exposures were similar between species. However, across species the minimum effective exposures to attenuate the scopolamine impairment were lower than for qEEG. Additionally, there were differences in the spectral power changes produced by MK-7622 in rhesus vs. human. In sum, these results are the first to demonstrate translation of preclinical cognition and target modulation to clinical effects in man for a selective M1 muscarinic receptor positive allosteric modulator. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. Role of Stoichiometry in the Dimer-Stabilizing Effect of AMPA Receptor Allosteric Modulators

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Protein dimerization provides a mechanism for the modulation of cellular signaling events. In α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors, the rapidly desensitizing, activated state has been correlated with a weakly dimeric, glutamate-binding domain conformation. Allosteric modulators can form bridging interactions that stabilize the dimer interface. While most modulators can only bind to one position with a one modulator per dimer ratio, some thiazide-based modulators can bind to the interface in two symmetrical positions with a two modulator per dimer ratio. Based on small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments, dimerization curves for the isolated glutamate-binding domain show that a second modulator binding site produces both an increase in positive cooperativity and a decrease in the EC50 for dimerization. Four body binding equilibrium models that incorporate a second dimer-stabilizing ligand were developed to fit the experimental data. The work illustrates why stoichiometry should be an important consideration during the rational design of dimerizing modulators. PMID:24152170

  12. Positive Allosteric Modulators Differentially Affect Full versus Partial Agonist Activation of the Glycine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kirson, Dean; Todorovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Taurine acts as a partial agonist at the glycine receptor (GlyR) in some brain regions such as the hippocampus, striatum, and nucleus accumbens. Ethanol, volatile anesthetics, and inhaled drugs of abuse are all known positive allosteric modulators of GlyRs, but their effects on taurine-activated GlyRs remain poorly understood, especially their effects on the high concentrations of taurine likely to be found after synaptic release. Two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology in Xenopus laevis oocytes was used to compare the enhancing effects of ethanol, anesthetics, and inhalants on human homomeric α1-GlyR activated by saturating concentrations of glycine versus taurine. Allosteric modulators had negligible effects on glycine-activated GlyR while potentiating taurine-activated currents. In addition, inhaled anesthetics markedly enhanced desensitization rates of taurine- but not glycine-activated receptors. Our findings suggest that ethanol, volatile anesthetics, and inhalants differentially affect the time courses of synaptic events at GlyR, depending on whether the receptor is activated by a full or partial agonist. PMID:22473615

  13. GalR2-positive allosteric modulator exhibits anticonvulsant effects in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaoying; Roberts, Edward; Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Liu, Tianyu; Baldwin, Roger; Wu, Stephanie; Chang, James; Wasterlain, Claude G.; Bartfai, Tamas

    2010-01-01

    Galanin receptors type 1 (GalR1) and/or type 2 (GalR2) represent unique pharmacological targets for treatment of seizures and epilepsy. Previous studies have shown that the endogenous peptide ligand galanin exerts powerful anticonvulsant effect through activation of these two G protein-coupled receptors, which are highly expressed in the temporal lobe of rodent brain. Here we report the characterization of a putative GalR2-positive allosteric modulator CYM2503. CYM2503 potentiated the galanin-stimulated IP1 accumulation in HEK293 cells stably expressing GalR2 receptor, whereas it exhibited no detectable affinity for the 125I galanin–binding site of GalR2 receptor, an effect consistent with that of a positive allosteric modulator. In the rat Li-pilocarpine status epilepticus model, CYM2503, injected intraperitoneally, increased the latency to first electrographic seizure and the latency to first stage 3 behavioral seizure, decreased the latency to the establishment of status epilepticus, and dramatically decreased the mortality. In a Li-pilocarpine seizure model in mice, CYM2503 increased the latency to first electrographic seizure and decreased the total time in seizure. CYM2503 also attenuated electroshock-induced seizures in mice. Thus, CYM2503 provides a starting point for the development of anticonvulsant therapy using the galanin R2 receptor as target. PMID:20660766

  14. Accelerated structure-based design of chemically diverse allosteric modulators of a muscarinic G protein-coupled receptor

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yinglong; Goldfeld, Dahlia Anne; Moo, Ee Von; Sexton, Patrick M.; Christopoulos, Arthur; McCammon, J. Andrew; Valant, Celine

    2016-01-01

    Design of ligands that provide receptor selectivity has emerged as a new paradigm for drug discovery of G protein-coupled receptors, and may, for certain families of receptors, only be achieved via identification of chemically diverse allosteric modulators. Here, the extracellular vestibule of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) is targeted for structure-based design of allosteric modulators. Accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) simulations were performed to construct structural ensembles that account for the receptor flexibility. Compounds obtained from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) were docked to the receptor ensembles. Retrospective docking of known ligands showed that combining aMD simulations with Glide induced fit docking (IFD) provided much-improved enrichment factors, compared with the Glide virtual screening workflow. Glide IFD was thus applied in receptor ensemble docking, and 38 top-ranked NCI compounds were selected for experimental testing. In [3H]N-methylscopolamine radioligand dissociation assays, approximately half of the 38 lead compounds altered the radioligand dissociation rate, a hallmark of allosteric behavior. In further competition binding experiments, we identified 12 compounds with affinity of ≤30 μM. With final functional experiments on six selected compounds, we confirmed four of them as new negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) and one as positive allosteric modulator of agonist-mediated response at the M2 mAChR. Two of the NAMs showed subtype selectivity without significant effect at the M1 and M3 mAChRs. This study demonstrates an unprecedented successful structure-based approach to identify chemically diverse and selective GPCR allosteric modulators with outstanding potential for further structure-activity relationship studies. PMID:27601651

  15. The metabotropic glutamate receptor 4-positive allosteric modulator VU0364770 produces efficacy alone and in combination with L-DOPA or an adenosine 2A antagonist in preclinical rodent models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Jones, Carrie K; Bubser, Michael; Thompson, Analisa D; Dickerson, Jonathan W; Turle-Lorenzo, Nathalie; Amalric, Marianne; Blobaum, Anna L; Bridges, Thomas M; Morrison, Ryan D; Jadhav, Satyawan; Engers, Darren W; Italiano, Kimberly; Bode, Jacob; Daniels, J Scott; Lindsley, Craig W; Hopkins, Corey R; Conn, P Jeffrey; Niswender, Colleen M

    2012-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder associated with severe motor impairments caused by the loss of dopaminergic innervation of the striatum. Previous studies have demonstrated that positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu₄), including N-phenyl-7-(hydroxyimino) cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxamide, can produce antiparkinsonian-like effects in preclinical models of PD. However, these early mGlu₄ PAMsexhibited unsuitable physiochemical properties for systemic dosing, requiring intracerebroventricular administration and limiting their broader utility as in vivo tools to further understand the role of mGlu₄ in the modulation of basal ganglia function relevant to PD. In the present study, we describe the pharmacologic characterization of a systemically active mGlu₄ PAM, N-(3-chlorophenyl)picolinamide (VU0364770), in several rodent PD models. VU0364770 showed efficacy alone or when administered in combination with L-DOPA or an adenosine 2A (A2A) receptor antagonist currently in clinical development (preladenant). When administered alone, VU0364770 exhibited efficacy in reversing haloperidol-induced catalepsy, forelimb asymmetry-induced by unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the median forebrain bundle, and attentional deficits induced by bilateral 6-OHDA nigrostriatal lesions in rats. In addition, VU0364770 enhanced the efficacy of preladenant to reverse haloperidol-induced catalepsy when given in combination. The effects of VU0364770 to reverse forelimb asymmetry were also potentiated when the compound was coadministered with an inactive dose of L-DOPA, suggesting that mGlu₄ PAMs may provide L-DOPA-sparing activity. The present findings provide exciting support for the potential role of selective mGlu₄ PAMs as a novel approach for the symptomatic treatment of PD and a possible augmentation strategy with either L-DOPA or A2A antagonists.

  16. Allosteric regulation of γ-secretase activity by a phenylimidazole-type γ-secretase modulator

    PubMed Central

    Takeo, Koji; Tanimura, Shun; Shinoda, Takehiro; Osawa, Satoko; Zahariev, Ivan Krasmirov; Takegami, Naoki; Ishizuka-Katsura, Yoshiko; Shinya, Naoko; Takagi-Niidome, Shizuka; Tominaga, Aya; Ohsawa, Noboru; Kimura-Someya, Tomomi; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Fukuyama, Tohru; Tomita, Taisuke; Iwatsubo, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    γ-Secretase is an intramembrane-cleaving protease responsible for the generation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Recently, a series of compounds called γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) has been shown to decrease the levels of long toxic Aβ species (i.e., Aβ42), with a concomitant elevation of the production of shorter Aβ species. In this study, we show that a phenylimidazole-type GSM allosterically induces conformational changes in the catalytic site of γ-secretase to augment the proteolytic activity. Analyses using the photoaffinity labeling technique and systematic mutational studies revealed that the phenylimidazole-type GSM targets a previously unidentified extracellular binding pocket within the N-terminal fragment of presenilin (PS). Collectively, we provide a model for the mechanism of action of the phenylimidazole-type GSM in which binding at the luminal side of PS induces a conformational change in the catalytic center of γ-secretase to modulate Aβ production. PMID:25009180

  17. Investigation of allosteric modulation mechanism of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 by molecular dynamics simulations, free energy and weak interaction analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Qifeng; Yao, Xiaojun

    2016-02-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGlu1), which belongs to class C G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), can be coupled with G protein to transfer extracellular signal by dimerization and allosteric regulation. Unraveling the dimer packing and allosteric mechanism can be of great help for understanding specific regulatory mechanism and designing more potential negative allosteric modulator (NAM). Here, we report molecular dynamics simulation studies of the modulation mechanism of FITM on the wild type, T815M and Y805A mutants of mGlu1 through weak interaction analysis and free energy calculation. The weak interaction analysis demonstrates that van der Waals (vdW) and hydrogen bonding play an important role on the dimer packing between six cholesterol molecules and mGlu1 as well as the interaction between allosteric sites T815, Y805 and FITM in wild type, T815M and Y805A mutants of mGlu1. Besides, the results of free energy calculations indicate that secondary binding pocket is mainly formed by the residues Thr748, Cys746, Lys811 and Ser735 except for FITM-bound pocket in crystal structure. Our results can not only reveal the dimer packing and allosteric regulation mechanism, but also can supply useful information for the design of potential NAM of mGlu1.

  18. HPC Analysis of Multiple Binding Sites Communication and Allosteric Modulations in Drug Design: The HSP Case Study.

    PubMed

    Chiappori, Federica; Milanesi, Luciano; Merelli, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Allostery is a long-range macromolecular mechanism of internal regulation, in which the binding of a ligand in an allosteric site induces distant conformational changes in a distant portion of the protein, modifying its activity. From the drug design point of view, this mechanism can be exploited to achieve important therapeutic effects, since ligands able to bind allosteric sites may be designed to regulate target proteins. Computational tools are a valid support in this sense, since they allow the characterization of allosteric communications within proteins, which are essential to design modulator ligands. While considering long-range interactions in macromolecules, the principal drug design tool available to researcher is molecular dynamics, and related applications, since it allows the evaluation of conformational changes of a protein bound to a ligand. In particular, all-atoms molecular dynamics is suitable to verify the internal mechanisms that orchestrate allosteric communications, in order to identify key residues and internal pathways that modify the protein behaviour. The problem is that these techniques are heavily time-consuming and computationally intensive, thus high performance computing systems, including parallel computing and GPU-accelerated computations, are necessary to achieve results in a reasonable time. In this review, we will discuss how it is possible to exploit in silico approaches to characterize allosteric modulations and long-range interactions within proteins, describing the case study of the Heat Shock Proteins, a class of chaperons regulated by stress conditions, which is particularly important since it is involved in many cancers and neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Optical single side-band Nyquist PAM-4 transmission using dual-drive MZM modulation and direct detection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingyue; Zhang, Jing; Yi, Xingwen; Ying, Hao; Li, Xiang; Luo, Ming; Song, Yingxiong; Huang, Xiatao; Qiu, Kun

    2018-03-19

    We present the design and optimization of the optical single side-band (SSB) Nyquist four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) transmission using dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DDMZM)modulation and direct detection (DD), aiming at the C-band cost-effective, high-speed and long-distance transmission. At the transmitter, the laser line width should be small to avoid the phase noise to amplitude noise conversion and equalization-enhanced phase noise due to the large chromatic dispersion (CD). The optical SSB signal is generated after optimizing the optical modulation index (OMI) and hence the minimum phase condition which is required by the Kramers-Kronig (KK) receiver can also be satisfied. At the receiver, a simple AC-coupled photodiode (PD) is used and a virtual carrier is added for the KK operation to alleviate the signal-to-signal beating interference (SSBI).A Volterra filter (VF) is cascaded for remaining nonlinearities mitigation. When the fiber nonlinearity becomes significant, we elect to use an optical band-pass filter with offset filtering. It can suppress the simulated Brillouin scattering and the conjugated distortion by filtering out the imaging frequency components. With our design and optimization, we achieve single-channel, single polarization 102.4-Gb/s Nyquist PAM-4 over 800-km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF).

  20. High-speed low-chirp PAM-4 transmission based on push-pull silicon photonic microring modulators.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Patel, David; El-Fiky, Eslam; Samani, Alireza; Xing, Zhenping; Morsy-Osman, Mohamed; Plant, David V

    2017-06-12

    We report a silicon photonic modulator based on the use of dual parallel microring modulators (MRMs) inserted in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). It is operated in a push-pull configuration for low-chirp transmission at approximately 1550 nm. The chirp parameters of the device are measured using 10 Gb/s on-off keying (OOK) transmission over 20 km of standard single mode fiber (SSMF), and they are less than 0.01, showing the low-chirp characteristic of the modulator. We further demonstrate four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) transmission at 92 Gb/s over 1 km of SSMF and at 40 Gb/s over 20 km of SSMF. The measured bit error rates (BERs) are below the hard-decision (HD) forward error correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8 × 10 -3 .

  1. Discovery and Characterization of Novel GPR39 Agonists Allosterically Modulated by Zinc.

    PubMed

    Sato, Seiji; Huang, Xi-Ping; Kroeze, Wesley K; Roth, Bryan L

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we identified two previously described kinase inhibitors-3-(4-chloro-2-fluorobenzyl)-2-methyl-N-(3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-8-(morpholinomethyl)imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazin-6-amine (LY2784544) and 1H-benzimidazole-4-carboxylic acid, 2-methyl-1-[[2-methyl-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]methyl]-6-(4-morpholinyl)- (GSK2636771)-as novel GPR39 agonists by unbiased small-molecule-based screening using a β-arrestin recruitment screening approach (PRESTO-Tango). We characterized the signaling of LY2784544 and GSK2636771 and compared their signaling patterns with a previously described "GPR39-selective" agonist N-[3-chloro-4-[[[2-(methylamino)-6-(2-pyridinyl)-4- pyrimidinyl]amino]methyl]phenyl]methanesulfonamide (GPR39-C3) at both canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways. Unexpectedly, all three compounds displayed probe-dependent and pathway-dependent allosteric modulation by concentrations of zinc reported to be physiologic. LY2784544 and GS2636771 at GPR39 in the presence of zinc were generally as potent or more potent than their reported activities against kinases in whole-cell assays. These findings reveal an unexpected role of zinc as an allosteric potentiator of small-molecule-induced activation of GPR39 and expand the list of potential kinase off-targets to include understudied G protein-coupled receptors. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  2. Allosteric modulation of the substrate specificity of acyl-CoA wax alcohol acyltransferase 2

    PubMed Central

    Arne, Jason M.; Widjaja-Adhi, Made Airanthi K.; Hughes, Taylor; Huynh, Kevin W.; Silvaroli, Josie A.; Chelstowska, Sylwia; Moiseenkova-Bell, Vera Y.; Golczak, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    The esterification of alcohols with fatty acids is a universal mechanism to form inert storage forms of sterols, di- and triacylglycerols, and retinoids. In ocular tissues, formation of retinyl esters is an essential step in the enzymatic regeneration of the visual chromophore (11-cis-retinal). Acyl-CoA wax alcohol acyltransferase 2 (AWAT2), also known as multifunctional O-acyltransferase (MFAT), is an integral membrane enzyme with a broad substrate specificity that has been shown to preferentially esterify 11-cis-retinol and thus contribute to formation of a readily available pool of cis retinoids in the eye. However, the mechanism by which this promiscuous enzyme can gain substrate specificity is unknown. Here, we provide evidence for an allosteric modulation of the enzymatic activity by 11-cis retinoids. This regulation is independent from cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP), the major cis-retinoid binding protein. This positive-feedback regulation leads to decreased esterification rates for 9-cis, 13-cis, or all-trans retinols and thus enables preferential synthesis of 11-cis-retinyl esters. Finally, electron microscopy analyses of the purified enzyme indicate that this allosteric effect does not result from formation of functional oligomers. Altogether, these data provide the experimental basis for understanding regulation of AWAT2 substrate specificity. PMID:28096191

  3. In Vitro Pharmacological Characterization of RXFP3 Allosterism: An Example of Probe Dependency

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Jaimes, Lily; Sutton, Steven W.; Nepomuceno, Diane; Motley, S. Timothy; Cik, Miroslav; Stocking, Emily; Shoblock, James; Bonaventure, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that the relaxin-3 neural network may represent a new ascending arousal pathway able to modulate a range of neural circuits including those affecting circadian rhythm and sleep/wake states, spatial and emotional memory, motivation and reward, the response to stress, and feeding and metabolism. Therefore, the relaxin-3 receptor (RXFP3) is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of various CNS diseases. Here we describe a novel selective RXFP3 receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM), 3-[3,5-Bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1-[2-(5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]urea (135PAM1). Calcium mobilization and cAMP accumulation assays in cell lines expressing the cloned human RXFP3 receptor show the compound does not directly activate RXFP3 receptor but increases functional responses to amidated relaxin-3 or R3/I5, a chimera of the INSL5 A chain and the Relaxin-3 B chain. 135PAM1 increases calcium mobilization in the presence of relaxin-3NH2 and R3/I5NH2 with pEC50 values of 6.54 (6.46 to 6.64) and 6.07 (5.94 to 6.20), respectively. In the cAMP accumulation assay, 135PAM1 inhibits the CRE response to forskolin with a pIC50 of 6.12 (5.98 to 6.27) in the presence of a probe (10 nM) concentration of relaxin-3NH2. 135PAM1 does not compete for binding with the orthosteric radioligand, [125I] R3I5 (amide), in membranes prepared from cells expressing the cloned human RXFP3 receptor. 135PAM1 is selective for RXFP3 over RXFP4, which also responds to relaxin-3. However, when using the free acid (native) form of relaxin-3 or R3/I5, 135PAM1 doesn't activate RXFP3 indicating that the compound's effect is probe dependent. Thus one can exchange the entire A-chain of the probe peptide while retaining PAM activity, but the state of the probe's c-terminus is crucial to allosteric activity of the PAM. These data demonstrate the existence of an allosteric site for modulation of this GPCR as well as the subtlety of changes in probe molecules

  4. PAM-1616, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ modulator with preserved anti-diabetic efficacy and reduced adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Kyung; Chae, Yu Na; Choi, Song-hyen; Moon, Ho Sang; Son, Moon-Ho; Bae, Myung-Ho; Choi, Hyun-ho; Hur, Youn; Kim, Eunkyung; Park, Yoo Hoi; Park, Chan Sun; Kim, Jae Gyu; Lim, Joong In; Shin, Chang Yell

    2011-01-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ is known to be a key regulator of insulin resistance. PAM-1616 is a novel, non-thiazolidinedione small molecule compound synthesized in Dong-A Research Center. In this study, we characterized the pharmacological and safety profiles of PAM-1616 as a selective PPARγ modulator. PAM-1616 selectively binds to human PPARγ (IC(50), 24.1±5.6 nM) and is a partial agonist for human PPARγ with an EC(50) of 83.6±43.7 nM and a maximal response of 24.9±7.1% relative to the full agonist, rosiglitazone. PAM-1616 was selective for human PPARγ than for human PPARα (EC(50), 2658±828 nM) without activating human PPARδ, which makes it a selective modulator of PPARγ. Treatment of high fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice with PAM-1616 for 21 days improved HOMA-IR. Furthermore, PAM-1616 significantly improved hyperglycemia in db/db mice with little side effect when orally administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Intriguingly, PAM-1616 was seen to increase the gene expression of inducible glucose transporter (GLUT4), while it partially induced that of a fatty acid carrier, aP2 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and it also showed partial recruitment of an adipogenic cofactor, TRAP220 as compared to rosiglitazone. PAM-1616 did not cause a significant increase in plasma volume of ICR mice when orally administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day for 9 days. PAM-1616 increased the expression of fluid retention-inducing genes such as serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK)-1 to a lesser extent as compared to rosiglitazone in human renal epithelial cells. These results suggest that PAM-1616 acts as a selective modulator of PPARγ with excellent antihyperglycemic property. The differential modulation of target gene by PAM-1616 might contribute to the improved side effect profiles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Anxiolytic- but not antidepressant-like activity of Lu AF21934, a novel, selective positive allosteric modulator of the mGlu₄ receptor.

    PubMed

    Sławińska, Anna; Wierońska, Joanna M; Stachowicz, Katarzyna; Pałucha-Poniewiera, Agnieszka; Uberti, Michelle A; Bacolod, Maria A; Doller, Dario; Pilc, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the Group III mGlu receptor-selective orthosteric agonist, LSP1-2111 produced anxiolytic- but not antidepressant-like effects upon peripheral administration. Herein, we report the pharmacological actions of Lu AF21934, a novel, selective, and brain-penetrant positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of the mGlu(4) receptor in the stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH), four-plate, marble-burying and Vogel's conflict tests. In all models, except Vogel's conflict test, a dose-dependent anxiolytic-like effect was seen. The anti-hyperthermic effect of Lu AF21934 (5 mg/kg) in the SIH test was inhibited by the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil (10 mg/kg) and was not serotonin-dependent, as it persisted in serotonin-deficient mice and upon blockade of either 5-HT(1A) receptors by WAY100635, or 5-HT(2A/2C) receptors by ritanserin. These results suggest that the GABAergic system, but not the serotonergic system, is involved in the mechanism of the anxiolytic-like phenotype of Lu AF21934 in rodents. Lu AF21934 did not produce antidepressant-like effects in the tail suspension test (TST) in mice; however, it decreased the basal locomotor activity of mice that were not habituated to activity cages. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Discovery of a Selective and CNS Penetrant Negative Allosteric Modulator of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 3 with Antidepressant and Anxiolytic Activity in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Engers, Julie L.; Rodriguez, Alice L.; Konkol, Leah C.; Morrison, Ryan D.; Thompson, Analisa D.; Byers, Frank W.; Blobaum, Anna L.; Chang, Sichen; Venable, Daryl F.; Loch, Matthew T.; Niswender, Colleen M.; Daniels, J. Scott; Jones, Carrie K.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.; Emmitte, Kyle A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous preclinical work has demonstrated the therapeutic potential of antagonists of the group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlus). Still, compounds that are selective for the individual group II mGlus (mGlu2 and mGlu3) have been scarce. There remains a need for such compounds with the balance of properties suitable for convenient use in a wide array of rodent behavioral studies. We describe here the discovery of a selective mGlu3 NAM 106 (VU0650786) suitable for in vivo work. Compound 106 is a member of a series of 5-aryl-6,7-dihydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrazine-4(5H)-one compounds originally identified as a mGlu5 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) chemotype. Its suitability for use in rodent behavioral models has been established by extensive in vivo PK studies, and the behavioral experiments presented here with compound 106 represent the first examples in which an mGlu3 NAM has demonstrated efficacy in models where prior efficacy had previously been noted with nonselective group II antagonists. PMID:26335039

  7. A2A adenosine receptor ligand binding and signalling is allosterically modulated by adenosine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Eduard; Pérez-Capote, Kamil; Moreno, Estefanía; Barkešová, Jana; Mallol, Josefa; Lluís, Carme; Franco, Rafael; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Canela, Enric I

    2011-05-01

    A2ARs (adenosine A2A receptors) are highly enriched in the striatum, which is the main motor control CNS (central nervous system) area. BRET (bioluminescence resonance energy transfer) assays showed that A2AR homomers may act as cell-surface ADA (adenosine deaminase; EC 3.5.4.4)-binding proteins. ADA binding affected the quaternary structure of A2ARs present on the cell surface. ADA binding to adenosine A2ARs increased both agonist and antagonist affinity on ligand binding to striatal membranes where these proteins are co-expressed. ADA also increased receptor-mediated ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) phosphorylation. Collectively, the results of the present study show that ADA, apart from regulating the concentration of extracellular adenosine, may behave as an allosteric modulator that markedly enhances ligand affinity and receptor function. This powerful regulation may have implications for the physiology and pharmacology of neuronal A2ARs.

  8. 5-(N, N-Hexamethylene) amiloride is a GABA-A ρ1 receptor positive allosteric modulator.

    PubMed

    Snell, Heather D; Gonzales, Eric B

    2016-11-01

    Guanidine compounds act as ion channel modulators. In the case of Cys-loop receptors, the guanidine compound amiloride antagonized the heteromeric GABA-A, glycine, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. However, amiloride exhibits characteristics consistent with a positive allosteric modulator for the human GABA-A (hGABA-A) ρ1 receptor. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the positive allosteric modulation was influenced by the GABA-A ρ1 second transmembrane domain 15' position, a site implicated in ligand allosteric modulation of Cys-loop receptors. There are a variety of amiloride derivatives that provide opportunities to assess the significance of amiloride functional groups (e.g., the guanidine group, the pyrazine ring, etc.) in the modulation of the GABA-A ρ1 receptor activity. We utilized 3 amiloride derivatives (benzamil, phenamil, and 5-(N, N-Hexamethylene) amiloride) to assess the contribution of these groups toward the potentiation of the GABA-A ρ1 receptor. Benzamil and phenamil failed to potentiate on the wild type GABA-A ρ1 GABA-mediated current while HMA demonstrated efficacy only at the highest concentration studied. The hGABA-A ρ1 (I15'N) mutant receptor activity was potentiated by lower HMA concentrations compared to the wild type receptor. Our findings suggest that an exposed guanidine group on amiloride and amiloride derivatives is critical for modulating the GABA-A ρ1 receptor. The present study provides a conceptual framework for predicting which amiloride derivatives will demonstrate positive allosteric modulation of the GABA-A ρ1 receptor.

  9. Real-time characterization of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) allosteric modulators reveals novel mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Cawston, Erin E; Redmond, William J; Breen, Courtney M; Grimsey, Natasha L; Connor, Mark; Glass, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) has an allosteric binding site. The drugs ORG27569 {5-chloro-3-ethyl-N-[2-[4-(1-piperidinyl)phenyl]ethyl]-1H-indole-2-carboxamide} and PSNCBAM-1 {1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-[3-(6-pyrrolidin-1-ylpyridin-2-yl)phenyl]urea} have been extensively characterized with regard to their effects on signalling of the orthosteric ligand CP55,940 {(−)-cis-3-[2-hydroxy-4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)phenyl]-trans-4-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexanol}, and studies have suggested that these allosteric modulators increase binding affinity but act as non-competitive antagonists in functional assays. To gain a deeper understanding of allosteric modulation of CB1, we examined real-time signalling and trafficking responses of the receptor in the presence of allosteric modulators. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Studies of CB1 signalling were carried out in HEK 293 and AtT20 cells expressing haemagglutinin-tagged human and rat CB1. We measured real-time accumulation of cAMP, activation and desensitization of potassium channel-mediated cellular hyperpolarization and CB1 internalization. KEY RESULTS ORG27569 and PSNCBAM-1 produce a complex, concentration and time-dependent modulation of agonist-mediated regulation of cAMP levels, as well as an increased rate of desensitization of CB1-mediated cellular hyperpolarization and a decrease in agonist-induced receptor internalization. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Contrary to previous studies characterizing allosteric modulators at CB1, this study suggests that the mechanism of action is not non-competitive antagonism of signalling, but rather that enhanced binding results in an increased rate of receptor desensitization and reduced internalization, which results in time-dependent modulation of cAMP signalling. The observed effect of the allosteric modulators is therefore dependent on the time frame over which the signalling response occurs. This finding may have important consequences for the potential therapeutic

  10. Allosteric Modulation of Hormone Release from Thyroxine and Corticosteroid-binding Globulins*

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xiaoqiang; Loiseau, François; Chan, Wee Lee; Yan, Yahui; Wei, Zhenquan; Milroy, Lech-Gustav; Myers, Rebecca M.; Ley, Steven V.; Read, Randy J.; Carrell, Robin W.; Zhou, Aiwu

    2011-01-01

    The release of hormones from thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is regulated by movement of the reactive center loop in and out of the β-sheet A of the molecule. To investigate how these changes are transmitted to the hormone-binding site, we developed a sensitive assay using a synthesized thyroxine fluorophore and solved the crystal structures of reactive loop cleaved TBG together with its complexes with thyroxine, the thyroxine fluorophores, furosemide, and mefenamic acid. Cleavage of the reactive loop results in its complete insertion into the β-sheet A and a substantial but incomplete decrease in binding affinity in both TBG and CBG. We show here that the direct interaction between residue Thr342 of the reactive loop and Tyr241 of the hormone binding site contributes to thyroxine binding and release following reactive loop insertion. However, a much larger effect occurs allosterically due to stretching of the connecting loop to the top of the D helix (hD), as confirmed in TBG with shortening of the loop by three residues, making it insensitive to the S-to-R transition. The transmission of the changes in the hD loop to the binding pocket is seen to involve coherent movements in the s2/3B loop linked to the hD loop by Lys243, which is, in turn, linked to the s4/5B loop, flanking the thyroxine-binding site, by Arg378. Overall, the coordinated movements of the reactive loop, hD, and the hormone binding site allow the allosteric regulation of hormone release, as with the modulation demonstrated here in response to changes in temperature. PMID:21325280

  11. Positive Allosteric Modulation of the Calcium-sensing Receptor by Physiological Concentrations of Glucose*

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Johan; Nakagawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Masahiro; Fernandez, Anny; Sakaguchi, Kazushige; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Kojima, Itaru

    2016-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is activated by various cations, cationic compounds, and amino acids. In the present study we investigated the effect of glucose on CaSR in HEK293 cells stably expressing human CaSR (HEK-CaSR cells). When glucose concentration in the buffer was raised from 3 to 25 mm, a rapid elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) was observed. This elevation was immediate and transient and was followed by a sustained decrease in [Ca2+]c. The effect of glucose was detected at a concentration of 4 mm and reached its maximum at 5 mm. 3-O-Methylglucose, a non-metabolizable analogue of glucose, reproduced the effect of glucose. Sucrose also induced an elevation of [Ca2+]c in HEK-CaSR cells. Similarly, sucralose was nearly as effective as glucose in inducing elevation of [Ca2+]c. Glucose was not able to increase [Ca2+]c in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. The effect of glucose on [Ca2+]c was inhibited by NPS-2143, an allosteric inhibitor of CaSR. In addition, NPS-2143 also inhibited the [Ca2+]c responses to sucralose and sucrose. Glucose as well as sucralose decreased cytoplasmic cAMP concentration in HEK-CaSR cells. The reduction of cAMP induced by glucose was blocked by pertussis toxin. Likewise, sucralose reduced [cAMP]c. Finally, glucose increased [Ca2+]c in PT-r parathyroid cells and in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, both of which express endogenous CaSR. These results indicate that glucose acts as a positive allosteric modulator of CaSR. PMID:27613866

  12. Experimental study of 112 Gb/s short reach transmission employing PAM formats and SiP intensity modulator at 1.3 μm.

    PubMed

    Chagnon, Mathieu; Osman, Mohamed; Poulin, Michel; Latrasse, Christine; Gagné, Jean-Frédéric; Painchaud, Yves; Paquet, Carl; Lessard, Stéphane; Plant, David

    2014-08-25

    We present a Silicon Photonic (SiP) intensity modulator operating at 1.3 μm with pulse amplitude modulation formats for short reach transmission employing a digital to analog converter for the RF signal generator, enabling pulse shaping and precompensation of the transmitter's frequency response. Details of the SiP Mach-Zehnder interfometer are presented. We study the system performance at various bit rates, PAM orders and propagation distances. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first demonstration of a 112 Gb/s transmission over 10 km of SMF fiber operating below pre-FEC BER threshold of 3.8 × 10(-3) employing PAM-8 at 37.4 Gbaud using a fully packaged SiP modulator. An analytical model for the Q-factor metric applicable for multilevel PAM-N signaling is derived and accurately experimentally verified in the case of Gaussian noise limited detection. System performance is experimentally investigated and it is demonstrated that PAM order selection can be optimally chosen as a function of the desired throughput. We demonstrate the ability of the proposed transmitter to exhibit software-defined transmission for short reach applications by selecting PAM order, symbol rate and pulse shape.

  13. Positive Allosteric Modulation of the Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor by Diverse Electrophiles*

    PubMed Central

    Showalter, Aaron D.; Wainscott, David B.; Stutsman, Cynthia; Marín, Aranzazu; Ficorilli, James; Cabrera, Over

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic intervention to activate the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion and improves energy balance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Studies investigating mechanisms whereby peptide ligands activate GLP-1R have utilized mutagenesis, receptor chimeras, photo-affinity labeling, hydrogen-deuterium exchange, and crystallography of the ligand-binding ectodomain to establish receptor homology models. However, this has not enabled the design or discovery of drug-like non-peptide GLP-1R activators. Recently, studies investigating 4-(3-benzyloxyphenyl)-2-ethylsulfinyl-6-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidine (BETP), a GLP-1R-positive allosteric modulator, determined that Cys-347 in the GLP-1R is required for positive allosteric modulator activity via covalent modification. To advance small molecule activation of the GLP-1R, we characterized the insulinotropic mechanism of BETP. In guanosine 5′-3-O-(thio)triphosphate binding and INS1 832-3 insulinoma cell cAMP assays, BETP enhanced GLP-1(9–36)-NH2-stimulated cAMP signaling. Using isolated pancreatic islets, BETP potentiated insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner that requires both the peptide ligand and GLP-1R. In studies of the covalent mechanism, PAGE fluorography showed labeling of GLP-1R in immunoprecipitation experiments from GLP-1R-expressing cells incubated with [3H]BETP. Furthermore, we investigated whether other reported GLP-1R activators and compounds identified from screening campaigns modulate GLP-1R by covalent modification. Similar to BETP, several molecules were found to enhance GLP-1R signaling in a Cys-347-dependent manner. These chemotypes are electrophiles that react with GSH, and LC/MS determined the cysteine adducts formed upon conjugation. Together, our results suggest covalent modification may be used to stabilize the GLP-1R in an active conformation. Moreover, the findings provide pharmacological guidance for the discovery and

  14. Positive allosteric modulation of the GHB high-affinity binding site by the GABAA receptor modulator monastrol and the flavonoid catechin.

    PubMed

    Eghorn, Laura F; Hoestgaard-Jensen, Kirsten; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Bay, Tina; Higgins, David; Frølund, Bente; Wellendorph, Petrine

    2014-10-05

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a metabolite of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and a proposed neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. We recently identified α4βδ GABAA receptors as possible high-affinity GHB targets. GABAA receptors are highly sensitive to allosteric modulation. Thus to investigate whether GHB high-affinity binding sites are also sensitive to allosteric modulation, we screened both known GABAA receptor ligands and a library of natural compounds in the rat cortical membrane GHB specific high-affinity [3H]NCS-382 binding assay. Two hits were identified: Monastrol, a positive allosteric modulator of GABA function at δ-containing GABAA receptors, and the naturally occurring flavonoid catechin. These compounds increased [3H]NCS-382 binding to 185-272% in high micromolar concentrations. Monastrol and (+)-catechin significantly reduced [3H]NCS-382 dissociation rates and induced conformational changes in the binding site, demonstrating a positive allosteric modulation of radioligand binding. Surprisingly, binding of [3H]GHB and the GHB high-affinity site-specific radioligands [125I]BnOPh-GHB and [3H]HOCPCA was either decreased or only weakly increased, indicating that the observed modulation was critically probe-dependent. Both monastrol and (+)-catechin were agonists at recombinant α4β3δ receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. When monastrol and GHB were co-applied no changes were seen compared to the individual responses. In summary, we have identified the compounds monastrol and catechin as the first allosteric modulators of GHB high-affinity binding sites. Despite their relatively weak affinity, these compounds may aid in further characterization of the GHB high-affinity sites that are likely to represent certain GABAA receptors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Modulation of global low-frequency motions underlies allosteric regulation: demonstration in CRP/FNR family transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Thomas L; Townsend, Philip D; Burnell, David; Jones, Matthew L; Richards, Shane A; McLeish, Tom C B; Pohl, Ehmke; Wilson, Mark R; Cann, Martin J

    2013-09-01

    Allostery is a fundamental process by which ligand binding to a protein alters its activity at a distinct site. There is growing evidence that allosteric cooperativity can be communicated by modulation of protein dynamics without conformational change. The mechanisms, however, for communicating dynamic fluctuations between sites are debated. We provide a foundational theory for how allostery can occur as a function of low-frequency dynamics without a change in structure. We have generated coarse-grained models that describe the protein backbone motions of the CRP/FNR family transcription factors, CAP of Escherichia coli and GlxR of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The latter we demonstrate as a new exemplar for allostery without conformation change. We observe that binding the first molecule of cAMP ligand is correlated with modulation of the global normal modes and negative cooperativity for binding the second cAMP ligand without a change in mean structure. The theory makes key experimental predictions that are tested through an analysis of variant proteins by structural biology and isothermal calorimetry. Quantifying allostery as a free energy landscape revealed a protein "design space" that identified the inter- and intramolecular regulatory parameters that frame CRP/FNR family allostery. Furthermore, through analyzing CAP variants from diverse species, we demonstrate an evolutionary selection pressure to conserve residues crucial for allosteric control. This finding provides a link between the position of CRP/FNR transcription factors within the allosteric free energy landscapes and evolutionary selection pressures. Our study therefore reveals significant features of the mechanistic basis for allostery. Changes in low-frequency dynamics correlate with allosteric effects on ligand binding without the requirement for a defined spatial pathway. In addition to evolving suitable three-dimensional structures, CRP/FNR family transcription factors have been selected to

  16. Modulation of Global Low-Frequency Motions Underlies Allosteric Regulation: Demonstration in CRP/FNR Family Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Burnell, David; Jones, Matthew L.; Richards, Shane A.; McLeish, Tom C. B.; Pohl, Ehmke; Wilson, Mark R.; Cann, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Allostery is a fundamental process by which ligand binding to a protein alters its activity at a distinct site. There is growing evidence that allosteric cooperativity can be communicated by modulation of protein dynamics without conformational change. The mechanisms, however, for communicating dynamic fluctuations between sites are debated. We provide a foundational theory for how allostery can occur as a function of low-frequency dynamics without a change in structure. We have generated coarse-grained models that describe the protein backbone motions of the CRP/FNR family transcription factors, CAP of Escherichia coli and GlxR of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The latter we demonstrate as a new exemplar for allostery without conformation change. We observe that binding the first molecule of cAMP ligand is correlated with modulation of the global normal modes and negative cooperativity for binding the second cAMP ligand without a change in mean structure. The theory makes key experimental predictions that are tested through an analysis of variant proteins by structural biology and isothermal calorimetry. Quantifying allostery as a free energy landscape revealed a protein “design space” that identified the inter- and intramolecular regulatory parameters that frame CRP/FNR family allostery. Furthermore, through analyzing CAP variants from diverse species, we demonstrate an evolutionary selection pressure to conserve residues crucial for allosteric control. This finding provides a link between the position of CRP/FNR transcription factors within the allosteric free energy landscapes and evolutionary selection pressures. Our study therefore reveals significant features of the mechanistic basis for allostery. Changes in low-frequency dynamics correlate with allosteric effects on ligand binding without the requirement for a defined spatial pathway. In addition to evolving suitable three-dimensional structures, CRP/FNR family transcription factors have been selected to

  17. Intracellular calcium levels determine differential modulation of allosteric interactions within G protein-coupled receptor heteromers.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Gemma; Aguinaga, David; Moreno, Estefania; Hradsky, Johannes; Reddy, Pasham P; Cortés, Antoni; Mallol, Josefa; Casadó, Vicent; Mikhaylova, Marina; Kreutz, Michael R; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I; McCormick, Peter J; Ferré, Sergi

    2014-11-20

    The pharmacological significance of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromer is well established and it is being considered as an important target for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and other neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the physiological factors that control its distinctive biochemical properties are still unknown. We demonstrate that different intracellular Ca2+ levels exert a differential modulation of A2AR-D2R heteromer-mediated adenylyl-cyclase and MAPK signaling in striatal cells. This depends on the ability of low and high Ca2+ levels to promote a selective interaction of the heteromer with the neuronal Ca2+-binding proteins NCS-1 and calneuron-1, respectively. These Ca2+-binding proteins differentially modulate allosteric interactions within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, which constitutes a unique cellular device that integrates extracellular (adenosine and dopamine) and intracellular (Ca+2) signals to produce a specific functional response.

  18. Niclosamide is a Negative Allosteric Modulator of Group I Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors: Implications for Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Ai, Ni; Wood, Richard D; Yang, Eric; Welsh, William J

    2016-12-01

    Novel therapeutics are greatly needed that target specific pathological receptors and pathways involved in Neuropathic Pain (NP). Extending our previous work published in this Journal on Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) modulators, we now investigate the therapeutic potential of niclosamide in modulating aberrant glutamate transmission in NP. Calcium mobilization assays and cross-receptor selectivity experiments are conducted to characterize the pharmacological activity of niclosamide. A focused series of niclosamide analogues is then prepared to elucidate key structural determinants that emerged from computational molecular modeling analysis on drug-receptor interactions. Finally, niclosamide and a carbamate derivative are studied to assess their efficacy in an NP-evoked mechanical hyperalgesia model in rats. Niclosamide is a low-nanomolar allosteric antagonist of Group I mGluRs with high selectivity for Group I over homologous Group III mGluRs. The phenolic hydroxyl group of niclosamide forms a crucial hydrogen bond with mGluR1/5. Its bioactive coplanar conformation is further stabilized by the nitro substituent on the B ring and an intramolecular bond. Mechanical hyperalgesia in NP rats is reversed by niclosamide through three different dosing routes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the salicylanilide class of compounds as potential treatments for NP.

  19. Menthol Suppresses Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Functioning in Sensory Neurons via Allosteric Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, M.; Swandulla, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated how the function of native and recombinant nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is modulated by the monoterpenoid alcohol from peppermint (−) menthol. In trigeminal neurons (TG), we found that nicotine (75 μM)-activated whole-cell currents through nAChRs were reversibly reduced by menthol in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 111 μM. To analyze the mechanism underlying menthol's action in more detail, we used single channel and whole-cell recordings from recombinant human α4β2 nAChR expressed in HEK tsA201 cells. Here, we found a shortening of channel open time and a prolongation of channel closed time, and an increase in single channel amplitude leading in summary to a reduction in single channel current. Furthermore, menthol did not affect nicotine's EC50 value for currents through recombinant human α4β2 nAChRs but caused a significant reduction in nicotine's efficacy. Taken together, these findings indicate that menthol is a negative allosteric modulator of nAChRs. PMID:22281529

  20. Synergy between L-DOPA and a novel positive allosteric modulator of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4: implications for Parkinson's disease treatment and dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Bennouar, Khaled-Ezaheir; Uberti, Michelle A; Melon, Christophe; Bacolod, Maria D; Jimenez, Hermogenes N; Cajina, Manuel; Kerkerian-Le Goff, Lydia; Doller, Darío; Gubellini, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    Group III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are localized in presynaptic terminals within basal ganglia (BG) circuitry that become hyperactive due to dopamine depletion in Parkinson's disease (PD). For this reason, group III mGlu receptors, in particular mGlu4, have been considered as key strategic targets for non-dopaminergic pharmacological treatments aimed at modulating these synapses, without producing the well known side-effects of l-DOPA, in particular the highly disabling l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). Herein we add physiological and functional support to this hypothesis using Lu AF21934, a novel selective and brain-penetrant mGlu4 receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM) tool compound. By in vitro electrophysiological recordings we demonstrate that Lu AF21934 inhibits corticostriatal synaptic transmission and enhances the effect of the orthosteric mGlu4 receptor-preferred agonist LSP1-2111. In naïve rats, Lu AF21934 dose-dependently (10 and 30 mg/kg) alleviated haloperidol-induced catalepsy. In hemiparkinsonian rats (unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the substantia nigra pars compacta), Lu AF21934 alone did not affect akinesia at the doses tested (10 and 30 mg/kg). However, when Lu AF21934 was combined with sub-threshold doses of l-DOPA (1 and 5 mg/kg), it acted synergistically in alleviating akinesia in a dose-dependent manner and, notably, also reduced the incidence of LID but not its severity. Interestingly, these effects occurred at Lu AF21934 brain free concentrations that showed functional activity in in vitro screens (calcium flux and electrophysiology assays). These results support the potential for antiparkinsonian clinical use of a combined treatment consisting in l-DOPA and a mGlu4 receptor PAM to reduce efficacious l-DOPA doses (generally known as l-DOPA sparing), while maintaining the same benefit on PD motor troubles, and at the same time minimizing the development of LID. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled

  1. An Allosteric Modulator of the Adenosine A1 Receptor Improves Cardiac Function Following Ischaemia in Murine Isolated Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Anna; Scammells, Peter J.; White, Paul J.; Devine, Shane M.; Rose’Meyer, Roselyn B.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of an allosteric modulator of the adenosine A1 receptors was investigated using an ischaemia-reperfusion protocol in murine isolated hearts. Isolated hearts were perfused with Kreb-Henseleit solution gassed with carbogen gas (95% O2 and 5% CO2) in Langendorff mode and electrically paced at 480 bpm. Following 20 min equilibration and 20 min global normothermic ischaemia, the allosteric modulator VCP333 (1 μM) or the adenosine A1 receptor partial agonist VCP102 (10 μM) were infused after 5 min of reperfusion for 15 min. Upon termination of the drug treatment, reperfusion continued for a further 40 min. At the end of 60 min reperfusion, treatment with VCP333 or VCP102 improved the recovery of the left ventricular developed pressure when compared to control group responses (p < 0.05). Neither compound affected end diastolic pressure, coronary flow rates or dP/dtmax values when compared to control tissues during reperfusion (p > 0.05). The infusion of VCP102 or VCP333 during reperfusion reduced cardiac troponin I efflux to 6.7% and 25% respectively of control heart efflux (p < 0.05). This data indicates that the allosteric modulator of the adenosine A1 receptor (VCP333) has similar characteristics to the adenosine receptor partial agonist VCP102 as it improves cardiac function and reduces myocardial cell death following an ischaemic episode. PMID:24276124

  2. Photolabeling a Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) with an (α4)3(β2)2 nAChR-Selective Positive Allosteric Modulator

    PubMed Central

    Deba, Farah; Wang, Ze-Jun; Cohen, Jonathan B.

    2016-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) have potential clinical applications in the treatment of nicotine dependence and many neuropsychiatric conditions associated with decreased brain cholinergic activity, and 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-5-(5-methyl-1-(piperidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrrazol-4-yl)isoxazole (CMPI) has been identified as a PAM selective for neuronal nAChRs containing the α4 subunit. In this report, we compare CMPI interactions with low-sensitivity (α4)3(β2)2 and high-sensitivity (α4)2(β2)3 nAChRs, and with muscle-type nAChRs. In addition, we use the intrinsic reactivity of [3H]CMPI upon photolysis at 312 nm to identify its binding sites in Torpedo nAChRs. Recording from Xenopus oocytes, we found that CMPI potentiated maximally the responses of (α4)3(β2)2 nAChR to 10 μM ACh (EC10) by 400% and with an EC50 of ∼1 µM. CMPI produced a left shift of the ACh concentration-response curve without altering ACh efficacy. In contrast, CMPI inhibited (∼35% at 10 µM) ACh responses of (α4)2(β2)3 nAChRs and fully inhibited human muscle and Torpedo nAChRs with IC50 values of ∼0.5 µM. Upon irradiation at 312 nm, [3H]CMPI photoincorporated into each Torpedo [(α1)2β1γδ] nAChR subunit. Sequencing of peptide fragments isolated from [3H]CMPI-photolabeled nAChR subunits established photolabeling of amino acids contributing to the ACh binding sites (αTyr190, αTyr198, γTrp55, γTyr111, γTyr117, δTrp57) that was fully inhibitable by agonist and lower-efficiency, state-dependent [3H]CMPI photolabeling within the ion channel. Our results establish that CMPI is a potent potentiator of nAChRs containing an α4:α4 subunit interface, and that its intrinsic photoreactivy makes it of potential use to identify its binding sites in the (α4)3(β2)2 nAChR. PMID:26976945

  3. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists and positive allosteric modulators as novel treatments for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fell, Matthew J; McKinzie, David L; Monn, James A; Svensson, Kjell A

    2012-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating chronic psychotic disorder characterized by positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms. Although the positive symptoms are relatively well controlled by current monoamine-based treatments for schizophrenia, these agents provide only modest efficacy against the negative and cognitive symptoms of the disease. Furthermore serious adverse events have been reported during treatment with antipsychotic drugs. Therefore, novel treatment strategies are needed that provide improved efficacy across the multiple symptom domains of schizophrenia and have improved tolerability/safety profiles. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and plays an important role in physiological and pathological processes of the CNS. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu receptors), in particular, have been shown to modulate glutamatergic activity in brain synapses thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In recent years a number of selective mGlu2/3 receptor agonists and mGlu2 positive allosteric modulators have been disclosed with demonstrated efficacy in multiple animal models for schizophrenia. Consistent with predictions from pre-clinical animal studies, LY2140023 monohydrate, an mGlu2/3 receptor agonist prodrug, recently demonstrated evidence for antipsychotic activity in phase II proof of concept study. Although additional efficacy and safety studies are needed to understand the therapeutic potential of LY2140023, emerging preclinical and clinical data suggest that activation of group II mGlu receptors is a mechanistically novel and promising approach for the treatment of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Allosteric modulation of human dopamine transporter activity under conditions promoting its dimerization.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mary Hongying; Garcia-Olivares, Jennie; Wasserman, Steven; DiPietro, Jennifer; Bahar, Ivet

    2017-07-28

    The human dopamine (DA) transporter (hDAT) is a key regulator of neurotransmission and a target for antidepressants and addictive drugs. Despite the recent resolution of dDAT structures from Drosophila melanogaster , complete understanding of its mechanism of function and even information on its biological assembly is lacking. The resolved dDAT structures are monomeric, but growing evidence suggests that hDAT might function as a multimer, and its oligomerization may be relevant to addictive drug effects. Here, using structure-based computations, we examined the possible mechanisms of hDAT dimerization and its dynamics in a lipid bilayer. Using a combination of site-directed mutagenesis, DA-uptake, and cross-linking experiments that exploited the capacity of Cys-306 to form intermonomeric disulfide bridges in the presence of an oxidizing agent, we tested the effects of mutations at transmembrane segment (TM) 6 and 12 helices in HEK293 cells. The most probable structural model for hDAT dimer suggested by computations and experiments differed from the dimeric structure resolved for the bacterial homolog, LeuT, presumably because of a kink at TM12 preventing favorable monomer packing. Instead, TM2, TM6, and TM11 line the dimer interface. Molecular dynamics simulations of the dimeric hDAT indicated that the two subunits tend to undergo cooperative structural changes, both on local (extracellular gate opening/closure) and global (transition between outward-facing and inward-facing states) scales. These observations suggest that hDAT transport properties may be allosterically modulated under conditions promoting dimerization. Our study provides critical insights into approaches for examining the oligomerization of neurotransmitter transporters and sheds light on their drug modulation. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Positive allosteric modulation by ivermectin of human but not murine P2X7 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Nörenberg, W; Sobottka, H; Hempel, C; Plötz, T; Fischer, W; Schmalzing, G; Schaefer, M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE In mammalian cells, the anti-parasitic drug ivermectin is known as a positive allosteric modulator of the ATP-activated ion channel P2X4 and is used to discriminate between P2X4- and P2X7-mediated cellular responses. In this paper we provide evidence that the reported isoform selectivity of ivermectin is a species-specific phenomenon. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Complementary electrophysiological and fluorometric methods were applied to evaluate the effect of ivermectin on recombinantly expressed and on native P2X7 receptors. A biophysical characterization of ionic currents and of the pore dilation properties is provided. KEY RESULTS Unexpectedly, ivermectin potentiated currents in human monocyte-derived macrophages that endogenously express hP2X7 receptors. Likewise, currents and [Ca2+]i influx through recombinant human (hP2X7) receptors were potently enhanced by ivermectin at submaximal or saturating ATP concentrations. Since intracellular ivermectin did not mimic or prevent its activity when applied to the bath solution, the binding site of ivermectin on hP2X7 receptors appears to be accessible from the extracellular side. In contrast to currents through P2X4 receptors, ivermectin did not cause a delay in hP2X7 current decay upon ATP removal. Interestingly, NMDG+ permeability and Yo-Pro-1 uptake were not affected by ivermectin. On rat or mouse P2X7 receptors, ivermectin was only poorly effective, suggesting a species-specific mode of action. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The data indicate a previously unrecognized species-specific modulation of human P2X7 receptors by ivermectin that should be considered when using this cell-biological tool in human cells and tissues. PMID:22506590

  6. Targeting PDE10A GAF Domain with Small Molecules: A Way for Allosteric Modulation with Anti-Inflammatory Effects.

    PubMed

    García, Ana M; Brea, José; González-García, Alejandro; Pérez, Concepción; Cadavid, María Isabel; Loza, María Isabel; Martinez, Ana; Gil, Carmen

    2017-09-04

    Phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes regulate the levels of cyclic nucleotides, cAMP, and/or cGMP, being attractive therapeutic targets. In order to modulate PDE activity in a selective way, we focused our efforts on the search of allosteric modulators. Based on the crystal structure of the PDE10A GAF-B domain, a virtual screening study allowed the discovery of new hits that were also tested experimentally, showing inhibitory activities in the micromolar range. Moreover, these new PDE10A inhibitors were able to decrease the nitrite production in LPS-stimulated cells, thus demonstrating their potential as anti-inflammatory agents.

  7. Effect of the novel positive allosteric modulator of mGluR2 AZD8529 on incubation of methamphetamine craving after prolonged voluntary abstinence in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Caprioli, Daniele; Venniro, Marco; Zeric, Tamara; Li, Xuan; Adhikary, Sweta; Madangopal, Rajtarun; Marchant, Nathan J.; Lucantonio, Federica; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey; Bossert, Jennifer M.; Shaham, Yavin

    2015-01-01

    Background Cue-induced methamphetamine craving increases after prolonged forced (experimenter-imposed) abstinence from the drug (incubation of methamphetamine craving). Here, we determined whether this incubation phenomenon would occur under conditions that promote voluntary (self-imposed) abstinence. We also determined the effect of the novel mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator, AZD8529, on incubation of methamphetamine craving after forced or voluntary abstinence. Methods We trained rats to self-administer palatable food (6 sessions) and then to self-administer methamphetamine under two conditions: 12 sessions (9-hr/day) or 50 sessions (3-hr/day). We then assessed cue-induced methamphetamine seeking in extinctions test after 1 or 21 abstinence days. Between tests, the rats underwent either forced abstinence (no access to the food- or drug-paired levers) or voluntary abstinence for 19 days (achieved via a discrete choice procedure between methamphetamine and palatable food; 20 trials per day). We also determined the effect of subcutaneous injections of AZD8529 (20 and 40 mg/kg) on cue-induced methamphetamine seeking 1 or 21 days after forced or voluntary abstinence. Results Under both training and abstinence conditions, cue-induced methamphetamine seeking in the extinction tests was higher after 21 abstinence days than after 1 day (incubation of methamphetamine craving). AZD8529 decreased cue-induced methamphetamine seeking on day 21 but not day 1 of forced or voluntary abstinence. Conclusions We introduce a novel animal model to study incubation of drug craving and cue-induced drug seeking after prolonged voluntary abstinence, mimicking the human condition of relapse after successful contingency management treatment. Our data suggest that PAMs of mGluR2 should be considered for relapse prevention. PMID:25861699

  8. Differential Modulation of Functional Dynamics and Allosteric Interactions in the Hsp90-Cochaperone Complexes with p23 and Aha1: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Blacklock, Kristin; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2013-01-01

    Allosteric interactions of the molecular chaperone Hsp90 with a large cohort of cochaperones and client proteins allow for molecular communication and event coupling in signal transduction networks. The integration of cochaperones into the Hsp90 system is driven by the regulatory mechanisms that modulate the progression of the ATPase cycle and control the recruitment of the Hsp90 clientele. In this work, we report the results of computational modeling of allosteric regulation in the Hsp90 complexes with the cochaperones p23 and Aha1. By integrating protein docking, biophysical simulations, modeling of allosteric communications, protein structure network analysis and the energy landscape theory we have investigated dynamics and stability of the Hsp90-p23 and Hsp90-Aha1 interactions in direct comparison with the extensive body of structural and functional experiments. The results have revealed that functional dynamics and allosteric interactions of Hsp90 can be selectively modulated by these cochaperones via specific targeting of the regulatory hinge regions that could restrict collective motions and stabilize specific chaperone conformations. The protein structure network parameters have quantified the effects of cochaperones on conformational stability of the Hsp90 complexes and identified dynamically stable communities of residues that can contribute to the strengthening of allosteric interactions. According to our results, p23-mediated changes in the Hsp90 interactions may provide “molecular brakes” that could slow down an efficient transmission of the inter-domain allosteric signals, consistent with the functional role of p23 in partially inhibiting the ATPase cycle. Unlike p23, Aha1-mediated acceleration of the Hsp90-ATPase cycle may be achieved via modulation of the equilibrium motions that facilitate allosteric changes favoring a closed dimerized form of Hsp90. The results of our study have shown that Aha1 and p23 can modulate the Hsp90-ATPase activity

  9. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF A NOVEL POSITIVE ALLOSTERIC MODULATOR OF AMPA RECEPTORS DERIVED FROM A STRUCTURE-BASED DRUG DESIGN STRATEGY

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Jonathan E.; Benveniste, Morris; Maclean, John K. F.; Partin, Kathryn M.; Jamieson, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors facilitate synaptic plasticity and can improve various forms of learning and memory. These modulators show promise as therapeutic agents for the treatment of neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, ADHD, and mental depression. Three classes of positive modulator, the benzamides, the thiadiazides, and the biarylsulfonamides differentially occupy a solvent accessible binding pocket at the interface between the two subunits that form the AMPA receptor ligand-binding pocket. Here, we describe the electrophysiological properties of a new chemotype derived from a structure-based drug design strategy (SBDD), which makes similar receptor interactions compared to previously reported classes of modulator. This pyrazole amide derivative, JAMI1001A, with a promising developability profile, efficaciously modulates AMPA receptor deactivation and desensitization of both flip and flop receptor isoforms. PMID:22735771

  10. Identification of Potential Small Molecule Allosteric Modulator Sites on IL-1R1 Ectodomain Using Accelerated Conformational Sampling Method

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao-Yie

    2015-01-01

    The interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) is the founding member of the interleukin 1 receptor family which activates innate immune response by its binding to cytokines. Reports showed dysregulation of cytokine production leads to aberrant immune cells activation which contributes to auto-inflammatory disorders and diseases. Current therapeutic strategies focus on utilizing antibodies or chimeric cytokine biologics. The large protein-protein interaction interface between cytokine receptor and cytokine poses a challenge in identifying binding sites for small molecule inhibitor development. Based on the significant conformational change of IL-1R type 1 (IL-1R1) ectodomain upon binding to different ligands observed in crystal structures, we hypothesized that transient small molecule binding sites may exist when IL-1R1 undergoes conformational transition and thus suitable for inhibitor development. Here, we employed accelerated molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to efficiently sample conformational space of IL-1R1 ectodomain. Representative IL-1R1 ectodomain conformations determined from the hierarchy cluster analysis were analyzed by the SiteMap program which leads to identify small molecule binding sites at the protein-protein interaction interface and allosteric modulator locations. The cosolvent mapping analysis using phenol as the probe molecule further confirms the allosteric modulator site as a binding hotspot. Eight highest ranked fragment molecules identified from in silico screening at the modulator site were evaluated by MD simulations. Four of them restricted the IL-1R1 dynamical motion to inactive conformational space. The strategy from this study, subject to in vitro experimental validation, can be useful to identify small molecule compounds targeting the allosteric modulator sites of IL-1R and prevent IL-1R from binding to cytokine by trapping IL-1R in inactive conformations. PMID:25706624

  11. Identification of potential small molecule allosteric modulator sites on IL-1R1 ectodomain using accelerated conformational sampling method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Yie

    2015-01-01

    The interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) is the founding member of the interleukin 1 receptor family which activates innate immune response by its binding to cytokines. Reports showed dysregulation of cytokine production leads to aberrant immune cells activation which contributes to auto-inflammatory disorders and diseases. Current therapeutic strategies focus on utilizing antibodies or chimeric cytokine biologics. The large protein-protein interaction interface between cytokine receptor and cytokine poses a challenge in identifying binding sites for small molecule inhibitor development. Based on the significant conformational change of IL-1R type 1 (IL-1R1) ectodomain upon binding to different ligands observed in crystal structures, we hypothesized that transient small molecule binding sites may exist when IL-1R1 undergoes conformational transition and thus suitable for inhibitor development. Here, we employed accelerated molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to efficiently sample conformational space of IL-1R1 ectodomain. Representative IL-1R1 ectodomain conformations determined from the hierarchy cluster analysis were analyzed by the SiteMap program which leads to identify small molecule binding sites at the protein-protein interaction interface and allosteric modulator locations. The cosolvent mapping analysis using phenol as the probe molecule further confirms the allosteric modulator site as a binding hotspot. Eight highest ranked fragment molecules identified from in silico screening at the modulator site were evaluated by MD simulations. Four of them restricted the IL-1R1 dynamical motion to inactive conformational space. The strategy from this study, subject to in vitro experimental validation, can be useful to identify small molecule compounds targeting the allosteric modulator sites of IL-1R and prevent IL-1R from binding to cytokine by trapping IL-1R in inactive conformations.

  12. Negative Allosteric Modulators of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Subtype 5 in Addiction: a Therapeutic Window

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abundant evidence at the anatomical, electrophysiological, and molecular levels implicates metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) in addiction. Consistently, the effects of a wide range of doses of different mGluR5 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) have been tested in various animal models of addiction. Here, these studies were subjected to a systematic review to find out if mGluR5 NAMs have a therapeutic potential that can be translated to the clinic. Methods: Literature on consumption/self-administration and reinstatement of drug seeking as outcomes of interest published up to April 2015 was retrieved via PubMed. The review focused on the effects of systemic (i.p., i.v., s.c.) administration of the mGluR5 NAMs 3-((2-Methyl-4-thiazolyl)ethynyl)pyridine (MTEP) and 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) on paradigms with cocaine, ethanol, nicotine, and food in rats. Results: MTEP and MPEP were found to reduce self-administration of cocaine, ethanol, and nicotine at doses ≥1mg/kg and 2.5mg/kg, respectively. Dose-response relationship resembled a sigmoidal curve, with low doses not reaching statistical significance and high doses reliably inhibiting self-administration of drugs of abuse. Importantly, self-administration of cocaine, ethanol, and nicotine, but not food, was reduced by MTEP and MPEP in the dose range of 1 to 2mg/kg and 2.5 to 3.2mg/kg, respectively. This dose range corresponds to approximately 50% to 80% mGluR5 occupancy. Interestingly, the limited data found in mice and monkeys showed a similar therapeutic window. Conclusion: Altogether, this review suggests a therapeutic window for mGluR5 NAMs that can be translated to the treatment of substance-related and addictive disorders. PMID:26802568

  13. γ-Secretase modulator (GSM) photoaffinity probes reveal distinct allosteric binding sites on presenilin.

    PubMed

    Pozdnyakov, Nikolay; Murrey, Heather E; Crump, Christina J; Pettersson, Martin; Ballard, T Eric; Am Ende, Christopher W; Ahn, Kwangwook; Li, Yue-Ming; Bales, Kelly R; Johnson, Douglas S

    2013-04-05

    γ-Secretase is an intramembrane aspartyl protease that cleaves the amyloid precursor protein to produce neurotoxic β-amyloid peptides (i.e. Aβ42) that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Small molecule γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) have emerged as potential disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer disease because they reduce the formation of Aβ42 while not blocking the processing of γ-secretase substrates. We developed clickable GSM photoaffinity probes with the goal of identifying the target of various classes of GSMs and to better understand their mechanism of action. Here, we demonstrate that the photoaffinity probe E2012-BPyne specifically labels the N-terminal fragment of presenilin-1 (PS1-NTF) in cell membranes as well as in live cells and primary neuronal cultures. The labeling is competed in the presence of the parent imidazole GSM E2012, but not with acid GSM-1, allosteric GSI BMS-708163, or substrate docking site peptide inhibitor pep11, providing evidence that these compounds have distinct binding sites. Surprisingly, we found that the cross-linking of E2012-BPyne to PS1-NTF is significantly enhanced in the presence of the active site-directed GSI L-685,458 (L458). In contrast, L458 does not affect the labeling of the acid GSM photoprobe GSM-5. We also observed that E2012-BPyne specifically labels PS1-NTF (active γ-secretase) but not full-length PS1 (inactive γ-secretase) in ANP.24 cells. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that multiple binding sites within the γ-secretase complex exist, each of which may contribute to different modes of modulatory action. Furthermore, the enhancement of PS1-NTF labeling by E2012-BPyne in the presence of L458 suggests a degree of cooperativity between the active site of γ-secretase and the modulatory binding site of certain GSMs.

  14. γ-Secretase Modulator (GSM) Photoaffinity Probes Reveal Distinct Allosteric Binding Sites on Presenilin*

    PubMed Central

    Pozdnyakov, Nikolay; Murrey, Heather E.; Crump, Christina J.; Pettersson, Martin; Ballard, T. Eric; am Ende, Christopher W.; Ahn, Kwangwook; Li, Yue-Ming; Bales, Kelly R.; Johnson, Douglas S.

    2013-01-01

    γ-Secretase is an intramembrane aspartyl protease that cleaves the amyloid precursor protein to produce neurotoxic β-amyloid peptides (i.e. Aβ42) that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Small molecule γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) have emerged as potential disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer disease because they reduce the formation of Aβ42 while not blocking the processing of γ-secretase substrates. We developed clickable GSM photoaffinity probes with the goal of identifying the target of various classes of GSMs and to better understand their mechanism of action. Here, we demonstrate that the photoaffinity probe E2012-BPyne specifically labels the N-terminal fragment of presenilin-1 (PS1-NTF) in cell membranes as well as in live cells and primary neuronal cultures. The labeling is competed in the presence of the parent imidazole GSM E2012, but not with acid GSM-1, allosteric GSI BMS-708163, or substrate docking site peptide inhibitor pep11, providing evidence that these compounds have distinct binding sites. Surprisingly, we found that the cross-linking of E2012-BPyne to PS1-NTF is significantly enhanced in the presence of the active site-directed GSI L-685,458 (L458). In contrast, L458 does not affect the labeling of the acid GSM photoprobe GSM-5. We also observed that E2012-BPyne specifically labels PS1-NTF (active γ-secretase) but not full-length PS1 (inactive γ-secretase) in ANP.24 cells. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that multiple binding sites within the γ-secretase complex exist, each of which may contribute to different modes of modulatory action. Furthermore, the enhancement of PS1-NTF labeling by E2012-BPyne in the presence of L458 suggests a degree of cooperativity between the active site of γ-secretase and the modulatory binding site of certain GSMs. PMID:23396974

  15. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor enhance sweet taste

    PubMed Central

    Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine; Tang, Xiao-Qing; Werner, Sara; Zhang, Feng; Li, Xiaodong; Kamdar, Poonit; Petrovic, Goran; Ditschun, Tanya; Java, Antoniette; Brust, Paul; Brune, Nicole; DuBois, Grant E.; Zoller, Mark; Karanewsky, Donald S.

    2010-01-01

    To identify molecules that could enhance sweetness perception, we undertook the screening of a compound library using a cell-based assay for the human sweet taste receptor and a panel of selected sweeteners. In one of these screens we found a hit, SE-1, which significantly enhanced the activity of sucralose in the assay. At 50 μM, SE-1 increased the sucralose potency by >20-fold. On the other hand, SE-1 exhibited little or no agonist activity on its own. SE-1 effects were strikingly selective for sucralose. Other popular sweeteners such as aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were not enhanced by SE-1 whereas sucrose and neotame potency were increased only by 1.3- to 2.5-fold at 50 μM. Further assay-guided chemical optimization of the initial hit SE-1 led to the discovery of SE-2 and SE-3, selective enhancers of sucralose and sucrose, respectively. SE-2 (50 μM) and SE-3 (200 μM) increased sucralose and sucrose potencies in the assay by 24- and 4.7-fold, respectively. In human taste tests, 100 μM of SE-1 and SE-2 allowed for a reduction of 50% to >80% in the concentration of sucralose, respectively, while maintaining the sweetness intensity, and 100 μM SE-3 allowed for a reduction of 33% in the concentration of sucrose while maintaining the sweetness intensity. These enhancers did not exhibit any sweetness when tasted on their own. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor could help reduce the caloric content in food and beverages while maintaining the desired taste. PMID:20173092

  16. Dual allosteric modulation of opioid antinociceptive potency by a2A-adrenoceptors

    PubMed Central

    Chabot-Doré, Anne-Julie; Millecamps, Magali; Naso, Lina; Devost, Dominic; Trieu, Phan; Piltonen, Marjo; Diatchenko, Luda; Fairbanks, Carolyn A.; Wilcox, George L.; Hébert, Terence E.; Stone, Laura S.

    2015-01-01

    Opioid and α2-adrenoceptor (AR) agonists are analgesic when administered in the spinal cord and show a clinically beneficial synergistic interaction when co-administered. However, α2-AR antagonists can also inhibit opioid antinociception, suggesting a complex interaction between the two systems. The α2A-AR subtype is necessary for spinal adrenergic analgesia and synergy with opioids for most agonist combinations. Therefore, we investigated whether spinal opioid antinociception and opioid-adrenergic synergy were under allosteric control of the α2A-AR. Drugs were administered intrathecally in wild type (WT) and α2A-knock-out (KO) mice and antinociception was measured using hot water tail immersion or substance P behavioral assays. The α2A-AR agonist clonidine was less effective in α2A-KO mice in both assays. The absence of the α2A-AR resulted in 10–70-fold increases in the antinociceptive potency of the opioid agonists morphine and DeltII. In contrast, neither morphine nor DeltII synergized with clonidine in α2AKO mice, indicating that the α2AAR has both positive and negative modulatory effects on opioid antinociception. Depletion of descending adrenergic terminals with 6-OHDA resulted in a significant decrease in morphine efficacy in WT but not in α2A-KO mice, suggesting that endogenous norepinephrine acts through the α2A-AR to facilitate morphine antinociception. Based on these findings, we propose a model whereby ligand-occupied versus ligand-free α2A-AR produce distinct patterns of modulation of opioid receptor activation. In this model, agonist-occupied α2A-ARs potentiate opioid analgesia, while non-occupied α2A-ARs inhibit opioid analgesia. Exploiting such interactions between the two receptors could lead to the development of better pharmacological treatments for pain management. PMID:26254859

  17. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor enhance sweet taste.

    PubMed

    Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine; Tang, Xiao-Qing; Werner, Sara; Zhang, Feng; Li, Xiaodong; Kamdar, Poonit; Petrovic, Goran; Ditschun, Tanya; Java, Antoniette; Brust, Paul; Brune, Nicole; DuBois, Grant E; Zoller, Mark; Karanewsky, Donald S

    2010-03-09

    To identify molecules that could enhance sweetness perception, we undertook the screening of a compound library using a cell-based assay for the human sweet taste receptor and a panel of selected sweeteners. In one of these screens we found a hit, SE-1, which significantly enhanced the activity of sucralose in the assay. At 50 microM, SE-1 increased the sucralose potency by >20-fold. On the other hand, SE-1 exhibited little or no agonist activity on its own. SE-1 effects were strikingly selective for sucralose. Other popular sweeteners such as aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were not enhanced by SE-1 whereas sucrose and neotame potency were increased only by 1.3- to 2.5-fold at 50 microM. Further assay-guided chemical optimization of the initial hit SE-1 led to the discovery of SE-2 and SE-3, selective enhancers of sucralose and sucrose, respectively. SE-2 (50 microM) and SE-3 (200 microM) increased sucralose and sucrose potencies in the assay by 24- and 4.7-fold, respectively. In human taste tests, 100 microM of SE-1 and SE-2 allowed for a reduction of 50% to >80% in the concentration of sucralose, respectively, while maintaining the sweetness intensity, and 100 microM SE-3 allowed for a reduction of 33% in the concentration of sucrose while maintaining the sweetness intensity. These enhancers did not exhibit any sweetness when tasted on their own. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor could help reduce the caloric content in food and beverages while maintaining the desired taste.

  18. Allosteric modulation model of the mu opioid receptor by herkinorin, a potent not alkaloidal agonist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmolejo-Valencia, A. F.; Martínez-Mayorga, K.

    2017-05-01

    Modulation of opioid receptors is the primary choice for pain management and structural information studies have gained new horizons with the recently available X-ray crystal structures. Herkinorin is one of the most remarkable salvinorin A derivative with high affinity for the mu opioid receptor, moderate selectivity and lack of nitrogen atoms on its structure. Surprisingly, binding models for herkinorin are lacking. In this work, we explore binding models of herkinorin using automated docking, molecular dynamics simulations, free energy calculations and available experimental information. Our herkinorin D-ICM-1 binding model predicted a binding free energy of -11.52 ± 1.14 kcal mol-1 by alchemical free energy estimations, which is close to the experimental values -10.91 ± 0.2 and -10.80 ± 0.05 kcal mol-1 and is in agreement with experimental structural information. Specifically, D-ICM-1 molecular dynamics simulations showed a water-mediated interaction between D-ICM-1 and the amino acid H2976.52, this interaction coincides with the co-crystallized ligands. Another relevant interaction, with N1272.63, allowed to rationalize herkinorin's selectivity to mu over delta opioid receptors. Our suggested binding model for herkinorin is in agreement with this and additional experimental data. The most remarkable observation derived from our D-ICM-1 model is that herkinorin reaches an allosteric sodium ion binding site near N1503.35. Key interactions in that region appear relevant for the lack of β-arrestin recruitment by herkinorin. This interaction is key for downstream signaling pathways involved in the development of side effects, such as tolerance. Future SAR studies and medicinal chemistry efforts will benefit from the structural information presented in this work.

  19. The antidepressant bupropion is a negative allosteric modulator of serotonin type 3A receptors.

    PubMed

    Pandhare, Akash; Pappu, Aneesh Satya; Wilms, Henrik; Blanton, Michael Paul; Jansen, Michaela

    2017-02-01

    The FDA-approved antidepressant and smoking cessation drug bupropion is known to inhibit dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake transporters, as well as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) which are cation-conducting members of the Cys-loop superfamily of ion channels, and more broadly pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs). In the present study, we examined the ability of bupropion and its primary metabolite hydroxybupropion to block the function of cation-selective serotonin type 3A receptors (5-HT 3A Rs), and further characterized bupropion's pharmacological effects at these receptors. Mouse 5-HT 3A Rs were heterologously expressed in HEK-293 cells or Xenopus laevis oocytes for equilibrium binding studies. In addition, the latter expression system was utilized for functional studies by employing two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings. Both bupropion and hydroxybupropion inhibited serotonin-gated currents from 5-HT 3A Rs reversibly and dose-dependently with inhibitory potencies of 87 μM and 112 μM, respectively. Notably, the measured IC 50 value for hydroxybupropion is within its therapeutically-relevant concentrations. The blockade by bupropion was largely non-competitive and non-use-dependent. Unlike its modulation at cation-selective pLGICs, bupropion displayed no significant inhibition of the function of anion-selective pLGICs. In summary, our results demonstrate allosteric blockade by bupropion of the 5-HT 3A R. Importantly, given the possibility that bupropion's major active metabolite may achieve clinically relevant concentrations in the brain, our novel findings delineate a not yet identified pharmacological principle underlying its antidepressant effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Seven Transmembrane Receptors as Shapeshifting Proteins: The Impact of Allosteric Modulation and Functional Selectivity on New Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Laurence J.

    2010-01-01

    It is useful to consider seven transmembrane receptors (7TMRs) as disordered proteins able to allosterically respond to a number of binding partners. Considering 7TMRs as allosteric systems, affinity and efficacy can be thought of in terms of energy flow between a modulator, conduit (the receptor protein), and a number of guests. These guests can be other molecules, receptors, membrane-bound proteins, or signaling proteins in the cytosol. These vectorial flows of energy can yield standard canonical guest allostery (allosteric modification of drug effect), effects along the plane of the cell membrane (receptor oligomerization), or effects directed into the cytosol (differential signaling as functional selectivity). This review discusses these apparently diverse pharmacological effects in terms of molecular dynamics and protein ensemble theory, which tends to unify 7TMR behavior toward cells. Special consideration will be given to functional selectivity (biased agonism and biased antagonism) in terms of mechanism of action and potential therapeutic application. The explosion of technology that has enabled observation of diverse 7TMR behavior has also shown how drugs can have multiple (pluridimensional) efficacies and how this can cause paradoxical drug classification and nomenclatures. PMID:20392808

  1. P2X4 Receptor in Silico and Electrophysiological Approaches Reveal Insights of Ivermectin and Zinc Allosteric Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Latapiat, Verónica; Rodríguez, Felipe E.; Godoy, Francisca; Montenegro, Felipe A.; Barrera, Nelson P.; Huidobro-Toro, Juan P.

    2017-01-01

    Protein allosteric modulation is a pillar of metabolic regulatory mechanisms; this concept has been extended to include ion channel regulation. P2XRs are ligand-gated channels activated by extracellular ATP, sensitive to trace metals and other chemicals. By combining in silico calculations with electrophysiological recordings, we investigated the molecular basis of P2X4R modulation by Zn(II) and ivermectin, an antiparasite drug currently used in veterinary medicine. To this aim, docking studies, molecular dynamics simulations and non-bonded energy calculations for the P2X4R in the apo and holo states or in the presence of ivermectin and/or Zn(II) were accomplished. Based on the crystallized Danio rerio P2X4R, the rat P2X4R, P2X2R, and P2X7R structures were modeled, to determine ivermectin binding localization. Calculations revealed that its allosteric site is restricted to transmembrane domains of the P2X4R; the role of Y42 and W46 plus S341 and non-polar residues were revealed as essential, and are not present in the homologous P2X2R or P2X7R transmembrane domains. This finding was confirmed by preferential binding conformations and electrophysiological data, revealing P2X4R modulator specificity. Zn(II) acts in the P2X4R extracellular domain neighboring the SS3 bridge. Molecular dynamics in the different P2X4R states revealed allosterism-induced stability. Pore and lateral fenestration measurements of the P2X4R showed conformational changes in the presence of both modulators compatible with a larger opening of the extracellular vestibule. Electrophysiological studies demonstrated additive effects in the ATP-gated currents by joint applications of ivermectin plus Zn(II). The C132A P2X4R mutant was insensitive to Zn(II); but IVM caused a 4.9 ± 0.7-fold increase in the ATP-evoked currents. Likewise, the simultaneous application of both modulators elicited a 7.1 ± 1.7-fold increase in the ATP-gated current. Moreover, the C126A P2X4R mutant evoked similar ATP

  2. P2X4 Receptor in Silico and Electrophysiological Approaches Reveal Insights of Ivermectin and Zinc Allosteric Modulation.

    PubMed

    Latapiat, Verónica; Rodríguez, Felipe E; Godoy, Francisca; Montenegro, Felipe A; Barrera, Nelson P; Huidobro-Toro, Juan P

    2017-01-01

    Protein allosteric modulation is a pillar of metabolic regulatory mechanisms; this concept has been extended to include ion channel regulation. P2XRs are ligand-gated channels activated by extracellular ATP, sensitive to trace metals and other chemicals. By combining in silico calculations with electrophysiological recordings, we investigated the molecular basis of P2X4R modulation by Zn(II) and ivermectin, an antiparasite drug currently used in veterinary medicine. To this aim, docking studies, molecular dynamics simulations and non-bonded energy calculations for the P2X4R in the apo and holo states or in the presence of ivermectin and/or Zn(II) were accomplished. Based on the crystallized Danio rerio P2X4R, the rat P2X4R, P2X2R, and P2X7R structures were modeled, to determine ivermectin binding localization. Calculations revealed that its allosteric site is restricted to transmembrane domains of the P2X4R; the role of Y42 and W46 plus S341 and non-polar residues were revealed as essential, and are not present in the homologous P2X2R or P2X7R transmembrane domains. This finding was confirmed by preferential binding conformations and electrophysiological data, revealing P2X4R modulator specificity. Zn(II) acts in the P2X4R extracellular domain neighboring the SS3 bridge. Molecular dynamics in the different P2X4R states revealed allosterism-induced stability. Pore and lateral fenestration measurements of the P2X4R showed conformational changes in the presence of both modulators compatible with a larger opening of the extracellular vestibule. Electrophysiological studies demonstrated additive effects in the ATP-gated currents by joint applications of ivermectin plus Zn(II). The C132A P2X4R mutant was insensitive to Zn(II); but IVM caused a 4.9 ± 0.7-fold increase in the ATP-evoked currents. Likewise, the simultaneous application of both modulators elicited a 7.1 ± 1.7-fold increase in the ATP-gated current. Moreover, the C126A P2X4R mutant evoked similar ATP

  3. Further optimization of the M1 PAM VU0453595: Discovery of novel heterobicyclic core motifs with improved CNS penetration.

    PubMed

    Panarese, Joseph D; Cho, Hykeyung P; Adams, Jeffrey J; Nance, Kellie D; Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Chang, Sichen; Morrison, Ryan D; Blobaum, Anna L; Niswender, Colleen M; Stauffer, Shaun R; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W

    2016-08-01

    This Letter describes the continued chemical optimization of the VU0453595 series of M1 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). By surveying alternative 5,6- and 6,6-heterobicylic cores for the 6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-one core of VU453595, we found new cores that engendered not only comparable or improved M1 PAM potency, but significantly improved CNS distribution (Kps 0.3-3.1). Moreover, this campaign provided fundamentally distinct M1 PAM chemotypes, greatly expanding the available structural diversity for this valuable CNS target, devoid of hydrogen-bond donors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Allosteric Modulation of Kv11.1 (hERG) Channels Protects Against Drug-Induced Ventricular Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiyi; Liu, Jia; van Veldhoven, Jacobus P D; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Schalij, Martin J; Pijnappels, Daniël A; Heitman, Laura H; de Vries, Antoine A F

    2016-04-01

    Ventricular arrhythmias as a result of unintentional blockade of the Kv11.1 (hERG [human ether-à-go-go-related gene]) channel are a major safety concern in drug development. In past years, several highly prescribed drugs have been withdrawn for their ability to cause such proarrhythmia. Here, we investigated whether the proarrhythmic risk of existing drugs could be reduced by Kv11.1 allosteric modulators. Using [(3)H]dofetilide-binding assays with membranes of human Kv11.1-expressing human embryonic kidney 293 cells, 2 existing compounds (VU0405601 and ML-T531) and a newly synthesized compound (LUF7244) were found to be negative allosteric modulators of dofetilide binding to the Kv11.1 channel, with LUF7244 showing the strongest effect at 10 μmol/L. The Kv11.1 affinities of typical blockers (ie, dofetilide, astemizole, sertindole, and cisapride) were significantly decreased by LUF7244. Treatment of confluent neonatal rat ventricular myocyte (NRVM) monolayers with astemizole or sertindole caused heterogeneous prolongation of action potential duration and a high incidence of early afterdepolarizations on 1-Hz electric point stimulation, occasionally leading to unstable, self-terminating tachyarrhythmias. Pretreatment of NRVMs with LUF7244 prevented these proarrhythmic effects. NRVM monolayers treated with LUF7244 alone displayed electrophysiological properties indistinguishable from those of untreated NRVM cultures. Prolonged exposure of NRVMs to LUF7244 or LUF7244 plus astemizole did not affect their viability, excitability, and contractility as assessed by molecular, immunological, and electrophysiological assays. Allosteric modulation of the Kv11.1 channel efficiently suppresses drug-induced ventricular arrhythmias in vitro by preventing potentially arrhythmogenic changes in action potential characteristics, raising the possibility to resume the clinical use of unintended Kv11.1 blockers via pharmacological combination therapy. © 2016 American Heart Association

  5. Positive Allosteric Modulation of the Muscarinic M1 Receptor Improves Efficacy of Antipsychotics in Mouse Glutamatergic Deficit Models of Behavior.

    PubMed

    Choy, Kwok H C; Shackleford, David M; Malone, Daniel T; Mistry, Shailesh N; Patil, Rahul T; Scammells, Peter J; Langmead, Christopher J; Pantelis, Christos; Sexton, Patrick M; Lane, Johnathan R; Christopoulos, Arthur

    2016-11-01

    Current antipsychotics are effective in treating the positive symptoms associated with schizophrenia, but they remain suboptimal in targeting cognitive dysfunction. Recent studies have suggested that positive allosteric modulation of the M 1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) may provide a novel means of improving cognition. However, very little is known about the potential of combination therapies in extending coverage across schizophrenic symptom domains. This study investigated the effect of the M 1 mAChR positive allosteric modulator BQCA [1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid], alone or in combination with haloperidol (a first-generation antipsychotic), clozapine (a second-generation atypical antipsychotic), or aripiprazole (a third-generation atypical antipsychotic), in reversing deficits in sensorimotor gating and spatial memory induced by the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, MK-801 [(5R,10S)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine]. Sensorimotor gating and spatial memory induction are two models that represent aspects of schizophrenia modeled in rodents. In prepulse inhibition (an operational measure of sensorimotor gating), BQCA alone had minimal effects but exhibited different levels of efficacy in reversing MK-801-induced prepulse inhibition disruptions when combined with a subeffective dose of each of the three (currently prescribed) antipsychotics. Furthermore, the combined effect of BQCA and clozapine was absent in M 1 -/- mice. Interestingly, although BQCA alone had no effect in reversing MK-801-induced memory impairments in a Y-maze spatial test, we observed a reversal upon the combination of BQCA with atypical antipsychotics, but not with haloperidol. These findings provide proof of concept that a judicious combination of existing antipsychotics with a selective M 1 mAChR positive allosteric modulator can extend antipsychotic efficacy in glutamatergic deficit models of behavior

  6. HBV core protein allosteric modulators differentially alter cccDNA biosynthesis from de novo infection and intracellular amplification pathways

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fang; Zhao, Qiong; Cheng, Junjun; Qi, Yonghe; Su, Qing; Wei, Lai; Li, Wenhui; Chang, Jinhong

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein assembles viral pre-genomic (pg) RNA and DNA polymerase into nucleocapsids for reverse transcriptional DNA replication to take place. Several chemotypes of small molecules, including heteroaryldihydropyrimidines (HAPs) and sulfamoylbenzamides (SBAs), have been discovered to allosterically modulate core protein structure and consequentially alter the kinetics and pathway of core protein assembly, resulting in formation of irregularly-shaped core protein aggregates or “empty” capsids devoid of pre-genomic RNA and viral DNA polymerase. Interestingly, in addition to inhibiting nucleocapsid assembly and subsequent viral genome replication, we have now demonstrated that HAPs and SBAs differentially modulate the biosynthesis of covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA from de novo infection and intracellular amplification pathways by inducing disassembly of nucleocapsids derived from virions as well as double-stranded DNA-containing progeny nucleocapsids in the cytoplasm. Specifically, the mistimed cuing of nucleocapsid uncoating prevents cccDNA formation during de novo infection of hepatocytes, while transiently accelerating cccDNA synthesis from cytoplasmic progeny nucleocapsids. Our studies indicate that elongation of positive-stranded DNA induces structural changes of nucleocapsids, which confers ability of mature nucleocapsids to bind CpAMs and triggers its disassembly. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the dual effects of the core protein allosteric modulators on nucleocapsid assembly and disassembly will facilitate the discovery of novel core protein-targeting antiviral agents that can more efficiently suppress cccDNA synthesis and cure chronic hepatitis B. PMID:28945802

  7. Allosteric Modulation of Ras-GTP Is Linked to Signal Transduction through RAF Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Buhrman, Greg; Kumar, V. S. Senthil; Cirit, Murat; Haugh, Jason M.; Mattos, Carla

    2011-01-01

    Ras is a key signal transduction protein in the cell. Mutants of Gly12 and Gln61 impair GTPase activity and are found prominently in cancers. In wild type Ras-GTP, an allosteric switch promotes disorder to order transition in switch II, placing Gln61 in the active site. We show that the “on” and “off” conformations of the allosteric switch can also be attained in RasG12V and RasQ61L. Although both mutants have similarly impaired active sites in the on state, RasQ61L stabilizes an anti-catalytic conformation of switch II in the off state of the allosteric switch when bound to Raf. This translates into more potent activation of the MAPK pathway involving Ras, Raf kinase, MEK, and ERK (Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK) in cells transfected with RasQ61L relative to RasG12V. This differential is not observed in the Raf-independent pathway involving Ras, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and Akt (Ras/PI3K/Akt). Using a combination of structural analysis, hydrolysis rates, and experiments in NIH-3T3 cells, we link the allosteric switch to the control of signaling in the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway, supporting a GTPase-activating protein-independent model for duration of the Ras-Raf complex. PMID:21098031

  8. The great divide: Separation between in vitro and in vivo effects of PSNCBAM-based CB1 receptor allosteric modulators.

    PubMed

    Gamage, Thomas F; Farquhar, Charlotte E; Lefever, Timothy W; Thomas, Brian F; Nguyen, Thuy; Zhang, Yanan; Wiley, Jenny L

    2017-10-01

    While allosteric modulators of the cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB 1 ) continue to be developed and characterized, the gap between the in vitro and in vivo data is widening, raising questions regarding translatability of their effects and biological relevance. Among the CB 1 allosteric modulators, PSNCBAM-1 has received little attention regarding its effects in vivo. Recently, pregnenolone was reported to act as an allosteric modulator of CB 1 , blocking THC's effects in vitro and in vivo, highlighting the potential of CB 1 allosteric modulators for treatment of cannabis intoxication. We investigated the pharmacological effects of PSNCBAM-1 and two structural analogs, RTICBM-15 and -28, as well as pregnenolone, in both signaling and behavioral assays including [ 35 S]GTPγS binding, the cannabinoid tetrad and drug discrimination. While the CB 1 allosteric modulator PSNCBAM-1 attenuated THC-induced anti-nociception and its structural analog RTICBM-28 reduced THC's potency in drug discrimination, most cannabinoid effects in mice were unaffected. In contrast to the mouse studies, PSNCBAM-1 and analogs insurmountably antagonized CP55,940- and THC-stimulated [ 35 S]GTPγS binding and exhibited negative binding cooperativity with [ 3 H]SR141716 with similar apparent affinities. Notably, RTICBM-28, which contains a cyano substitution at the 4-chlorophenyl position of PSNCBAM-1, exhibited enhanced binding cooperativity with CP55,940. In contrast to previous findings, pregnenolone did not block THC's effects in drug discrimination or [ 35 S]GTPγS. These data further highlight the difficulty in translating pharmacological effects of CB 1 allosteric modulators in vivo but confirm the established pharmacology of PSNCBAM-1 and analogs in molecular assays of CB 1 receptor function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optical control of pain in vivo with a photoactive mGlu5 receptor negative allosteric modulator

    PubMed Central

    Font, Joan; López-Cano, Marc; Notartomaso, Serena; Scarselli, Pamela; Di Pietro, Paola; Bresolí-Obach, Roger; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Malhaire, Fanny; Rovira, Xavier; Catena, Juanlo; Giraldo, Jesús; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Goudet, Cyril; Nonell, Santi; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Llebaria, Amadeu; Ciruela, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Light-operated drugs constitute a major target in drug discovery, since they may provide spatiotemporal resolution for the treatment of complex diseases (i.e. chronic pain). JF-NP-26 is an inactive photocaged derivative of the metabotropic glutamate type 5 (mGlu5) receptor negative allosteric modulator raseglurant. Violet light illumination of JF-NP-26 induces a photochemical reaction prompting the active-drug’s release, which effectively controls mGlu5 receptor activity both in ectopic expressing systems and in striatal primary neurons. Systemic administration in mice followed by local light-emitting diode (LED)-based illumination, either of the thalamus or the peripheral tissues, induced JF-NP-26-mediated light-dependent analgesia both in neuropathic and in acute/tonic inflammatory pain models. These data offer the first example of optical control of analgesia in vivo using a photocaged mGlu5 receptor negative allosteric modulator. This approach shows potential for precisely targeting, in time and space, endogenous receptors, which may allow a better management of difficult-to-treat disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23545.001 PMID:28395733

  10. Novel Scaffold Identification of mGlu1 Receptor Negative Allosteric Modulators Using a Hierarchical Virtual Screening Approach.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae Wan; Cho, Nam-Chul; Min, Sun-Joon; Cho, Yong Seo; Park, Ki Duk; Seo, Seon Hee; No, Kyoung Tai; Pae, Ae Nim

    2016-02-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) is considered as an attractive drug target for neuropathic pain treatments. The hierarchical virtual screening approach for identifying novel scaffolds of mGluR1 allosteric modulators was performed using a homology model built with the dopamine D3 crystal structure as template. The mGluR1 mutagenesis data, conserved amino acid sequences across class A and class C GPCRs, and previously reported multiple sequence alignments of class C GPCRs to the rhodopsin template, were employed for the sequence alignment to overcome difficulties of model generation with low sequence identity of mGluR1 and dopamine D3. The structures refined by molecular dynamics simulations were employed for docking of Asinex commercial libraries after hierarchical virtual screening with pharmacophore and naïve Bayesian models. Five of 35 compounds experimentally evaluated using a calcium mobilization assay exhibited micromolar activities (IC50) with chemotype novelty that demonstrated the validity of our methods. A hierarchical structure and ligand-based virtual screening approach with homology model of class C GPCR based on dopamine D3 class A GPCR structure was successfully performed and applied to discover novel negative mGluR1 allosteric modulators. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Positive allosteric modulators of the GABA(A) receptor: differential interaction of benzodiazepines and neuroactive steroids with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Vanover, K E; Suruki, M; Robledo, S; Huber, M; Wieland, S; Lan, N C; Gee, K W; Wood, P L; Carter, R B

    1999-01-01

    Endogenous pregnane steroids, such as allopregnanolone (3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one; 3alpha, 5alpha-P) and pregnanolone (3alpha-hydroxy-5beta-pregnan-20-one; 3alpha,5beta-P), allosterically modulate GABA(A) receptor function and exhibit behavioral effects similar to benzodiazepines, though acting at a distinct recognition site. Inasmuch as some positive allosteric modulators of GABA(A) receptor function exhibit profound interactions with ethanol, the effects of 3alpha,5alpha-P and 3alpha,5beta-P were compared to those of two benzodiazepines, triazolam and diazepam, on the motor function of mice and rats when administered either alone or in combination with ethanol. All four test compounds exhibited dose-related impairment of motor function in the horizontal wire task in mice and the rotorod task in rats. Ethanol caused a marked enhancement of triazolamand diazepam-induced motor impairment. In contrast, ethanol enhanced to a lesser extent the motor impairment induced by both neurosteroids in mice and not at all in rats. All four compounds increased ethanol-induced behavioral sleep time in mice, although the benzodiazepines did so at a much smaller fraction of their ataxic doses as compared to the neurosteroids. As one of the undesired side-effects of therapeutic use of benzodiazepines is their interaction with ethanol, development of neuroactive steroids as drugs may offer therapeutic advantages.

  12. Chimeric Glutamate Receptor Subunits Reveal the Transmembrane Domain Is Sufficient for NMDA Receptor Pore Properties but Some Positive Allosteric Modulators Require Additional Domains.

    PubMed

    Wilding, Timothy J; Lopez, Melany N; Huettner, James E

    2016-08-24

    NMDA receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that underlie transmission at excitatory synapses and play an important role in regulating synaptic strength and stability. Functional NMDA receptors require two copies of the GluN1 subunit coassembled with GluN2 (and/or GluN3) subunits into a heteromeric tetramer. A diverse array of allosteric modulators can upregulate or downregulate NMDA receptor activity. These modulators include both synthetic compounds and endogenous modulators, such as cis-unsaturated fatty acids, 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol, and various neurosteroids. To evaluate the structural requirements for the formation and allosteric modulation of NMDA receptor pores, we have replaced portions of the rat GluN1, GluN2A, and GluN2B subunits with homologous segments from the rat GluK2 kainate receptor subunit. Our results with these chimeric constructs show that the NMDA receptor transmembrane domain is sufficient to account for most pore properties, but that regulation by some allosteric modulators requires additional cytoplasmic or extracellular domains. Glutamate receptors mediate excitatory synaptic transmission by forming cation channels through the membrane that open upon glutamate binding. Although many compounds have been identified that regulate glutamate receptor activity, in most cases the detailed mechanisms that underlie modulation are poorly understood. To identify what parts of the receptor are essential for pore formation and sensitivity to allosteric modulators, we generated chimeric subunits that combined segments from NMDA and kainate receptors, subtypes with distinct pharmacological profiles. Surprisingly, our results identify separate domain requirements for allosteric potentiation of NMDA receptor pores by pregnenolone sulfate, 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol, and docosahexaenoic acid, three endogenous modulators derived from membrane constituents. Understanding where and how these compounds act on NMDA receptors should aid in designing better

  13. Chimeric Glutamate Receptor Subunits Reveal the Transmembrane Domain Is Sufficient for NMDA Receptor Pore Properties but Some Positive Allosteric Modulators Require Additional Domains

    PubMed Central

    Wilding, Timothy J.; Lopez, Melany N.

    2016-01-01

    NMDA receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that underlie transmission at excitatory synapses and play an important role in regulating synaptic strength and stability. Functional NMDA receptors require two copies of the GluN1 subunit coassembled with GluN2 (and/or GluN3) subunits into a heteromeric tetramer. A diverse array of allosteric modulators can upregulate or downregulate NMDA receptor activity. These modulators include both synthetic compounds and endogenous modulators, such as cis-unsaturated fatty acids, 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol, and various neurosteroids. To evaluate the structural requirements for the formation and allosteric modulation of NMDA receptor pores, we have replaced portions of the rat GluN1, GluN2A, and GluN2B subunits with homologous segments from the rat GluK2 kainate receptor subunit. Our results with these chimeric constructs show that the NMDA receptor transmembrane domain is sufficient to account for most pore properties, but that regulation by some allosteric modulators requires additional cytoplasmic or extracellular domains. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Glutamate receptors mediate excitatory synaptic transmission by forming cation channels through the membrane that open upon glutamate binding. Although many compounds have been identified that regulate glutamate receptor activity, in most cases the detailed mechanisms that underlie modulation are poorly understood. To identify what parts of the receptor are essential for pore formation and sensitivity to allosteric modulators, we generated chimeric subunits that combined segments from NMDA and kainate receptors, subtypes with distinct pharmacological profiles. Surprisingly, our results identify separate domain requirements for allosteric potentiation of NMDA receptor pores by pregnenolone sulfate, 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol, and docosahexaenoic acid, three endogenous modulators derived from membrane constituents. Understanding where and how these compounds act on NMDA receptors should aid

  14. Positive allosteric modulator of alpha 7 nicotinic-acetylcholine receptors, PNU-120596 augments the effects of donepezil on learning and memory in aged rodents and non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Patrick M.; Hutchings, Elizabeth J.; Kille, Nancy J.; Chapman, James M.; Terry, Alvin V.

    2012-01-01

    The development of novel therapeutic agents for disorders of cognition such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is of paramount importance given the ever-increasing elderly population, however; there is also considerable interest in any strategy that might enhance the clinical efficacy of currently available treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an adjunctive treatment strategy to memory enhancement, namely combining the commonly prescribed acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) donepezil, with a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of α7 nicotinic-acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs), PNU-120596. The treatment strategy was evaluated in a (non-spatial) spontaneous novel object recognition (NOR) task in young rats; a water maze spatial learning and recall procedure in aged, cognitively-impaired rats, and a delayed match to sample (working/short term memory) task in aged rhesus monkeys. In all three experiments a similar drug response was observed, namely that donepezil administered alone improved task performance in a dose-dependent manner; that PNU-120596 administered alone was without significant effect, but that the combination of PNU-120596 with a subthreshold dose of donepezil was effective. The positive effect of the drug combination appeared to be α7-nAChR mediated given that it was blocked in the NOR task by the selective α7-nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA). Collectively, these data indicate that PNU-120596 increases the effective dose range of donepezil in learning/memory-related tasks in young and age-impaired animal models. The results suggest that α7-nAChR-selective PAMs like PNU-120596 have potential as adjunctive treatments with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (e.g., donepezil) for age-related illnesses such as AD as well memory disorders not necessarily associated with advanced age. PMID:23168113

  15. Positive allosteric modulator of α7 nicotinic-acetylcholine receptors, PNU-120596 augments the effects of donepezil on learning and memory in aged rodents and non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Patrick M; Hutchings, Elizabeth J; Kille, Nancy J; Chapman, James M; Terry, Alvin V

    2013-04-01

    The development of novel therapeutic agents for disorders of cognition such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) is of paramount importance given the ever-increasing elderly population, however; there is also considerable interest in any strategy that might enhance the clinical efficacy of currently available treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an adjunctive treatment strategy to memory enhancement, namely combining the commonly prescribed acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) donepezil, with a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of α7 nicotinic-acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs), PNU-120596. The treatment strategy was evaluated in a (non-spatial) spontaneous novel object recognition (NOR) task in young rats; a water maze spatial learning and recall procedure in aged, cognitively-impaired rats, and a delayed match to sample (working/short term memory) task in aged rhesus monkeys. In all three experiments a similar drug response was observed, namely that donepezil administered alone improved task performance in a dose-dependent manner; that PNU-120596 administered alone was without significant effect, but that the combination of PNU-120596 with a subthreshold dose of donepezil was effective. The positive effect of the drug combination appeared to be α7-nAChR mediated given that it was blocked in the NOR task by the selective α7-nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA). Collectively, these data indicate that PNU-120596 increases the effective dose range of donepezil in learning/memory-related tasks in young and age-impaired animal models. The results suggest that α7-nAChR-selective PAMs like PNU-120596 have potential as adjunctive treatments with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (e.g., donepezil) for age-related illnesses such as AD as well memory disorders not necessarily associated with advanced age. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Controlling allosteric networks in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokholyan, Nikolay

    2013-03-01

    We present a novel methodology based on graph theory and discrete molecular dynamics simulations for delineating allosteric pathways in proteins. We use this methodology to uncover the structural mechanisms responsible for coupling of distal sites on proteins and utilize it for allosteric modulation of proteins. We will present examples where inference of allosteric networks and its rewiring allows us to ``rescue'' cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a protein associated with fatal genetic disease cystic fibrosis. We also use our methodology to control protein function allosterically. We design a novel protein domain that can be inserted into identified allosteric site of target protein. Using a drug that binds to our domain, we alter the function of the target protein. We successfully tested this methodology in vitro, in living cells and in zebrafish. We further demonstrate transferability of our allosteric modulation methodology to other systems and extend it to become ligh-activatable.

  17. Molecular Mechanisms of Action and In Vivo Validation of an M4 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Allosteric Modulator with Potential Antipsychotic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Katie; Loiacono, Richard E; Felder, Christian C; McKinzie, David L; Mogg, Adrian; Shaw, David B; Sexton, Patrick M; Christopoulos, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    We recently identified LY2033298 as a novel allosteric potentiator of acetylcholine (ACh) at the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR). This study characterized the molecular mode of action of this modulator in both recombinant and native systems. Radioligand-binding studies revealed that LY2033298 displayed a preference for the active state of the M4 mAChR, manifested as a potentiation in the binding affinity of ACh (but not antagonists) and an increase in the proportion of high-affinity agonist–receptor complexes. This property accounted for the robust allosteric agonism displayed by the modulator in recombinant cells in assays of [35S]GTPγS binding, extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation, glycogen synthase kinase 3β phosphorylation, and receptor internalization. We also found that the extent of modulation by LY2033298 differed depending on the signaling pathway, indicating that LY2033298 engenders functional selectivity in the actions of ACh. This property was retained in NG108-15 cells, which natively express rodent M4 mAChRs. Functional interaction studies between LY2033298 and various orthosteric and allosteric ligands revealed that its site of action overlaps with the allosteric site used by prototypical mAChR modulators. Importantly, LY2033298 reduced [3H]ACh release from rat striatal slices, indicating retention of its ability to allosterically potentiate endogenous ACh in situ. Moreover, its ability to potentiate oxotremorine-mediated inhibition of condition avoidance responding in rodents was significantly attenuated in M4 mAChR knockout mice, validating the M4 mAChR as a key target of action of this novel allosteric ligand. PMID:19940843

  18. Positive allosteric modulation of M1and M4muscarinic receptors as potential therapeutic treatments for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Yohn, Samantha E; Conn, P Jeffrey

    2017-09-09

    Current antipsychotic drugs provide symptomatic relief for positive symptoms of schizophrenia, but do not offer symptom management for negative and cognitive symptoms. In addition, many patients discontinue treatment due to adverse side effects. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop more effective and safe treatment options. Although the etiology of schizophrenia is unclear, considerable data from post-mortem, neuroimaging and neuropharmacology studies support a role of the muscarinic acetylcholine (mAChRs) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Substantial evidence suggests that activation of mAChRs has the potential to treat all symptom domains of schizophrenia. Despite encouraging results in demonstrating efficacy, clinical trials of nonselective mAChR agonists were limited in their clinical utility due to dose-limiting peripheral side effects. Accordingly, efforts have been made to specifically target centrally located M 1 and M 4 mAChR subtypes devoid of adverse-effect liability. To circumvent this limitation, there have been tremendous advances in the discovery of ligands that bind at allosteric sites, binding sites distinct from the orthosteric site, which are structurally less conserved and thereby afford high levels of receptor subtype selectivity. The discovery of subtype-specific allosteric modulators has greatly advanced our understanding of the physiological role of various muscarinic receptor subtypes in schizophrenia and the potential utility of M 1 and M 4 mAChR subtypes as targets for the development of novel treatments for schizophrenia and related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel M1 PAM VU0486846 exerts efficacy in cognition models without displaying agonist activity or cholinergic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rook, Jerri M; Bertron, Jeanette L; Cho, Hyekyung P; Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Moran, Sean P; Maksymetz, James T; Nance, Kellie D; Dickerson, Jonathan W; Remke, Daniel H; Chang, Sichen; Harp, Joel; Blobaum, Anna L; Niswender, Colleen M; Jones, Carrie K; Stauffer, Shaun R; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W

    2018-04-27

    Selective activation of the M1 subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, via positive allosteric modulation (PAM), is an exciting strategy to improve cognition in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease patients. However, highly potent M1 ago-PAMs, such as MK-7622, PF-06764427, and PF-06827443, can engender excessive activation of M1, leading to agonist actions in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that impairs cognitive function, induces behavioral convulsions, and results in other classic cholinergic adverse events (AEs). Here, we report a fundamentally new and highly selective M1 PAM, VU0486846. VU0486846 possesses only weak agonist activity in M1-expressing cell lines with high receptor reserve and is devoid of agonist actions in the PFC, unlike previously reported ago-PAMs MK-7622, PF-06764427 and PF-06827443. Moreover, VU0486846 shows no interaction with antagonist binding at the orthosteric acetylcholine (ACh) site (e.g., neither bitopic nor displaying negative cooperativity with [3H]-NMS binding at theorthosteric site), no seizure liability at high brain exposures, and no cholinergic AEs. However, as opposed to ago-PAMs, VU0486846 produces robust efficacy in the novel object recognition model of cognitive function. Importantly, we show for the first time that an M1 PAM can reverse the cognitive deficits induced by atypical antipsychotics, such as risperidone. These findings further strengthen the argument that compounds with modest in vitro M1 PAM activity (EC50s > 100 nM) and pure-PAM activity in native tissues display robust pro-cognitive efficacy without AEs mediated by excessive activation of M1. Overall, the combination of compound assessment with recombinant in vitro assays (mindful of receptor reserve), native tissue systems (PFC), and phenotypic screens (behavioral convulsions) is essential to fully understand and evaluate lead compounds and enhance success in clinical development.

  20. The allosteric modulation of thyroxine-binding globulin affinity is entropy driven.

    PubMed

    Petruk, Ariel A; Labanda, María S; Alvarez, Rosa M S; Marti, Marcelo A

    2013-06-01

    Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) is a non-inhibitory member of the serpin family of proteins whose main structural element is the reactive center loop (RCL), that, upon cleavage by proteases, is inserted into the protein core adopting a β-strand conformation (stressed to relaxed transition, S-to-R). After S-to-R transition thyroxine (T4) affinity decreases. However, crystallographic studies in the presence or absence of the hormone in different states are unable to show significant differences in the structure and interactions of the binding site. Experimental results also suggest the existence of several S states (differing in the number of inserted RCL residues), associated with a differential affinity. To shed light into the molecular basis that regulates T4 affinity according to the degree of RCL insertion in TBG, we performed extended molecular dynamics simulations combined with several thermodynamic analysis of the T4 binding to TBG in three different S states, and in the R state. Our results show that, despite T4 binding in the protein by similar interactions in all states, a good correlation between the degree of RCL insertion and the binding affinity, driven by a change in TBG conformational entropy, was observed. TBG allosteric regulation is entropy driven. The presence of multiple S states may allow more efficient T4 release due to protease activity. The presented results are clear examples of how computer simulation methods can reveal the thermodynamic basis of allosteric effects, and provide a general framework for understanding serpin allosteric affinity regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Allosteric modulators of GPCRs: a novel approach for the treatment of CNS disorders

    PubMed Central

    Conn, P. Jeffrey; Christopoulos, Arthur; Lindsley, Craig W.

    2010-01-01

    Despite G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) being among the most fruitful targets for marketed drugs, intense discovery efforts for several GPCR subtypes have failed to deliver selective drug candidates. Historically, drug discovery programmes for GPCR ligands have been dominated by efforts to develop agonists and antagonists that act at orthosteric sites for endogenous ligands. However, in recent years, there have been tremendous advances in the discovery of novel ligands for GPCRs that act at allosteric sites to regulate receptor function. These compounds provide high selectivity, novel modes of efficacy and may lead to novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of multiple psychiatric and neurological human disorders. PMID:19116626

  2. Piracetam defines a new binding site for allosteric modulators of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ahmed H; Oswald, Robert E

    2010-03-11

    Glutamate receptors are the most prevalent excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the vertebrate central nervous system and are important potential drug targets for cognitive enhancement and the treatment of schizophrenia. Allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors promote dimerization by binding to a dimer interface and reducing desensitization and deactivation. The pyrrolidine allosteric modulators, piracetam and aniracetam, were among the first of this class of drugs to be discovered. We have determined the structure of the ligand binding domain of the AMPA receptor subtypes GluA2 and GluA3 with piracetam and a corresponding structure of GluA3 with aniracetam. Both drugs bind to GluA2 and GluA3 in a very similar manner, suggesting little subunit specificity. However, the binding sites for piracetam and aniracetam differ considerably. Aniracetam binds to a symmetrical site at the center of the dimer interface. Piracetam binds to multiple sites along the dimer interface with low occupation, one of which is a unique binding site for potential allosteric modulators. This new site may be of importance in the design of new allosteric regulators.

  3. Piracetam Defines a New Binding Site for Allosteric Modulators of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors§

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ahmed H.; Oswald, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Glutamate receptors are the most prevalent excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the vertebrate central nervous system and are important potential drug targets for cognitive enhancement and the treatment of schizophrenia. Allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors promote dimerization by binding to a dimer interface and reducing desensitization and deactivation. The pyrrolidine allosteric modulators, piracetam and aniracetam, were among the first of this class of drugs to be discovered. We have determined the structure of the ligand binding domain of the AMPA receptor subtypes GluA2 and GluA3 with piracetam and a corresponding structure of GluA3 with aniracetam. Both drugs bind to both GluA2 and GluA3 in a very similar manner, suggesting little subunit specificity. However, the binding sites for piracetam and aniracetam differ considerably. Aniracetam binds to a symmetrical site at the center of the dimer interface. Piracetam binds to multiple sites along the dimer interface with low occupation, one of which is a unique binding site for potential allosteric modulators. This new site may be of importance in the design of new allosteric regulators. PMID:20163115

  4. GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators modify the abuse-related behavioral and neurochemical effects of methamphetamine in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Berro, Laís F; Andersen, Monica L; Tufik, Sergio; Howell, Leonard L

    2017-09-01

    GABA A receptor positive allosteric modulators (GABA A receptor modulators) are commonly used for the treatment of insomnia. Nevertheless, the effects of these compounds on psychostimulant-induced sleep impairment are poorly understood. Because GABA A receptor modulators have been shown to decrease the abuse-related effects of psychostimulants, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of temazepam (0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg) and eszopiclone (0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg), two GABA A receptor modulators, on the behavioral neuropharmacology of methamphetamine in adult rhesus macaques (n = 5). Sleep-like measures and general daytime activity were evaluated with Actiwatch monitors. Methamphetamine self-administration (0.03 mg/kg/inf) was evaluated during morning sessions. Methamphetamine-induced dopamine overflow was assessed through in vivo microdialysis targeting the nucleus accumbens. Nighttime treatment with either temazepam or eszopiclone was ineffective in improving sleep-like measures disrupted by methamphetamine self-administration. Acute pretreatment with a low dose of temazepam before self-administration sessions increased methamphetamine self-administration without affecting normal daytime home-cage activity. At a high dose, acute temazepam pretreatment decreased methamphetamine self-administration and attenuated methamphetamine-induced increases in dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, without decreasing general daytime activity. Acute eszopiclone treatment exerted no effects on methamphetamine intake or drug-induced increases in dopamine. Our study suggests that treatments based on GABA A receptor modulators are not effective for the treatment of sleep disruption in the context of psychostimulant use. In addition, distinct GABA A receptor modulators differentially modulated the abuse-related effects of methamphetamine, with acute treatment with the high efficacy GABA A receptor modulator temazepam decreasing the behavioral and neurochemical effects

  5. Selective GABA(A) α5 positive allosteric modulators improve cognitive function in aged rats with memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Koh, Ming Teng; Rosenzweig-Lipson, Sharon; Gallagher, Michela

    2013-01-01

    A condition of excess activity in the hippocampal formation is observed in the aging brain and in conditions that confer additional risk during aging for Alzheimer's disease. Compounds that act as positive allosteric modulators at GABA(A) α5 receptors might be useful in targeting this condition because GABA(A) α5 receptors mediate tonic inhibition of principal neurons in the affected network. While agents to improve cognitive function in the past focused on inverse agonists, which are negative allosteric modulators at GABA(A) α5 receptors, research supporting that approach used only young animals and predated current evidence for excessive hippocampal activity in age-related conditions of cognitive impairment. Here, we used two compounds, Compound 44 [6,6-dimethyl-3-(3-hydroxypropyl)thio-1-(thiazol-2-yl)-6,7-dihydro-2-benzothiophen-4(5H)-one] and Compound 6 [methyl 3,5-diphenylpyridazine-4-carboxylate], with functional activity as potentiators of γ-aminobutyric acid at GABA(A) α5 receptors, to test their ability to improve hippocampal-dependent memory in aged rats with identified cognitive impairment. Improvement was obtained in aged rats across protocols differing in motivational and performance demands and across varying retention intervals. Significant memory improvement occurred after either intracereboventricular infusion with Compound 44 (100 μg) in a water maze task or systemic administration with Compound 6 (3 mg/kg) in a radial arm maze task. Furthermore, systemic administration improved behavioral performance at dosing shown to provide drug exposure in the brain and in vivo receptor occupancy in the hippocampus. These data suggest a novel approach to improve neural network function in clinical conditions of excess hippocampal activity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Using cholinergic M1 receptor positive allosteric modulators to improve memory via enhancement of brain cholinergic communication.

    PubMed

    Chambon, Caroline; Jatzke, Claudia; Wegener, Nico; Gravius, Andreas; Danysz, Wojciech

    2012-12-15

    Benzylquinolone carboxylic acid (BQCA) is a recently described cholinergic muscarinic M(1) receptor positive allosteric modulator having potential as cognitive enhancer in dementia. The present study focused on the characterisation of BQCA's mode of action in relation to positive effects on memory and side-effects in an animal model. To get insight into this mode of action, in vitro receptor potency/left shift experiments in cells stably expressing the rat's M(1) receptor were performed. They revealed an inflection point value of BQCA corresponding to 306nM, and potentiation of the agonist response up to 47-fold in presence of 10μM of BQCA. In vivo, brain microdialysis showed a maximal brain level of 270nM, 40min after i.p. administration at 10mg/kg. Based on in vitro data obtained with this dose, it can be concluded that BQCA reaches brain levels which should potentiate the agonist response about 4-fold. Behavioural data confirmed that BQCA used at 10mg/kg attenuated scopolamine-induced memory deficit in a spontaneous alternation task. Moreover, BQCA showed no side effect at 10mg/kg and above in spontaneous locomotion and salivation tests. The profile of BQCA observed in the present study displays a clear advantage over the M(1)-M(3) agonist cevimeline. The present data show the therapeutic potential of the M(1) receptor positive allosteric modulator BQCA for the treatment of memory deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Agonistic aptamer to the insulin receptor leads to biased signaling and functional selectivity through allosteric modulation

    PubMed Central

    Yunn, Na-Oh; Koh, Ara; Han, Seungmin; Lim, Jong Hun; Park, Sehoon; Lee, Jiyoun; Kim, Eui; Jang, Sung Key; Berggren, Per-Olof; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Due to their high affinity and specificity, aptamers have been widely used as effective inhibitors in clinical applications. However, the ability to activate protein function through aptamer-protein interaction has not been well-elucidated. To investigate their potential as target-specific agonists, we used SELEX to generate aptamers to the insulin receptor (IR) and identified an agonistic aptamer named IR-A48 that specifically binds to IR, but not to IGF-1 receptor. Despite its capacity to stimulate IR autophosphorylation, similar to insulin, we found that IR-A48 not only binds to an allosteric site distinct from the insulin binding site, but also preferentially induces Y1150 phosphorylation in the IR kinase domain. Moreover, Y1150-biased phosphorylation induced by IR-A48 selectively activates specific signaling pathways downstream of IR. In contrast to insulin-mediated activation of IR, IR-A48 binding has little effect on the MAPK pathway and proliferation of cancer cells. Instead, AKT S473 phosphorylation is highly stimulated by IR-A48, resulting in increased glucose uptake both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we present IR-A48 as a biased agonist able to selectively induce the metabolic activity of IR through allosteric binding. Furthermore, our study also suggests that aptamers can be a promising tool for developing artificial biased agonists to targeted receptors. PMID:26245346

  8. The L293 Residue in Transmembrane Domain 2 of the 5-HT3A Receptor is a Molecular Determinant of Allosteric Modulation by 5-Hydroxyindole

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang-Qun; Lovinger, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Allosteric modulation of ligand-gated ion channels can play important roles in shaping synaptic transmission. The function of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) type 3 (5-HT3) receptor, a member of the Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel superfamily, is modulated by a variety of compounds such as alcohols, anesthetics and 5-hydroxyindole (5-HI). In the present study, the molecular determinants of allosteric modulation by 5-HI were explored in N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells expressing the native 5-HT3 receptor and HEK 293 cells transfected with the recombinant 5-HT3A receptor using molecular biology and whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. 5-HI potentiated 5-HT-activated currents in both N1E-115 cells and HEK 293 cells, and significantly decreased current desensitization and deactivation. Substitution of Leu293 (L293, L15′) in the second transmembrane domain (TM2) with cysteine (L293C) or serine (L293S) abolished 5-HI modulation. Other mutations in the TM2 domain, such as D298A and T284F, failed to alter 5-HI modulation. The L293S mutation enhanced dopamine efficacy and converted 5-HI into a partial agonist at the mutant receptor. These data suggest that 5-HI stabilizes the 5-HT3A receptor in the open state by decreasing both desensitization and 5-HT unbinding/channel closing; and L293 is a common site for both channel gating and allosteric modulation by 5-HI. Our observations also indicate existence of a second 5-HI recognition site on the 5-HT3A receptor which may overlap with the 5-HT binding site and is not involved in the positive modulation by 5-HI. These findings support the idea that there are two discrete sites for 5-HI allosteric modulation and direct activation in the 5-HT3A receptor. PMID:18436267

  9. Agonist activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors via an allosteric transmembrane site

    PubMed Central

    Gill, JasKiran K.; Savolainen, Mari; Young, Gareth T.; Zwart, Ruud; Sher, Emanuele; Millar, Neil S.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, such as acetylcholine, act at an extracellular “orthosteric” binding site located at the interface between two adjacent subunits. Here, we present evidence of potent activation of α7 nAChRs via an allosteric transmembrane site. Previous studies have identified a series of nAChR-positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that lack agonist activity but are able to potentiate responses to orthosteric agonists, such as acetylcholine. It has been shown, for example, that TQS acts as a conventional α7 nAChR PAM. In contrast, we have found that a compound with close chemical similarity to TQS (4BP-TQS) is a potent allosteric agonist of α7 nAChRs. Whereas the α7 nAChR antagonist metyllycaconitine acts competitively with conventional nicotinic agonists, metyllycaconitine is a noncompetitive antagonist of 4BP-TQS. Mutation of an amino acid (M253L), located in a transmembrane cavity that has been proposed as being the binding site for PAMs, completely blocks agonist activation by 4BP-TQS. In contrast, this mutation had no significant effect on agonist activation by acetylcholine. Conversely, mutation of an amino acid located within the known orthosteric binding site (W148F) has a profound effect on agonist potency of acetylcholine (resulting in a shift of ∼200-fold in the acetylcholine dose-response curve), but had little effect on the agonist dose-response curve for 4BP-TQS. Computer docking studies with an α7 homology model provides evidence that both TQS and 4BP-TQS bind within an intrasubunit transmembrane cavity. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that agonist activation of nAChRs can occur via an allosteric transmembrane site. PMID:21436053

  10. Re-exploration of the mGlu₁ PAM Ro 07-11401 scaffold: Discovery of analogs with improved CNS penetration despite steep SAR.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Cho, Hyekyung P; Starr, Tahj M; Blobaum, Anna L; Niswender, Colleen M; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W

    2016-05-01

    This letter describes the re-exploration of the mGlu1 PAM Ro 07-11401 scaffold through a multi-dimensional, iterative parallel synthesis approach. Unlike recent series of mGlu1 PAMs with robust SAR, the SAR around the Ro 07-11401 structure was incredibly steep (only ∼6 of 200 analogs displayed mGlu1 PAM activity), and reminiscent of the CPPHA mGlu5 PAM scaffold. Despite the steep SAR, two new thiazole derivatives were discovered with improved in vitro DMPK profiles and ∼3- to 4-fold improvement in CNS exposure (Kps 1.01-1.19); albeit, with a ∼3-fold diminution in mGlu1 PAM potency, yet comparable efficacy (∼5-fold leftward shift of the glutamate concentration-response curve at 10μM). Thus, this effort has provided additional CNS penetrant mGlu1 PAM tools in a different chemotype than the VU0486321 scaffold. These compounds will permit a better understanding of the pharmacology and therapeutic potential of selective mGlu1 activation, while highlighting the steep SAR challenges that can often be encountered in GPCR allosteric modulator discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Ascaris suum nicotinic receptor, ACR-16, as a drug target: Four novel negative allosteric modulators from virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fudan; Robertson, Alan P; Abongwa, Melanie; Yu, Edward W; Martin, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections in humans and livestock cause significant debility, reduced productivity and economic losses globally. There are a limited number of effective anthelmintic drugs available for treating helminths infections, and their frequent use has led to the development of resistance in many parasite species. There is an urgent need for novel therapeutic drugs for treating these parasites. We have chosen the ACR-16 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of Ascaris suum (Asu-ACR-16), as a drug target and have developed three-dimensional models of this transmembrane protein receptor to facilitate the search for new bioactive compounds. Using the human α7 nAChR chimeras and Torpedo marmorata nAChR for homology modeling, we defined orthosteric and allosteric binding sites on the Asu-ACR-16 receptor for virtual screening. We identified four ligands that bind to sites on Asu-ACR-16 and tested their activity using electrophysiological recording from Asu-ACR-16 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The four ligands were acetylcholine inhibitors (SB-277011-A, IC50, 3.12 ± 1.29 μM; (+)-butaclamol Cl, IC50, 9.85 ± 2.37 μM; fmoc-1, IC50, 10.00 ± 1.38 μM; fmoc-2, IC50, 16.67 ± 1.95 μM) that behaved like negative allosteric modulators. Our work illustrates a structure-based in silico screening method for seeking anthelmintic hits, which can then be tested electrophysiologically for further characterization.

  12. Molecular Mechanisms of Biased and Probe-Dependent Signaling at CXC-Motif Chemokine Receptor CXCR3 Induced by Negative Allosteric Modulators.

    PubMed

    Brox, Regine; Milanos, Lampros; Saleh, Noureldin; Baumeister, Paul; Buschauer, Armin; Hofmann, Dagmar; Heinrich, Markus R; Clark, Timothy; Tschammer, Nuska

    2018-04-01

    Our recent explorations of allosteric modulators with improved properties resulted in the identification of two biased negative allosteric modulators, BD103 ( N -1-{[3-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrido[2,3- d ]pyrimi-din2yl]ethyl}-4-(4-fluorobutoxy)- N -[(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl}]butanamide) and BD064 (5-[( N -{1-[3-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrido[2,3- d ]pyrimidin-2-yl]ethyl-2-[4-fluoro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]acetamido)methyl]-2-fluorophenyl}boronic acid), that exhibited probe-dependent inhibition of CXC-motif chemokine receptor CXCR3 signaling. With the intention to elucidate the structural mechanisms underlying their selectivity and probe dependence, we used site-directed mutagenesis combined with homology modeling and docking to identify amino acids of CXCR3 that contribute to modulator binding, signaling, and transmission of cooperativity. With the use of allosteric radioligand RAMX3 ([ 3 H] N -{1-[3-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrido[2,3- d ]pyrimidin-2-yl]ethyl}-2-[4-fluoro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]- N -[(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl]acetamide), we identified that F131 3.32 and Y308 7.43 contribute specifically to the binding pocket of BD064, whereas D186 4.60 solely participates in the stabilization of binding conformation of BD103. The influence of mutations on the ability of negative allosteric modulators to inhibit chemokine-mediated activation (CXCL11 and CXCL10) was assessed with the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based cAMP and β -arrestin recruitment assay. Obtained data revealed complex molecular mechanisms governing biased and probe-dependent signaling at CXCR3. In particular, F131 3.32 , S304 7.39 , and Y308 7.43 emerged as key residues for the compounds to modulate the chemokine response. Notably, D186 4.60 , W268 6.48 , and S304 7.39 turned out to play a role in signal pathway selectivity of CXCL10, as mutations of these residues led to a G protein-active but β -arrestin-inactive conformation. These

  13. Negative Allosteric Modulation of mGluR5 Partially Corrects Pathophysiology in a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jifang; Wu, Hao; Coronado, Amanda A; de Laittre, Elizabeth; Osterweil, Emily K; Zhang, Yi; Bear, Mark F

    2016-11-23

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2), an epigenetic regulator of mRNA transcription. Here, we report a test of the hypothesis of shared pathophysiology of RTT and fragile X, another monogenic cause of autism and intellectual disability. In fragile X, the loss of the mRNA translational repressor FMRP leads to exaggerated protein synthesis downstream of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). We found that mGluR5- and protein-synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity were similarly altered in area CA1 of Mecp2 KO mice. CA1 pyramidal cell-type-specific, genome-wide profiling of ribosome-bound mRNAs was performed in wild-type and Mecp2 KO hippocampal CA1 neurons to reveal the MeCP2-regulated "translatome." We found significant overlap between ribosome-bound transcripts overexpressed in the Mecp2 KO and FMRP mRNA targets. These tended to encode long genes that were functionally related to either cytoskeleton organization or the development of neuronal connectivity. In the Fmr1 KO mouse, chronic treatment with mGluR5-negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) has been shown to ameliorate many mutant phenotypes by correcting excessive protein synthesis. In Mecp2 KO mice, we found that mGluR5 NAM treatment significantly reduced the level of overexpressed ribosome-associated transcripts, particularly those that were also FMRP targets. Some Rett phenotypes were also ameliorated by treatment, most notably hippocampal cell size and lifespan. Together, these results suggest a potential mechanistic link between MeCP2-mediated transcription regulation and mGluR5/FMRP-mediated protein translation regulation through coregulation of a subset of genes relevant to synaptic functions. Altered regulation of synaptic protein synthesis has been hypothesized to contribute to the pathophysiology that underlies multiple forms of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. Here, we show in a mouse model of Rett syndrome

  14. Structure-Activity Relationship Study of Indole-2-carboxamides Identifies a Potent Allosteric Modulator for the Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CB1)

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Mariam M.; Ali, Hamed I.; Ahn, Kwang H.; Damaraju, Aparna; Samala, Sushma; Pulipati, Venkata K.; Kolluru, Srikanth; Kendall, Debra A.; Lu, Dai

    2013-01-01

    The cannabinoid CB1 receptor is involved in complex physiological functions. The discovery of CB1 allosteric modulators generates new opportunities for drug discovery targeting the pharmacologically important CB1 receptor. 5-chloro-3-ethyl-N-(4-(piperidin-1-yl)phenethyl)-1H-indole-2-carboxamide (ORG27569; 1) represents a new class of indole-2-carboxamides that exhibit allostery of CB1. To better understand the SAR, a group of indole-2-carboxamide analogs were synthesized and assessed for allostery of the CB1 receptor. We found that within the structure of indole-2-carboxamides, the presence of the indole ring is preferred for maintaining the modulator's high binding affinity for the allosteric site, but not for generating allostery on the orthosteric site. However, the C3 substituents of the indole-2-carboxamides significantly impact the allostery of the ligand. A robust CB1 allosteric modulator 5-chloro-N-(4-(dimethylamino)phenethyl)-3-pentyl-1H-indole-2-carboxamide (11j) was identified. It showed an equilibrium dissociation constant (KB) of 167.3 nM with a markedly high binding cooperativity factor (α=16.55) and potent antagonism of agonist-induced GTPγS binding. PMID:24053617

  15. Allosteric modulation of Callinectes sapidus hemocyanin by binding of L-lactate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B A; Bonaventura, C; Bonaventura, J

    1984-02-28

    Hemocyanin of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus has the typical structure of crustacean hemocyanins in that its smallest in vivo structure is a hexamer of subunits each having a molecular mass of approximately 75 000. As found in the blood, Callinectes hemocyanin consists of a mixture of hexamers and dodecamers (typically 1:4). As in other crustacean hemocyanins, the affinity with which oxygen binds to the binuclear copper site has been reported to be very sensitive to pH and to a variety of inorganic allosteric effectors. We report here the interaction of L-lactate, a natural metabolite,with the native hemocyanin and with chromatographically purified hexamers and dodecamers. Under ionic conditions that approximate those found physiologically, the addition of 10 mM L-lactate to native Callinectes hemocyanin substantially increases its oxygen affinity (Δ log P(50) = -0.28). The data from lactate titrations were fit to a theoretical equation,and the best fit was obtained with a lactate dissociation constant of 1.8 mM for the oxy state and 2.2 lactate binding sites for every 6 oxygen binding sites. Independent measurements by ultrafiltration techniques indicated a dissociation constant of 3.2 mM with 2.8 lactate binding sites per 6 oxygen binding sites. The two sets of data clearly indicate that there is less than one lactate binding site per oxygen binding site. The fit to the titration was not improved with the assumption of more than one class of lactate binding site. The hexamers and dodecamers of native Callinectes hemocyanin are not in equilibrium and are stable after separation by gel-filtration chromatography. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the subunits of the dissociated dodecamers shows five major bands.Two of these bands, which constitute one-sixth of the total dodecameric hemocyanin, do not appear upon gel electrophoresis of dissociated hexamers. The oxygen affinities of the hexameric and dodecameric hemocyanin forms are similar to one another but

  16. The mGluR7 allosteric agonist AMN082 produces antidepressant-like effects by modulating glutamatergic signaling.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Stefania Risso; Uslaner, Jason M; Flick, Rose B; Lee, Ariel; Groover, Kristina M; Hutson, Peter H

    2012-03-01

    Currently prescribed antidepressants affect the reuptake and/or metabolism of biogenic amines. Unfortunately for patients, these treatments require several weeks to produce significant symptom remission. However, recently it has been found that ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic agent that noncompetitively antagonizes NMDA (N-Methyl-d-aspartic acid) receptors, has rapid antidepressant effects at sub-anesthetic doses in clinically depressed patients. These findings indicate that modulation of the glutamatergic system could be an efficient way to achieve antidepressant activity. For this reason, other mechanisms influencing glutamatergic functioning have gained interest. For example, the metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (mGluR7) allosteric agonist AMN082 (N,N'-dibenzyhydryl-ethane-1,2-diamine dihydrochloride) has been shown to be effective in the forced swim and tail-suspension test, behavioral assays sensitive to antidepressants. Here we extend the characterization of AMN082 by demonstrating its effects on differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL)-30, another assay sensitive to antidepressants. Furthermore, we show the engagement of glutamatergic signaling by demonstrating the ability of the selective AMPA (2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2-oxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid) receptor antagonist NBQX (2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo[f]quinoxaline-2,3-dione) to reverse the effects of AMN082 in the tail suspension test. In contrast, NBQX failed to reverse the effects of imipramine in the same behavioral test. Finally, we report that behaviorally efficacious doses of AMN082 modulate phosphorylation of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits in the hippocampus. These results suggest that the antidepressant-like effects of AMN082 are, at least in part, due to modulation of AMPA and NMDA receptor activity. Therefore, our findings confirm the hypothesis that mGluR7 could represent a novel target for treating depression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. Characterization of Imidazopyridine Compounds as Negative Allosteric Modulators of Proton-Sensing GPR4 in Extracellular Acidification-Induced Responses.

    PubMed

    Tobo, Ayaka; Tobo, Masayuki; Nakakura, Takashi; Ebara, Masashi; Tomura, Hideaki; Mogi, Chihiro; Im, Dong-Soon; Murata, Naoya; Kuwabara, Atsushi; Ito, Saki; Fukuda, Hayato; Arisawa, Mitsuhiro; Shuto, Satoshi; Nakaya, Michio; Kurose, Hitoshi; Sato, Koichi; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 4 (GPR4), previously proposed as the receptor for sphingosylphosphorylcholine, has recently been identified as the proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) coupling to multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including the Gs protein/cAMP and G13 protein/Rho. In the present study, we characterized some imidazopyridine compounds as GPR4 modulators that modify GPR4 receptor function. In the cells that express proton-sensing GPCRs, including GPR4, OGR1, TDAG8, and G2A, extracellular acidification stimulates serum responsive element (SRE)-driven transcriptional activity, which has been shown to reflect Rho activity, with different proton sensitivities. Imidazopyridine compounds inhibited the moderately acidic pH-induced SRE activity only in GPR4-expressing cells. Acidic pH-stimulated cAMP accumulation, mRNA expression of inflammatory genes, and GPR4 internalization within GPR4-expressing cells were all inhibited by the GPR4 modulator. We further compared the inhibition property of the imidazopyridine compound with psychosine, which has been shown to selectively inhibit actions induced by proton-sensing GPCRs, including GPR4. In the GPR4 mutant, in which certain histidine residues were mutated to phenylalanine, proton sensitivity was significantly shifted to the right, and psychosine failed to further inhibit acidic pH-induced SRE activation. On the other hand, the imidazopyridine compound almost completely inhibited acidic pH-induced action in mutant GPR4. We conclude that some imidazopyridine compounds show specificity to GPR4 as negative allosteric modulators with a different action mode from psychosine, an antagonist susceptible to histidine residues, and are useful for characterizing GPR4-mediated acidic pH-induced biological actions.

  18. Characterization of Imidazopyridine Compounds as Negative Allosteric Modulators of Proton-Sensing GPR4 in Extracellular Acidification-Induced Responses

    PubMed Central

    Tobo, Ayaka; Tobo, Masayuki; Nakakura, Takashi; Ebara, Masashi; Tomura, Hideaki; Mogi, Chihiro; Im, Dong-Soon; Murata, Naoya; Kuwabara, Atsushi; Ito, Saki; Fukuda, Hayato; Arisawa, Mitsuhiro; Shuto, Satoshi; Nakaya, Michio; Kurose, Hitoshi; Sato, Koichi; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 4 (GPR4), previously proposed as the receptor for sphingosylphosphorylcholine, has recently been identified as the proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) coupling to multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including the Gs protein/cAMP and G13 protein/Rho. In the present study, we characterized some imidazopyridine compounds as GPR4 modulators that modify GPR4 receptor function. In the cells that express proton-sensing GPCRs, including GPR4, OGR1, TDAG8, and G2A, extracellular acidification stimulates serum responsive element (SRE)-driven transcriptional activity, which has been shown to reflect Rho activity, with different proton sensitivities. Imidazopyridine compounds inhibited the moderately acidic pH-induced SRE activity only in GPR4-expressing cells. Acidic pH-stimulated cAMP accumulation, mRNA expression of inflammatory genes, and GPR4 internalization within GPR4-expressing cells were all inhibited by the GPR4 modulator. We further compared the inhibition property of the imidazopyridine compound with psychosine, which has been shown to selectively inhibit actions induced by proton-sensing GPCRs, including GPR4. In the GPR4 mutant, in which certain histidine residues were mutated to phenylalanine, proton sensitivity was significantly shifted to the right, and psychosine failed to further inhibit acidic pH-induced SRE activation. On the other hand, the imidazopyridine compound almost completely inhibited acidic pH-induced action in mutant GPR4. We conclude that some imidazopyridine compounds show specificity to GPR4 as negative allosteric modulators with a different action mode from psychosine, an antagonist susceptible to histidine residues, and are useful for characterizing GPR4-mediated acidic pH-induced biological actions. PMID:26070068

  19. Evaluating the effects of allelochemical ferulic acid on Microcystis aeruginosa by pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorometry and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Hua, Ming; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Min; Xian, Qi-Ming; Yin, Da-Qiang

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the effects of allelochemical ferulic acid (FA) on a series of physiological and biochemical processes of blue-green algae Microcystis aeruginosa, in order to find sensitive diagnostic variables for allelopathic effects. Algal cell density was significantly suppressed by FA (0.31-5.17 mM) only after 48 h exposure. Inhibitions of photosynthetic parameters (F(v)/F(m) and F(v)'/F(m)') occurred more rapidly than cell growth, and the stimulation of non-photochemical quenching was observed as a feed-back mechanisms induced by photosystem II blockage, determining by PAM fluorometry. Inhibitions on esterase activity, membrane potential and integrity, as well as disturbance on cell size, were all detected by flow cytometry with specific fluorescent markers, although exhibiting varied sensitivities. Membrane potential and esterase activity were identified as the most sensitive parameters (with relatively lower EC50 values), and responded more rapidly (significantly inhibited only after 8 h exposure) than photosynthetic parameters and cell growth, thus may be the primary responses of cyanobacteria to FA exposure. The use of PAM fluorometry and flow cytometry for rapid assessment of those sensitive variables may contribute to future mechanistic studies of allolepathic effects on phytoplankton. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Correction for Inhibition Leads to an Allosteric Co-Agonist Model for Pentobarbital Modulation and Activation of α1β3γ2L GABAA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ziemba, Alexis M.; Forman, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pentobarbital, like propofol and etomidate, produces important general anesthetic effects through GABAA receptors. Photolabeling also indicates that pentobarbital binds to some of the same sites where propofol and etomidate act. Quantitative allosteric co-agonist models for propofol and etomidate account for modulatory and agonist effects in GABAA receptors and have proven valuable in establishing drug site characteristics and for functional analysis of mutants. We therefore sought to establish an allosteric co-agonist model for pentobarbital activation and modulation of α1β3γ2L receptors, using a novel approach to first correct pentobarbital activation data for inhibitory effects in the same concentration range. Methods Using oocyte-expressed α1β3γ2L GABAA receptors and two-microelectrode voltage-clamp, we quantified modulation of GABA responses by a low pentobarbital concentration and direct effects of high pentobarbital concentrations, the latter displaying mixed agonist and inhibitory effects. We then isolated and quantified pentobarbital inhibition in activated receptors using a novel single-sweep “notch” approach, and used these results to correct steady-state direct activation for inhibition. Results Combining results for GABA modulation and corrected direct activation, we estimated receptor open probability and optimized parameters for a Monod-Wyman-Changeux allosteric co-agonist model. Inhibition by pentobarbital was consistent with two sites with IC50s near 1 mM, while co-agonist model parameters suggest two allosteric pentobarbital agonist sites characterized by KPB ≈ 5 mM and high efficacy. The results also indicate that pentobarbital may be a more efficacious agonist than GABA. Conclusions Our novel approach to quantifying both inhibitory and co-agonist effects of pentobarbital provides a basis for future structure-function analyses of GABAA receptor mutations in putative pentobarbital binding sites. PMID:27110714

  1. Correction for Inhibition Leads to an Allosteric Co-Agonist Model for Pentobarbital Modulation and Activation of α1β3γ2L GABAA Receptors.

    PubMed

    Ziemba, Alexis M; Forman, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    Pentobarbital, like propofol and etomidate, produces important general anesthetic effects through GABAA receptors. Photolabeling also indicates that pentobarbital binds to some of the same sites where propofol and etomidate act. Quantitative allosteric co-agonist models for propofol and etomidate account for modulatory and agonist effects in GABAA receptors and have proven valuable in establishing drug site characteristics and for functional analysis of mutants. We therefore sought to establish an allosteric co-agonist model for pentobarbital activation and modulation of α1β3γ2L receptors, using a novel approach to first correct pentobarbital activation data for inhibitory effects in the same concentration range. Using oocyte-expressed α1β3γ2L GABAA receptors and two-microelectrode voltage-clamp, we quantified modulation of GABA responses by a low pentobarbital concentration and direct effects of high pentobarbital concentrations, the latter displaying mixed agonist and inhibitory effects. We then isolated and quantified pentobarbital inhibition in activated receptors using a novel single-sweep "notch" approach, and used these results to correct steady-state direct activation for inhibition. Combining results for GABA modulation and corrected direct activation, we estimated receptor open probability and optimized parameters for a Monod-Wyman-Changeux allosteric co-agonist model. Inhibition by pentobarbital was consistent with two sites with IC50s near 1 mM, while co-agonist model parameters suggest two allosteric pentobarbital agonist sites characterized by KPB ≈ 5 mM and high efficacy. The results also indicate that pentobarbital may be a more efficacious agonist than GABA. Our novel approach to quantifying both inhibitory and co-agonist effects of pentobarbital provides a basis for future structure-function analyses of GABAA receptor mutations in putative pentobarbital binding sites.

  2. Modulation of Pantothenate Kinase 3 Activity by Small Molecules that Interact with the Substrate/Allosteric Regulatory Domain

    PubMed Central

    Leonardi, Roberta; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Yun, Mi-Kyung; Zhou, Ruobing; Zeng, Fu-Yue; Lin, Wenwei; Cui, Jimmy; Chen, Taosheng; Rock, Charles O.; White, Stephen W.; Jackowski, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Pantothenate kinase (PanK) catalyzes the rate-controlling step in coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis. PanK3 is stringently regulated by acetyl-CoA and uses an ordered kinetic mechanism with ATP as the leading substrate. Biochemical analysis of site-directed mutants indicates that pantothenate binds in a tunnel adjacent to the active site that is occupied by the pantothenate moiety of the acetyl-CoA regulator in the PanK3•acetyl-CoA binary complex. A high-throughput screen for PanK3 inhibitors and activators was applied to a bioactive compound library. Thiazolidinediones, sulfonylureas and steroids were inhibitors, and fatty acyl-amides and tamoxifen were activators. The PanK3 activators and inhibitors either stimulated or repressed CoA biosynthesis in HepG2/C3A cells. The flexible allosteric acetyl-CoA regulatory domain of PanK3 also binds the substrates, pantothenate and pantetheine, and small molecule inhibitors and activators to modulate PanK3 activity. PMID:20797618

  3. Modulation of pantothenate kinase 3 activity by small molecules that interact with the substrate/allosteric regulatory domain.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Roberta; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Yun, Mi-Kyung; Zhou, Ruobing; Zeng, Fu-Yue; Lin, Wenwei; Cui, Jimmy; Chen, Taosheng; Rock, Charles O; White, Stephen W; Jackowski, Suzanne

    2010-08-27

    Pantothenate kinase (PanK) catalyzes the rate-controlling step in coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis. PanK3 is stringently regulated by acetyl-CoA and uses an ordered kinetic mechanism with ATP as the leading substrate. Biochemical analysis of site-directed mutants indicates that pantothenate binds in a tunnel adjacent to the active site that is occupied by the pantothenate moiety of the acetyl-CoA regulator in the PanK3acetyl-CoA binary complex. A high-throughput screen for PanK3 inhibitors and activators was applied to a bioactive compound library. Thiazolidinediones, sulfonylureas and steroids were inhibitors, and fatty acyl-amides and tamoxifen were activators. The PanK3 activators and inhibitors either stimulated or repressed CoA biosynthesis in HepG2/C3A cells. The flexible allosteric acetyl-CoA regulatory domain of PanK3 also binds the substrates, pantothenate and pantetheine, and small molecule inhibitors and activators to modulate PanK3 activity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Negative Allosteric Modulators Selective for The NR2B Subtype of The NMDA Receptor Impair Cognition in Multiple Domains

    PubMed Central

    Weed, Michael R; Bookbinder, Mark; Polino, Joseph; Keavy, Deborah; Cardinal, Rudolf N; Simmermacher-Mayer, Jean; Cometa, Fu-ni L; King, Dalton; Thangathirupathy, Srinivasan; Macor, John E; Bristow, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Antidepressant activity of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists and negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) has led to increased investigation of their behavioral pharmacology. NMDA antagonists, such as ketamine, impair cognition in multiple species and in multiple cognitive domains. However, studies with NR2B subtype-selective NAMs have reported mixed results in rodents including increased impulsivity, no effect on cognition, impairment or even improvement of some cognitive tasks. To date, the effects of NR2B-selective NAMs on cognitive tests have not been reported in nonhuman primates. The current study evaluated two selective NR2B NAMs, CP101,606 and BMT-108908, along with the nonselective NMDA antagonists, ketamine and AZD6765, in the nonhuman primate Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) list-based delayed match to sample (list-DMS) task. Ketamine and the two NMDA NR2B NAMs produced selective impairments in memory in the list-DMS task. AZD6765 impaired performance in a non-specific manner. In a separate cohort, CP101,606 impaired performance of the nonhuman primate CANTAB visuo-spatial Paired Associates Learning (vsPAL) task with a selective impairment at more difficult conditions. The results of these studies clearly show that systemic administration of a selective NR2B NAM can cause transient cognitive impairment in multiple cognitive domains. PMID:26105137

  5. Abacavir and warfarin modulate allosterically kinetics of NO dissociation from ferrous nitrosylated human serum heme-albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Ascenzi, Paolo; National Institute for Infectious Diseases I.R.C.C.S. 'Lazzaro Spallanzani', Via Portuense 292, I-00149 Roma; Imperi, Francesco

    2008-05-02

    Human serum albumin (HSA) participates to heme scavenging, in turn HSA-heme binds gaseous diatomic ligands at the heme-Fe-atom. Here, the effect of abacavir and warfarin on denitrosylation kinetics of HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO (i.e., k{sub off}) is reported. In the absence of drugs, the value of k{sub off} is (1.3 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}. Abacavir and warfarin facilitate NO dissociation from HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO, the k{sub off} value increases to (8.6 {+-} 0.9) x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}. From the dependence of k{sub off} on the drug concentration, values of the dissociation equilibrium constant for the abacavir and warfarin binding to HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NOmore » (i.e., K = (1.2 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -3} M and (6.2 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup -5} M, respectively) were determined. The increase of k{sub off} values reflects the stabilization of the basic form of HSA-heme-Fe by ligands (e.g., abacavir and warfarin) that bind to Sudlow's site I. This event parallels the stabilization of the six-coordinate derivative of the HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO atom. Present data highlight the allosteric modulation of HSA-heme-Fe(II) reactivity by heterotropic effectors.« less

  6. Modulation of Pantothenate Kinase 3 Activity by Small Molecules that Interact with the Substrate/Allosteric Regulatory Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Leonardi, Roberta; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Yun, Mi-Kyung

    2010-09-27

    Pantothenate kinase (PanK) catalyzes the rate-controlling step in coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis. PanK3 is stringently regulated by acetyl-CoA and uses an ordered kinetic mechanism with ATP as the leading substrate. Biochemical analysis of site-directed mutants indicates that pantothenate binds in a tunnel adjacent to the active site that is occupied by the pantothenate moiety of the acetyl-CoA regulator in the PanK3 acetyl-CoA binary complex. A high-throughput screen for PanK3 inhibitors and activators was applied to a bioactive compound library. Thiazolidinediones, sulfonylureas and steroids were inhibitors, and fatty acyl-amides and tamoxifen were activators. The PanK3 activators and inhibitors either stimulated ormore » repressed CoA biosynthesis in HepG2/C3A cells. The flexible allosteric acetyl-CoA regulatory domain of PanK3 also binds the substrates, pantothenate and pantetheine, and small molecule inhibitors and activators to modulate PanK3 activity.« less

  7. Basimglurant for treatment of major depressive disorder: a novel negative allosteric modulator of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5.

    PubMed

    Fuxe, Kjell; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O

    2015-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) negative allosteric modulators (NAM) such as 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) and 3-((2-Methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl)pyridine (MTEP) can produce antidepressant-like effects; an example being the forced swim test in rodents. It is therefore of high interest that a new mGlu5 NAM called basimglurant (RO4917523, RG7090) was recently introduced for clinical development in depression. The current article reports on the preclinical and clinical work with basimglurant which strongly supports its use for treatment of depression. The authors cover the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and safety and tolerability features of basimglurant together with its clinical efficacy in a clinical type II trial. The antidepressant activity of basimglurant may be related to a preferential reduction of mGlu5 receptor signaling in distinct populations of cortical limbic GABA interneurons causing disinhibition of discrete glutamate neuronal networks in brain circuits of mood and emotion. Basimglurant's removal of mGlu5 receptor induced inhibition of D2 receptor signaling in A2A-D2-mGlu5 heteroreceptor complexes of ventral striato-pallidal GABA neurons mediating anti-reward may also play a role. Basimglurant is a highly promising antidepressant drug now in clinical development for depression. However, further clinical trials are highly warranted.

  8. Allosteric alpha-7 nicotinic receptor modulation and P50 sensory gating in schizophrenia: a proof-of-mechanism study.

    PubMed

    Winterer, Georg; Gallinat, Jürgen; Brinkmeyer, Jürgen; Musso, Francesco; Kornhuber, Johannes; Thuerauf, Norbert; Rujescu, Dan; Favis, Reyna; Sun, Yu; Franc, Monique A; Ouwerkerk-Mahadevan, Sivi; Janssens, Luc; Timmers, Maarten; Streffer, Johannes R

    2013-01-01

    In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, four way cross-over proof-of-mechanism study, we tested the effect of the positive allosteric α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) modulator JNJ-39393406 in a key translational assay (sensory P50 gating) in 39 regularly smoking male patients with schizophrenia. All patients were clinically stable and JNJ-39393406 was administered as an adjunct treatment to antipsychotics. No indication was found that JNJ-39393406 has the potential to reverse basic deficits of information processing in schizophrenia (sensory P50 gating) or has a significant effect on other tested electrophysiological markers (MMN, P300 and quantitative resting EEG). Sensitivity analyses including severity of disease, baseline P50 gating, medication and gene variants of the CHRNA7 gene did not reveal any subgroups with consistent significant effects. It is discussed that potential positive effects in subgroups not present or not large enough in the current study or upon chronic dosing are possible, but unlikely to be developed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Polyubiquitin Drives the Molecular Interactions of the NF-κB Essential Modulator (NEMO) by Allosteric Regulation.

    PubMed

    Catici, Dragana A M; Horne, James E; Cooper, Grace E; Pudney, Christopher R

    2015-05-29

    The NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO) is the master regulator of NF-κB signaling, controlling the immune and nervous systems. NEMO affects the activity of IκB kinase-β (IKKβ), which relieves the inhibition of the NF-κB transcriptional regulation machinery. Despite major effort, there is only a very sparse, phenomenological understanding of how NEMO regulates IKKβ and shows specificity in its large range of molecular interactions. We explore the key molecular interactions of NEMO using a molecular biophysics approach, incorporating rapid-mixing stopped-flow, high-pressure, and CD spectroscopies. Our study demonstrates that NEMO has a significant degree of native structural disorder and that molecular flexibility and ligand-induced conformational change are at the heart of the molecular interactions of NEMO. We found that long chain length, unanchored, linear polyubiquitin drives NEMO activity, enhancing the affinity of NEMO for IKKβ and the kinase substrate IκBα and promoting membrane association. We present evidence that unanchored polyubiquitin achieves this regulation by inducing NEMO conformational change by an allosteric mechanism. We combine our quantitative findings to give a detailed molecular mechanistic model for the activity of NEMO, providing insight into the molecular mechanism of NEMO activity with broad implications for the biological role of free polyubiquitin. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Allosteric Modulation of the Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Hepatitis Delta Virus-like Ribozyme by Glucosamine 6-Phosphate: The Substrate of the Adjacent Gene Product.

    PubMed

    Passalacqua, Luiz F M; Jimenez, Randi M; Fong, Jennifer Y; Lupták, Andrej

    2017-11-14

    Self-cleaving ribozymes were discovered 30 years ago and have been found throughout nature, from bacteria to animals, but little is known about their biological functions and regulation, particularly how cofactors and metabolites alter their activity. A hepatitis delta virus-like self-cleaving ribozyme maps upstream of a phosphoglucosamine mutase (glmM) open reading frame in the genome of the human gut bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. The presence of a ribozyme in the untranslated region of glmM suggests a regulation mechanism of gene expression. In the bacterial hexosamine biosynthesis pathway, the enzyme glmM catalyzes the isomerization of glucosamine 6-phosphate into glucosamine 1-phosphate. In this study, we investigated the effect of these metabolites on the co-transcriptional self-cleavage rate of the ribozyme. Our results suggest that glucosamine 6-phosphate, but not glucosamine 1-phosphate, is an allosteric ligand that increases the self-cleavage rate of drz-Fpra-1, providing the first known example of allosteric modulation of a self-cleaving ribozyme by the substrate of the adjacent gene product. Given that the ribozyme is activated by the glmM substrate, but not the product, this allosteric modulation may represent a potential feed-forward mechanism of gene expression regulation in bacteria.

  11. Positive allosteric modulation of mGlu7 receptors by AMN082 affects sleep and wakefulness in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cavas, María; Scesa, Gianluigi; Navarro, José Francisco

    2013-02-01

    Evidence indicates that metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu) are involved in the regulation of physiological and behavioral processes, and glutamate has been implicated in several pathologies of the Central Nervous System. Pharmacological evidence suggests the therapeutic potential of targeting mGlu7 receptor in a number of pathological conditions; and previous research has shown the involvement of glutamate on sleep and wakefulness regulation. Here, the effects of mGlu7 receptor selective modulation on sleep and wake states are explored. 32 male Wistar rats were implanted with electrodes for recording sleep and wakefulness. N,N'-Bis(diphenylmethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine dihydrochloride (AMN082) (5, 10, and 20mg/kg, i.p.), a potent, selective and systemically active mGlu7 receptor positive allosteric modulator, or vehicle was administered 1 hour after the beginning of the light period. AMN082 (5 and 10mg/kg) significantly increased total time of sleep; and time spent on Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) was increased. AMN082 at 10mg/kg specifically affected Light SWS, increasing time spent on Light SWS. The highest dose of AMN082, 20mg/kg, significantly reduced time spent in Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep, decreasing the number of REM sleep episodes and their mean duration. Total time spent awake was increased and mean episode duration of wakefulness was prolonged. The present results suggest that mGlu7 receptors might be involved in sleep regulation and drugs targeting these receptors could affect sleep and wakefulness architecture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Galantamine, an Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor and Positive Allosteric Modulator of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors, Attenuates Nicotine Taking and Seeking in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Thomas J; Rupprecht, Laura E; Hayes, Matthew R; Blendy, Julie A; Schmidt, Heath D

    2012-01-01

    Current smoking cessation pharmacotherapies have limited efficacy in preventing relapse and maintaining abstinence during withdrawal. Galantamine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that also acts as a positive allosteric modulator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Galantamine has recently been shown to reverse nicotine withdrawal-induced cognitive impairments in mice, which suggests that galantamine may function to prevent relapse in human smokers. However, there are no studies examining whether galantamine administration modulates nicotine self-administration and/or reinstatement of nicotine seeking in rodents. The present experiments were designed to determine the effects of galantamine administration on nicotine taking and reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior, an animal model of relapse. Moreover, the effects of galantamine on sucrose-maintained responding and sucrose seeking were also examined to determine whether galantamine's effects generalized to other reinforced behaviors. An inverted U-shaped dose-response curve was obtained when animals self-administered different unit doses of nicotine with the highest responding for 0.03 mg/kg per infusion of nicotine. Acute galantamine administration (5.0 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated nicotine self-administration when animals were maintained on either a fixed-ratio 5 (FR5) or progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. Galantamine administration also attenuated the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior. No significant effects of galantamine on sucrose self-administration or sucrose reinstatement were noted. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors have also been shown to produce nausea and vomiting in humans. However, at doses required to attenuate nicotine self-administration, no effects of galantamine on nausea/malaise as measured by pica were noted. These results indicate that increased extracellular acetylcholine levels and/or nicotinic acetylcholine receptor stimulation is sufficient to attenuate

  13. Allosteric Modulation of protein oligomerization: an emerging approach to drug design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabizon, Ronen; Friedler, Assaf

    2014-03-01

    Many disease-related proteins are in equilibrium between different oligomeric forms. The regulation of this equilibrium plays a central role in maintaining the activity of these proteins in vitro and in vivo. Modulation of the oligomerization equilibrium of proteins by molecules that bind preferentially to a specific oligomeric state is emerging as a potential therapeutic strategy that can be applied to many biological systems such as cancer and viral infections. The target proteins for such compounds are diverse in structure and sequence, and may require different approaches for shifting their oligomerization equilibrium. The discovery of such oligomerization-modulating compounds is thus achieved based on existing structural knowledge about the specific target proteins, as well as on their interactions with partner proteins or with ligands. In silico design and combinatorial tools such as peptide arrays and phage display are also used for discovering compounds that modulate protein oligomerization. The current review highlights some of the recent developments in the design of compounds aimed at modulating the oligomerization equilibrium of proteins, including the "shiftides" approach developed in our lab.

  14. Potentiating mGluR5 Function with a Positive Allosteric Modulator Enhances Adaptive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jian; Zhu, Yongling; Kraniotis, Stephen; He, Qionger; Marshall, John J.; Nomura, Toshihiro; Stauffer, Shaun R.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Contractor, Anis

    2013-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) plays important roles in modulating neural activity and plasticity and has been associated with several neuropathological disorders. Previous work has shown that genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of mGluR5 disrupts fear extinction and spatial reversal learning, suggesting that mGluR5…

  15. Development of a high throughput screen for allosteric modulators of melanocortin-4 receptor signaling using a real time cAMP assay

    PubMed Central

    Pantel, Jacques; Williams, Savannah Y.; Mi, Dehui; Sebag, Julien; Corbin, Jackie D.; Weaver, C. David; Cone, Roger D.

    2011-01-01

    The melanocortin MC4 receptor is a potential target for the development of drugs for both obesity and cachexia. Melanocortin MC4 receptor ligands known thus far are orthosteric agonists or antagonists, however the agonists, in particular, have generally exhibited unwanted side effects. For some receptors, allosteric modulators are expected to reduce side-effect profiles. To identify allosteric modulators of the melanocortin MC4 receptor, we created HEK293 cell lines coexpressing the human melanocortin MC4 receptor and a modified luciferase-based cAMP sensor. Monitoring luminescence as a readout of real-time intracellular cAMP concentration, we demonstrate this cell line is able to report melanocortin agonist responses, as well as inverse agonist response to the physiological AgRP peptide. Based on the MC4R-GLO cell line, we developed an assay that was shown to meet HTS standards (Z’=0.50). A pilot screen run on the Microsource Spectrum compound library (n= 2,000) successfully identified 62 positive modulators. This screen identified predicted families of compounds: β2AR agonists –the β2AR being endogenously expressed in HEK293 cells-, an adenylyl cyclase activator and finally a distribution of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors well characterized or recently identified. In this last category, we identified a structural family of coumarin-derived compounds (imperatorin, osthol and prenyletin), along with deracoxib, a drug in veterinary use for its COX2 inhibitory properties. This latter finding unveiled a new off-target mechanism of action for deracoxib as a PDE inhibitor. Overall, these data are the first report of an HTS for allosteric modulators for a Gs protein coupled receptor. PMID:21296065

  16. The cognition-enhancing activity of E1R, a novel positive allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zvejniece, L; Vavers, E; Svalbe, B; Vilskersts, R; Domracheva, I; Vorona, M; Veinberg, G; Misane, I; Stonans, I; Kalvinsh, I; Dambrova, M

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Here, we describe the in vitro and in vivo effects of (4R,5S)-2-(5-methyl-2-oxo-4-phenyl-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-acetamide (E1R), a novel positive allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptors. Experimental Approach E1R was tested for sigma receptor binding activity in a [3H](+)-pentazocine assay, in bradykinin (BK)-induced intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) assays and in an electrically stimulated rat vas deferens model. E1R's effects on cognitive function were tested using passive avoidance (PA) and Y-maze tests in mice. A selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist (NE-100), was used to study the involvement of the sigma-1 receptor in the effects of E1R. The open-field test was used to detect the effects of E1R on locomotion. Key Results Pretreatment with E1R enhanced the selective sigma-1 receptor agonist PRE-084's stimulating effect during a model study employing electrically stimulated rat vasa deferentia and an assay measuring the BK-induced [Ca2+]i increase. Pretreatment with E1R facilitated PA retention in a dose-related manner. Furthermore, E1R alleviated the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment during the PA and Y-maze tests in mice. The in vivo and in vitro effects of E1R were blocked by treatment with the selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist NE-100. E1R did not affect locomotor activity. Conclusion and Implications E1R is a novel 4,5-disubstituted derivative of piracetam that enhances cognition and demonstrates efficacy against scopolamine-induced cholinergic dysfunction in mice. These effects are attributed to its positive modulatory action on the sigma-1 receptor and this activity may be relevant when developing new drugs for treating cognitive symptoms related to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24490863

  17. Conformational dynamics of the TTD–PHD histone reader module of the UHRF1 epigenetic regulator reveals multiple histone-binding states, allosteric regulation, and druggability

    PubMed Central

    Houliston, R. Scott; Lemak, Alexander; Iqbal, Aman; Ivanochko, Danton; Duan, Shili; Kaustov, Lilia; Ong, Michelle S.; Fan, Lixin; Senisterra, Guillermo; Brown, Peter J.; Wang, Yun-Xing; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.

    2017-01-01

    UHRF1 is a key mediator of inheritance of epigenetic DNA methylation patterns during cell division and is a putative target for cancer therapy. Recent studies indicate that interdomain interactions critically influence UHRF1's chromatin-binding properties, including allosteric regulation of its histone binding. Here, using an integrative approach that combines small angle X-ray scattering, NMR spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations, we characterized the dynamics of the tandem tudor domain–plant homeodomain (TTD–PHD) histone reader module, including its 20-residue interdomain linker. We found that the apo TTD–PHD module in solution comprises a dynamic ensemble of conformers, approximately half of which are compact conformations, with the linker lying in the TTD peptide–binding groove. These compact conformations are amenable to cooperative, high-affinity histone binding. In the remaining conformations, the linker position was in flux, and the reader adopted both extended and compact states. Using a small-molecule fragment screening approach, we identified a compound, 4-benzylpiperidine-1-carboximidamide, that binds to the TTD groove, competes with linker binding, and promotes open TTD–PHD conformations that are less efficient at H3K9me3 binding. Our work reveals a mechanism by which the dynamic TTD–PHD module can be allosterically targeted with small molecules to modulate its histone reader function for therapeutic or experimental purposes. PMID:29074623

  18. Arsenic toxicity in the water weed Wolffia arrhiza measured using Pulse Amplitude Modulation Fluorometry (PAM) measurements of photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Raymond J; Mekjinda, Nutsara

    2016-10-01

    Accumulation of arsenic in plants is a serious South-east Asian environmental problem. Photosynthesis in the small aquatic angiosperm Wolffia arrhiza is very sensitive to arsenic toxicity, particularly in water below pH 7 where arsenite (As (OH)3) (AsIII) is the dominant form; at pH >7 AsO4(2-) (As(V) predominates). A blue-diode PAM (Pulse Amplitude Fluorometer) machine was used to monitor photosynthesis in Wolffia. Maximum gross photosynthesis (Pgmax) and not maximum yield (Ymax) is the most reliable indicator of arsenic toxicity. The toxicity of arsenite As(III) and arsenate (H2AsO4(2-)) As(V) vary with pH. As(V) was less toxic than As(III) at both pH 5 and pH 8 but both forms of arsenic were toxic (>90% inhibition) at below 0.1molm(-3) when incubated in arsenic for 24h. Arsenite toxicity was apparent after 1h based on Pgmax and gradually increased over 7h but there was no apparent effect on Ymax or photosynthetic efficiency (α0). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The mGluR2 Positive Allosteric Modulator, AZD8529, and Cue-Induced Relapse to Alcohol Seeking in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Augier, Eric; Dulman, Russell S; Rauffenbart, Caroline; Augier, Gaëlle; Cross, Alan J; Heilig, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2 and mGluR3) may control relapse of alcohol seeking, but previously available Group II agonists were unable to discriminate between mGluR2 and mGluR3. Here we use AZD8529, a novel positive allosteric mGluR2 modulator, to determine the role of this receptor for alcohol-related behaviors in rats. We assessed the effects of AZD8529 (20 and 40 mg/kg s.c.) on male Wistar rats trained to self-administer 20% alcohol and determined the effects of AZD8529 on self-administration, as well as stress-induced and cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. The on-target nature of findings was evaluated in Indiana P-rats, a line recently shown to carry a mutation that disrupts the gene encoding mGluR2. The behavioral specificity of AZD8529 was assessed using self-administration of 0.2% saccharin and locomotor activity tests. AZD8529 marginally decreased alcohol self-administration at doses that neither affected 0.2% saccharin self-administration nor locomotor activity. More importantly, cue- but not stress-induced alcohol seeking was blocked by the mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator. This effect of AZD8529 was completely absent in P rats lacking functional mGluR2s, demonstrating the receptor specificity of this effect. Our findings provide evidence for a causal role of mGluR2 in cue-induced relapse to alcohol seeking. They contribute support for the notion that positive allosteric modulators of mGluR2 block relapse-like behavior across different drug categories. PMID:27339394

  20. Impact of species variability and ‘probe-dependence’ on the detection and in vivo validation of allosteric modulation at the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Suratman, S; Leach, K; Sexton, PM; Felder, CC; Loiacono, RE; Christopoulos, A

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We recently characterized LY2033298 as a novel allosteric modulator and agonist at M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Evidence also suggested a difference in the potency of LY2033298 at rodent relative to human M4 mAChRs. The current study investigated the basis for the species difference of this modulator and used this knowledge to rationalize its in vivo actions. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH LY2033298 was investigated in vitro in CHO cells stably expressing human or mouse M4 mAChRs, using assays of agonist-induced ERK1/2 or GSK-3α phosphorylation, [35S]-GTPγS binding, or effects on equilibrium binding of [3H]-NMS and ACh. The in vivo actions of LY2033298 were investigated in a mouse model of amphetamine-induced locomotor activity. The function of LY2033298 was examined in combination with ACh, oxotremorine or xanomeline. KEY RESULTS LY2033298 had similar affinities for the human and mouse M4 mAChRs. However, LY2033298 had a lower positive co-operativity with ACh at the mouse relative to the human M4 mAChR. At the mouse M4 mAChR, LY2033298 showed higher co-operativity with oxotremorine than with ACh or xanomeline. The different degrees of co-operativity between LY2033298 and each agonist at the mouse relative to the human M4 mAChR necessitated the co-administration of LY2033298 with oxotremorine in order to show in vivo efficacy of LY2033298. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results provide evidence for species variability when comparing the allosteric interaction between LY2033298 and ACh at the M4 mAChR, and also highlight how the interaction between LY2033298 and different orthosteric ligands is subject to ‘probe dependence’. This has implications for the validation of allosteric modulator actions in vivo. PMID:21198541

  1. Allosteric activation of M4 muscarinic receptors improve behavioral and physiological alterations in early symptomatic YAC128 mice

    PubMed Central

    Pancani, Tristano; Foster, Daniel J.; Moehle, Mark S.; Bichell, Terry Jo; Bradley, Emma; Bridges, Thomas M.; Klar, Rebecca; Poslusney, Mike; Rook, Jerri M.; Daniels, J. Scott; Niswender, Colleen M.; Jones, Carrie K.; Wood, Michael R.; Bowman, Aaron B.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Xiang, Zixiu; Conn, P. Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Mutations that lead to Huntington’s disease (HD) result in increased transmission at glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses at early presymptomatic stages that have been postulated to set the stage for pathological changes and symptoms that are observed at later ages. Based on this, pharmacological interventions that reverse excessive corticostriatal transmission may provide a novel approach for reducing early physiological changes and motor symptoms observed in HD. We report that activation of the M4 subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor reduces transmission at corticostriatal synapses and that this effect is dramatically enhanced in presymptomatic YAC128 HD and BACHD relative to wild-type mice. Furthermore, chronic administration of a novel highly selective M4 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) beginning at presymptomatic ages improves motor and synaptic deficits in 5-mo-old YAC128 mice. These data raise the exciting possibility that selective M4 PAMs could provide a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of HD. PMID:26508634

  2. Amyloid-β peptides act as allosteric modulators of cholinergic signalling through formation of soluble BAβACs

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajnish; Nordberg, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    that amyloid-β interacts readily in an apolipoprotein-facilitated manner with butyrylcholinesterase, forming highly stable and soluble complexes, BAβACs, which can be separated in their native states by sucrose density gradient technique. Enzymological analyses further evinced that amyloid-β concentration dependently increased the acetylcholine-hydrolyzing capacity of cholinesterases. In silico biomolecular analysis further deciphered the allosteric amino acid fingerprint of the amyloid-β-cholinesterase molecular interaction in formation of BAβACs. In the case of butyrylcholinesterase, the results indicated that amyloid-β interacts with a putative activation site at the mouth of its catalytic tunnel, most likely leading to increased acetylcholine influx into the catalytic site, and thereby increasing the intrinsic catalytic rate of butyrylcholinesterase. In conclusion, at least one of the native physiological functions of amyloid-β is allosteric modulation of the intrinsic catalytic efficiency of cholinesterases, and thereby regulation of synaptic and extrasynaptic cholinergic signalling. High apolipoprotein-E may pathologically alter the biodynamics of this amyloid-β function. PMID:26525916

  3. Profiling of FSHR negative allosteric modulators on LH/CGR reveals biased antagonism with implications in steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Mohammed Akli; Yvinec, Romain; Jégot, Gwenhaël; Dias, James A; Poli, Sonia-Maria; Poupon, Anne; Crépieux, Pascale; Reiter, Eric

    2016-11-15

    Biased signaling has recently emerged as an interesting means to modulate the function of many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Previous studies reported two negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), ADX68692 and ADX68693, with differential effects on FSHR-mediated steroidogenesis and ovulation. In this study, we attempted to pharmacologically profile these NAMs on the closely related luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin hormone receptor (LH/CGR) with regards to its canonical Gs/cAMP pathway as well as to β-arrestin recruitment in HEK293 cells. The NAMs' effects on cAMP, progesterone and testosterone production were also assessed in murine Leydig tumor cell line (mLTC-1) as well as rat primary Leydig cells. We found that both NAMs strongly antagonized LH/CGR signaling in the different cell models used with ADX68693 being more potent than ADX68692 to inhibit hCG-induced cAMP production in HEK293, mLTC-1 and rat primary Leydig cells as well as β-arrestin 2 recruitment in HEK293 cells. Interestingly, differential antagonism of the two NAMs on hCG-promoted steroidogenesis in mLTC-1 and rat primary Leydig cells was observed. Indeed, a significant inhibition of testosterone production by the two NAMs was observed in both cell types, whereas progesterone production was only inhibited by ADX68693 in rat primary Leydig cells. In addition, while ADX68693 totally abolished testosterone production, ADX68692 had only a partial effect in both mLTC-1 and rat primary Leydig cells. These observations suggest biased effects of the two NAMs on LH/CGR-dependent pathways controlling steroidogenesis. Interestingly, the pharmacological profiles of the two NAMs with respect to steroidogenesis were found to differ from that previously shown on FSHR. This illustrates the complexity of signaling pathways controlling FSHR- and LH/CGR-mediated steroidogenesis, suggesting differential implication of cAMP and β-arrestins mediated by

  4. Identification of Positive Allosteric Modulators VU0155094 (ML397) and VU0422288 (ML396) Reveals New Insights into the Biology of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 7

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (mGlu7) is a member of the group III mGlu receptors (mGlus), encompassed by mGlu4, mGlu6, mGlu7, and mGlu8. mGlu7 is highly expressed in the presynaptic active zones of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses, and activation of the receptor regulates the release of both glutamate and GABA. mGlu7 is thought to be a relevant therapeutic target for a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and polymorphisms in the GRM7 gene have been linked to autism, depression, ADHD, and schizophrenia. Here we report two new pan-group III mGlu positive allosteric modulators, VU0155094 and VU0422288, which show differential activity at the various group III mGlus. Additionally, both compounds show probe dependence when assessed in the presence of distinct orthosteric agonists. By pairing studies of these nonselective compounds with a synapse in the hippocampus that expresses only mGlu7, we have validated activity of these compounds in a native tissue setting. These studies provide proof-of-concept evidence that mGlu7 activity can be modulated by positive allosteric modulation, paving the way for future therapeutics development. PMID:25225882

  5. Identification of positive allosteric modulators VU0155094 (ML397) and VU0422288 (ML396) reveals new insights into the biology of metabotropic glutamate receptor 7.

    PubMed

    Jalan-Sakrikar, Nidhi; Field, Julie R; Klar, Rebecca; Mattmann, Margrith E; Gregory, Karen J; Zamorano, Rocio; Engers, Darren W; Bollinger, Sean R; Weaver, C David; Days, Emily L; Lewis, L Michelle; Utley, Thomas J; Hurtado, Miguel; Rigault, Delphine; Acher, Francine; Walker, Adam G; Melancon, Bruce J; Wood, Michael R; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P Jeffrey; Xiang, Zixiu; Hopkins, Corey R; Niswender, Colleen M

    2014-12-17

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (mGlu7) is a member of the group III mGlu receptors (mGlus), encompassed by mGlu4, mGlu6, mGlu7, and mGlu8. mGlu7 is highly expressed in the presynaptic active zones of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses, and activation of the receptor regulates the release of both glutamate and GABA. mGlu7 is thought to be a relevant therapeutic target for a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and polymorphisms in the GRM7 gene have been linked to autism, depression, ADHD, and schizophrenia. Here we report two new pan-group III mGlu positive allosteric modulators, VU0155094 and VU0422288, which show differential activity at the various group III mGlus. Additionally, both compounds show probe dependence when assessed in the presence of distinct orthosteric agonists. By pairing studies of these nonselective compounds with a synapse in the hippocampus that expresses only mGlu7, we have validated activity of these compounds in a native tissue setting. These studies provide proof-of-concept evidence that mGlu7 activity can be modulated by positive allosteric modulation, paving the way for future therapeutics development.

  6. Two distinct allosteric binding sites at α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors revealed by NS206 and NS9283 give unique insights to binding activity-associated linkage at Cys-loop receptors.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Jeppe A; Kastrup, Jette S; Peters, Dan; Gajhede, Michael; Balle, Thomas; Ahring, Philip K

    2013-12-13

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have the potential to improve cognitive function and alleviate pain. However, only a few selective PAMs of α4β2 receptors have been described limiting both pharmacological understanding and drug-discovery efforts. Here, we describe a novel selective PAM of α4β2 receptors, NS206, and compare with a previously reported PAM, NS9283. Using two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology in Xenopus laevis oocytes, NS206 was observed to positively modulate acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked currents at both known α4β2 stoichiometries (2α:3β and 3α:2β). In the presence of NS206, peak current amplitudes surpassed those of maximal efficacious ACh stimulations (Emax(ACh)) with no or limited effects at potencies and current waveforms (as inspected visually). This pharmacological action contrasted with that of NS9283, which only modulated the 3α:2β receptor and acted by left shifting the ACh concentration-response relationship. Interestingly, the two modulators can act simultaneously in an additive manner at 3α:2β receptors, which results in current levels exceeding Emax(ACh) and a left-shifted ACh concentration-response relationship. Through use of chimeric and point-mutated receptors, the binding site of NS206 was linked to the α4-subunit transmembrane domain, whereas binding of NS9283 was shown to be associated with the αα-interface in 3α:2β receptors. Collectively, these data demonstrate the existence of two distinct modulatory sites in α4β2 receptors with unique pharmacological attributes that can act additively. Several allosteric sites have been identified within the family of Cys-loop receptors and with the present data, a detailed picture of allosteric modulatory mechanisms of these important receptors is emerging.

  7. Nonclassical Pharmacology of the Dopamine Transporter: Atypical Inhibitors, Allosteric Modulators, and Partial Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Richard B.; Reith, Maarten E. A.

    2013-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a sodium-coupled symporter protein responsible for modulating the concentration of extraneuronal dopamine in the brain. The DAT is a principle target of various psychostimulant, nootropic, and antidepressant drugs, as well as certain drugs used recreationally, including the notoriously addictive stimulant cocaine. DAT ligands have traditionally been divided into two categories: cocaine-like inhibitors and amphetamine-like substrates. Whereas inhibitors block monoamine uptake by the DAT but are not translocated across the membrane, substrates are actively translocated and trigger DAT-mediated release of dopamine by reversal of the translocation cycle. Because both inhibitors and substrates increase extraneuronal dopamine levels, it is often assumed that all DAT ligands possess an addictive liability equivalent to that of cocaine. However, certain recently developed ligands, such as atypical benztropine-like DAT inhibitors with reduced or even a complete lack of cocaine-like rewarding effects, suggest that addictiveness is not a constant property of DAT-affecting compounds. These atypical ligands do not conform to the classic preconception that all DAT inhibitors (or substrates) are functionally and mechanistically alike. Instead, they suggest the possibility that the DAT exhibits some of the ligand-specific pleiotropic functional qualities inherent to G-protein–coupled receptors. That is, ligands with different chemical structures induce specific conformational changes in the transporter protein that can be differentially transduced by the cell, ultimately eliciting unique behavioral and psychological effects. The present overview discusses compounds with conformation-specific activity, useful not only as tools for studying the mechanics of dopamine transport, but also as leads for medication development in addictive disorders. PMID:23568856

  8. Allosteric modulation of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor: improving cognition and a potential treatment for schizophrenia and Alzheimer′s disease

    PubMed Central

    Melancon, Bruce J.; Tarr, James C.; Panarese, Joseph D.; Wood, Michael R.; Lindsley, Craig W.

    2013-01-01

    Allosteric modulation of AMPA, NR2B, mGlu2, mGlu5 and M1, targeting glutamatergic dysfunction, represents a significant area of research for the treatment of schizophrenia. Of these targets, clinical promise has been demonstrated using muscarinic activators for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and schizophrenia. These diseases have inspired researchers to determine the effects of modulating cholinergic transmission in the forebrain, which is primarily regulated by one of five subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Of these five subtypes, M1 is highly expressed in brain regions responsible for learning, cognition and memory. Xanomeline, an orthosteric muscarinic agonist with modest selectivity, was one of the first compounds that displayed improvements in behavioral disturbances in AD patients and efficacy in schizophrenics. Since these initial clinical results, many scientists, including those in our laboratories, have strived to elucidate the role of M1 with compounds that display improved selectivity for this receptor by targeting allosteric modes of receptor activation. A survey of selected compounds in this area will be presented. PMID:24051397

  9. The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) induces angiogenesis via allosteric modulation of the M3 muscarinic receptor in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Legeay, Samuel; Clere, Nicolas; Hilairet, Grégory; Do, Quoc-Tuan; Bernard, Philippe; Quignard, Jean-François; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique; Lapied, Bruno; Faure, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) has been reported to inhibit AChE (acetylcholinesterase) and to possess potential carcinogenic properties with excessive vascularization. In the present paper, we demonstrate that DEET specifically stimulates endothelial cells that promote angiogenesis which increases tumor growth. DEET activates cellular processes that lead to angiogenesis including proliferation, migration and adhesion. This is associated with an enhancement of NO production and VEGF expression in endothelial cells. M3 silencing or the use of a pharmacological M3 inhibitor abrogates all of these effects which reveals that DEET-induced angiogenesis is M3 sensitive. The experiments involving calcium signals in both endothelial and HEK cells overexpressing M3 receptors, as well as binding and docking studies demonstrate that DEET acts as an allosteric modulator of the M3 receptor. In addition, DEET inhibited AChE which increased acetylcholine bioavailability and binding to M3 receptors and also strengthened proangiogenic effects by an allosteric modulation. PMID:27345502

  10. Effects of nicotine in combination with drugs described as positive allosteric nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulators in vitro: discriminative stimulus and hypothermic effects in mice

    PubMed Central

    Moerke, Megan J.; de Moura, Fernando B.; Koek, Wouter; McMahon, Lance R.

    2016-01-01

    Some drugs that are positive allosteric nAChR modulators in vitro, desformylflustrabromine (dFBr), PNU-120596 and LY 2087101, have not been fully characterized in vivo. These drugs were examined for their capacity to share or modify the hypothermic and discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine (1 mg/kg s.c.) in male C57Bl/6J mice. Nicotine, dFBr, and PNU-120596 produced significant hypothermia, whereas LY 2087101 (up to 100 mg/kg) did not. Nicotine dose-dependently increased nicotine-appropriate responding and decreased response rate; the respective ED50 values were 0.56 mg/kg and 0.91 mg/kg. The modulators produced no more than 38% nicotine-appropriate responding up to doses that disrupted operant responding. Rank order potency was the same for hypothermia and rate-decreasing effects: nicotine>dFBr>PNU-120596=LY 2087101. Mecamylamine and the α4β2 nAChR antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine, but not the α7 antagonist methyllycaconitine, antagonized the hypothermic effects of nicotine. In contrast, mecamylamine did not antagonize the hypothermic effects of the modulators. The combined discriminative stimulus effects of DFBr and nicotine were synergistic, whereas the combined hypothermic effects of nicotine with either dFBr or PNU-120596 were infra-additive. PNU-120596 did not modify the nicotine discriminative stimulus, and LY 2087101 did not significantly modify either effect of nicotine. Positive modulation of nicotine at nAChRs by PNU-120596 and LY 2087101 in vitro does not appear to confer enhancement of the nAChR-mediated hypothermic or discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine. However, dFBr appears to be a positive allosteric modulator of some behavioral effects of nicotine at doses of dFBr smaller than the doses producing unwanted effects (e.g. hypothermia) through non-nAChR mechanisms. PMID:27238974

  11. New effects of GABAB receptor allosteric modulator rac-BHFF on ambient GABA, uptake/release, Em and synaptic vesicle acidification in nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Pozdnyakova, N; Dudarenko, M; Borisova, T

    2015-09-24

    Positive allosteric modulators of GABAB receptors have great therapeutic potential for medications of anxiety, depression, etc. The effects of recently discovered modulator rac-BHFF on the key characteristics of GABAergic neurotransmission were investigated in cortical and hippocampal presynaptic nerve terminals of rats (synaptosomes). The ambient level of [(3)H]GABA that is a balance between release and uptake of the neurotransmitter increased significantly in the presence of rac-BHFF (at concentrations 10-30μM). The initial velocity of synaptosomal [(3)H]GABA uptake was suppressed by the modulator. In the presence of GABA transporter blocker NO-711, it was shown that rac-BHFF increased tonic release of [(3)H]GABA from synaptosomes (at concentrations 3-30μM). Rac-BHFF within the concentration range of 0.3-30μM did not enhance inhibiting effect of (±)-baclofen on depolarization-induced exocytotic release of [(3)H]GABA. Rac-BHFF (0.3-30μM) caused dose-dependent depolarization of the plasma membrane and dissipation of the proton gradient of synaptic vesicles in synaptosomes that was shown in the absence/presence of GABAB receptor antagonist saclofen using fluorescent dyes rhodamine 6G and acridine orange, respectively, and so, the above effects of rac-BHFF were not associated with the modulation of presynaptic GABAB receptors. Therefore, drug development strategy of positive allosteric modulation of GABAB receptors is to eliminate the above side effects of rac-BHFF in presynapse, and vice versa, these new properties of rac-BHFF may be exploited appropriately. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Optical filter requirements in an EML-based single-sideband PAM4 intensity-modulation and direct-detection transmission system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsing-Yu; Kaneda, Noriaki; Lee, Jeffrey; Chen, Jyehong; Chen, Young-Kai

    2017-03-20

    The feasibility of a single sideband (SSB) PAM4 intensity-modulation and direct-detection (IM/DD) transmission based on a CMOS ADC and DAC is experimentally demonstrated in this work. To cost effectively build a >50 Gb/s system as well as to extend the transmission distance, a low cost EML and a passive optical filter are utilized to generate the SSB signal. However, the EML-induced chirp and dispersion-induced power fading limit the requirements of the SSB filter. To separate the effect of signal-signal beating interference, filters with different roll-off factors are employed to demonstrate the performance tolerance at different transmission distance. Moreover, a high resolution spectrum analysis is proposed to depict the system limitation. Experimental results show that a minimum roll-off factor of 7 dB/10GHz is required to achieve a 51.84Gb/s 40-km transmission with only linear feed-forward equalization.

  13. Augmenting the spectral efficiency of enhanced PAM-DMT-based optical wireless communications.

    PubMed

    Islim, Mohamed Sufyan; Haas, Harald

    2016-05-30

    The energy efficiency of pulse-amplitude-modulated discrete multitone modulation (PAM-DMT) decreases as the modulation order of M-PAM modulation increases. Enhanced PAM-DMT (ePAM-DMT) was proposed as a solution to the reduced energy efficiency of PAM-DMT. This was achieved by allowing multiple streams of PAM-DMT to be superimposed and successively demodulated at the receiver side. In order to maintain a distortion-free unipolar ePAM-DMT system, the multiple time-domain PAM-DMT streams are required to be aligned. However, aligning the antisymmetry in ePAM-DMT is complex and results in efficiency losses. In this paper, a novel simplified method to apply the superposition modulation on M-PAM modulated discrete multitone (DMT) is introduced. Contrary to ePAM-DMT, the signal generation of the proposed system, termed augmented spectral efficiency discrete multitone (ASE-DMT), occurs in the frequency domain. This results in an improved spectral and energy efficiency. The analytical bit error rate (BER) performance bound of the proposed system is derived and compared with Monte-Carlo simulations. The system performance is shown to offer significant electrical and optical energy savings compared with ePAM-DMT and DC-biased optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DCO-OFDM).

  14. The N-terminal Capping Propensities of the D-helix Modulate the Allosteric Activation of the Escherichia coli cAMP Receptor Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shaoning; Maillard, Rodrigo A.; Gribenko, Alexey V.; Lee, J. Ching

    2012-01-01

    Transduction of biological signals at the molecular level involves the activation and/or inhibition of allosteric proteins. In the transcription factor cAMP receptor protein (CRP) from Escherichia coli, the allosteric activation, or apo-holo transition, involves rigid body motions of domains and structural rearrangements within the hinge region connecting the cAMP- and DNA-binding domains. During this apo-holo transition, residue 138 is converted as part of the elongated D-helix to the position of the N-terminal capping residue of a shorter D-helix. The goal of the current study is to elucidate the role of residue 138 in modulating the allostery between cAMP and DNA binding. By systematically mutating residue 138, we found that mutants with higher N-terminal capping propensities lead to increased cooperativity of cAMP binding and a concomitant increase in affinity for lac-DNA. Furthermore, mutants with higher N-terminal capping propensity correlate with properties characteristic of holo-CRP, particularly, increase in protein structural dynamics. Overall, our results provide a quantitative characterization of the role of residue 138 in the isomerization equilibrium between the apo and holo forms of CRP, and in turn the thermodynamic underpin to the molecular model of allostery revealed by the high resolution structural studies. PMID:23035121

  15. Comparison of the effect of the GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, and the positive allosteric modulator of the GABAB receptor, GS39783, on alcohol self-administration in three different lines of alcohol-preferring rats

    PubMed Central

    Maccioni, Paola; Zaru, Alessandro; Loi, Barbara; Lobina, Carla; Carai, Mauro A.M.; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Capra, Alessandro; Mugnaini, Claudia; Pasquini, Serena; Corelli, Federico; Hyytiä, Petri; Lumeng, Lawrence; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2012-01-01

    Background Administration of the GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, and positive allosteric modulator (PAM), GS39783, has been repeatedly reported to suppress multiple alcohol-related behaviors, including operant oral alcohol self-administration, in rats. The present study was designed to compare the effect of baclofen and GS39783 on alcohol self-administration in three lines of selectively bred, alcohol-preferring rats: Indiana alcohol-preferring (P), Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP), and Alko Alcohol (AA). Methods Rats of each line were initially trained to respond on a lever, on a fixed ratio (FR) 4 (FR4) schedule of reinforcement, to orally self-administer alcohol (15%, v/v) in daily 30-min sessions. Once responding reached stable levels, rats were exposed to a sequence of experiments testing baclofen (0, 1, 1.7, and 3 mg/kg; i.p.) and GS39783 (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg; i.g.) on FR4 and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. Finally, to assess the specificity of baclofen and GS39783 action, rats were slightly food-deprived and trained to lever-respond for food pellets. Results The rank of order of the reinforcing and motivational properties of alcohol was: P>sP>AA rats. Under both FR and PR schedules of reinforcement, the rank of order of potency and efficacy of baclofen and GS39783 in suppressing alcohol self-administration was: P>sP>AA rats. Only the highest dose of baclofen reduced lever-responding for food pellets; this effect was common to all three rat lines. Conversely, no dose of GS39783 altered lever-responding for food in any rat line. Conclusions These results suggest that: (a) the strength of the reinforcing and motivational properties of alcohol differ among P, sP, and AA rats; (b) the reinforcing and motivational properties of alcohol in P, sP, and AA rats are differentially sensitive to treatment with baclofen and GS39783; (c) the heterogeneity in sensitivity to baclofen and GS39783 of alcohol self-administration in P, sP, and AA rats

  16. Negative allosteric modulation of alpha 5-containing GABAAreceptors engenders antidepressant-like effects and selectively prevents age-associated hyperactivity in tau-depositing mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Nina Z; Ernst, Margot; Treven, Marco; Cerne, Rok; Wakulchik, Mark; Li, Xia; Jones, Timothy M; Gleason, Scott D; Morrow, Denise; Schkeryantz, Jeffrey M; Rahman, Md Toufiqur; Li, Guanguan; Poe, Michael M; Cook, James M; Witkin, Jeffrey M

    2018-04-01

    Associated with frank neuropathology, patients with Alzheimer's disease suffer from a host of neuropsychiatric symptoms that include depression, apathy, agitation, and aggression. Negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of α5-containing GABA A receptors have been suggested to be a novel target for antidepressant action. We hypothesized that pharmacological modulation of this target would engender increased motivation in stressful environments. We utilized electrophysiological recordings from Xenopus oocytes and behavioral measures in mice to address this hypothesis. In the forced-swim assay in mice that detects antidepressant drugs, the α5β3γ2 GABA Α receptor NAM, RY-080 produced a marked antidepressant phenotype. Another compound, PWZ-029, was characterized as an α5β3γ2 receptor NAM of lower intrinsic efficacy in electrophysiological studies in Xenopus oocytes. In contrast to RY-080, PWZ-029 was only moderately active in the forced-swim assay and the α5β3γ2 receptor antagonist, Xli-093, was not active at all. The effects of RY-080 were prevented by the non-selective benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil as well as by the selective ligands, PWZ-029 and Xli-093. These findings demonstrate that this effect of RY-080 is driven by negative allosteric modulation of α5βγ2 GABA A receptors. RY-080 was not active in the tail-suspension test. We also demonstrated a reduction in the age-dependent hyperactivity exhibited by transgenic mice that accumulate pathological tau (rTg4510 mice) by RY-080. The decrease in hyperactivity by RY-080 was selective for the hyperactivity of the rTg4510 mice since the locomotion of control strains of mice were not significantly affected by RY-080. α5βγ2 GABA A receptor NAMs might function as a pharmacological treatment for mood, amotivational syndromes, and psychomotor agitation in patients with Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative disorders.

  17. The future of type 1 cannabinoid receptor allosteric ligands.

    PubMed

    Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Laprairie, Robert B

    2018-02-01

    Allosteric modulation of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) holds great therapeutic potential. This is because allosteric modulators do not possess intrinsic efficacy, but instead augment (positive allosteric modulation) or diminish (negative allosteric modulation) the receptor's response to endogenous ligand. Consequently, CB1R allosteric modulators have an effect ceiling which allows for the tempering of CB1R signaling without the desensitization, tolerance, dependence, and psychoactivity associated with orthosteric compounds. Pain, movement disorders, epilepsy, obesity are all potential therapeutic targets for CB1R allosteric modulation. Several challenges exist for the development of CB1R allosteric modulators, such as receptor subtype specificity, translation to in vivo systems, and mixed allosteric/agonist/inverse agonist activity. Despite these challenges, elucidation of crystal structures of CB1R and compound design based on structure-activity relationships will advance the field. In this review, we will cover recent progress for CB1R allosteric modulators and discuss the future promise of this research.

  18. Behavioral effects of the benzodiazepine-positive allosteric modulator SH-053-2'F-S-CH₃ in an immune-mediated neurodevelopmental disruption model.

    PubMed

    Richetto, Juliet; Labouesse, Marie A; Poe, Michael M; Cook, James M; Grace, Anthony A; Riva, Marco A; Meyer, Urs

    2015-01-30

    Impaired γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling may contribute to the emergence of cognitive deficits and subcortical dopaminergic hyperactivity in patients with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. Against this background, it has been proposed that pharmacological interventions targeting GABAergic dysfunctions may prove useful in correcting such cognitive impairments and dopaminergic imbalances. Here, we explored possible beneficial effects of the benzodiazepine-positive allosteric modulator SH-053-2'F-S-CH₃, with partial selectivity at the α2, α3, and α5 subunits of the GABAA receptor in an immune-mediated neurodevelopmental disruption model. The model is based on prenatal administration of the viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid [poly(I:C)] in mice, which is known to capture various GABAergic, dopamine-related, and cognitive abnormalities implicated in schizophrenia and related disorders. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses confirmed the expected alterations in GABAA receptor α subunit gene expression in the medial prefrontal cortices and ventral hippocampi of adult poly(I:C) offspring relative to control offspring. Systemic administration of SH-053-2'F-S-CH₃ failed to normalize the poly(I:C)-induced deficits in working memory and social interaction, but instead impaired performance in these cognitive and behavioral domains both in control and poly(I:C) offspring. In contrast, SH-053-2'F-S-CH₃ was highly effective in mitigating the poly(I:C)-induced amphetamine hypersensitivity phenotype without causing side effects in control offspring. Our preclinical data suggest that benzodiazepine-like positive allosteric modulators with activity at the α2, α3, and α5 subunits of the GABAA receptor may be particularly useful in correcting pathological overactivity of the dopaminergic system, but they may be ineffective in targeting multiple pathological domains that involve the co-existence of psychotic, social, and cognitive

  19. In vivo pharmacological interactions between a type II positive allosteric modulator of α7 nicotinic ACh receptors and nicotinic agonists in a murine tonic pain model.

    PubMed

    Freitas, K; Negus, S S; Carroll, F I; Damaj, M I

    2013-06-01

    The α7 nicotinic ACh receptor subtype is abundantly expressed in the CNS and in the periphery. Recent evidence suggests that α7 nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) subtypes, which can be activated by an endogenous cholinergic tone comprising ACh and the α7 agonist choline, play an important role in chronic pain and inflammation. In this study, we evaluated whether type II α7 positive allosteric modulator PNU-120596 induces antinociception on its own and in combination with choline in the formalin pain model. We assessed the effects of PNU-120596 and choline and the nature of their interactions in the formalin test using an isobolographic analysis. In addition, we evaluated the interaction of PNU-120596 with PHA-54613, an exogenous selective α7 nAChR agonist, in the formalin test. Finally, we assessed the interaction between PNU-120596 and nicotine using acute thermal pain, locomotor activity, body temperature and convulsing activity tests in mice. We found that PNU-120596 dose-dependently attenuated nociceptive behaviour in the formalin test after systemic administration in mice. In addition, mixtures of PNU-120596 and choline synergistically reduced formalin-induced pain. PNU-120596 enhanced the effects of nicotine and α7 agonist PHA-543613 in the same test. In contrast, PNU-120596 failed to enhance nicotine-induced convulsions, hypomotility and antinociception in acute pain models. Surprisingly, it enhanced nicotine-induced hypothermia via activation of α7 nAChRs. Our results demonstrate that type II α7 positive allosteric modulators produce antinociceptive effects in the formalin test through a synergistic interaction with the endogenous α7 agonist choline. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Behavioral Effects of the Benzodiazepine-Positive Allosteric Modulator SH-053-2’F-S-CH3 in an Immune-Mediated Neurodevelopmental Disruption Model

    PubMed Central

    Richetto, Juliet; Labouesse, Marie A.; Poe, Michael M.; Cook, James M.; Grace, Anthony A.; Riva, Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Impaired γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling may contribute to the emergence of cognitive deficits and subcortical dopaminergic hyperactivity in patients with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. Against this background, it has been proposed that pharmacological interventions targeting GABAergic dysfunctions may prove useful in correcting such cognitive impairments and dopaminergic imbalances. Methods: Here, we explored possible beneficial effects of the benzodiazepine-positive allosteric modulator SH-053-2’F-S-CH3, with partial selectivity at the α2, α3, and α5 subunits of the GABAA receptor in an immune-mediated neurodevelopmental disruption model. The model is based on prenatal administration of the viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid [poly(I:C)] in mice, which is known to capture various GABAergic, dopamine-related, and cognitive abnormalities implicated in schizophrenia and related disorders. Results: Real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses confirmed the expected alterations in GABAA receptor α subunit gene expression in the medial prefrontal cortices and ventral hippocampi of adult poly(I:C) offspring relative to control offspring. Systemic administration of SH-053-2’F-S-CH3 failed to normalize the poly(I:C)-induced deficits in working memory and social interaction, but instead impaired performance in these cognitive and behavioral domains both in control and poly(I:C) offspring. In contrast, SH-053-2’F-S-CH3 was highly effective in mitigating the poly(I:C)-induced amphetamine hypersensitivity phenotype without causing side effects in control offspring. Conclusions: Our preclinical data suggest that benzodiazepine-like positive allosteric modulators with activity at the α2, α3, and α5 subunits of the GABAA receptor may be particularly useful in correcting pathological overactivity of the dopaminergic system, but they may be ineffective in targeting multiple pathological domains that involve the co

  1. View of the deployed INSAT/PAM-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    View of the deployed Indian National Satellite (INSAT) attached to Payload Assist Module (PAM) D drifts above the earth's surface. A faint shadow of the open payload bay can be seen in the top left of the frame.

  2. Maximizing the effect of an α7 nicotinic receptor PAM in a mouse model of schizophrenia-like sensory inhibition deficits.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Karen E; Zheng, Lijun; Floyd, Kirsten L; Stitzel, Jerry A

    2015-06-22

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) for the α7 nicotinic receptor hold promise for the treatment of sensory inhibition deficits observed in schizophrenia patients. Studies of these compounds in the DBA/2 mouse, which models the schizophrenia-related deficit in sensory inhibition, have shown PAMs to be effective in improving the deficit. However, the first published clinical trial of a PAM for both sensory inhibition deficits and related cognitive difficulties failed, casting a shadow on this therapeutic approach. The present study used both DBA/2 mice, and C3H Chrna7 heterozygote mice to assess the ability of the α7 PAM, PNU-120596, to improve sensory inhibition. Both of these strains of mice have reduced hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor numbers and deficient sensory inhibition similar to schizophrenia patients. Low doses of PNU-120596 (1 or 3.33mg/kg) were effective in the DBA/2 mouse but not the C3H Chrna7 heterozygote mouse. Moderate doses of the selective α7 nicotinic receptor agonist, choline chloride (10 or 33mg/kg), were also ineffective in improving sensory inhibition in the C3H Chrna7 heterozygote mouse. However, combining the lowest doses of both PNU-120596 and choline chloride in this mouse model did improve sensory inhibition. We propose here that the difference in efficacy of PNU-120596 between the 2 mouse strains is driven by differences in hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor numbers, such that C3H Chrna7 heterozygote mice require additional direct stimulation of the α7 receptors. These data may have implications for further clinical testing of putative α7 nicotinic receptor PAMs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 3.375-Gb/s RGB-LED based WDM visible light communication system employing PAM-8 modulation with phase shifted Manchester coding.

    PubMed

    Chi, Nan; Zhang, Mengjie; Zhou, Yingjun; Zhao, Jiaqi

    2016-09-19

    Optical background noise and second-order nonlinear distortions are two main challenges faced by indoor high-speed VLC system. In this paper, a novel phase shifted Manchester (PS-Manchester) coding based on PAM-8 is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to mitigate these noise and distortions. With the aid of PS-Manchester coding and WDM, a total data rate of 3.375-Gb/s can be successfully achieved in the RGB-LED based VLC system. The BER is under 7% HD-FEC limit of 3.8x10-3 after 1-m indoor free space transmission. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest data rate ever achieved in PAM VLC systems.

  4. Allosteric Dynamic Control of Binding

    PubMed Central

    Sumbul, Fidan; Acuner-Ozbabacan, Saliha Ece; Haliloglu, Turkan

    2015-01-01

    Proteins have a highly dynamic nature and there is a complex interrelation between their structural dynamics and binding behavior. By assuming various conformational ensembles, they perform both local and global fluctuations to interact with other proteins in a dynamic infrastructure adapted to functional motion. Here, we show that there is a significant association between allosteric mutations, which lead to high-binding-affinity changes, and the hinge positions of global modes, as revealed by a large-scale statistical analysis of data in the Structural Kinetic and Energetic Database of Mutant Protein Interactions (SKEMPI). We further examined the mechanism of allosteric dynamics by conducting studies on human growth hormone (hGH) and pyrin domain (PYD), and the results show how mutations at the hinge regions could allosterically affect the binding-site dynamics or induce alternative binding modes by modifying the ensemble of accessible conformations. The long-range dissemination of perturbations in local chemistry or physical interactions through an impact on global dynamics can restore the allosteric dynamics. Our findings suggest a mechanism for the coupling of structural dynamics to the modulation of protein interactions, which remains a critical phenomenon in understanding the effect of mutations that lead to functional changes in proteins. PMID:26338442

  5. Artificial proteins as allosteric modulators of PDZ3 and SH3 in two-domain constructs: A computational characterization of novel chimeric proteins.

    PubMed

    Kirubakaran, Palani; Pfeiferová, Lucie; Boušová, Kristýna; Bednarova, Lucie; Obšilová, Veronika; Vondrášek, Jiří

    2016-10-01

    Artificial multidomain proteins with enhanced structural and functional properties can be utilized in a broad spectrum of applications. The design of chimeric fusion proteins utilizing protein domains or one-domain miniproteins as building blocks is an important advancement for the creation of new biomolecules for biotechnology and medical applications. However, computational studies to describe in detail the dynamics and geometry properties of two-domain constructs made from structurally and functionally different proteins are lacking. Here, we tested an in silico design strategy using all-atom explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations. The well-characterized PDZ3 and SH3 domains of human zonula occludens (ZO-1) (3TSZ), along with 5 artificial domains and 2 types of molecular linkers, were selected to construct chimeric two-domain molecules. The influence of the artificial domains on the structure and dynamics of the PDZ3 and SH3 domains was determined using a range of analyses. We conclude that the artificial domains can function as allosteric modulators of the PDZ3 and SH3 domains. Proteins 2016; 84:1358-1374. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Separate and combined effects of the GABAA positive allosteric modulator diazepam and Δ⁹-THC in humans discriminating Δ⁹-THC.

    PubMed

    Lile, Joshua A; Kelly, Thomas H; Hays, Lon R

    2014-10-01

    Our previous research suggested the involvement of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), in particular the GABAB receptor subtype, in the interoceptive effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC). The aim of the present study was to determine the potential involvement of the GABAA receptor subtype by assessing the separate and combined effects of the GABAA positive allosteric modulator diazepam and Δ(9)-THC using pharmacologically selective drug-discrimination procedures. Ten cannabis users learned to discriminate 30 mg oral Δ(9)-THC from placebo and then received diazepam (5 and 10mg), Δ(9)-THC (5, 15 and 30 mg) and placebo, alone and in combination. Self-report, task performance and physiological measures were also collected. Δ(9)-THC functioned as a discriminative stimulus, produced subjective effects typically associated with cannabinoids (e.g., High, Stoned, Like Drug) and elevated heart rate. Diazepam alone impaired performance on psychomotor performance tasks and increased ratings on a limited number of self-report questionnaire items (e.g., Any Effect, Sedated), but did not substitute for the Δ(9)-THC discriminative stimulus or alter the Δ(9)-THC discrimination dose-response function. Similarly, diazepam had limited impact on the other behavioral effects of Δ(9)-THC. These results suggest that the GABAA receptor subtype has minimal involvement in the interoceptive effects of Δ(9)-THC, and by extension cannabis, in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Orexin A/Hypocretin Modulates Leptin Receptor-Mediated Signaling by Allosteric Modulations Mediated by the Ghrelin GHS-R1A Receptor in Hypothalamic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Medrano, Mireia; Aguinaga, David; Reyes-Resina, Irene; Canela, Enric I; Mallol, Josefa; Navarro, Gemma; Franco, Rafael

    2017-07-17

    The hypothalamus is a key integrator of nutrient-seeking signals in the form of hormones and metabolites originated in both the central nervous system and the periphery. The main autocrine and paracrine target of orexinergic-related hormones such as leptin, orexin/hypocretin, and ghrelin are neuropeptide Y neurons located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and the molecular and functional relationships between leptin, orexin/hypocretin and ghrelin receptors. Biophysical studies in a heterologous system showed physical interactions between them, with potential formation of heterotrimeric complexes. Functional assays showed robust allosteric interactions particularly different when the three receptors are expressed together. Further biochemical and pharmacological assays provided evidence of heterotrimer functional expression in primary cultures of hypothalamic neurons. These findings constitute evidence of close relationships in the action of the three hormones already starting at the receptor level in hypothalamic cells.

  8. Deficits in the extinction of ethanol-seeking behavior following chronic intermittent ethanol exposure are attenuated with positive allosteric modulation of mGlu5.

    PubMed

    Gass, J T; McGonigal, J T; Chandler, L J

    2017-02-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by periods of heavy alcohol consumption and unsuccessful attempts at abstinence. Relapse is one of the most problematic aspects in the treatment of alcoholism and is triggered by ethanol-associated cues. Extinction-based cue exposure therapies have proven ineffective in the treatment of alcoholism. However, positive allosteric modulation of mGlu5 with CDPPB enhances the extinction learning of alcohol-seeking behavior. The current study investigated the impact of chronic alcohol exposure on the extinction of ethanol-seeking behavior. Adult Wistar rats were trained to self-administer alcohol with a light/tone stimulus serving as the alcohol cue. After training, one group of rats was exposed to chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) daily for a period of 2 weeks to induce ethanol dependence. Control rats were exposed to air for the same period of time. Both groups were then retrained to self-administer ethanol and subsequently tested for changes in extinction learning. CIE exposed rats consumed more ethanol compared to their pre-CIE levels and to control rats. During extinction training, CIE rats responded significantly more on the previously active lever and required more sessions to reach extinction criteria compared to control rats. Treatment with CDPPB facilitated extinction in control rats and attenuated the increased resistance to extinction in CIE-exposed rats. These results demonstrate that chronic ethanol exposure not only alters ethanol intake, but also the extinction of ethanol-seeking behaviors. The ability to attenuate deficits through modulation of mGlu5 provides a potential target for pharmacological manipulation that could ultimately reduce relapse in alcoholics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Deficits in the Extinction of Ethanol-Seeking Behavior following Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure are Attenuated with Positive Allosteric Modulation of mGlu5

    PubMed Central

    Gass, J. T.; McGonigal, J.T.; Chandler, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by periods of heavy alcohol consumption and unsuccessful attempts at abstinence. Relapse is one of the most problematic aspects in the treatment of alcoholism and is triggered by ethanol-associated cues. Extinction-based cue exposure therapies have proven ineffective in the treatment of alcoholism. However, positive allosteric modulation of mGlu5 with CDPPB enhances the extinction learning of alcohol-seeking behavior. The current study investigated the impact of chronic alcohol exposure on the extinction of ethanol-seeking behavior. Adult Wistar rats were trained to self-administer alcohol with a light/tone stimulus serving as the alcohol cue. After training, one group of rats was exposed to chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) daily for a period of 2 weeks to induce ethanol dependence. Control rats were exposed to air for the same period of time. Both groups were then retrained to self-administer ethanol and subsequently tested for changes in extinction learning. CIE exposed rats consumed more ethanol compared to their pre-CIE levels and to control rats. During extinction training, CIE rats responded significantly more on the previously active lever and required more sessions to reach extinction criteria compared to control rats. Treatment with CDPPB facilitated extinction in control rats and attenuated the increased resistance to extinction in CIE-exposed rats. These results demonstrate that chronic ethanol exposure not only alters ethanol intake, but also the extinction of ethanol-seeking behaviors. The ability to attenuate deficits through modulation of mGlu5 provides a potential target for pharmacological manipulation that could ultimately reduce relapse in alcoholics. PMID:27725153

  10. 3β-Methyl-Neurosteroid Analogs are Preferential Positive Allosteric Modulators and Direct Activators of Extrasynaptic δGABA-A Receptors in the Hippocampus Dentate Gyrus Subfield.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Shu-Hui; Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2018-03-30

    Neurosteroids are powerful modulators of GABA-A receptors. Ganaxolone (3α-hydroxy-3β-methyl-5α-pregnan-20-one, GX) and synthetic analogs of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone (AP) are designed to treat epilepsy and related conditions. However, their precise mechanism of action in native neurons remains unclear. Here, we sought to determine the mode of action of GX and its analogs at GABA-A receptors in native hippocampal neurons by analyzing extrasynaptic receptor-mediated tonic currents and synaptic receptor-mediated phasic currents. Concentration-response profiles of GX were determined in two cell types: δ-containing dentate gyrus granule cells (DGGCs) and γ2-containing CA1 pyramidal cells (CA1PCs). GX produced significantly greater potentiation of the GABA-A receptor-activated chloride currents in DGGCs (500%) than CA1PCs (200%). In the absence of GABA, GX evoked 2-fold greater inward currents in DGGCs than CA1PCs, which were 2-fold greater than AP within DGGCs. In hippocampus slices, GX potentiated and directly activated tonic currents in DGGCs. These responses were significantly diminished in DGGCs from δ-subunit knockout (δKO) mice, confirming GX's selectivity for δGABA-A receptors. Like AP, GX potentiation of tonic currents was prevented by protein kinase C inhibition. Furthermore, GX's protection against hippocampus kindled seizures was significantly diminished in δKO mice. GX analogs exhibited greater potency and efficacy than GX on δGABA-A receptor-mediated tonic inhibition. In summary, these results provide strong evidence that GX and its analogs are preferential allosteric modulators and direct activators of extrasynaptic δGABA-A receptors regulating network inhibition and seizures in the dentate gyrus. Therefore, these findings provide a mechanistic rationale for the clinical use of synthetic neurosteroids in epilepsy and seizure disorders. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. Asparagine, valine, and threonine in the third extracellular loop of muscarinic receptor have essential roles in the positive cooperativity of strychnine-like allosteric modulators.

    PubMed

    Jakubík, J; Krejcí, A; Dolezal, V

    2005-05-01

    We have investigated allosteric interactions of four closely related strychnine-like substances: Wieland-Gumlich aldehyde (WGA), propargyl Wieland-Gumlich aldehyde, strychnine, and brucine with N-methylscopolamine (NMS) on M(3) subtype of muscarinic receptor genetically modified in the second or the third extracellular loop to corresponding loops of M(2) subtype (M(3)o2 and M(3)o3 chimera). The M(3)o2 chimeric receptor The exhibited no change in either affinity of strychnine, brucine, and WGA or in cooperativity of brucine or WGA, whereas both parameters for propargyl-WGA changed. In contrast, there was a change in affinity of all tested modulators (except for brucine) and in their cooperativity in the M(3)o3 chimera. Directions of affinity changes in both chimeras were always toward values of the donor M(2) subtype, but changes in cooperativity were variable. Compared with the native M(3) receptor, strychnine displayed a slight increase in positive cooperativity and propargyl-WGA a robust decrease in negative cooperativity at M(3)o2 chimera. Similar changes were found in the M(3)o3 chimera. Interestingly, cooperativity of brucine and WGA at the M(3)o3 chimera changed from negative to positive. This is the first evidence of constitution of positive cooperativity of WGA by switching sequences of two parental receptors, both exhibiting negative cooperativity. Gradual replacement of individual amino acids revealed that only three residues (NVT of the o3 loop of the M(2) receptor) are involved in this effect. Data suggest that these amino acids are essential for propagation of a conformation change resulting in positive cooperativity induced by these modulators.

  12. Selective remediation of reversal learning deficits in the neurodevelopmental MAM model of schizophrenia by a novel mGlu5 positive allosteric modulator.

    PubMed

    Gastambide, Francois; Cotel, Marie-Caroline; Gilmour, Gary; O'Neill, Michael J; Robbins, Trevor W; Tricklebank, Mark D

    2012-03-01

    Based on the glutamatergic hypothesis of schizophrenia we assessed the effects of a novel mGlu5 positive allosteric modulator, LSN2463359 [N-(1-methylethyl)-5-(pyridin-4-ylethynyl)pyridine-2-carboxamide] on deficits in cognitive flexibility in two distinct rodent models of schizophrenia, the neurodevelopmental MAM E17 model and the acute PCP model. Cognitive flexibility was measured with the intra-dimensional and extra-dimensional set-shifting and reversal learning digging paradigm. Regional effects of MAM on the expression of parvalbumin-positive cells (PV) and mGlu5 receptors were also examined, to further characterize the model. Results showed that LSN2463359 selectively attenuated reversal learning deficits in the MAM but not acute PCP model. Whilst both models led to deficits in reversal learning and extra-dimensional set-shifting, the reversal impairments were qualitatively distinct, with MAM increasing perseverative responding, whereas the PCP deficit was mainly due to the inability of rats to maintain reinforced choice behavior. Reduction of PV and mGlu5 expression was found in the MAM model in several regions of importance in schizophrenia, such as the orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex, which also mediate reversal learning and extra-dimensional set-shifting. The present findings confirm that the positive modulation of mGlu5 receptors may have beneficial effects in the treatment of certain aspects of cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia. This study also illustrates the importance of studying putative cognitive enhancing drug effects in a number of models which may have implications for the future development of the compound.

  13. Effects of the Positive Allosteric Modulator of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5, VU-29, on Impairment of Novel Object Recognition Induced by Acute Ethanol and Ethanol Withdrawal in Rats.

    PubMed

    Marszalek-Grabska, Marta; Gibula-Bruzda, Ewa; Bodzon-Kulakowska, Anna; Suder, Piotr; Gawel, Kinga; Filarowska, Joanna; Listos, Joanna; Danysz, Wojciech; Kotlinska, Jolanta H

    2018-04-01

    Glutamate is essential for learning and memory processes, and acute and chronic exposures to ethanol (or protracted abstinence) alter glutamatergic transmission. In the current study, we investigated the effects of VU-29, positive allosteric modulator of metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor, on the acute ethanol- and ethanol withdrawal-induced impairment of novel object recognition (NOR) task in rats. The influence of VU-29 (30 mg/kg) on memory retrieval was measured (a) at 4-h delay after acute ethanol administration, as well as (b) after acute withdrawal (24 and 48 h) of repeated (2.0 g/kg, once daily for 7 days) ethanol administration. Additionally, the effects of VU-29 on expression of mGlu5 and mGlu2 receptor proteins in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum were determined 48 h after ethanol withdrawal. Our results indicated that VU-29, given before acute ethanol administration, prevented the ethanol-induced impairments in spatial memory retrieval. Furthermore, VU-29 given before the testing session on the first day of abstinence facilitated NOR performance in ethanol-withdrawn rats at 4- and 24-h delay after administration. Our ELISA results show that VU-29 normalized ethanol withdrawal induced increase in expression of mGlu5 receptor protein in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum, as well as expression of mGlu2 receptor protein in the hippocampus. Thus, results from our study indicate that positive modulation of mGlu5 receptor prevented and reversed ethanol-induced memory impairment. Moreover, mGlu5 (hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum) and mGlu2 (hippocampus) receptors play an important role in the ethanol-induced recognition memory impairment induced by ethanol withdrawal.

  14. Unravelling the mechanism of action of NS9283, a positive allosteric modulator of (α4)3(β2)2 nicotinic ACh receptors.

    PubMed

    Grupe, M; Jensen, A A; Ahring, P K; Christensen, J K; Grunnet, M

    2013-04-01

    Strong implications in major neurological diseases make the neuronal α4β2 nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) a highly interesting drug target. In this study, we present a detailed electrophysiological characterization of NS9283, a potent positive allosteric modulator acting selectively at 3α:2β stoichiometry of α2* and α4* nAChRs. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique equipped with an ultra-fast drug application system was used to perform electrophysiological characterization of NS9283 modulatory actions on human α4β2 nAChRs stably expressed in HEK293 cells (HEK293-hα4β2). NS9283 was demonstrated to increase the potency of ACh-evoked currents in HEK293-hα4β2 cells by left-shifting the concentration-response curve ~60-fold. Interestingly, this modulation did not significantly alter maximal efficacy levels of ACh. Further, NS9283 did not affect the rate of desensitization of ACh-evoked currents, was incapable of reactivating desensitized receptors and only moderately slowed recovery from desensitization. However, NS9283 strongly decreased the rate of deactivation kinetics and also modestly decreased the rate of activation. This resulted in a left-shift of the ACh window current of (α4)3(β2)2 nAChRs in the presence of NS9283. This study demonstrates that NS9283 increases responsiveness of human (α4)3(β2)2 nAChR to ACh with no change in maximum efficacy. We propose that this potentiation is due to a significant slowing of deactivation kinetics. In summary, the mechanism of action of NS9283 bears high resemblance to that of benzodiazepines at the GABAA receptor and to our knowledge, NS9283 constitutes the first nAChR compound of this class. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Unravelling the mechanism of action of NS9283, a positive allosteric modulator of (α4)3(β2)2 nicotinic ACh receptors

    PubMed Central

    Grupe, M; Jensen, AA; Ahring, PK; Christensen, JK; Grunnet, M

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Strong implications in major neurological diseases make the neuronal α4β2 nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) a highly interesting drug target. In this study, we present a detailed electrophysiological characterization of NS9283, a potent positive allosteric modulator acting selectively at 3α:2β stoichiometry of α2* and α4* nAChRs. Experimental Approach The whole-cell patch-clamp technique equipped with an ultra-fast drug application system was used to perform electrophysiological characterization of NS9283 modulatory actions on human α4β2 nAChRs stably expressed in HEK293 cells (HEK293-hα4β2). Key Results NS9283 was demonstrated to increase the potency of ACh-evoked currents in HEK293-hα4β2 cells by left-shifting the concentration–response curve ∼60-fold. Interestingly, this modulation did not significantly alter maximal efficacy levels of ACh. Further, NS9283 did not affect the rate of desensitization of ACh-evoked currents, was incapable of reactivating desensitized receptors and only moderately slowed recovery from desensitization. However, NS9283 strongly decreased the rate of deactivation kinetics and also modestly decreased the rate of activation. This resulted in a left-shift of the ACh window current of (α4)3(β2)2 nAChRs in the presence of NS9283. Conclusions and Implications This study demonstrates that NS9283 increases responsiveness of human (α4)3(β2)2 nAChR to ACh with no change in maximum efficacy. We propose that this potentiation is due to a significant slowing of deactivation kinetics. In summary, the mechanism of action of NS9283 bears high resemblance to that of benzodiazepines at the GABAA receptor and to our knowledge, NS9283 constitutes the first nAChR compound of this class. PMID:23278456

  16. Positive allosteric modulation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid glutamate receptors differentially modulates the behavioural effects of citalopram in mouse models of antidepressant and anxiolytic action.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Ciarán M; Larsen, Maria; Madsen, Louise H; Caballero-Puntiverio, Maitane; Pickering, Darryl S; Clausen, Rasmus P; Andreasen, Jesper T

    2016-09-01

    Drugs that increase monoamine neurotransmission are effective in both anxiety and depression. The therapeutic effects of monoamine-based antidepressant drugs may involve indirect effects on neurotransmission through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid glutamate receptors (AMPAR). Thus, chronic antidepressant treatment increases AMPAR-mediated neurotransmission and AMPAR-positive allosteric modulators have shown antidepressant-like efficacy in rodents. Here, the effect of enhanced AMPAR neurotransmission on the antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like actions of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram (0-10 mg/kg) was investigated in mice using the AMPAR-positive allosteric modulator LY451646 (0-3 mg/kg). Antidepressant-like effects were assessed using the forced-swim test (FST), whereas anxiolytic-like effects were tested using the elevated zero maze (EZM) and the marble burying test. LY451646 (3 mg/kg) increased swim distance in the FST and a subactive dose of LY451646 (1 mg/kg) enhanced the effect of citalopram in the FST. In the EZM, LY451646 (3 mg/kg) did not show anxiogenic effects alone, but blocked the anxiolytic-like action of citalopram in the EZM, as reflected by an increase in the latency to enter the open areas and a decrease in the number of entries and time spent in the open areas in citalopram-treated mice. In the marble burying test, LY451646 (3 mg/kg) showed no effect alone, but significantly attenuated the anxiolytic-like effect of citalopram (1.25-2.5 mg/kg) by increasing the number of marbles buried in citalopram-treated mice. These results suggest that AMPAR neurotransmission plays opposite roles in anxiety and depression as AMPAR potentiation facilitated the antidepressant-like effects of citalopram while attenuating its anxiolytic-like effect. These findings have ramifications in the search for AMPAR-based novel anxiolytic and antidepressant treatments.

  17. Chemical Modulation of Mutant mGlu1 Receptors Derived from Deleterious GRM1 Mutations Found in Schizophrenics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex and highly heterogeneous psychiatric disorder whose precise etiology remains elusive. While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified risk genes, they have failed to determine if rare coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) contribute in schizophrenia. Recently, two independent studies identified 12 rare, deleterious nsSNPS in the GRM1 gene, which encodes the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGlu1), in schizophrenic patients. Here, we generated stable cell lines expressing the mGlu1 mutant receptors and assessed their pharmacology. Using both the endogenous agonist glutamate and the synthetic agonist DHPG, we found that several of the mutant mGlu1 receptors displayed a loss of function that was not due to a loss in plasma membrane expression. Due to a lack of mGlu1 positive allosteric modulators (PAM) tool compounds active at human mGlu1, we optimized a known mGlu4 PAM/mGlu1 NAM chemotype into a series of potent and selective mGlu1 PAMs by virtue of a double “molecular switch”. Employing mGlu1 PAMs from multiple chemotypes, we demonstrate that the mutant receptors can be potentiated by small molecules and in some cases efficacy restored to that comparable to wild type mGlu1 receptors, suggesting deficits in patients with schizophrenia due to these mutations may be amenable to intervention with an mGlu1 PAM. However, in wild type animals, mGlu1 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) are efficacious in classic models predictive of antipsychotic activity, whereas we show that mGlu1 PAMs have no effect to slight potentiation in these models. These data further highlight the heterogeneity of schizophrenia and the critical role of patient selection strategies in psychiatric clinical trials to match genotype with therapeutic mechanism. PMID:25137254

  18. A Charge-inverting Mutation in the “Linker” Region of α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid (AMPA) Receptors Alters Agonist Binding and Gating Kinetics Independently of Allosteric Modulators*

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Jonathan E.; Benveniste, Morris; Kessler, Markus; Stone, Leslie M.; Arai, Amy C.; Partin, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    AMPA receptors are gated through binding of glutamate to a solvent-accessible ligand-binding domain. Upon glutamate binding, these receptors undergo a series of conformational rearrangements regulating channel function. Allosteric modulators can bind within a pocket adjacent to the ligand-binding domain to stabilize specific conformations and prevent desensitization. Yelshansky et al. (Yelshansky, M. V., Sobolevsky, A. I., Jatzke, C., and Wollmuth, L. P. (2004) J. Neurosci. 24, 4728–4736) described a model of an electrostatic interaction between the ligand-binding domain and linker region to the pore that regulated channel desensitization. To test this hypothesis, we have conducted a series of experiments focusing on the R628E mutation. Using ultrafast perfusion with voltage clamp, we applied glutamate to outside-out patches pulled from transiently transfected HEK 293 cells expressing wild type or R628E mutant GluA2. In response to a brief pulse of glutamate (1 ms), mutant receptors deactivated with significantly slower kinetics than wild type receptors. In addition, R628E receptors showed significantly more steady-state current in response to a prolonged (500-ms) glutamate application. These changes in receptor kinetics occur through a pathway that is independent of that of allosteric modulators, which show an additive effect on R628E receptors. In addition, ligand binding assays revealed the R628E mutation to have increased affinity for agonist. Finally, we reconciled experimental data with computer simulations that explicitly model mutant and modulator interactions. Our data suggest that R628E stabilizes the receptor closed cleft conformation by reducing agonist dissociation and the transition to the desensitized state. These results suggest that the AMPA receptor external vestibule is a viable target for new positive allosteric modulators. PMID:24550387

  19. The anti-epileptic drug levetiracetam reverses the inhibition by negative allosteric modulators of neuronal GABA- and glycine-gated currents

    PubMed Central

    Rigo, J-M; Hans, G; Nguyen, L; Rocher, V; Belachew, S; Malgrange, B; Leprince, P; Moonen, G; Selak, I; Matagne, A; Klitgaard, H

    2002-01-01

    In this study in vitro and in vivo approaches were combined in order to investigate if the anti-epileptic mechanism(s) of action of levetiracetam (LEV; Keppra®) may involve modulation of inhibitory neurotransmission.GABA- and glycine-gated currents were studied in vitro using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques applied on cultured cerebellar granule, hippocampal and spinal neurons. Protection against clonic convulsions was assessed in vivo in sound-susceptible mice. The effect of LEV was compared with reference anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs): carbamazepine, phenytoin, valproate, clonazepam, phenobarbital and ethosuximide.LEV contrasted the reference AEDs by an absence of any direct effect on glycine-gated currents. At high concentrations, beyond therapeutic relevance, it induced a small reduction in the peak amplitude and a prolongation of the decay phase of GABA-gated currents. A similar action on GABA-elicited currents was observed with the reference AEDs, except ethosuximide.These minor direct effects contrasted with a potent ability of LEV (EC50=1 – 10 μM) to reverse the inhibitory effects of the negative allosteric modulators zinc and β-carbolines on both GABAA and glycine receptor-mediated responses.Clonazepam, phenobarbital and valproate showed a similar ability to reverse the inhibition of β-carbolines on GABA-gated currents. Blockade of zinc inhibition of GABA responses was observed with clonazepam and ethosuximide. Phenytoin was the only AED together with LEV that inhibited the antagonism of zinc on glycine-gated currents and only clonazepam and phenobarbital inhibited the action of DMCM.LEV (17 mg kg−1) produced a potent suppression of sound-induced clonic convulsions in mice. This protective effect was significantly abolished by co-administration of the β-carboline FG 7142, from a dose of 5 mg kg−1. In contrast, the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil (up to 10 mg kg−1) was without any effect on the protection

  20. The anti-epileptic drug levetiracetam reverses the inhibition by negative allosteric modulators of neuronal GABA- and glycine-gated currents.

    PubMed

    Rigo, J-M; Hans, G; Nguyen, L; Rocher, V; Belachew, S; Malgrange, B; Leprince, P; Moonen, G; Selak, I; Matagne, A; Klitgaard, H

    2002-07-01

    1. In this study in vitro and in vivo approaches were combined in order to investigate if the anti-epileptic mechanism(s) of action of levetiracetam (LEV; Keppra) may involve modulation of inhibitory neurotransmission. 2. GABA- and glycine-gated currents were studied in vitro using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques applied on cultured cerebellar granule, hippocampal and spinal neurons. Protection against clonic convulsions was assessed in vivo in sound-susceptible mice. The effect of LEV was compared with reference anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs): carbamazepine, phenytoin, valproate, clonazepam, phenobarbital and ethosuximide. 3. LEV contrasted the reference AEDs by an absence of any direct effect on glycine-gated currents. At high concentrations, beyond therapeutic relevance, it induced a small reduction in the peak amplitude and a prolongation of the decay phase of GABA-gated currents. A similar action on GABA-elicited currents was observed with the reference AEDs, except ethosuximide. 4. These minor direct effects contrasted with a potent ability of LEV (EC(50)=1 - 10 microM) to reverse the inhibitory effects of the negative allosteric modulators zinc and beta-carbolines on both GABA(A) and glycine receptor-mediated responses. 5. Clonazepam, phenobarbital and valproate showed a similar ability to reverse the inhibition of beta-carbolines on GABA-gated currents. Blockade of zinc inhibition of GABA responses was observed with clonazepam and ethosuximide. Phenytoin was the only AED together with LEV that inhibited the antagonism of zinc on glycine-gated currents and only clonazepam and phenobarbital inhibited the action of DMCM. 6. LEV (17 mg kg(-1)) produced a potent suppression of sound-induced clonic convulsions in mice. This protective effect was significantly abolished by co-administration of the beta-carboline FG 7142, from a dose of 5 mg kg(-1). In contrast, the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil (up to 10 mg kg(-1)) was without any effect on the

  1. The qEEG Signature of Selective NMDA NR2B Negative Allosteric Modulators; A Potential Translational Biomarker for Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Keavy, Deborah; Bristow, Linda J.; Sivarao, Digavalli V.; Batchelder, Margaret; King, Dalton; Thangathirupathy, Srinivasan; Macor, John E.; Weed, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The antidepressant activity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channel blocker, ketamine, has led to the investigation of negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) selective for the NR2B receptor subtype. The clinical development of NR2B NAMs would benefit from a translational pharmacodynamic biomarker that demonstrates brain penetration and functional inhibition of NR2B receptors in preclinical species and humans. Quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) is a translational measure that can be used to demonstrate pharmacodynamic effects across species. NMDA receptor channel blockers, such as ketamine and phencyclidine, increase the EEG gamma power band, which has been used as a pharmacodynamic biomarker in the development of NMDA receptor antagonists. However, detailed qEEG studies with ketamine or NR2B NAMs are lacking in nonhuman primates. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects on the qEEG power spectra of the NR2B NAMs traxoprodil (CP-101,606) and BMT-108908 in nonhuman primates, and to compare them to the NMDA receptor channel blockers, ketamine and lanicemine. Cynomolgus monkeys were surgically implanted with EEG radio-telemetry transmitters, and qEEG was measured after vehicle or drug administration. The relative power for a number of frequency bands was determined. Ketamine and lanicemine increased relative gamma power, whereas the NR2B NAMs traxoprodil and BMT-108908 had no effect. Robust decreases in beta power were elicited by ketamine, traxoprodil and BMT-108908; and these agents also produced decreases in alpha power and increases in delta power at the doses tested. These results suggest that measurement of power spectra in the beta and delta bands may represent a translational pharmacodynamic biomarker to demonstrate functional effects of NR2B NAMs. The results of these studies may help guide the selection of qEEG measures that can be incorporated into early clinical evaluation of NR2B NAMs in healthy humans. PMID:27035340

  2. Attenuation of reinstatement of methamphetamine-, sucrose-, and food-seeking behavior in rats by fenobam, a metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 negative allosteric modulator

    PubMed Central

    Watterson, Lucas R.; Kufahl, Peter R.; Nemirovsky, Natali E.; Sewalia, Kaveish; Hood, Lauren E.; Olive, M. Foster

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly potent and addictive psychostimulant with severe detrimental effects to the health of users. Currently, METH addiction is treated with a combination of cognitive and behavioral therapies, but these traditional approaches suffer from high relapse rates. Furthermore, there are currently no pharmacological treatment interventions approved by the FDA specifically for the treatment of METH addiction. Objectives Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) have shown promise in significantly attenuating drug self-administration and drug-seeking in reinstatement paradigms. However, studies assessing the potential efficacy of mGluR5 NAMs that have been tested in human subjects are lacking. The current study sought to assess the effect of the mGluR5 NAM fenobam on METH-seeking behavior. Methods Rats were trained to self-administer METH (0.05 mg/kg i.v.), and following extinction, tested for effects of fenobam (5, 10 or 15 mg/kg i.p.) on cue- and drug-induced reinstatement of METH-seeking. To determine if fenobam also alters reinstatement of seeking of natural reinforcers, separate groups of rats were trained to self-administer sucrose or food pellets and were tested for the effects of fenobam on cue-induced reinstatement of sucrose- and food-seeking. Results Fenobam attenuated drug- and cue-induced reinstatement of METH-seeking behavior at doses of 10 and 15 mg/kg. Fenobam also attenuated cue-induced reinstatement of sucrose- and food-seeking at all doses tested. Conclusions The mGluR5 NAM fenobam attenuates the reinstatement of METH-seeking behavior, but these effects may be due to non-specific suppression of general appetitive behaviors. PMID:22820868

  3. The Role of Aldehyde Oxidase and Xanthine Oxidase in the Biotransformation of a Novel Negative Allosteric Modulator of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 5

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Ryan D.; Blobaum, Anna L.; Byers, Frank W.; Santomango, Tammy S.; Bridges, Thomas M.; Stec, Donald; Brewer, Katrina A.; Sanchez-Ponce, Raymundo; Corlew, Melany M.; Rush, Roger; Felts, Andrew S.; Manka, Jason; Bates, Brittney S.; Venable, Daryl F.; Rodriguez, Alice L.; Jones, Carrie K.; Niswender, Colleen M.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.; Emmitte, Kyle A.

    2012-01-01

    Negative allosteric modulation (NAM) of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) represents a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of childhood developmental disorders, such as fragile X syndrome and autism. VU0409106 emerged as a lead compound within a biaryl ether series, displaying potent and selective inhibition of mGlu5. Despite its high clearance and short half-life, VU0409106 demonstrated efficacy in rodent models of anxiety after extravascular administration. However, lack of a consistent correlation in rat between in vitro hepatic clearance and in vivo plasma clearance for the biaryl ether series prompted an investigation into the biotransformation of VU0409106 using hepatic subcellular fractions. An in vitro appraisal in rat, monkey, and human liver S9 fractions indicated that the principal pathway was NADPH-independent oxidation to metabolite M1 (+16 Da). Both raloxifene (aldehyde oxidase inhibitor) and allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor) attenuated the formation of M1, thus implicating the contribution of both molybdenum hydroxylases in the biotransformation of VU0409106. The use of 18O-labeled water in the S9 experiments confirmed the hydroxylase mechanism proposed, because 18O was incorporated into M1 (+18 Da) as well as in a secondary metabolite (M2; +36 Da), the formation of which was exclusively xanthine oxidase-mediated. This unusual dual and sequential hydroxylase metabolism was confirmed in liver S9 and hepatocytes of multiple species and correlated with in vivo data because M1 and M2 were the principal metabolites detected in rats administered VU0409106. An in vitro-in vivo correlation of predicted hepatic and plasma clearance was subsequently established for VU0409106 in rats and nonhuman primates. PMID:22711749

  4. Allosteric modulation of the activity of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) metabolite GLP-1 9-36 amide at the GLP-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Li, Naichang; Lu, Jing; Willars, Gary B

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) released from intestinal L cells in response to nutrients has many physiological effects but particularly enhances glucose-dependent insulin release through the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). GLP-1 7-36 amide, the predominant circulating active form of GLP-1, is rapidly truncated by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 to GLP-1 9-36 amide, which is generally considered inactive. Given its physiological roles, the GLP-1R is targeted for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Recently 'compound 2' has been described as both an agonist and positive allosteric modulator of GLP-1 7-36 amide affinity, but not potency, at the GLP-1R. Importantly, we demonstrated previously that exendin 9-39, generally considered a GLP-1R antagonist, enhances compound 2 efficacy (or vice versa) at the GLP-1R. Given that GLP-1 9-36 amide is the major circulating form of GLP-1 post-prandially and is a low affinity weak partial agonist or antagonist at the GLP-1R, we investigated interaction between this metabolite and compound 2 in a cell line with recombinant expression of the human GLP-1R and the rat insulinoma cell line, INS-1E, with native expression of the GLP-1R. We show compound 2 markedly enhances efficacy and potency of GLP-1 9-36 amide for key cellular responses including AMP generation, Ca(2+) signaling and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Thus, metabolites of peptide hormones including GLP-1 that are often considered inactive may provide a means of manipulating key aspects of receptor function and a novel therapeutic strategy.

  5. Allosteric Modulation of the Activity of the Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Metabolite GLP-1 9–36 Amide at the GLP-1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Naichang; Lu, Jing; Willars, Gary B.

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) released from intestinal L cells in response to nutrients has many physiological effects but particularly enhances glucose-dependent insulin release through the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). GLP-1 7–36 amide, the predominant circulating active form of GLP-1, is rapidly truncated by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 to GLP-1 9–36 amide, which is generally considered inactive. Given its physiological roles, the GLP-1R is targeted for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Recently ‘compound 2’ has been described as both an agonist and positive allosteric modulator of GLP-1 7–36 amide affinity, but not potency, at the GLP-1R. Importantly, we demonstrated previously that exendin 9–39, generally considered a GLP-1R antagonist, enhances compound 2 efficacy (or vice versa) at the GLP-1R. Given that GLP-1 9–36 amide is the major circulating form of GLP-1 post-prandially and is a low affinity weak partial agonist or antagonist at the GLP-1R, we investigated interaction between this metabolite and compound 2 in a cell line with recombinant expression of the human GLP-1R and the rat insulinoma cell line, INS-1E, with native expression of the GLP-1R. We show compound 2 markedly enhances efficacy and potency of GLP-1 9–36 amide for key cellular responses including AMP generation, Ca2+ signaling and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Thus, metabolites of peptide hormones including GLP-1 that are often considered inactive may provide a means of manipulating key aspects of receptor function and a novel therapeutic strategy. PMID:23094100

  6. PAM4 silicon photonic microring resonator-based transceiver circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palermo, Samuel; Yu, Kunzhi; Roshan-Zamir, Ashkan; Wang, Binhao; Li, Cheng; Seyedi, M. Ashkan; Fiorentino, Marco; Beausoleil, Raymond

    2017-02-01

    Increased data rates have motivated the investigation of advanced modulation schemes, such as four-level pulseamplitude modulation (PAM4), in optical interconnect systems in order to enable longer transmission distances and operation with reduced circuit bandwidth relative to non-return-to-zero (NRZ) modulation. Employing this modulation scheme in interconnect architectures based on high-Q silicon photonic microring resonator devices, which occupy small area and allow for inherent wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM), offers a promising solution to address the dramatic increase in datacenter and high-performance computing system I/O bandwidth demands. Two ring modulator device structures are proposed for PAM4 modulation, including a single phase shifter segment device driven with a multi-level PAM4 transmitter and a two-segment device driven by two simple NRZ (MSB/LSB) transmitters. Transmitter circuits which utilize segmented pulsed-cascode high swing output stages are presented for both device structures. Output stage segmentation is utilized in the single-segment device design for PAM4 voltage level control, while in the two-segment design it is used for both independent MSB/LSB voltage levels and impedance control for output eye skew compensation. The 65nm CMOS transmitters supply a 4.4Vppd output swing for 40Gb/s operation when driving depletion-mode microring modulators implemented in a 130nm SOI process, with the single- and two-segment designs achieving 3.04 and 4.38mW/Gb/s, respectively. A PAM4 optical receiver front-end is also described which employs a large input-stage feedback resistor transimpedance amplifier (TIA) cascaded with an adaptively-tuned continuous-time linear equalizer (CTLE) for improved sensitivity. Receiver linearity, critical in PAM4 systems, is achieved with a peak-detector-based automatic gain control (AGC) loop.

  7. Discovery of 3-aminopicolinamides as metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 4 (mGlu4) positive allosteric modulator warheads engendering CNS exposure and in vivo efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Gogliotti, Rocco D.; Engers, Darren W.; Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M.; Panarese, Joseph D.; Gentry, Patrick R.; Blobaum, Anna L.; Morrison, Ryan D.; Daniels, J. Scott; Thompson, Analisa D.; Jones, Carrie K.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Niswender, Colleen M.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Hopkins, Corey R.

    2016-01-01

    This letter describes the further chemical optimization of the picolinamide-derived family of mGlu4 PAMs wherein we identified a 3-amino substituent to the picolinamide warhead that engendered potency, CNS penetration and in vivo efficacy. From this optimization campaign, VU0477886 emerged as a potent (EC50 = 95 nM, 89% Glu Max) mGlu4 PAM with an attractive DMPK profile (brain:plasma Kp = 1.3), rat CLp = 4.0 mL/min/kg, t1/2 = 3.7 h) and robust efficacy in our standard preclinical Parkinson's disease model, haloperidol-induced catalepsy (HIC). PMID:27131990

  8. Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry Reveals Calcium Binding Properties and Allosteric Regulation of Downstream Regulatory Element Antagonist Modulator (DREAM).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Jing; Craig, Theodore A; Kumar, Rajiv; Gross, Michael L

    2017-07-18

    Downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM) is an EF-hand Ca 2+ -binding protein that also binds to a specific DNA sequence, downstream regulatory elements (DRE), and thereby regulates transcription in a calcium-dependent fashion. DREAM binds to DRE in the absence of Ca 2+ but detaches from DRE under Ca 2+ stimulation, allowing gene expression. The Ca 2+ binding properties of DREAM and the consequences of the binding on protein structure are key to understanding the function of DREAM. Here we describe the application of hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) and site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the Ca 2+ binding properties and the subsequent conformational changes of full-length DREAM. We demonstrate that all EF-hands undergo large conformation changes upon calcium binding even though the EF-1 hand is not capable of binding to Ca 2+ . Moreover, EF-2 is a lower-affinity site compared to EF-3 and -4 hands. Comparison of HDX profiles between wild-type DREAM and two EF-1 mutated constructs illustrates that the conformational changes in the EF-1 hand are induced by long-range structural interactions. HDX analyses also reveal a conformational change in an N-terminal leucine-charged residue-rich domain (LCD) remote from Ca 2+ -binding EF-hands. This LCD domain is responsible for the direct interaction between DREAM and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and regulates the recruitment of the co-activator, CREB-binding protein. These long-range interactions strongly suggest how conformational changes transmit the Ca 2+ signal to CREB-mediated gene transcription.

  9. Exploiting protein flexibility to predict the location of allosteric sites

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Allostery is one of the most powerful and common ways of regulation of protein activity. However, for most allosteric proteins identified to date the mechanistic details of allosteric modulation are not yet well understood. Uncovering common mechanistic patterns underlying allostery would allow not only a better academic understanding of the phenomena, but it would also streamline the design of novel therapeutic solutions. This relatively unexplored therapeutic potential and the putative advantages of allosteric drugs over classical active-site inhibitors fuel the attention allosteric-drug research is receiving at present. A first step to harness the regulatory potential and versatility of allosteric sites, in the context of drug-discovery and design, would be to detect or predict their presence and location. In this article, we describe a simple computational approach, based on the effect allosteric ligands exert on protein flexibility upon binding, to predict the existence and position of allosteric sites on a given protein structure. Results By querying the literature and a recently available database of allosteric sites, we gathered 213 allosteric proteins with structural information that we further filtered into a non-redundant set of 91 proteins. We performed normal-mode analysis and observed significant changes in protein flexibility upon allosteric-ligand binding in 70% of the cases. These results agree with the current view that allosteric mechanisms are in many cases governed by changes in protein dynamics caused by ligand binding. Furthermore, we implemented an approach that achieves 65% positive predictive value in identifying allosteric sites within the set of predicted cavities of a protein (stricter parameters set, 0.22 sensitivity), by combining the current analysis on dynamics with previous results on structural conservation of allosteric sites. We also analyzed four biological examples in detail, revealing that this simple coarse

  10. Exploiting protein flexibility to predict the location of allosteric sites.

    PubMed

    Panjkovich, Alejandro; Daura, Xavier

    2012-10-25

    Allostery is one of the most powerful and common ways of regulation of protein activity. However, for most allosteric proteins identified to date the mechanistic details of allosteric modulation are not yet well understood. Uncovering common mechanistic patterns underlying allostery would allow not only a better academic understanding of the phenomena, but it would also streamline the design of novel therapeutic solutions. This relatively unexplored therapeutic potential and the putative advantages of allosteric drugs over classical active-site inhibitors fuel the attention allosteric-drug research is receiving at present. A first step to harness the regulatory potential and versatility of allosteric sites, in the context of drug-discovery and design, would be to detect or predict their presence and location. In this article, we describe a simple computational approach, based on the effect allosteric ligands exert on protein flexibility upon binding, to predict the existence and position of allosteric sites on a given protein structure. By querying the literature and a recently available database of allosteric sites, we gathered 213 allosteric proteins with structural information that we further filtered into a non-redundant set of 91 proteins. We performed normal-mode analysis and observed significant changes in protein flexibility upon allosteric-ligand binding in 70% of the cases. These results agree with the current view that allosteric mechanisms are in many cases governed by changes in protein dynamics caused by ligand binding. Furthermore, we implemented an approach that achieves 65% positive predictive value in identifying allosteric sites within the set of predicted cavities of a protein (stricter parameters set, 0.22 sensitivity), by combining the current analysis on dynamics with previous results on structural conservation of allosteric sites. We also analyzed four biological examples in detail, revealing that this simple coarse-grained methodology is

  11. Cognitive enhancement and antipsychotic-like activity following repeated dosing with the selective M4 PAM VU0467154.

    PubMed

    Gould, Robert W; Grannan, Michael D; Gunter, Barak W; Ball, Jacob; Bubser, Michael; Bridges, Thomas M; Wess, Jurgen; Wood, Michael W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Duggan, Mark E; Niswender, Colleen M; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K

    2018-01-01

    Although selective activation of the M 1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtype has been shown to improve cognitive function in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders, recent evidence suggests that enhancing M 4 mAChR function can also improve memory performance. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) targeting the M 4 mAChR subtype have shown therapeutic potential for the treatment of multiple symptoms observed in schizophrenia, including positive and cognitive symptoms when assessed in acute preclinical dosing paradigms. Since the cholinergic system has been implicated in multiple stages of learning and memory, we evaluated the effects of repeated dosing with the highly selective M 4 PAM VU0467154 on either acquisition and/or consolidation of learning and memory when dosed alone or after pharmacologic challenge with the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptors (NMDAR) antagonist MK-801. MK-801 challenge represents a well-documented preclinical model of NMDAR hypofunction that is thought to underlie some of the positive and cognitive symptoms observed in schizophrenia. In wildtype mice, 10-day, once-daily dosing of VU0467154 either prior to, or immediately after daily testing enhanced the rate of learning in a touchscreen visual pairwise discrimination task; these effects were absent in M 4 mAChR knockout mice. Following a similar 10-day, once-daily dosing regimen of VU0467154, we also observed 1) improved acquisition of memory in a cue-mediated conditioned freezing paradigm, 2) attenuation of MK-801-induced disruptions in the acquisition of memory in a context-mediated conditioned freezing paradigm and 3) reversal of MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion. Comparable efficacy and plasma and brain concentrations of VU0467154 were observed after repeated dosing as those previously reported with an acute, single dose administration of this M 4 PAM. Together, these studies are the first to demonstrate that cognitive enhancing and antipsychotic

  12. Allosteric regulation of epigenetic modifying enzymes.

    PubMed

    Zucconi, Beth E; Cole, Philip A

    2017-08-01

    Epigenetic enzymes including histone modifying enzymes are key regulators of gene expression in normal and disease processes. Many drug development strategies to target histone modifying enzymes have focused on ligands that bind to enzyme active sites, but allosteric pockets offer potentially attractive opportunities for therapeutic development. Recent biochemical studies have revealed roles for small molecule and peptide ligands binding outside of the active sites in modulating the catalytic activities of histone modifying enzymes. Here we highlight several examples of allosteric regulation of epigenetic enzymes and discuss the biological significance of these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rhus parviflora and its biflavonoid constituent, rhusflavone, induce sleep through the positive allosteric modulation of GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptors.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sabina; Park, Ji-Hae; Lee, Dae-Young; Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Cho, Suengmok; Yang, Hye-Jin; Yong, Hye-Im; Yoon, Min-Seok; Han, Dae-Seok; Baek, Nam-In

    2012-06-26

    Rhus parviflora is referred as 'Tintidikah' in traditional medicinal system of south Asia (Ayurveda). It is used in treatment of Vāta vikāra, a condition related to neurological complications as well as cure for stomach disorders. Dried and powdered fruits of R. parviflora were extracted with 80% aqueous methanol (RPME). The concentrated extract was successively partitioned with distilled water (DW), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol (n-BuOH). All extracts, as well as isolated biflavonoids from R. parviflora, were evaluated for their affinity to the benzodiazepine binding site of GABA(A) receptor. The sedative-hypnotic effects of the fractions were evaluated by measuring sleep latency and sleep duration during pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice after oral administration of the extract fractions. Oral administration of RPME (125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent decrease in sleep latency and an increase in sleep duration in mice treated with pentobarbital. The methanol extract produced a hypnotic effect that was fully blocked by ³H-Ro 15-1788 flumazenil (FLU). Further, among the solvent fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited significant activity. Among the isolated compounds, biflavonoids mesuaferrone B (1), rhusflavone (3), and agathisflavone (4) competitively inhibited FLU binding with a K(i) of 0.280 μM, 0.045 μM, and 0.091 μM, respectively. In addition, analysis of the sedative-hypnotic effects of rhusflavone, as well as those of the ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and distilled water fractions revealed that the modulation of both the ethyl acetate fraction and biflavonoid rhusflavone (3) are the most potent in inducing sleep. The presence of conjugated ketone and C6-C8″ biflavonoid linkage in rhusflavone may be responsible for BZD-site of the GABA(A) leading to decrease in sleep latency and increase sleep duration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ONO-8590580, a novel GABAA α5 negative allosteric modulator enhances long-term potentiation and improves cognitive deficits in preclinical models.

    PubMed

    Kawaharada, Soichi; Nakanishi, Miki; Nakanishi, Nobuto; Hazama, Keisuke; Higashino, Masato; Lewis, Arwel; Clark, Gary S; Chambers, Mark S; Maidment, Scott A; Yasuhiro, Tetsuya; Katsumata, Seishi; Kaneko, Shuji

    2018-04-19

    GABA A receptors containing α5 subunits (GABA A α5) are highly expressed in the hippocampus and negatively involved in memory processing, as shown by the fact that GABA A α5 deficient mice show higher hippocampus-dependent performance than wild type mice. Accordingly, small molecule GABA A α5 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) are known to enhance spatial learning and memory in rodents. Here we introduce a new, orally-available GABA A α5 NAM that improves hippocampal functions. ONO-8590580 binds to the benzodiazepine binding sites on recombinant human α5-containing GABA A receptors with a Ki of 7.9 nM, and showed functionally selective GABA A α5 NAM activity for GABA-induced Cl- channel activity with a maximum 44.4% inhibition and an EC 50 of 1.1 nM. In rat hippocampal slices, tetanus-induced long-term potentiation of CA1 synapse response was significantly augmented in the presence of 300 nM ONO-8590580. Orally administered ONO-8590580 (1-20 mg/kg) dose-dependently occupied hippocampal GABA A α5 in a range of 40-90% at 1 h after intake. In the rat passive avoidance test, ONO-8590580 (3-20 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly prevented MK-801-induced memory deficit. In addition, ONO-8590580 (20 mg/kg, p.o.) was also effective in improving cognitive deficit induced by scopolamine and MK-801 in the rat 8-arm radial maze test with equal or greater activity than 0.5 mg/kg donepezil. No anxiogenic-like or proconvulsant effect was associated with ONO-8590580 at 20 mg/kg, p.o. in the elevated plus maze test or pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure test, respectively. In sum, ONO-8590580 is a novel GABA A α5 NAM that enhances hippocampal memory function without an anxiogenic or proconvulsant risk. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. PAM sequence design for dimmable visible light communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuo, Huang; Wang, Jun-Bo; Wang, Jin-Yuan; Guan, Rui; Chen, Ming

    2017-02-01

    In current visible light communication (VLC) systems employing intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD), the transmitted optical intensity signal must satisfy the nonnegativity, peak optical intensity and illumination constraints. By taking into account the three constraints, we first present the signal space for the pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) sequences in the maximum flickering time period (MFTP). Then, to minimize the error probability of the VLC systems, we seek to find the PAM sequences providing the largest minimum Euclidean distance. Since the objective function is nonconvex and nondifferentiable, it is difficult to solve the original optimization problem directly. Thus, two methods corresponding to the joint design and greedy algorithm, are proposed to design the PAM sequences in VLC. The two methods offer a tradeoff between the symbol error rate (SER) performance and design complexity.

  16. Structure-Based Optimization Strategies for G Protein-Coupled Receptor (GPCR) Allosteric Modulators: A Case Study from Analyses of New Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 (mGlu5) X-ray Structures.

    PubMed

    Christopher, John A; Orgován, Zoltán; Congreve, Miles; Doré, Andrew S; Errey, James C; Marshall, Fiona H; Mason, Jonathan S; Okrasa, Krzysztof; Rucktooa, Prakash; Serrano-Vega, Maria J; Ferenczy, György G; Keserű, György M

    2018-03-01

    Two interesting new X-ray structures of negative allosteric modulator (NAM) ligands for the mGlu 5 receptor, M-MPEP (3) and fenobam (4), are reported. The new structures show how the binding of the ligands induces different receptor water channel conformations to previously published structures. The structure of fenobam, where a urea replaces the acetylenic linker in M-MPEP and mavoglurant, reveals a binding mode where the ligand is rotated by 180° compared to a previously proposed docking model. The need for multiple ligand structures for accurate GPCR structure-based drug design is demonstrated by the different growing vectors identified for the head groups of M-MPEP and mavoglurant and by the unexpected water-mediated receptor interactions of a new chemotype represented by fenobam. The implications of the new structures for ligand design are discussed, with extensive analysis of the energetics of the water networks of both pseudoapo and bound structures providing a new design strategy for allosteric modulators.

  17. Discovery of 3-aminopicolinamides as metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 4 (mGlu4) positive allosteric modulator warheads engendering CNS exposure and in vivo efficacy.

    PubMed

    Gogliotti, Rocco D; Engers, Darren W; Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Panarese, Joseph D; Gentry, Patrick R; Blobaum, Anna L; Morrison, Ryan D; Daniels, J Scott; Thompson, Analisa D; Jones, Carrie K; Conn, P Jeffrey; Niswender, Colleen M; Lindsley, Craig W; Hopkins, Corey R

    2016-06-15

    This letter describes the further chemical optimization of the picolinamide-derived family of mGlu4 PAMs wherein we identified a 3-amino substituent to the picolinamide warhead that engendered potency, CNS penetration and in vivo efficacy. From this optimization campaign, VU0477886 emerged as a potent (EC50=95nM, 89% Glu Max) mGlu4 PAM with an attractive DMPK profile (brain:plasma Kp=1.3), rat CLp=4.0mL/min/kg, t1/2=3.7h) and robust efficacy in our standard preclinical Parkinson's disease model, haloperidol-induced catalepsy (HIC). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Power budget enhancement in NG-EPON system employing novel twisted-PAM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longsheng; Bi, Meihua; Fu, Yan; Miao, Xin; Zhu, Qingming; Hu, Weisheng

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we firstly design a novel modulation format named Twisted-PAM4 (T-PAM4) for the high-speed NG-EPON and the PON-based digital fronthaul system. Compared to other high-order modulation formats like 4-ary pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4), T-PAM4 provides two independent sampling values in each symbol period and enables two-dimensional symbol decision, which significantly improves the receiver sensitivity and hence enlarges the system power budget. Based on this advantage, six types of T-PAM4 are experimentally demonstrated in 28-Gb/s/ λ NG-PON and 32-Gb/s/ λ PON-based digital fronthaul system. The experimental results show that, compared to the ordinary PAM4, the T-PAM4 can bring 5-dB and 4-dB extra power budget in NG-EPON and PON-based fronthaul system respectively. In addition, by experiment, it is also depicted that the T-PAM4 is remarkably robust to system nonlinearity, which would ease the linearity requirement on system components and hence reduce system cost.

  19. Toponomics analysis of functional interactions of the ubiquitin ligase PAM (Protein Associated with Myc) during spinal nociceptive processing.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Sandra; Maeurer, Christian; Coste, Ovidiu; Becker, Wiebke; Schmidtko, Achim; Holland, Sabrina; Wittpoth, Claus; Geisslinger, Gerd; Scholich, Klaus

    2008-12-01

    Protein associated with Myc (PAM) is a giant E3 ubiquitin ligase of 510 kDa. Although the role of PAM during neuronal development is well established, very little is known about its function in the regulation of synaptic strength. Here we used multiepitope ligand cartography (MELC) to study protein network profiles associated with PAM during the modulation of synaptic strength. MELC is a novel imaging technology that utilizes biomathematical tools to describe protein networks after consecutive immunohistochemical visualization of up to 100 proteins on the same sample. As an in vivo model to modulate synaptic strength we used the formalin test, a common model for acute and inflammatory pain. MELC analysis was performed with 37 different antibodies or fluorescence tags on spinal cord slices and led to the identification of 1390 PAM-related motifs that distinguish untreated and formalin-treated spinal cords. The majority of these motifs related to ubiquitin-dependent processes and/or the actin cytoskeleton. We detected an intermittent colocalization of PAM and ubiquitin with TSC2, a known substrate of PAM, and the glutamate receptors mGluR5 and GLUR1. Importantly these complexes were detected exclusively in the presence of F-actin. A direct PAM/F-actin interaction was confirmed by colocalization and cosedimentation. The binding of PAM toward F-actin varied strongly between the PAM splice forms found in rat spinal cords. PAM did not ubiquitylate actin or alter actin polymerization and depolymerization. However, F-actin decreased the ubiquitin ligase activity of purified PAM. Because PAM activation is known to involve its translocation, the binding of PAM to F-actin may serve to control its subcellular localization as well as its activity. Taken together we show that defining protein network profiles by topological proteomics analysis is a useful tool to identify previously unknown protein/protein interactions that underlie synaptic processes.

  20. CIQ, a positive allosteric modulator of GluN2C/D-containing N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, rescues striatal synaptic plasticity deficit in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Nouhi, Mona; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Yao, Ning; Chergui, Karima

    2018-02-01

    To investigate if CIQ, a positive allosteric modulator of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) containing GluN2C/D subunits, rescues the loss of long-term potentiation (LTP) and forelimb-use asymmetry in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). We have used electrophysiology in brain slices and the cylinder test to examine the effect of CIQ on glutamatergic synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity, and forelimb-use in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-lesion mouse model of PD. CIQ, applied in the perfusion solution, reversibly reduced glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the dopamine-depleted striatum and had no effect in the dopamine-intact striatum. LTP, a dopamine- and NMDAR-dependent form of synaptic plasticity, was induced in the dopamine-intact striatum but was lost in the dopamine-depleted striatum. This impaired LTP was restored in the presence of CIQ applied in the perfusion solution. This treatment, however, prevented LTP induction in control slices. In brain slices from mice which received single and chronic intraperitoneal injections of CIQ, LTP was restored in the dopamine-depleted striatum and unaffected in the dopamine-intact striatum. Forelimb-use asymmetry, a test which assesses deficits in paw usage in the unilateral lesion model of PD, was reversed by systemic chronic treatment with CIQ. A positive allosteric modulator of GluN2C/D-containing NMDARs rescues LTP and forelimb-use asymmetry in a mouse model of PD. This study proposes GluN2D as a potential candidate for therapeutic intervention in PD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. PAM-4 signal delivery in one radio-over-fiber system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hada; Zhou, Wen; Yu, Jianjun

    2017-10-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate four-level pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM-4) signal delivery in a radio-over-fiber system for the first time. Over 8-Gbit/s PAM-4 signals have been transmitted over 20-km single-mode fiber-28 and 1-m wireless distance. The signal after transmission is detected directly by an envelope detector at the receiver side. The maximal bit rate could be increased if the bandpass amplifier and envelope detector have more bandwidth.

  2. Performance Comparison of 112-Gb/s DMT, Nyquist PAM4, and Partial-Response PAM4 for Future 5G Ethernet-Based Fronthaul Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Muench, Daniel; Dochhan, Annika; Griesser, Helmut; Eiselt, Michael; Olmos, Juan Jose Vegas; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur; Elbers, Joerg-Peter

    2018-05-01

    For a future 5G Ethernet-based fronthaul architecture, 100G trunk lines of a transmission distance up to 10 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) in combination with cheap grey optics to daisy chain cell site network interfaces are a promising cost- and power-efficient solution. For such a scenario, different intensity modulation and direct detect (IMDD) Formats at a data rate of 112 Gb/s, namely Nyquist four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4), discrete multi-tone Transmission (DMT) and partial-response (PR) PAM4 are experimentally investigated, using a low-cost electro-absorption modulated laser (EML), a 25G driver and current state-of-the-art high Speed 84 GS/s CMOS digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and analog-to-digital converter (ADC) test chips. Each modulation Format is optimized independently for the desired scenario and their digital signal processing (DSP) requirements are investigated. The performance of Nyquist PAM4 and PR PAM4 depend very much on the efficiency of pre- and post-equalization. We show the necessity for at least 11 FFE-taps for pre-emphasis and up to 41 FFE coefficients at the receiver side. In addition, PR PAM4 requires an MLSE with four states to decode the signal back to a PAM4 signal. On the contrary, bit- and power-loading (BL, PL) is crucial for DMT and an FFT length of at least 512 is necessary. With optimized parameters, all Modulation formats result in a very similar performances, demonstrating a transmission distance of up to 10 km over SSMF with bit error rates (BERs) below a FEC threshold of 4.4E-3, allowing error free transmission.

  3. Broadly Neutralizing Antibody PGT121 Allosterically Modulates CD4 Binding via Recognition of the HIV-1 gp120 V3 Base and Multiple Surrounding Glycans

    PubMed Central

    Julien, Jean-Philippe; Sok, Devin; Khayat, Reza; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Doores, Katie J.; Walker, Laura M.; Ramos, Alejandra; Diwanji, Devan C.; Pejchal, Robert; Cupo, Albert; Katpally, Umesh; Depetris, Rafael S.; Stanfield, Robyn L.; McBride, Ryan; Marozsan, Andre J.; Paulson, James C.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Moore, John P.; Burton, Dennis R.; Poignard, Pascal; Ward, Andrew B.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    New broad and potent neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies have recently been described that are largely dependent on the gp120 N332 glycan for Env recognition. Members of the PGT121 family of antibodies, isolated from an African donor, neutralize ∼70% of circulating isolates with a median IC50 less than 0.05 µg ml−1. Here, we show that three family members, PGT121, PGT122 and PGT123, have very similar crystal structures. A long 24-residue HCDR3 divides the antibody binding site into two functional surfaces, consisting of an open face, formed by the heavy chain CDRs, and an elongated face, formed by LCDR1, LCDR3 and the tip of the HCDR3. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of the antibody paratope reveals a crucial role in neutralization for residues on the elongated face, whereas the open face, which accommodates a complex biantennary glycan in the PGT121 structure, appears to play a more secondary role. Negative-stain EM reconstructions of an engineered recombinant Env gp140 trimer (SOSIP.664) reveal that PGT122 interacts with the gp120 outer domain at a more vertical angle with respect to the top surface of the spike than the previously characterized antibody PGT128, which is also dependent on the N332 glycan. We then used ITC and FACS to demonstrate that the PGT121 antibodies inhibit CD4 binding to gp120 despite the epitope being distal from the CD4 binding site. Together, these structural, functional and biophysical results suggest that the PGT121 antibodies may interfere with Env receptor engagement by an allosteric mechanism in which key structural elements, such as the V3 base, the N332 oligomannose glycan and surrounding glycans, including a putative V1/V2 complex biantennary glycan, are conformationally constrained. PMID:23658524

  4. Orphan Receptor GPR158 Is an Allosteric Modulator of RGS7 Catalytic Activity with an Essential Role in Dictating Its Expression and Localization in the Brain*♦

    PubMed Central

    Orlandi, Cesare; Xie, Keqiang; Masuho, Ikuo; Fajardo-Serrano, Ana; Lujan, Rafael; Martemyanov, Kirill A.

    2015-01-01

    Regulators of G protein signaling control the duration and extent of signaling via G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) pathways by accelerating the GTP hydrolysis on G protein α subunits thereby promoting termination of GPCR signaling. A member of this family, RGS7, plays a critical role in the nervous system where it regulates multiple neurotransmitter GPCRs that mediate vision, memory, and the action of addictive drugs. Previous studies have established that in vivo RGS7 forms mutually exclusive complexes with the membrane protein RGS7-binding protein or the orphan receptor GPR158. In this study, we examine the impact of GPR158 on RGS7 in the brain. We report that knock-out of GPR158 in mice results in marked post-transcriptional destabilization of RGS7 and substantial loss of its association with membranes in several brain regions. We further identified the RGS7-binding site in the C terminus of GPR158 and found that it shares significant homology with the RGS7-binding protein. The proximal portion of the GPR158 C terminus additionally contained a conserved sequence that was capable of enhancing RGS7 GTPase-activating protein activity in solution by an allosteric mechanism acting in conjunction with the regulators of the G protein signaling-binding domain. The distal portion of the GPR158 C terminus contained several phosphodiesterase E γ-like motifs and selectively recruited G proteins in their activated state. The results of this study establish GPR158 as an essential regulator of RGS7 in the native nervous system with a critical role in controlling its expression, membrane localization, and catalytic activity. PMID:25792749

  5. Escherichia coli SufE Sulfur Transfer Protein Modulates the SufS Cysteine Desulfurase through Allosteric Conformational Dynamics*♦

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harsimran; Dai, Yuyuan; Outten, F. Wayne; Busenlehner, Laura S.

    2013-01-01

    Fe-S clusters are critical metallocofactors required for cell function. Fe-S cluster biogenesis is carried out by assembly machinery consisting of multiple proteins. Fe-S cluster biogenesis proteins work together to mobilize sulfide and iron, form the nascent cluster, traffic the cluster to target metalloproteins, and regulate the assembly machinery in response to cellular Fe-S cluster demand. A complex series of protein-protein interactions is required for the assembly machinery to function properly. Despite considerable progress in obtaining static three-dimensional structures of the assembly proteins, little is known about transient protein-protein interactions during cluster assembly or the role of protein dynamics in the cluster assembly process. The Escherichia coli cysteine desulfurase SufS (EC 2.8.1.7) and its accessory protein SufE work together to mobilize persulfide from l-cysteine, which is then donated to the SufB Fe-S cluster scaffold. Here we use amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to characterize SufS-SufE interactions and protein dynamics in solution. HDX-MS analysis shows that SufE binds near the SufS active site to accept persulfide from Cys-364. Furthermore, SufE binding initiates allosteric changes in other parts of the SufS structure that likely affect SufS catalysis and alter SufS monomer-monomer interactions. SufE enhances the initial l-cysteine substrate binding to SufS and formation of the external aldimine with pyridoxal phosphate required for early steps in SufS catalysis. Together, these results provide a new picture of the SufS-SufE sulfur transferase pathway and suggest a more active role for SufE in promoting the SufS cysteine desulfurase reaction for Fe-S cluster assembly. PMID:24196966

  6. Software system for reducing PAM-2 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    A software system for reducing PAM-II data was constructed. The data reduction process concatenates data tapes; determines ephemeris; and inverts full sun extinction data. Tests of this data reduction process show that PAM-II data can be compared with data from other, similar satellites.

  7. Seasonal primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in the south: summertime is PAM time.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James

    2012-01-01

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a typically fatal, free-living amebic infection of the central nervous system (CNS), is caused by the thermophilic, freshwater protozoan, Naegleria fowleri. More than 145 cases of PAM have been reported worldwide, with most reported cases in the United States (US). Since annual PAM case clusters in the US and worldwide have demonstrated recent increases over background cases, the objectives of this investigation included (1) an epidemiological and statistical analysis of a 2007 cluster of six PAM cases in the southern US, nested in a retrospective review of 121 confirmed US cases of PAM over the period, 1937 to 2007; and (2) a statistical analysis of all existing demographic, temporal, and behavioral risk factors for PAM. Significant risk factors for PAM in the United States included male sex and warm recreational freshwater exposures in seasonal patterns (July - August) in southern tier states, including Louisiana. Although there have been a few recent survivors of PAM treated with combinations of intensive critical care, antifungals, and synergistic antibiotics, case fatality rates for PAM remain very high. PAM is best prevented by combinations of public health educational and behavioral modification strategies. Further investigations will be required to determine the significance of freshwater wakeboarding as a significant risk factor for PAM and to determine any dose-response effects of global warming on rising freshwater temperatures and the growth of aquatic Naegleria fowleri.

  8. State-Dependent Alterations in Sleep/wake Architecture Elicited by the M4 PAM VU0467154- Relation to Antipsychotic-like Drug Effects

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Robert W.; Nedelcovych, Michael T.; Gong, Xuewen; Tsai, Erica; Bubser, Michael; Bridges, Thomas M.; Wood, Michael R.; Duggan, Mark E.; Brandon, Nicholas J.; Dunlop, John; Wood, Michael W.; Ivarsson, Magnus; Noetzel, Meredith J.; Daniels, J. Scott; Niswender, Colleen M.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates direct relationships between sleep abnormalities and the severity and prevalence of other symptom clusters in schizophrenia. Assessment of potential state-dependent alterations in sleep architecture and arousal relative to antipsychotic-like activity is critical for the development of novel antipsychotic drugs (APDs). Recently, we reported that VU0467154, a selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), exhibits robust APD-like and cognitive enhancing activity in rodents. However, the state-dependent effects of VU0467154 on sleep architecture and arousal have not been examined. Using polysomnography and quantitative electroencephalographic recordings from subcranial electrodes in rats, we evaluated the effects of VU0467154, in comparison with the atypical APD clozapine and the M1/M4-preferring mAChR agonist xanomeline. VU0467154 induced state-dependent alterations in sleep architecture and arousal by delaying Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep onset, selectively increased cumulative duration of total and Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep, and increased arousal during waking periods. Clozapine decreased arousal during wake, increased cumulative NREM, and decreased REM sleep. In contrast, xanomeline increased time awake and arousal during wake, but reduced slow wave activity during NREM sleep. Additionally, in combination with the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist MK-801, modeling NMDAR hypofunction thought to underlie many symptoms in schizophrenia, both VU0467154 and clozapine attenuated MK-801-induced elevations in high frequency gamma power consistent with an APD-like mechanism of action. These findings suggest that selective M4 PAMs may represent a novel mechanism for treating multiple symptoms of schizophrenia, including disruptions in sleep architecture without a sedative profile. PMID:26617071

  9. State-dependent alterations in sleep/wake architecture elicited by the M4 PAM VU0467154 - Relation to antipsychotic-like drug effects.

    PubMed

    Gould, Robert W; Nedelcovych, Michael T; Gong, Xuewen; Tsai, Erica; Bubser, Michael; Bridges, Thomas M; Wood, Michael R; Duggan, Mark E; Brandon, Nicholas J; Dunlop, John; Wood, Michael W; Ivarsson, Magnus; Noetzel, Meredith J; Daniels, J Scott; Niswender, Colleen M; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K

    2016-03-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates direct relationships between sleep abnormalities and the severity and prevalence of other symptom clusters in schizophrenia. Assessment of potential state-dependent alterations in sleep architecture and arousal relative to antipsychotic-like activity is critical for the development of novel antipsychotic drugs (APDs). Recently, we reported that VU0467154, a selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), exhibits robust APD-like and cognitive enhancing activity in rodents. However, the state-dependent effects of VU0467154 on sleep architecture and arousal have not been examined. Using polysomnography and quantitative electroencephalographic recordings from subcranial electrodes in rats, we evaluated the effects of VU0467154, in comparison with the atypical APD clozapine and the M1/M4-preferring mAChR agonist xanomeline. VU0467154 induced state-dependent alterations in sleep architecture and arousal including delayed Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep onset, increased cumulative duration of total and Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep, and increased arousal during waking periods. Clozapine decreased arousal during wake, increased cumulative NREM, and decreased REM sleep. In contrast, xanomeline increased time awake and arousal during wake, but reduced slow wave activity during NREM sleep. Additionally, in combination with the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist MK-801, modeling NMDAR hypofunction thought to underlie many symptoms in schizophrenia, both VU0467154 and clozapine attenuated MK-801-induced elevations in high frequency gamma power consistent with an APD-like mechanism of action. These findings suggest that selective M4 PAMs may represent a novel mechanism for treating multiple symptoms of schizophrenia, including disruptions in sleep architecture without a sedative profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rescue of deficient amygdala tonic γ-aminobutyric acidergic currents in the Fmr-/y mouse model of fragile X syndrome by a novel γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-positive allosteric modulator.

    PubMed

    Martin, Brandon S; Martinez-Botella, Gabriel; Loya, Carlos M; Salituro, Francesco G; Robichaud, Albert J; Huntsman, Molly M; Ackley, Mike A; Doherty, James J; Corbin, Joshua G

    2016-06-01

    Alterations in the ratio of excitatory to inhibitory transmission are emerging as a common component of many nervous system disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Tonic γ-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) transmission provided by peri- and extrasynaptic GABA type A (GABAA ) receptors powerfully controls neuronal excitability and plasticity and, therefore, provides a rational therapeutic target for normalizing hyperexcitable networks across a variety of disorders, including ASDs. Our previous studies revealed tonic GABAergic deficits in principal excitatory neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in the Fmr1(-/y) knockout (KO) mouse model fragile X syndrome. To correct amygdala deficits in tonic GABAergic neurotransmission in Fmr1(-/y) KO mice, we developed a novel positive allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors, SGE-872, based on endogenously active neurosteroids. This study shows that SGE-872 is nearly as potent and twice as efficacious for positively modulating GABAA receptors as its parent molecule, allopregnanolone. Furthermore, at submicromolar concentrations (≤1 μM), SGE-872 is selective for tonic, extrasynaptic α4β3δ-containing GABAA receptors over typical synaptic α1β2γ2 receptors. We further find that SGE-872 strikingly rescues the tonic GABAergic transmission deficit in principal excitatory neurons in the Fmr1(-/y) KO BLA, a structure heavily implicated in the neuropathology of ASDs. Therefore, the potent and selective action of SGE-872 on tonic GABAA receptors containing α4 subunits may represent a novel and highly useful therapeutic avenue for ASDs and related disorders involving hyperexcitability of neuronal networks. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Rescue of Deficient Amygdala Tonic γ-Aminobutyric Acidergic Currents in the Fmr−/y Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome by a Novel γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor-Positive Allosteric Modulator

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Brandon S.; Martinez-Botella, Gabriel; Loya, Carlos M.; Salituro, Francesco G.; Robichaud, Albert J.; Huntsman, Molly M.; Ackley, Mike A.; Doherty, James J.; Corbin, Joshua G.

    2017-01-01

    Alterations in the ratio of excitatory to inhibitory transmission are emerging as a common component of many nervous system disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Tonic γ-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) transmission provided by peri- and extrasynaptic GABA type A (GABAA) receptors powerfully controls neuronal excitability and plasticity and, therefore, provides a rational therapeutic target for normalizing hyperexcitable networks across a variety of disorders, including ASDs. Our previous studies revealed tonic GABAergic deficits in principal excitatory neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in the Fmr1−/y knockout (KO) mouse model fragile X syndrome. To correct amygdala deficits in tonic GABAergic neurotransmission in Fmr1−/y KO mice, we developed a novel positive allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors, SGE-872, based on endogenously active neurosteroids. This study shows that SGE-872 is nearly as potent and twice as efficacious for positively modulating GABAA receptors as its parent molecule, allopregnanolone. Furthermore, at submicromolar concentrations (≤1 µM), SGE-872 is selective for tonic, extrasynaptic α4β3δ-containing GABAA receptors over typical synaptic α1β2γ2 receptors. We further find that SGE-872 strikingly rescues the tonic GABAergic transmission deficit in principal excitatory neurons in the Fmr1−/y KO BLA, a structure heavily implicated in the neuropathology of ASDs. Therefore, the potent and selective action of SGE-872 on tonic GABAA receptors containing α4 subunits may represent a novel and highly useful therapeutic avenue for ASDs and related disorders involving hyperexcitability of neuronal networks. PMID:26308557

  12. Pharmacological property optimization for allosteric ligands: A medicinal chemistry perspective.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Shawn; Albert, Jeffrey S

    2017-06-01

    New strategies to potentially improve drug safety and efficacy emerge with allosteric programs. Biased allosteric modulators can be designed with high subtype selectivity and defined receptor signaling endpoints, however, selecting the most meaningful parameters for optimization can be perplexing. Historically, "potency hunting" at the expense of physicochemical and pharmacokinetic optimization has led to numerous tool compounds with excellent pharmacological properties but no path to drug development. Conversely, extensive physicochemical and pharmacokinetic screening with only post hoc bias and allosteric characterization has led to inefficacious compounds or compounds with on-target toxicities. This field is rapidly evolving with new mechanistic understanding, changes in terminology, and novel opportunities. The intent of this digest is to summarize current understanding and debates within the field. We aim to discuss, from a medicinal chemistry perspective, the parameter choices available to drive SAR. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Allosteric dynamics of SAMHD1 studied by molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, K. K.; Bhattacharya, A.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2016-10-01

    SAMHD1 is a human cellular enzyme that blocks HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells and non-cycling CD4+T cells. The enzyme is an allosterically regulated triphosphohydrolase that modulates the level of cellular dNTP. The virus restriction is attributed to the lowering of the pool of dNTP in the cell to a point where reverse-transcription is impaired. Mutations in SAMHD1 are also implicated in Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome. A mechanistic understanding of the allosteric activation of the enzyme is still elusive. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations to examine the allosteric site dynamics of the protein and to examine the connection between the stability of the tetrameric complex and the Allosite occupancy.

  14. Molecular basis for the role of glucokinase regulatory protein as the allosteric switch for glucokinase.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung Min; Seo, Moon-Hyeong; Kyeong, Hyun-Ho; Kim, Eunkyung; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2013-06-18

    Glucokinase (GK) is a monomeric allosteric enzyme and plays a pivotal role in blood glucose homeostasis. GK is regulated by GK regulatory protein (GKRP), and indirectly by allosteric effectors of GKRP. Despite the critical roles of GK and GKRP, the molecular basis for the allosteric regulation mechanism of GK by GKRP remains unclear. We determined the crystal structure of Xenopus GK and GKRP complex in the presence of fructose-6-phosphate at 2.9 Å. GKRP binds to a super-open conformation of GK mainly through hydrophobic interaction, inhibiting the GK activity by locking a small domain of GK. We demonstrate the molecular mechanism for the modulation of GK activity by allosteric effectors of GKRP. Importantly, GKRP releases GK in a sigmoidal manner in response to glucose concentration by restricting a structural rearrangement of the GK small domain via a single ion pair. We find that GKRP acts as an allosteric switch for GK in blood glucose control by the liver.

  15. Pluggable Authorization and Distributed Enforcement with pam_xacml

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klenk, Andreas; Heide, Tobias; Radier, Benoit; Salaun, Mikael; Carle, Georg

    Access control is a critical functionality in distributed systems. Services and resources must be protected from unauthorized access. The prevalent practice is that service specific policies reside at the services and govern the access control. It is hard to keep distributed authorization policies consistent with the global security policy of an organization. A recent trend is to unify the different policies in one coherent authorization policy. XACML is a prominent XML standard for formulating authorization rules and for implementing different authorization models. Unifying authorization policies requires an integration of the authorization method with a large application base. The XACML standard does not provide a strategy for the integration of XACML with existing applications. We present pam_xacml, an authorization extension for the Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM). We argue how existing applications can leverage XACML without modification and state the benefits of using our extended version of the authorization API for PAM. Our experimental results quantify the impact of security and connection establishment of using remote Policy Decision Points (PDP). Our approach provides a method for introducing XACML authorization into existing applications and is an important step towards unified authorization policies.

  16. Probing the enzyme kinetics, allosteric modulation and activation of α1- and α2-subunit-containing AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) heterotrimeric complexes by pharmacological and physiological activators.

    PubMed

    Rajamohan, Francis; Reyes, Allan R; Frisbie, Richard K; Hoth, Lise R; Sahasrabudhe, Parag; Magyar, Rachelle; Landro, James A; Withka, Jane M; Caspers, Nicole L; Calabrese, Matthew F; Ward, Jessica; Kurumbail, Ravi G

    2016-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that serves as a pleotropic regulator of whole body energy homoeostasis. AMPK exists as a heterotrimeric complex, composed of a catalytic subunit (α) and two regulatory subunits (β and γ), each present as multiple isoforms. In the present study, we compared the enzyme kinetics and allosteric modulation of six recombinant AMPK isoforms, α1β1γ1, α1β2γ1, α1β2γ3, α2β1γ1, α2β2γ1 and α2β2γ3 using known activators, A769662 and AMP. The α1-containing complexes exhibited higher specific activities and lower Km values for a widely used peptide substrate (SAMS) compared with α2-complexes. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based direct binding measurements revealed biphasic binding modes with two distinct equilibrium binding constants for AMP, ADP and ATP across all isoforms tested. The α2-complexes were ∼25-fold more sensitive than α1-complexes to dephosphorylation of a critical threonine on their activation loop (pThr(172/174)). However, α2-complexes were more readily activated by AMP than α1-complexes. Compared with β1-containing heterotrimers, β2-containing AMPK isoforms are less sensitive to activation by A769662, a synthetic activator. These data demonstrate that ligand induced activation of AMPK isoforms may vary significantly based on their AMPK subunit composition. Our studies provide insights for the design of isoform-selective AMPK activators for the treatment of metabolic diseases. © 2016 Authors.

  17. Probing the enzyme kinetics, allosteric modulation and activation of α1- and α2-subunit-containing AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) heterotrimeric complexes by pharmacological and physiological activators

    PubMed Central

    Rajamohan, Francis; Reyes, Allan R.; Frisbie, Richard K.; Hoth, Lise R.; Sahasrabudhe, Parag; Magyar, Rachelle; Landro, James A.; Withka, Jane M.; Caspers, Nicole L.; Calabrese, Matthew F.; Ward, Jessica; Kurumbail, Ravi G.

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that serves as a pleotropic regulator of whole body energy homoeostasis. AMPK exists as a heterotrimeric complex, composed of a catalytic subunit (α) and two regulatory subunits (β and γ), each present as multiple isoforms. In the present study, we compared the enzyme kinetics and allosteric modulation of six recombinant AMPK isoforms, α1β1γ1, α1β2γ1, α1β2γ3, α2β1γ1, α2β2γ1 and α2β2γ3 using known activators, A769662 and AMP. The α1-containing complexes exhibited higher specific activities and lower Km values for a widely used peptide substrate (SAMS) compared with α2-complexes. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based direct binding measurements revealed biphasic binding modes with two distinct equilibrium binding constants for AMP, ADP and ATP across all isoforms tested. The α2-complexes were ∼25-fold more sensitive than α1-complexes to dephosphorylation of a critical threonine on their activation loop (pThr172/174). However, α2-complexes were more readily activated by AMP than α1-complexes. Compared with β1-containing heterotrimers, β2-containing AMPK isoforms are less sensitive to activation by A769662, a synthetic activator. These data demonstrate that ligand induced activation of AMPK isoforms may vary significantly based on their AMPK subunit composition. Our studies provide insights for the design of isoform-selective AMPK activators for the treatment of metabolic diseases. PMID:26635351

  18. EEG-β/γ spectral power elevation in rat: a translatable biomarker elicited by GABA(Aα2/3)-positive allosteric modulators at nonsedating anxiolytic doses.

    PubMed

    Christian, Edward P; Snyder, Dean H; Song, Wei; Gurley, David A; Smolka, Joanne; Maier, Donna L; Ding, Min; Gharahdaghi, Farzin; Liu, Xiaodong F; Chopra, Maninder; Ribadeneira, Maria; Chapdelaine, Marc J; Dudley, Adam; Arriza, Jeffrey L; Maciag, Carla; Quirk, Michael C; Doherty, James J

    2015-01-01

    Benzodiazepine drugs, through interaction with GABA(Aα1), GABA(Aα2,3), and GABA(Aα5) subunits, modulate cortical network oscillations, as reflected by a complex signature in the EEG power spectrum. Recent drug discovery efforts have developed GABA(Aα2,3)-subunit-selective partial modulators in an effort to dissociate the side effect liabilities from the efficacy imparted by benzodiazepines. Here, we evaluated rat EEG and behavioral end points during dosing of nine chemically distinct compounds that we confirmed statistically to selectively to enhance GABA(Aα2,3)-mediated vs. GABA(Aα1) or GABA(Aα5) currents in voltage clamped oocytes transfected with those GABA(A) subunits. These compounds were shown with in vivo receptor occupancy techniques to competitively displace [(3)H]flumazenil in multiple brain regions following peripheral administration at increasing doses. Over the same dose range, the compounds all produced dose-dependent EEG spectral power increases in the β- and and γ-bands. Finally, the dose range that increased γ-power coincided with that eliciting punished over unpunished responding in a behavioral conflict model of anxiety, indicative of anxiolysis without sedation. EEG γ-band power increases showed a significant positive correlation to in vitro GABA(Aα2,3) modulatory intrinsic activity across the compound set, further supporting a hypothesis that this EEG signature was linked specifically to pharmacological modulation of GABA(Aα2,3) signaling. These findings encourage further evaluation of this EEG signature as a noninvasive clinical translational biomarker that could ultimately facilitate development of GABA(Aα2,3)-subtype-selective drugs for anxiety and potentially other indications. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. PAMS photo image retrieval prototype alternatives analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, M.L.

    1996-04-30

    Photography and Audiovisual Services uses a system called the Photography and Audiovisual Management System (PAMS) to perform order entry and billing services. The PAMS system utilizes Revelation Technologies database management software, AREV. Work is currently in progress to link the PAMS AREV system to a Microsoft SQL Server database engine to provide photograph indexing and query capabilities. The link between AREV and SQLServer will use a technique called ``bonding.`` This photograph imaging subsystem will interface to the PAMS system and handle the image capture and retrieval portions of the project. The intent of this alternatives analysis is to examine themore » software and hardware alternatives available to meet the requirements for this project, and identify a cost-effective solution.« less

  20. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Assessment of Biased Allosteric Modulation of the Urotensin II Receptor Using Achiral 1,3,4-Benzotriazepin-2-one Turn Mimics.

    PubMed

    Douchez, Antoine; Billard, Etienne; Hébert, Terence E; Chatenet, David; Lubell, William D

    2017-12-14

    Benzotriazepin-2-ones were designed to mimic the suggested bioactive γ-turn conformation of the Bip-Lys-Tyr tripeptide in Urocontrin ([Bip 4 ]URP), which modulates the urotensin II receptor (UT) and differentiates the effects of the endogenous ligands urotensin II (UII) and urotensin II-related peptide (URP). Twenty-six benzotriazepin-2-ones were synthesized by acylation of anthranilate-derived amino ketones with an aza-glycine equivalent, chemoselective nitrogen functionalization, and ring closure. Several mimics exhibited selective modulatory effects on hUII- and URP-associated vasoconstriction in an ex vivo rat aortic ring bioassay. The C 5 p-hydroxyphenethenyl benzotriazepin-2-one 20g decreased hUII potency and efficacy without changing URP induced vasoconstriction. Its saturated phenethyl counterpart 23g decreased URP potency without influencing hUII-mediated contraction. To our knowledge, 20g and 23g represent the first achiral molecules that modulate selectively hUII and URP biological activities. Effectively synthesized, benzotriaepin-2-one turn mimics offer the potential to differentiate the respective roles, signaling pathways, and phenotypic outcomes of hUII and URP in the UT system.

  1. Deployment of the PAMS-STU

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-22

    S77-E-5068 (22 May 1996) --- The Satellite Test Unit (STU), part of the Passive Aerodynamically Stabilized Magnetically Damped Satellite (PAMS) is seen moments after its ejection from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Endeavour. The scene was photographed with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC) onboard Endeavour's crew cabin during the deployment. The six-member crew will continue operations (tracking, rendezvousing and station-keeping) with PAMS-STU periodically throughout the remainder of the mission.

  2. Deployment of the PAMS-STU

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-22

    S77-E-5069 (22 May 1996) --- The Satellite Test Unit (STU), part of the Passive Aerodynamically Stabilized Magnetically Damped Satellite (PAMS) is seen moments after its ejection from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Endeavour. The scene was photographed with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC) onboard Endeavour's crew cabin during the deployment. The six-member crew will continue operations (tracking, rendezvousing and station-keeping) with PAMS-STU periodically throughout the remainder of the mission.

  3. Deployment of the PAMS-STU

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-22

    S77-E-5067 (22 May 1996) --- The Satellite Test Unit (STU), part of the Passive Aerodynamically Stabilized Magnetically Damped Satellite (PAMS) is seen moments after its ejection from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Endeavour. The scene was photographed with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC) onboard Endeavour's crew cabin during the deployment. The six-member crew will continue operations (tracking, rendezvousing and station-keeping) with PAMS-STU periodically throughout the remainder of the mission.

  4. Deciphering, Communicating, and Engineering the CRISPR PAM.

    PubMed

    Leenay, Ryan T; Beisel, Chase L

    2017-01-20

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci and their flanking CRISPR-associated (cas) genes make up RNA-guided, adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes whose effector proteins have become powerful tools for basic research and biotechnology. While the Cas effector proteins are remarkably diverse, they commonly rely on protospacer-adjacent motifs (PAMs) as the first step in target recognition. PAM sequences are known to vary considerably between systems and have proven to be difficult to predict, spurring the need for new tools to rapidly identify and communicate these sequences. Recent advances have also shown that Cas proteins can be engineered to alter PAM recognition, opening new opportunities to develop CRISPR-based tools with enhanced targeting capabilities. In this review, we discuss the properties of the CRISPR PAM and the emerging tools for determining, visualizing, and engineering PAM recognition. We also propose a standard means of orienting the PAM to simplify how its location and sequence are communicated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural basis for the cooperative allosteric activation of the free fatty acid receptor GPR40

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jun; Byrne, Noel; Wang, John

    2017-06-05

    Clinical studies indicate that partial agonists of the G-protein-coupled, free fatty acid receptor 1 GPR40 enhance glucose-dependent insulin secretion and represent a potential mechanism for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Full allosteric agonists (AgoPAMs) of GPR40 bind to a site distinct from partial agonists and can provide additional efficacy. We report the 3.2-Å crystal structure of human GPR40 (hGPR40) in complex with both the partial agonist MK-8666 and an AgoPAM, which exposes a novel lipid-facing AgoPAM-binding pocket outside the transmembrane helical bundle. Comparison with an additional 2.2-Å structure of the hGPR40–MK-8666 binary complex reveals an induced-fit conformational couplingmore » between the partial agonist and AgoPAM binding sites, involving rearrangements of the transmembrane helices 4 and 5 (TM4 and TM5) and transition of the intracellular loop 2 (ICL2) into a short helix. These conformational changes likely prime GPR40 to a more active-like state and explain the binding cooperativity between these ligands.« less

  6. Antipsychotic-like effects of M4 positive allosteric modulators are mediated by CB2 cannabinoid receptor-dependent inhibition of dopamine release

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Daniel J.; Wilson, Jermaine M.; Remke, Daniel H.; Muhammad, M. Suhaib; Uddin, M. Jashim; Wess, Jürgen; Patel, Sachin; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Niswender, Colleen M.; Jones, Carrie K.; Xiang, Zixiu; Lindsley, Craig W.; Rook, Jerri M.; Conn, P. Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Summary Muscarinic receptors represent a promising therapeutic target for schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underlying the antipsychotic efficacy of muscarinic modulators are not well understood. Here we report that activation of M4 receptors on striatal spiny projection neurons results in a novel form of dopaminergic regulation resulting in a sustained depression of striatal dopamine release that is observed more than 30 minutes after removal of the muscarinic receptor agonist. Furthermore, both the M4-mediated sustained inhibition of dopamine release and the antipsychotic-like efficacy of M4 activators were found to require intact signaling through CB2 cannabinoid receptors. These findings highlight a novel mechanism by which striatal cholinergic and cannabinoid signaling leads to sustained reductions in dopaminergic transmission and concurrent behavioral effects predictive of antipsychotic efficacy. PMID:27618677

  7. Achievable Strength-Based Signal Detection in Quantity-Constrained PAM OOK Concentration-Encoded Molecular Communication.

    PubMed

    Mahfuz, Mohammad Upal

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the expressions of achievable strength-based detection probabilities of concentration-encoded molecular communication (CEMC) system have been derived based on finite pulsewidth (FP) pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) on-off keying (OOK) modulation scheme and strength threshold. An FP-PAM system is characterized by its duty cycle α that indicates the fraction of the entire symbol duration the transmitter remains on and transmits the signal. Results show that the detection performance of an FP-PAM OOK CEMC system significantly depends on the statistical distribution parameters of diffusion-based propagation noise and intersymbol interference (ISI). Analytical detection performance of an FP-PAM OOK CEMC system under ISI scenario has been explained and compared based on receiver operating characteristics (ROC) for impulse (i.e., spike)-modulated (IM) and FP-PAM CEMC schemes. It is shown that the effects of diffusion noise and ISI on ROC can be explained separately based on their communication range-dependent statistics. With full duty cycle, an FP-PAM scheme provides significantly worse performance than an IM scheme. The paper also analyzes the performance of the system when duty cycle, transmission data rate, and quantity of molecules vary.

  8. PAM in irrigated agriculture: Processes and soil-PAM interactions influencing canal sealing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To identify or develop alternative polymers, which may successfully replace PAM as an irrigation reservoir or canal sealant, it is important to understand the nature of the sealing processes in these unlined, earthen irrigation structures and how PAM interacts with those processes to alter water see...

  9. Tropical cyclone Pam field survey in Vanuatu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Hermann M.; Pilarczyk, Jessica E.; Kosciuch, Thomas; Hong, Isabel; Rarai, Allan; Harrison, Morris J.; Jockley, Fred R.; Horton, Benjamin P.

    2016-04-01

    Severe tropical cyclone Pam (Cat. 5, SSHS) crossed the Vanuatu archipelago with sustained winds of 270 km/h on March 13 and 14, 2015 and made landfall on Erromango. Pam is the most intense tropical cyclone to make landfall on Vanuatu since the advent of satellite imagery based intensity estimates in the 1970s. Pam caused one of the worst natural disaster in Vanuatu's recorded history. Eleven fatalities were directly attributed to cyclone Pam and mostly due to lack of shelter from airborne debris. On March 6 Pam formed east of the Santa Cruz Islands causing coastal inundation on Tuvalu's Vaitupu Island located some 1100 km east of the cyclone center. Pam intensified while tracking southward along Vanuatu severely affecting the Shefa and Tafea Provinces. An international storm surge reconnaissance team was deployed to Vanuatu from June 3 to 17, 2015 to complement earlier local surveys. Cyclone Pam struck a remote island archipelago particularly vulnerable to the combined cyclonic multi-hazards encompassing extreme wind gusts, massive rainfall and coastal flooding due to a combination of storm surge and storm wave impacts. The team surveyed coastal villages on Epi, the Shepherd Islands (Tongoa and Mataso), Efate (including Lelepa), Erromango, and Tanna. The survey spanned 320 km parallel to the cyclone track between Epi and Tanna encompassing more than 45 sites including the hardest hit settlements. Coastal flooding profiles were surveyed from the shoreline to the limit of inundation. Maximum coastal flood elevations and overland flow depths were measured based on water marks on buildings, scars on trees, rafted debris and corroborated with eyewitness accounts. We surveyed 91 high water marks with characteristic coastal flood levels in the 3 to 7 m range and composed of storm surge with superimposed storm waves. Inundation distances were mostly limited to a few hundred meters but reached 800 m on Epi Island. Wrack lines containing pumice perfectly delineated the

  10. Molecular Dynamics Simulations Reveal the Mechanisms of Allosteric Activation of Hsp90 by Designed Ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vettoretti, Gerolamo; Moroni, Elisabetta; Sattin, Sara; Tao, Jiahui; Agard, David A.; Bernardi, Anna; Colombo, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    Controlling biochemical pathways through chemically designed modulators may provide novel opportunities to develop therapeutic drugs and chemical tools. The underlying challenge is to design new molecular entities able to act as allosteric chemical switches that selectively turn on/off functions by modulating the conformational dynamics of their target protein. We examine the origins of the stimulation of ATPase and closure kinetics in the molecular chaperone Hsp90 by allosteric modulators through atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and analysis of protein-ligand interactions. In particular, we focus on the cross-talk between allosteric ligands and protein conformations and its effect on the dynamic properties of the chaperone’s active state. We examine the impact of different allosteric modulators on the stability, structural and internal dynamics properties of Hsp90 closed state. A critical aspect of this study is the development of a quantitative model that correlates Hsp90 activation to the presence of a certain compound, making use of information on the dynamic adaptation of protein conformations to the presence of the ligand, which allows to capture conformational states relevant in the activation process. We discuss the implications of considering the conformational dialogue between allosteric ligands and protein conformations for the design of new functional modulators.

  11. 64 Gb/s PAM4 VCSEL-based FSO link.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Ho, Chun-Ming; Cheng, Ming-Te; Lin, Xin-Yao; Yang, Zih-Yi; Chen, Hwan-Wei

    2017-03-06

    A 64 Gb/s four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL)-based free-space optical (FSO) link with an external light injection scheme is proposed and successfully demonstrated. Experimental results show that the 11.2 GHz VCSEL with an external light injection scheme is sufficiently powerful for 64 Gb/s PAM4 FSO links. This study is the first one that adopts a 1550-nm VCSEL transmitter with an external light injection scheme in a 64 Gb/s PAM4 FSO link. The link performances of the proposed PAM4 VCSEL-based FSO links have been analyzed in real-time in terms of eye diagrams and offline processed by Matlab in terms of bit error rate (BER) performances. Good BER performance and clear eye diagrams are acquired over a 100-m free-space link. Such a proposed 64 Gb/s PAM4 VCSEL-based FSO link with an external light injection scheme is a promising one for providing high transmission rate and long transmission distance.

  12. OFDM and PAM comparison using a high baudrate low resolution IM/DD interface for 400G Ethernet access.

    PubMed

    André, Nuno Sequeira; Louchet, Hadrien; Filsinger, Volker; Hansen, Erik; Richter, André

    2016-05-30

    We compare OFDM and PAM for 400G Ethernet based on a 3-bit high baudrate IM/DD interface at 1550nm. We demonstrate 27Gb/s and 32Gb/s transmission over 10km SSMF using OFDM and PAM respectively. We show that capacity can be improved through adaptation/equalization to achieve 42Gb/s and 64Gb/s for OFDM and PAM respectively. Experimental results are used to create realistic simulations to extrapolate the performance of both modulation formats under varied conditions. For the considered interface we found that PAM has the best performance, OFDM is impaired by quantization noise. When the resolution limitation is relaxed, OFDM shows better performance.

  13. Biased signalling and allosteric machines: new vistas and challenges for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Kenakin, Terry P

    2012-03-01

    Seven transmembrane receptors (7TMRs) are nature's prototype allosteric proteins made to bind molecules at one location to subsequently change their shape to affect the binding of another molecule at another location. This paper attempts to describe the divergent 7TMR behaviours (i.e. third party allostery, receptor oligomerization, biased agonism) observed in pharmacology in terms of a homogeneous group of allosteric behaviours. By considering the bodies involved as a vector defined by a modulator, conduit and guest, these activities can all be described by a simple model of functional allostery made up of the Ehlert allosteric model and the Black/Leff operational model. It will be shown how this model yields parameters that can be used to characterize the activity of any ligand or protein producing effect through allosteric interaction with a 7TMR. © 2011 The Author. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Structure-Based Predictive Models for Allosteric Hot Spots

    PubMed Central

    Demerdash, Omar N. A.; Daily, Michael D.; Mitchell, Julie C.

    2009-01-01

    In allostery, a binding event at one site in a protein modulates the behavior of a distant site. Identifying residues that relay the signal between sites remains a challenge. We have developed predictive models using support-vector machines, a widely used machine-learning method. The training data set consisted of residues classified as either hotspots or non-hotspots based on experimental characterization of point mutations from a diverse set of allosteric proteins. Each residue had an associated set of calculated features. Two sets of features were used, one consisting of dynamical, structural, network, and informatic measures, and another of structural measures defined by Daily and Gray [1]. The resulting models performed well on an independent data set consisting of hotspots and non-hotspots from five allosteric proteins. For the independent data set, our top 10 models using Feature Set 1 recalled 68–81% of known hotspots, and among total hotspot predictions, 58–67% were actual hotspots. Hence, these models have precision P = 58–67% and recall R = 68–81%. The corresponding models for Feature Set 2 had P = 55–59% and R = 81–92%. We combined the features from each set that produced models with optimal predictive performance. The top 10 models using this hybrid feature set had R = 73–81% and P = 64–71%, the best overall performance of any of the sets of models. Our methods identified hotspots in structural regions of known allosteric significance. Moreover, our predicted hotspots form a network of contiguous residues in the interior of the structures, in agreement with previous work. In conclusion, we have developed models that discriminate between known allosteric hotspots and non-hotspots with high accuracy and sensitivity. Moreover, the pattern of predicted hotspots corresponds to known functional motifs implicated in allostery, and is consistent with previous work describing sparse networks of allosterically important

  15. Towards a structural understanding of allosteric drugs at the human calcium-sensing receptor.

    PubMed

    Leach, Katie; Gregory, Karen J; Kufareva, Irina; Khajehali, Elham; Cook, Anna E; Abagyan, Ruben; Conigrave, Arthur D; Sexton, Patrick M; Christopoulos, Arthur

    2016-05-01

    Drugs that allosterically target the human calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) have substantial therapeutic potential, but are currently limited. Given the absence of high-resolution structures of the CaSR, we combined mutagenesis with a novel analytical approach and molecular modeling to develop an "enriched" picture of structure-function requirements for interaction between Ca(2+)o and allosteric modulators within the CaSR's 7 transmembrane (7TM) domain. An extended cavity that accommodates multiple binding sites for structurally diverse ligands was identified. Phenylalkylamines bind to a site that overlaps with a putative Ca(2+)o-binding site and extends towards an extracellular vestibule. In contrast, the structurally and pharmacologically distinct AC-265347 binds deeper within the 7TM domains. Furthermore, distinct amino acid networks were found to mediate cooperativity by different modulators. These findings may facilitate the rational design of allosteric modulators with distinct and potentially pathway-biased pharmacological effects.

  16. Allosteric Pathways in the PPARγ-RXRα nuclear receptor complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Clarisse G.; Silveira, Rodrigo L.; Rivalta, Ivan; Batista, Victor S.; Skaf, Munir S.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of allostery in DNA-nuclear receptor (NR) complexes is of fundamental importance for drug development since NRs regulate the transcription of a myriad of genes in humans and other metazoans. Here, we investigate allostery in the peroxisome proliferator-activated/retinoid X receptor heterodimer. This important NR complex is a target for antidiabetic drugs since it binds to DNA and functions as a transcription factor essential for insulin sensitization and lipid metabolism. We find evidence of interdependent motions of Ω-loops and PPARγ-DNA binding domain with contacts susceptible to conformational changes and mutations, critical for regulating transcriptional functions in response to sequence-dependent DNA dynamics. Statistical network analysis of the correlated motions, observed in molecular dynamics simulations, shows preferential allosteric pathways with convergence centers comprised of polar amino acid residues. These findings are particularly relevant for the design of allosteric modulators of ligand-dependent transcription factors.

  17. Interference by pralidoxime (PAM) salts in clinical laboratory tests.

    PubMed

    Nagase, Sumika; Kohguchi, Katsunori; Tohyama, Kaoru; Watanabe, Mikio; Iwatani, Yoshinori

    2013-02-01

    Drugs sometimes alter the results of clinical laboratory tests. We examined the effects of pralidoxime (PAM) salts, a medicine used to treat organophosphorus poisoning, on clinical laboratory test results for the first time. The effects of PAM salts on glucose (GLU) measurements were examined using a point-of-care testing (POCT) meter, four self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) meters, and two biochemical autoanalyzers. The effects of PAM salts on other clinical tests were also evaluated. The addition of PAM iodide or potassium iodide, but not of PAM chloride or potassium chloride, to blood samples increased the GLU values measured by one POCT meter and 4 SMBG meters using the enzyme electrode (hydrogen peroxidase or oxygen electrode) method. On the other hand, PAM iodide or PAM chloride, but not KI or KCl, affected the values measured at 340 nm by an autoanalyzer using absorption spectrophotometry in 8 of 14 clinical laboratory tests. The absorption spectrum of PAM changed from 294 to 338 nm due to the reaction between PAM and the alkaline buffer, a component of the measuring reagents. PAM iodide increases the GLU values measured by the enzyme electrode method, and PAM salts affected the values measured at 340 nm by absorption spectrophotometry in many other clinical test items. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacological characterization of N‐[(2S)‐5‐(6‐fluoro‐3‐pyridinyl)‐2, 3‐dihydro‐1H‐inden‐2‐yl]‐2‐propanesulfonamide: a novel, clinical AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulator

    PubMed Central

    Beswick, Paul; Calcinaghi, Novella; Dawson, Lee A; Gartlon, Jane; Graziani, Francesca; Jones, Declan N C; Lacroix, Laurent; Selina Mok, M H; Oliosi, Beatrice; Pardoe, Joanne; Starr, Kathryn; Woolley, Marie L; Harries, Mark H

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulators represent a potential therapeutic strategy to improve cognition in people with schizophrenia. These studies collectively constitute the preclinical pharmacology data package used to build confidence in the pharmacology of this molecule and enable a clinical trial application. Experimental Approach [N‐[(2S)‐5‐(6‐fluoro‐3‐pyridinyl)‐2,3‐dihydro 1H–inden‐2‐yl]‐2‐propanesulfonamide] (UoS12258) was profiled in a number of in vitro and in vivo studies to highlight its suitability as a novel therapeutic agent. Key Results We demonstrated that UoS12258 is a selective, positive allosteric modulator of the AMPA receptor. At rat native hetero‐oligomeric AMPA receptors, UoS12258 displayed a minimum effective concentration of approximately 10 nM in vitro and enhanced AMPA receptor‐mediated synaptic transmission at an estimated free brain concentration of approximately 15 nM in vivo. UoS12258 reversed a delay‐induced deficit in novel object recognition in rats after both acute and sub‐chronic dosing. Sub‐chronic dosing reduced the minimum effective dose from 0.3 to 0.03 mg·kg−1. UoS12258 was also effective at improving performance in two other cognition models, passive avoidance in scopolamine‐impaired rats and water maze learning and retention in aged rats. In side‐effect profiling studies, UoS12258 did not produce significant changes in the maximal electroshock threshold test at doses below 10 mg·kg−1. Conclusion and Implications We conclude that UoS12258 is a potent and selective AMPA receptor modulator exhibiting cognition enhancing properties in several rat behavioural models superior to other molecules that have previously entered clinical evaluation. PMID:28009436

  19. Scaling single-wavelength optical interconnects to 180 Gb/s with PAM-M and pulse shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dris, Stefanos; Bakopoulos, Paraskevas; Argyris, Nikolaos; Spatharakis, Christos; Avramopoulos, Hercules

    2016-03-01

    Faced with surging datacenter traffic demand, system designers are turning to multi-level optical modulation with direct detection as the means of reaching 100 Gb/s in a single optical lane; a further upgrade to 400 Gb/s is envisaged through wavelength-multiplexing of multiple 100 Gb/s strands. In terms of modulation formats, PAM-4 and PAM-8 are considered the front-runners, striking a good balance between bandwidth-efficiency and implementation complexity. In addition, the emergence of energy-efficient, high-speed CMOS digital-to-analog converters (DACs) opens up new possibilities: Spectral shaping through digital filtering will allow squeezing even more data through low-cost, low-bandwidth electro-optic components. In this work we demonstrate an optical interconnect based on an EAM that is driven directly with sub-volt electrical swing by a 65 GSa/s arbitrary waveform generator (AWG). Low-voltage drive is particularly attractive since it allows direct interfacing with the switch/server ASIC, eliminating the need for dedicated, power-hungry and expensive electrical drivers. Single-wavelength throughputs of 180 and 120 Gb/s are experimentally demonstrated with 60 Gbaud optical PAM-8 and PAM-4 respectively. Successful transmission over 1250 m SMF is achieved with direct-detection, using linear equalization via offline digital signal processing in order to overcome the strong bandwidth limitation of the overall link (~20 GHz). The suitability of Nyquist pulse shaping for optical interconnects is also investigated experimentally with PAM-4 and PAM-8, at a lower symbol rate of 40 Gbaud (limited by the sampling rate of the AWG). To the best of our knowledge, the rates achieved are the highest ever using optical PAM-M formats.

  20. BicPAMS: software for biological data analysis with pattern-based biclustering.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Rui; Ferreira, Francisco L; Madeira, Sara C

    2017-02-02

    Biclustering has been largely applied for the unsupervised analysis of biological data, being recognised today as a key technique to discover putative modules in both expression data (subsets of genes correlated in subsets of conditions) and network data (groups of coherently interconnected biological entities). However, given its computational complexity, only recent breakthroughs on pattern-based biclustering enabled efficient searches without the restrictions that state-of-the-art biclustering algorithms place on the structure and homogeneity of biclusters. As a result, pattern-based biclustering provides the unprecedented opportunity to discover non-trivial yet meaningful biological modules with putative functions, whose coherency and tolerance to noise can be tuned and made problem-specific. To enable the effective use of pattern-based biclustering by the scientific community, we developed BicPAMS (Biclustering based on PAttern Mining Software), a software that: 1) makes available state-of-the-art pattern-based biclustering algorithms (BicPAM (Henriques and Madeira, Alg Mol Biol 9:27, 2014), BicNET (Henriques and Madeira, Alg Mol Biol 11:23, 2016), BicSPAM (Henriques and Madeira, BMC Bioinforma 15:130, 2014), BiC2PAM (Henriques and Madeira, Alg Mol Biol 11:1-30, 2016), BiP (Henriques and Madeira, IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinforma, 2015), DeBi (Serin and Vingron, AMB 6:1-12, 2011) and BiModule (Okada et al., IPSJ Trans Bioinf 48(SIG5):39-48, 2007)); 2) consistently integrates their dispersed contributions; 3) further explores additional accuracy and efficiency gains; and 4) makes available graphical and application programming interfaces. Results on both synthetic and real data confirm the relevance of BicPAMS for biological data analysis, highlighting its essential role for the discovery of putative modules with non-trivial yet biologically significant functions from expression and network data. BicPAMS is the first biclustering tool offering the

  1. An Analysis of the SLA-PAM Mailing List: What is SLA-PAM Doing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barve, S.; Dongare, S.

    2010-10-01

    The Physics-Astronomy-Mathematics (PAM) Division of the Special Libraries Association maintains an electronic discussion group which is referred to as PAMnet. In the present paper the PAM mailing list is analyzed from various points of view such as: different topics covered in this list, general nature of the mailing list, yearly postings, individual librarian's postings, postings from different countries, active participants, postings by publishers, postings on current topics, etc. The mailing list archive is available online from August 1998. It is an active mailing list where members get answers to their queries quickly. In the present paper, the mailing list is analyzed in detail to review trends in PAM libraries. A total number of 13 958 email messages (August 1998-September 2009) are analyzed to assess different trends.

  2. Psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries: demographics and disease status. The Nordic PAM study.

    PubMed

    Gudbjornsson, B; Ejstrup, L; Gran, J T; Iversen, L; Lindqvist, U; Paimela, L; Ternowitz, T; Ståhle, M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries. Patients with putative PAM aged ≥ 18 years were recruited. Fifty-nine patients were included after clinical examination. The prevalence of PAM in the adult Nordic population was estimated to be 3.69 per million inhabitants [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.75-4.63]. The female to male ratio was close to 1:1. The mean age of skin disease onset was 25 years and the mean age of onset of joint disease was 30 years. The onset of skin disease was 2 years earlier among female patients. At inclusion, the mean duration of arthritis was 27 ± 11 years for male patients and 33 ± 11 years for female patients. PAM was most frequently seen in the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints of the toes, followed by the IP joint of the thumb and the DIP joint of the little finger on the left hand. Female and male patients had similar numbers of painful and swollen joints. Enthesitis was found in 19 patients (32%), while 38 patients (64%) had a history of dactylitis. Twenty-three of these 38 patients (61%) had a history of dactylitis in the same finger/toe as they had PAM. At the time of inclusion, 45% of the patients were found to have clear or almost clear skin. PAM in the Nordic countries has a low prevalence, with only three to five cases per million inhabitants. The majority of the patients present with mild skin disease.

  3. Pro-2-PAM therapy for central and peripheral cholinesterases.

    PubMed

    Demar, James C; Clarkson, Edward D; Ratcliffe, Ruthie H; Campbell, Amy J; Thangavelu, Sonia G; Herdman, Christine A; Leader, Haim; Schulz, Susan M; Marek, Elizabeth; Medynets, Marie A; Ku, Therese C; Evans, Sarah A; Khan, Farhat A; Owens, Roberta R; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Gordon, Richard K

    2010-09-06

    Novel therapeutics to overcome the toxic effects of organophosphorus (OP) chemical agents are needed due to the documented use of OPs in warfare (e.g. 1980-1988 Iran/Iraq war) and terrorism (e.g. 1995 Tokyo subway attacks). Standard OP exposure therapy in the United States consists of atropine sulfate (to block muscarinic receptors), the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator (oxime) pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM), and a benzodiazepine anticonvulsant to ameliorate seizures. A major disadvantage is that quaternary nitrogen charged oximes, including 2-PAM, do not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) to treat brain AChE. Therefore, we have synthesized and evaluated pro-2-PAM (a lipid permeable 2-PAM derivative) that can enter the brain and reactivate CNS AChE, preventing seizures in guinea pigs after exposure to OPs. The protective effects of the pro-2-PAM after OP exposure were shown using (a) surgically implanted radiotelemetry probes for electroencephalogram (EEG), (b) neurohistopathology of brain, (c) cholinesterase activities in the PNS and CNS, and (d) survivability. The PNS oxime 2-PAM was ineffective at reducing seizures/status epilepticus (SE) in diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP)-exposed animals. In contrast, pro-2-PAM significantly suppressed and then eliminated seizure activity. In OP-exposed guinea pigs, there was a significant reduction in neurological damage with pro-2-PAM but not 2-PAM. Distinct regional areas of the brains showed significantly higher AChE activity 1.5h after OP exposure in pro-2-PAM treated animals compared to the 2-PAM treated ones. However, blood and diaphragm showed similar AChE activities in animals treated with either oxime, as both 2-PAM and pro-2-PAM are PNS active oximes. In conclusion, pro-2-PAM can cross the BBB, is rapidly metabolized inside the brain to 2-PAM, and protects against OP-induced SE through restoration of brain AChE activity. Pro-2-PAM represents the first non-invasive means of administering a CNS therapeutic for

  4. Fully Automated Data Collection Using PAM and the Development of PAM/SPACE Reversible Cassettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraki, Masahiko; Watanabe, Shokei; Chavas, Leonard M. G.; Yamada, Yusuke; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Miki, Kunio; Baba, Seiki; Ueno, Go; Yamamoto, Masaki; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Tanaka, Isao

    2010-06-01

    To remotely control and automatically collect data in high-throughput X-ray data collection experiments, the Structural Biology Research Center at the Photon Factory (PF) developed and installed sample exchange robots PAM (PF Automated Mounting system) at PF macromolecular crystallography beamlines; BL-5A, BL-17A, AR-NW12A and AR-NE3A. We developed and installed software that manages the flow of the automated X-ray experiments; sample exchanges, loop-centering and X-ray diffraction data collection. The fully automated data collection function has been available since February 2009. To identify sample cassettes, PAM employs a two-dimensional bar code reader. New beamlines, BL-1A at the Photon Factory and BL32XU at SPring-8, are currently under construction as part of Targeted Proteins Research Program (TPRP) by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. However, different robots, PAM and SPACE (SPring-8 Precise Automatic Cryo-sample Exchanger), will be installed at BL-1A and BL32XU, respectively. For the convenience of the users of both facilities, pins and cassettes for PAM and SPACE are developed as part of the TPRP.

  5. 112 Gb/s transmission over 80 km SSMF using PDM-PAM4 and coherent detection without optical amplifier.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xian; Zhong, Kangping; Huo, Jiahao; Gao, Lei; Wang, Yiguang; Wang, Liang; Yang, Yanfu; Yuan, Jinhui; Long, Keping; Zeng, Li; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Lu, Chao

    2016-07-25

    Polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM) four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) with coherent detection is a promising low cost solution for 80 km inter-datacenter transmissions at 100 Gb/s and beyond. In this paper, three modified adaptive equalization algorithms for the PDM-PAM4 optical coherent systems, i.e. signal-phase aid least-mean-square (SP-LMS) algorithm, training multi-modulus algorithm (TMMA) and cascaded four-modulus algorithm (CMMA-4), are proposed and compared. Based on the proposed algorithms, 112 Gb/s PDM-PAM4 transmission over 80 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) in C-band for a bit error rate (BER) below 3.8e-3 is successfully demonstrated without optical amplifier, chromatic dispersion (CD) pre-compensation and extra carrier recovery operations.

  6. Supramolecular Allosteric Cofacial Porphyrin Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Oliveri, Christopher G.; Gianneschi, Nathan C.; Nguyen, SonBinh T.; Mirkin, Chad A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Pink, Maren

    2008-01-01

    Nature routinely uses cooperative interactions to regulate cellular activity. For years, chemists have designed synthetic systems that aim toward harnessing the reactivity common to natural biological systems. By learning how to control these interactions in situ, one begins to allow for the preparation of man-made biomimetic systems that can efficiently mimic the interactions found in Nature. To this end, we have designed a synthetic protocol for the preparation of flexible metal-directed supramolecular cofacial porphyrin complexes which are readily obtained in greater than 90% yield through the use of new hemilabile porphyrin ligands with bifunctional ether–phosphine or thioether–phosphine substituents at the 5 and 15 positions on the porphyrin ring. The resulting architectures contain two hemilabile ligand–metal domains (RhI or CuI sites) and two cofacially aligned porphyrins (ZnII sites), offering orthogonal functionalities and allowing these multimetallic complexes to exist in two states, “condensed” or “open”. Combining the ether–phosphine ligand with the appropriate RhI or CuI transition-metal precursors results in “open” macrocyclic products. In contrast, reacting the thioether–phosphine ligand with RhI or CuI precursors yields condensed structures that can be converted into their “open” macrocyclic forms via introduction of additional ancillary ligands. The change in cavity size that occurs allows these structures to function as allosteric catalysts for the acyl transfer reaction between X-pyridylcarbinol (where X = 2, 3, or 4) and 1-acetylimidazole. For 3-and 4-pyridylcarbinol, the “open” macrocycle accelerates the acyl transfer reaction more than the condensed analogue and significantly more than the porphyrin monomer. In contrast, an allosteric effect was not observed for 2-pyridylcarbinol, which is expected to be a weaker binder and is unfavorably constrained inside the macrocyclic cavity. PMID:17165783

  7. Metalloregulatory Proteins: Metal Selectivity and Allosteric Switching

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, Hermes Reyes; Campanello, Gregory C.; Giedroc, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Prokaryotic organisms have evolved an impressive capacity to quickly adapt to a changing and challenging microenvironment in which the availability of both biologically required and non-essential transition metal ions can vary dramatically. In all bacteria, a panel of metalloregulatory proteins control the expression of genes encoding membrane transporters and metal trafficking proteins, that collectively manage metal homeostasis and resistance. These “metal sensors” are specialized allosteric proteins, in which the direct binding of a specific or small number of “cognate” metal ion(s) drives a conformational change in the regulator that allosterically activates or inhibits operator DNA binding, or alternatively, distorts the promoter structure thereby converting a poor promoter to a strong one. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the features that control metal specificity of the allosteric response in these systems, and the role that structure, thermodynamics and conformational dynamics play in mediating allosteric activation or inhibition of DNA binding. PMID:21511390

  8. Designing Allosteric Control into Enzymes by Chemical Rescue of Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Deckert, Katelyn; Budiardjo, S. Jimmy; Brunner, Luke C.

    2012-08-07

    Ligand-dependent activity has been engineered into enzymes for purposes ranging from controlling cell morphology to reprogramming cellular signaling pathways. Where these successes have typically fused a naturally allosteric domain to the enzyme of interest, here we instead demonstrate an approach for designing a de novo allosteric effector site directly into the catalytic domain of an enzyme. This approach is distinct from traditional chemical rescue of enzymes in that it relies on disruption and restoration of structure, rather than active site chemistry, as a means to achieve modulate function. We present two examples, W33G in a {beta}-glycosidase enzyme ({beta}-gly) and W492Gmore » in a {beta}-glucuronidase enzyme ({beta}-gluc), in which we engineer indole-dependent activity into enzymes by removing a buried tryptophan side chain that serves as a buttress for the active site architecture. In both cases, we observe a loss of function, and in both cases we find that the subsequent addition of indole can be used to restore activity. Through a detailed analysis of {beta}-gly W33G kinetics, we demonstrate that this rescued enzyme is fully functionally equivalent to the corresponding wild-type enzyme. We then present the apo and indole-bound crystal structures of {beta}-gly W33G, which together establish the structural basis for enzyme inactivation and rescue. Finally, we use this designed switch to modulate {beta}-glycosidase activity in living cells using indole. Disruption and recovery of protein structure may represent a general technique for introducing allosteric control into enzymes, and thus may serve as a starting point for building a variety of bioswitches and sensors.« less

  9. Novel Allosteric Effects of Amiodarone at the Muscarinic M5 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Allosteric sites on muscarinic receptors may present superior therapeutic targets for several central nervous system disorders, due to the potential of allosteric ligands to provide more selective modulation and to preserve the spatiotemporal patterning that is characteristic of synaptic transmission. We have found that the antiarrhythmic drug amiodarone interacts allosterically with M1 and M5 muscarinic receptors. At both M1 and M5, amiodarone was only able to partially inhibit the binding of the orthosteric antagonist [3H]N-methylscopolamine (NMS). In addition, amiodarone was able to alter the rate of dissociation of [3H]NMS from M1 and M5 receptors. These findings suggest that NMS and amiodarone are able to bind to the receptor simultaneously. The pharmacology of the effect on NMS dissociation demonstrated that amiodarone was not interacting at the “common” site at which gallamine, obidoxime, and many other muscarinic allosteric ligands are known to bind. In functional studies, amiodarone enhanced the ability of acetylcholine (at EC20) to activate the M5 receptor; however, under the same conditions, amiodarone did not enhance M1 activation. More detailed studies at M5 found that the effect of amiodarone was to enhance the efficacy of acetylcholine, without increasing its potency. This report describes the first demonstration of allosteric enhancement of efficacy at the M5 receptor, and the first demonstration of enhancement of efficacy but not potency at any muscarinic receptor. In summary, amiodarone has been shown to be a novel positive allosteric modulator of muscarinic receptors that is selective for the M5 subtype, relative to M1. PMID:20348203

  10. 2013 Philip S. Portoghese Medicinal Chemistry Lectureship: Drug Discovery Targeting Allosteric Sites†

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The identification of sites on receptors topographically distinct from the orthosteric sites, so-called allosteric sites, has heralded novel approaches and modes of pharmacology for target modulation. Over the past 20 years, our understanding of allosteric modulation has grown significantly, and numerous advantages, as well as caveats (e.g., flat structure–activity relationships, species differences, “molecular switches”), have been identified. For multiple receptors and proteins, numerous examples have been described where unprecedented levels of selectivity are achieved along with improved physiochemical properties. While not a panacea, these novel approaches represent exciting opportunities for tool compound development to probe the pharmacology and therapeutic potential of discrete molecular targets, as well as new medicines. In this Perspective, in commemoration of the 2013 Philip S. Portoghese Medicinal Chemistry Lectureship (LindsleyC. W.Adventures in allosteric drug discovery. Presented at the 246th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Indianapolis, IN, September 10, 2013; The 2013 Portoghese Lectureship), several vignettes of drug discovery campaigns targeting novel allosteric mechanisms will be recounted, along with lessons learned and guidelines that have emerged for successful lead optimization. PMID:25180768

  11. Bithionol Potently Inhibits Human Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase through Binding to the Allosteric Activator Site*

    PubMed Central

    Kleinboelting, Silke; Ramos-Espiritu, Lavoisier; Buck, Hannes; Colis, Laureen; van den Heuvel, Joop; Glickman, J. Fraser; Levin, Lonny R.; Buck, Jochen; Steegborn, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    The signaling molecule cAMP regulates functions ranging from bacterial transcription to mammalian memory. In mammals, cAMP is synthesized by nine transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (ACs) and one soluble AC (sAC). Despite similarities in their catalytic domains, these ACs differ in regulation. Transmembrane ACs respond to G proteins, whereas sAC is uniquely activated by bicarbonate. Via bicarbonate regulation, sAC acts as a physiological sensor for pH/bicarbonate/CO2, and it has been implicated as a therapeutic target, e.g. for diabetes, glaucoma, and a male contraceptive. Here we identify the bisphenols bithionol and hexachlorophene as potent, sAC-specific inhibitors. Inhibition appears mostly non-competitive with the substrate ATP, indicating that they act via an allosteric site. To analyze the interaction details, we solved a crystal structure of an sAC·bithionol complex. The structure reveals that the compounds are selective for sAC because they bind to the sAC-specific, allosteric binding site for the physiological activator bicarbonate. Structural comparison of the bithionol complex with apo-sAC and other sAC·ligand complexes along with mutagenesis experiments reveals an allosteric mechanism of inhibition; the compound induces rearrangements of substrate binding residues and of Arg176, a trigger between the active site and allosteric site. Our results thus provide 1) novel insights into the communication between allosteric regulatory and active sites, 2) a novel mechanism for sAC inhibition, and 3) pharmacological compounds targeting this allosteric site and utilizing this mode of inhibition. These studies provide support for the future development of sAC-modulating drugs. PMID:26961873

  12. Single-lane 180  Gbit/s PAM-4 signal transmission over 2  km SSMF for short-reach applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Stojanovic, Nebojsa; Prodaniuc, Cristian; Xie, Changsong; Koenigsmann, Michael; Laskowski, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the generation and transmission of a single-lane 180  Gbit/s (90 GBaud) four-level pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM-4) signal in an intensity-modulation direct-detection system with a 7.5 GHz 3 dB bandwidth. The generated signal is transmitted over a 2 km standard single-mode fiber with, to the best of our knowledge, the highest reported net data rate in the C-band: 150  Gbit/s. A net data rate of 168  Gbit/s is also reachable with 1 km reach. The PAM-4 and duobinary (DB) PAM-4 modulation schemes are compared; the obtained results show that DB-PAM-4 significantly outperforms PAM-4 in the considered strong bandwidth-constrained system. Both a feed-forward equalizer and a maximum-likelihood sequence estimator are investigated for data recovery.

  13. Solar Radiation Stress in Natural Acidophilic Biofilms of Euglena mutabilis Revealed by Metatranscriptomics and PAM Fluorometry.

    PubMed

    Puente-Sánchez, Fernando; Olsson, Sanna; Gómez-Rodriguez, Manuel; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Altamirano-Jeschke, Maria; Amils, Ricardo; Parro, Victor; Aguilera, Angeles

    2016-02-01

    The daily photosynthetic performance of a natural biofilm of the extreme acidophilic Euglena mutabilis from Río Tinto (SW, Spain) under full solar radiation was analyzed by means of pulse amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorescence measurements and metatrascriptomic analysis. Natural E. mutabilis biofilms undergo large-scale transcriptomic reprogramming during midday due to a dynamic photoinhibition and solar radiation stress. Photoinhibition is due to UV radiation and not to light intensity, as revealed by PAM fluorometry analysis. In order to minimize the negative effects of solar radiation, our data supports the presence of a circadian rhythm in this euglenophyte that increases their opportunity to survive. Differential gene expression throughout the day (at 12:00, 20:00 and night) was monitored by massive Illumina parallel sequencing of metatranscriptomic libraries. The transcription pattern was altered in genes involved in Photosystem II stability and repair, UV damaged DNA repair, non-photochemical quenching and oxidative stress, supporting the photoinhibition detected by PAM fluorometry at midday. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Brown at aft controls during PAMS STU deploy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-22

    S77-E-5066 (22 May 1996) --- Astronaut Curtis L. Brown, Jr., pilot, is seen on the starboard side of the Space Shuttle Endeavour's aft flight deck just prior to the deployment of the Satellite Test Unit (STU), part of the Passive Aerodynamically Stabilized Magnetically Damped Satellite (PAMS). Brown's image was captured with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC). Minutes later the camera was being used to document the deployment of PAMS-STU. The six-member crew will continue operations (tracking, rendezvousing and station-keeping) with PAMS-STU periodically throughout the remainder of the mission.

  15. A monoclonal antibody raised against a thermo-stabilised β1-adrenoceptor interacts with extracellular loop 2 and acts as a negative allosteric modulator of a sub-set of β1-adrenoceptors expressed in stable cell lines.

    PubMed

    Soave, Mark; Cseke, Gabriella; Hutchings, Catherine J; Brown, Alastair J H; Woolard, Jeanette; Hill, Stephen J

    2018-01-01

    Recent interest has focused on antibodies that can discriminate between different receptor conformations. Here we have characterised the effect of a monoclonal antibody (mAb3), raised against a purified thermo-stabilised turkey β 1 -adrenoceptor (β 1 AR-m23 StaR), on β 1 -ARs expressed in CHO-K1 or HEK 293 cells. Immunohistochemical and radioligand-binding studies demonstrated that mAb3 was able to bind to ECL2 of the tβ 1 -AR, but not its human homologue. Specific binding of mAb3 to tβ 1 -AR was inhibited by a peptide based on the turkey, but not the human, ECL2 sequence. Studies with [ 3 H]-CGP 12177 demonstrated that mAb3 prevented the binding of orthosteric ligands to a subset (circa 40%) of turkey β 1 -receptors expressed in both CHO K1 and HEK 293 cells. MAb3 significantly reduced the maximum specific binding capacity of [ 3 H]-CGP-12177 without influencing its binding affinity. Substitution of ECL2 of tβ 1 -AR with its human equivalent, or mutation of residues D186S, P187D, Q188E prevented the inhibition of [ 3 H]-CGP 12177 binding by mAb3. MAb3 also elicited a negative allosteric effect on agonist-stimulated cAMP responses. The identity of the subset of turkey β 1 -adrenoceptors influenced by mAb3 remains to be established but mAb3 should become an important tool to investigate the nature of β 1 -AR conformational states and oligomeric complexes. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An allosteric binding site of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor revealed in a humanized acetylcholine-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Delbart, Florian; Brams, Marijke; Gruss, Fabian; Noppen, Sam; Peigneur, Steve; Boland, Sandro; Chaltin, Patrick; Brandao-Neto, Jose; von Delft, Frank; Touw, Wouter G.; Joosten, Robbie P.; Liekens, Sandra; Tytgat, Jan; Ulens, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to the family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels and mediate fast excitatory transmission in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Among the different existing receptor subtypes, the homomeric α7 nAChR has attracted considerable attention because of its possible implication in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia. Allosteric modulators of ligand-gated ion channels are of particular interest as therapeutic agents, as they modulate receptor activity without affecting normal fluctuations of synaptic neurotransmitter release. Here, we used X-ray crystallography and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of α7-acetylcholine–binding protein (AChBP), a humanized chimera of a snail AChBP, which has 71% sequence similarity with the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the human α7 nAChR, to investigate the structural determinants of allosteric modulation. We extended previous observations that an allosteric site located in the vestibule of the receptor offers an attractive target for receptor modulation. We introduced seven additional humanizing mutations in the vestibule-located binding site of AChBP to improve its suitability as a model for studying allosteric binding. Using a fragment-based screening approach, we uncovered an allosteric binding site located near the β8–β9 loop, which critically contributes to coupling ligand binding to channel opening in human α7 nAChR. This work expands our understanding of the topology of allosteric binding sites in AChBP and, by extrapolation, in the human α7 nAChR as determined by electrophysiology measurements. Our insights pave the way for drug design strategies targeting nAChRs involved in ion channel–mediated disorders. PMID:29237730

  17. Preclinical Characterization of (R)-3-((3S,4S)-3-fluoro-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)piperidin-1-yl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)pyrrolidin-2-one (BMS-986169), a Novel, Intravenous, Glutamate N-Methyl-d-Aspartate 2B Receptor Negative Allosteric Modulator with Potential in Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Linda J; Gulia, Jyoti; Weed, Michael R; Srikumar, Bettadapura N; Li, Yu-Wen; Graef, John D; Naidu, Pattipati S; Sanmathi, Charulatha; Aher, Jayant; Bastia, Tanmaya; Paschapur, Mahesh; Kalidindi, Narasimharaju; Kumar, Kuchibhotla Vijaya; Molski, Thaddeus; Pieschl, Rick; Fernandes, Alda; Brown, Jeffrey M; Sivarao, Digavalli V; Newberry, Kimberly; Bookbinder, Mark; Polino, Joseph; Keavy, Deborah; Newton, Amy; Shields, Eric; Simmermacher, Jean; Kempson, James; Li, Jianqing; Zhang, Huiping; Mathur, Arvind; Kallem, Raja Reddy; Sinha, Meenakshee; Ramarao, Manjunath; Vikramadithyan, Reeba K; Thangathirupathy, Srinivasan; Warrier, Jayakumar; Islam, Imadul; Bronson, Joanne J; Olson, Richard E; Macor, John E; Albright, Charlie F; King, Dalton; Thompson, Lorin A; Marcin, Lawrence R; Sinz, Michael

    2017-12-01

    ( R )-3-((3S,4S)-3-fluoro-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)piperidin-1-yl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)pyrrolidin-2-one (BMS-986169) and the phosphate prodrug 4-((3 S ,4 S )-3-fluoro-1-((R)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-yl)piperidin-4-yl)phenyl dihydrogen phosphate (BMS-986163) were identified from a drug discovery effort focused on the development of novel, intravenous glutamate N -methyl-d-aspartate 2B receptor (GluN2B) negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). BMS-986169 showed high binding affinity for the GluN2B subunit allosteric modulatory site (K i = 4.03-6.3 nM) and selectively inhibited GluN2B receptor function in Xenopus oocytes expressing human N -methyl-d-aspartate receptor subtypes (IC 50 = 24.1 nM). BMS-986169 weakly inhibited human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel activity (IC 50 = 28.4 μ M) and had negligible activity in an assay panel containing 40 additional pharmacological targets. Intravenous administration of BMS-986169 or BMS-986163 dose-dependently increased GluN2B receptor occupancy and inhibited in vivo [3H](+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[ a,d ]cyclohepten-5,10-imine ([3H]MK-801) binding, confirming target engagement and effective cleavage of the prodrug. BMS-986169 reduced immobility in the mouse forced swim test, an effect similar to intravenous ketamine treatment. Decreased novelty suppressed feeding latency, and increased ex vivo hippocampal long-term potentiation was also seen 24 hours after acute BMS-986163 or BMS-986169 administration. BMS-986169 did not produce ketamine-like hyperlocomotion or abnormal behaviors in mice or cynomolgus monkeys but did produce a transient working memory impairment in monkeys that was closely related to plasma exposure. Finally, BMS-986163 produced robust changes in the quantitative electroencephalogram power band distribution, a translational measure that can be used to assess pharmacodynamic activity in healthy humans. Due to the poor aqueous solubility of BMS-986169

  18. Laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry: effects of test conditions on the determination of herbicide and field sample toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sjollema, Sascha B; van Beusekom, Sebastiaan A M; van der Geest, Harm G; Booij, Petra; de Zwart, Dick; Vethaak, A Dick; Admiraal, Wim

    2014-05-01

    Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry, based on chlorophyll a fluorescence, is a frequently used technique in algal bioassays to assess toxicity of single compounds or complex field samples. Several test conditions can influence the test results, and because a standardized test protocol is currently lacking, linking the results of different studies is difficult. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to gain insight into the effects of test conditions of laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry on the outcome of toxicity tests. To this purpose, we described the results from several pilot studies on test development in which information is provided on the effects of the main test factors during the pretest phase, the test preparation, the exposure period, and the actual measurement. The experiments were focused on individual herbicides and complex field samples and included the effects of culturing conditions, cell density, solvent concentration, exposure time, and the presence of actinic light. Several of these test conditions were found to influence the outcome of the toxicity test, and the presented information provides important background information for the interpretation of toxicity results and describes which test conditions should be taken into account when using an algal bioassay with PAM fluorometry. Finally, the application of PAM fluorometry in algal toxicity testing is discussed. © 2014 SETAC.

  19. Four 45 Gbps PAM4 VCSEL based transmission through 300 m wideband OM4 fiber over SWDM4 wavelength grid.

    PubMed

    Motaghiannezam, Reza; Lyubomirsky, Ilya; Daghighian, Henry; Kocot, Chris; Gray, Timo; Tatum, Jim; Amezcua-Correa, Adrian; Bigot-Astruc, M; Molin, D; Achten, F; Sillard, P

    2016-07-25

    We demonstrate successful transmission of four 45 Gbps PAM4 single-channels through OM4 multimode fibers (MMFs) and wideband MMF using a PAM4 PHY chip and four vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with wavelengths ranging over short wavelength division multiplexing (SWDM) grid. Real-time bit error ratios (BERs) < 2 × 10-4 were achieved for all four 45 Gbps PAM4 SWDM grid channels over 100 m, 200 m, and 300 m of wideband OM4 MMFs. All four channel received PAM4 optical eyes are shown after propagating through 100 m, 200 m, and 300 m of wideband OM4 as well as 100 m and 200 m conventional OM4 MMFs. The measured BERs as a function of the inner eye optical modulation amplitudes (OMAs) are shown for all four SWDM grid channels. Inner eye OMAs ranged from -16.2 dBm to -13.5 dBm for different channels over different OM4 MMF types at the KP4 BER threshold of 2 × 10-4.

  20. 45  Gb/s PAM4 transmission based on VCSEL with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Chen, Hwan-Wei; Yang, Zih-Yi; Lin, Xin-Yao; Cheng, Ming-Te; Lu, Chang-Kai; Shih, Tien-Tsorng

    2016-11-01

    A 45 Gb/s four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) transmission based on an 850 nm/7.4 GHz vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques is proposed. Experimental results show that such an 850 nm/7.4 GHz VCSEL with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques is powerful enough for a 45 Gb/s PAM4 signal transmission. To the best of our knowledge, this Letter is the first to adopt a VCSEL transmitter with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques in a 45 Gb/s PAM4 transmission system. Good bit error rate performance and three independent clear eye diagrams are achieved over a 200-m OM4 multimode fiber transport. This proposed 45 Gb/s PAM4 VCSEL-based transmission system has great potential for providing effective bandwidth in short-reach optical data communications.

  1. Signaling within Allosteric Machines: Signal Transmission Pathways Inside G Protein-Coupled Receptors.

    PubMed

    Bartuzi, Damian; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Matosiuk, Dariusz

    2017-07-15

    In recent years, our understanding of function of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has changed from a picture of simple signal relays, transmitting only a particular signal to a particular G protein heterotrimer, to versatile machines, capable of various responses to different stimuli and being modulated by various factors. Some recent reports provide not only the data on ligands/modulators and resultant signals induced by them, but also deeper insights into exact pathways of signal migration and mechanisms of signal transmission through receptor structure. Combination of these computational and experimental data sheds more light on underlying mechanisms of signal transmission and signaling bias in GPCRs. In this review we focus on available clues on allosteric pathways responsible for complex signal processing within GPCRs structures, with particular emphasis on linking compatible in silico- and in vitro-derived data on the most probable allosteric connections.

  2. Optimum quantum receiver for detecting weak signals in PAM communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Navneet; Rawat, Tarun Kumar; Parthasarathy, Harish; Gautam, Kumar

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with the modeling of an optimum quantum receiver for pulse amplitude modulator (PAM) communication systems. The information bearing sequence {I_k}_{k=0}^{N-1} is estimated using the maximum likelihood (ML) method. The ML method is based on quantum mechanical measurements of an observable X in the Hilbert space of the quantum system at discrete times, when the Hamiltonian of the system is perturbed by an operator obtained by modulating a potential V with a PAM signal derived from the information bearing sequence {I_k}_{k=0}^{N-1}. The measurement process at each time instant causes collapse of the system state to an observable eigenstate. All probabilities of getting different outcomes from an observable are calculated using the perturbed evolution operator combined with the collapse postulate. For given probability densities, calculation of the mean square error evaluates the performance of the receiver. Finally, we present an example involving estimating an information bearing sequence that modulates a quantum electromagnetic field incident on a quantum harmonic oscillator.

  3. ALLO: A tool to discriminate and prioritize allosteric pockets.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Rahmad; Helms, Volkhard

    2018-04-01

    Allosteric proteins make up a substantial proportion of human drug targets. Thus, rational design of small molecule binders that target these proteins requires the identification of putative allosteric pockets and an understanding of their potential activity. Here, we characterized allosteric pockets using a set of physicochemical descriptors and compared them to pockets that are found on the surface of a protein. Further, we trained predictive models capable of discriminating allosteric pockets from orthosteric pockets and models capable of prioritizing allosteric pockets in a set of pockets found on a given protein. Such models might be useful for identifying novel allosteric sites and in turn, potentially new allosteric drug targets. Datasets along with a Python program encapsulating the predictive models are available at http://github.com/fibonaccirabbits/allo. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias; Wu, Jie

    2015-12-29

    Chlorophyll fluorometry may be used for detecting toxins in a sample because of changes in micro algae. A portable lab on a chip ("LOAC") based chlorophyll fluorometer may be used for toxin detection and environmental monitoring. In particular, the system may include a microfluidic pulse amplitude modulated ("PAM") chlorophyll fluorometer. The LOAC PAM chlorophyll fluorometer may analyze microalgae and cyanobacteria that grow naturally in source drinking water.

  5. Allosteric coupling and conformational fluctuations in proteins.

    PubMed

    Onaran, H Ongun; Costa, Tommaso

    2009-04-01

    Proteins in their native folded states can possess multiple energy minima and they can show constant conformational fluctuations at physiological temperatures. In this article, we discuss the quantitative relationship between ligand-induced perturbation of such fluctuations, modeled as probability distributions of conformational substates, and allosteric coupling of ligand binding to different sites, as defined by linkage thermodynamics. We show that allosteric coupling between two binding events on the same protein is an inevitable consequence of ligand-induced perturbations of the probability distribution that represents conformational fluctuations in thermal equilibrium. When high resolution structural data of a protein in empty and ligand-bound forms are available, the COREX algorithm can provide, in principle, an excellent bridge between the energetics of substates distribution in the protein ensemble and structural coordinates. Here we propose a COREX-based strategic approach to link structural perturbations and the free energy changes of allosteric coupling. This strategy might be broadly useful in the endeavor of predicting how specific ligands allosterically regulate the function of specific proteins.

  6. Structural Basis for Allosteric Regulation of GPCRs by Sodium Ionsa

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Chun, Eugene; Thompson, Aaron A.; Chubukov, Pavel; Xu, Fei; Katritch, Vsevolod; Han, Gye Won; Roth, Christopher B.; Heitman, Laura H.; IJzerman, Adriaan P.; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacological responses of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can be fine-tuned by allosteric modulators. Structural studies of such effects have been limited due to the medium resolution of GPCR structures. We re-engineered the human A2A adenosine receptor by replacing its third intracellular loop with apo-cytochrome b562RIL and solved the structure at 1.8 angstrom resolution. The high-resolution structure identified about 57 ordered waters inside the receptor comprising three major clusters. The central cluster harbors a putative sodium ion bound to the highly conserved Asp2.50. Additionally, two cholesterols stabilize the conformation of helix VI, and one of 23 ordered lipids intercalates inside the ligand-binding pocket. These high-resolution details shed light on the potential role of structured waters, sodium ions and lipids/cholesterol in GPCR stabilization and function. PMID:22798613

  7. Underwater wireless optical communication using an arrayed transmitter/receiver and optical superimposition-based PAM-4 signal.

    PubMed

    Kong, Meiwei; Chen, Yifei; Sarwar, Rohail; Sun, Bin; Xu, Zhiwei; Han, Jun; Chen, Jiawang; Qin, Huawei; Xu, Jing

    2018-02-05

    In this work, we propose an underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) system using an arrayed transmitter/receiver and optical superimposition-based pulse amplitude modulation with 4 levels (PAM-4). At the transmitter side, we design a spatial summing scheme using a light emitting diode (LED) array, which is divided into two groups in a uniformly interleaved manner. With on-off keying (OOK) modulation for each group, optical superimposition-based PAM-4 can be realized. It has enhanced tolerance to the modulation nonlinearities of LEDs. We numerically investigate the feasibility of the proposed spatial summing scheme in various underwater channels via Monte Carlo simulation. With the increase of divergence angle of LEDs and link distance, the optical power distribution tends to be more uniform at the reception plane. It can significantly relax the requirement on the link alignment. Furthermore, we conduct a proof-of-concept experiment employing two blue LEDs. A multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC), containing an array of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs), is used as the detector. It has a much higher sensitivity and can further relax the requirement for pointing. Over a 2-m tap water channel, data rates of 6.144 Mb/s, 8.192 Mb/s, and 12.288 Mb/s were achieved by using the PAM-4 signal generated by optical superimposition, within a 2.5-MHz system bandwidth. With 0.570-mg/L Mg(OH) 2 , the measured optical power is just 12.890 µW after a 2-m underwater channel. The corresponding bit error rate (BER) of the 12.288-Mbs PAM-4 signal is 2.9 × 10 -3 , which is still below the forward error correction (FEC) limit of 3.8 × 10 -3 . It implies that the UWOC system based on the high-sensitivity MPPC with array structure has superior power efficiency and robustness.

  8. Allosteric ligands and their binding sites define γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors (GABA(A)Rs) mediate rapid inhibitory transmission in the brain. GABA(A)Rs are ligand-gated chloride ion channel proteins and exist in about a dozen or more heteropentameric subtypes exhibiting variable age and brain regional localization and thus participation in differing brain functions and diseases. GABA(A)Rs are also subject to modulation by several chemotypes of allosteric ligands that help define structure and function, including subtype definition. The channel blocker picrotoxin identified a noncompetitive channel blocker site in GABA(A)Rs. This ligand site is located in the transmembrane channel pore, whereas the GABA agonist site is in the extracellular domain at subunit interfaces, a site useful for low energy coupled conformational changes of the functional channel domain. Two classes of pharmacologically important allosteric modulatory ligand binding sites reside in the extracellular domain at modified agonist sites at other subunit interfaces: the benzodiazepine site and the high-affinity, relevant to intoxication, ethanol site. The benzodiazepine site is specific for certain GABA(A)R subtypes, mainly synaptic, while the ethanol site is found at a modified benzodiazepine site on different, extrasynaptic, subtypes. In the transmembrane domain are allosteric modulatory ligand sites for diverse chemotypes of general anesthetics: the volatile and intravenous agents, barbiturates, etomidate, propofol, long-chain alcohols, and neurosteroids. The last are endogenous positive allosteric modulators. X-ray crystal structures of prokaryotic and invertebrate pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, and the mammalian GABA(A)R protein, allow homology modeling of GABA(A)R subtypes with the various ligand sites located to suggest the structure and function of these proteins and their pharmacological modulation. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Allosteric mechanisms within the adenosine A2A-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer

    PubMed Central

    Ferré, Sergi; Bonaventura, Jordi; Tomasi, Dardo; Navarro, Gemma; Moreno, Estefanía; Cortés, Antonio; Lluís, Carme; Casadó, Vicent; Volkow, Nora D.

    2017-01-01

    The structure constituted by a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) homodimer and a G protein provides a main functional unit and oligomeric entities can be viewed as multiples of dimers. For GPCR heteromers, experimental evidence supports a tetrameric structure, comprised of two different homodimers, each able to signal with its preferred G protein. GPCR homomers and heteromers can act as the conduit of allosteric interactions between orthosteric ligands. The well-known agonist/agonist allosteric interaction in the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromer, by which A2AR agonists decrease the affinity of D2R agonists, gave the first rationale for the use of A2AR antagonists in Parkinson’s disease. We review new pharmacological findings that can be explained in the frame of a tetrameric structure of the A2AR-D2R heteromer: first, ligand-independent allosteric modulations by the D2R that result in changes of the binding properties of A2AR ligands; second, differential modulation of the intrinsic efficacy of D2R ligands for G protein-dependent and independent signaling; third, the canonical antagonistic Gs-Gi interaction within the frame of the heteromer; and fourth, the ability of A2AR antagonists, including caffeine, to also exert the same allosteric modulations of D2R ligands than A2AR agonists, while A2AR agonists and antagonists counteract each other’s effects. These findings can have important clinical implications when evaluating the use of A2AR antagonists. They also call for the need of monitoring caffeine intake when evaluating the effect of D2R ligands, when used as therapeutic agents in neuropsychiatric disorders or as probes in imaging studies. PMID:26051403

  10. Engineered Cpf1 variants with altered PAM specificities.

    PubMed

    Gao, Linyi; Cox, David B T; Yan, Winston X; Manteiga, John C; Schneider, Martin W; Yamano, Takashi; Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Nureki, Osamu; Crosetto, Nicola; Zhang, Feng

    2017-08-01

    The RNA-guided endonuclease Cpf1 is a promising tool for genome editing in eukaryotic cells. However, the utility of the commonly used Acidaminococcus sp. BV3L6 Cpf1 (AsCpf1) and Lachnospiraceae bacterium ND2006 Cpf1 (LbCpf1) is limited by their requirement of a TTTV protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) in the DNA substrate. To address this limitation, we performed a structure-guided mutagenesis screen to increase the targeting range of Cpf1. We engineered two AsCpf1 variants carrying the mutations S542R/K607R and S542R/K548V/N552R, which recognize TYCV and TATV PAMs, respectively, with enhanced activities in vitro and in human cells. Genome-wide assessment of off-target activity using BLISS indicated that these variants retain high DNA-targeting specificity, which we further improved by introducing an additional non-PAM-interacting mutation. Introducing the identified PAM-interacting mutations at their corresponding positions in LbCpf1 similarly altered its PAM specificity. Together, these variants increase the targeting range of Cpf1 by approximately threefold in human coding sequences to one cleavage site per ∼11 bp.

  11. Transmission of 112(4×28)-Gb/s PAM-4 Signal over 48.6-km SSMF within only 50-GHz Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jian; Hu, Rong

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a transmission of 112(4×28)-Gb/s PAM-4 signal is experimentally demonstrated within only 50-GHz grid, achieving an optical spectral efficiency (SE) of 2.24 b/s/Hz. For the intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) based PAM-4 transmission, it is the first time to the best of our knowledge that 112-Gb/s PAM-4 signal has been transmitted over 48.6-km standard single mode fiber (SSMF), which is compatible with 50-GHz standard gridding. By employing digital pre-equalization, duobinary encoding/decoding and 7-level based training sequence aided least-mean square (TS-LMS) algorithm, each lane of the 28-Gb/s PAM-4 signal occupies less than 11-GHz optical spectral (3-dB bandwidth), resulting in negligible inter-channel interference for the 4-lane 112-Gb/s PAM-4 signals within 50-GHz grid. The proposed method is bandwidth and computationally efficient, which is thought feasible in the low-cost short reach optical networks.

  12. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange study of an allosteric energy cycle.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    Elucidation of mechanisms of energy transduction through macromolecules in allosteric systems requires application of a broad range of techniques and approaches. High-resolution structures of the end states in an allosteric system provide invaluable clues about allosteric mechanism. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies reveal the rules that govern the transitions between states in the system. Acquisition of detailed molecular level information about allosteric mechanism requires interrogation of the structural and dynamic properties of both intermediates and end states in the allosteric cycle. Many experimental and computational tools have been developed to probe allostery. Among these are hydrogen-deuterium exchange detected by either NMR spectroscopy or mass spectrometry. This article provides a detailed description of application of hydrogen exchange detected by mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to investigate an allosteric system.

  13. Computational Modeling of Allosteric Regulation in the Hsp90 Chaperones: A Statistical Ensemble Analysis of Protein Structure Networks and Allosteric Communications

    PubMed Central

    Blacklock, Kristin; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental role of the Hsp90 chaperone in regulating functional activity of diverse protein clients is essential for the integrity of signaling networks. In this work we have combined biophysical simulations of the Hsp90 crystal structures with the protein structure network analysis to characterize the statistical ensemble of allosteric interaction networks and communication pathways in the Hsp90 chaperones. We have found that principal structurally stable communities could be preserved during dynamic changes in the conformational ensemble. The dominant contribution of the inter-domain rigidity to the interaction networks has emerged as a common factor responsible for the thermodynamic stability of the active chaperone form during the ATPase cycle. Structural stability analysis using force constant profiling of the inter-residue fluctuation distances has identified a network of conserved structurally rigid residues that could serve as global mediating sites of allosteric communication. Mapping of the conformational landscape with the network centrality parameters has demonstrated that stable communities and mediating residues may act concertedly with the shifts in the conformational equilibrium and could describe the majority of functionally significant chaperone residues. The network analysis has revealed a relationship between structural stability, global centrality and functional significance of hotspot residues involved in chaperone regulation. We have found that allosteric interactions in the Hsp90 chaperone may be mediated by modules of structurally stable residues that display high betweenness in the global interaction network. The results of this study have suggested that allosteric interactions in the Hsp90 chaperone may operate via a mechanism that combines rapid and efficient communication by a single optimal pathway of structurally rigid residues and more robust signal transmission using an ensemble of suboptimal multiple communication routes. This

  14. Allosteric Regulation of E-Cadherin Adhesion*

    PubMed Central

    Shashikanth, Nitesh; Petrova, Yuliya I.; Park, Seongjin; Chekan, Jillian; Maiden, Stephanie; Spano, Martha; Ha, Taekjip; Gumbiner, Barry M.; Leckband, Deborah E.

    2015-01-01

    Cadherins are transmembrane adhesion proteins that maintain intercellular cohesion in all tissues, and their rapid regulation is essential for organized tissue remodeling. Despite some evidence that cadherin adhesion might be allosterically regulated, testing of this has been hindered by the difficulty of quantifying altered E-cadherin binding affinity caused by perturbations outside the ectodomain binding site. Here, measured kinetics of cadherin-mediated intercellular adhesion demonstrated quantitatively that treatment with activating, anti-E-cadherin antibodies or the dephosphorylation of a cytoplasmic binding partner, p120ctn, increased the homophilic binding affinity of E-cadherin. Results obtained with Colo 205 cells, which express inactive E-cadherin and do not aggregate, demonstrated that four treatments, which induced Colo 205 aggregation and p120ctn dephosphorylation, triggered quantitatively similar increases in E-cadherin affinity. Several processes can alter cell aggregation, but these results directly demonstrated the allosteric regulation of cell surface E-cadherin by p120ctn dephosphorylation. PMID:26175155

  15. Time skewing and amplitude nonlinearity mitigation by feedback equalization for 56 Gbps VCSEL-based PAM-4 links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yue; Zhang, Wenjia; Sun, Lin; Du, Jiangbing; Liang, Chenyu; Yang, Fan; He, Zuyuan

    2018-03-01

    The vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL)-based multimode optical transceivers enabled by pulse amplitude modulation (PAM)-4 will be commercialized in near future to meet the 400-Gbps standard short reach optical interconnects. It is still challenging to achieve over 56/112-Gbps with the multilevel signaling as the multimode property of the device and link would introduce the nonlinear temporal response for the different levels. In this work, we scrutinize the distortions that relates to the multilevel feature of PAM-4 modulation, and propose an effective feedback equalization scheme for 56-Gbps VCSEL-based PAM-4 optical interconnects system to mitigate the distortions caused by eye timing-skew and nonlinear power-dependent noise. Level redistribution at Tx side is theoretically modeled and constructed to achieve equivalent symbol error ratios (SERs) of four levels and improved BER performance. The cause of the eye skewing and the mitigation approach are also simulated at 100-Gbps and experimentally investigated at 56-Gbps. The results indicate more than 2-dB power penalty improvement has been achieved by using such a distortion aware equalizer.

  16. Engineered CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases with altered PAM specificities

    PubMed Central

    Kleinstiver, Benjamin P.; Prew, Michelle S.; Tsai, Shengdar Q.; Topkar, Ved; Nguyen, Nhu T.; Zheng, Zongli; Gonzales, Andrew P.W.; Li, Zhuyun; Peterson, Randall T.; Yeh, Jing-Ruey Joanna; Aryee, Martin J.; Joung, J. Keith

    2015-01-01

    Although CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases are widely used for genome editing1, 2, the range of sequences that Cas9 can recognize is constrained by the need for a specific protospacer adjacent motif (PAM)3–6. As a result, it can often be difficult to target double-stranded breaks (DSBs) with the precision that is necessary for various genome editing applications. The ability to engineer Cas9 derivatives with purposefully altered PAM specificities would address this limitation. Here we show that the commonly used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) can be modified to recognize alternative PAM sequences using structural information, bacterial selection-based directed evolution, and combinatorial design. These altered PAM specificity variants enable robust editing of endogenous gene sites in zebrafish and human cells not currently targetable by wild-type SpCas9, and their genome-wide specificities are comparable to wild-type SpCas9 as judged by GUIDE-Seq analysis7. In addition, we identified and characterized another SpCas9 variant that exhibits improved specificity in human cells, possessing better discrimination against off-target sites with non-canonical NAG and NGA PAMs and/or mismatched spacers. We also found that two smaller-size Cas9 orthologues, Streptococcus thermophilus Cas9 (St1Cas9) and Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9), function efficiently in the bacterial selection systems and in human cells, suggesting that our engineering strategies could be extended to Cas9s from other species. Our findings provide broadly useful SpCas9 variants and, more importantly, establish the feasibility of engineering a wide range of Cas9s with altered and improved PAM specificities. PMID:26098369

  17. Engineered CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases with altered PAM specificities.

    PubMed

    Kleinstiver, Benjamin P; Prew, Michelle S; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Topkar, Ved V; Nguyen, Nhu T; Zheng, Zongli; Gonzales, Andrew P W; Li, Zhuyun; Peterson, Randall T; Yeh, Jing-Ruey Joanna; Aryee, Martin J; Joung, J Keith

    2015-07-23

    Although CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases are widely used for genome editing, the range of sequences that Cas9 can recognize is constrained by the need for a specific protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). As a result, it can often be difficult to target double-stranded breaks (DSBs) with the precision that is necessary for various genome-editing applications. The ability to engineer Cas9 derivatives with purposefully altered PAM specificities would address this limitation. Here we show that the commonly used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) can be modified to recognize alternative PAM sequences using structural information, bacterial selection-based directed evolution, and combinatorial design. These altered PAM specificity variants enable robust editing of endogenous gene sites in zebrafish and human cells not currently targetable by wild-type SpCas9, and their genome-wide specificities are comparable to wild-type SpCas9 as judged by GUIDE-seq analysis. In addition, we identify and characterize another SpCas9 variant that exhibits improved specificity in human cells, possessing better discrimination against off-target sites with non-canonical NAG and NGA PAMs and/or mismatched spacers. We also find that two smaller-size Cas9 orthologues, Streptococcus thermophilus Cas9 (St1Cas9) and Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9), function efficiently in the bacterial selection systems and in human cells, suggesting that our engineering strategies could be extended to Cas9s from other species. Our findings provide broadly useful SpCas9 variants and, more importantly, establish the feasibility of engineering a wide range of Cas9s with altered and improved PAM specificities.

  18. Multiple allosteric sites on muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Birdsall, N J; Lazareno, S; Popham, A; Saldanha, J

    2001-04-27

    Proteins and small molecules are capable of regulating the agonist binding and function of G-protein coupled receptors by multiple allosteric mechanisms. In the case of muscarinic receptors, there is the well-characterised allosteric site that binds, for example, gallamine and brucine. The protein kinase inhibitor, KT5720, has now been shown to bind to a second allosteric site and to regulate agonist and antagonist binding. The binding of brucine and gallamine does not affect KT5720 binding nor its effects on the dissociation of [3H]-N-methylscopolamine from M1 receptors. Therefore it is possible to have a muscarinic receptor with three small ligands bound simultaneously. A model of the M1 receptor, based on the recently determined structure of rhodopsin, has the residues that have been shown to be important for gallamine binding clustered within and to one side of a cleft in the extracellular face of the receptor. This cleft may represent the access route of acetylcholine to its binding site.

  19. Identifiability, reducibility, and adaptability in allosteric macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Bohner, Gergő; Venkataraman, Gaurav

    2017-05-01

    The ability of macromolecules to transduce stimulus information at one site into conformational changes at a distant site, termed "allostery," is vital for cellular signaling. Here, we propose a link between the sensitivity of allosteric macromolecules to their underlying biophysical parameters, the interrelationships between these parameters, and macromolecular adaptability. We demonstrate that the parameters of a canonical model of the mSlo large-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + (BK) ion channel are non-identifiable with respect to the equilibrium open probability-voltage relationship, a common functional assay. We construct a reduced model with emergent parameters that are identifiable and expressed as combinations of the original mechanistic parameters. These emergent parameters indicate which coordinated changes in mechanistic parameters can leave assay output unchanged. We predict that these coordinated changes are used by allosteric macromolecules to adapt, and we demonstrate how this prediction can be tested experimentally. We show that these predicted parameter compensations are used in the first reported allosteric phenomena: the Bohr effect, by which hemoglobin adapts to varying pH. © 2017 Bohner and Venkataraman.

  20. Allosteric Control of Icosahedral Capsid Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Lazaro, Guillermo R.

    2017-01-01

    During the lifecycle of a virus, viral proteins and other components self-assemble to form an ordered protein shell called a capsid. This assembly process is subject to multiple competing constraints, including the need to form a thermostable shell while avoiding kinetic traps. It has been proposed that viral assembly satisfies these constraints through allosteric regulation, including the interconversion of capsid proteins among conformations with different propensities for assembly. In this article we use computational and theoretical modeling to explore how such allostery affects the assembly of icosahedral shells. We simulate assembly under a wide range of protein concentrations, protein binding affinities, and two different mechanisms of allosteric control. We find that, above a threshold strength of allosteric control, assembly becomes robust over a broad range of subunit binding affinities and concentrations, allowing the formation of highly thermostable capsids. Our results suggest that allostery can significantly shift the range of protein binding affinities that lead to successful assembly, and thus should be accounted for in models that are used to estimate interaction parameters from experimental data. PMID:27117092

  1. Homotropic Allosteric Regulation in Monomeric Mammalian Glucokinase

    PubMed Central

    Larion, Mioara; Miller, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    Glucokinase catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of glucose, a chemical transformation that represents the rate-limiting step of glycolytic metabolism in the liver and pancreas. Glucokinase is a central regulator of glucose homeostasis as evidenced by its association with two disease states, maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) and persistent hyperinsulinemia of infancy (PHHI). Mammalian glucokinase is subject to homotropic allosteric regulation by glucose — the steady-state velocity of glucose 6-phosphate production is not hyperbolic, but instead displays a sigmoidal response to increasing glucose concentrations. The positive cooperativity displayed by glucokinase is intriguing since the enzyme functions as a monomer under physiological conditions and contains only a single binding site for glucose. Despite the existence of several models of kinetic cooperativity in monomeric enzymes, a consensus has yet to be reached regarding the mechanism of allosteric regulation in glucokinase. Experimental evidence collected over the last 45 years by a number of investigators supports a link between cooperativity and slow conformational reorganizations of the glucokinase scaffold. In this review, we summarize advances in our understanding of glucokinase allosteric regulation resulting from recent X-ray crystallographic, pre-equilibrium kinetic and high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance investigations. We conclude with a brief discussion of unanswered questions regarding the mechanistic basis of kinetic cooperativity in mammalian glucokinase. PMID:22107947

  2. Homotropic allosteric regulation in monomeric mammalian glucokinase.

    PubMed

    Larion, Mioara; Miller, Brian G

    2012-03-15

    Glucokinase catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of glucose, a chemical transformation that represents the rate-limiting step of glycolytic metabolism in the liver and pancreas. Glucokinase is a central regulator of glucose homeostasis as evidenced by its association with two disease states, maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) and persistent hyperinsulinemia of infancy (PHHI). Mammalian glucokinase is subject to homotropic allosteric regulation by glucose-the steady-state velocity of glucose-6-phosphate production is not hyperbolic, but instead displays a sigmoidal response to increasing glucose concentrations. The positive cooperativity displayed by glucokinase is intriguing since the enzyme functions as a monomer under physiological conditions and contains only a single binding site for glucose. Despite the existence of several models of kinetic cooperativity in monomeric enzymes, a consensus has yet to be reached regarding the mechanism of allosteric regulation in glucokinase. Experimental evidence collected over the last 45 years by a number of investigators supports a link between cooperativity and slow conformational reorganizations of the glucokinase scaffold. In this review, we summarize advances in our understanding of glucokinase allosteric regulation resulting from recent X-ray crystallographic, pre-equilibrium kinetic and high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance investigations. We conclude with a brief discussion of unanswered questions regarding the mechanistic basis of kinetic cooperativity in mammalian glucokinase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Multistate coarse-grained molecular dynamics for modelling the catalytic cycle of allosteric enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenfei; Wang, Wei; Takada, Shoji

    Biological functions of proteins are often related to their conformational dynamics, therefore, the intrinsic energy landscape. Adenylate kinase (AK), which catalyzes the reversible conversion from ATP and AMP to ADP, has widely been used as a model system of allosteric enzyme to study the role of conformational dynamics in protein functions. However, the underlying mechanism on the interplay between enzymatic turnover and conformational dynamics is not fully understood. In this work we constructed a multistate coarse-grained molecular dynamics model within the framework of the energy landscape theory, with which we have been able to simulate the full catalytic cycle of the AK. Our results demonstrated the tight coupling between the substrate exchange and lid open/closing motions, and their contributions to the final turnover rate. Particularly, we revealed how typical physiochemical factors, such as substrate concentrations, temperatures, and mechanical force, modulate the multistate allosteric motions of the protein and the pathways of the catalytic cycle.

  4. MEK drives BRAF activation through allosteric control of KSR proteins.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Hugo; Sahmi, Malha; Maisonneuve, Pierre; Marullo, Sara A; Thevakumaran, Neroshan; Jin, Ting; Kurinov, Igor; Sicheri, Frank; Therrien, Marc

    2018-02-22

    RAF family kinases have prominent roles in cancer. Their activation is dependent on dimerization of their kinase domains, which has emerged as a hindrance for drug development. In mammals, RAF family kinases include three catalytically competent enzymes (ARAF, BRAF and CRAF) and two pseudokinases (KSR1 and KSR2) that have been described as scaffolds owing to their apparent ability to bridge RAF isoforms and their substrate, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK). Kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR) pseudokinases were also shown to dimerize with kinase-competent RAFs to stimulate catalysis allosterically. Although GTP-bound RAS can modulate the dimerization of RAF isoforms by engaging their RAS-binding domains, KSR1 and KSR2 lack an RAS-binding domain and therefore the regulatory principles underlying their dimerization with other RAF family members remain unknown. Here we show that the selective heterodimerization of BRAF with KSR1 is specified by direct contacts between the amino-terminal regulatory regions of each protein, comprising in part a novel domain called BRS in BRAF and the coiled-coil-sterile α motif (CC-SAM) domain in KSR1. We also discovered that MEK binding to the kinase domain of KSR1 asymmetrically drives BRAF-KSR1 heterodimerization, resulting in the concomitant stimulation of BRAF catalytic activity towards free MEK molecules. These findings demonstrate that KSR-MEK complexes allosterically activate BRAF through the action of N-terminal regulatory region and kinase domain contacts and challenge the accepted role of KSR as a scaffold for MEK recruitment to RAF.

  5. PAM4 based symmetrical 112-Gbps long-reach TWDM-PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liyu; Gao, Fan; Zhang, Minming; Fu, Songnian; Deng, Lei; Choi, Michael; Chang, Donald; Lei, Gordon K. P.; Liu, Deming

    2018-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate cost effective symmetrical 112-Gbps long-reach passive optical network (LR-PON) over 70-km standard signal mode fiber (SSMF), based on pulse amplitude modulation (PAM)-4. Four 10G-class directly modulated lasers (DMLs) at C-band are used for achieving 4 × 28-Gbps downstream transmission, while two 18G-class DMLs at O-band are used to realize 2 × 56-Gbps upstream transmission, without any optical amplification in optical distributed network (ODN). Both dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) for downstream signal and praseodymium-doped fiber amplifier (PDFA) for upstream signal are equipped at optical line terminal (OLT). Meanwhile, sparse Volterra filter (SVF) equalizer is proposed to mitigate the transmission impairments with substantial reduction of computation complexity. Finally, we can successfully provide a loss budget of 33 dB per downstream wavelength channel, indicating of 64 optical network units (ONUs) with more than 1.25 Gbps per ONU.

  6. 40 CFR 52.1080 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as required by... (PAMS) Program on September 11, 1995 and made it part of Maryland SIP. As with all components of the SIP...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1080 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as required by... (PAMS) Program on September 11, 1995 and made it part of Maryland SIP. As with all components of the SIP...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1080 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as required by... (PAMS) Program on September 11, 1995 and made it part of Maryland SIP. As with all components of the SIP...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1080 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as required by... (PAMS) Program on September 11, 1995 and made it part of Maryland SIP. As with all components of the SIP...

  10. Allosteric “beta-blocker” isolated from a DNA-encoded small molecule library

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Seungkirl; Kahsai, Alem W.; Pani, Biswaranjan; Wang, Qin-Ting; Zhao, Shuai; Wall, Alissa L.; Strachan, Ryan T.; Staus, Dean P.; Wingler, Laura M.; Sun, Lillian D.; Sinnaeve, Justine; Choi, Minjung; Cho, Ted; Xu, Thomas T.; Hansen, Gwenn M.; Burnett, Michael B.; Lamerdin, Jane E.; Bassoni, Daniel L.; Gavino, Bryant J.; Husemoen, Gitte; Olsen, Eva K.; Franch, Thomas; Costanzi, Stefano; Chen, Xin; Lefkowitz, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    The β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) has been a model system for understanding regulatory mechanisms of G-protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) actions and plays a significant role in cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Because all known β-adrenergic receptor drugs target the orthosteric binding site of the receptor, we set out to isolate allosteric ligands for this receptor by panning DNA-encoded small-molecule libraries comprising 190 million distinct compounds against purified human β2AR. Here, we report the discovery of a small-molecule negative allosteric modulator (antagonist), compound 15 [([4-((2S)-3-(((S)-3-(3-bromophenyl)-1-(methylamino)-1-oxopropan-2-yl)amino)-2-(2-cyclohexyl-2-phenylacetamido)-3-oxopropyl)benzamide], exhibiting a unique chemotype and low micromolar affinity for the β2AR. Binding of 15 to the receptor cooperatively enhances orthosteric inverse agonist binding while negatively modulating binding of orthosteric agonists. Studies with a specific antibody that binds to an intracellular region of the β2AR suggest that 15 binds in proximity to the G-protein binding site on the cytosolic surface of the β2AR. In cell-signaling studies, 15 inhibits cAMP production through the β2AR, but not that mediated by other Gs-coupled receptors. Compound 15 also similarly inhibits β-arrestin recruitment to the activated β2AR. This study presents an allosteric small-molecule ligand for the β2AR and introduces a broadly applicable method for screening DNA-encoded small-molecule libraries against purified GPCR targets. Importantly, such an approach could facilitate the discovery of GPCR drugs with tailored allosteric effects. PMID:28130548

  11. Point-to-point ligand-receptor interactions across the subunit interface modulate the induction and stabilization of conformational states of alpha7 nAChR by benzylidene anabaseines.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Matthew D; Horenstein, Nicole A; Stokes, Clare; Kem, William R; Papke, Roger L

    2013-03-15

    The homomeric α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is a well-studied therapeutic target, though its characteristically rapid desensitization complicates the development of drugs with specific agonist effects. Moreover, some experimental compounds such as GTS-21 (2,4diMeOBA), a derivative of the α7-selective partial agonist benzylidene anabaseine (BA), produce a prolonged residual desensitization (RD) in which the receptor remains non-activatable long after the drug has been removed from extracellular solution. In contrast, the desensitization caused by GTS-21's dihydroxy metabolite (2,4diOHBA) is relatively short-lived. RD is hypothetically due to stable binding of the ligand to the receptor in its desensitized state. We can attribute the reduction in RD to a single BA hydroxyl group on the 4' benzylidene position. Computational prediction derived from homology modeling showed the serine36 (S36) residue of α7 as a reasonable candidate for point-to-point interaction between BA compounds and the receptor. Through evaluating the activity of BA and simple derivatives on wild-type and mutant α7 receptors, it was observed that the drug-receptor pairs which were capable of hydrogen bonding at residue 36 exhibited significantly less stable desensitization. Further experiments involving the type II positive allosteric modulator (PAM) PNU-120596 showed that the various BA compounds' preference to induce either a PAM-sensitive (D(s)) or PAM-insensitive (D(i)) desensitized state is concentration dependent and suggested that both states are destabilized by S36 H-bonding. These results indicate that the fine-tuning of agonists for specific interaction with S36 can facilitate the development of therapeutics with targeted effects on ion channel desensitization properties and conformational state stability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 40 CFR 52.1080 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.1080 Section 52.1080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1080 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On March 24, 1994 Maryland's... Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as required by...

  13. 40 CFR 52.480 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.480 Section 52.480 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.480 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On January 14, 1994 the District... and implementation of a Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2035 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.2035 Section 52.2035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) Pennsylvania § 52.2035 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On September 23, 1994... (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as required by section 182(c)(1) of the...

  15. Identifying and visualizing functional PAM diversity across CRISPR-Cas systems

    PubMed Central

    Leenay, Ryan T.; Maksimchuk, Kenneth R.; Slotkowski, Rebecca A.; Agrawal, Roma N.; Gomaa, Ahmed A.; Briner, Alexandra E.; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Beisel, Chase L.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes boast a diversity of protein families and mechanisms of action, where most systems rely on protospacer-adjacent motifs (PAMs) for DNA target recognition. Here, we developed an in vivo, positive, and tunable screen termed PAM-SCANR (PAM screen achieved by NOT-gate repression) to elucidate functional PAMs as well as an interactive visualization scheme termed the PAM wheel to convey individual PAM sequences and their activities. PAM-SCANR and the PAM wheel identified known functional PAMs while revealing complex sequence-activity landscapes for the Bacillus halodurans I-C (Cascade), Escherichia coli I-E (Cascade), Streptococcus thermophilus II-A CRISPR1 (Cas9), and Francisella novicida V-A (Cpf1) systems. The PAM wheel was also readily applicable to existing high-throughput screens and garnered insights into SpyCas9 and SauCas9 PAM diversity. These tools offer powerful means of elucidating and visualizing functional PAMs toward accelerating our ability to understand and exploit the multitude of CRISPR-Cas systems in nature. PMID:27041224

  16. Identifying and Visualizing Functional PAM Diversity across CRISPR-Cas Systems.

    PubMed

    Leenay, Ryan T; Maksimchuk, Kenneth R; Slotkowski, Rebecca A; Agrawal, Roma N; Gomaa, Ahmed A; Briner, Alexandra E; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Beisel, Chase L

    2016-04-07

    CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes boast a diversity of protein families and mechanisms of action, where most systems rely on protospacer-adjacent motifs (PAMs) for DNA target recognition. Here, we developed an in vivo, positive, and tunable screen termed PAM-SCANR (PAM screen achieved by NOT-gate repression) to elucidate functional PAMs as well as an interactive visualization scheme termed the PAM wheel to convey individual PAM sequences and their activities. PAM-SCANR and the PAM wheel identified known functional PAMs while revealing complex sequence-activity landscapes for the Bacillus halodurans I-C (Cascade), Escherichia coli I-E (Cascade), Streptococcus thermophilus II-A CRISPR1 (Cas9), and Francisella novicida V-A (Cpf1) systems. The PAM wheel was also readily applicable to existing high-throughput screens and garnered insights into SpyCas9 and SauCas9 PAM diversity. These tools offer powerful means of elucidating and visualizing functional PAMs toward accelerating our ability to understand and exploit the multitude of CRISPR-Cas systems in nature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 40 CFR 52.2426 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.2426 Section 52.2426 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.2426 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On November 23, 1994 Virginia's... Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as...

  18. 40 CFR 52.430 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.430 Section 52.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On March 24, 1994 the Delaware Department of... Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as...

  19. Using Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) to Identify Core Profiles from the WMS-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby, Craig L.; Kim, Se-Kang

    2008-01-01

    Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) is a procedure for extracting latent core profiles in a multitest data set. The PAMS procedure offers several advantages compared with other profile analysis procedures. Most notably, PAMS estimates individual profile weights that reflect the degree to which an individual's observed profile…

  20. Experimental study of PAM-4, CAP-16, and DMT for 100 Gb/s short reach optical transmission systems.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Kangping; Zhou, Xian; Gui, Tao; Tao, Li; Gao, Yuliang; Chen, Wei; Man, Jiangwei; Zeng, Li; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Lu, Chao

    2015-01-26

    Advanced modulation formats combined with digital signal processing and direct detection is a promising way to realize high capacity, low cost and power efficient short reach optical transmission system. In this paper, we present a detailed investigation on the performance of three advanced modulation formats for 100 Gb/s short reach transmission system. They are PAM-4, CAP-16 and DMT. The detailed digital signal processing required for each modulation format is presented. Comprehensive simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of each modulation format in terms of received optical power, transmitter bandwidth, relative intensity noise and thermal noise. The performance of each modulation format is also experimentally studied. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first demonstration of a 112 Gb/s transmission over 10km of SSMF employing single band CAP-16 with EML. Finally, a comparison of computational complexity of DSP for the three formats is presented.

  1. A Clearinghouse for Astronomy Librarians: the PAM Web Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. Kathleen

    The advent of the World Wide Web has enabled librarians to create and publish web sites that function as specialized reference tools, virtual clearinghouses. This paper will review how the PAM web site has evolved, and survey current developments in information architecture and web applications that may provide future site enhancements.

  2. Moving Beyond Active-Site Detection: MixMD Applied to Allosteric Systems.

    PubMed

    Ghanakota, Phani; Carlson, Heather A

    2016-08-25

    Mixed-solvent molecular dynamics (MixMD) is a hotspot-mapping technique that relies on molecular dynamics simulations of proteins in binary solvent mixtures. Previous work on MixMD has established the technique's effectiveness in capturing binding sites of small organic compounds. In this work, we show that MixMD can identify both competitive and allosteric sites on proteins. The MixMD approach embraces full protein flexibility and allows competition between solvent probes and water. Sites preferentially mapped by probe molecules are more likely to be binding hotspots. There are two important requirements for the identification of ligand-binding hotspots: (1) hotspots must be mapped at very high signal-to-noise ratio and (2) the hotspots must be mapped by multiple probe types. We have developed our mapping protocol around acetonitrile, isopropanol, and pyrimidine as probe solvents because they allowed us to capture hydrophilic, hydrophobic, hydrogen-bonding, and aromatic interactions. Charged probes were needed for mapping one target, and we introduce them in this work. In order to demonstrate the robust nature and wide applicability of the technique, a combined total of 5 μs of MixMD was applied across several protein targets known to exhibit allosteric modulation. Most notably, all the protein crystal structures used to initiate our simulations had no allosteric ligands bound, so there was no preorganization of the sites to predispose the simulations to find the allosteric hotspots. The protein test cases were ABL Kinase, Androgen Receptor, CHK1 Kinase, Glucokinase, PDK1 Kinase, Farnesyl Pyrophosphate Synthase, and Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B. The success of the technique is demonstrated by the fact that the top-four sites solely map the competitive and allosteric sites. Lower-ranked sites consistently map other biologically relevant sites, multimerization interfaces, or crystal-packing interfaces. Lastly, we highlight the importance of including protein

  3. Are there physicochemical differences between allosteric and competitive ligands?

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Carlson, Heather A.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have compared the physicochemical properties of allosteric compounds to non-allosteric compounds. Those studies have found that allosteric compounds tend to be smaller, more rigid, more hydrophobic, and more drug-like than non-allosteric compounds. However, previous studies have not properly corrected for the fact that some protein targets have much more data than other systems. This generates concern regarding the possible skew that can be introduced by the inherent bias in the available data. Hence, this study aims to determine how robust the previous findings are to the addition of newer data. This study utilizes the Allosteric Database (ASD v3.0) and ChEMBL v20 to systematically obtain large datasets of both allosteric and competitive ligands. This dataset contains 70,219 and 9,511 unique ligands for the allosteric and competitive sets, respectively. Physically relevant compound descriptors were computed to examine the differences in their chemical properties. Particular attention was given to removing redundancy in the data and normalizing across ligand diversity and varied protein targets. The resulting distributions only show that allosteric ligands tend to be more aromatic and rigid and do not confirm the increase in hydrophobicity or difference in drug-likeness. These results are robust across different normalization schemes. PMID:29125840

  4. Identification of Allosteric Disulfides from Prestress Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Beifei; Baldus, Ilona B.; Li, Wenjin; Edwards, Scott A.; Gräter, Frauke

    2014-01-01

    Disulfide bonds serve to form physical cross-links between residues in protein structures, thereby stabilizing the protein fold. Apart from this purely structural role, they can also be chemically active, participating in redox reactions, and they may even potentially act as allosteric switches controlling protein functions. Specific types of disulfide bonds have been identified in static protein structures from their distinctive pattern of dihedral bond angles, and the allosteric function of such bonds is purported to be related to the torsional strain they store. Using all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations for ∼700 disulfide bonded proteins, we analyzed the intramolecular mechanical forces in 20 classes of disulfide bonds. We found that two particular classes, the −RHStaple and the −/+RHHook disulfides, are indeed more stressed than other disulfide bonds, but the stress is carried primarily by stretching of the S-S bond and bending of the neighboring bond angles, rather than by dihedral torsion. This stress corresponds to a tension force of magnitude ∼200 pN, which is balanced by repulsive van der Waals interactions between the cysteine Cα atoms. We confirm stretching of the S-S bond to be a general feature of the −RHStaples and the −/+RHHooks by analyzing ∼20,000 static protein structures. Given that forced stretching of S-S bonds is known to accelerate their cleavage, we propose that prestress of allosteric disulfide bonds has the potential to alter the reactivity of a disulfide, thereby allowing us to readily switch between functional states. PMID:25099806

  5. Tripodal, cooperative, and allosteric transphosphorylation metallocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Scarso, Alessandro; Zaupa, Giovanni; Houillon, Florence Bodar; Prins, Leonard J; Scrimin, Paolo

    2007-01-19

    Three artificial amino acids derived from l-serine by replacing the hydroxyl moiety with 1,4,7-triazacyclononane, 1,5,9-triazacyclododecane, and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane, respectively, have been connected to the three arms of the tetraamine tris(2-aminoethyl)amine, Tren, to obtain tripodal ligands. They are able to bind up to four metal ions (like CuII and ZnII), three with the polyazamacrocycles and one with the Tren platform. Some of the ZnII complexes of these tripodal ligands proved to be good catalysts for the cleavage of the RNA model substrate 2-hydroxypropyl-p-nitrophenylphosphate (HPNP). Studies of the catalytic activity in the presence of increasing amounts of ZnII show that the complexes represent minimalist examples of metallocatalysts with cooperativity between the metal centers and allosteric control by a metal ion. The Tren binding site constitutes the allosteric regulation unit, while the three ZnII-azacrown complexes provide the cooperative, catalytic site. The allosteric role of the ZnII ion located in the Tren binding site was unambiguously demonstrated by studying the catalytic activity of a derivative unable to complex ZnII in that site. In this case, the cooperativity between the three ZnII ions bound to the peripheral azacrowns was totally suppressed. The kinetic analysis has shown that cooperativity is due to neither the occurrence of general-acid/general-base catalysis nor a decreased binding of the substrate because of the deprotonation of a water molecule bound to the complex but, rather, stabilization of the complexed substrate in its transformation into the transition state.

  6. The Toll-like receptor 1/2 agonists Pam(3) CSK(4) and human β-defensin-3 differentially induce interleukin-10 and nuclear factor-κB signalling patterns in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Funderburg, Nicholas T; Jadlowsky, Julie K; Lederman, Michael M; Feng, Zhimin; Weinberg, Aaron; Sieg, Scott F

    2011-10-01

    Human β-defensin 3 (hBD-3) activates antigen-presenting cells through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 1/2. Several TLR1/2 agonists have been identified but little is known about how they might differentially affect cellular activation. We compared the effects of hBD-3 with those of another TLR1/2 agonist, Pam(3) CSK(4) , in human monocytes. Monocytes incubated with hBD-3 or Pam(3) CSK(4) produced interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8 and IL-1β, but only Pam(3) CSK(4) induced IL-10. The IL-10 induction by Pam(3) CSK(4) caused down-modulation of the co-stimulatory molecule, CD86, whereas CD86 expression was increased in monocytes exposed to hBD-3. Assessment of signalling pathways linked to IL-10 induction indicated that mitogen-activated protein kinases were activated similarly by hBD-3 or Pam(3) CSK(4) , whereas the non-canonical nuclear factor-κB pathway was only induced by Pam(3) CSK(4) . Our data suggest that the lack of non-canonical nuclear factor-κB signalling by hBD-3 could contribute to the failure of this TLR agonist to induce production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, in human monocytes. © 2011 The Authors. Immunology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Targeting S-adenosylmethionine biosynthesis with a novel allosteric inhibitor of Mat2A

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, Casey L.; Kaiser, Stephen E.; Bolaños, Ben

    2017-05-29

    S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) is an enzyme cofactor used in methyl transfer reactions and polyamine biosynthesis. The biosynthesis of SAM from ATP and L-methionine is performed by the methionine adenosyltransferase enzyme family (Mat; EC 2.5.1.6). Human methionine adenosyltransferase 2A (Mat2A), the extrahepatic isoform, is often deregulated in cancer. We identified a Mat2A inhibitor, PF-9366, that binds an allosteric site on Mat2A that overlaps with the binding site for the Mat2A regulator, Mat2B. Studies exploiting PF-9366 suggested a general mode of Mat2A allosteric regulation. Allosteric binding of PF-9366 or Mat2B altered the Mat2A active site, resulting in increased substrate affinity and decreased enzymemore » turnover. These data support a model whereby Mat2B functions as an inhibitor of Mat2A activity when methionine or SAM levels are high, yet functions as an activator of Mat2A when methionine or SAM levels are low. The ramification of Mat2A activity modulation in cancer cells is also described.« less

  8. Activation of Hsp90 Enzymatic Activity and Conformational Dynamics through Rationally Designed Allosteric Ligands.

    PubMed

    Sattin, Sara; Tao, Jiahui; Vettoretti, Gerolamo; Moroni, Elisabetta; Pennati, Marzia; Lopergolo, Alessia; Morelli, Laura; Bugatti, Antonella; Zuehlke, Abbey; Moses, Mike; Prince, Thomas; Kijima, Toshiki; Beebe, Kristin; Rusnati, Marco; Neckers, Len; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Agard, David A; Bernardi, Anna; Colombo, Giorgio

    2015-09-21

    Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone of pivotal importance for multiple cell pathways. ATP-regulated internal dynamics are critical for its function and current pharmacological approaches block the chaperone with ATP-competitive inhibitors. Herein, a general approach to perturb Hsp90 through design of new allosteric ligands aimed at modulating its functional dynamics is proposed. Based on the characterization of a first set of 2-phenylbenzofurans showing stimulatory effects on Hsp90 ATPase and conformational dynamics, new ligands were developed that activate Hsp90 by targeting an allosteric site, located 65 Å from the active site. Specifically, analysis of protein responses to first-generation activators was exploited to guide the design of novel derivatives with improved ability to stimulate ATP hydrolysis. The molecules' effects on Hsp90 enzymatic, conformational, co-chaperone and client-binding properties were characterized through biochemical, biophysical and cellular approaches. These designed probes act as allosteric activators of the chaperone and affect the viability of cancer cell lines for which proper functioning of Hsp90 is necessary. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Allosteric regulation and substrate activation in cytosolic nucleotidase II from Legionella pneumophila

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Arpit; Sampangi, Chethana; Kulkarni, Sonia; Abashidze, Mariam; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Lew, Scott; Mao, Lei; Acton, Thomas B.; Xiao, Rong; Everett, John K.; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Tong, Liang; Balaram, Hemalatha

    2014-01-01

    Cytosolic nucleotidase II (cN-II) from Legionella pneumophila (Lp) catalyzes the hydrolysis of GMP and dGMP displaying sigmoidal curves while catalysis of IMP hydrolysis displayed a biphasic curve in the initial rate versus substrate concentration plots. Allosteric modulators of mammalian cN-II did not activate LpcN-II while GTP, GDP and the substrate GMP were specific activators. Crystal structures of the tetrameric LpcN-II revealed an activator binding site at the dimer interface. A double mutation in this allosteric binding site abolished activation, confirming the structural observations. The substrate GMP acting as an activator and partitioning between the allosteric and active site is the basis for the sigmoidicity of the initial velocity versus GMP concentration plot. The LpcN-II tetramer showed differences in subunit organization upon activator binding that is absent in the activator-bound human cN-II structure. This is the first observation of a structural change induced by activator binding in cN-II that may be the molecular mechanism for enzyme activation. PMID:24456211

  10. Engineering allosteric regulation into the hinge region of a circularly permuted TEM-1 beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Valéry; Fastrez, Jacques; Soumillion, Patrice

    2010-09-01

    In nature, the activity of many enzymes involved in important biochemical pathways is controlled by binding a ligand in a site remote from the active site. The allosteric sites are frequently located in hinge regulatory subunits, in which a conformational change can occur and propagate to the active site. The enzymatic activity is then enhanced or decreased depending on the type of effectors. Many artificial binding sites have been created to engineer an allosteric regulation. Generally, these sites were engineered near the active site in loops or at the surface of contiguous helices or strands but rarely in hinge regions. This work aims at exploring the possibility of regulating a monomeric enzyme whose active site is located at the interface between two domains. We anticipated that binding of a ligand in the hinge region linking the domains would modify their positioning and, consequently, modulate the activity. Here, we describe the design of two mutants in a circularly permuted TEM-1 (cpTEM-1) beta-lactamase. The first one, cpTEM-1-His(3) was created by a rational design. It shows little regulation upon metal ion binding except for a weak activation with Zn(2+). The second one, cpTEM-1-3M-His(2), was selected by a directed evolution strategy. It is allosterically down-regulated by Zn(2+), Ni(2+) and Co(2+) with binding affinities around 300 microM.

  11. Identification of an allosteric binding site for RORγt inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Scheepstra, Marcel; Leysen, Seppe; van Almen, Geert C.

    2015-12-07

    RORγt is critical for the differentiation and proliferation of Th17 cells associated with several chronic autoimmune diseases. We report the discovery of a novel allosteric binding site on the nuclear receptor RORγt. Co-crystallization of the ligand binding domain (LBD) of RORγt with a series of small-molecule antagonists demonstrates occupancy of a previously unreported allosteric binding pocket. Binding at this non-canonical site induces an unprecedented conformational reorientation of helix 12 in the RORγt LBD, which blocks cofactor binding. The functional consequence of this allosteric ligand-mediated conformation is inhibition of function as evidenced by both biochemical and cellular studies. RORγt function ismore » thus antagonized in a manner molecularly distinct from that of previously described orthosteric RORγt ligands. This brings forward an approach to target RORγt for the treatment of Th17-mediated autoimmune diseases. The elucidation of an unprecedented modality of pharmacological antagonism establishes a mechanism for modulation of nuclear receptors.« less

  12. Targeting allosteric disulphide bonds in cancer.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Philip J

    2013-06-01

    Protein action in nature is generally controlled by the amount of protein produced and by chemical modification of the protein, and both are often perturbed in cancer. The amino acid side chains and the peptide and disulphide bonds that bind the polypeptide backbone can be post-translationally modified. Post-translational cleavage or the formation of disulphide bonds are now being identified in cancer-related proteins and it is timely to consider how these allosteric bonds could be targeted for new therapies.

  13. Rapid Throughput Analysis of GABAA Receptor Subtype Modulators and Blockers Using DiSBAC1(3) Membrane Potential Red Dye.

    PubMed

    Nik, Atefeh Mousavi; Pressly, Brandon; Singh, Vikrant; Antrobus, Shane; Hulsizer, Susan; Rogawski, Michael A; Wulff, Heike; Pessah, Isaac N

    2017-07-01

    Fluorometric imaging plate reader membrane potential dye (FMP-Red-Dye) is a proprietary tool for basic discovery and high-throughput drug screening for G-protein-coupled receptors and ion channels. We optimized and validated this potentiometric probe to assay functional modulators of heterologous expressed GABA A receptor (GABA A R) isoforms (synaptic α 1 β 3 γ 2, extrasynaptic α 4 β 3 δ , and β 3 homopentomers). High-resolution mass spectrometry identified FMP-Red-Dye as 5,5'-(1-propen-1-yl-3-ylidene)bis[1,3-dimethyl-2-thio-barbituric acid]. GABA A R-expressing cells equilibrated with FMP-Red-Dye exhibited depolarized equilibrium membrane potentials compared with GABA A R-null cells. The channel blockers picrotoxin, fipronil, and tetramethylenedisulfotetramine, and the competitive antagonist bicuculline reduced fluorescence near the levels in GABA A R-null cells indicating that FMR-Red-Dye, a barbiturate derivative, activates GABA A R-mediated outward Cl - current in the absence of GABA. GABA caused concentration-dependent increases in fluorescence with rank order of potencies among GABA A R isoforms consistent with results from voltage-clamp experiments (EC 50 values for α 4 β 3 δ , α 1 β 3 γ 2, and β 3 homopentamers were 6 ± 1, 40 ± 11, and >18 mM, respectively), whereas GABA A R-null cells were unresponsive. Neuroactive steroids (NAS) increased fluorescence of GABA A R expressing cells in the absence of GABA and demonstrated positive allosteric modulation in the presence of GABA, whereas benzodiazepines only exhibited positive allosteric modulator (PAM) activity. Of 20 NAS tested, allopregnanolone, (3 α ,5 α ,20E)-3-hydroxy-13,24-cyclo-18-norcholan-20-ene-21-carbonitrile, eltanolone, 5 β -pregnan-3 α ,21-diol-20-one, and ganaxolone showed the highest potency. The FMP-Red-Dye-based assay described here provides a sensitive and quantitative method of assessing the activity of GABA A R agonists, antagonists, and PAMs on diverse GABA A R

  14. The toll-like receptor 2 agonist Pam3CSK4 is neuroprotective after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Stivers, Nicole S; Pelisch, Nicolas; Orem, Ben C; Williams, Joshua; Nally, Jacqueline M; Stirling, David P

    2017-08-01

    Microglia/macrophage activation and recruitment following spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with both detrimental and reparative functions. Stimulation of the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) has shown to be beneficial following SCI, and it increases axonal regeneration following optic nerve crush. However, the mechanism(s) remain unclear. As microglia express high levels of TLR2, we hypothesized that modulating the microglial response to injury using a specific TLR2 agonist, Pam3CSK4, would prevent secondary-mediated white matter degeneration following SCI. To test this hypothesis, we documented acute changes in microglia, axons, and oligodendroglia over time using two-photon excitation and an ex vivo laser-induced SCI (LiSCI) model. We utilized double transgenic mice that express GFP in either microglia or oligodendroglia, and YFP in axons, and we applied the lipophilic fluorescent dye (Nile Red) to visualize myelin. We found that treatment with Pam3CSK4 initiated one hour after injury induced a significant increase in the extent and timing of the microglial response to injury compared to vehicle controls. This enhanced response was observed 2 to 4h following SCI and was most prominent in areas closer to the ablation site. In addition, Pam3CSK4 treatment significantly reduced axonal dieback rostral and caudal to the ablation at 6h post-SCI. This protective effect of Pam3CSK4 was also mirrored when assessing secondary bystander axonal damage (i.e., axons spared by the primary injury that then succumb to secondary degeneration), and when assessing the survival of oligodendroglia. Following these imaging experiments, custom microarray analysis of the ex vivo spinal cord preparations revealed that Pam3CSK4-treatment induced an alternative (mixed M1:M2) microglial activation profile. In summary, our data suggest that by providing a second "sterile" activation signal to microglia through TLR2/TLR1 signaling, the microglial response to injury can

  15. Tropical cyclone Pam coastal impact survey in Vanuatu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H. M.; Pilarczyk, J.; Kosciuch, T. J.; Hong, I.; Rarai, A.; Harrison, M. J.; Jockley, F. R.; Horton, B.

    2015-12-01

    Severe tropical cyclone Pam (Cat. 5, SSHS) crossed the Vanuatu archipelago with sustained winds of 270 km/h on March 13 and 14, 2015 and made landfall on Erromango. Pam caused the worst natural disaster in Vanuatu's recorded history since severe tropical cyclone Uma in 1987. Eleven fatalities were directly attributed to cyclone Pam and mostly due to lack of shelter from airborne debris. On March 6 Pam formed east of the Santa Cruz Islands and intensified while tracking southward along Vanuatu severely affecting the Shefa and Tafea Provinces. An international storm surge reconnaissance team was deployed to Vanuatu from June 3 to 17, 2015 to complement earlier local surveys. Cyclone Pam struck a remote island archipelago particularly vulnerable to the combined cyclonic multi-hazards encompassing extreme wind gusts, massive rainfall and coastal flooding due to a combination of storm surge and storm wave impacts. The team surveyed coastal villages on Epi, the Shepherd Islands (Tongoa and Mataso), Efate (including Lelepa), Erromango, and Tanna. The survey spanned 320 km parallel to the cyclone track between Epi and Tanna encompassing more than 45 sites including the hardest hit settlements. Coastal flooding profiles were surveyed from the shoreline to the limit of inundation. Maximum coastal flood elevations and overland flow depths were measured based on water marks on buildings, scars on trees, rafted debris and corroborated with eyewitness accounts. We surveyed 91 high water marks with characteristic coastal flood levels in the 3 to 7 m range and composed of storm surge with superimposed storm waves. Inundation distances were mostly limited to a few hundred meters. Coral boulders of more than 1 m diameter were measured on Erromango and sediment samples were collected at key sites across the archipelago. Infrastructure damage on traditional and modern structures was assessed. Eyewitnesses were interviewed at most sites to document the chronology of the wind and

  16. Neuroprotection by biodegradable PAMAM ester (e-PAM-R)-mediated HMGB1 siRNA delivery in primary cortical cultures and in the postischemic brain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Doo; Lim, Chae-Moon; Kim, Jung-Bin; Nam, Hye Yeong; Nam, Kihoon; Kim, Seung-Woo; Park, Jong-Sang; Lee, Ja-Kyeong

    2010-03-19

    Although RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing provides a powerful strategy for modulating specific gene functions, difficulties associated with siRNA delivery have impeded the development of efficient therapeutic applications. In particular, the efficacy of siRNA delivery into neurons has been limited by extremely low transfection efficiencies. e-PAM-R is a biodegradable arginine ester of PAMAM dendrimer, which is readily degradable under physiological conditions (pH 7.4, 37 degrees C). In the present study, we investigated the efficiency of siRNA delivery by e-PAM-R in primary cortical cultures and in rat brain. e-PAM-R/siRNA complexes showed high transfection efficiencies and low cytotoxicities in primary cortical cultures. Localization of fluorescence-tagged siRNA revealed that siRNA was delivered not only into the nucleus and cytoplasm, but also along the processes of the neuron. e-PAM-R/siRNA complex-mediated target gene reduction was observed in over 40% of cells and it was persistent for over 48 h. The potential use of e-PAM-R was demonstrated by gene knockdown after transfecting High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1, a novel cytokine-like molecule) siRNA into H(2)O(2)- or NMDA-treated primary cortical cultures. In these cells, HMGB1 siRNA delivery successfully reduced both basal and H(2)O(2)- or NMDA-induced HMGB1 levels, and as a result of that, neuronal cell death was significantly suppressed in both cases. Furthermore, we showed that e-PAM-R successfully delivered HMGB1 siRNA into the rat brain, wherein HMGB1 expression was depleted in over 40% of neurons and astrocytes of the normal brain. Moreover, e-PAM-R-mediated HMGB1 siRNA delivery notably reduced infarct volume in the postischemic rat brain, which is generated by occluding the middle cerebral artery for 60 min. These results indicate that e-PAM-R, a novel biodegradable nonviral gene carrier, offers an efficient means of transfecting siRNA into primary neuronal cells and in the brain and of

  17. Functional anatomy of an allosteric protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, Prasad; Gupta, Shaweta; Jadey, Snehal; Auerbach, Anthony

    2013-12-01

    Synaptic receptors are allosteric proteins that switch on and off to regulate cell signalling. Here, we use single-channel electrophysiology to measure and map energy changes in the gating conformational change of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Two separated regions in the α-subunits—the transmitter-binding sites and αM2-αM3 linkers in the membrane domain—have the highest ϕ-values (change conformation the earliest), followed by the extracellular domain, most of the membrane domain and the gate. Large gating-energy changes occur at the transmitter-binding sites, α-subunit interfaces, the αM1 helix and the gate. We hypothesize that rearrangements of the linkers trigger the global allosteric transition, and that the hydrophobic gate unlocks in three steps. The mostly local character of side-chain energy changes and the similarly high ϕ-values of separated domains, both with and without ligands, suggest that gating is not strictly a mechanical process initiated by the affinity change for the agonist.

  18. Allosteric Effect of Adenosine Triphosphate on Peptide Recognition by 3'5'-Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits.

    PubMed

    Kivi, Rait; Solovjova, Karina; Haljasorg, Tõiv; Arukuusk, Piret; Järv, Jaak

    2016-12-01

    The allosteric influence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) on the binding effectiveness of a series of peptide inhibitors with the catalytic subunit of 3'5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate dependent protein kinase was investigated, and the dependence of this effect on peptide structure was analyzed. The allosteric effect was calculated as ratio of peptide binding effectiveness with the enzyme-ATP complex and with the free enzyme, quantified by the competitive inhibition of the enzyme in the presence of ATP excess, and by the enzyme-peptide complex denaturation assay, respectively It was found that the principle "better binding-stronger allostery" holds for interactions of the studied peptides with the enzyme, indicating that allostery and peptide binding with the free enzyme are governed by the same specificity pattern. This means that the allosteric regulation does not include new ligand-protein interactions, but changes the intensity (strength) of the interatomic forces that govern the complex formation in the case of each individual ligand. We propose that the allosteric regulation can be explained by the alteration of the intrinsic dynamics of the protein by ligand binding, and that this phenomenon, in turn, modulates the ligand off-rate from its binding site as well as the binding affinity. The positive allostery could therefore be induced by a reduction in the enzyme's overall intrinsic dynamics.

  19. Analysis of the Performance of a PAM/PPM/OOK System Operating with OCDMA, under Nonlinear Optical Effects in Optical Fiber Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, D. G.; Sales, J. C.; Pinto, P. V. F.; Moura, L. P.; Ferreira, A. C.; Menezes, J. W. M.; Guimarães, G. F.; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we present a numerical simulation study of encoding, decoding and propagation performance of short optical pulses and words with modulations OOK, PAM and PPM in OCDMA systems (Optical Code Division Multiple Access). The encoding and decoding of short pulses are obtained through fiber Bragg grating(FBG - FBG optical) devices, where the codes are inserted through discrete jumps in the optical phase (±π) where Gold codes were used. A figure of merit (SNR - Signal to Noise Ratio) was obtained to quantify the interference in propagation of short optical pulses. An increase in the temporal width was observed. For decoded pulses due to the nonlinearity effect, we observed an increase of 1.3 ps considering the propagation with γ=3 W-1 km-1 and γ=24 W-1 km-1. Analysis of coding and decoding words "a" and "w" was done. Considering the propagation (with γ=9 W-1 km-1) of a word "w", an error occurred in all modulations except for simultaneous PPM/PAM modulation, which is associated to the better autocorrelation characteristics obtained with the OOK, PAM and PPM modulations alone, and could double the transmission rate. The nonlinear effects directly affect the process of the autocorrelation codes due to interference from adjacent chip components of the code.

  20. Emerging Computational Methods for the Rational Discovery of Allosteric Drugs

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Allosteric drug development holds promise for delivering medicines that are more selective and less toxic than those that target orthosteric sites. To date, the discovery of allosteric binding sites and lead compounds has been mostly serendipitous, achieved through high-throughput screening. Over the past decade, structural data has become more readily available for larger protein systems and more membrane protein classes (e.g., GPCRs and ion channels), which are common allosteric drug targets. In parallel, improved simulation methods now provide better atomistic understanding of the protein dynamics and cooperative motions that are critical to allosteric mechanisms. As a result of these advances, the field of predictive allosteric drug development is now on the cusp of a new era of rational structure-based computational methods. Here, we review algorithms that predict allosteric sites based on sequence data and molecular dynamics simulations, describe tools that assess the druggability of these pockets, and discuss how Markov state models and topology analyses provide insight into the relationship between protein dynamics and allosteric drug binding. In each section, we first provide an overview of the various method classes before describing relevant algorithms and software packages. PMID:27074285

  1. Emerging Computational Methods for the Rational Discovery of Allosteric Drugs.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Jeffrey R; Lee, Christopher T; Durrant, Jacob D; Malmstrom, Robert D; Feher, Victoria A; Amaro, Rommie E

    2016-06-08

    Allosteric drug development holds promise for delivering medicines that are more selective and less toxic than those that target orthosteric sites. To date, the discovery of allosteric binding sites and lead compounds has been mostly serendipitous, achieved through high-throughput screening. Over the past decade, structural data has become more readily available for larger protein systems and more membrane protein classes (e.g., GPCRs and ion channels), which are common allosteric drug targets. In parallel, improved simulation methods now provide better atomistic understanding of the protein dynamics and cooperative motions that are critical to allosteric mechanisms. As a result of these advances, the field of predictive allosteric drug development is now on the cusp of a new era of rational structure-based computational methods. Here, we review algorithms that predict allosteric sites based on sequence data and molecular dynamics simulations, describe tools that assess the druggability of these pockets, and discuss how Markov state models and topology analyses provide insight into the relationship between protein dynamics and allosteric drug binding. In each section, we first provide an overview of the various method classes before describing relevant algorithms and software packages.

  2. Asynchronous monitoring of the quality of multilevel optical PAM signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siuzdak, J.

    2017-08-01

    In the paper, there is analyzed the signal quality assessment method based on delay tap asynchronous sampling, both for binary and multilevel PAM signals. The obtained multilevel phase diagrams are far more complicated than binary ones. The phase diagrams are affected by the signal distortions but it is difficult to relate reliably the phase diagram form to the distortion type and its influence on the signal quality.

  3. The GABA(B) receptor positive modulator BHF177 attenuated anxiety, but not conditioned fear, in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Kaczanowska, Katarzyna; Finn, M G; Markou, Athina; Risbrough, Victoria B

    2015-10-01

    GABAB (γ-aminobutyric acid B) receptors may be a therapeutic target for anxiety disorders. Here we characterized the effects of the GABAB receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM) BHF177 on conditioned and unconditioned physiological responses to threat in the light-enhanced startle (LES), stress-induced hyperthermia, and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) procedures in rats. The effects of BHF177 on LES were compared with those of the GABAB receptor agonists baclofen and CGP44532, and the positive control buspirone, a 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist with anxiolytic activity in humans. Baclofen (0.4, 0.9 and 1.25 mg/kg) and CGP44532 (0.065, 0.125 and 0.25 mg/kg) administration had significant sedative, but not anxiolytic, activity reflected in overall decrease in the startle response in the LES tests. BHF177 (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) had no effect on LES, nor did it produce an overall sedative effect. Interesting, however, when rats were grouped by high and low LES responses, BHF177 had anxiolytic-like effects only on LES in high, but not low, LES responding rats. BHF177 also blocked stress-induced hyperthermia, but had no effect on conditioned fear responses in the FPS test. Buspirone (1 and 3 mg/kg) had an anxiolytic-like profile in both LES and FPS tests. These results indicate that BHF177 may specifically attenuate unconditioned anxiety in individuals that exhibit a high anxiety state, and has fewer sedative effects than direct agonists. Thus, BHF177 or other GABAB receptor PAMs may be promising compounds for alleviating increased anxiety seen in various psychiatric disorders with a superior side-effect profile compared to GABAB receptor agonists. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Benzoxazinones as potent positive allosteric AMPA receptor modulators: part I.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Rudolf; Li, Yong-Xin; Hampson, Aidan; Zhong, Sheng; Harris, Clayton; Marrs, Christopher; Rachwal, Stanislaw; Ulas, Jolanta; Nielsson, Lena; Rogers, Gary

    2011-07-01

    AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are an increasingly important therapeutic target in the CNS. Aniracetam, the first identified potentiator of AMPARs, led to the rigid and more potent CX614. This lead molecule was optimized in order to increase affinity towards the AMPA receptor. The substitution of the dioxine with a benzoxazinone ring system increased the activity and allowed further investigation of the sidechain SAR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cardiolipin modulates allosterically peroxynitrite detoxification by horse heart cytochrome c

    SciTech Connect

    Ascenzi, Paolo, E-mail: ascenzi@uniroma3.it; Ciaccio, Chiara; Interuniversity Consortium for the Research on the Chemistry of Metals in Biological Systems, I-70126 Bari

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Cardiolipin binding to cytochrome c. {yields} Cardiolipin-dependent peroxynitrite isomerization by cytochrome c. {yields} Cardiolipin-cytochrome c complex plays pro-apoptotic effects. {yields} Cardiolipin-cytochrome c complex plays anti-apoptotic effects. -- Abstract: Upon interaction with bovine heart cardiolipin (CL), horse heart cytochrome c (cytc) changes its tertiary structure disrupting the heme-Fe-Met80 distal bond, reduces drastically the midpoint potential out of the range required for its physiological role, binds CO and NO with high affinity, and displays peroxidase activity. Here, the effect of CL on peroxynitrite isomerization by ferric cytc (cytc-Fe(III)) is reported. In the absence of CL, hexa-coordinated cytc does notmore » catalyze peroxynitrite isomerization. In contrast, CL facilitates cytc-Fe(III)-mediated isomerization of peroxynitrite in a dose-dependent fashion inducing the penta-coordination of the heme-Fe(III)-atom. The value of the second order rate constant for CL-cytc-Fe(III)-mediated isomerization of peroxynitrite (k{sub on}) is (3.2 {+-} 0.4) x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The apparent dissociation equilibrium constant for CL binding to cytc-Fe(III) is (5.1 {+-} 0.8) x 10{sup -5} M. These results suggest that CL-cytc could play either pro-apoptotic or anti-apoptotic effects facilitating lipid peroxidation and scavenging of reactive nitrogen species, such as peroxynitrite, respectively.« less

  6. Allosteric interactions between agonists and antagonists within the adenosine A2A receptor-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer.

    PubMed

    Bonaventura, Jordi; Navarro, Gemma; Casadó-Anguera, Verònica; Azdad, Karima; Rea, William; Moreno, Estefanía; Brugarolas, Marc; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Volkow, Nora D; Schiffmann, Serge N; Ferré, Sergi; Casadó, Vicent

    2015-07-07

    Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromers are key modulators of striatal neuronal function. It has been suggested that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine depend on its ability to block an allosteric modulation within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, by which adenosine decreases the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of dopamine at the D2R. We describe novel unsuspected allosteric mechanisms within the heteromer by which not only A2AR agonists, but also A2AR antagonists, decrease the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of D2R agonists and the affinity of D2R antagonists. Strikingly, these allosteric modulations disappear on agonist and antagonist coadministration. This can be explained by a model that considers A2AR-D2R heteromers as heterotetramers, constituted by A2AR and D2R homodimers, as demonstrated by experiments with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence and bioluminescence complementation. As predicted by the model, high concentrations of A2AR antagonists behaved as A2AR agonists and decreased D2R function in the brain.

  7. Allosteric interactions between agonists and antagonists within the adenosine A2A receptor-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer

    PubMed Central

    Bonaventura, Jordi; Navarro, Gemma; Casadó-Anguera, Verònica; Azdad, Karima; Rea, William; Moreno, Estefanía; Brugarolas, Marc; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I.; Lluís, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Volkow, Nora D.; Schiffmann, Serge N.; Ferré, Sergi; Casadó, Vicent

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromers are key modulators of striatal neuronal function. It has been suggested that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine depend on its ability to block an allosteric modulation within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, by which adenosine decreases the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of dopamine at the D2R. We describe novel unsuspected allosteric mechanisms within the heteromer by which not only A2AR agonists, but also A2AR antagonists, decrease the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of D2R agonists and the affinity of D2R antagonists. Strikingly, these allosteric modulations disappear on agonist and antagonist coadministration. This can be explained by a model that considers A2AR-D2R heteromers as heterotetramers, constituted by A2AR and D2R homodimers, as demonstrated by experiments with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence and bioluminescence complementation. As predicted by the model, high concentrations of A2AR antagonists behaved as A2AR agonists and decreased D2R function in the brain. PMID:26100888

  8. Allosteric sodium in class A GPCR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Katritch, Vsevolod; Fenalti, Gustavo; Abola, Enrique E.; Roth, Bryan L.; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite their functional and structural diversity, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) share a common mechanism of signal transduction via conformational changes in the seven-transmembrane (7TM) helical domain. New major insights into this mechanism come from the recent crystallographic discoveries of a partially hydrated sodium ion that is specifically bound in the middle of the 7TM bundle of multiple class A GPCRs. This review discusses the remarkable structural conservation and distinct features of the Na+ pocket in this most populous GPCR class, as well as the conformational collapse of the pocket on receptor activation. New insights help to explain allosteric effects of sodium on GPCR agonist binding and activation, and sodium’s role as a potential co-factor in class A GPCR function. PMID:24767681

  9. Structural insight to mutation effects uncover a common allosteric site in class C GPCRs.

    PubMed

    Harpsøe, Kasper; Boesgaard, Michael W; Munk, Christian; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Gloriam, David E

    2017-04-15

    Class C G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate important physiological functions and allosteric modulators binding to the transmembrane domain constitute an attractive and, due to a lack of structural insight, a virtually unexplored potential for therapeutics and the food industry. Combining pharmacological site-directed mutagenesis data with the recent class C GPCR experimental structures will provide a foundation for rational design of new therapeutics. We uncover one common site for both positive and negative modulators with different amino acid layouts that can be utilized to obtain selectivity. Additionally, we show a large potential for structure-based modulator design, especially for four orphan receptors with high similarity to the crystal structures. All collated mutagenesis data is available in the GPCRdb mutation browser at http://gpcrdb.org/mutations/ and can be analyzed online or downloaded in excel format. david.gloriam@sund.ku.dk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Consequences of Energetic Frustration on the Ligand-Coupled Folding/Dimerization Dynamics of Allosteric Protein S100A12.

    PubMed

    Ren, Weitong; Li, Wenfei; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Wei

    2017-10-26

    Allosteric proteins are featured by energetic degeneracy of two (or more) functionally relevant conformations, therefore their energy landscapes are often locally frustrated. How such frustration affects the protein folding/binding dynamics is not well understood. Here, by using molecular simulations we study the consequences of local frustration in the dimerization dynamics of allosteric proteins based on a homodimer protein S100A12. Despite of the structural symmetry of the two EF-hand motifs in the three-dimensional structures, the S100A12 homodimer shows allosteric behaviors and local frustration only in half of its structural elements, i.e., the C-terminal EF-hand. We showed that such spatially asymmetric location of frustration leads to asymmetric dimerization pathways, in which the dimerization is dominantly initiated by the interchain binding of the minimally frustrated N-terminal EF-hands, achieving optimal balance between the requirements of rapid conformational switching and interchain assembling to the energy landscapes. We also showed that the local frustration, as represented by the double-basin topography of the energy landscape, gives rise to multiple cross-linked dimerization pathways, in which the dimerization is coupled with the allosteric motions of the C-terminal EF-hands. Binding of metal ions tends to reshape the energy landscape and modulate the dimerization pathways. In addition, by employing the frustratometer method, we showed that the highly frustrated residue-pairs in the C-terminal EF-hand are partially unfolded during the conformational transitions of the native homodimer, leading to lowing of free energy barrier. Our results revealed tight interplay between the local frustration of the energy landscape and the dimerization dynamics for allosteric proteins.

  11. A novel multivalent ligand that bridges the allosteric and orthosteric binding sites of the M2 muscarinic receptor.

    PubMed

    Steinfeld, Tod; Mammen, Mathai; Smith, Jacqueline A M; Wilson, Richard D; Jasper, Jeffrey R

    2007-08-01

    THRX-160209 is a potent antagonist at the M(2) muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor subtype that was designed using a multivalent strategy, simultaneously targeting the orthosteric site and a nearby site known to bind allosteric ligands. In this report, we describe three characteristics of THRX-160209 binding that are consistent with a multivalent interaction: 1) an apparent affinity of the multivalent ligand for the M2 receptor subtype (apparent pK(I) = 9.51 +/- 0.22) that was several orders of magnitude greater than its two monovalent components (apparent pK(I) values < 6.0), 2) specificity of THRX-160209 for the M2 receptor subtype compared with the closely related M4 (apparent pK(I) = 8.78 +/- 0.24) and M1, M3, and M5 receptors (apparent pK(I) values 10-fold) of the dissociation rate of tritium-labeled THRX-160209 from M2 receptors by competing monovalent ligands that are known to interact with either the orthosteric site (e.g., atropine) or a well characterized allosteric site (e.g., obidoxime) on the receptor. In complementary kinetic studies assessing allosteric modulation of the receptor, unlabeled THRX-160209 retarded dissociation of [3H]N-methyl scopolamine (NMS). The effects of THRX-160209 on retardation of [3H]NMS dissociation were competitively inhibited by obidoxime, suggesting that obidoxime and THRX-160209 bind to an overlapping region coincident with other typical muscarinic allosteric agents, such as 3-methyl-5-[7-[4-[(4S)-4-methyl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-yl]phenoxy]heptyl]-1,2-oxazole (W84) and gallamine. Taken together, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that THRX-160209 binds in a multivalent manner to the M2 receptor, simultaneously occupying the orthosteric site and a spatially distinct allosteric site.

  12. Small-world networks of residue interactions in the Abl kinase complexes with cancer drugs: topology of allosteric communication pathways can determine drug resistance effects.

    PubMed

    Tse, A; Verkhivker, G M

    2015-07-01

    The human protein kinases play a fundamental regulatory role in orchestrating functional processes in complex cellular networks. Understanding how conformational equilibrium between functional kinase states can be modulated by ligand binding or mutations is critical for quantifying molecular basis of allosteric regulation and drug resistance. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations of the Abl kinase complexes with cancer drugs (Imatinib and Dasatinib) were combined with structure-based network modeling to characterize dynamics of the residue interaction networks in these systems. The results have demonstrated that structural architecture of kinase complexes can produce a small-world topology of the interaction networks. Our data have indicated that specific Imatinib binding to a small number of highly connected residues could lead to network-bridging effects and allow for efficient allosteric communication, which is mediated by a dominant pathway sensitive to the unphosphorylated Abl state. In contrast, Dasatinib binding to the active kinase form may activate a broader ensemble of allosteric pathways that are less dependent on the phosphorylation status of Abl and provide a better balance between the efficiency and resilience of signaling routes. Our results have unveiled how differences in the residue interaction networks and allosteric communications of the Abl kinase complexes can be directly related to drug resistance effects. This study offers a plausible perspective on how efficiency and robustness of the residue interaction networks and allosteric pathways in kinase structures may be associated with protein responses to drug binding.

  13. Silicon photonic dual-drive MIM based 56 Gb/s DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 transmission.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Patel, David; El-Fiky, Eslam; Samani, Alireza; Xing, Zhenping; Wang, Yun; Plant, David V

    2018-03-05

    We report two designs of silicon photonic dual-drive Michelson interferometric modulators (MIMs) suitable for four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) that do not require digital-to-analog converters or digital signal processing. The PN junctions in MIM-1 have an asymmetric geometry and 4 doping concentrations, while those in MIM-2 have a symmetric geometry and 6 doping concentrations. We simulate and experimentally demonstrate that MIM-2 has a larger modulation efficiency and a better electro-optic (EO) bandwidth than MIM-1. The measured V π L π of MIM-2 at -2 V bias is 0.8 V-cm, and the measured 3-dB EO bandwidth at 0 V bias is 9.3 GHz. By carefully choosing the bias conditions of the device and the driving binary radio-frequency signals applied on each phase shifter, PAM-4 signals with even spacings are generated. Successful 56 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission over 2 km of standard single mode fiber is presented, with an estimated bit error rate below the hard-decision forward error correction threshold of 3.8 × 10 -3 .

  14. A study on contraction of pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) for load-lifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najmuddin, W. S. W. A.; Mustaffa, M. T.

    2017-10-01

    Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAMs) have been known for its wide application in various aspects of industrial automation and robotic equipments. Many advantages in terms of high power-to-volume ratio, high power-to-weight ratio, stick-slip-free operation and high degree of safety offer by PAM compare to traditional actuators. However, behind this benefits lie a limitation of significant compatibility of PAM mechanism which have to be considered so as to fully understand how the PAM works during load-lifting. In this study, the mesh suitability experiment and the effect of force load on PAM contraction experiment have been carried out. PAM is constructed and compatibility of bladder and the braided mesh to produce uniform expansion is investigated. Moreover, the first experimental result of finding compatibility is used to verify the contraction value under various loads.

  15. Allosteric switch regulates protein-protein binding through collective motion.

    PubMed

    Smith, Colin A; Ban, David; Pratihar, Supriya; Giller, Karin; Paulat, Maria; Becker, Stefan; Griesinger, Christian; Lee, Donghan; de Groot, Bert L

    2016-03-22

    Many biological processes depend on allosteric communication between different parts of a protein, but the role of internal protein motion in propagating signals through the structure remains largely unknown. Through an experimental and computational analysis of the ground state dynamics in ubiquitin, we identify a collective global motion that is specifically linked to a conformational switch distant from the binding interface. This allosteric coupling is also present in crystal structures and is found to facilitate multispecificity, particularly binding to the ubiquitin-specific protease (USP) family of deubiquitinases. The collective motion that enables this allosteric communication does not affect binding through localized changes but, instead, depends on expansion and contraction of the entire protein domain. The characterization of these collective motions represents a promising avenue for finding and manipulating allosteric networks.

  16. Ligand Binding to Macromolecules: Allosteric and Sequential Models of Cooperativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, V. L.; Szabo, Attila

    1979-01-01

    A simple model is described for the binding of ligands to macromolecules. The model is applied to the cooperative binding by hemoglobin and aspartate transcarbamylase. The sequential and allosteric models of cooperative binding are considered. (BB)

  17. Evolved Cas9 variants with broad PAM compatibility and high DNA specificity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Johnny H; Miller, Shannon M; Geurts, Maarten H; Tang, Weixin; Chen, Liwei; Sun, Ning; Zeina, Christina M; Gao, Xue; Rees, Holly A; Lin, Zhi; Liu, David R

    2018-04-05

    A key limitation of the use of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for genome editing and other applications is the requirement that a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) be present at the target site. For the most commonly used Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9), the required PAM sequence is NGG. No natural or engineered Cas9 variants that have been shown to function efficiently in mammalian cells offer a PAM less restrictive than NGG. Here we use phage-assisted continuous evolution to evolve an expanded PAM SpCas9 variant (xCas9) that can recognize a broad range of PAM sequences including NG, GAA and GAT. The PAM compatibility of xCas9 is the broadest reported, to our knowledge, among Cas9 proteins that are active in mammalian cells, and supports applications in human cells including targeted transcriptional activation, nuclease-mediated gene disruption, and cytidine and adenine base editing. Notably, despite its broadened PAM compatibility, xCas9 has much greater DNA specificity than SpCas9, with substantially lower genome-wide off-target activity at all NGG target sites tested, as well as minimal off-target activity when targeting genomic sites with non-NGG PAMs. These findings expand the DNA targeting scope of CRISPR systems and establish that there is no necessary trade-off between Cas9 editing efficiency, PAM compatibility and DNA specificity.

  18. Nanoparticle-Delivered 2-PAM for Rat Brain Protection against Paraoxon Central Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Pashirova, Tatiana N; Zueva, Irina V; Petrov, Konstantin A; Babaev, Vasily M; Lukashenko, Svetlana S; Rizvanov, Ildar Kh; Souto, Eliana B; Nikolsky, Evgeny E; Zakharova, Lucia Ya; Masson, Patrick; Sinyashin, Oleg G

    2017-05-24

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are among the most promising nanocarriers to target the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS). Encapsulation of the acetylcholinesterase reactivator, pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM), in SLNs appears to be a suitable strategy for protection against poisoning by organophosphorus agents (OPs) and postexposure treatment. 2-PAM-loaded SLNs were developed for brain targeting and delivery via intravenous (iv) administration. 2-PAM-SLNs displayed a high 2-PAM encapsulation efficiency (∼90%) and loading capacity (maximum 30.8 ± 1%). Drug-loaded particles had a mean hydrodynamic diameter close to 100 nm and high negative zeta potential (-54 to -15 mV). These properties contribute to improve long-term stability of 2-PAM-SLNs when stored both at room temperature (22 °C) and at 4 °C, as well as to longer circulation time in the bloodstream compared to free 2-PAM. Paraoxon-poisoned rats (2 × LD 50 ) were treated with 2-PAM-loaded SLNs at a dose of 2-PAM of 5 mg/kg. 2-PAM-SLNs reactivated 15% of brain AChE activity. Our results confirm the potential use of SLNs loaded with positively charged oximes as a medical countermeasure both for protection against OPs poisoning and for postexposure treatment.

  19. Mechanism of allosteric regulation of β2-adrenergic receptor by cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Moutusi; Niemelä, Miia; Tynkkynen, Joona; Javanainen, Matti; Kulig, Waldemar; Müller, Daniel J; Rog, Tomasz; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that lipids can be allosteric regulators of membrane protein structure and activation. However, there are no data showing how exactly the regulation emerges from specific lipid-protein interactions. Here we show in atomistic detail how the human β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) – a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor – is modulated by cholesterol in an allosteric fashion. Extensive atomistic simulations show that cholesterol regulates β2AR by limiting its conformational variability. The mechanism of action is based on the binding of cholesterol at specific high-affinity sites located near the transmembrane helices 5–7 of the receptor. The alternative mechanism, where the β2AR conformation would be modulated by membrane-mediated interactions, plays only a minor role. Cholesterol analogues also bind to cholesterol binding sites and impede the structural flexibility of β2AR, however cholesterol generates the strongest effect. The results highlight the capacity of lipids to regulate the conformation of membrane receptors through specific interactions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18432.001 PMID:27897972

  20. Bidirectional Allosteric Communication between the ATP-Binding Site and the Regulatory PIF Pocket in PDK1 Protein Kinase.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Jörg O; Saladino, Giorgio; Busschots, Katrien; Neimanis, Sonja; Süß, Evelyn; Odadzic, Dalibor; Zeuzem, Stefan; Hindie, Valerie; Herbrand, Amanda K; Lisa, María-Natalia; Alzari, Pedro M; Gervasio, Francesco L; Biondi, Ricardo M

    2016-10-20

    Allostery is a phenomenon observed in many proteins where binding of a macromolecular partner or a small-molecule ligand at one location leads to specific perturbations at a site not in direct contact with the region where the binding occurs. The list of proteins under allosteric regulation includes AGC protein kinases. AGC kinases have a conserved allosteric site, the phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1)-interacting fragment (PIF) pocket, which regulates protein ATP-binding, activity, and interaction with substrates. In this study, we identify small molecules that bind to the ATP-binding site and affect the PIF pocket of AGC kinase family members, PDK1 and Aurora kinase. We describe the mechanistic details and show that although PDK1 and Aurora kinase inhibitors bind to the conserved ATP-binding site, they differentially modulate physiological interactions at the PIF-pocket site. Our work outlines a strategy for developing bidirectional small-molecule allosteric modulators of protein kinases and other signaling proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Computational Analysis of Residue Interaction Networks and Coevolutionary Relationships in the Hsp70 Chaperones: A Community-Hopping Model of Allosteric Regulation and Communication

    PubMed Central

    Stetz, Gabrielle; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2017-01-01

    Allosteric interactions in the Hsp70 proteins are linked with their regulatory mechanisms and cellular functions. Despite significant progress in structural and functional characterization of the Hsp70 proteins fundamental questions concerning modularity of the allosteric interaction networks and hierarchy of signaling pathways in the Hsp70 chaperones remained largely unexplored and poorly understood. In this work, we proposed an integrated computational strategy that combined atomistic and coarse-grained simulations with coevolutionary analysis and network modeling of the residue interactions. A novel aspect of this work is the incorporation of dynamic residue correlations and coevolutionary residue dependencies in the construction of allosteric interaction networks and signaling pathways. We found that functional sites involved in allosteric regulation of Hsp70 may be characterized by structural stability, proximity to global hinge centers and local structural environment that is enriched by highly coevolving flexible residues. These specific characteristics may be necessary for regulation of allosteric structural transitions and could distinguish regulatory sites from nonfunctional conserved residues. The observed confluence of dynamics correlations and coevolutionary residue couplings with global networking features may determine modular organization of allosteric interactions and dictate localization of key mediating sites. Community analysis of the residue interaction networks revealed that concerted rearrangements of local interacting modules at the inter-domain interface may be responsible for global structural changes and a population shift in the DnaK chaperone. The inter-domain communities in the Hsp70 structures harbor the majority of regulatory residues involved in allosteric signaling, suggesting that these sites could be integral to the network organization and coordination of structural changes. Using a network-based formalism of allostery, we

  2. Computational Analysis of Residue Interaction Networks and Coevolutionary Relationships in the Hsp70 Chaperones: A Community-Hopping Model of Allosteric Regulation and Communication.

    PubMed

    Stetz, Gabrielle; Verkhivker, Gennady M

    2017-01-01

    Allosteric interactions in the Hsp70 proteins are linked with their regulatory mechanisms and cellular functions. Despite significant progress in structural and functional characterization of the Hsp70 proteins fundamental questions concerning modularity of the allosteric interaction networks and hierarchy of signaling pathways in the Hsp70 chaperones remained largely unexplored and poorly understood. In this work, we proposed an integrated computational strategy that combined atomistic and coarse-grained simulations with coevolutionary analysis and network modeling of the residue interactions. A novel aspect of this work is the incorporation of dynamic residue correlations and coevolutionary residue dependencies in the construction of allosteric interaction networks and signaling pathways. We found that functional sites involved in allosteric regulation of Hsp70 may be characterized by structural stability, proximity to global hinge centers and local structural environment that is enriched by highly coevolving flexible residues. These specific characteristics may be necessary for regulation of allosteric structural transitions and could distinguish regulatory sites from nonfunctional conserved residues. The observed confluence of dynamics correlations and coevolutionary residue couplings with global networking features may determine modular organization of allosteric interactions and dictate localization of key mediating sites. Community analysis of the residue interaction networks revealed that concerted rearrangements of local interacting modules at the inter-domain interface may be responsible for global structural changes and a population shift in the DnaK chaperone. The inter-domain communities in the Hsp70 structures harbor the majority of regulatory residues involved in allosteric signaling, suggesting that these sites could be integral to the network organization and coordination of structural changes. Using a network-based formalism of allostery, we

  3. Performance improvement by orthogonal pulse amplitude modulation and discrete multitone modulation signals in hybrid fiber-visible laser light communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fangliu; He, Jing; Deng, Rui; Chen, Qinghui; Chen, Lin

    2016-10-01

    A modulation format, orthogonal pulse amplitude modulation and discrete multitone modulation (O-PAM-DMT), is experimentally demonstrated in a hybrid fiber-visible laser light communication (fiber-VLLC) system using a cost-effective directly modulated laser and blue laser diode. In addition, low overhead is achieved by utilizing only one training sequence to implement synchronization and channel estimation. Through adjusting the ratio of PAM and DMT signal, three types of O-PAM-DMT signals are investigated. After transmission over a 20-km standard single-mode fiber and 5-m free-space VLLC, the receiver sensitivity for 4.36-Gbit/s O-PAM-DMT signals can be improved by 0.4, 1.4, and 2.7 dB, respectively, at a bit error rate of 1×10-3, compared with a conventional DMT signal.

  4. User Instructions for the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS)

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.; Van Buskirk, Robert D.

    2018-03-13

    PAMS uses country-specific and product-specific data to calculate estimates of impacts of a Minimum Efficiency Performance Standard (MEPS) program. The analysis tool is self-contained in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, and requires no links to external data, or special code additions to run. The analysis can be customized to a particular program without additional user input, through the use of the pull-down menus located on the Summary page. In addition, the spreadsheet contains many areas into which user-generated input data can be entered for increased accuracy of projection. The following is a step-by-step guide for using and customizing the tool.

  5. Skylab IMSS checklist application study for emergency medical care. [emergency medical care operations involving the use and operation of the portable ambulance module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, J. G.; Furukawa, S.

    1975-01-01

    A manual is presented that provides basic technical documentation to support the operation and utilization of the Portable Ambulance Module (PAM) in the field. The PAM is designed to be used for emergency resuscitation and victim monitoring. The functions of all the controls, displays, and stowed equipment of the unit are defined. Supportive medical and physiological data in those areas directly related to the uses of the PAM unit are presented.

  6. Comparison of the effects of the GABAB receptor positive modulator BHF177 and the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on anxiety-like behavior, learning, and memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Risbrough, Victoria B; Cates-Gatto, Chelsea; Kaczanowska, Katarzyna; Finn, M G; Roberts, Amanda J; Markou, Athina

    2013-07-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid B (GABAB) receptor activation is a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of drug addiction, pain, anxiety, and depression. However, full agonists of this receptor induce side-effects, such as sedation, muscle relaxation, tolerance, and cognitive disruption. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the GABAB receptor may have similar therapeutic effects as agonists with superior side-effect profiles. The present study behaviorally characterized N-([1R,2R,4S]-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl)-2-methyl-5-(4-[trifluoromethyl]phenyl)-4-pyrimidinamine (BHF177), a GABAB receptor PAM, in mouse models of anxiety-like behavior, learning and memory. In addition, the effects of BHF177 were compared with the agonist baclofen. Unlike the anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide, baclofen (0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and BHF177 (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg, orally) had no effect on anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, light/dark box, or Vogel conflict test. Baclofen increased punished drinking in the Vogel conflict test, but this effect may be attributable to the analgesic actions of baclofen. At the highest dose tested (2.5 mg/kg), baclofen-treated mice exhibited sedation-like effects (i.e., reduced locomotor activity) across many of the tests, whereas BHF177-treated mice exhibited no sedation-like effects. BHF177 exhibited pro-convulsion properties only in mice, but not in rats, indicating that this effect may be species-specific. At doses that were not sedative or pro-convulsant, baclofen and BHF177 had no selective effects on fear memory retrieval in contextual and cued fear conditioning or spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze. These data suggest that BHF177 has little sedative activity, no anxiolytic-like profile, and minimal impairment of learning and memory in mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Extending the Technology Acceptance Model: Policy Acceptance Model (PAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Tamra

    There has been extensive research on how new ideas and technologies are accepted in society. This has resulted in the creation of many models that are used to discover and assess the contributing factors. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is one that is a widely accepted model. This model examines people's acceptance of new technologies based on variables that directly correlate to how the end user views the product. This paper introduces the Policy Acceptance Model (PAM), an expansion of TAM, which is designed for the analysis and evaluation of acceptance of new policy implementation. PAM includes the traditional constructs of TAM and adds the variables of age, ethnicity, and family. The model is demonstrated using a survey of people's attitude toward the upcoming healthcare reform in the United States (US) from 72 survey respondents. The aim is that the theory behind this model can be used as a framework that will be applicable to studies looking at the introduction of any new or modified policies.

  8. Understanding the Critical Parameters of the PAMS Mandrel Fabrication Process

    DOE PAGES

    Bhandarkar, Suhas; Paguio, Reny; Elsner, Fred; ...

    2016-07-05

    As a part of an effort to continually better the roundness and roughness of ablator capsules, we looked at improving the same for the poly(alphamethylstyrene) or PAMS mandrels used to make the plastic capsules. The importance of this work is based on the fact that the surface properties of the mandrels set the lower limit for the ultimate attributes of the ablator capsule. These mandrels are made using an elegant double-emulsion process that uses the isotropic forces brought about by hydrostatic pressure and interfacial tension to seek sphericity. This paper describes the reasoning that led to investigating the so-called curingmore » process where a solid PAMS shell is generated from a solution phase for achieving this goal. Using modeling to account for the mass transfer of the fluorobenzene solvent phase, we demonstrate that it is the control of the conditions through the percolation point of the system that leads to better mandrels. These concepts were implemented into the fabrication process to demonstrate significant improvements of the roundness of the mandrels.« less

  9. Allosteric regulation of deubiquitylase activity through ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Faggiano, Serena; Menon, Rajesh P; Kelly, Geoff P; Todi, Sokol V; Scaglione, K Matthew; Konarev, Petr V; Svergun, Dmitri I; Paulson, Henry L; Pastore, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    Ataxin-3, the protein responsible for spinocerebellar ataxia type-3, is a cysteine protease that specifically cleaves poly-ubiquitin chains and participates in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. The enzymatic activity resides in the N-terminal Josephin domain. An unusual feature of ataxin-3 is its low enzymatic activity especially for mono-ubiquitinated substrates and short ubiquitin chains. However, specific ubiquitination at lysine 117 in the Josephin domain activates ataxin-3 through an unknown mechanism. Here, we investigate the effects of K117 ubiquitination on the structure and enzymatic activity of the protein. We show that covalently linked ubiquitin rests on the Josephin domain, forming a compact globular moiety and occupying a ubiquitin binding site previously thought to be essential for substrate recognition. In doing so, ubiquitination enhances enzymatic activity by locking the enzyme in an activated state. Our results indicate that ubiquitin functions both as a substrate and as an allosteric regulatory factor. We provide a novel example in which a conformational switch controls the activity of an enzyme that mediates deubiquitination.

  10. Allosteric regulation and substrate activation in cytosolic nucleotidase II from Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bharath; Forouhar, Farhad; Shukla, Arpit; Sampangi, Chethana; Kulkarni, Sonia; Abashidze, Mariam; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Lew, Scott; Mao, Lei; Acton, Thomas B; Xiao, Rong; Everett, John K; Montelione, Gaetano T; Tong, Liang; Balaram, Hemalatha

    2014-03-01

    Cytosolic nucleotidase II (cN-II) from Legionella pneumophila (Lp) catalyzes the hydrolysis of GMP and dGMP displaying sigmoidal curves, whereas catalysis of IMP hydrolysis displayed a biphasic curve in the initial rate versus substrate concentration plots. Allosteric modulators of mammalian cN-II did not activate LpcN-II although GTP, GDP and the substrate GMP were specific activators. Crystal structures of the tetrameric LpcN-II revealed an activator-binding site at the dimer interface. A double mutation in this allosteric-binding site abolished activation, confirming the structural observations. The substrate GMP acting as an activator, partitioning between the allosteric and active site, is the basis for the sigmoidicity of the initial velocity versus GMP concentration plot. The LpcN-II tetramer showed differences in subunit organization upon activator binding that are absent in the activator-bound human cN-II structure. This is the first observation of a structural change induced by activator binding in cN-II that may be the molecular mechanism for enzyme activation. The coordinates and structure factors reported in this paper have been submitted to the Protein Data Bank under the accession numbers 2BDE and 4G63. The accession number of GMP complexed LpcN-II is 4OHF. LpcN-II and LpcN-II bind by molecular sieving (View interaction) LpcN-II and LpcN-II bind by x-ray crystallography (View interaction) [Structured digital abstract was added on 5 March 2014 after original online publication]. © 2014 FEBS.

  11. Disruption of integrin-fibronectin complexes by allosteric but not ligand-mimetic inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mould, A Paul; Craig, Susan E; Byron, Sarah K; Humphries, Martin J; Jowitt, Thomas A

    2014-12-15

    Failure of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-based inhibitors to reverse integrin-ligand binding has been reported, but the prevalence of this phenomenon among integrin heterodimers is currently unknown. In the present study we have investigated the interaction of four different RGD-binding integrins (α5β1, αVβ1, αVβ3 and αVβ6) with fibronectin (FN) using surface plasmon resonance. The ability of inhibitors to reverse ligand binding was assessed by their capacity to increase the dissociation rate of pre-formed integrin-FN complexes. For all four receptors we showed that RGD-based inhibitors (such as cilengitide) were completely unable to increase the dissociation rate. Formation of the non-reversible state occurred very rapidly and did not rely on the time-dependent formation of a high-affinity state of the integrin, or the integrin leg regions. In contrast with RGD-based inhibitors, Ca2+ (but not Mg2+) was able to greatly increase the dissociation rate of integrin-FN complexes, with a half-maximal response at ~0.4 mM Ca2+ for αVβ3-FN. The effect of Ca2+ was overcome by co-addition of Mn2+, but not Mg2+. A stimulatory anti-β1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) abrogated the effect of Ca2+ on α5β1-FN complexes; conversely, a function-blocking mAb mimicked the effect of Ca2+. These results imply that Ca2+ acts allosterically, probably through binding to the adjacent metal-ion-dependent adhesion site (ADMIDAS), and that the α1 helix in the β subunit I domain is the key element affected by allosteric modulators. The data suggest an explanation for the limited clinical efficacy of RGD-based integrin antagonists, and we propose that allosteric antagonists could prove to be of greater therapeutic benefit.

  12. PSNCBAM-1, a novel allosteric antagonist at cannabinoid CB1 receptors with hypophagic effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Horswill, J G; Bali, U; Shaaban, S; Keily, J F; Jeevaratnam, P; Babbs, A J; Reynet, C; Wong Kai In, P

    2007-11-01

    Rimonabant (Acomplia, SR141716A), a cannabinoid CB1 receptor inverse agonist, has recently been approved for the treatment of obesity. There are, however, concerns regarding its side effect profile. Developing a CB1 antagonist with a different pharmacological mechanism may lead to a safer alternative. To this end we have screened a proprietary small molecule library and have discovered a novel class of allosteric antagonist at CB1 receptors. Herein, we have characterized an optimized prototypical molecule, PSNCBAM-1, and its hypophagic effects in vivo. A CB1 yeast reporter assay was used as a primary screen. PSNCBAM-1 was additionally characterized in [35S]-GTPgammaS, cAMP and radioligand binding assays. An acute rat feeding model was used to evaluate its effects on food intake and body weight in vivo. In CB1 receptor yeast reporter assays, PSNCBAM-1 blocked the effects induced by agonists such as CP55,940, WIN55212-2, anandamide (AEA) or 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). The antagonist characteristics of PSNCBAM-1 were confirmed in [35S]-GTPgammaS binding and cAMP assays and was shown to be non-competitive by Schild analyses. PSNCBAM-1 did not affect CB2 receptors. In radioligand binding assays, PSNCBAM-1 increased the binding of [3H]CP55,940 despite its antagonist effects. In an acute rat feeding model, PSNCBAM-1 decreased food intake and body weight. PSNCBAM-1 exerted its effects through selective allosteric modulation of the CB1 receptor. The acute effects on food intake and body weight induced in rats provide a first report of in vivo activity for an allosteric CB1 receptor antagonist.

  13. PSNCBAM-1, a novel allosteric antagonist at cannabinoid CB1 receptors with hypophagic effects in rats

    PubMed Central

    Horswill, J G; Bali, U; Shaaban, S; Keily, J F; Jeevaratnam, P; Babbs, A J; Reynet, C; Wong Kai In, P

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Rimonabant (AcompliaTM, SR141716A), a cannabinoid CB1 receptor inverse agonist, has recently been approved for the treatment of obesity. There are, however, concerns regarding its side effect profile. Developing a CB1 antagonist with a different pharmacological mechanism may lead to a safer alternative. To this end we have screened a proprietary small molecule library and have discovered a novel class of allosteric antagonist at CB1 receptors. Herein, we have characterized an optimized prototypical molecule, PSNCBAM-1, and its hypophagic effects in vivo. Experimental approach: A CB1 yeast reporter assay was used as a primary screen. PSNCBAM-1 was additionally characterized in [35S]-GTPγS, cAMP and radioligand binding assays. An acute rat feeding model was used to evaluate its effects on food intake and body weight in vivo. Key results: In CB1 receptor yeast reporter assays, PSNCBAM-1 blocked the effects induced by agonists such as CP55,940, WIN55212-2, anandamide (AEA) or 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). The antagonist characteristics of PSNCBAM-1 were confirmed in [35S]-GTPγS binding and cAMP assays and was shown to be non-competitive by Schild analyses. PSNCBAM-1 did not affect CB2 receptors. In radioligand binding assays, PSNCBAM-1 increased the binding of [3H]CP55,940 despite its antagonist effects. In an acute rat feeding model, PSNCBAM-1 decreased food intake and body weight. Conclusions and implications: PSNCBAM-1 exerted its effects through selective allosteric modulation of the CB1 receptor. The acute effects on food intake and body weight induced in rats provide a first report of in vivo activity for an allosteric CB1 receptor antagonist. PMID:17592509

  14. Energetics of allosteric regulation in muscle pyruvate kinase.

    PubMed

    Consler, T G; Jennewein, M J; Cai, G Z; Lee, J C

    1992-09-01