Science.gov

Sample records for allosteric modulators pams

  1. Development of allosteric modulators of GPCRs for treatment of CNS disorders.

    PubMed

    Nickols, Hilary Highfield; Conn, P Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of allosteric modulators of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) provides a promising new strategy with potential for developing novel treatments for a variety of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Traditional drug discovery efforts targeting GPCRs have focused on developing ligands for orthosteric sites which bind endogenous ligands. Allosteric modulators target a site separate from the orthosteric site to modulate receptor function. These allosteric agents can either potentiate (positive allosteric modulator, PAM) or inhibit (negative allosteric modulator, NAM) the receptor response and often provide much greater subtype selectivity than orthosteric ligands for the same receptors. Experimental evidence has revealed more nuanced pharmacological modes of action of allosteric modulators, with some PAMs showing allosteric agonism in combination with positive allosteric modulation in response to endogenous ligand (ago-potentiators) as well as "bitopic" ligands that interact with both the allosteric and orthosteric sites. Drugs targeting the allosteric site allow for increased drug selectivity and potentially decreased adverse side effects. Promising evidence has demonstrated potential utility of a number of allosteric modulators of GPCRs in multiple CNS disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease, as well as psychiatric or neurobehavioral diseases such as anxiety, schizophrenia, and addiction. © 2013.

  2. Development of allosteric modulators of GPCRs for treatment of CNS disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nickols, Hilary Highfield; Conn, P. Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of allosteric modulators of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) provides a promising new strategy with potential for developing novel treatments for a variety of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Traditional drug discovery efforts targeting GPCRs have focused on developing ligands for orthosteric sites which bind endogenous ligands. Allosteric modulators target a site separate from the orthosteric site to modulate receptor function. These allosteric agents can either potentiate (positive allosteric modulator, PAM) or inhibit (negative allosteric modulator, NAM) the receptor response and often provide much greater subtype selectivity than do orthosteric ligands for the same receptors. Experimental evidence has revealed more nuanced pharmacological modes of action of allosteric modulators, with some PAMs showing allosteric agonism in combination with positive allosteric modulation in response to endogenous ligand (ago-potentiators) as well as “bitopic” ligands that interact with both the allosteric and orthosteric sites. Drugs targeting the allosteric site allow for increased drug selectivity and potentially decreased adverse side effects. Promising evidence has demonstrated potential utility of a number of allosteric modulators of GPCRs in multiple CNS disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease, as well as psychiatric or neurobehavioral diseases such as anxiety, schizophrenia, and addiction. PMID:24076101

  3. Harnessing biosynthesis and quantitative NMR for late stage functionalization of lead molecules: Application to the M1 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) program.

    PubMed

    Brodney, Michael A; Sharma, Raman; Lazzaro, John T; Walker, Gregory S; Scott Obach, R

    2018-06-15

    A facile method for late stage diversification of lead molecules for the M1 PAM program using biosynthesis is described. Liver microsomes from several species are screened to identify a high turnover system. Subsequent incubations using less than 1 mg of substrate generate nanomole quantities of drug metabolites that are purified, characterized by microcryoprobe NMR spectroscopy, and quantified to known concentrations to enable rapid biology testing. The late-stage diversification of lead compounds provides rapid SAR feedback to the medicinal chemistry design cycle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Allosteric Modulation of Chemoattractant Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Allegretti, Marcello; Cesta, Maria Candida; Locati, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Chemoattractants control selective leukocyte homing via interactions with a dedicated family of related G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Emerging evidence indicates that the signaling activity of these receptors, as for other GPCR, is influenced by allosteric modulators, which interact with the receptor in a binding site distinct from the binding site of the agonist and modulate the receptor signaling activity in response to the orthosteric ligand. Allosteric modulators have a number of potential advantages over orthosteric agonists/antagonists as therapeutic agents and offer unprecedented opportunities to identify extremely selective drug leads. Here, we resume evidence of allosterism in the context of chemoattractant receptors, discussing in particular its functional impact on functional selectivity and probe/concentration dependence of orthosteric ligands activities. PMID:27199992

  5. AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulators attenuate morphine tolerance and dependence.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Tian, Xuebi; Guo, Xiao; He, Ying; Chen, Haijun; Zhou, Jia; Wang, Zaijie Jim

    2018-04-25

    Development of opioid tolerance and dependence hinders the use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain. In searching for the mechanism and potential intervention for opioid tolerance and dependence, we studied the action of two positive allosteric modulators of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR PAMs). In mice treated with morphine (100 mg/kg, s.c.), acute morphine tolerance and dependence developed in 4-6 h. Treatment with aniracetam, a well-established AMPAR PAM, was able to completely prevent and reverse the development of acute antinociceptive tolerance to morphine. Partial, but significant, effects of aniracetam on acute morphine induced-physical dependence were also observed. Moreover, aniracetam significantly reversed the established morphine tolerance and dependence in a chronic model of morphine tolerance and dependence produced by intermittent morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c. for 5d). In addition, HJC0122, a new AMPAR PAM was found to have similar effects as aniracetam but with a higher potency. These previously undisclosed actions of AMPAR PAMs are intriguing and may shed lights on understanding the APMA signaling pathway in opioid addiction. Moreover, these data suggest that AMPAR PAMs may have utility in preventing and treating morphine tolerance and dependence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. PF-06827443 Displays Robust Allosteric Agonist and Positive Allosteric Modulator Activity in High Receptor Reserve and Native Systems.

    PubMed

    Moran, Sean P; Cho, Hyekyung P; Maksymetz, James; Remke, Daniel H; Hanson, Ryan M; Niswender, Colleen M; Lindsley, Craig W; Rook, Jerri M; Conn, P Jeffrey

    2018-04-25

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the M 1 subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor have attracted intense interest as an exciting new approach for improving the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Recent evidence suggests that the presence of intrinsic agonist activity of some M 1 PAMs may reduce efficacy and contribute to adverse effect liability. However, the M 1 PAM PF-06827443 was reported to have only weak agonist activity at human M 1 receptors but produced M 1 -dependent adverse effects. We now report that PF-06827443 is an allosteric agonist in cell lines expressing rat, dog, and human M 1 and use of inducible cell lines shows that agonist activity of PF-06827443 is dependent on receptor reserve. Furthermore, PF-06827443 is an agonist in native tissue preparations and induces behavioral convulsions in mice similar to other ago-PAMs. These findings suggest that PF-06827443 is a robust ago-PAM, independent of species, in cell lines and native systems.

  7. Nootropic α7 nicotinic receptor allosteric modulator derived from GABAA receptor modulators

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Herman J.; Whittemore, Edward R.; Tran, Minhtam B.; Hogenkamp, Derk J.; Broide, Ron S.; Johnstone, Timothy B.; Zheng, Lijun; Stevens, Karen E.; Gee, Kelvin W.

    2007-01-01

    Activation of brain α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs) has broad therapeutic potential in CNS diseases related to cognitive dysfunction, including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. In contrast to direct agonist activation, positive allosteric modulation of α7 nAChRs would deliver the clinically validated benefits of allosterism to these indications. We have generated a selective α7 nAChR-positive allosteric modulator (PAM) from a library of GABAA receptor PAMs. Compound 6 (N-(4-chlorophenyl)-α-[[(4-chloro-phenyl)amino]methylene]-3-methyl-5-isoxazoleacet-amide) evokes robust positive modulation of agonist-induced currents at α7 nAChRs, while preserving the rapid native characteristics of desensitization, and has little to no efficacy at other ligand-gated ion channels. In rodent models, it corrects sensory-gating deficits and improves working memory, effects consistent with cognitive enhancement. Compound 6 represents a chemotype for allosteric activation of α7 nAChRs, with therapeutic potential in CNS diseases with cognitive dysfunction. PMID:17470817

  8. Allosteric Modulation of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sheffler, Douglas J.; Gregory, Karen J.; Rook, Jerri M.; Conn, P. Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The development of receptor subtype-selective ligands by targeting allosteric sites of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has proven highly successful in recent years. One GPCR family that has greatly benefited from this approach is the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlus). These family C GPCRs participate in the neuromodulatory actions of glutamate throughout the CNS, where they play a number of key roles in regulating synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability. A large number of mGlu subtype-selective allosteric modulators have been identified, the majority of which are thought to bind within the transmembrane regions of the receptor. These modulators can either enhance or inhibit mGlu functional responses and, together with mGlu knockout mice, have furthered the establishment of the physiologic roles of many mGlu subtypes. Numerous pharmacological and receptor mutagenesis studies have been aimed at providing a greater mechanistic understanding of the interaction of mGlu allosteric modulators with the receptor, which have revealed evidence for common allosteric binding sites across multiple mGlu subtypes and the presence for multiple allosteric sites within a single mGlu subtype. Recent data have also revealed that mGlu allosteric modulators can display functional selectivity toward particular signal transduction cascades downstream of an individual mGlu subtype. Studies continue to validate the therapeutic utility of mGlu allosteric modulators as a potential therapeutic approach for a number of disorders including anxiety, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, and Fragile X syndrome. PMID:21907906

  9. The influence of allosteric modulators and transmembrane mutations on desensitisation and activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Chatzidaki, Anna; D'Oyley, Jarryl M.; Gill-Thind, JasKiran K.; Sheppard, Tom D.; Millar, Neil S.

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by binding at an extracellular orthosteric site. Previous studies have described several positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that are selective for homomeric α7 nAChRs. These include type I PAMs, which exert little or no effect on the rate of receptor desensitisation, and type II PAMs, which cause a dramatic loss of agonist-induced desensitisation. Here we report evidence that transmembrane mutations in α7 nAChRs have diverse effects on receptor activation and desensitisation by allosteric ligands. It has been reported previously that the L247T mutation, located toward the middle of the second transmembrane domain (at the 9′ position), confers reduced levels of desensitisation. In contrast, the M260L mutation, located higher up in the TM2 domain (at the 22′ position), does not show any difference in desensitisation compared to wild-type receptors. We have found that in receptors containing the L247T mutation, both type I PAMs and type II PAMs are converted into non-desensitising agonists. In contrast, in receptors containing the M260L mutation, this effect is seen only with type II PAMs. These findings, indicating that the M260L mutation has a selective effect on type II PAMs, have been confirmed both with previously described PAMs and also with a series of novel α7-selective PAMs. The novel PAMs examined in this study have close chemical similarity but diverse pharmacological properties. For example, they include compounds displaying effects on receptor desensitisation that are typical of classical type I and type II PAMs but, in addition, they include compounds with intermediate properties. PMID:25998276

  10. The influence of allosteric modulators and transmembrane mutations on desensitisation and activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Chatzidaki, Anna; D'Oyley, Jarryl M; Gill-Thind, JasKiran K; Sheppard, Tom D; Millar, Neil S

    2015-10-01

    Acetylcholine activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by binding at an extracellular orthosteric site. Previous studies have described several positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that are selective for homomeric α7 nAChRs. These include type I PAMs, which exert little or no effect on the rate of receptor desensitisation, and type II PAMs, which cause a dramatic loss of agonist-induced desensitisation. Here we report evidence that transmembrane mutations in α7 nAChRs have diverse effects on receptor activation and desensitisation by allosteric ligands. It has been reported previously that the L247T mutation, located toward the middle of the second transmembrane domain (at the 9' position), confers reduced levels of desensitisation. In contrast, the M260L mutation, located higher up in the TM2 domain (at the 22' position), does not show any difference in desensitisation compared to wild-type receptors. We have found that in receptors containing the L247T mutation, both type I PAMs and type II PAMs are converted into non-desensitising agonists. In contrast, in receptors containing the M260L mutation, this effect is seen only with type II PAMs. These findings, indicating that the M260L mutation has a selective effect on type II PAMs, have been confirmed both with previously described PAMs and also with a series of novel α7-selective PAMs. The novel PAMs examined in this study have close chemical similarity but diverse pharmacological properties. For example, they include compounds displaying effects on receptor desensitisation that are typical of classical type I and type II PAMs but, in addition, they include compounds with intermediate properties. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Prediction of consensus binding mode geometries for related chemical series of positive allosteric modulators of adenosine and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Sakkal, Leon A; Rajkowski, Kyle Z; Armen, Roger S

    2017-06-05

    Following insights from recent crystal structures of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, binding modes of Positive Allosteric Modulators (PAMs) were predicted under the assumption that PAMs should bind to the extracellular surface of the active state. A series of well-characterized PAMs for adenosine (A 1 R, A 2A R, A 3 R) and muscarinic acetylcholine (M 1 R, M 5 R) receptors were modeled using both rigid and flexible receptor CHARMM-based molecular docking. Studies of adenosine receptors investigated the molecular basis of the probe-dependence of PAM activity by modeling in complex with specific agonist radioligands. Consensus binding modes map common pharmacophore features of several chemical series to specific binding interactions. These models provide a rationalization of how PAM binding slows agonist radioligand dissociation kinetics. M 1 R PAMs were predicted to bind in the analogous M 2 R PAM LY2119620 binding site. The M 5 R NAM (ML-375) was predicted to bind in the PAM (ML-380) binding site with a unique induced-fit receptor conformation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The α7 nicotinic receptor dual allosteric agonist and positive allosteric modulator GAT107 reverses nociception in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, Jenny L; Kulkarni, Abhijit; Toma, Wisam; AlSharari, Shakir; Gul, Zulfiye; Lichtman, Aron H; Papke, Roger L; Damaj, M Imad

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Orthosteric agonists and positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the α7 nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) represent novel therapeutic approaches for pain modulation. Moreover, compounds with dual function as allosteric agonists and PAMs, known as ago‐PAMs, add further regulation of receptor function. Experimental Approach Initial studies examined the α7 ago‐PAM, GAT107, in the formalin, complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), LPS inflammatory pain models, the chronic constriction injury neuropathic pain model and the tail flick and hot plate acute thermal nociceptive assays. Additional studies examined the locus of action of GAT107 and immunohistochemical markers in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in the CFA model. Key Results Complementary pharmacological and genetic approaches confirmed that the dose‐dependent antinociceptive effects of GAT107 were mediated through α7 nAChR. However, GAT107 was inactive in the tail flick and hot plate assays. In addition, GAT107 blocked conditioned place aversion elicited by acetic acid injection. Furthermore, intrathecal, but not intraplantar, injections of GAT107 reversed nociception in the CFA model, suggesting a spinal component of action. Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed an increase in the expression of astrocyte‐specific glial fibrillary acidic protein and phosphorylated p38MAPK within the spinal cords of mice treated with CFA, which was attenuated by intrathecal GAT107 treatment. Importantly, GAT107 did not elicit motor impairment and continued to produce antinociceptive effects after subchronic administration in both phases of the formalin test. Conclusions and Implications Collectively, these results provide the first proof of principle that α7 ago‐PAMs represent an effective pharmacological strategy for treating inflammatory and neuropathic pain. PMID:27243753

  13. Discovery of 1,5-Disubstituted Pyridones: A New Class of Positive Allosteric Modulators of the Metabotropic Glutamate 2 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A series of 1,5-disubstituted pyridones was identified as positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) via high throughput screening (HTS). Subsequent SAR exploration led to the identification of several compounds with improved in vitro activity. Lead compound 8 was further profiled and found to attenuate the increase in PCP induced locomotor activity in mice. PMID:22778815

  14. Design and optimization of selective azaindole amide M1 positive allosteric modulators.

    PubMed

    Davoren, Jennifer E; O'Neil, Steven V; Anderson, Dennis P; Brodney, Michael A; Chenard, Lois; Dlugolenski, Keith; Edgerton, Jeremy R; Green, Michael; Garnsey, Michelle; Grimwood, Sarah; Harris, Anthony R; Kauffman, Gregory W; LaChapelle, Erik; Lazzaro, John T; Lee, Che-Wah; Lotarski, Susan M; Nason, Deane M; Obach, R Scott; Reinhart, Veronica; Salomon-Ferrer, Romelia; Steyn, Stefanus J; Webb, Damien; Yan, Jiangli; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-15

    Selective activation of the M1 receptor via a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) is a new approach for the treatment of the cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. A novel series of azaindole amides and their key pharmacophore elements are described. The nitrogen of the azaindole core is a key design element as it forms an intramolecular hydrogen bond with the amide N-H thus reinforcing the bioactive conformation predicted by published SAR and our homology model. Representative compound 25 is a potent and selective M1 PAM that has well aligned physicochemical properties, adequate brain penetration and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, and is active in vivo. These favorable properties indicate that this series possesses suitable qualities for further development and studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ASD: a comprehensive database of allosteric proteins and modulators

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhimin; Zhu, Liang; Cao, Yan; Wu, Geng; Liu, Xinyi; Chen, Yingyi; Wang, Qi; Shi, Ting; Zhao, Yaxue; Wang, Yuefei; Li, Weihua; Li, Yixue; Chen, Haifeng; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Allostery is the most direct, rapid and efficient way of regulating protein function, ranging from the control of metabolic mechanisms to signal-transduction pathways. However, an enormous amount of unsystematic allostery information has deterred scientists who could benefit from this field. Here, we present the AlloSteric Database (ASD), the first online database that provides a central resource for the display, search and analysis of structure, function and related annotation for allosteric molecules. Currently, ASD contains 336 allosteric proteins from 101 species and 8095 modulators in three categories (activators, inhibitors and regulators). Proteins are annotated with a detailed description of allostery, biological process and related diseases, and modulators with binding affinity, physicochemical properties and therapeutic area. Integrating the information of allosteric proteins in ASD should allow for the identification of specific allosteric sites of a given subtype among proteins of the same family that can potentially serve as ideal targets for experimental validation. In addition, modulators curated in ASD can be used to investigate potent allosteric targets for the query compound, and also help chemists to implement structure modifications for novel allosteric drug design. Therefore, ASD could be a platform and a starting point for biologists and medicinal chemists for furthering allosteric research. ASD is freely available at http://mdl.shsmu.edu.cn/ASD/. PMID:21051350

  16. Molecular Insights into Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Allosteric Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Karen J.

    2015-01-01

    The metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are a group of eight family C G protein–coupled receptors that are expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and periphery. Within the CNS the different subtypes are found in neurons, both pre- and/or postsynaptically, where they mediate modulatory roles and in glial cells. The mGlu receptor family provides attractive targets for numerous psychiatric and neurologic disorders, with the majority of discovery programs focused on targeting allosteric sites, with allosteric ligands now available for all mGlu receptor subtypes. However, the development of allosteric ligands remains challenging. Biased modulation, probe dependence, and molecular switches all contribute to the complex molecular pharmacology exhibited by mGlu receptor allosteric ligands. In recent years we have made significant progress in our understanding of this molecular complexity coupled with an increased understanding of the structural basis of mGlu allosteric modulation. PMID:25808929

  17. GABAA receptor: Positive and negative allosteric modulators.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Richard W

    2018-01-31

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission and the gene products involved were discovered during the mid-twentieth century. Historically, myriad existing nervous system drugs act as positive and negative allosteric modulators of these proteins, making GABA a major component of modern neuropharmacology, and suggesting that many potential drugs will be found that share these targets. Although some of these drugs act on proteins involved in synthesis, degradation, and membrane transport of GABA, the GABA receptors Type A (GABA A R) and Type B (GABA B R) are the targets of the great majority of GABAergic drugs. This discovery is due in no small part to Professor Norman Bowery. Whereas the topic of GABA B R is appropriately emphasized in this special issue, Norman Bowery also made many insights into GABA A R pharmacology, the topic of this article. GABA A R are members of the ligand-gated ion channel receptor superfamily, a chloride channel family of a dozen or more heteropentameric subtypes containing 19 possible different subunits. These subtypes show different brain regional and subcellular localization, age-dependent expression, and potential for plastic changes with experience including drug exposure. Not only are GABA A R the targets of agonist depressants and antagonist convulsants, but most GABA A R drugs act at other (allosteric) binding sites on the GABA A R proteins. Some anxiolytic and sedative drugs, like benzodiazepine and related drugs, act on GABA A R subtype-dependent extracellular domain sites. General anesthetics including alcohols and neurosteroids act at GABA A R subunit-interface trans-membrane sites. Ethanol at high anesthetic doses acts on GABA A R subtype-dependent trans-membrane domain sites. Ethanol at low intoxicating doses acts at GABA A R subtype-dependent extracellular domain sites. Thus GABA A R subtypes possess pharmacologically specific receptor binding sites for a large group of different chemical classes of

  18. The Antinociceptive and Antiinflammatory Properties of 3-furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide, a Positive Allosteric Modulator of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bagdas, Deniz; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M.; López, Jhon J.; Perez, Edwin G.; Arias, Hugo R.; Damaj, M. Imad

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) facilitate endogenous neurotransmission and/or enhance the efficacy of agonists without directly acting on the orthosteric binding sites. In this regard, selective α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor type II PAMs display antinociceptive activity in rodent chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. This study investigates whether 3-furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide (PAM-2), a new putative α7-selective type II PAM, attenuates experimental inflammatory and neuropathic pains in mice. METHODS We tested the activity of PAM-2 after intraperitoneal administration in 3 pain assays: the carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain, the complete Freund adjuvant induced inflammatory pain, and the chronic constriction injury–induced neuropathic pain in mice. We also tested whether PAM-2 enhanced the effects of the selective α7 agonist choline in the mouse carrageenan test given intrathecally. Because the experience of pain has both sensory and affective dimensions, we also evaluated the effects of PAM-2 on acetic acid–induced aversion by using the conditioned place aversion test. RESULTS We observed that systemic administration of PAM-2 significantly reversed mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models in a dose- and time-dependent manner without motor impairment. In addition, by attenuating the paw edema in inflammatory models, PAM-2 showed antiinflammatory properties. The antinociceptive effect of PAM-2 was inhibited by the selective competitive antagonist methyllycaconitine, indicating that the effect is mediated by α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Furthermore, PAM-2 enhanced the antiallodynic and antiinflammatory effects of choline, a selective α7 agonist, in the mouse carrageenan test. PAM-2 was also effective in reducing acetic acid induced aversion in the conditioned place aversion assay. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that the administration of PAM-2, a new α7

  19. Characterization of the novel positive allosteric modulator, LY2119620, at the muscarinic M(2) and M(4) receptors.

    PubMed

    Croy, Carrie H; Schober, Douglas A; Xiao, Hongling; Quets, Anne; Christopoulos, Arthur; Felder, Christian C

    2014-07-01

    The M(4) receptor is a compelling therapeutic target, as this receptor modulates neural circuits dysregulated in schizophrenia, and there is clinical evidence that muscarinic agonists possess both antipsychotic and procognitive efficacy. Recent efforts have shifted toward allosteric ligands to maximize receptor selectivity and manipulate endogenous cholinergic and dopaminergic signaling. In this study, we present the pharmacological characterization of LY2119620 (3-amino-5-chloro-N-cyclopropyl-4-methyl-6-[2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-oxoethoxy] thieno[2,3-b]pyridine-2-carboxamide), a M(2)/M(4) receptor-selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM), chemically evolved from hits identified through a M4 allosteric functional screen. Although unsuitable as a therapeutic due to M(2) receptor cross-reactivity and, thus, potential cardiovascular liability, LY2119620 surpassed previous congeners in potency and PAM activity and broadens research capabilities through its development into a radiotracer. Characterization of LY2119620 revealed evidence of probe dependence in both binding and functional assays. Guanosine 5'-[γ-(35)S]-triphosphate assays displayed differential potentiation depending on the orthosteric-allosteric pairing, with the largest cooperativity observed for oxotremorine M (Oxo-M) LY2119620. Further [(3)H]Oxo-M saturation binding, including studies with guanosine-5'-[(β,γ)-imido]triphosphate, suggests that both the orthosteric and allosteric ligands can alter the population of receptors in the active G protein-coupled state. Additionally, this work expands the characterization of the orthosteric agonist, iperoxo, at the M(4) receptor, and demonstrates that an allosteric ligand can positively modulate the binding and functional efficacy of this high efficacy ligand. Ultimately, it was the M(2) receptor pharmacology and PAM activity with iperoxo that made LY2119620 the most suitable allosteric partner for the M(2) active-state structure recently solved

  20. Positive allosteric modulators of the μ-opioid receptor: a novel approach for future pain medications

    PubMed Central

    Burford, N T; Traynor, J R; Alt, A

    2015-01-01

    Morphine and other agonists of the μ-opioid receptor are used clinically for acute and chronic pain relief and are considered to be the gold standard for pain medication. However, these opioids also have significant side effects, which are also mediated via activation of the μ-opioid receptor. Since the latter half of the twentieth century, researchers have sought to tease apart the mechanisms underlying analgesia, tolerance and dependence, with the hope of designing drugs with fewer side effects. These efforts have revolved around the design of orthosteric agonists with differing pharmacokinetic properties and/or selectivity profiles for the different opioid receptor types. Recently, μ-opioid receptor-positive allosteric modulators (μ-PAMs) were identified, which bind to a (allosteric) site on the μ-opioid receptor separate from the orthosteric site that binds an endogenous agonist. These allosteric modulators have little or no detectable functional activity when bound to the receptor in the absence of orthosteric agonist, but can potentiate the activity of bound orthosteric agonist, seen as an increase in apparent potency and/or efficacy of the orthosteric agonist. In this review, we describe the potential advantages that a μ-PAM approach might bring to the design of novel therapeutics for pain that may lack the side effects currently associated with opioid therapy. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24460691

  1. Allosteric modulation of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by HEPES✩

    PubMed Central

    Weltzin, Maegan M; Huang, Yanzhou; Schulte, Marvin K

    2013-01-01

    A number of new positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been reported that enhance responses of neuronal alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes to orthosteric ligands. PAMs represent promising new leads for the development of therapeutic agents for disorders involving alterations in nicotinic neurotransmission including Autism, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. During our recent studies of alpha4beta2 PAMs, we identified a novel effect of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES). The effects of HEPES were evaluated in a phosphate buffered recording solution using two-electrode voltage clamp techniques and alpha4beta2 and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine induced responses of high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors were potentiated 190% by co-exposure to HEPES. Responses were inhibited at higher concentrations (bell-shaped concentration/response curve). Coincidentally, at concentrations of HEPES typically used in oocyte recording (5–10 mM), the potentiating effects of HEPES are matched by its inhibitory effects, thus producing no net effect. Mutagenesis results suggest HEPES potentiates the high-sensitivity stoichiometry of the alpha4beta2 receptors through action at the beta2+/beta2− interface and is dependent on residue beta2D218. HEPES did not potentiate low-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors and did not produce any observable effect on acetylcholine induced responses on alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. PMID:22732654

  2. Allosteric modulation of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by HEPES.

    PubMed

    Weltzin, Maegan M; Huang, Yanzhou; Schulte, Marvin K

    2014-06-05

    A number of new positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been reported that enhance responses of neuronal alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes to orthosteric ligands. PAMs represent promising new leads for the development of therapeutic agents for disorders involving alterations in nicotinic neurotransmission including Autism, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. During our recent studies of alpha4beta2 PAMs, we identified a novel effect of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES). The effects of HEPES were evaluated in a phosphate buffered recording solution using two-electrode voltage clamp techniques and alpha4beta2 and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine induced responses of high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors were potentiated 190% by co-exposure to HEPES. Responses were inhibited at higher concentrations (bell-shaped concentration/response curve). Coincidentally, at concentrations of HEPES typically used in oocyte recording (5-10mM), the potentiating effects of HEPES are matched by its inhibitory effects, thus producing no net effect. Mutagenesis results suggest HEPES potentiates the high-sensitivity stoichiometry of the alpha4beta2 receptors through action at the beta2+/beta2- interface and is dependent on residue beta2D218. HEPES did not potentiate low-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors and did not produce any observable effect on acetylcholine induced responses on alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Allosteric Modulators for the Treatment of Schizophrenia: Targeting Glutamatergic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Menniti, Frank S.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Pandit, Jayvardhan; Zagouras, Panayiotis; Volkmann, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly debilitating mental disorder which afflicts approximately 1% of the global population. Cognitive and negative deficits account for the lifelong disability associated with schizophrenia, whose symptoms are not effectively addressed by current treatments. New medicines are needed to treat these aspects of the disease. Neurodevelopmental, neuropathological, genetic, and behavioral pharmacological data indicate that schizophrenia stems from a dysfunction of glutamate synaptic transmission, particularly in frontal cortical networks. A number of novel pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms affecting glutamatergic synaptic transmission have emerged as viable targets for schizophrenia. While developing orthosteric glutamatergic agents for these targets has proven extremely difficult, targeting allosteric sites of these targets has emerged as a promising alternative. From a medicinal chemistry perspective, allosteric sites provide an opportunity of finding agents with better drug-like properties and greater target specificity. Furthermore, allosteric modulators are better suited to maintaining the highly precise temporal and spatial aspects of glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Herein, we review neuropathological and genomic/genetic evidence underscoring the importance of glutamate synaptic dysfunction in the etiology of schizophrenia and make a case for allosteric targets for therapeutic intervention. We review progress in identifying allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors, NMDA receptors, and metabotropic glutamate receptors, all with the aim of restoring physiological glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Challenges remain given the complexity of schizophrenia and the difficulty in studying cognition in animals and humans. Nonetheless, important compounds have emerged from these efforts and promising preclinical and variable clinical validation has been achieved. PMID:23409764

  4. Positive allosteric modulators of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 4 (mGluR4). Part II: Challenges in hit-to-lead

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Richard; Niswender, Colleen M.; Luo, Qingwei; Le, Uyen; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.

    2013-01-01

    This Letter describes the synthesis and SAR of two mGluR4 positive allosteric modulator leads, 6 and 7. VU001171 (6) represents the most potent (EC50 = 650 nM), efficacious (141% Glu Max) and largest fold shift (36-fold) of any mGluR4 PAM reported to date. However, this work highlights the challenges in hit-to-lead for mGluR4 PAMs, with multiple confirmed HTS hits displaying little or no tractable SAR. PMID:19097893

  5. Deeper Insights into the Allosteric Modulation of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors.

    PubMed

    Regan, Michael C; Furukawa, Hiro

    2016-09-21

    Two articles in this issue of Neuron (Yelshanskaya et al., 2016; Yi et al., 2016) explore the structural basis of allosteric inhibition in ionotropic glutamate receptors, providing key insights into how iGluRs function in the brain as well as how they might be pharmacologically modulated in neurological disorders and disease. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Medicinal chemistry of P2X receptors: allosteric modulators.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christa E

    2015-01-01

    P2X receptors are trimeric ligand-gated ion channels whose potential as novel drug targets for a number of diseases has been recognized. They are mainly involved in inflammatory processes, including neuroinflammation, and pain sensation. The orthosteric binding site is lined by basic amino acid residues that bind the negatively charged agonist ATP. Therefore it is not easy to develop orthosteric ligands that possess drug-like properties for such a highly polar binding site. However, ligand-gated ion channels offer multiple additional binding sites for allosteric ligands, positive or negative allosteric modulators enhancing or blocking receptor function. So far, the P2X3 (and P2X2/3), as well as the P2X7 receptor subtype have been the main focus of drug development efforts. A number of potent and selective allosteric antagonists have been developed to block these receptors. We start to see the development of novel allosteric ligands also for the other P2X receptor subtypes, P2X1, P2X2 and especially P2X4. The times when only poor, non-selective, non-drug-like tools for studying P2X receptor function were available have been overcome. The first clinical studies with allosteric P2X3 and P2X7 antagonists suggest that P2X therapeutics may soon become a reality.

  7. Potentiating mGluR5 function with a positive allosteric modulator enhances adaptive learning.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Zhu, Yongling; Kraniotis, Stephen; He, Qionger; Marshall, John J; Nomura, Toshihiro; Stauffer, Shaun R; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P Jeffrey; Contractor, Anis

    2013-07-18

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) plays important roles in modulating neural activity and plasticity and has been associated with several neuropathological disorders. Previous work has shown that genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of mGluR5 disrupts fear extinction and spatial reversal learning, suggesting that mGluR5 signaling is required for different forms of adaptive learning. Here, we tested whether ADX47273, a selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of mGluR5, can enhance adaptive learning in mice. We found that systemic administration of the ADX47273 enhanced reversal learning in the Morris Water Maze, an adaptive task. In addition, we found that ADX47273 had no effect on single-session and multi-session extinction, but administration of ADX47273 after a single retrieval trial enhanced subsequent fear extinction learning. Together these results demonstrate a role for mGluR5 signaling in adaptive learning, and suggest that mGluR5 PAMs represent a viable strategy for treatment of maladaptive learning and for improving behavioral flexibility.

  8. Potentiating mGluR5 function with a positive allosteric modulator enhances adaptive learning

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Zhu, Yongling; Kraniotis, Stephen; He, Qionger; Marshall, John J.; Nomura, Toshihiro; Stauffer, Shaun R.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Contractor, Anis

    2013-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) plays important roles in modulating neural activity and plasticity and has been associated with several neuropathological disorders. Previous work has shown that genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of mGluR5 disrupts fear extinction and spatial reversal learning, suggesting that mGluR5 signaling is required for different forms of adaptive learning. Here, we tested whether ADX47273, a selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of mGluR5, can enhance adaptive learning in mice. We found that systemic administration of the ADX47273 enhanced reversal learning in the Morris Water Maze, an adaptive task. In addition, we found that ADX47273 had no effect on single-session and multi-session extinction, but administration of ADX47273 after a single retrieval trial enhanced subsequent fear extinction learning. Together these results demonstrate a role for mGluR5 signaling in adaptive learning, and suggest that mGluR5 PAMs represent a viable strategy for treatment of maladaptive learning and for improving behavioral flexibility. PMID:23869026

  9. Positive allosteric modulators as an approach to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor- targeted therapeutics: advantages and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Dustin K.; Wang, Jingyi; Papke, Roger L.

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), recognized targets for drug development in cognitive and neuro-degenerative disorders, are allosteric proteins with dynamic interconversions between multiple functional states. Activation of the nAChR ion channel is primarily controlled by the binding of ligands (agonists, partial agonists, competitive antagonists) at conventional agonist binding sites, but is also regulated in either negative or positive ways by the binding of ligands to other modulatory sites. In this review, we discuss models for the activation and desensitization of nAChR, and the discovery of multiple types of ligands that influence those processes in both heteromeric nAChR, such as the high affinity nicotine receptors of the brain, and homomeric α7-type receptors. In recent years, α7 nAChRs have been identified as a potential target for therapeutic indications leading to the development of α7-selective agonists and partial agonists. However, unique properties of α7 nAChR, including low probability of channel opening and rapid desensitization, may limit the therapeutic usefulness of ligands binding exclusively to conventional agonist binding sites. New enthusiasm for the therapeutic targeting of α7 has come from the identification of α7-selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that work effectively on the intrinsic factors that limit α7 ion channel activation. While these new drugs appear promising for therapeutic development, we also consider potential caveats and possible limitations for their use, including PAM-insensitive forms of desensitization and cytotoxicity issues. PMID:21575610

  10. Positive allosteric modulators as an approach to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-targeted therapeutics: advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Williams, Dustin K; Wang, Jingyi; Papke, Roger L

    2011-10-15

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), recognized targets for drug development in cognitive and neuro-degenerative disorders, are allosteric proteins with dynamic interconversions between multiple functional states. Activation of the nAChR ion channel is primarily controlled by the binding of ligands (agonists, partial agonists, competitive antagonists) at conventional agonist binding sites, but is also regulated in either negative or positive ways by the binding of ligands to other modulatory sites. In this review, we discuss models for the activation and desensitization of nAChR, and the discovery of multiple types of ligands that influence those processes in both heteromeric nAChR, such as the high-affinity nicotine receptors of the brain, and homomeric α7-type receptors. In recent years, α7 nAChRs have been identified as a potential target for therapeutic indications leading to the development of α7-selective agonists and partial agonists. However, unique properties of α7 nAChR, including low probability of channel opening and rapid desensitization, may limit the therapeutic usefulness of ligands binding exclusively to conventional agonist binding sites. New enthusiasm for the therapeutic targeting of α7 has come from the identification of α7-selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that work effectively on the intrinsic factors that limit α7 ion channel activation. While these new drugs appear promising for therapeutic development, we also consider potential caveats and possible limitations for their use, including PAM-insensitive forms of desensitization and cytotoxicity issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. KK-92A, a novel GABAB receptor positive allosteric modulator, attenuates nicotine self-administration and cue-induced nicotine seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Sturchler, Emmanuel; Kaczanowska, Katarzyna; Cameron, Michael; Finn, M G; Griffin, Patrick; McDonald, Patricia; Markou, Athina

    2017-05-01

    GABA B receptors (GABA B R) play a critical role in GABAergic neurotransmission in the brain and are thought to be one of the most promising targets for the treatment of drug addiction. GABA B R positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have shown promise as potential anti-addictive therapies, as they lack the sedative and muscle relaxant properties of full GABA B receptor agonists such as baclofen. The present study was aimed at developing novel, selective, and potent GABA B R PAMs with efficacy on abuse-related effects of nicotine. We synthetized ~100 analogs of BHF177, a GABA B R PAM that has been shown to inhibit nicotine taking and seeking, and tested their activity in multiple cell-based functional assays. Among these compounds, KK-92A displayed superior PAM properties at the GABA B R. Interestingly, our results revealed the existence of pathway-selective differential modulation of GABA B R signaling by the structurally related GABA B R allosteric modulators BHF177 and KK-92A. In vivo, similarly to BHF177, KK-92A inhibited intravenous nicotine self-administration under both fixed- and progressive-ratio schedules of reinforcement in rats. In contrast to BHF177, KK-92A had no effect on food self-administration. Furthermore, KK-92A decreased cue-induced nicotine-seeking behavior without affecting food seeking. These results indicate that KK-92A is a selective GABA B R PAM with efficacy in inhibition of the primary reinforcing and incentive motivational effects of nicotine, and attenuation of nicotine seeking, further confirming that GABA B R PAMs may be useful antismoking medications.

  12. Zinc as Allosteric Ion Channel Modulator: Ionotropic Receptors as Metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Francisco Andrés; Huidobro-Toro, Juan Pablo

    2016-07-02

    Zinc is an essential metal to life. This transition metal is a structural component of many proteins and is actively involved in the catalytic activity of cell enzymes. In either case, these zinc-containing proteins are metalloproteins. However, the amino acid residues that serve as ligands for metal coordination are not necessarily the same in structural proteins compared to enzymes. While crystals of structural proteins that bind zinc reveal a higher preference for cysteine sulfhydryls rather than histidine imidazole rings, catalytic enzymes reveal the opposite, i.e., a greater preference for the histidines over cysteines for catalysis, plus the influence of carboxylic acids. Based on this paradigm, we reviewed the putative ligands of zinc in ionotropic receptors, where zinc has been described as an allosteric modulator of channel receptors. Although these receptors do not strictly qualify as metalloproteins since they do not normally bind zinc in structural domains, they do transitorily bind zinc at allosteric sites, modifying transiently the receptor channel's ion permeability. The present contribution summarizes current information showing that zinc allosteric modulation of receptor channels occurs by the preferential metal coordination to imidazole rings as well as to the sulfhydryl groups of cysteine in addition to the carboxyl group of acid residues, as with enzymes and catalysis. It is remarkable that most channels, either voltage-sensitive or transmitter-gated receptor channels, are susceptible to zinc modulation either as positive or negative regulators.

  13. Zinc as Allosteric Ion Channel Modulator: Ionotropic Receptors as Metalloproteins

    PubMed Central

    Peralta, Francisco Andrés; Huidobro-Toro, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential metal to life. This transition metal is a structural component of many proteins and is actively involved in the catalytic activity of cell enzymes. In either case, these zinc-containing proteins are metalloproteins. However, the amino acid residues that serve as ligands for metal coordination are not necessarily the same in structural proteins compared to enzymes. While crystals of structural proteins that bind zinc reveal a higher preference for cysteine sulfhydryls rather than histidine imidazole rings, catalytic enzymes reveal the opposite, i.e., a greater preference for the histidines over cysteines for catalysis, plus the influence of carboxylic acids. Based on this paradigm, we reviewed the putative ligands of zinc in ionotropic receptors, where zinc has been described as an allosteric modulator of channel receptors. Although these receptors do not strictly qualify as metalloproteins since they do not normally bind zinc in structural domains, they do transitorily bind zinc at allosteric sites, modifying transiently the receptor channel’s ion permeability. The present contribution summarizes current information showing that zinc allosteric modulation of receptor channels occurs by the preferential metal coordination to imidazole rings as well as to the sulfhydryl groups of cysteine in addition to the carboxyl group of acid residues, as with enzymes and catalysis. It is remarkable that most channels, either voltage-sensitive or transmitter-gated receptor channels, are susceptible to zinc modulation either as positive or negative regulators. PMID:27384555

  14. In Vitro and In Vivo Identification of Novel Positive Allosteric Modulators of the Human Dopamine D2 and D3 Receptor.

    PubMed

    Wood, Martyn; Ates, Ali; Andre, Veronique Marie; Michel, Anne; Barnaby, Robert; Gillard, Michel

    2016-02-01

    Agonists at dopamine D2 and D3 receptors are important therapeutic agents in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Compared with the use of agonists, allosteric potentiators offer potential advantages such as temporal, regional, and phasic potentiation of natural signaling, and that of receptor subtype selectivity. We report the identification of a stereoselective interaction of a benzothiazol racemic compound that acts as a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of the rat and human dopamine D2 and D3 receptors. The R isomer did not directly stimulate the dopamine D2 receptor but potentiated the effects of dopamine. In contrast the S isomer attenuated the effects of the PAM and the effects of dopamine. In radioligand binding studies, these compounds do not compete for binding of orthosteric ligands, but indeed the R isomer increased the number of high-affinity sites for [(3)H]-dopamine without affecting K(d). We went on to identify a more potent PAM for use in native receptor systems. This compound potentiated the effects of D2/D3 signaling in vitro in electrophysiologic studies on dissociated striatal neurons and in vivo on the effects of L-dopa in the 6OHDA (6-hydroxydopamine) contralateral turning model. These PAMs lacked activity at a wide variety of receptors, lacked PAM activity at related Gi-coupled G protein-coupled receptors, and lacked activity at D1 receptors. However, the PAMs did potentiate [(3)H]-dopamine binding at both D2 and D3 receptors. Together, these studies show that we have identified PAMs of the D2 and D3 receptors both in vitro and in vivo. Such compounds may have utility in the treatment of hypodopaminergic function. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. Sex-Dependent Anti-Stress Effect of an α5 Subunit Containing GABAA Receptor Positive Allosteric Modulator

    PubMed Central

    Piantadosi, Sean C.; French, Beverly J.; Poe, Michael M.; Timić, Tamara; Marković, Bojan D.; Pabba, Mohan; Seney, Marianne L.; Oh, Hyunjung; Orser, Beverley A.; Savić, Miroslav M.; Cook, James M.; Sibille, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Current first-line treatments for stress-related disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) act on monoaminergic systems and take weeks to achieve a therapeutic effect with poor response and low remission rates. Recent research has implicated the GABAergic system in the pathophysiology of depression, including deficits in interneurons targeting the dendritic compartment of cortical pyramidal cells. Objectives: The present study evaluates whether SH-053-2’F-R-CH3 (denoted “α5-PAM”), a positive allosteric modulator selective for α5-subunit containing GABAA receptors found predominantly on cortical pyramidal cell dendrites, has anti-stress effects. Methods: Female and male C57BL6/J mice were exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) and treated with α5-PAM acutely (30 min prior to assessing behavior) or chronically before being assessed behaviorally. Results: Acute and chronic α5-PAM treatments produce a pattern of decreased stress-induced behaviors (denoted as “behavioral emotionality”) across various tests in female, but not in male mice. Behavioral Z-scores calculated across a panel of tests designed to best model the range and heterogeneity of human symptomatology confirmed that acute and chronic α5-PAM treatments consistently produce significant decreases in behavioral emotionality in several independent cohorts of females. The behavioral responses to α5-PAM could not be completely accounted for by differences in drug brain disposition between female and male mice. In mice exposed to UCMS, expression of the Gabra5 gene was increased in the frontal cortex after acute treatment and in the hippocampus after chronic treatment with α5-PAM in females only, and these expression changes correlated with behavioral emotionality. Conclusion: We showed that acute and chronic positive modulation of α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors elicit anti-stress effects in a sex-dependent manner, suggesting novel therapeutic modalities

  16. Tetrahydronaphthyridine and Dihydronaphthyridinone Ethers As Positive Allosteric Modulators of the Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 (mGlu5)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of schizophrenia. Starting from an acetylene-based lead from high throughput screening, an evolved bicyclic dihydronaphthyridinone was identified. We describe further refinements leading to both dihydronaphthyridinone and tetrahydronaphthyridine mGlu5 PAMs containing an alkoxy-based linkage as an acetylene replacement. Exploration of several structural features including western pyridine ring isomers, positional amides, linker connectivity/position, and combinations thereof, reveal that these bicyclic modulators generally exhibit steep SAR and within specific subseries display a propensity for pharmacological mode switching at mGlu5 as well as antagonist activity at mGlu3. Structure–activity relationships within a dihydronaphthyridinone subseries uncovered 12c (VU0405372), a selective mGlu5 PAM with good in vitro potency, low glutamate fold-shift, acceptable DMPK properties, and in vivo efficacy in an amphetamine-based model of psychosis. PMID:24914612

  17. mGluR4-positive allosteric modulation as potential treatment for Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Corey R; Lindsley, Craig W; Niswender, Colleen M

    2009-01-01

    Although Parkinson’s disease was first diagnosed nearly 200 years ago, its effective treatment still remains elusive for most of those diagnosed. The gold standard of treatment for most patients is 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine. This drug works for most individuals early in the disease; however, resistant symptoms start to emerge after several years of treatment. There has been increased interest in finding novel therapies to help Parkinson’s disease patients. Such strategies may have the benefit of not only treating the symptomatic issues of the disorder, but might also offer promise in protecting dopaminergic neurons from further degeneration. One such target that is now receiving much attention from the scientific community is the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR4. In this article, we briefly review Parkinson’s disease and then recent work in the mGluR area, with a focus on the efforts being made toward finding and optimizing novel mGluR4 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). Preclinically in rodent models, mGluR4 activation has offered much promise as a novel treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Additionally, the specific use of PAMs, rather than direct-acting agonists at the orthosteric glutamate site, continues to be validated as a viable treatment option for this target. It is anticipated that continued progress in this area will further our understanding of the potential of mGluR4 modulation as a novel symptomatic and potentially disease-modifying treatment for Parkinson’s disease. PMID:20161443

  18. B-973, a novel piperazine positive allosteric modulator of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Post-Munson, Debra J; Pieschl, Rick L; Molski, Thaddeus F; Graef, John D; Hendricson, Adam W; Knox, Ronald J; McDonald, Ivar M; Olson, Richard E; Macor, John E; Weed, Michael R; Bristow, Linda J; Kiss, Laszlo; Ahlijanian, Michael K; Herrington, James

    2017-03-15

    The alpha7 (α7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is a therapeutic target for cognitive disorders. Here we describe 3-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-N-(1-(6-(4-(pyridin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl)pyrazin-2-yl)ethyl)propanamide (B-973), a novel piperazine-containing molecule that acts as a positive allosteric modulator of the α7 receptor. We characterize the action of B-973 on the α7 receptor using electrophysiology and radioligand binding. At 0.1mM acetylcholine, 1μM B-973 potentiated peak acetylcholine-induced currents 6-fold relative to maximal acetylcholine (3mM) and slowed channel desensitization, resulting in a 6900-fold increase in charge transfer. The EC 50 of B-973 was approximately 0.3μM at acetylcholine concentrations ranging from 0.03 to 3mM. At a concentration of 1μM, B-973 shifted the acetylcholine EC 50 of peak currents from 0.30mM in control to 0.007mM. B-973 slowed channel deactivation upon acetylcholine removal (τ=50s) and increased the affinity of the α7 agonist [ 3 H]A-585539. In the absence of exogenously added acetylcholine, application of B-973 at concentrations >1μM induced large methyllycaconitine-sensitive currents, suggesting B-973 can function as an Ago-PAM at high concentrations. B-973 will be a useful probe for investigating the biological consequences of increasing α7 receptor activity through allosteric modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Amino acid and peptide prodrugs of diphenylpropanones positive allosteric modulators of α7 nicotinic receptors with analgesic activity.

    PubMed

    Balsera, Beatriz; Mulet, José; Sala, Salvador; Sala, Francisco; de la Torre-Martínez, Roberto; González-Rodríguez, Sara; Plata, Adrián; Naesens, Lieve; Fernández-Carvajal, Asia; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio; Criado, Manuel; Pérez de Vega, María Jesús; González-Muñiz, Rosario

    2018-01-01

    α7 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ion channels implicated in a number of CNS pathological processes, including pain and psychiatric, cognitive and inflammatory diseases. Comparing with orthosteric agonism, positive allosteric modulation of these channels constitutes an interesting approach to achieve selectivity versus other nicotinic receptors. We have recently described new chalcones and 1,3-diphenylpropanones as positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α7 nAChRs, which proved to have good analgesic activities but poor pharmacokinetic properties. Here we report the preparation of amino acid and peptide derivatives as prodrugs of these modulators with the aim of improving their in vivo biological activity. While the valine derivative showed very short half life in aqueous solutions to be considered a prodrug, Val-Val and Val-Pro-Val are suitable precursors of the parent 1,3-diphenylpropanones, via chemical and enzymatic transformation, respectively. Compounds 19 (Val-Val) and 21 (Val-Pro-Val), prodrugs of the 2',5',4-trihydroxy-1,3-diphenylpropan-1-one 3, showed significant antinociceptive activity in in vivo assays. The best compound, 21, displayed a better profile in the analgesia test than its parent compound 3, exhibiting about the same potency but long-lasting effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Allosteric Modulators of the CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor: A Structural Update Review.

    PubMed

    Morales, Paula; Goya, Pilar; Jagerovic, Nadine; Hernandez-Folgado, Laura

    2016-01-01

    In 2005, the first evidence of an allosteric binding site at the CB 1 R was provided by the identification of three indoles of the company Organon that were allosteric enhancers of agonist binding affinity and, functionally, allosteric inhibitors of agonist activity. Since then, structure-activity relationships of indoles as CB 1 R modulators have been reported. Targeting the allosteric site on CB 1 R, new families structurally based on urea and on 3-phenyltropane analogs of cocaine have been discovered as CB 1 R-negative allosteric modulators (NAMs), respectively, by Prosidion and by the Research Triangle Park. Endogenous allosteric ligands of different nature have been identified more recently. Thus, the therapeutic neuroprotection application of lipoxin A4, an arachidonic acid derivative, as an allosteric enhancer of CB 1 R activity has been confirmed in vivo . It was also the case of the steroid hormone, pregnenolone, whose negative allosteric effects on Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol ( Δ 9 -THC) were reproduced in vivo in a behavioral tetrad model and in food intake and memory impairment assays. Curiously, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist fenofibrate or polypeptides such as pepcan-12 have been shown to act on the endocannabinoid system through CB 1 R allosteric modulation. The mechanistic bases of the effects of the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) are still not fully explained. However, there is evidence that CBD behaves as an NAM of Δ 9 -THC- and 2-AG. Allosteric modulation at CB 1 R offers new opportunities for therapeutic applications. Therefore, further understanding of the chemical features required for allosteric modulation as well as their orthosteric probe dependence may broaden novel approaches for fine-tuning the signaling pathways of the CB 1 R.

  1. Allosteric Modulators of the CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor: A Structural Update Review

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Paula; Goya, Pilar; Jagerovic, Nadine; Hernandez-Folgado, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In 2005, the first evidence of an allosteric binding site at the CB1R was provided by the identification of three indoles of the company Organon that were allosteric enhancers of agonist binding affinity and, functionally, allosteric inhibitors of agonist activity. Since then, structure–activity relationships of indoles as CB1R modulators have been reported. Targeting the allosteric site on CB1R, new families structurally based on urea and on 3-phenyltropane analogs of cocaine have been discovered as CB1R-negative allosteric modulators (NAMs), respectively, by Prosidion and by the Research Triangle Park. Endogenous allosteric ligands of different nature have been identified more recently. Thus, the therapeutic neuroprotection application of lipoxin A4, an arachidonic acid derivative, as an allosteric enhancer of CB1R activity has been confirmed in vivo. It was also the case of the steroid hormone, pregnenolone, whose negative allosteric effects on Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) were reproduced in vivo in a behavioral tetrad model and in food intake and memory impairment assays. Curiously, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist fenofibrate or polypeptides such as pepcan-12 have been shown to act on the endocannabinoid system through CB1R allosteric modulation. The mechanistic bases of the effects of the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) are still not fully explained. However, there is evidence that CBD behaves as an NAM of Δ9-THC- and 2-AG. Allosteric modulation at CB1R offers new opportunities for therapeutic applications. Therefore, further understanding of the chemical features required for allosteric modulation as well as their orthosteric probe dependence may broaden novel approaches for fine-tuning the signaling pathways of the CB1R. PMID:28861476

  2. Discriminative-stimulus effects of NS9283, a nicotinic α4β2* positive allosteric modulator, in nicotine-discriminating rats.

    PubMed

    Mohler, Eric G; Franklin, Stanley R; Rueter, Lynne E

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors mediate cognition, pain, and the discriminative and reinforcing effects of nicotine. In addition to traditional orthosteric agonists, α4β2* positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have recently been identified. With increased subtype selectivity relative to agonists, PAMs administered alone or in combination with low-dose α4β2* agonists may be used as powerful tools for increasing our understanding of α4β2* pharmacology. The present experiments tested the nicotine discriminative-stimulus effects of the α4β2* PAM NS9283 (A-969933) in the presence and absence of low-dose nicotine or nicotinic subtype-selective agonist. Rats were trained to discriminate 0.4 mg/kg nicotine from saline in a two-lever drug discrimination paradigm. In subsequent generalization tests, rats were administered nicotine, the α4β2*-preferring agonist ABT-594, and NS9283, alone or in two-drug combinations. Nicotine and ABT-594 showed dose-dependent nicotine generalization. NS9283 alone resulted in a non-significant increase in nicotine-appropriate lever selection. Combination of non-effective doses of nicotine or ABT-594 with escalating doses of NS9283 resulted in a complete conversion to 100 % nicotine-appropriate choice in the case of nicotine combination and incomplete, though significant, generalization for ABT-594. The α4β2* PAM NS9283 alone did not produce nicotine-like discriminative effects, but did demonstrate dose-related increases in nicotine lever choice when combined with a non-effective dose of nicotine or the α4β2* agonist ABT-594. This finding provides confirmation of the positive allosteric modulating effect of NS9283 in a functional in vivo paradigm. NS9283 is a potentially valuable tool for studying the role of α4β2* receptors in various nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-related functions.

  3. Levamisole: A Positive Allosteric Modulator for the α3β4 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Prevents Weight Gain in the CD-1 Mice on a High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jeanne A; Yakel, Jerrel L; Pandya, Anshul A

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) regulate the function of multiple neurotransmitter pathways throughout the central nervous system. This includes nAChRs found on the proopiomelanocortin neurons in the hypothalamus. Activation of these nAChRs by nicotine causes a decrease in the consumption of food in rodents. This study tested the effect of subtype selective allosteric modulators for nAChRs on the body weight of CD-1 mice. Levamisole, an allosteric modulator for the α3β4 subtype of nAChRs, prevented weight gain in mice that were fed a high fat diet. PNU-120596 and desformylflustrabromine were observed to be selective PAMs for the α7 and α4β2 nAChR, respectively. Both of these compounds failed to prevent weight gain in the CD-1 mice. These results suggest that the modulation of hypothalamic α3β4 nAChRs is an important factor in regulating food intake, and the PAMs for these receptors need further investigation as potential therapeutic agents for controlling weight gain. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. New screening strategy and analysis for identification of allosteric modulators for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor using GLP-1 (9-36) amide.

    PubMed

    Nakane, Atsushi; Gotoh, Yusuke; Ichihara, Junji; Nagata, Hidetaka

    2015-12-15

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is an important physiologic regulator of insulin secretion and a major therapeutic target for diabetes mellitus. GLP-1 (7-36) amide (active form of GLP-1) is truncated to GLP-1 (9-36) amide, which has been described as a weak agonist of GLP-1R and the major form of GLP-1 in the circulation. New classes of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) for GLP-1R may offer improved therapeutic profiles. To identify these new classes, we developed novel and robust primary and secondary high-throughput screening (HTS) systems in which PAMs were identified to enhance the GLP-1R signaling induced by GLP-1 (9-36) amide. Screening enabled identification of two compounds, HIT-465 and HIT-736, which possessed new patterns of modulation of GLP-1R. We investigated the ability of these compounds to modify GLP-1R signaling enhanced GLP-1 (9-36) amide- and/or GLP-1 (7-36) amide-mediated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation. These compounds also had unique profiles with regard to allosteric modulation of multiple downstream signaling (PathHunter β-arrestin signaling, PathHunter internalization signaling, microscopy-based internalization assay). We found allosteric modulation patterns to be obviously different among HIT-465, HIT-736, and Novo Nordisk compound 2. This work may enable the design of new classes of drug candidates by targeting modulation of GLP-1 (7-36) amide and GLP-1 (9-36) amide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Structural Basis of ATP as an Allosteric Modulator

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Shen, Qiancheng; Li, Shuai; Nussinov, Ruth; Zhang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) is generally regarded as a substrate for energy currency and protein modification. Recent findings uncovered the allosteric function of ATP in cellular signal transduction but little is understood about this critical behavior of ATP. Through extensive analysis of ATP in solution and proteins, we found that the free ATP can exist in the compact and extended conformations in solution, and the two different conformational characteristics may be responsible for ATP to exert distinct biological functions: ATP molecules adopt both compact and extended conformations in the allosteric binding sites but conserve extended conformations in the substrate binding sites. Nudged elastic band simulations unveiled the distinct dynamic processes of ATP binding to the corresponding allosteric and substrate binding sites of uridine monophosphate kinase, and suggested that in solution ATP preferentially binds to the substrate binding sites of proteins. When the ATP molecules occupy the allosteric binding sites, the allosteric trigger from ATP to fuel allosteric communication between allosteric and functional sites is stemmed mainly from the triphosphate part of ATP, with a small number from the adenine part of ATP. Taken together, our results provide overall understanding of ATP allosteric functions responsible for regulation in biological systems. PMID:25211773

  6. N-aryl piperazine metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 positive allosteric modulators possess efficacy in preclinical models of NMDA hypofunction and cognitive enhancement.

    PubMed

    Gregory, K J; Herman, E J; Ramsey, A J; Hammond, A S; Byun, N E; Stauffer, S R; Manka, J T; Jadhav, S; Bridges, T M; Weaver, C D; Niswender, C M; Steckler, T; Drinkenburg, W H; Ahnaou, A; Lavreysen, H; Macdonald, G J; Bartolomé, J M; Mackie, C; Hrupka, B J; Caron, M G; Daigle, T L; Lindsley, C W; Conn, P J; Jones, C K

    2013-11-01

    Impaired transmission through glutamatergic circuits has been postulated to play a role in the underlying pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Furthermore, inhibition of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDAR) induces a syndrome that recapitulates many of the symptoms observed in patients with schizophrenia. Selective activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) may provide a novel therapeutic approach for treatment of symptoms associated with schizophrenia through facilitation of transmission through central glutamatergic circuits. Here, we describe the characterization of two novel N-aryl piperazine mGlu5 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs): 2-(4-(2-(benzyloxy)acetyl)piperazin-1-yl)benzonitrile (VU0364289) and 1-(4-(2,4-difluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-((4-fluorobenzyl)oxy)ethanone (DPFE). VU0364289 and DPFE induced robust leftward shifts in the glutamate concentration-response curves for Ca(2+) mobilization and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 phosphorylation. Both PAMs displayed micromolar affinity for the common mGlu5 allosteric binding site and high selectivity for mGlu5. VU0364289 and DPFE possessed suitable pharmacokinetic properties for dosing in vivo and produced robust dose-related effects in reversing amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, a preclinical model predictive of antipsychotic-like activity. In addition, DPFE enhanced acquisition of contextual fear conditioning in rats and reversed behavioral deficits in a mouse model of NMDAR hypofunction. In contrast, DPFE had no effect on reversing apomorphine-induced disruptions of prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex. These mGlu5 PAMs also increased monoamine levels in the prefrontal cortex, enhanced performance in a hippocampal-mediated memory task, and elicited changes in electroencephalogram dynamics commensurate with procognitive effects. Collectively, these data support and extend the role for the development of

  7. Preclinical evaluation of the antipsychotic potential of the mGlu2-positive allosteric modulator JNJ-40411813

    PubMed Central

    Lavreysen, Hilde; Langlois, Xavier; Donck, Luc Ver; Nuñez, José María Cid; Pype, Stefan; Lütjens, Robert; Megens, Anton

    2015-01-01

    JNJ-40411813/ADX71149 (1-butyl-3-chloro-4-(4-phenylpiperidin-1-yl) pyridin-2(1H)-one) is a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of the mGlu2 receptor, which also displays 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5HT2A) antagonism after administration in rodents due to a rodent-specific metabolite. JNJ-40411813 was compared with the orthosteric mGlu2/3 agonist LY404039 (4-amino-2-thiabicyclo [3.1.0] hexane-4,6-dicarboxylic acid 2,2-dioxide), the selective mGlu2 PAM JNJ-42153605 (3-(cyclopropylmethyl)-7-(4-phenylpiperidin-1-yl)-8-(trifluoromethyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridine) and the 5HT2A antagonist ritanserin in rodent models for antipsychotic activity and potential side effects, attempting to differentiate between the various compounds and mechanisms of action. In mice, JNJ-40411813, JNJ-42153605, and LY404039 inhibited spontaneous locomotion and phencyclidine- and scopolamine-induced but not d-amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion; the 5HT2A antagonist ritanserin inhibited only spontaneous locomotion and phencyclidine-induced hyperlocomotion. As measured by 2-deoxyglucose uptake, all compounds reversed memantine-induced brain activation in mice. The two mGlu2 PAMs and LY404039, but not ritanserin, inhibited conditioned avoidance behavior in rats. Like ritanserin, the mGlu2 ligands antagonized 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine-induced head twitches in rats. LY404039 but not the mGlu2 PAMs impaired rotarod performance in rats and increased the acoustic startle response in mice. Our results show that although 5HT2A antagonism has effect in some models, mGlu2 receptor activation is sufficient for activity in several animal models of antipsychotic activity. The mGlu2 PAMs mimicked the in vivo pharmacodynamic effects observed with LY404039 except for effects on the rotarod and acoustic startle, suggesting that they produce a primary activity profile similar to that of the mGlu2/3 receptor agonist while they can be differentiated based on their secondary activity profile. The results are

  8. Structural basis for modulation of a G-protein-coupled receptor by allosteric drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dror, Ron O.; Green, Hillary F.; Valant, Celine; Borhani, David W.; Valcourt, James R.; Pan, Albert C.; Arlow, Daniel H.; Canals, Meritxell; Lane, J. Robert; Rahmani, Raphaël; Baell, Jonathan B.; Sexton, Patrick M.; Christopoulos, Arthur; Shaw, David E.

    2013-11-01

    The design of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) allosteric modulators, an active area of modern pharmaceutical research, has proved challenging because neither the binding modes nor the molecular mechanisms of such drugs are known. Here we determine binding sites, bound conformations and specific drug-receptor interactions for several allosteric modulators of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2 receptor), a prototypical family A GPCR, using atomic-level simulations in which the modulators spontaneously associate with the receptor. Despite substantial structural diversity, all modulators form cation-π interactions with clusters of aromatic residues in the receptor extracellular vestibule, approximately 15Å from the classical, `orthosteric' ligand-binding site. We validate the observed modulator binding modes through radioligand binding experiments on receptor mutants designed, on the basis of our simulations, either to increase or to decrease modulator affinity. Simulations also revealed mechanisms that contribute to positive and negative allosteric modulation of classical ligand binding, including coupled conformational changes of the two binding sites and electrostatic interactions between ligands in these sites. These observations enabled the design of chemical modifications that substantially alter a modulator's allosteric effects. Our findings thus provide a structural basis for the rational design of allosteric modulators targeting muscarinic and possibly other GPCRs.

  9. Chromatin loops as allosteric modulators of enhancer-promoter interactions.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Boryana; Fudenberg, Geoffrey; Imakaev, Maxim; Mirny, Leonid A

    2014-10-01

    The classic model of eukaryotic gene expression requires direct spatial contact between a distal enhancer and a proximal promoter. Recent Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C) studies show that enhancers and promoters are embedded in a complex network of looping interactions. Here we use a polymer model of chromatin fiber to investigate whether, and to what extent, looping interactions between elements in the vicinity of an enhancer-promoter pair can influence their contact frequency. Our equilibrium polymer simulations show that a chromatin loop, formed by elements flanking either an enhancer or a promoter, suppresses enhancer-promoter interactions, working as an insulator. A loop formed by elements located in the region between an enhancer and a promoter, on the contrary, facilitates their interactions. We find that different mechanisms underlie insulation and facilitation; insulation occurs due to steric exclusion by the loop, and is a global effect, while facilitation occurs due to an effective shortening of the enhancer-promoter genomic distance, and is a local effect. Consistently, we find that these effects manifest quite differently for in silico 3C and microscopy. Our results show that looping interactions that do not directly involve an enhancer-promoter pair can nevertheless significantly modulate their interactions. This phenomenon is analogous to allosteric regulation in proteins, where a conformational change triggered by binding of a regulatory molecule to one site affects the state of another site.

  10. Behind the curtain: cellular mechanisms for allosteric modulation of calcium-sensing receptors

    PubMed Central

    Cavanaugh, Alice; Huang, Ying; Breitwieser, Gerda E

    2012-01-01

    Calcium-sensing receptors (CaSR) are integral to regulation of systemic Ca2+ homeostasis. Altered expression levels or mutations in CaSR cause Ca2+ handling diseases. CaSR is regulated by both endogenous allosteric modulators and allosteric drugs, including the first Food and Drug Administration-approved allosteric agonist, Cinacalcet HCl (Sensipar®). Recent studies suggest that allosteric modulators not only alter function of plasma membrane-localized CaSR, but regulate CaSR stability at the endoplasmic reticulum. This brief review summarizes our current understanding of the role of membrane-permeant allosteric agonists in cotranslational stabilization of CaSR, and highlights additional, indirect, signalling-dependent role(s) for membrane-impermeant allosteric drugs. Overall, these studies suggest that allosteric drugs act at multiple cellular organelles to control receptor abundance and hence function, and that drug hydrophobicity can bias the relative contributions of plasma membrane and intracellular organelles to CaSR abundance and signalling. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on the Molecular Pharmacology of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs). To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-6. To view the 2010 themed section on the same topic visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.2010.159.issue-5/issuetoc PMID:21470201

  11. LY404187: a novel positive allosteric modulator of AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Jennifer C; Nisenbaum, Eric S

    2002-01-01

    LY404187 is a selective, potent and centrally active positive allosteric modulator of AMPA receptors. LY404187 preferentially acts at recombinant human homomeric GluR2 and GluR4 versus GluR1 and GluR3 AMPA receptors. In addition, LY404187 potentiates the flip splice variant of these AMPA receptors to a greater degree than the flop splice variant. In both recombinant and native AMPA receptors, potentiation by LY404187 displays a unique time-dependent growth that appears to involve a suppression of the desensitization process of these ion channels. LY404187 has been shown to enhance glutamatergic synaptic transmission both in vitro and in vivo. This augmentation of synaptic activity is due to the direct potentiation of AMPA receptor function, as well as an indirect recruitment of voltage-dependent NMDA receptor activity. Enhanced calcium influx through NMDA receptors is known to be a critical step in initiating long-term modifications in synaptic function (e.g., long-term potentiation, LTP). These modifications in synaptic function may be substrates for certain forms of memory encoding. Consistent with a recruitment of NMDA receptor activity, LY404187 has been shown to enhance performance in animal models of cognitive function requiring different mnemonic processes. These data suggest that AMPA receptor potentiators may be therapeutically beneficial for treating cognitive deficits in a variety of disorders, particularly those that are associated with reduced glutamatergic signaling such as schizophrenia. In addition, LY404187 has been demonstrated to be efficacious in animal models of behavioral despair that possess considerable predictive validity for antidepressant activity. Although the therapeutic efficacy of AMPA receptor potentiators in these and other diseases will ultimately be determined in the clinic, evidence suggests that the benefit of these compounds will be mediated by multiple mechanisms of action. These mechanisms include direct enhancement of AMPA

  12. Proposed Mode of Binding and Action of Positive Allosteric Modulators at Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Available crystal structures of opioid receptors provide a high-resolution picture of ligand binding at the primary (“orthosteric”) site, that is, the site targeted by endogenous ligands. Recently, positive allosteric modulators of opioid receptors have also been discovered, but their modes of binding and action remain unknown. Here, we use a metadynamics-based strategy to efficiently sample the binding process of a recently discovered positive allosteric modulator of the δ-opioid receptor, BMS-986187, in the presence of the orthosteric agonist SNC-80, and with the receptor embedded in an explicit lipid–water environment. The dynamics of BMS-986187 were enhanced by biasing the potential acting on the ligand–receptor distance and ligand–receptor interaction contacts. Representative lowest-energy structures from the reconstructed free-energy landscape revealed two alternative ligand binding poses at an allosteric site delineated by transmembrane (TM) helices TM1, TM2, and TM7, with some participation of TM6. Mutations of amino acid residues at these proposed allosteric sites were found to either affect the binding of BMS-986187 or its ability to modulate the affinity and/or efficacy of SNC-80. Taken together, these combined experimental and computational studies provide the first atomic-level insight into the modulation of opioid receptor binding and signaling by allosteric modulators. PMID:26841170

  13. Allosteric modulation of nicotinic and GABAA receptor subtypes differentially modify autism-like behaviors in the BTBR mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Ryan F; Tran, Minhtam B; Hogenkamp, Derk J; Ayala, Narielle L; Johnstone, Timothy; Dunnigan, Andrew J; Gee, Timothy K; Gee, Kelvin W

    2017-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with two core symptoms (social communication deficits and stereotyped repetitive behaviors) in addition to a number of comorbidities. There are no FDA-approved drugs for the core symptoms and the changes that underlie these behaviors are not fully understood. One hypothesis is an imbalance of the excitation (E)/inhibition (I) ratio with excessive E and diminished I occurring in specific neuronal circuits. Data suggests that both gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA A ) and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) significantly impact E/I. BTBR T + tf/J (BTBR) mice are a model that display an autism-like phenotype with impaired social interaction and stereotyped behavior. A β2/3-subunit containing GABA A receptor (GABA A R) subtype selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM), 2-261, and an α7 nAChR subtype selective PAM, AVL-3288, were tested in social approach and repetitive self-grooming paradigms. 2-261 was active in the social approach but not the self-grooming paradigm, whereas AVL-3288 was active in both. Neither compound impaired locomotor activity. Modulating α7 nAChRs alone may be sufficient to correct these behavioral and cognitive deficits. GABAergic and nicotinic compounds are already in various stages of clinical testing for treatment of the core symptoms and comorbidities associated with ASD. Our findings and those of others suggest that compounds that have selective activities at GABA A R subtypes and the α7 nAChR may address not only the core symptoms, but many of the associated comorbidities as well and warrant further investigation in other models of ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The antipsychotic-like effects of positive allosteric modulators of metabotropic glutamate mGlu4 receptors in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Sławińska, Anna; Wierońska, Joanna M; Stachowicz, Katarzyna; Marciniak, Marcin; Łasoń-Tyburkiewicz, Magdalena; Gruca, Piotr; Papp, Mariusz; Kusek, Magdalena; Tokarski, Krzysztof; Doller, Darío; Pilc, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Because agonists at metabotropic glutamate receptors exert beneficial effects in schizophrenia, we have assessed the actions of Lu AF21934 and Lu AF32615, two chemically distinct, selective and brain-penetrant positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the mGlu4 receptor, in several tests reflecting positive, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia in rodents. Experimental Approach Hyperactivity induced by MK-801 or amphetamine and head twitches induced by 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) in mice were used as models for positive symptoms. Disruption of social interaction and spatial delayed alternation tests induced by MK-801 in rats were used as models for negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia, respectively. Key Results Lu AF21934 (0.1–5 mg·kg−1) and Lu AF32615 (2–10 mg·kg−1) dose-dependently inhibited hyperactivity induced by MK-801 or amphetamine. They also antagonized head twitches and increased frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in brain slices, induced by DOI. In mice lacking the mGlu4 receptor (mGlu4−/−) mice, Lu AF21934 did not antagonize DOI-induced head twitches. MK-801-induced disruption in the social interaction test was decreased by Lu AF21934 at 0.5 mg·kg−1 and by Lu AF32615 at 10 mg·kg−1. In the delayed spatial alternation test, Lu AF21934 was active at 1 and 2 mg·kg−1, while Lu AF32615 was active at 10 mg·kg−1. Conclusions and Implications We propose that activation by PAMs of the mGlu4 receptor is a promising approach to the discovery of novel antipsychotic drugs. PMID:23714045

  15. Understanding allosteric interactions in G protein-coupled receptors using Supervised Molecular Dynamics: A prototype study analysing the human A3 adenosine receptor positive allosteric modulator LUF6000.

    PubMed

    Deganutti, Giuseppe; Cuzzolin, Alberto; Ciancetta, Antonella; Moro, Stefano

    2015-07-15

    The search for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) allosteric modulators represents an active research field in medicinal chemistry. Allosteric modulators usually exert their activity only in the presence of the orthosteric ligand by binding to protein sites topographically different from the orthosteric cleft. They therefore offer potentially therapeutic advantages by selectively influencing tissue responses only when the endogenous agonist is present. The prediction of putative allosteric site location, however, is a challenging task. In facts, they are usually located in regions showing more structural variation among the family members. In the present work, we applied the recently developed Supervised Molecular Dynamics (SuMD) methodology to interpret at the molecular level the positive allosteric modulation mediated by LUF6000 toward the human adenosine A3 receptor (hA3 AR). Our data suggest at least two possible mechanisms to explain the experimental data available. This study represent, to the best of our knowledge, the first case reported of an allosteric recognition mechanism depicted by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Discovery and characterization of a novel series of N-phenylsulfonyl-1H-pyrrole picolinamides as positive allosteric modulators of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu4).

    PubMed

    Gogliotti, Rocco D; Blobaum, Anna L; Morrison, Ryan M; Daniels, J Scott; Salovich, James M; Cheung, Yiu-Yin; Rodriguez, Alice L; Loch, Matthew T; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W; Niswender, Colleen M; Hopkins, Corey R

    2016-07-01

    Herein we report the synthesis and characterization of a novel series of N-phenylsulfonyl-1H-pyrrole picolinamides as novel positive allosteric modulators of mGlu4. We detail our work towards finding phenyl replacements for the core scaffold of previously reported phenyl sulfonamides and phenyl sulfone compounds. Our efforts culminated in the identification of N-(1-((3,4-dimethylphenyl)sulfonyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)picolinamide as a potent PAM of mGlu4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensitivity evaluation of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to uranium by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry.

    PubMed

    Herlory, Olivier; Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Gilbin, Rodolphe

    2013-09-15

    Although ecotoxicological studies tend to address the toxicity thresholds of uranium in freshwaters, there is a lack of information on the effects of the metal on physiological processes, particularly in aquatic plants. Knowing that uranium alters photosynthesis via impairment of the water photo-oxidation process, we determined whether pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry was a relevant tool for assessing the impact of uranium on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and investigated how and to what extent uranium hampered photosynthetic performance. Photosynthetic activity and quenching were assessed from fluorescence induction curves generated by PAM fluorometry, after 1 and 5h of uranium exposure in controlled conditions. The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium, through alteration of the water photo-oxidation process as revealed by F0/Fv. Limiting re-oxidation of the plastoquinone pool, uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition of the PSII quantum efficiency ( [Formula: see text] , EC50=303 ± 64 μg UL(-1) after 5h of exposure) was observed. Non-photochemical quenching (qN) was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter (EC50=142 ± 98 μg UL(-1) after 5h of exposure), indicating that light energy not used in photochemistry was dissipated in non-radiative processes. It was shown that parameters which stemmed from fluorescence induction kinetics are valuable indicators for evaluating the impact of uranium on PSII in green algae. PAM fluorometry provided a rapid and reasonably sensitive method for assessing stress response to uranium in microalgae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. ADX-47273, a mGlu5 receptor positive allosteric modulator, attenuates deficits in cognitive flexibility induced by withdrawal from 'binge-like' ethanol exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Marszalek-Grabska, Marta; Gibula-Bruzda, Ewa; Bodzon-Kulakowska, Anna; Suder, Piotr; Gawel, Kinga; Talarek, Sylwia; Listos, Joanna; Kedzierska, Ewa; Danysz, Wojciech; Kotlinska, Jolanta H

    2018-02-15

    Repeated exposure to and withdrawal from ethanol induces deficits in spatial reversal learning. Data indicate that metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptors are implicated in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. These receptors functionally interact with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and activation of one type results in the activation of the other. We examined whether (S)-(4-fluorophenyl)(3-(3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-piperidin-1-yl (ADX-47273), a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of mGlu5 receptor, attenuates deficits in reversal learning induced by withdrawal (11-13days) from 'binge-like' ethanol input (5.0g/kg, i.g. for 5days) in the Barnes maze (a spatial learning) task in rats. We additionally examined the effects of ADX-47273 on the expression of the NMDA receptors subunit, GluN2B, in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, on the 13th day of ethanol withdrawal. Herein, withdrawal from repeated ethanol administration impaired reversal learning, but not the probe trial. Moreover, ADX-47273 (30mg/kg, i.p.) given prior to the first reversal learning trial for 3days in the Barnes maze, significantly enhanced performance in the ethanol-treated group. The 13th day of ethanol abstinence decreased the expression of the GluN2B subunit in the selected brain regions, but ADX-47273 administration increased it. In conclusion, positive allosteric modulation of mGlu5 receptors recovered spatial reversal learning impairment induced by withdrawal from 'binge-like' ethanol exposure. Such effect seems to be correlated with the mGlu5 receptors mediated potentiation of GluN2B-NMDA receptor mediated responses in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Thus, our results emphasize the role of mGlu5 receptor PAM in the adaptive learning impaired by ethanol exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Design and Synthesis of Cannabinoid 1 Receptor (CB1R) Allosteric Modulators: Drug Discovery Applications.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Abhijit R; Garai, Sumanta; Janero, David R; Thakur, Ganesh A

    2017-01-01

    Also expressed in various peripheral tissues, the type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) is the predominant G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) in brain, where it is responsible for retrograde control of neurotransmitter release. Cellular signaling mediated by CB1R is involved in numerous physiological processes, and pharmacological CB1R modulation is considered a tenable therapeutic approach for diseases ranging from substance-use disorders and glaucoma to metabolic syndrome. Despite the design and synthesis of a variety of bioactive small molecules targeted to the CB1R orthosteric ligand-binding site, the potential of CB1R as a therapeutic GPCR has been largely unrealized due to adverse events associated with typical orthosteric CB1R agonists and antagonists/inverse agonists. Modulation of CB1R-mediated signal transmission by targeting alternative allosteric ligand-binding site(s) on the receptor has garnered interest as a potentially safer and more effective therapeutic modality. This chapter highlights the design and synthesis of novel, pharmacologically active CB1R allosteric modulators and emphasizes how their molecular properties and the positive and negative allosteric control they exert can lead to improved CB1R-targeted pharmacotherapeutics, as well as designer covalent probes that can be used to map CB1R allosteric binding domains and inform structure-based drug design. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Modulation of hemoglobin dynamics by an allosteric effector

    DOE PAGES

    Lal, Jyotsana; Maccarini, Marco; Fouquet, Peter; ...

    2016-12-15

    Hemoglobin (Hb) is an extensively studied paradigm of proteins that alter their function in response to allosteric effectors. Models of its action have been used as prototypes for structure-function relationships in many proteins, and models for the molecular basis of its function have been deeply studied and extensively argued. Recent reports suggest that dynamics may play an important role in its function. Relatively little is known about the slow, correlated motions of hemoglobin subunits in various structural states because experimental and computational strategies for their characterization are challenging. Allosteric effectors such as inositol hexaphosphate (IHP) bind to both deoxy-Hb andmore » HbCO, albeit at different sites, leading to a lowered oxygen affinity. The manner in which these effectors impact oxygen binding is unclear and may involve changes in structure, dynamics or both. Here we use neutron spin echo (NSE) measurements accompanied by wideangle x-ray scattering (WAXS) to show that binding of IHP to HbCO results in an increase in the rate of coordinated motions of Hb subunits relative to one another with little if any change in large scale structure. This increase of large-scale dynamics seems to be coupled with a decrease in the average magnitude of higher frequency modes of individual residues. Furthermore, these observations indicate that enhanced dynamic motions contribute to the functional changes induced by IHP and suggest that they may be responsible for the lowered oxygen affinity triggered by these effectors.« less

  1. Recent Advances in the Realm of Allosteric Modulators for Opioid Receptors for Future Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Remesic, Michael; Hruby, Victor J; Porreca, Frank; Lee, Yeon Sun

    2017-06-21

    Opioids, and more specifically μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists such as morphine, have long been clinically used as therapeutics for severe pain states but often come with serious side effects such as addiction and tolerance. Many studies have focused on bringing about analgesia from the MOR with attenuated side effects, but its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Recently, focus has been geared toward the design and elucidation of the orthosteric site with ligands of various biological profiles and mixed subtype opioid activities and selectivities, but targeting the allosteric site is an area of increasing interest. It has been shown that allosteric modulators play key roles in influencing receptor function such as its tolerance to a ligand and affect downstream pathways. There has been a high variance of chemical structures that provide allosteric modulation at a given receptor, but recent studies and reviews tend to focus on the altered cellular mechanisms instead of providing a more rigorous description of the allosteric ligand's structure-function relationship. In this review, we aim to explore recent developments in the structural motifs that potentiate orthosteric binding and their influences on cellular pathways in an effort to present novel approaches to opioid therapeutic design.

  2. Allosteric modulation of ATP-gated P2X receptor channels

    PubMed Central

    Coddou, Claudio; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.; Huidobro-Toro, J. Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Seven mammalian purinergic receptor subunits, denoted P2X1 to P2X7, and several spliced forms of these subunits have been cloned. When heterologously expressed, these cDNAs encode ATP-gated non-selective cation channels organized as trimers. All activated receptors produce cell depolarization and promote Ca2+ influx through their pores and indirectly by activating voltage-gated calcium channels. However, the biophysical and pharmacological properties of these receptors differ considerably, and the majority of these subunits are also capable of forming heterotrimers with other members of the P2X receptor family, which confers further different properties. These channels have three ATP binding domains, presumably located between neighboring subunits, and occupancy of at least two binding sites is needed for their activation. In addition to the orthosteric binding sites for ATP, these receptors have additional allosteric sites that modulate the agonist action at receptors, including sites for trace metals, protons, neurosteroids, reactive oxygen species and phosphoinositides. The allosteric regulation of P2X receptors is frequently receptor-specific and could be a useful tool to identify P2X members in native tissues and their roles in signaling. The focus of this review is on common and receptor-specific allosteric modulation of P2X receptors and the molecular base accounting for allosteric binding sites. PMID:21639805

  3. Sniffer patch laser uncaging response (SPLURgE): an assay of regional differences in allosteric receptor modulation and neurotransmitter clearance.

    PubMed

    Christian, Catherine A; Huguenard, John R

    2013-10-01

    Allosteric modulators exert actions on neurotransmitter receptors by positively or negatively altering the effective response of these receptors to their respective neurotransmitter. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A ionotropic receptors (GABAARs) are major targets for allosteric modulators such as benzodiazepines, neurosteroids, and barbiturates. Analysis of substances that produce similar effects has been hampered by the lack of techniques to assess the localization and function of such agents in brain slices. Here we describe measurement of the sniffer patch laser uncaging response (SPLURgE), which combines the sniffer patch recording configuration with laser photolysis of caged GABA. This methodology enables the detection of allosteric GABAAR modulators endogenously present in discrete areas of the brain slice and allows for the application of exogenous GABA with spatiotemporal control without altering the release and localization of endogenous modulators within the slice. Here we demonstrate the development and use of this technique for the measurement of allosteric modulation in different areas of the thalamus. Application of this technique will be useful in determining whether a lack of modulatory effect on a particular category of neurons or receptors is due to insensitivity to allosteric modulation or a lack of local release of endogenous ligand. We also demonstrate that this technique can be used to investigate GABA diffusion and uptake. This method thus provides a biosensor assay for rapid detection of endogenous GABAAR modulators and has the potential to aid studies of allosteric modulators that exert effects on other classes of neurotransmitter receptors, such as glutamate, acetylcholine, or glycine receptors.

  4. Effects of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 positive allosteric modulator CDPPB on rats tested with the paired associates learning task in touchscreen-equipped operant conditioning chambers.

    PubMed

    Lins, Brittney R; Howland, John G

    2016-03-15

    Effective treatments for the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia are critically needed. Positive allosteric modulation (PAM) of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) is one strategy currently under investigation to improve these symptoms. Examining cognition using touchscreen-equipped operant chambers may increase translation between preclinical and clinical research through analogous behavioral testing paradigms in rodents and humans. We used acute CDPPB (1-30mg/kg) treatment to examine the effects of mGluR5 PAM in the touchscreen paired associates learning (PAL) task using well-trained rats with and without co-administration of acute MK-801 (0.15mg/kg). CDPPB had no consistent effects on task performance when administered alone and failed to reverse the MK-801 induced impairments at any of the examined doses. Overall, the disruptive effects of MK-801 on PAL were consistent with previous research but increasing mGluR5 signaling is not beneficial in the PAL task. Future research should test whether administration of CDPPB during PAL acquisition increases performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fragment Based Optimization of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 2 (mGluR2) Positive Allosteric Modulators in the Absence of Structural Information.

    PubMed

    Szabó, György; Túrós, György I; Kolok, Sándor; Vastag, Mónika; Sánta, Zsuzsanna; Dékány, Miklós; Lévay, György I; Greiner, István; Natsumi, Minami; Tatsuya, Watanabe; Keserű, György M

    2018-03-14

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been implicated as potential pharmacotherapy for psychiatric conditions. Screening our corporate compound deck, we identified a benzotriazole fragment (4) that was rapidly optimized to a potent and metabolically stable early lead (16). The highly lipophilic character of 16, together with its limited solubility, permeability, and high protein binding, however, did not allow reaching of the proof of concept in vivo. Since further attempts on the optimization of druglike properties were unsuccessful, the original hit 4 has been revisited and was optimized following the principles of fragment based drug discovery (FBDD). Lacking structural information on the receptor-ligand complex, we implemented a group efficiency (GE) based strategy and identified a new fragment like lead (60) with more balanced profile. Significant improvement achieved on the druglike properties nominated the compound for in vivo proof of concept studies that revealed the chemotype being a promising PAM lead targeting mGluR2 receptors.

  6. Carboxypeptidase M Is a Positive Allosteric Modulator of the Kinin B1 Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianming; Tan, Fulong; Skidgel, Randal A.

    2013-01-01

    Ligand binding to extracellular domains of G protein-coupled receptors can result in novel and nuanced allosteric effects on receptor signaling. We previously showed that the protein-protein interaction of carboxypeptidase M (CPM) and kinin B1 receptor (B1R) enhances B1R signaling in two ways; 1) kinin binding to CPM causes a conformational activation of the B1R, and 2) CPM-generated des-Arg-kinin agonist is efficiently delivered to the B1R. Here, we show CPM is also a positive allosteric modulator of B1R signaling to its agonist, des-Arg10-kallidin (DAKD). In HEK cells stably transfected with B1R, co-expression of CPM enhanced DAKD-stimulated increases in intracellular Ca2+ or phosphoinositide turnover by a leftward shift of the dose-response curve without changing the maximum. CPM increased B1R affinity for DAKD by ∼5-fold but had no effect on basal B1R-dependent phosphoinositide turnover. Soluble, recombinant CPM bound to HEK cells expressing B1Rs without stimulating receptor signaling. CPM positive allosteric action was independent of enzyme activity but depended on interaction of its C-terminal domain with the B1R extracellular loop 2. Disruption of the CPM/B1R interaction or knockdown of CPM in cytokine-treated primary human endothelial cells inhibited the allosteric enhancement of CPM on B1R DAKD binding or ERK1/2 activation. CPM also enhanced the DAKD-induced B1R conformational change as detected by increased intramolecular fluorescence or bioluminescence resonance energy transfer. Thus, CPM binding to extracellular loop 2 of the B1R results in positive allosteric modulation of B1R signaling, and disruption of this interaction could provide a novel therapeutic approach to reduce pathological B1R signaling. PMID:24108126

  7. Allosteric modulation of sigma-1 receptors elicits anti-seizure activities.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lin; Chen, Yanke; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Guanghui; Friedman, Eitan; Zhang, Ao; Zhen, Xuechu

    2015-08-01

    Application of orthosteric sigma-1 receptor agonists as anti-seizure drugs has been hindered by questionable efficacy and potential adverse effects. Here, we have investigated the anti-seizure effects of the novel and potent allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptors, SKF83959 and its derivative SOMCL-668 (3-methyl-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-benzo[d]azepin-7-ol). The anti-seizure effects of SKF83959 were investigated in three mouse models, maximal electroshock seizures, pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions and kainic acid-induced 'status epilepticus'. Also, in rats, the cortical epileptiform activity induced by topical application of picrotoxin was recorded in electrocorticograms. In rat hippocampal brain slices, effects of the drugs on the high potassium-evoked epileptiform local field potentials were studied. Anti-seizure activities of SOMCL-668, a newly developed sigma-1 receptor selective allosteric modulator, were also investigated. SKF83959 (20, 40 mg·kg(-1) ) exhibited anti -seizure actitity in the three mouse models and reduced the cortical epileptiform activity without alteration of spontaneous motor activity and motor coordination. These effects were blocked by the sigma-1 receptor antagonist BD1047, but not the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390. SKF83959 alone did not directly inhibit the epileptiform firing of CA3 neurons induced by high potassium in hippocampal slices, but did potentiate inhibition by the orthosteric sigma-1 receptor agonist SKF10047. Lastly, a selective sigma-1 receptor allosteric modulator SOMCL-668, which does not bind to dopamine receptors, exerted similar anti-seizure activities. SKF83959 and SOMCL-668 displayed anti-seizure activities, indicating that allosteric modulation of sigma-1 receptors may provide a novel approach for discovering new anti-seizure drugs. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. mGlu5 positive allosteric modulation normalizes synaptic plasticity defects and motor phenotypes in a mouse model of Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gogliotti, Rocco G.; Senter, Rebecca K.; Rook, Jerri M.; Ghoshal, Ayan; Zamorano, Rocio; Malosh, Chrysa; Stauffer, Shaun R.; Bridges, Thomas M.; Bartolome, Jose M.; Daniels, J. Scott; Jones, Carrie K.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Niswender, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that shares many symptomatic and pathological commonalities with idiopathic autism. Alterations in protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity (PSDSP) are a hallmark of a number of syndromic forms of autism; in the present work, we explore the consequences of disruption and rescue of PSDSP in a mouse model of RS. We report that expression of a key regulator of synaptic protein synthesis, the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) protein, is significantly reduced in both the brains of RS model mice and in the motor cortex of human RS autopsy samples. Furthermore, we demonstrate that reduced mGlu5 expression correlates with attenuated DHPG-induced long-term depression in the hippocampus of RS model mice, and that administration of a novel mGlu5 positive allosteric modulator (PAM), termed VU0462807, can rescue synaptic plasticity defects. Additionally, treatment of Mecp2-deficient mice with VU0462807 improves motor performance (open-field behavior and gait dynamics), corrects repetitive clasping behavior, as well as normalizes cued fear-conditioning defects. Importantly, due to the rationale drug discovery approach used in its development, our novel mGlu5 PAM improves RS phenotypes and synaptic plasticity defects without evoking the overt adverse effects commonly associated with potentiation of mGlu5 signaling (i.e. seizures), or affecting cardiorespiratory defects in RS model mice. These findings provide strong support for the continued development of mGlu5 PAMs as potential therapeutic agents for use in RS, and, more broadly, for utility in idiopathic autism. PMID:26936821

  9. Effects of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric modulators in animal behavior studies

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Anshul. A.; Yakel, Jerrel L.

    2013-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated cation-conducting transmembrane channels from the cys-loop receptor superfamily. The neuronal subtypes of these receptors (e.g. the α7 and α4β2 subtypes) are involved in neurobehavioral processes such as anxiety, the central processing of pain, food intake, nicotine seeking behavior, and a number of cognitive functions like learning and memory. Neuronal nAChR dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of many neurological disorders, and behavioral studies in animals are useful models to assess the effects of compounds that act on these receptors. Allosteric modulators are ligands that bind to the receptors at sites other than the orthosteric site where acetylcholine, the endogenous agonist for the nAChRs, binds. While conventional ligands for the neuronal nAChRs have been studied for their behavioral effects in animals, allosteric modulators for these receptors have only recently gained attention, and research on their behavioral effects is growing rapidly. Here we will discuss the behavioral effects of allosteric modulators of the neuronal nAChRs. PMID:23732296

  10. The Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 4-Positive Allosteric Modulator VU0364770 Produces Efficacy Alone and in Combination with l-DOPA or an Adenosine 2A Antagonist in Preclinical Rodent Models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Carrie K.; Bubser, Michael; Thompson, Analisa D.; Dickerson, Jonathan W.; Turle-Lorenzo, Nathalie; Amalric, Marianne; Blobaum, Anna L.; Bridges, Thomas M.; Morrison, Ryan D.; Jadhav, Satyawan; Engers, Darren W.; Italiano, Kimberly; Bode, Jacob; Daniels, J. Scott; Lindsley, Craig W.; Hopkins, Corey R.; Conn, P. Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder associated with severe motor impairments caused by the loss of dopaminergic innervation of the striatum. Previous studies have demonstrated that positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu4), including N-phenyl-7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxamide, can produce antiparkinsonian-like effects in preclinical models of PD. However, these early mGlu4 PAMs exhibited unsuitable physiochemical properties for systemic dosing, requiring intracerebroventricular administration and limiting their broader utility as in vivo tools to further understand the role of mGlu4 in the modulation of basal ganglia function relevant to PD. In the present study, we describe the pharmacologic characterization of a systemically active mGlu4 PAM, N-(3-chlorophenyl)picolinamide (VU0364770), in several rodent PD models. VU0364770 showed efficacy alone or when administered in combination with l-DOPA or an adenosine 2A (A2A) receptor antagonist currently in clinical development (preladenant). When administered alone, VU0364770 exhibited efficacy in reversing haloperidol-induced catalepsy, forelimb asymmetry-induced by unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the median forebrain bundle, and attentional deficits induced by bilateral 6-OHDA nigrostriatal lesions in rats. In addition, VU0364770 enhanced the efficacy of preladenant to reverse haloperidol-induced catalepsy when given in combination. The effects of VU0364770 to reverse forelimb asymmetry were also potentiated when the compound was coadministered with an inactive dose of l-DOPA, suggesting that mGlu4 PAMs may provide l-DOPA-sparing activity. The present findings provide exciting support for the potential role of selective mGlu4 PAMs as a novel approach for the symptomatic treatment of PD and a possible augmentation strategy with either l-DOPA or A2A antagonists. PMID:22088953

  11. Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5: molecular pharmacology, allosteric modulation and stimulus bias

    PubMed Central

    Sengmany, K

    2015-01-01

    The metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) is a family C GPCR that has been implicated in various neuronal processes and, consequently, in several CNS disorders. Over the past few decades, GPCR‐based drug discovery, including that for mGlu5 receptors, has turned considerable attention to targeting allosteric binding sites. Modulation of endogenous agonists by allosteric ligands offers the advantages of spatial and temporal fine‐tuning of receptor activity, increased selectivity and reduced adverse effects with the potential to elicit improved clinical outcomes. Further, with greater appreciation of the multifaceted nature of the transduction of mGlu5 receptor signalling, it is increasingly apparent that drug discovery must take into consideration unique receptor conformations and the potential for stimulus‐bias. This novel paradigm proposes that different ligands may differentially modulate distinct signalling pathways arising from the same receptor. We review our current understanding of the complexities of mGlu5 receptor signalling and regulation, and how these relate to allosteric ligands. Ultimately, a deeper appreciation of these relationships will provide the foundation for targeted drug design of compounds with increased selectivity, not only for the desired receptor but also for the desired signalling outcome from the receptor. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Molecular Pharmacology of G Protein‐Coupled Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v173.20/issuetoc PMID:26276909

  12. Allosteric modulation by benzodiazepines of GABA-gated chloride channels of an identified insect motor neurone.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Steven D; Higashino, Yoshiaki; Sattelle, David B

    2009-11-01

    The actions of benzodiazepines were studied on the responses to GABA of the fast coxal depressor (D(f)) motor neurone of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Ro5-4864, diazepam and clonazepam were investigated. Responses to GABA receptors were enhanced by both Ro5-4864 and diazepam, whereas clonazepam, a potent-positive allosteric modulator of human GABA(A) receptors, was ineffective on the native insect GABA receptors of the D(f) motor neurone. Thus, clear pharmacological differences exist between insect and mammalian native GABA-gated chloride channels with respect to the actions of benzodiazepines. The results enhance our understanding of invertebrate GABA-gated chloride channels which have recently proved important in (a) comparative studies aimed at identifying human allosteric drug-binding sites and (b) understanding the actions of compounds used to control ectoparasites and insect crop pests.

  13. 112 Gb/s transmission with a directly-modulated laser using FFT-based synthesis of orthogonal PAM and DMT signals.

    PubMed

    Ling, William A; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Daghighian, Henry M; Lyubomirsky, Ilya

    2015-07-27

    We report the experimental measurement of 112 Gb/s transmission back-to-back and through 12 km of S-SMF with a single directly-modulated laser (DML) using the novel modulation format Orthogonal PAM-DMT. This work demonstrates a record DML-based 112 Gb/s receiver sensitivity of -7.1 dBm at a BER of 10(-3), outperforming conventional PAM and DMT by approximately 2.5 dB.

  14. Mechanistic analysis of the function of agonists and allosteric modulators: reconciling two-state and operational models

    PubMed Central

    Roche, David; Gil, Debora; Giraldo, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Two-state and operational models of both agonism and allosterism are compared to identify and characterize common pharmacological parameters. To account for the receptor-dependent basal response, constitutive receptor activity is considered in the operational models. By arranging two-state models as the fraction of active receptors and operational models as the fractional response relative to the maximum effect of the system, a one-by-one correspondence between parameters is found. The comparative analysis allows a better understanding of complex allosteric interactions. In particular, the inclusion of constitutive receptor activity in the operational model of allosterism allows the characterization of modulators able to lower the basal response of the system; that is, allosteric modulators with negative intrinsic efficacy. Theoretical simulations and overall goodness of fit of the models to simulated data suggest that it is feasible to apply the models to experimental data and constitute one step forward in receptor theory formalism. Linked Articles Another recent review on allosteric modulation can be found at: Kenakin, T (2013). New concepts in pharmacological efficacy at 7TM receptors: IUPHAR Review 2. British Journal of Pharmacology 168: 554–575. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.02223.x And in this issue of BJP there is an article on a new allosteric modulator: Newman AS, Batis N, Grafton G, Caputo F, Brady CA, Lambert J, Peters JA, Gordon J, Brain KL, Powell AD and Barnes NM (2013). 5-Chloroindole: a potent allosteric modulator of the 5-HT3 receptor. British Journal of Pharmacology 169: 1228–1238. doi: 10.1111/bph.12213 PMID:23647200

  15. Sniffer patch laser uncaging response (SPLURgE): an assay of regional differences in allosteric receptor modulation and neurotransmitter clearance

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Allosteric modulators exert actions on neurotransmitter receptors by positively or negatively altering the effective response of these receptors to their respective neurotransmitter. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A ionotropic receptors (GABAARs) are major targets for allosteric modulators such as benzodiazepines, neurosteroids, and barbiturates. Analysis of substances that produce similar effects has been hampered by the lack of techniques to assess the localization and function of such agents in brain slices. Here we describe measurement of the sniffer patch laser uncaging response (SPLURgE), which combines the sniffer patch recording configuration with laser photolysis of caged GABA. This methodology enables the detection of allosteric GABAAR modulators endogenously present in discrete areas of the brain slice and allows for the application of exogenous GABA with spatiotemporal control without altering the release and localization of endogenous modulators within the slice. Here we demonstrate the development and use of this technique for the measurement of allosteric modulation in different areas of the thalamus. Application of this technique will be useful in determining whether a lack of modulatory effect on a particular category of neurons or receptors is due to insensitivity to allosteric modulation or a lack of local release of endogenous ligand. We also demonstrate that this technique can be used to investigate GABA diffusion and uptake. This method thus provides a biosensor assay for rapid detection of endogenous GABAAR modulators and has the potential to aid studies of allosteric modulators that exert effects on other classes of neurotransmitter receptors, such as glutamate, acetylcholine, or glycine receptors. PMID:23843428

  16. A Novel α2/α4 Subtype-selective Positive Allosteric Modulator of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Acting from the C-tail of an α Subunit*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Jin, Zhuang; Norleans, Jack; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Kenny, Paul J.; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are important therapeutic candidates as well as valuable research tools. We identified a novel type II PAM, (R)-7-bromo-N-(piperidin-3-yl)benzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamide (Br-PBTC), which both increases activation and reactivates desensitized nAChRs. This compound increases acetylcholine-evoked responses of α2* and α4* nAChRs but is without effect on α3* or α6* nAChRs (* indicates the presence of other nAChR subunits). Br-BPTC acts from the C-terminal extracellular sequences of α4 subunits, which is also a PAM site for steroid hormone estrogens such as 17β-estradiol. Br-PBTC is much more potent than estrogens. Like 17β-estradiol, the non-steroid Br-PBTC only requires one α4 subunit to potentiate nAChR function, and its potentiation is stronger with more α4 subunits. This feature enables Br-BPTC to potentiate activation of (α4β2)(α6β2)β3 but not (α6β2)2β3 nAChRs. Therefore, this compound is potentially useful in vivo for determining functions of different α6* nAChR subtypes. Besides activation, Br-BPTC affects desensitization of nAChRs induced by sustained exposure to agonists. After minutes of exposure to agonists, Br-PBTC reactivated short term desensitized nAChRs that have at least two α4 subunits but not those with only one. Three α4 subunits were required for Br-BPTC to reactivate long term desensitized nAChRs. These data suggest that higher PAM occupancy promotes channel opening more efficiently and overcomes short and long term desensitization. This C-terminal extracellular domain could be a target for developing subtype or state-selective drugs for nAChRs. PMID:26432642

  17. Ionotropic and Metabotropic Mechanisms of Allosteric Modulation of α7 Nicotinic Receptor Intracellular Calcium.

    PubMed

    King, Justin R; Ullah, Aman; Bak, Ellen; Jafri, M Saleet; Kabbani, Nadine

    2018-06-01

    The pharmacological targeting of the α 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ( α 7) is a promising strategy in the development of new drugs for neurologic diseases. Because α 7 receptors regulate cellular calcium, we investigated how the prototypical type II-positive allosteric modulator PNU120596 affects α 7-mediated calcium signaling. Live imaging experiments show that PNU120596 augments ryanodine receptor-driven calcium-induced calcium release (CICR), inositol-induced calcium release (IICR), and phospholipase C activation by the α 7 receptor. Both influx of calcium through the α 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) channel as well as the binding of intracellular G proteins were involved in the effect of PNU120596 on intracellular calcium. This is evidenced by the findings that chelation of extracellular calcium, expression of α 7 D44A or α 7 345-348A mutant subunits, or blockade of calcium store release compromised the ability of PNU120596 to increase intracellular calcium transients generated by α 7 ligand activation. Spatiotemporal stochastic modeling of calcium transient responses corroborates these results and indicates that α 7 receptor activation enables calcium microdomains locally and to lesser extent in the distant cytosol. From the model, allosteric modulation of the receptor activates CICR locally via ryanodine receptors and augments IICR through enhanced calcium influx due to prolonged α 7 nAChR opening. These findings provide a new mechanistic framework for understanding the effect of α 7 receptor allosteric modulation on both local and global calcium dynamics. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  18. Designing small molecules to target cryptic pockets yields both positive and negative allosteric modulators

    PubMed Central

    Moeder, Katelyn E.; Ho, Chris M. W.; Zimmerman, Maxwell I.; Frederick, Thomas E.; Bowman, Gregory R.

    2017-01-01

    Allosteric drugs, which bind to proteins in regions other than their main ligand-binding or active sites, make it possible to target proteins considered “undruggable” and to develop new therapies that circumvent existing resistance. Despite growing interest in allosteric drug discovery, rational design is limited by a lack of sufficient structural information about alternative binding sites in proteins. Previously, we used Markov State Models (MSMs) to identify such “cryptic pockets,” and here we describe a method for identifying compounds that bind in these cryptic pockets and modulate enzyme activity. Experimental tests validate our approach by revealing both an inhibitor and two activators of TEM β-lactamase (TEM). To identify hits, a library of compounds is first virtually screened against either the crystal structure of a known cryptic pocket or an ensemble of structures containing the same cryptic pocket that is extracted from an MSM. Hit compounds are then screened experimentally and characterized kinetically in individual assays. We identify three hits, one inhibitor and two activators, demonstrating that screening for binding to allosteric sites can result in both positive and negative modulation. The hit compounds have modest effects on TEM activity, but all have higher affinities than previously identified inhibitors, which bind the same cryptic pocket but were found, by chance, via a computational screen targeting the active site. Site-directed mutagenesis of key contact residues predicted by the docking models is used to confirm that the compounds bind in the cryptic pocket as intended. Because hit compounds are identified from docking against both the crystal structure and structures from the MSM, this platform should prove suitable for many proteins, particularly targets whose crystal structures lack obvious druggable pockets, and for identifying both inhibitory and activating small-molecule modulators. PMID:28570708

  19. Octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole negative allosteric modulators of mGlu1.

    PubMed

    Manka, Jason T; Rodriguez, Alice L; Morrison, Ryan D; Venable, Daryl F; Cho, Hyekyung P; Blobaum, Anna L; Daniels, J Scott; Niswender, Colleen M; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W; Emmitte, Kyle A

    2013-09-15

    Development of SAR in an octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole series of negative allosteric modulators of mGlu1 using a functional cell-based assay is described in this Letter. The octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole scaffold was chosen as an isosteric replacement for the piperazine ring found in the initial hit compound. Characterization of selected compounds in protein binding assays was used to identify the most promising analogs, which were then profiled in P450 inhibition assays in order to further assess the potential for drug-likeness within this series of compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis of (nor)tropeine (di)esters and allosteric modulation of glycine receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Maksay, Gábor; Nemes, Péter; Vincze, Zoltán; Bíró, Timea

    2008-02-15

    (Hetero)aromatic mono- and diesters of tropine and nortropine were prepared. Modulation of [3H]strychnine binding to glycine receptors of rat spinal cord was examined with a ternary allosteric model. The esters displaced [3H]strychnine binding with nano- or micromolar potencies and strong negative cooperativity. Coplanarity and distance of the ester moieties of diesters affected the binding affinity being nanomolar for isophthaloyl-bistropane and nortropeines. Nortropisetron had the highest affinity (K(A) approximately 10 nM). Two esters displayed negative cooperativity with glycine in displacement, while three esters of low-affinity and nortropisetron exerted positive cooperativity with glycine.

  1. Mechanism of Positive Allosteric Modulators Acting on AMPA Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Jin,R.; Clark, S.; Weeks, A.

    2005-01-01

    Ligand-gated ion channels involved in the modulation of synaptic strength are the AMPA, kainate, and NMDA glutamate receptors. Small molecules that potentiate AMPA receptor currents relieve cognitive deficits caused by neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and show promise in the treatment of depression. Previously, there has been limited understanding of the molecular mechanism of action for AMPA receptor potentiators. Here we present cocrystal structures of the glutamate receptor GluR2 S1S2 ligand-binding domain in complex with aniracetam [1-(4-methoxybenzoyl)-2-pyrrolidinone] or CX614 (pyrrolidino-1, 3-oxazino benzo-1, 4-dioxan-10-one), two AMPA receptor potentiators that preferentially slow AMPA receptor deactivation. Both potentiators bind within the dimermore » interface of the nondesensitized receptor at a common site located on the twofold axis of molecular symmetry. Importantly, the potentiator binding site is adjacent to the 'hinge' in the ligand-binding core 'clamshell' that undergoes conformational rearrangement after glutamate binding. Using rapid solution exchange, patch-clamp electrophysiology experiments, we show that point mutations of residues that interact with potentiators in the cocrystal disrupt potentiator function. We suggest that the potentiators slow deactivation by stabilizing the clamshell in its closed-cleft, glutamate-bound conformation.« less

  2. Allosteric modulation of cardiac myosin dynamics by omecamtiv mecarbil

    PubMed Central

    Tiberti, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    New promising avenues for the pharmacological treatment of skeletal and heart muscle diseases rely on direct sarcomeric modulators, which are molecules that can directly bind to sarcomeric proteins and either inhibit or enhance their activity. A recent breakthrough has been the discovery of the myosin activator omecamtiv mecarbil (OM), which has been shown to increase the power output of the cardiac muscle and is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of heart failure. While the overall effect of OM on the mechano-chemical cycle of myosin is to increase the fraction of myosin molecules in the sarcomere that are strongly bound to actin, the molecular basis of its action is still not completely clear. We present here a Molecular Dynamics study of the motor domain of human cardiac myosin bound to OM, where the effects of the drug on the dynamical properties of the protein are investigated for the first time with atomistic resolution. We found that OM has a double effect on myosin dynamics, inducing a) an increased coupling of the motions of the converter and lever arm subdomains to the rest of the protein and b) a rewiring of the network of dynamic correlations, which produces preferential communication pathways between the OM binding site and distant functional regions. The location of the residues responsible for these effects suggests possible strategies for the future development of improved drugs and the targeting of specific cardiomyopathy-related mutations. PMID:29108014

  3. Real-time characterization of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 ) allosteric modulators reveals novel mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Cawston, Erin E; Redmond, William J; Breen, Courtney M; Grimsey, Natasha L; Connor, Mark; Glass, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 ) has an allosteric binding site. The drugs ORG27569 {5-chloro-3-ethyl-N-[2-[4-(1-piperidinyl)phenyl]ethyl]-1H-indole-2-carboxamide} and PSNCBAM-1 {1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-[3-(6-pyrrolidin-1-ylpyridin-2-yl)phenyl]urea} have been extensively characterized with regard to their effects on signalling of the orthosteric ligand CP55,940 {(-)-cis-3-[2-hydroxy-4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)phenyl]-trans-4-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexanol}, and studies have suggested that these allosteric modulators increase binding affinity but act as non-competitive antagonists in functional assays. To gain a deeper understanding of allosteric modulation of CB1 , we examined real-time signalling and trafficking responses of the receptor in the presence of allosteric modulators. Studies of CB1 signalling were carried out in HEK 293 and AtT20 cells expressing haemagglutinin-tagged human and rat CB1 . We measured real-time accumulation of cAMP, activation and desensitization of potassium channel-mediated cellular hyperpolarization and CB1 internalization. ORG27569 and PSNCBAM-1 produce a complex, concentration and time-dependent modulation of agonist-mediated regulation of cAMP levels, as well as an increased rate of desensitization of CB1 -mediated cellular hyperpolarization and a decrease in agonist-induced receptor internalization. Contrary to previous studies characterizing allosteric modulators at CB1, this study suggests that the mechanism of action is not non-competitive antagonism of signalling, but rather that enhanced binding results in an increased rate of receptor desensitization and reduced internalization, which results in time-dependent modulation of cAMP signalling. The observed effect of the allosteric modulators is therefore dependent on the time frame over which the signalling response occurs. This finding may have important consequences for the potential therapeutic application of these compounds. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Preclinical to Human Translational Pharmacology of the Novel M1 Positive Allosteric Modulator MK-7622.

    PubMed

    Uslaner, Jason M; Kuduk, Scott D; Wittmann, Marion; Lange, Henry S; Fox, Steve V; Min, Chris; Pajkovic, Natasa; Harris, Dawn; Cilissen, Caroline; Mahon, Chantal; Mostoller, Kate; Warrington, Steve; Beshore, Douglas C

    2018-06-01

    The current standard of care for treating Alzheimer's disease is acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, which nonselectively increase cholinergic signaling by indirectly enhancing activity of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. These drugs improve cognitive function in patients, but also produce unwanted side effects that limit their efficacy. In an effort to selectively improve cognition and avoid the cholinergic side effects associated with the standard of care, various efforts have been aimed at developing selective M 1 muscarinic receptor activators. In this work, we describe the preclinical and clinical pharmacodynamic effects of the M 1 muscarinic receptor-positive allosteric modulator, MK-7622. MK-7622 attenuated the cognitive-impairing effects of the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine and altered quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) in both rhesus macaque and human. For both scopolamine reversal and qEEG, the effective exposures were similar between species. However, across species the minimum effective exposures to attenuate the scopolamine impairment were lower than for qEEG. Additionally, there were differences in the spectral power changes produced by MK-7622 in rhesus versus human. In sum, these results are the first to demonstrate translation of preclinical cognition and target modulation to clinical effects in humans for a selective M 1 muscarinic receptor-positive allosteric modulator. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  5. mGluR4 positive allosteric modulators with potential for the treatment of Parkinson's disease: WO09010455.

    PubMed

    East, Stephen P; Gerlach, Kai

    2010-03-01

    Stimulation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) represents a promising new approach to the symptomatic treatment of the neurodegenerative disorder Parkinson's disease (PD). Preclinical models using both agonists and positive allosteric modulators of mGluR4 have demonstrated the potential for this receptor for the treatment of PD. The present article evaluates a recent patent filed by Addex Pharma S.A. claiming a novel series of mGluR4 positive allosteric modulators. Many of the examples disclosed are active at EC(50)'s < 500 nM.

  6. Attenuation of nicotine taking and seeking in rats by the stoichiometry-selective alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor positive allosteric modulator NS9283.

    PubMed

    Maurer, John J; Sandager-Nielsen, Karin; Schmidt, Heath D

    2017-02-01

    The rewarding and reinforcing effects of nicotine are produced, in large part, by activation of neuronal α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), pentameric protein complexes comprised of different stoichiometries of α4 and β2 subunits. However, little is known about the functional role of distinct subtypes of α4β2* nAChRs in nicotine addiction. NS9283 represents a new class of stoichiometry-selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that selectively bind to α4β2 nAChRs containing three α4 and two β2 subunits (3(α4)2(β2) nAChRs). The present experiments were designed to determine the effects of NS9283 on nicotine self-administration and the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior, an animal model of smoking relapse. Parallel studies of sucrose self-administration and reinstatement were conducted in separate cohorts of rats to determine if the effects of NS9283 generalized to other reinforced behaviors. Acute and repeated administration of NS9283 dose-dependently reduced nicotine self-administration and reinstatement in male Sprague Dawley rats. These effects were reinforcer specific as no effects of NS9283 on sucrose self-administration and reinstatement were noted. NS9283 also failed to substitute for nicotine in supporting self-administration behavior suggesting that, at the doses tested, NS9283 alone is not reinforcing. Taken together, these results provide compelling evidence that stoichiometry-selective PAMs of 3(α4)2(β2) nAChRs attenuate nicotine taking and seeking in rats and suggest that targeting 3(α4)2(β2) nAChRs may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for preventing smoking relapse.

  7. Optical single side-band Nyquist PAM-4 transmission using dual-drive MZM modulation and direct detection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingyue; Zhang, Jing; Yi, Xingwen; Ying, Hao; Li, Xiang; Luo, Ming; Song, Yingxiong; Huang, Xiatao; Qiu, Kun

    2018-03-19

    We present the design and optimization of the optical single side-band (SSB) Nyquist four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) transmission using dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DDMZM)modulation and direct detection (DD), aiming at the C-band cost-effective, high-speed and long-distance transmission. At the transmitter, the laser line width should be small to avoid the phase noise to amplitude noise conversion and equalization-enhanced phase noise due to the large chromatic dispersion (CD). The optical SSB signal is generated after optimizing the optical modulation index (OMI) and hence the minimum phase condition which is required by the Kramers-Kronig (KK) receiver can also be satisfied. At the receiver, a simple AC-coupled photodiode (PD) is used and a virtual carrier is added for the KK operation to alleviate the signal-to-signal beating interference (SSBI).A Volterra filter (VF) is cascaded for remaining nonlinearities mitigation. When the fiber nonlinearity becomes significant, we elect to use an optical band-pass filter with offset filtering. It can suppress the simulated Brillouin scattering and the conjugated distortion by filtering out the imaging frequency components. With our design and optimization, we achieve single-channel, single polarization 102.4-Gb/s Nyquist PAM-4 over 800-km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF).

  8. Investigation of allosteric modulation mechanism of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 by molecular dynamics simulations, free energy and weak interaction analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Qifeng; Yao, Xiaojun

    2016-02-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGlu1), which belongs to class C G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), can be coupled with G protein to transfer extracellular signal by dimerization and allosteric regulation. Unraveling the dimer packing and allosteric mechanism can be of great help for understanding specific regulatory mechanism and designing more potential negative allosteric modulator (NAM). Here, we report molecular dynamics simulation studies of the modulation mechanism of FITM on the wild type, T815M and Y805A mutants of mGlu1 through weak interaction analysis and free energy calculation. The weak interaction analysis demonstrates that van der Waals (vdW) and hydrogen bonding play an important role on the dimer packing between six cholesterol molecules and mGlu1 as well as the interaction between allosteric sites T815, Y805 and FITM in wild type, T815M and Y805A mutants of mGlu1. Besides, the results of free energy calculations indicate that secondary binding pocket is mainly formed by the residues Thr748, Cys746, Lys811 and Ser735 except for FITM-bound pocket in crystal structure. Our results can not only reveal the dimer packing and allosteric regulation mechanism, but also can supply useful information for the design of potential NAM of mGlu1.

  9. The anticonvulsant stiripentol acts directly on the GABAA receptor as a positive allosteric modulator

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Janet L.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Stiripentol(STP) has been used as co-therapy for treatment of epilepsy for many years. Its mechanism of action has long been considered to be indirect, as it inhibits the enzymes responsible for metabolism of other anticonvulsant agents. However, a recent report suggested that STP might also act at the neuronal level, increasing inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission. We examined the effect of STP on the functional properties of recombinant GABAA receptors (GABARs) and found that it was a positive allosteric modulator of these ion channels. Its activity showed some dependence on subunit composition, with greater potentiation of α3-containing receptors and reduced potentiation when the β1 or ε subunits were present. STP caused a leftward shift in the GABA concentration-response relationship, but did not increase the peak response of the receptors to a maximal GABA concentration. Although STP shares some functional characteristics with the neurosteroids, its activity was not inhibited by a neurosteroid site antagonist and was unaffected by a mutation in the α3 subunit that reduced positive modulation by neurosteroids. The differential effect of STP on β1- and β2/β3-containing receptors was not altered by mutations within the second transmembrane domain that affect modulation by loreclezole. These findings suggest that STP acts as a direct allosteric modulator of the GABAR at a site distinct from many commonly used anti-convulsant, sedative and anxiolytic drugs. Its higher activity at α3-containing receptors as well as its activity at δ-containing receptors may provide a unique opportunity to target selected populations of GABARs. PMID:18585399

  10. Robust Stimulation of W1282X-CFTR Channel Activity by a Combination of Allosteric Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Hong, Jeong S.; Rab, Andras; Sorscher, Eric J.; Kirk, Kevin L.

    2016-01-01

    W1282X is a common nonsense mutation among cystic fibrosis patients that results in the production of a truncated Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) channel. Here we show that the channel activity of the W1282X-CFTR polypeptide is exceptionally low in excised membrane patches at normally saturating doses of ATP and PKA (single channel open probability (PO) < 0.01). However, W1282X-CFTR channels were stimulated by two CFTR modulators, the FDA-approved VX-770 and the dietary compound curcumin. Each of these compounds is an allosteric modulator of CFTR gating that promotes channel activity in the absence of the native ligand, ATP. Although W1282X-CFTR channels were stimulated by VX-770 in the absence of ATP their activities remained dependent on PKA phosphorylation. Thus, activated W1282X-CFTR channels should remain under physiologic control by cyclic nucleotide signaling pathways in vivo. VX-770 and curcumin exerted additive effects on W1282X-CFTR channel gating (opening/closing) in excised patches such that the Po of the truncated channel approached unity (> 0.9) when treated with both modulators. VX-770 and curcumin also additively stimulated W1282X-CFTR mediated currents in polarized FRT epithelial monolayers. In this setting, however, the stimulated W1282X-CFTR currents were smaller than those mediated by wild type CFTR (3–5%) due presumably to lower expression levels or cell surface targeting of the truncated protein. Combining allosteric modulators of different mechanistic classes is worth considering as a treatment option for W1282X CF patients perhaps when coupled with maneuvers to increase expression of the truncated protein. PMID:27007499

  11. Design of an allosterically modulated doxycycline and doxorubicin drug-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Karin; Gardill, Bernd R; Kern, Alina; Kirchweger, Peter; Börsch, Michael; Muller, Yves A

    2018-05-14

    The allosteric interplay between distant functional sites present in a single protein provides for one of the most important regulatory mechanisms in biological systems. While the design of ligand-binding sites into proteins remains challenging, this holds even truer for the coupling of a newly engineered binding site to an allosteric mechanism that regulates the ligand affinity. Here it is shown how computational design algorithms enabled the introduction of doxycycline- and doxorubicin-binding sites into the serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) family member α1-antichymotrypsin. Further engineering allowed exploitation of the proteinase-triggered serpin-typical S-to-R transition to modulate the ligand affinities. These design variants follow strategies observed in naturally occurring plasma globulins that allow for the targeted delivery of hormones in the blood. By analogy, we propose that the variants described in the present study could be further developed to allow for the delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline and the anticancer compound doxorubicin to tissues/locations that express specific proteinases, such as bacterial infection sites or tumor cells secreting matrix metalloproteinases.

  12. Muscarinic receptor M4 positive allosteric modulators attenuate central effects of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Dall, Camilla; Weikop, Pia; Dencker, Ditte; Molander, Anna C; Wörtwein, Gitta; Conn, P Jeffrey; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Thomsen, Morgane

    2017-07-01

    Cocaine addiction is a chronic brain disease affecting neurotransmission. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors modulate dopaminergic signaling in the reward system, and muscarinic receptor stimulation can block direct reinforcing effects of cocaine. Here, we tested the hypothesis that specific muscarinic M 4 receptor stimulation can attenuate the discriminative stimulus effects and conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine, measures believed to predict the ability of cocaine and cocaine-associated cues to elicit relapse to drug taking. We tested the M 4 -selective positive allosteric modulators VU0152100 and VU0467154 in a drug discrimination assay and a conditioned place preference assay, including extinction and reinstatement of place preference. Specificity of the cocaine discrimination effect was verified using knockout mice lacking either M 1 or M 4 receptors (M 1 -/- , M 4 -/- ). We also replicated previous findings in cocaine-induced locomotor hyperactivity and striatal dopamine microdialysis assays. VU0152100 attenuated the discriminative stimulus effect of cocaine in wild-type mice and M 1 -/- mice, but not in M 4 -/- mice, without affecting rates of responding. As previously shown with VU0152100, VU0467154 almost eliminated cocaine-induced hyperactivity and striatal dopamine efflux. VU0467154 failed to attenuate acquisition of cocaine-conditioned place preference, but facilitated extinction and prevented reinstatement of the conditioned place preference. These findings further support the notion that M 4 receptors are promising targets for the treatment of cocaine addiction, by showing that results can be replicated using distinct ligands, and that in addition to blocking reinforcing effects of cocaine relevant to ongoing drug taking, M 4 positive allosteric modulators can also attenuate subjective and conditioned effects relevant to relapse. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. A2A adenosine receptor ligand binding and signalling is allosterically modulated by adenosine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Eduard; Pérez-Capote, Kamil; Moreno, Estefanía; Barkešová, Jana; Mallol, Josefa; Lluís, Carme; Franco, Rafael; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Canela, Enric I

    2011-05-01

    A2ARs (adenosine A2A receptors) are highly enriched in the striatum, which is the main motor control CNS (central nervous system) area. BRET (bioluminescence resonance energy transfer) assays showed that A2AR homomers may act as cell-surface ADA (adenosine deaminase; EC 3.5.4.4)-binding proteins. ADA binding affected the quaternary structure of A2ARs present on the cell surface. ADA binding to adenosine A2ARs increased both agonist and antagonist affinity on ligand binding to striatal membranes where these proteins are co-expressed. ADA also increased receptor-mediated ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) phosphorylation. Collectively, the results of the present study show that ADA, apart from regulating the concentration of extracellular adenosine, may behave as an allosteric modulator that markedly enhances ligand affinity and receptor function. This powerful regulation may have implications for the physiology and pharmacology of neuronal A2ARs.

  14. Negative allosteric modulators that target human alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Brandon J; Pavlovicz, Ryan E; Allen, Jerad D; González-Cestari, Tatiana F; Orac, Crina M; Bonnell, Andrew B; Zhu, Michael X; Boyd, R Thomas; Li, Chenglong; Bergmeier, Stephen C; McKay, Dennis B

    2010-09-01

    Allosteric modulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is considered to be one of the most promising approaches for therapeutics. We have previously reported on the pharmacological activity of several compounds that act as negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of nAChRs. In the following studies, the effects of 30 NAMs from our small chemical library on both human alpha4beta2 (Halpha4beta2) and human alpha3beta4 (Halpha3beta4) nAChRs expressed in human embryonic kidney ts201 cells were investigated. During calcium accumulation assays, these NAMs inhibited nAChR activation with IC(50) values ranging from 2.4 microM to more than 100 microM. Several NAMs showed relative selectivity for Halpha4beta2 nAChRs with IC(50) values in the low micromolar range. A lead molecule, KAB-18, was identified that shows relative selectivity for Halpha4beta2 nAChRs. This molecule contains three phenyl rings, one piperidine ring, and one ester bond linkage. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) analyses of our data revealed three regions of KAB-18 that contribute to its relative selectivity. Predictive three-dimensional quantitative SAR (comparative molecular field analysis and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis) models were generated from these data, and a pharmacophore model was constructed to determine the chemical features that are important for biological activity. Using docking approaches and molecular dynamics on a Halpha4beta2 nAChR homology model, a binding mode for KAB-18 at the alpha/beta subunit interface that corresponds to the predicted pharmacophore is described. This binding mode was supported by mutagenesis studies. In summary, these studies highlight the importance of SAR, computational, and molecular biology approaches for the design and synthesis of potent and selective antagonists targeting specific nAChR subtypes.

  15. Negative Allosteric Modulators That Target Human α4β2 Neuronal Nicotinic Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Brandon J.; Pavlovicz, Ryan E.; Allen, Jerad D.; González-Cestari, Tatiana F.; Orac, Crina M.; Bonnell, Andrew B.; Zhu, Michael X.; Boyd, R. Thomas; Li, Chenglong; Bergmeier, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    Allosteric modulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is considered to be one of the most promising approaches for therapeutics. We have previously reported on the pharmacological activity of several compounds that act as negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of nAChRs. In the following studies, the effects of 30 NAMs from our small chemical library on both human α4β2 (Hα4β2) and human α3β4 (Hα3β4) nAChRs expressed in human embryonic kidney ts201 cells were investigated. During calcium accumulation assays, these NAMs inhibited nAChR activation with IC50 values ranging from 2.4 μM to more than 100 μM. Several NAMs showed relative selectivity for Hα4β2 nAChRs with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. A lead molecule, KAB-18, was identified that shows relative selectivity for Hα4β2 nAChRs. This molecule contains three phenyl rings, one piperidine ring, and one ester bond linkage. Structure–activity relationship (SAR) analyses of our data revealed three regions of KAB-18 that contribute to its relative selectivity. Predictive three-dimensional quantitative SAR (comparative molecular field analysis and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis) models were generated from these data, and a pharmacophore model was constructed to determine the chemical features that are important for biological activity. Using docking approaches and molecular dynamics on a Hα4β2 nAChR homology model, a binding mode for KAB-18 at the α/β subunit interface that corresponds to the predicted pharmacophore is described. This binding mode was supported by mutagenesis studies. In summary, these studies highlight the importance of SAR, computational, and molecular biology approaches for the design and synthesis of potent and selective antagonists targeting specific nAChR subtypes. PMID:20551292

  16. Fluorescence Polarization Screening Assays for Small Molecule Allosteric Modulators of ABL Kinase Function

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Prerna; Shi, Haibin; Baumgartner, Matthew; Camacho, Carlos J.; Smithgall, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    The ABL protein-tyrosine kinase regulates intracellular signaling pathways controlling diverse cellular processes and contributes to several forms of cancer. The kinase activity of ABL is repressed by intramolecular interactions involving its regulatory Ncap, SH3 and SH2 domains. Small molecules that allosterically regulate ABL kinase activity through its non-catalytic domains may represent selective probes of ABL function. Here we report a screening assay for chemical modulators of ABL kinase activity that target the regulatory interaction of the SH3 domain with the SH2-kinase linker. This fluorescence polarization (FP) assay is based on a purified recombinant ABL protein consisting of the N-cap, SH3 and SH2 domains plus the SH2-kinase linker (N32L protein) and a short fluorescein-labeled probe peptide that binds to the SH3 domain. In assay development experiments, we found that the probe peptide binds to the recombinant ABL N32L protein in vitro, producing a robust FP signal that can be competed with an excess of unlabeled peptide. The FP signal is not observed with control N32L proteins bearing either an inactivating mutation in the SH3 domain or enhanced SH3:linker interaction. A pilot screen of 1200 FDA-approved drugs identified four compounds that specifically reduced the FP signal by at least three standard deviations from the untreated controls. Secondary assays showed that one of these hit compounds, the antithrombotic drug dipyridamole, enhances ABL kinase activity in vitro to a greater extent than the previously described ABL agonist, DPH. Docking studies predicted that this compound binds to a pocket formed at the interface of the SH3 domain and the linker, suggesting that it activates ABL by disrupting this regulatory interaction. These results show that screening assays based on the non-catalytic domains of ABL can identify allosteric small molecule regulators of kinase function, providing a new approach to selective drug discovery for this important

  17. Fluorescence Polarization Screening Assays for Small Molecule Allosteric Modulators of ABL Kinase Function.

    PubMed

    Grover, Prerna; Shi, Haibin; Baumgartner, Matthew; Camacho, Carlos J; Smithgall, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    The ABL protein-tyrosine kinase regulates intracellular signaling pathways controlling diverse cellular processes and contributes to several forms of cancer. The kinase activity of ABL is repressed by intramolecular interactions involving its regulatory Ncap, SH3 and SH2 domains. Small molecules that allosterically regulate ABL kinase activity through its non-catalytic domains may represent selective probes of ABL function. Here we report a screening assay for chemical modulators of ABL kinase activity that target the regulatory interaction of the SH3 domain with the SH2-kinase linker. This fluorescence polarization (FP) assay is based on a purified recombinant ABL protein consisting of the N-cap, SH3 and SH2 domains plus the SH2-kinase linker (N32L protein) and a short fluorescein-labeled probe peptide that binds to the SH3 domain. In assay development experiments, we found that the probe peptide binds to the recombinant ABL N32L protein in vitro, producing a robust FP signal that can be competed with an excess of unlabeled peptide. The FP signal is not observed with control N32L proteins bearing either an inactivating mutation in the SH3 domain or enhanced SH3:linker interaction. A pilot screen of 1200 FDA-approved drugs identified four compounds that specifically reduced the FP signal by at least three standard deviations from the untreated controls. Secondary assays showed that one of these hit compounds, the antithrombotic drug dipyridamole, enhances ABL kinase activity in vitro to a greater extent than the previously described ABL agonist, DPH. Docking studies predicted that this compound binds to a pocket formed at the interface of the SH3 domain and the linker, suggesting that it activates ABL by disrupting this regulatory interaction. These results show that screening assays based on the non-catalytic domains of ABL can identify allosteric small molecule regulators of kinase function, providing a new approach to selective drug discovery for this important

  18. Nonoisotopic Assay for the Presynaptic Choline Transporter Reveals Capacity for Allosteric Modulation of Choline Uptake

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Current therapies to enhance CNS cholinergic function rely primarily on extracellular acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, a pharmacotherapeutic strategy that produces dose-limiting side effects. The Na+-dependent, high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) is an unexplored target for cholinergic medication development. Although functional at the plasma membrane, CHT at steady-state is localized to synaptic vesicles such that vesicular fusion can support a biosynthetic response to neuronal excitation. To identify allosteric potentiators of CHT activity, we mapped endocytic sequences in the C-terminus of human CHT, identifying transporter mutants that exhibit significantly increased transport function. A stable HEK-293 cell line was generated from one of these mutants (CHT LV-AA) and used to establish a high-throughput screen (HTS) compatible assay based on the electrogenic nature of the transporter. We established that the addition of choline to these cells, at concentrations appropriate for high-affinity choline transport at presynaptic terminals, generates a hemicholinium-3 (HC-3)-sensitive, membrane depolarization that can be used for the screening of CHT inhibitors and activators. Using this assay, we discovered that staurosporine increased CHT LV-AA choline uptake activity, an effect mediated by a decrease in choline KM with no change in Vmax. As staurosporine did not change surface levels of CHT, nor inhibit HC-3 binding, we propose that its action is directly or indirectly allosteric in nature. Surprisingly, staurosporine reduced choline-induced membrane depolarization, suggesting that increased substrate coupling to ion gradients, arising at the expense of nonstoichiometric ion flow, accompanies a shift of CHT to a higher-affinity state. Our findings provide a new approach for the identification of CHT modulators that is compatible with high-throughput screening approaches and presents a novel model by which small molecules can enhance substrate flux

  19. Nonoisotopic assay for the presynaptic choline transporter reveals capacity for allosteric modulation of choline uptake.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Alicia M; Wright, Jane; Ferguson, Shawn M; Lewis, Michelle; Emerson, Katie S; Iwamoto, Hideki; Ivy, Michael T; Holmstrand, Ericka C; Ennis, Elizabeth A; Weaver, C David; Blakely, Randy D

    2012-10-17

    Current therapies to enhance CNS cholinergic function rely primarily on extracellular acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, a pharmacotherapeutic strategy that produces dose-limiting side effects. The Na(+)-dependent, high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) is an unexplored target for cholinergic medication development. Although functional at the plasma membrane, CHT at steady-state is localized to synaptic vesicles such that vesicular fusion can support a biosynthetic response to neuronal excitation. To identify allosteric potentiators of CHT activity, we mapped endocytic sequences in the C-terminus of human CHT, identifying transporter mutants that exhibit significantly increased transport function. A stable HEK-293 cell line was generated from one of these mutants (CHT LV-AA) and used to establish a high-throughput screen (HTS) compatible assay based on the electrogenic nature of the transporter. We established that the addition of choline to these cells, at concentrations appropriate for high-affinity choline transport at presynaptic terminals, generates a hemicholinium-3 (HC-3)-sensitive, membrane depolarization that can be used for the screening of CHT inhibitors and activators. Using this assay, we discovered that staurosporine increased CHT LV-AA choline uptake activity, an effect mediated by a decrease in choline K(M) with no change in V(max). As staurosporine did not change surface levels of CHT, nor inhibit HC-3 binding, we propose that its action is directly or indirectly allosteric in nature. Surprisingly, staurosporine reduced choline-induced membrane depolarization, suggesting that increased substrate coupling to ion gradients, arising at the expense of nonstoichiometric ion flow, accompanies a shift of CHT to a higher-affinity state. Our findings provide a new approach for the identification of CHT modulators that is compatible with high-throughput screening approaches and presents a novel model by which small molecules can enhance substrate flux

  20. Positive Allosteric Modulation of the Calcium-sensing Receptor by Physiological Concentrations of Glucose*

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Johan; Nakagawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Masahiro; Fernandez, Anny; Sakaguchi, Kazushige; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Kojima, Itaru

    2016-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is activated by various cations, cationic compounds, and amino acids. In the present study we investigated the effect of glucose on CaSR in HEK293 cells stably expressing human CaSR (HEK-CaSR cells). When glucose concentration in the buffer was raised from 3 to 25 mm, a rapid elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) was observed. This elevation was immediate and transient and was followed by a sustained decrease in [Ca2+]c. The effect of glucose was detected at a concentration of 4 mm and reached its maximum at 5 mm. 3-O-Methylglucose, a non-metabolizable analogue of glucose, reproduced the effect of glucose. Sucrose also induced an elevation of [Ca2+]c in HEK-CaSR cells. Similarly, sucralose was nearly as effective as glucose in inducing elevation of [Ca2+]c. Glucose was not able to increase [Ca2+]c in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. The effect of glucose on [Ca2+]c was inhibited by NPS-2143, an allosteric inhibitor of CaSR. In addition, NPS-2143 also inhibited the [Ca2+]c responses to sucralose and sucrose. Glucose as well as sucralose decreased cytoplasmic cAMP concentration in HEK-CaSR cells. The reduction of cAMP induced by glucose was blocked by pertussis toxin. Likewise, sucralose reduced [cAMP]c. Finally, glucose increased [Ca2+]c in PT-r parathyroid cells and in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, both of which express endogenous CaSR. These results indicate that glucose acts as a positive allosteric modulator of CaSR. PMID:27613866

  1. Gene modules associated with breast cancer distant metastasis-free survival in the PAM50 molecular subtypes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2016-04-19

    To identify PAM50 subtype-specific associations between distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) in breast cancer (BC) patients and gene modules describing potentially targetable oncogenic pathways, a comprehensive analysis evaluating the prognostic efficacy of published gene signatures in 2027 BC patients from 13 studies was conducted. We calculated 21 gene modules and computed hazard ratios (HRs) for DMFS for one-unit increases in module score, with and without adjustment for clinical characteristics. By comparing gene expression to survival outcomes, we derived four subtype-specific prognostic signatures for BC. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that in the luminal A subgroup, E2F3, PTEN and GGI gene module scores were associated with clinical outcome. In the luminal B tumors, RAS was associated with DMFS and in the basal-like tumors, ER was associated with DMFS. Our defined gene modules predicted high-risk patients in multivariate analyses for the basal-like (HR: 2.19, p=2.5×10-4), luminal A (HR: 3.03, p=7.2×10-5), luminal B (HR: 3.00, p=2.4×10-10) and HER2+ (HR: 5.49, p=9.7×10-10) subgroups. We found that different modules are associated with DMFS in different BC subtypes. The results of this study could help to identify new therapeutic strategies for specific molecular subgroups of BC, and could enhance efforts to improve patient-specific therapy options.

  2. The sweet taste of true synergy: positive allosteric modulation of the human sweet taste receptor.

    PubMed

    Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong; Karanewsky, Donald S

    2011-11-01

    A diet low in carbohydrates helps to reduce the amount of ingested calories and to maintain a healthy weight. With this in mind, food and beverage companies have reformulated a large number of their products, replacing sugar or high fructose corn syrup with several different types of zero-calorie sweeteners to decrease or even totally eliminate their caloric content. A challenge remains, however, with the level of acceptance of some of these products in the market-place. Many consumers believe that zero-calorie sweeteners simply do not taste like sugar. A recent breakthrough reveals that positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor, small molecules that enhance the receptor activity and sweetness perception, could be more effective than other reported taste enhancers at reducing calories in consumer products without compromising on the true taste of sugar. A unique mechanism of action at the receptor level could explain the robust synergy achieved with these new modulators. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Endogenous Positive Allosteric Modulation of GABAA Receptors by Diazepam binding inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Catherine A.; Herbert, Anne G.; Holt, Rebecca L.; Peng, Kathy; Sherwood, Kyla D.; Pangratz-Fuehrer, Susanne; Rudolph, Uwe; Huguenard, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Benzodiazepines (BZs) allosterically modulate γ-aminobutyric acid type-A receptors (GABAARs) to increase inhibitory synaptic strength. Diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) protein is a BZ site ligand expressed endogenously in the brain, but functional evidence for BZ-mimicking positive modulatory actions has been elusive. We demonstrate an endogenous potentiation of GABAergic synaptic transmission and responses to GABA uncaging in the thalamic reticular nucleus (nRT) that is absent in both nm1054 mice, in which the Dbi gene is deleted, and mice in which BZ binding to α3 subunit-containing GABAARs is disrupted. Viral transduction of DBI into nRT is sufficient to rescue the endogenous potentiation of GABAergic transmission in nm1054 mice. Both mutations enhance thalamocortical spike-and-wave discharges characteristic of absence epilepsy. Together these results indicate that DBI mediates endogenous nucleus-specific BZ-mimicking (“endozepine”) roles to modulate nRT function and suppress thalamocortical oscillations. Enhanced DBI signaling might serve as a novel therapy for epilepsy and other neurological disorders. PMID:23727119

  4. Intracellular calcium levels determine differential modulation of allosteric interactions within G protein-coupled receptor heteromers.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Gemma; Aguinaga, David; Moreno, Estefania; Hradsky, Johannes; Reddy, Pasham P; Cortés, Antoni; Mallol, Josefa; Casadó, Vicent; Mikhaylova, Marina; Kreutz, Michael R; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I; McCormick, Peter J; Ferré, Sergi

    2014-11-20

    The pharmacological significance of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromer is well established and it is being considered as an important target for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and other neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the physiological factors that control its distinctive biochemical properties are still unknown. We demonstrate that different intracellular Ca2+ levels exert a differential modulation of A2AR-D2R heteromer-mediated adenylyl-cyclase and MAPK signaling in striatal cells. This depends on the ability of low and high Ca2+ levels to promote a selective interaction of the heteromer with the neuronal Ca2+-binding proteins NCS-1 and calneuron-1, respectively. These Ca2+-binding proteins differentially modulate allosteric interactions within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, which constitutes a unique cellular device that integrates extracellular (adenosine and dopamine) and intracellular (Ca+2) signals to produce a specific functional response.

  5. Menthol Suppresses Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Functioning in Sensory Neurons via Allosteric Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, M.; Swandulla, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated how the function of native and recombinant nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is modulated by the monoterpenoid alcohol from peppermint (−) menthol. In trigeminal neurons (TG), we found that nicotine (75 μM)-activated whole-cell currents through nAChRs were reversibly reduced by menthol in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 111 μM. To analyze the mechanism underlying menthol's action in more detail, we used single channel and whole-cell recordings from recombinant human α4β2 nAChR expressed in HEK tsA201 cells. Here, we found a shortening of channel open time and a prolongation of channel closed time, and an increase in single channel amplitude leading in summary to a reduction in single channel current. Furthermore, menthol did not affect nicotine's EC50 value for currents through recombinant human α4β2 nAChRs but caused a significant reduction in nicotine's efficacy. Taken together, these findings indicate that menthol is a negative allosteric modulator of nAChRs. PMID:22281529

  6. Allosteric modulation of Ras and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway: emerging therapeutic opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Paul A.; Moody, Colleen L.; Murali, Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    GTPases and kinases are two predominant signaling modules that regulate cell fate. Dysregulation of Ras, a GTPase, and the three eponymous kinases that form key nodes of the associated phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR pathway have been implicated in many cancers, including pancreatic cancer, a disease noted for its current lack of effective therapeutics. The K-Ras isoform of Ras is mutated in over 90% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) and there is growing evidence linking aberrant PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activity to PDAC. Although these observations suggest that targeting one of these nodes might lead to more effective treatment options for patients with pancreatic and other cancers, the complex regulatory mechanisms and the number of sequence-conserved isoforms of these proteins have been viewed as significant barriers in drug development. Emerging insights into the allosteric regulatory mechanisms of these proteins suggest novel opportunities for development of selective allosteric inhibitors with fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) helping make significant inroads. The fact that allosteric inhibitors of Ras and AKT are currently in pre-clinical development lends support to this approach. In this article, we will focus on the recent advances and merits of developing allosteric drugs targeting these two inter-related signaling pathways. PMID:25566081

  7. Identification of new allosteric sites and modulators of AChE through computational and experimental tools.

    PubMed

    Roca, Carlos; Requena, Carlos; Sebastián-Pérez, Víctor; Malhotra, Sony; Radoux, Chris; Pérez, Concepción; Martinez, Ana; Antonio Páez, Juan; Blundell, Tom L; Campillo, Nuria E

    2018-12-01

    Allosteric sites on proteins are targeted for designing more selective inhibitors of enzyme activity and to discover new functions. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is most widely known for the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, has a peripheral allosteric subsite responsible for amyloidosis in Alzheimer's disease through interaction with amyloid β-peptide. However, AChE plays other non-hydrolytic functions. Here, we identify and characterise using computational tools two new allosteric sites in AChE, which have allowed us to identify allosteric inhibitors by virtual screening guided by structure-based and fragment hotspot strategies. The identified compounds were also screened for in vitro inhibition of AChE and three were observed to be active. Further experimental (kinetic) and computational (molecular dynamics) studies have been performed to verify the allosteric activity. These new compounds may be valuable pharmacological tools in the study of non-cholinergic functions of AChE.

  8. Effects of intraperitoneal administration of the GABAB receptor positive allosteric modulator 2,6-di tert-butyl-4-(2-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-propyl)-phenol (CGP7930) on food intake in non-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2012-09-05

    γ-Aminobutyric acid-(B) (GABA(B)) receptor positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) act on an allosteric site on the GABA(B) receptor to potentiate the effects of GABA and GABA(B) receptor agonists. It has previously been demonstrated that the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen increases food intake in non-deprived rats. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the GABA(B) receptor PAM 2,6-di tert-butyl-4-(2-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-propyl)-phenol (CGP7930) would (i) increase food intake, and (ii) potentiate the hyperphagic effects of baclofen in rats. In Experiment 1, the effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of CGP7930 (1, 6 and 12 mg/kg) was investigated on food intake in non-deprived male Wistar rats. The 12 mg/kg dose of CGP7930 significantly increased cumulative food intake 30, 60 and 120 min (P<0.05, in each case) after administration. The 1 and 6 mg/kg doses were without effect. In Experiment 2, the effects of pretreatment with CGP7930 (6 mg/kg; i.p.) 5 min prior to administration of baclofen (2mg/kg, i.p.) was investigated on 30min cumulative food intake in non-deprived male Wistar rats. Baclofen (2mg/kg) significantly increased food intake compared with vehicle treatment (P<0.01). CGP7930 (6 mg/kg) had no effect on feeding. However, pretreatment with CGP7930 (6 mg/kg) significantly potentiated the hyperphagic effects of baclofen (2mg/kg) (P<0.01). These findings show that CGP7930 increases food intake and enhances the hyperphagic effects of baclofen, and are consistent with in vitro studies that suggest that it potentiates the effects of endogenous GABA and GABA(B) receptor agonists by allosteric modulation of the GABA(B) receptor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. mGluR5 positive allosteric modulation and its effects on MK-801 induced set-shifting impairments in a rat operant delayed matching/non-matching-to-sample task

    PubMed Central

    LaCrosse, Amber L.; Burrows, Brian T.; Angulo, Rachel M.; Conrad, Phoebe R.; Himes, Sarah M.; Mathews, Nordia; Wegner, Scott A.; Taylor, Sara B.; Olive, M. Foster

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR5) exert pro-cognitive effects in animal models of various neuropsychiatric diseases. However, few studies to date have examined ability of mGluR5 PAMs to reverse cognitive deficits in operant delayed matching/non-matching-to-sample (DMS/DNMS) tasks. Objectives To determine the ability of the mGluR5 PAM 3-cyano-N-1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide (CDPPB) to reverse set-shifting deficits induced by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were initially trained to lever press for sucrose reinforcement under either DMS or DNMS conditions. Following successful acquisition of the task, reinforcement conditions were reversed (DNMS→DMS or DMS→DNMS). In Experiment 1, rats were treated daily prior to each session with either vehicle/vehicle, vehicle/MK-801 (0.06 mg/kg) simultaneously, CDPPB (20 mg/kg)/MK-801 simultaneously, or CDPPB 30 min prior to MK-801. In Experiment 2, rats were treated with either vehicle/vehicle, vehicle/MK-801, or CDPPB 30 min prior to MK-801 only prior to sessions that followed task reversal. Results In Experiment 1, no group differences in initial task acquisition were observed. Rats treated with vehicle+MK−801 showed significant set-shifting impairments following task reversal, which were partially attenuated by simultaneous administration of CDPPB/MK-801, and completely precluded by administration of CDPPB 30 min prior to MK-801. In Experiment 2, MK-801 did not impair reversal learning and no other group differences were observed. Conclusions MK-801 induced deficits in operant set-shifting ability were prevented by pretreatment with CDPPB. MK-801 did not produce deficits in initial task learning or when treatment was initiated following task reversal. PMID:24973895

  10. [Pharmacological characteristics of drugs targeted on calcium-sensing receptor.-properties of cinacalcet hydrochloride as allosteric modulator].

    PubMed

    Nagano, Nobuo; Tsutsui, Takaaki

    2016-06-01

    Calcimimetics act as positive allosteric modulators of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), thereby decreasing parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from the parathyroid glands. On the other hand, negative allosteric modulators of the CaSR with stimulatory effect on PTH secretion are termed calcilytics. The calcimimetic cinacalcet hydrochloride (cinacalcet) is the world's first allosteric modulator of G protein-coupled receptor to enter the clinical market. Cinacalcet just tunes the physiological effects of Ca(2+), an endogenous ligand, therefore, shows high selectivity and low side effects. Calcimimetics also increase cell surface CaSR expression by acting as pharmacological chaperones (pharmacoperones). It is considered that the cinacalcet-induced upper gastrointestinal problems are resulted from enhanced physiological responses to Ca(2+) and amino acids via increased sensitivity of digestive tract CaSR by cinacalcet. While clinical developments of calcilytics for osteoporosis were unfortunately halted or terminated due to paucity of efficacy, it is expected that calcilytics may be useful for the treatment of patients with activating CaSR mutations, asthma, and idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension.

  11. Capacity upgrade in short-reach optical fibre networks: simultaneous 4-PAM 20 Gbps data and polarization-modulated PPS clock signal using a single VCSEL carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isoe, G. M.; Wassin, S.; Gamatham, R. R. G.; Leitch, A. W. R.; Gibbon, T. B.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a four-level pulse amplitude modulation (4-PAM) format with a polarization-modulated pulse per second (PPS) clock signal using a single vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) carrier is for the first time experimentally demonstrated. We propose uncomplex alternative technique for increasing capacity and flexibility in short-reach optical communication links through multi-signal modulation onto a single VCSEL carrier. A 20 Gbps 4-PAM data signal is directly modulated onto a single mode 10 GHz bandwidth VCSEL carrier at 1310 nm, therefore, doubling the network bit rate. Carrier spectral efficiency is further maximized by exploiting the inherent orthogonal polarization switching of the VCSEL carrier with changing bias in transmission of a PPS clock signal. We, therefore, simultaneously transmit a 20 Gbps 4-PAM data signal and a polarization-based PPS clock signal using a single VCSEL carrier. It is the first time a signal VCSEL carrier is reported to simultaneously transmit a directly modulated 20 Gbps 4-PAM data signal and a polarization-based PPS clock signal. We further demonstrate on the design of a software-defined digital signal processing (DSP)-assisted receiver as an alternative to costly receiver hardware. Experimental results show that a 3.21 km fibre transmission with simultaneous 20 Gbps 4-PAM data signal and polarization-based PPS clock signal introduced a penalty of 3.76 dB. The contribution of polarization-based PPS clock signal to this penalty was found out to be 0.41 dB. Simultaneous distribution of data and timing clock signals over shared network infrastructure significantly increases the aggregated data rate at different optical network units (ONUs), without costly investment.

  12. Virtual Screening and Molecular Dynamics Study of Potential Negative Allosteric Modulators of mGluR1 from Chinese Herbs.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ludi; Zhang, Xianbao; Chen, Xi; He, Yusu; Qiao, Liansheng; Zhang, Yanling; Li, Gongyu; Xiang, Yuhong

    2015-07-15

    The metabotropic glutamate subtype 1 (mGluR1), a member of the metabotropic glutamate receptors, is a therapeutic target for neurological disorders. However, due to the lower subtype selectivity of mGluR1 orthosteric compounds, a new targeted strategy, known as allosteric modulators research, is needed for the treatment of mGluR1-related diseases. Recently, the structure of the seven-transmembrane domain (7TMD) of mGluR1 has been solved, which reveals the binding site of allosteric modulators and provides an opportunity for future subtype-selectivity drug design. In this study, a series of computer-aided drug design methods were utilized to discover potential mGluR1 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs). Pharmacophore models were constructed based on three different structure types of mGluR1 NAMs. After validation using the built-in parameters and test set, the optimal pharmacophore model of each structure type was selected and utilized as a query to screen the Traditional Chinese Medicine Database (TCMD). Then, three different hit lists of compounds were obtained. Molecular docking was used based on the latest crystal structure of mGluR1-7TMD to further filter these hits. As a compound with high QFIT and LibDock Score was preferred, a total of 30 compounds were retained. MD simulation was utilized to confirm the stability of potential compounds binding. From the computational results, thesinine-4'-O-β-d-glucoside, nigrolineaxanthone-P and nodakenin might exhibit negative allosteric moderating effects on mGluR1. This paper indicates the applicability of molecular simulation technologies for discovering potential natural mGluR1 NAMs from Chinese herbs.

  13. A positive allosteric modulator of α7 nAChRs augments neuroprotective effects of endogenous nicotinic agonists in cerebral ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Kalappa, Bopanna I; Sun, Fen; Johnson, Stephen R; Jin, Kunlin; Uteshev, Victor V

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) can be neuroprotective. However, endogenous choline and ACh have not been regarded as potent neuroprotective agents because physiological levels of choline/ACh do not produce neuroprotective levels of α7 activation. This limitation may be overcome by the use of type-II positive allosteric modulators (PAMs-II) of α7 nAChRs, such as 1-(5-chloro-2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(5-methylisoxazol-3-yl)-urea (PNU-120596). This proof-of-concept study presents a novel neuroprotective paradigm that converts endogenous choline/ACh into potent neuroprotective agents in cerebral ischaemia by inhibiting α7 nAChR desensitization using PNU-120596. Experimental Approach An electrophysiological ex vivo cell injury assay (to quantify the susceptibility of hippocampal neurons to acute injury by complete oxygen and glucose deprivation; COGD) and an in vivo middle cerebral artery occlusion model of ischaemia were used in rats. Key Results Choline (20–200 μM) in the presence, but not absence of 1 μM PNU-120596 significantly delayed anoxic depolarization/injury of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, but not CA1 stratum radiatum interneurons, subjected to COGD in acute hippocampal slices and these effects were blocked by 20 nM methyllycaconitine, a selective α7 antagonist, thus, activation of α7 nAChRs was required. PNU-120596 alone was ineffective ex vivo. In in vivo experiments, both pre- and post-ischaemia treatments with PNU-120596 (30 mg·kg−1, s.c. and 1 mg·kg−1, i.v., respectively) significantly reduced the cortical/subcortical infarct volume caused by transient focal cerebral ischaemia. PNU-120596 (1 mg·kg−1, i.v., 30 min post-ischaemia) remained neuroprotective in rats subjected to a choline-deficient diet for 14 days prior to experiments. Conclusions and Implications PNU-120596 and possibly other PAMs-II significantly improved neuronal survival in cerebral ischaemia by augmenting

  14. Photolabeling a Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) with an (α4)3(β2)2 nAChR-Selective Positive Allosteric Modulator

    PubMed Central

    Deba, Farah; Wang, Ze-Jun; Cohen, Jonathan B.

    2016-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) have potential clinical applications in the treatment of nicotine dependence and many neuropsychiatric conditions associated with decreased brain cholinergic activity, and 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-5-(5-methyl-1-(piperidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrrazol-4-yl)isoxazole (CMPI) has been identified as a PAM selective for neuronal nAChRs containing the α4 subunit. In this report, we compare CMPI interactions with low-sensitivity (α4)3(β2)2 and high-sensitivity (α4)2(β2)3 nAChRs, and with muscle-type nAChRs. In addition, we use the intrinsic reactivity of [3H]CMPI upon photolysis at 312 nm to identify its binding sites in Torpedo nAChRs. Recording from Xenopus oocytes, we found that CMPI potentiated maximally the responses of (α4)3(β2)2 nAChR to 10 μM ACh (EC10) by 400% and with an EC50 of ∼1 µM. CMPI produced a left shift of the ACh concentration-response curve without altering ACh efficacy. In contrast, CMPI inhibited (∼35% at 10 µM) ACh responses of (α4)2(β2)3 nAChRs and fully inhibited human muscle and Torpedo nAChRs with IC50 values of ∼0.5 µM. Upon irradiation at 312 nm, [3H]CMPI photoincorporated into each Torpedo [(α1)2β1γδ] nAChR subunit. Sequencing of peptide fragments isolated from [3H]CMPI-photolabeled nAChR subunits established photolabeling of amino acids contributing to the ACh binding sites (αTyr190, αTyr198, γTrp55, γTyr111, γTyr117, δTrp57) that was fully inhibitable by agonist and lower-efficiency, state-dependent [3H]CMPI photolabeling within the ion channel. Our results establish that CMPI is a potent potentiator of nAChRs containing an α4:α4 subunit interface, and that its intrinsic photoreactivy makes it of potential use to identify its binding sites in the (α4)3(β2)2 nAChR. PMID:26976945

  15. Enhancing action of positive allosteric modulators through the design of dimeric compounds.

    PubMed

    Drapier, Thomas; Geubelle, Pierre; Bouckaert, Charlotte; Nielsen, Lise; Laulumaa, Saara; Goffin, Eric; Dilly, Sébastien; Francotte, Pierre; Hanson, Julien; Pochet, Lionel; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm; Pirotte, Bernard

    2018-05-18

    The present study describes the identification of highly potent dimeric 1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide (BTD)-type positive allosteric modulators of the AMPA receptors (AMPApams) obtained by linking two monomeric BTD scaffolds through their respective 6-positions. Using previous X-ray data from monomeric BTDs co-crystallized with the GluA2o ligand-binding domain (LBD), a molecular modeling approach was performed to predict the preferred dimeric combinations. Two 6,6-ethylene-linked dimeric BTD compounds (16 and 22) were prepared and evaluated as AMPApams on HEK293 cells expressing GluA2o(Q) (calcium flux experiment). These compounds were found to be about 10,000 times more potent than their respective monomers, the most active dimeric compound being the bis-4-cyclopropyl-substituted compound 22 [6,6'-(ethane-1,2-diyl)bis(4-cyclopropyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide], with an EC50 value of 1.4 nM. As a proof of concept, the bis-4-methyl-substituted dimeric compound 16 (EC50 = 13 nM) was successfully co-crystallized with the GluA2o-LBD and was found to occupy the two BTD binding sites at the LBD dimer interface.

  16. Efficacy of mGlu2 -positive allosteric modulators alone and in combination with levetiracetam in the mouse 6 Hz model of psychomotor seizures.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Cameron S; Klein, Brian D; Smith, Misty D; Pruess, Tim; Ceusters, Marc; Lavreysen, Hilde; Pype, Stefan; Van Osselaer, Nancy; Twyman, Roy; White, H Steve

    2017-03-01

    The metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2 (mGlu 2 ) possesses both orthosteric and allosteric modulatory sites, are expressed in the frontal cortex and limbic structures, and can affect excitatory synaptic transmission. Therefore, mGlu 2 is a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of epilepsy. The present study seeks to evaluate the anticonvulsant potential of mGlu 2 -acting compounds. The anticonvulsant efficacy of two selective mGlu 2 -positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) (JNJ-42153605 and JNJ-40411813/ADX71149) and one mGlu 2/3 receptor agonist (LY404039) were evaluated alone and in combination with the antiseizure drug levetiracetam (LEV) in the mouse 6 Hz model. In the 6 Hz (32 mA stimulus intensity) model, median effective dose (ED 50 ) values were determined for JNJ-42153605 (3.8 mg/kg), JNJ-40411813 (12.2 mg/kg), and LY404039 (10.9 mg/kg). At the 44 mA stimulus intensity, ED 50 values were determined for JNJ-42153605 (5.9 mg/kg), JNJ-40411813 (21.0 mg/kg), LY404039 (14.1 mg/kg), and LEV (345 mg/kg). In addition, subprotective doses of each mGlu 2 -acting compound, administered in combination with various doses of LEV, were able to shift the 6 Hz 44 mA ED 50 for LEV by >25-fold. When JNJ-42153605 was administered at varying doses in combination with a single dose of LEV (10 mg/kg), the potency of JNJ-42153605 was increased 3.7-fold. Similarly, when a moderately effective dose of LEV (350 mg/kg) was administered in combination with varying doses of JNJ-40411813, the potency of JNJ-40411813 was increased approximately 14-fold. Plasma levels of JNJ-40411813 and LEV were not different when administered alone or in combination, suggesting that increases in potency are not due to pharmacokinetic effects. These studies suggest a potential positive pharmacodynamic effect of mGlu 2 -acting compounds in combination with LEV. If this effect is translated in a clinical setting, it can support a rational polypharmacy concept in treatment of epilepsy patients

  17. Hexamethonium-type allosteric modulators of the muscarinic receptors bearing lateral dibenzazepine moieties.

    PubMed

    Li, R; Tränkle, C; Mohr, K; Holzgrabe, U

    2001-04-01

    Alkane-bisammonium compounds carrying lateral phthalimido substituents are known to have a high affinity for the allosteric binding site of the acetylcholine M2 receptor. The purpose of this study was to replace the lateral phthalimido moieties with rigid tricyclic skeletons of a large volume in order to learn more about the function of the lateral heterocycles. In addition, methyl groups were introduced into the lateral connecting chains. Allosteric inhibition of the dissociation of [3H]N-methylscopolamine from the M2 receptors in porcine cardiac homogenates served to indicate binding of the test compounds to the allosteric site. The phthalimido groups could be replaced with dibenzazepine moieties without any loss in potency. Interestingly, the additional methyl group in the lateral spacer seems to have a significant influence on the allosteric behaviour.

  18. Insight into structural requirements for selective and/or dual CXCR3 and CXCR4 allosteric modulators.

    PubMed

    Kolarič, Anja; Švajger, Urban; Tomašič, Tihomir; Brox, Regine; Frank, Theresa; Minovski, Nikola; Tschammer, Nuska; Anderluh, Marko

    2018-05-11

    Based on the previously published pyrazolopyridine-based hit compound for which negative allosteric modulation of both CXCR3 and CXCR4 receptors was disclosed, we designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated a set of novel, not only negative, but also positive allosteric modulators with preserved pyrazolopyridine core. Compound 9e is a dual negative modulator, inhibiting G protein activity of both receptors. For CXCR4 receptor para-substituted aromatic group of compounds distinguishes between negative and positive modulation. Para-methoxy substitution leads to functional antagonism, while para-chloro triggers agonism. Additionally, we discovered that chemotaxis is not completely correlated with G protein pathways. This is the first work in which we have on a series of compounds successfully demonstrated that it is possible to produce selective as well as dual-acting modulators of chemokine receptors, which is very promising for future research in the field of discovery of selective or dual modulators of chemokine receptors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Allosteric modulation of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activities in vitro by imidazoline receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Andrew; Wieland, Barbara; Baker, Glen B

    2004-01-01

    Evidence indicates that imidazoline I2 binding sites (I2BSs) are present on monoamine oxidase (MAO) and on soluble (plasma) semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase enzymes. The binding site on MAO has been described as a modulatory site, although no effects on activity are thought to have been observed as a result of ligands binding to these sites. We examined the effects in vitro of several imidazoline binding site ligands on activities of bovine plasma amine oxidase (BPAO) and porcine kidney diamine oxidase (PKDAO) in a spectrophotometric protocol. While both enzymes were inhibited at high concentrations of all ligands, clonidine, cirazoline and oxymetazoline were seen, at lower concentrations, to increase activity of BPAO versus benzylamine, but not of PKDAO versus putrescine. This effect was substrate dependent, with mixed or biphasic inhibition of spermidine, methylamine, p-tyramine and β-phenylethylamine oxidation observed at cirazoline concentrations that increased benzylamine oxidation. With benzylamine as substrate, clonidine decreased KM (EC50 8.82 μM, Emax 75.1% of control) and increased Vmax (EC50 164.6 μM, Emax 154.1% of control). Cirazoline decreased Vmax (EC50 2.15 μM, Emax 91.4% of control), then decreased KM (EC50 5.63 μM, Emax 42.6% of control) and increased Vmax (EC50 49.0 μM, Emax 114.4% of decreased Vmax value). Data for clonidine fitted a mathematical model for two-site nonessential activation plus linear intersecting noncompetitive inhibition. Data for cirazoline were consistent with involvement of a fourth site. These results reveal an ability of imidazoline ligands to modulate BPAO kinetics allosterically. The derived mechanism may have functional significance with respect to modulation of MAO by I2BS ligands. PMID:15451775

  20. Probing the Allosteric Modulator Binding Site of GluR2 with Thiazide Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Ptak, Christopher P.; Ahmed, Ahmed H.; Oswald, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate the majority of vertebrate excitatory synaptic transmission and are therapeutic targets for cognitive enhancement and treatment of schizophrenia. The binding domains of these tetrameric receptors consist of two dimers, and the dissociation of the dimer interface of the ligand-binding domain leads to desensitization in the continued presence of agonist. Positive allosteric modulators act by strengthening the dimer interface and reducing desensitization, thereby increasing steady-state activation. Removing the desensitized state for simplified analysis of receptor activation is commonly achieved using cyclothiazide (CTZ), the most potent modulator of the benzothiadiazide class, with the flip form of the AMPA receptor subtype. IDRA-21, the first benzothiadiazide to have an effect in behavioral tests, is an important lead compound in clinical trials for cognitive enhancement as it can cross the blood-brain barrier. Intermediate structures between CTZ and IDRA-21 show reduced potency suggesting that these two compounds have different contact points associated with binding. To understand how benzothiadiazides bind to the pocket bridging the dimer interface, we generated a series of crystal structures of the GluR2 ligand-binding domain complexed with benzothiadiazide derivatives (IDRA-21, hydroflumethiazide, hydrochlorothiazide, chlorothiazide, trichlormethiazide, and althiazide) for comparison with an existing structure for cyclothiazide. The structures detail how changes in the substituents in the 3- and 7-positions of the hydrobenzothiadiazide ring shift the orientation of the drug in the binding site and, in some cases, change the stoichiometry of binding. All derivatives maintain a hydrogen bond with the Ser754 hydroxyl, affirming the partial selectivity of the benzothiadiazides for the flip form of AMPA receptors. PMID:19673491

  1. A high capacity data centre network: simultaneous 4-PAM data at 20 Gbps and 2 GHz phase modulated RF clock signal over a single VCSEL carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isoe, G. M.; Wassin, S.; Gamatham, R. R. G.; Leitch, A. W. R.; Gibbon, T. B.

    2017-11-01

    Optical fibre communication technologies are playing important roles in data centre networks (DCNs). Techniques for increasing capacity and flexibility for the inter-rack/pod communications in data centres have drawn remarkable attention in recent years. In this work, we propose a low complexity, reliable, alternative technique for increasing DCN capacity and flexibility through multi-signal modulation onto a single mode VCSEL carrier. A 20 Gbps 4-PAM data signal is directly modulated on a single mode 10 GHz bandwidth VCSEL carrier at 1310 nm, therefore, doubling the network bit rate. Carrier spectral efficiency is further maximized by modulating its phase attribute with a 2 GHz reference frequency (RF) clock signal. We, therefore, simultaneously transmit a 20 Gbps 4-PAM data signal and a phase modulated 2 GHz RF signal using a single mode 10 GHz bandwidth VCSEL carrier. It is the first time a single mode 10 GHz bandwidth VCSEL carrier is reported to simultaneously transmit a directly modulated 4-PAM data signal and a phase modulated RF clock signal. A receiver sensitivity of -10. 52 dBm was attained for a 20 Gbps 4-PAM VCSEL transmission. The 2 GHz phase modulated RF clock signal introduced a power budget penalty of 0.21 dB. Simultaneous distribution of both data and timing signals over shared infrastructure significantly increases the aggregated data rate at different optical network units within the DCN, without expensive optics investment. We further demonstrate on the design of a software-defined digital signal processing assisted receiver to efficiently recover the transmitted signal without employing costly receiver hardware.

  2. Differential Modulation of Functional Dynamics and Allosteric Interactions in the Hsp90-Cochaperone Complexes with p23 and Aha1: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Blacklock, Kristin; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2013-01-01

    Allosteric interactions of the molecular chaperone Hsp90 with a large cohort of cochaperones and client proteins allow for molecular communication and event coupling in signal transduction networks. The integration of cochaperones into the Hsp90 system is driven by the regulatory mechanisms that modulate the progression of the ATPase cycle and control the recruitment of the Hsp90 clientele. In this work, we report the results of computational modeling of allosteric regulation in the Hsp90 complexes with the cochaperones p23 and Aha1. By integrating protein docking, biophysical simulations, modeling of allosteric communications, protein structure network analysis and the energy landscape theory we have investigated dynamics and stability of the Hsp90-p23 and Hsp90-Aha1 interactions in direct comparison with the extensive body of structural and functional experiments. The results have revealed that functional dynamics and allosteric interactions of Hsp90 can be selectively modulated by these cochaperones via specific targeting of the regulatory hinge regions that could restrict collective motions and stabilize specific chaperone conformations. The protein structure network parameters have quantified the effects of cochaperones on conformational stability of the Hsp90 complexes and identified dynamically stable communities of residues that can contribute to the strengthening of allosteric interactions. According to our results, p23-mediated changes in the Hsp90 interactions may provide “molecular brakes” that could slow down an efficient transmission of the inter-domain allosteric signals, consistent with the functional role of p23 in partially inhibiting the ATPase cycle. Unlike p23, Aha1-mediated acceleration of the Hsp90-ATPase cycle may be achieved via modulation of the equilibrium motions that facilitate allosteric changes favoring a closed dimerized form of Hsp90. The results of our study have shown that Aha1 and p23 can modulate the Hsp90-ATPase activity

  3. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF A NOVEL POSITIVE ALLOSTERIC MODULATOR OF AMPA RECEPTORS DERIVED FROM A STRUCTURE-BASED DRUG DESIGN STRATEGY

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Jonathan E.; Benveniste, Morris; Maclean, John K. F.; Partin, Kathryn M.; Jamieson, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors facilitate synaptic plasticity and can improve various forms of learning and memory. These modulators show promise as therapeutic agents for the treatment of neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, ADHD, and mental depression. Three classes of positive modulator, the benzamides, the thiadiazides, and the biarylsulfonamides differentially occupy a solvent accessible binding pocket at the interface between the two subunits that form the AMPA receptor ligand-binding pocket. Here, we describe the electrophysiological properties of a new chemotype derived from a structure-based drug design strategy (SBDD), which makes similar receptor interactions compared to previously reported classes of modulator. This pyrazole amide derivative, JAMI1001A, with a promising developability profile, efficaciously modulates AMPA receptor deactivation and desensitization of both flip and flop receptor isoforms. PMID:22735771

  4. Negative Allosteric Modulators of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Subtype 5 in Addiction: a Therapeutic Window

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abundant evidence at the anatomical, electrophysiological, and molecular levels implicates metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) in addiction. Consistently, the effects of a wide range of doses of different mGluR5 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) have been tested in various animal models of addiction. Here, these studies were subjected to a systematic review to find out if mGluR5 NAMs have a therapeutic potential that can be translated to the clinic. Methods: Literature on consumption/self-administration and reinstatement of drug seeking as outcomes of interest published up to April 2015 was retrieved via PubMed. The review focused on the effects of systemic (i.p., i.v., s.c.) administration of the mGluR5 NAMs 3-((2-Methyl-4-thiazolyl)ethynyl)pyridine (MTEP) and 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) on paradigms with cocaine, ethanol, nicotine, and food in rats. Results: MTEP and MPEP were found to reduce self-administration of cocaine, ethanol, and nicotine at doses ≥1mg/kg and 2.5mg/kg, respectively. Dose-response relationship resembled a sigmoidal curve, with low doses not reaching statistical significance and high doses reliably inhibiting self-administration of drugs of abuse. Importantly, self-administration of cocaine, ethanol, and nicotine, but not food, was reduced by MTEP and MPEP in the dose range of 1 to 2mg/kg and 2.5 to 3.2mg/kg, respectively. This dose range corresponds to approximately 50% to 80% mGluR5 occupancy. Interestingly, the limited data found in mice and monkeys showed a similar therapeutic window. Conclusion: Altogether, this review suggests a therapeutic window for mGluR5 NAMs that can be translated to the treatment of substance-related and addictive disorders. PMID:26802568

  5. Allosteric modulation model of the mu opioid receptor by herkinorin, a potent not alkaloidal agonist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmolejo-Valencia, A. F.; Martínez-Mayorga, K.

    2017-05-01

    Modulation of opioid receptors is the primary choice for pain management and structural information studies have gained new horizons with the recently available X-ray crystal structures. Herkinorin is one of the most remarkable salvinorin A derivative with high affinity for the mu opioid receptor, moderate selectivity and lack of nitrogen atoms on its structure. Surprisingly, binding models for herkinorin are lacking. In this work, we explore binding models of herkinorin using automated docking, molecular dynamics simulations, free energy calculations and available experimental information. Our herkinorin D-ICM-1 binding model predicted a binding free energy of -11.52 ± 1.14 kcal mol-1 by alchemical free energy estimations, which is close to the experimental values -10.91 ± 0.2 and -10.80 ± 0.05 kcal mol-1 and is in agreement with experimental structural information. Specifically, D-ICM-1 molecular dynamics simulations showed a water-mediated interaction between D-ICM-1 and the amino acid H2976.52, this interaction coincides with the co-crystallized ligands. Another relevant interaction, with N1272.63, allowed to rationalize herkinorin's selectivity to mu over delta opioid receptors. Our suggested binding model for herkinorin is in agreement with this and additional experimental data. The most remarkable observation derived from our D-ICM-1 model is that herkinorin reaches an allosteric sodium ion binding site near N1503.35. Key interactions in that region appear relevant for the lack of β-arrestin recruitment by herkinorin. This interaction is key for downstream signaling pathways involved in the development of side effects, such as tolerance. Future SAR studies and medicinal chemistry efforts will benefit from the structural information presented in this work.

  6. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor enhance sweet taste

    PubMed Central

    Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine; Tang, Xiao-Qing; Werner, Sara; Zhang, Feng; Li, Xiaodong; Kamdar, Poonit; Petrovic, Goran; Ditschun, Tanya; Java, Antoniette; Brust, Paul; Brune, Nicole; DuBois, Grant E.; Zoller, Mark; Karanewsky, Donald S.

    2010-01-01

    To identify molecules that could enhance sweetness perception, we undertook the screening of a compound library using a cell-based assay for the human sweet taste receptor and a panel of selected sweeteners. In one of these screens we found a hit, SE-1, which significantly enhanced the activity of sucralose in the assay. At 50 μM, SE-1 increased the sucralose potency by >20-fold. On the other hand, SE-1 exhibited little or no agonist activity on its own. SE-1 effects were strikingly selective for sucralose. Other popular sweeteners such as aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were not enhanced by SE-1 whereas sucrose and neotame potency were increased only by 1.3- to 2.5-fold at 50 μM. Further assay-guided chemical optimization of the initial hit SE-1 led to the discovery of SE-2 and SE-3, selective enhancers of sucralose and sucrose, respectively. SE-2 (50 μM) and SE-3 (200 μM) increased sucralose and sucrose potencies in the assay by 24- and 4.7-fold, respectively. In human taste tests, 100 μM of SE-1 and SE-2 allowed for a reduction of 50% to >80% in the concentration of sucralose, respectively, while maintaining the sweetness intensity, and 100 μM SE-3 allowed for a reduction of 33% in the concentration of sucrose while maintaining the sweetness intensity. These enhancers did not exhibit any sweetness when tasted on their own. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor could help reduce the caloric content in food and beverages while maintaining the desired taste. PMID:20173092

  7. Seven Transmembrane Receptors as Shapeshifting Proteins: The Impact of Allosteric Modulation and Functional Selectivity on New Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Laurence J.

    2010-01-01

    It is useful to consider seven transmembrane receptors (7TMRs) as disordered proteins able to allosterically respond to a number of binding partners. Considering 7TMRs as allosteric systems, affinity and efficacy can be thought of in terms of energy flow between a modulator, conduit (the receptor protein), and a number of guests. These guests can be other molecules, receptors, membrane-bound proteins, or signaling proteins in the cytosol. These vectorial flows of energy can yield standard canonical guest allostery (allosteric modification of drug effect), effects along the plane of the cell membrane (receptor oligomerization), or effects directed into the cytosol (differential signaling as functional selectivity). This review discusses these apparently diverse pharmacological effects in terms of molecular dynamics and protein ensemble theory, which tends to unify 7TMR behavior toward cells. Special consideration will be given to functional selectivity (biased agonism and biased antagonism) in terms of mechanism of action and potential therapeutic application. The explosion of technology that has enabled observation of diverse 7TMR behavior has also shown how drugs can have multiple (pluridimensional) efficacies and how this can cause paradoxical drug classification and nomenclatures. PMID:20392808

  8. P2X4 Receptor in Silico and Electrophysiological Approaches Reveal Insights of Ivermectin and Zinc Allosteric Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Latapiat, Verónica; Rodríguez, Felipe E.; Godoy, Francisca; Montenegro, Felipe A.; Barrera, Nelson P.; Huidobro-Toro, Juan P.

    2017-01-01

    Protein allosteric modulation is a pillar of metabolic regulatory mechanisms; this concept has been extended to include ion channel regulation. P2XRs are ligand-gated channels activated by extracellular ATP, sensitive to trace metals and other chemicals. By combining in silico calculations with electrophysiological recordings, we investigated the molecular basis of P2X4R modulation by Zn(II) and ivermectin, an antiparasite drug currently used in veterinary medicine. To this aim, docking studies, molecular dynamics simulations and non-bonded energy calculations for the P2X4R in the apo and holo states or in the presence of ivermectin and/or Zn(II) were accomplished. Based on the crystallized Danio rerio P2X4R, the rat P2X4R, P2X2R, and P2X7R structures were modeled, to determine ivermectin binding localization. Calculations revealed that its allosteric site is restricted to transmembrane domains of the P2X4R; the role of Y42 and W46 plus S341 and non-polar residues were revealed as essential, and are not present in the homologous P2X2R or P2X7R transmembrane domains. This finding was confirmed by preferential binding conformations and electrophysiological data, revealing P2X4R modulator specificity. Zn(II) acts in the P2X4R extracellular domain neighboring the SS3 bridge. Molecular dynamics in the different P2X4R states revealed allosterism-induced stability. Pore and lateral fenestration measurements of the P2X4R showed conformational changes in the presence of both modulators compatible with a larger opening of the extracellular vestibule. Electrophysiological studies demonstrated additive effects in the ATP-gated currents by joint applications of ivermectin plus Zn(II). The C132A P2X4R mutant was insensitive to Zn(II); but IVM caused a 4.9 ± 0.7-fold increase in the ATP-evoked currents. Likewise, the simultaneous application of both modulators elicited a 7.1 ± 1.7-fold increase in the ATP-gated current. Moreover, the C126A P2X4R mutant evoked similar ATP

  9. Anticonvulsant effects of structurally diverse GABA(B) positive allosteric modulators in the DBA/2J audiogenic seizure test: Comparison to baclofen and utility as a pharmacodynamic screening model.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jordan W; Moeller, Achim; Schmidt, Martin; Turner, Sean C; Nimmrich, Volker; Ma, Junli; Rueter, Lynne E; van der Kam, Elizabeth; Zhang, Min

    2016-02-01

    The GABA(B) receptor has been indicated as a promising target for multiple CNS-related disorders. Baclofen, a prototypical orthosteric agonist, is used clinically for the treatment of spastic movement disorders, but is associated with unwanted side-effects, such as sedation and motor impairment. Positive allosteric modulators (PAM), which bind to a topographically-distinct site apart from the orthosteric binding pocket, may provide an improved side-effect profile while maintaining baclofen-like efficacy. GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS, plays an important role in the etiology and treatment of seizure disorders. Baclofen is known to produce anticonvulsant effects in the DBA/2J mouse audiogenic seizure test (AGS), suggesting it may be a suitable assay for assessing pharmacodynamic effects. Little is known about the effects of GABA(B) PAMs, however. The studies presented here sought to investigate the AGS test as a pharmacodynamic (PD) screening model for GABA(B) PAMs by comparing the profile of structurally diverse PAMs to baclofen. GS39783, rac-BHFF, CMPPE, A-1295120 (N-(3-(4-(4-chloro-3-fluorobenzyl)-6-methoxy-3,5-dioxo-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-2(3H)-yl)phenyl)acetamide), and A-1474713 (N-(3-(4-(4-chlorobenzyl)-3,5-dioxo-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-2(3H)-yl)phenyl)acetamide) all produced robust, dose-dependent anticonvulsant effects; a similar profile was observed with baclofen. Pre-treatment with the GABA(B) antagonist SCH50911 completely blocked the anticonvulsant effects of baclofen and CMPPE in the AGS test, indicating such effects are likely mediated by the GABA(B) receptor. In addition to the standard anticonvulsant endpoint of the AGS test, video tracking software was employed to assess potential drug-induced motor side-effects during the acclimation period of the test. This analysis was sensitive to detecting drug-induced changes in total distance traveled, which was used to establish a therapeutic index (TI = hypoactivity

  10. Determinants of positive cooperativity between strychnine-like allosteric modulators and N-methylscopolamine at muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Jakubík, Jan; Dolezal, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown previously that the third extracellular loop (o3) and its vicinity play a critical role in allosteric modulation at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) (Ellis et al., 1993; Krejçí and Tuçek, 2001; Buller et al., 2002). In this study interaction of four chemically related substances (strychnine, its dimethoxy derivate brucine, precursor for synthesis of strychnine Wieland-Gumlich aldehyde (WGA), and precursor for synthesis of alcuronium propargyl-WGA) with orthosteric antagonist N-methylscopolamine (NMS) was investigated on the M3 subtype of mAChRs mutated at the o3 loop.

  11. Design, synthesis, and activity of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate analogs as allosteric modulators of hemoglobin O2 affinity.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Tigist W; Zhang, Ning; Palmer, Andre F; Matthews, Jason Shastri

    2013-04-01

    Four phosphonate derivates of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), in which the phosphate group is replaced by a methylene or difluoromethylene, were successfully synthesized for use as allosteric modulators of hemoglobin (Hb) O2 affinity. The syntheses were accomplished in four steps and the reagents were converted to their potassium salts to allow for effective binding with Hb in aqueous media. O2 equilibrium measurements of the chemically modified Hbs exhibited P50 values in the range 8.9-12.8 with Hill coefficients in the range of 1.5-2.4.

  12. HBV core protein allosteric modulators differentially alter cccDNA biosynthesis from de novo infection and intracellular amplification pathways.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fang; Zhao, Qiong; Sheraz, Muhammad; Cheng, Junjun; Qi, Yonghe; Su, Qing; Cuconati, Andrea; Wei, Lai; Du, Yanming; Li, Wenhui; Chang, Jinhong; Guo, Ju-Tao

    2017-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein assembles viral pre-genomic (pg) RNA and DNA polymerase into nucleocapsids for reverse transcriptional DNA replication to take place. Several chemotypes of small molecules, including heteroaryldihydropyrimidines (HAPs) and sulfamoylbenzamides (SBAs), have been discovered to allosterically modulate core protein structure and consequentially alter the kinetics and pathway of core protein assembly, resulting in formation of irregularly-shaped core protein aggregates or "empty" capsids devoid of pre-genomic RNA and viral DNA polymerase. Interestingly, in addition to inhibiting nucleocapsid assembly and subsequent viral genome replication, we have now demonstrated that HAPs and SBAs differentially modulate the biosynthesis of covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA from de novo infection and intracellular amplification pathways by inducing disassembly of nucleocapsids derived from virions as well as double-stranded DNA-containing progeny nucleocapsids in the cytoplasm. Specifically, the mistimed cuing of nucleocapsid uncoating prevents cccDNA formation during de novo infection of hepatocytes, while transiently accelerating cccDNA synthesis from cytoplasmic progeny nucleocapsids. Our studies indicate that elongation of positive-stranded DNA induces structural changes of nucleocapsids, which confers ability of mature nucleocapsids to bind CpAMs and triggers its disassembly. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the dual effects of the core protein allosteric modulators on nucleocapsid assembly and disassembly will facilitate the discovery of novel core protein-targeting antiviral agents that can more efficiently suppress cccDNA synthesis and cure chronic hepatitis B.

  13. Molecular Mechanism of Action for Allosteric Modulators and Agonists in CC-chemokine Receptor 5 (CCR5).

    PubMed

    Karlshøj, Stefanie; Amarandi, Roxana Maria; Larsen, Olav; Daugvilaite, Viktorija; Steen, Anne; Brvar, Matjaž; Pui, Aurel; Frimurer, Thomas Michael; Ulven, Trond; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2016-12-23

    The small molecule metal ion chelators bipyridine and terpyridine complexed with Zn 2+ (ZnBip and ZnTerp) act as CCR5 agonists and strong positive allosteric modulators of CCL3 binding to CCR5, weak modulators of CCL4 binding, and competitors for CCL5 binding. Here we describe their binding site using computational modeling, binding, and functional studies on WT and mutated CCR5. The metal ion Zn 2+ is anchored to the chemokine receptor-conserved Glu-283 VII:06/7.39 Both chelators interact with aromatic residues in the transmembrane receptor domain. The additional pyridine ring of ZnTerp binds deeply in the major binding pocket and, in contrast to ZnBip, interacts directly with the Trp-248 VI:13/6.48 microswitch, contributing to its 8-fold higher potency. The impact of Trp-248 was further confirmed by ZnClTerp, a chloro-substituted version of ZnTerp that showed no inherent agonism but maintained positive allosteric modulation of CCL3 binding. Despite a similar overall binding mode of all three metal ion chelator complexes, the pyridine ring of ZnClTerp blocks the conformational switch of Trp-248 required for receptor activation, thereby explaining its lack of activity. Importantly, ZnClTerp becomes agonist to the same extent as ZnTerp upon Ala mutation of Ile-116 III:16/3.40 , a residue that constrains the Trp-248 microswitch in its inactive conformation. Binding studies with 125 I-CCL3 revealed an allosteric interface between the chemokine and the small molecule binding site, including residues Tyr-37 I:07/1.39 , Trp-86 II:20/2.60 , and Phe-109 III:09/3.33 The small molecules and CCL3 approach this interface from opposite directions, with some residues being mutually exploited. This study provides new insight into the molecular mechanism of CCR5 activation and paves the way for future allosteric drugs for chemokine receptors. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Optical control of pain in vivo with a photoactive mGlu5 receptor negative allosteric modulator.

    PubMed

    Font, Joan; López-Cano, Marc; Notartomaso, Serena; Scarselli, Pamela; Di Pietro, Paola; Bresolí-Obach, Roger; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Malhaire, Fanny; Rovira, Xavier; Catena, Juanlo; Giraldo, Jesús; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Goudet, Cyril; Nonell, Santi; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Llebaria, Amadeu; Ciruela, Francisco

    2017-04-11

    Light-operated drugs constitute a major target in drug discovery, since they may provide spatiotemporal resolution for the treatment of complex diseases (i.e. chronic pain). JF-NP-26 is an inactive photocaged derivative of the metabotropic glutamate type 5 (mGlu 5 ) receptor negative allosteric modulator raseglurant. Violet light illumination of JF-NP-26 induces a photochemical reaction prompting the active-drug's release, which effectively controls mGlu 5 receptor activity both in ectopic expressing systems and in striatal primary neurons. Systemic administration in mice followed by local light-emitting diode (LED)-based illumination, either of the thalamus or the peripheral tissues, induced JF-NP-26-mediated light-dependent analgesia both in neuropathic and in acute/tonic inflammatory pain models. These data offer the first example of optical control of analgesia in vivo using a photocaged mGlu 5 receptor negative allosteric modulator. This approach shows potential for precisely targeting, in time and space, endogenous receptors, which may allow a better management of difficult-to-treat disorders.

  15. Efficacy of Selective PDE4D Negative Allosteric Modulators in the Object Retrieval Task in Female Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, Jane S.; Beaumont, Vahri; Watson, James M.; Chew, Chang Sing; Beconi, Maria; Hutcheson, Daniel M.; Dominguez, Celia; Munoz-Sanjuan, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signalling plays an important role in synaptic plasticity and information processing in the hippocampal and basal ganglia systems. The augmentation of cAMP signalling through the selective inhibition of phosphodiesterases represents a viable strategy to treat disorders associated with dysfunction of these circuits. The phosphodiesterase (PDE) type 4 inhibitor rolipram has shown significant pro-cognitive effects in neurological disease models, both in rodents and primates. However, competitive non-isoform selective PDE4 inhibitors have a low therapeutic index which has stalled their clinical development. Here, we demonstrate the pro-cognitive effects of selective negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of PDE4D, D159687 and D159797 in female Cynomolgous macaques, in the object retrieval detour task. The efficacy displayed by these NAMs in a primate cognitive task which engages the corticostriatal circuitry, together with their suitable pharmacokinetic properties and safety profiles, suggests that clinical development of these allosteric modulators should be considered for the treatment of a variety of brain disorders associated with cognitive decline. PMID:25050979

  16. Structural and Functional Analysis of Two New Positive Allosteric Modulators of GluA2 Desensitization and Deactivation

    PubMed Central

    Timm, David E.; Benveniste, Morris; Weeks, Autumn M.; Nisenbaum, Eric S.

    2011-01-01

    At the dimer interface of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors a hydrophilic pocket is formed that is known to interact with two classes of positive allosteric modulators, represented by cyclothiazide and the ampakine 2H,3H,6aH-pyrrolidino(2,1–3′,2′)1,3-oxazino(6′,5′-5,4)benzo(e)1,4-dioxan-10-one (CX614). Here, we present structural and functional data on two new positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors, phenyl-1,4-bis-alkylsulfonamide (CMPDA) and phenyl-1,4-bis-carboxythiophene (CMPDB). Crystallographic data show that these compounds bind within the modulator-binding pocket and that substituents of each compound overlap with distinct moieties of cyclothiazide and CX614. The goals of the present study were to determine 1) the degree of modulation by CMPDA and CMPDB of AMPA receptor deactivation and desensitization; 2) whether these compounds are splice isoform-selective; and 3) whether predictions of mechanism of action could be inferred by comparing molecular interactions between the ligand-binding domain and each compound with those of cyclothiazide and CX614. CMPDB was found to be more isoform-selective than would be predicted from initial binding assays. It is noteworthy that these new compounds are both more potent and more effective and may be more clinically relevant than the AMPA receptor modulators described previously. PMID:21543522

  17. Controlling allosteric networks in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokholyan, Nikolay

    2013-03-01

    We present a novel methodology based on graph theory and discrete molecular dynamics simulations for delineating allosteric pathways in proteins. We use this methodology to uncover the structural mechanisms responsible for coupling of distal sites on proteins and utilize it for allosteric modulation of proteins. We will present examples where inference of allosteric networks and its rewiring allows us to ``rescue'' cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a protein associated with fatal genetic disease cystic fibrosis. We also use our methodology to control protein function allosterically. We design a novel protein domain that can be inserted into identified allosteric site of target protein. Using a drug that binds to our domain, we alter the function of the target protein. We successfully tested this methodology in vitro, in living cells and in zebrafish. We further demonstrate transferability of our allosteric modulation methodology to other systems and extend it to become ligh-activatable.

  18. A Novel M1 PAM VU0486846 Exerts Efficacy in Cognition Models without Displaying Agonist Activity or Cholinergic Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rook, Jerri M; Bertron, Jeanette L; Cho, Hyekyung P; Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Moran, Sean P; Maksymetz, James T; Nance, Kellie D; Dickerson, Jonathan W; Remke, Daniel H; Chang, Sichen; Harp, Joel M; Blobaum, Anna L; Niswender, Colleen M; Jones, Carrie K; Stauffer, Shaun R; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W

    2018-05-08

    Selective activation of the M 1 subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, via positive allosteric modulation (PAM), is an exciting strategy to improve cognition in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease patients. However, highly potent M 1 ago-PAMs, such as MK-7622, PF-06764427, and PF-06827443, can engender excessive activation of M 1 , leading to agonist actions in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that impair cognitive function, induce behavioral convulsions, and result in other classic cholinergic adverse events (AEs). Here, we report a fundamentally new and highly selective M 1 PAM, VU0486846. VU0486846 possesses only weak agonist activity in M 1 -expressing cell lines with high receptor reserve and is devoid of agonist actions in the PFC, unlike previously reported ago-PAMs MK-7622, PF-06764427, and PF-06827443. Moreover, VU0486846 shows no interaction with antagonist binding at the orthosteric acetylcholine (ACh) site (e.g., neither bitopic nor displaying negative cooperativity with [ 3 H]-NMS binding at the orthosteric site), no seizure liability at high brain exposures, and no cholinergic AEs. However, as opposed to ago-PAMs, VU0486846 produces robust efficacy in the novel object recognition model of cognitive function. Importantly, we show for the first time that an M 1 PAM can reverse the cognitive deficits induced by atypical antipsychotics, such as risperidone. These findings further strengthen the argument that compounds with modest in vitro M 1 PAM activity (EC 50 > 100 nM) and pure-PAM activity in native tissues display robust procognitive efficacy without AEs mediated by excessive activation of M 1 . Overall, the combination of compound assessment with recombinant in vitro assays (mindful of receptor reserve), native tissue systems (PFC), and phenotypic screens (behavioral convulsions) is essential to fully understand and evaluate lead compounds and enhance success in clinical development.

  19. Endogenous vs Exogenous Allosteric Modulators in GPCRs: A dispute for shuttling CB1 among different membrane microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stornaiuolo, Mariano; Bruno, Agostino; Botta, Lorenzo; Regina, Giuseppe La; Cosconati, Sandro; Silvestri, Romano; Marinelli, Luciana; Novellino, Ettore

    2015-10-01

    A Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CB1) binding site for the selective allosteric modulator ORG27569 is here identified through an integrate approach of consensus pocket prediction, mutagenesis studies and Mass Spectrometry. This unprecedented ORG27569 pocket presents the structural features of a Cholesterol Consensus Motif, a cholesterol interacting region already found in other GPCRs. ORG27569 and cholesterol affects oppositely CB1 affinity for orthosteric ligands. Moreover, the rise in cholesterol intracellular level results in CB1 trafficking to the axonal region of neuronal cells, while, on the contrary, ORG27568 binding induces CB1 enrichment at the soma. This control of receptor migration among functionally different membrane regions of the cell further contributes to downstream signalling and adds a previously unknown mechanism underpinning CB1 modulation by ORG27569 , that goes beyond a mere control of receptor affinity for orthosteric ligands.

  20. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu4)-positive allosteric modulators for the treatment of Parkinson's disease: historical perspective and review of the patent literature.

    PubMed

    Lindsley, Craig W; Hopkins, Corey R

    2012-05-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu(4)) is a group III GPCR and has been demonstrated to play a major role in a number of therapeutic areas within the CNS. As the orthosteric site of all glutamate receptors is highly conserved, modulating mGlu(4) via allosteric modulation has emerged as a very attractive mode-of-action and has been validated preclinically in a number of animal models for Parkinson's disease, anxiety, pain, and neuroinflammation. In this review, the patent literature for mGlu(4)-positive allosteric modulators over the past 4 years will be provided. Patents from all companies are discussed and an overview of the chemical matter and relevant biological properties will be given. Although there has yet to be an mGlu(4)-positive allosteric modulator progressed into clinical trials, there is a wealth of preclinical data from the primary literature that shows the promise of this emerging target. A number of academic and industry laboratories have recently published exciting patent data covering a multitude of chemical matter. Positive allosteric modulation of mGlu(4) remains one of the more attractive non-dopaminergic therapies for Parkinson's disease, as well as emerging data for other indications such as pain, neuroinflammation, schizophrenia and diabetes, which could potentially make mGlu(4) a significant therapeutic target going forward.

  1. The First Negative Allosteric Modulator for Dopamine D2 and D3 Receptors, SB269652 May Lead to a New Generation of Antipsychotic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Mario; Fasciani, Irene; Marampon, Francesco; Maggio, Roberto; Scarselli, Marco

    2017-06-01

    D 2 and D 3 dopamine receptors belong to the largest family of cell surface proteins in eukaryotes, the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Considering their crucial physiologic functions and their relatively accessible cellular locations, GPCRs represent one of the most important classes of therapeutic targets. Until recently, the only strategy to develop drugs regulating GPCR activity was through the identification of compounds that directly acted on the orthosteric sites for endogenous ligands. However, many efforts have recently been made to identify small molecules that are able to interact with allosteric sites. These sites are less well-conserved, therefore allosteric ligands have greater selectivity on the specific receptor. Strikingly, the use of allosteric modulators can provide specific advantages, such as an increased selectivity for GPCR subunits and the ability to introduce specific beneficial therapeutic effects without disrupting the integrity of complex physiologically regulated networks. In 2010, our group unexpectedly found that N -[(1r,4r)-4-[2-(7-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-yl)ethyl]cyclohexyl]-1H-indole-2-carboxamide (SB269652), a compound supposed to interact with the orthosteric binding site of dopamine receptors, was actually a negative allosteric modulator of D 2 - and D 3 -receptor dimers, thus identifying the first allosteric small molecule acting on these important therapeutic targets. This review addresses the progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of interaction between the negative modulator SB269652 and D 2 and D 3 dopamine receptor monomers and dimers, and surveys the prospects for developing new dopamine receptor allosteric drugs with SB269652 as the leading compound. U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  2. Functional selectivity induced by mGlu₄ receptor positive allosteric modulation and concomitant activation of Gq coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shen; Zamorano, Rocio; Conn, P Jeffrey; Niswender, Colleen M

    2013-03-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlus) are a group of Family C Seven Transmembrane Spanning Receptors (7TMRs) that play important roles in modulating signaling transduction, particularly within the central nervous system. mGlu(4) belongs to a subfamily of mGlus that is predominantly coupled to G(i/o) G proteins. We now report that the ubiquitous autacoid and neuromodulator, histamine, induces substantial glutamate-activated calcium mobilization in mGlu(4)-expressing cells, an effect which is observed in the absence of co-expressed chimeric G proteins. This strong induction of calcium signaling downstream of glutamate activation of mGlu(4) depends upon the presence of H(1) histamine receptors. Interestingly, the potentiating effect of histamine activation does not extend to other mGlu(4)-mediated signaling events downstream of G(i/o) G proteins, such as cAMP inhibition, suggesting that the presence of G(q) coupled receptors such as H(1) may bias normal mGlu(4)-mediated G(i/o) signaling events. When the activity induced by small molecule positive allosteric modulators of mGlu(4) is assessed, the potentiated signaling of mGlu(4) is further biased by histamine toward calcium-dependent pathways. These results suggest that G(i/o)-coupled mGlus may induce substantial, and potentially unexpected, calcium-mediated signaling events if stimulation occurs concomitantly with activation of G(q) receptors. Additionally, our results suggest that signaling induced by small molecule positive allosteric modulators may be substantially biased when G(q) receptors are co-activated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Agonist activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors via an allosteric transmembrane site

    PubMed Central

    Gill, JasKiran K.; Savolainen, Mari; Young, Gareth T.; Zwart, Ruud; Sher, Emanuele; Millar, Neil S.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, such as acetylcholine, act at an extracellular “orthosteric” binding site located at the interface between two adjacent subunits. Here, we present evidence of potent activation of α7 nAChRs via an allosteric transmembrane site. Previous studies have identified a series of nAChR-positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that lack agonist activity but are able to potentiate responses to orthosteric agonists, such as acetylcholine. It has been shown, for example, that TQS acts as a conventional α7 nAChR PAM. In contrast, we have found that a compound with close chemical similarity to TQS (4BP-TQS) is a potent allosteric agonist of α7 nAChRs. Whereas the α7 nAChR antagonist metyllycaconitine acts competitively with conventional nicotinic agonists, metyllycaconitine is a noncompetitive antagonist of 4BP-TQS. Mutation of an amino acid (M253L), located in a transmembrane cavity that has been proposed as being the binding site for PAMs, completely blocks agonist activation by 4BP-TQS. In contrast, this mutation had no significant effect on agonist activation by acetylcholine. Conversely, mutation of an amino acid located within the known orthosteric binding site (W148F) has a profound effect on agonist potency of acetylcholine (resulting in a shift of ∼200-fold in the acetylcholine dose-response curve), but had little effect on the agonist dose-response curve for 4BP-TQS. Computer docking studies with an α7 homology model provides evidence that both TQS and 4BP-TQS bind within an intrasubunit transmembrane cavity. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that agonist activation of nAChRs can occur via an allosteric transmembrane site. PMID:21436053

  4. Piracetam defines a new binding site for allosteric modulators of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ahmed H; Oswald, Robert E

    2010-03-11

    Glutamate receptors are the most prevalent excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the vertebrate central nervous system and are important potential drug targets for cognitive enhancement and the treatment of schizophrenia. Allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors promote dimerization by binding to a dimer interface and reducing desensitization and deactivation. The pyrrolidine allosteric modulators, piracetam and aniracetam, were among the first of this class of drugs to be discovered. We have determined the structure of the ligand binding domain of the AMPA receptor subtypes GluA2 and GluA3 with piracetam and a corresponding structure of GluA3 with aniracetam. Both drugs bind to GluA2 and GluA3 in a very similar manner, suggesting little subunit specificity. However, the binding sites for piracetam and aniracetam differ considerably. Aniracetam binds to a symmetrical site at the center of the dimer interface. Piracetam binds to multiple sites along the dimer interface with low occupation, one of which is a unique binding site for potential allosteric modulators. This new site may be of importance in the design of new allosteric regulators.

  5. Piracetam Defines a New Binding Site for Allosteric Modulators of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors§

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ahmed H.; Oswald, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Glutamate receptors are the most prevalent excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the vertebrate central nervous system and are important potential drug targets for cognitive enhancement and the treatment of schizophrenia. Allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors promote dimerization by binding to a dimer interface and reducing desensitization and deactivation. The pyrrolidine allosteric modulators, piracetam and aniracetam, were among the first of this class of drugs to be discovered. We have determined the structure of the ligand binding domain of the AMPA receptor subtypes GluA2 and GluA3 with piracetam and a corresponding structure of GluA3 with aniracetam. Both drugs bind to both GluA2 and GluA3 in a very similar manner, suggesting little subunit specificity. However, the binding sites for piracetam and aniracetam differ considerably. Aniracetam binds to a symmetrical site at the center of the dimer interface. Piracetam binds to multiple sites along the dimer interface with low occupation, one of which is a unique binding site for potential allosteric modulators. This new site may be of importance in the design of new allosteric regulators. PMID:20163115

  6. GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators modify the abuse-related behavioral and neurochemical effects of methamphetamine in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Berro, Laís F; Andersen, Monica L; Tufik, Sergio; Howell, Leonard L

    2017-09-01

    GABA A receptor positive allosteric modulators (GABA A receptor modulators) are commonly used for the treatment of insomnia. Nevertheless, the effects of these compounds on psychostimulant-induced sleep impairment are poorly understood. Because GABA A receptor modulators have been shown to decrease the abuse-related effects of psychostimulants, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of temazepam (0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg) and eszopiclone (0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg), two GABA A receptor modulators, on the behavioral neuropharmacology of methamphetamine in adult rhesus macaques (n = 5). Sleep-like measures and general daytime activity were evaluated with Actiwatch monitors. Methamphetamine self-administration (0.03 mg/kg/inf) was evaluated during morning sessions. Methamphetamine-induced dopamine overflow was assessed through in vivo microdialysis targeting the nucleus accumbens. Nighttime treatment with either temazepam or eszopiclone was ineffective in improving sleep-like measures disrupted by methamphetamine self-administration. Acute pretreatment with a low dose of temazepam before self-administration sessions increased methamphetamine self-administration without affecting normal daytime home-cage activity. At a high dose, acute temazepam pretreatment decreased methamphetamine self-administration and attenuated methamphetamine-induced increases in dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, without decreasing general daytime activity. Acute eszopiclone treatment exerted no effects on methamphetamine intake or drug-induced increases in dopamine. Our study suggests that treatments based on GABA A receptor modulators are not effective for the treatment of sleep disruption in the context of psychostimulant use. In addition, distinct GABA A receptor modulators differentially modulated the abuse-related effects of methamphetamine, with acute treatment with the high efficacy GABA A receptor modulator temazepam decreasing the behavioral and neurochemical effects

  7. Agonistic aptamer to the insulin receptor leads to biased signaling and functional selectivity through allosteric modulation

    PubMed Central

    Yunn, Na-Oh; Koh, Ara; Han, Seungmin; Lim, Jong Hun; Park, Sehoon; Lee, Jiyoun; Kim, Eui; Jang, Sung Key; Berggren, Per-Olof; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Due to their high affinity and specificity, aptamers have been widely used as effective inhibitors in clinical applications. However, the ability to activate protein function through aptamer-protein interaction has not been well-elucidated. To investigate their potential as target-specific agonists, we used SELEX to generate aptamers to the insulin receptor (IR) and identified an agonistic aptamer named IR-A48 that specifically binds to IR, but not to IGF-1 receptor. Despite its capacity to stimulate IR autophosphorylation, similar to insulin, we found that IR-A48 not only binds to an allosteric site distinct from the insulin binding site, but also preferentially induces Y1150 phosphorylation in the IR kinase domain. Moreover, Y1150-biased phosphorylation induced by IR-A48 selectively activates specific signaling pathways downstream of IR. In contrast to insulin-mediated activation of IR, IR-A48 binding has little effect on the MAPK pathway and proliferation of cancer cells. Instead, AKT S473 phosphorylation is highly stimulated by IR-A48, resulting in increased glucose uptake both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we present IR-A48 as a biased agonist able to selectively induce the metabolic activity of IR through allosteric binding. Furthermore, our study also suggests that aptamers can be a promising tool for developing artificial biased agonists to targeted receptors. PMID:26245346

  8. DSR-98776, a novel selective mGlu5 receptor negative allosteric modulator with potent antidepressant and antimanic activity.

    PubMed

    Kato, Taro; Takata, Makoto; Kitaichi, Maiko; Kassai, Momoe; Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Ishikawa, Chihiro; Hirose, Wataru; Yoshida, Kozo; Shimizu, Isao

    2015-06-15

    Modulation of monoaminergic systems has been the main stream of treatment for patients with mood disorders. However, recent evidence suggests that the glutamatergic system plays an important role in the pathophysiology of these disorders. This study pharmacologically characterized a structurally novel metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor negative allosteric modulator, DSR-98776, and evaluated its effect on rodent models of depression and mania. First, DSR-98776 in vitro profile was assessed using intracellular calcium and radioligand binding assays. This compound showed dose-dependent inhibitory activity for mGlu5 receptors by binding to the same allosteric site as 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP), a known mGlu5 inhibitor. The in vivo therapeutic benefits of DSR-98776 were evaluated in common rodent models of depression and mania. In the rat forced swimming test, DSR-98776 (1-3mg/kg) significantly reduced rats immobility time after treatment for 7 consecutive days, while paroxetine (3 and 10mg/kg) required administration for 2 consecutive weeks to reduce rats immobility time. In the mouse forced swimming test, acute administration of DSR-98776 (10-30 mg/kg) significantly reduced immobility time. This effect was not influenced by 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride-induced 5-HT depletion. Finally, DSR-98776 (30 mg/kg) significantly decreased methamphetamine/chlordiazepoxide-induced hyperactivity in mice, which reflects this compound antimanic-like effect. These results indicate that DSR-98776 acts as an orally potent antidepressant and antimanic in rodent models and can be a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of a broad range of mood disorders with depressive and manic states. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Using cholinergic M1 receptor positive allosteric modulators to improve memory via enhancement of brain cholinergic communication.

    PubMed

    Chambon, Caroline; Jatzke, Claudia; Wegener, Nico; Gravius, Andreas; Danysz, Wojciech

    2012-12-15

    Benzylquinolone carboxylic acid (BQCA) is a recently described cholinergic muscarinic M(1) receptor positive allosteric modulator having potential as cognitive enhancer in dementia. The present study focused on the characterisation of BQCA's mode of action in relation to positive effects on memory and side-effects in an animal model. To get insight into this mode of action, in vitro receptor potency/left shift experiments in cells stably expressing the rat's M(1) receptor were performed. They revealed an inflection point value of BQCA corresponding to 306nM, and potentiation of the agonist response up to 47-fold in presence of 10μM of BQCA. In vivo, brain microdialysis showed a maximal brain level of 270nM, 40min after i.p. administration at 10mg/kg. Based on in vitro data obtained with this dose, it can be concluded that BQCA reaches brain levels which should potentiate the agonist response about 4-fold. Behavioural data confirmed that BQCA used at 10mg/kg attenuated scopolamine-induced memory deficit in a spontaneous alternation task. Moreover, BQCA showed no side effect at 10mg/kg and above in spontaneous locomotion and salivation tests. The profile of BQCA observed in the present study displays a clear advantage over the M(1)-M(3) agonist cevimeline. The present data show the therapeutic potential of the M(1) receptor positive allosteric modulator BQCA for the treatment of memory deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Discovery of a Positive Allosteric Modulator of the Thyrotropin Receptor: Potentiation of Thyrotropin-Mediated Preosteoblast Differentiation In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Susanne; Eliseeva, Elena; Boutin, Alisa; Barnaeva, Elena; Ferrer, Marc; Southall, Noel; Kim, David; Hu, Xin; Morgan, Sarah J; Marugan, Juan J; Gershengorn, Marvin C

    2018-01-01

    Recently, we showed that TSH-enhanced differentiation of a human preosteoblast-like cell model involved a β -arrestin 1 ( β -Arr 1)-mediated pathway. To study this pathway in more detail, we sought to discover a small molecule ligand that was functionally selective toward human TSH receptor (TSHR) activation of β -Arr 1. High-throughput screening using a cell line stably expressing mutated TSHRs and mutated β -Arr 1 (DiscoverX1 cells) led to the discovery of agonists that stimulated translocation of β -Arr 1 to the TSHR, but did not activate G s -mediated signaling pathways, i.e., cAMP production. D3- β Arr (NCGC00379308) was selected. In DiscoverX1 cells, D3- β Arr stimulated β -Arr 1 translocation with a 5.1-fold greater efficacy than TSH and therefore potentiated the effect of TSH in stimulating β -Arr 1 translocation. In human U2OS-TSHR cells expressing wild-type TSHRs, which is a model of human preosteoblast-like cells, TSH upregulated the osteoblast-specific genes osteopontin (OPN) and alkaline phosphatase (ALPL). D3- β Arr alone had only a weak effect to upregulate these bone markers, but D3- β Arr potentiated TSH-induced upregulation of ALPL and OPN mRNA levels 1.6-fold and 5.5-fold, respectively, at the maximum dose of ligands. Furthermore, the positive allosteric modulator effect of D3- β Arr resulted in an increase of TSH-induced secretion of OPN protein. In summary, we have discovered the first small molecule positive allosteric modulator of TSHR. As D3- β Arr potentiates the effect of TSH to enhance differentiation of a human preosteoblast in an in vitro model, it will allow a novel experimental approach for probing the role of TSH-induced β -Arr 1 signaling in osteoblast differentiation. U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  11. Selective GABA(A) α5 positive allosteric modulators improve cognitive function in aged rats with memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Koh, Ming Teng; Rosenzweig-Lipson, Sharon; Gallagher, Michela

    2013-01-01

    A condition of excess activity in the hippocampal formation is observed in the aging brain and in conditions that confer additional risk during aging for Alzheimer's disease. Compounds that act as positive allosteric modulators at GABA(A) α5 receptors might be useful in targeting this condition because GABA(A) α5 receptors mediate tonic inhibition of principal neurons in the affected network. While agents to improve cognitive function in the past focused on inverse agonists, which are negative allosteric modulators at GABA(A) α5 receptors, research supporting that approach used only young animals and predated current evidence for excessive hippocampal activity in age-related conditions of cognitive impairment. Here, we used two compounds, Compound 44 [6,6-dimethyl-3-(3-hydroxypropyl)thio-1-(thiazol-2-yl)-6,7-dihydro-2-benzothiophen-4(5H)-one] and Compound 6 [methyl 3,5-diphenylpyridazine-4-carboxylate], with functional activity as potentiators of γ-aminobutyric acid at GABA(A) α5 receptors, to test their ability to improve hippocampal-dependent memory in aged rats with identified cognitive impairment. Improvement was obtained in aged rats across protocols differing in motivational and performance demands and across varying retention intervals. Significant memory improvement occurred after either intracereboventricular infusion with Compound 44 (100 μg) in a water maze task or systemic administration with Compound 6 (3 mg/kg) in a radial arm maze task. Furthermore, systemic administration improved behavioral performance at dosing shown to provide drug exposure in the brain and in vivo receptor occupancy in the hippocampus. These data suggest a novel approach to improve neural network function in clinical conditions of excess hippocampal activity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Orthosteric and allosteric potentiation of heteromeric neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyi; Lindstrom, Jon

    2018-06-01

    Heteromeric nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) were thought to have two orthodox agonist-binding sites at two α/β subunit interfaces. Highly selective ligands are hard to develop by targeting orthodox agonist sites because of high sequence similarity of this binding pocket among different subunits. Recently, unorthodox ACh-binding sites have been discovered at some α/α and β/α subunit interfaces, such as α4/α4, α5/α4 and β3/α4. Targeting unorthodox sites may yield subtype-selective ligands, such as those for (α4β2) 2 α5, (α4β2) 2 β3 and (α6β2) 2 β3 nAChRs. The unorthodox sites have unique pharmacology. Agonist binding at one unorthodox site is not sufficient to activate nAChRs, but it increases activation from the orthodox sites. NS9283, a selective agonist for the unorthodox α4/α4 site, was initially thought to be a positive allosteric modulator (PAM). NS9283 activates nAChRs with three engineered α4/α4 sites. PAMs, on the other hand, act at allosteric sites where ACh cannot bind. Known PAM sites include the ACh-homologous non-canonical site (e.g. morantel at β/α), the C-terminus (e.g. Br-PBTC and 17β-estradiol), a transmembrane domain (e.g. LY2087101) or extracellular and transmembrane domain interfaces (e.g. NS206). Some of these PAMs, such as Br-PBTC and 17β-estradiol, require only one subunit to potentiate activation of nAChRs. In this review, we will discuss differences between activation from orthosteric and allosteric sites, their selective ligands and clinical implications. These studies have advanced understanding of the structure, assembly and pharmacology of heteromeric neuronal nAChRs. This article is part of a themed section on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v175.11/issuetoc. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. A novel positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor: the action of (+)-ROD188

    PubMed Central

    Thomet, Urs; Baur, Roland; Razet, Rodolphe; Dodd, Robert H; Furtmüller, Roman; Sieghart, Werner; Sigel, Erwin

    2000-01-01

    (+)-ROD188 was synthesized in the search for novel ligands of the GABA binding site. It shares some structural similarity with bicuculline. (+)-ROD188 failed to displace [3H]-muscimol in binding studies and failed to induce channel opening in recombinant rat α1β2γ2 GABAA receptors functionally expressed in Xenopus oocytes. (+)-ROD188 allosterically stimulated GABA induced currents. Displacement of [3H]-Ro15-1788 indicated a low affinity action at the benzodiazepine binding site. In functional studies, stimulation by (+)-ROD188 was little sensitive to the presence of 1 μM of the benzodiazepine antagonist Ro 15-1788, and (+)-ROD188 also stimulated currents mediated by α1β2, indicating a major mechanism of action different from that of benzodiazepines. Allosteric stimulation by (+)-ROD188 was similar in α1β2N265S as in unmutated α1β2, while that by loreclezole was strongly reduced. (+)-ROD188 also strongly stimulated currents elicited by either pentobarbital or 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (3α-OH-DHP), in line with a mode of action different from that of barbiturates or neurosteroids as channel agonists. Stimulation by (+)-ROD188 was largest in α6β2γ2 (α6β2γ2>>α1β2γ2=α5β2γ2>α2β2γ2= α3β2γ2), indicating a unique subunit isoform specificity. Miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSC) in cultures of rat hippocampal neurons, caused by spontaneous release of GABA showed a prolonged decay time in the presence of 30 μM (+)-ROD188, indicating an enhanced synaptic inhibitory transmission. PMID:11030736

  14. VU0477573: Partial Negative Allosteric Modulator of the Subtype 5 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor with In Vivo Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Yuh, Joannes P.; Gregory, Karen J.; Morrison, Ryan D.; Bates, Brittney S.; Stauffer, Shaun R.; Emmitte, Kyle A.; Bubser, Michael; Peng, Weimin; Nedelcovych, Michael T.; Thompson, Analisa; Lv, Xiaohui; Xiang, Zixiu; Daniels, J. Scott; Niswender, Colleen M.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Jones, Carrie K.; Conn, P. Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) have potential applications in the treatment of fragile X syndrome, levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, addiction, and anxiety; however, clinical and preclinical studies raise concerns that complete blockade of mGlu5 and inverse agonist activity of current mGlu5 NAMs contribute to adverse effects that limit the therapeutic use of these compounds. We report the discovery and characterization of a novel mGlu5 NAM, N,N-diethyl-5-((3-fluorophenyl)ethynyl)picolinamide (VU0477573) that binds to the same allosteric site as the prototypical mGlu5 NAM MPEP but displays weak negative cooperativity. Because of this weak cooperativity, VU0477573 acts as a “partial NAM” so that full occupancy of the MPEP site does not completely inhibit maximal effects of mGlu5 agonists on intracellular calcium mobilization, inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation, or inhibition of synaptic transmission at the hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse. Unlike previous mGlu5 NAMs, VU0477573 displays no inverse agonist activity assessed using measures of effects on basal [3H]inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation. VU0477573 acts as a full NAM when measuring effects on mGlu5-mediated extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2 phosphorylation, which may indicate functional bias. VU0477573 exhibits an excellent pharmacokinetic profile and good brain penetration in rodents and provides dose-dependent full mGlu5 occupancy in the central nervous system (CNS) with systemic administration. Interestingly, VU0477573 shows robust efficacy, comparable to the mGlu5 NAM MTEP, in models of anxiolytic activity at doses that provide full CNS occupancy of mGlu5 and demonstrate an excellent CNS occupancy-efficacy relationship. VU0477573 provides an exciting new tool to investigate the efficacy of partial NAMs in animal models. PMID:26503377

  15. A strategy to identify linker-based modules for the allosteric regulation of antibody-antigen binding affinities of different scFvs

    PubMed Central

    Thie, Holger

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antibody single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) are used in a variety of applications, such as for research, diagnosis and therapy. Essential for these applications is the extraordinary specificity, selectivity and affinity of antibody paratopes, which can also be used for efficient protein purification. However, this use is hampered by the high affinity for the protein to be purified because harsh elution conditions, which may impair folding, integrity or viability of the eluted biomaterials, are typically required. In this study, we developed a strategy to obtain structural elements that provide allosteric modulation of the affinities of different antibody scFvs for their antigen. To identify suitable allosteric modules, a complete set of cyclic permutations of calmodulin variants was generated and tested for modulation of the affinity when substituting the linker between VH and VL. Modulation of affinity induced by addition of different calmodulin-binding peptides at physiologic conditions was demonstrated for 5 of 6 tested scFvs of different specificities and antigens ranging from cell surface proteins to haptens. In addition, a variety of different modulator peptides were tested. Different structural solutions were found in respect of the optimal calmodulin permutation, the optimal peptide and the allosteric effect for scFvs binding to different antigen structures. Significantly, effective linker modules were identified for scFvs with both VH-VL and VL-VH architecture. The results suggest that this approach may offer a rapid, paratope-independent strategy to provide allosteric regulation of affinity for many other antibody scFvs. PMID:28055297

  16. Thermodynamics and structural analysis of positive allosteric modulation of the ionotropic glutamate receptor GluA2.

    PubMed

    Krintel, Christian; Frydenvang, Karla; Olsen, Lars; Kristensen, Maria T; de Barrios, Oriol; Naur, Peter; Francotte, Pierre; Pirotte, Bernard; Gajhede, Michael; Kastrup, Jette S

    2012-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators of the ionotropic glutamate receptor-2 (GluA2) are promising compounds for the treatment of cognitive disorders, e.g. Alzheimer's disease. These modulators bind within the dimer interface of the LBD (ligand-binding domain) and stabilize the agonist-bound conformation slowing receptor desensitization and/or deactivation. In the present study, we employ isothermal titration calorimetry to determine binding affinities and thermodynamic details of binding of modulators of GluA2. A mutant of the LBD of GluA2 (LBD-L483Y-N754S) that forms a stable dimer in solution was used. The potent GluA2 modulator BPAM-97 was used as a reference compound. Evidence that BPAM-97 binds in the same pocket as the well-known GluA2 modulator cyclothiazide was obtained from X-ray structures. The LBD-L483Y-N754S:BPAM-97 complex has a Kd of 5.6 μM (ΔH=-4.9 kcal/mol, -TΔS=-2.3 kcal/mol; where 1 kcal≈4.187 kJ). BPAM-97 was used in a displacement assay to determine a Kd of 0.46 mM (ΔH=-1.2 kcal/mol, -TΔS=-3.3 kcal/mol) for the LBD-L483Y-N754S:IDRA-21 complex. The major structural factors increasing the potency of BPAM-97 over IDRA-21 are the increased van der Waals contacts to, primarily, Met496 in GluA2 imposed by the ethyl substituent of BPAM-97. These results add important information on binding affinities and thermodynamic details, and provide a new tool in the development of drugs against cognitive disorders.

  17. Discovery of a Positive Allosteric Modulator of the Thyrotropin Receptor: Potentiation of Thyrotropin-Mediated Preosteoblast Differentiation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Eliseeva, Elena; Boutin, Alisa; Barnaeva, Elena; Ferrer, Marc; Southall, Noel; Kim, David; Hu, Xin; Morgan, Sarah J.; Marugan, Juan J.; Gershengorn, Marvin C.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, we showed that TSH-enhanced differentiation of a human preosteoblast-like cell model involved a β-arrestin 1 (β-Arr 1)-mediated pathway. To study this pathway in more detail, we sought to discover a small molecule ligand that was functionally selective toward human TSH receptor (TSHR) activation of β-Arr 1. High-throughput screening using a cell line stably expressing mutated TSHRs and mutated β-Arr 1 (DiscoverX1 cells) led to the discovery of agonists that stimulated translocation of β-Arr 1 to the TSHR, but did not activate Gs-mediated signaling pathways, i.e., cAMP production. D3-βArr (NCGC00379308) was selected. In DiscoverX1 cells, D3-βArr stimulated β-Arr 1 translocation with a 5.1-fold greater efficacy than TSH and therefore potentiated the effect of TSH in stimulating β-Arr 1 translocation. In human U2OS-TSHR cells expressing wild-type TSHRs, which is a model of human preosteoblast-like cells, TSH upregulated the osteoblast-specific genes osteopontin (OPN) and alkaline phosphatase (ALPL). D3-βArr alone had only a weak effect to upregulate these bone markers, but D3-βArr potentiated TSH-induced upregulation of ALPL and OPN mRNA levels 1.6-fold and 5.5-fold, respectively, at the maximum dose of ligands. Furthermore, the positive allosteric modulator effect of D3-βArr resulted in an increase of TSH-induced secretion of OPN protein. In summary, we have discovered the first small molecule positive allosteric modulator of TSHR. As D3-βArr potentiates the effect of TSH to enhance differentiation of a human preosteoblast in an in vitro model, it will allow a novel experimental approach for probing the role of TSH-induced β-Arr 1 signaling in osteoblast differentiation. PMID:29089368

  18. Computer-aided design of negative allosteric modulators of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5): Comparative molecular field analysis of aryl ether derivatives.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Chelliah; Thilagavathi, Ramasamy; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Kumar, Pradeep; Jordan, Brian C; Ranganna, Kasturi

    2016-02-15

    The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu receptors) have emerged as attractive targets for number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Recently, mGluR5 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) have gained considerable attention in pharmacological research. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) was performed on 73 analogs of aryl ether which were reported as mGluR5 NAMs. The study produced a statistically significant model with high correlation coefficient and good predictive abilities. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Trace metals in the brain: allosteric modulators of ligand-gated receptor channels, the case of ATP-gated P2X receptors.

    PubMed

    Huidobro-Toro, J Pablo; Lorca, Ramón A; Coddou, Claudio

    2008-03-01

    Zinc and copper are indispensable trace metals for life with a recognized role as catalysts in enzyme actions. We now review evidence supporting the role of trace metals as novel allosteric modulators of ionotropic receptors: a new and fundamental physiological role for zinc and copper in neuronal and brain excitability. The review is focussed on ionotropic receptor channels including nucleotide receptors, in particular the P2X receptor family. Since zinc and copper are stored within synaptic vesicles in selected brain regions, and released to the synaptic cleft upon electrical nerve ending depolarization, it is plausible that zinc and copper reach concentrations in the synapse that profoundly affect ligand-gated ionic channels, including the ATP-gated currents of P2X receptors. The identification of key P2X receptor amino acids that act as ligands for trace metal coordination, carves the structural determinants underlying the allosteric nature of the trace metal modulation. The recognition that the identified key residues such as histidines, aspartic and glutamic acids or cysteines in the extracellular domain are different for each P2X receptor subtype and may be different for each metal, highlights the notion that each P2X receptor subtype evolved independent strategies for metal coordination, which form upon the proper three-dimensional folding of the receptor channels. The understanding of the molecular mechanism of allosteric modulation of ligand-operated ionic channels by trace metals is a new contribution to metallo-neurobiology.

  20. The selective positive allosteric M1 muscarinic receptor modulator PQCA attenuates learning and memory deficits in the Tg2576 Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Puri, Vanita; Wang, Xiaohai; Vardigan, Joshua D; Kuduk, Scott D; Uslaner, Jason M

    2015-01-01

    We have recently shown that the M1 muscarinic receptor positive allosteric modulator, PQCA, improves cognitive performance in rodents and non-human primates administered the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine. The purpose of the present experiments was to characterize the effects of PQCA in a model more relevant to the disease pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Tg2576 transgenic mice that have elevated Aβ were tested in the novel object recognition task to characterize recognition memory as a function of age and treatment with the PQCA. The effects of PQCA were compared to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil, the standard of care for Alzheimer's disease. In addition, the effect of co-administering PQCA and donepezil was evaluated. Aged Tg2576 mice demonstrated a deficit in recognition memory that was significantly attenuated by PQCA. The positive control donepezil also reversed the deficit. Furthermore, doses of PQCA and donepezil that were inactive on their own were found to improve recognition memory when given together. These studies suggest that M1 muscarinic receptor positive allosteric modulation can ameliorate memory deficits in disease relevant models of Alzheimer's disease. These data, combined with our previous findings demonstrating PQCA improves scopolamine-induced cognitive deficits in both rodents and non-human primates, suggest that M1 positive allosteric modulators have therapeutic potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of Imidazopyridine Compounds as Negative Allosteric Modulators of Proton-Sensing GPR4 in Extracellular Acidification-Induced Responses

    PubMed Central

    Tobo, Ayaka; Tobo, Masayuki; Nakakura, Takashi; Ebara, Masashi; Tomura, Hideaki; Mogi, Chihiro; Im, Dong-Soon; Murata, Naoya; Kuwabara, Atsushi; Ito, Saki; Fukuda, Hayato; Arisawa, Mitsuhiro; Shuto, Satoshi; Nakaya, Michio; Kurose, Hitoshi; Sato, Koichi; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 4 (GPR4), previously proposed as the receptor for sphingosylphosphorylcholine, has recently been identified as the proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) coupling to multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including the Gs protein/cAMP and G13 protein/Rho. In the present study, we characterized some imidazopyridine compounds as GPR4 modulators that modify GPR4 receptor function. In the cells that express proton-sensing GPCRs, including GPR4, OGR1, TDAG8, and G2A, extracellular acidification stimulates serum responsive element (SRE)-driven transcriptional activity, which has been shown to reflect Rho activity, with different proton sensitivities. Imidazopyridine compounds inhibited the moderately acidic pH-induced SRE activity only in GPR4-expressing cells. Acidic pH-stimulated cAMP accumulation, mRNA expression of inflammatory genes, and GPR4 internalization within GPR4-expressing cells were all inhibited by the GPR4 modulator. We further compared the inhibition property of the imidazopyridine compound with psychosine, which has been shown to selectively inhibit actions induced by proton-sensing GPCRs, including GPR4. In the GPR4 mutant, in which certain histidine residues were mutated to phenylalanine, proton sensitivity was significantly shifted to the right, and psychosine failed to further inhibit acidic pH-induced SRE activation. On the other hand, the imidazopyridine compound almost completely inhibited acidic pH-induced action in mutant GPR4. We conclude that some imidazopyridine compounds show specificity to GPR4 as negative allosteric modulators with a different action mode from psychosine, an antagonist susceptible to histidine residues, and are useful for characterizing GPR4-mediated acidic pH-induced biological actions. PMID:26070068

  2. Characterization of Imidazopyridine Compounds as Negative Allosteric Modulators of Proton-Sensing GPR4 in Extracellular Acidification-Induced Responses.

    PubMed

    Tobo, Ayaka; Tobo, Masayuki; Nakakura, Takashi; Ebara, Masashi; Tomura, Hideaki; Mogi, Chihiro; Im, Dong-Soon; Murata, Naoya; Kuwabara, Atsushi; Ito, Saki; Fukuda, Hayato; Arisawa, Mitsuhiro; Shuto, Satoshi; Nakaya, Michio; Kurose, Hitoshi; Sato, Koichi; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 4 (GPR4), previously proposed as the receptor for sphingosylphosphorylcholine, has recently been identified as the proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) coupling to multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including the Gs protein/cAMP and G13 protein/Rho. In the present study, we characterized some imidazopyridine compounds as GPR4 modulators that modify GPR4 receptor function. In the cells that express proton-sensing GPCRs, including GPR4, OGR1, TDAG8, and G2A, extracellular acidification stimulates serum responsive element (SRE)-driven transcriptional activity, which has been shown to reflect Rho activity, with different proton sensitivities. Imidazopyridine compounds inhibited the moderately acidic pH-induced SRE activity only in GPR4-expressing cells. Acidic pH-stimulated cAMP accumulation, mRNA expression of inflammatory genes, and GPR4 internalization within GPR4-expressing cells were all inhibited by the GPR4 modulator. We further compared the inhibition property of the imidazopyridine compound with psychosine, which has been shown to selectively inhibit actions induced by proton-sensing GPCRs, including GPR4. In the GPR4 mutant, in which certain histidine residues were mutated to phenylalanine, proton sensitivity was significantly shifted to the right, and psychosine failed to further inhibit acidic pH-induced SRE activation. On the other hand, the imidazopyridine compound almost completely inhibited acidic pH-induced action in mutant GPR4. We conclude that some imidazopyridine compounds show specificity to GPR4 as negative allosteric modulators with a different action mode from psychosine, an antagonist susceptible to histidine residues, and are useful for characterizing GPR4-mediated acidic pH-induced biological actions.

  3. Effect of novel negative allosteric modulators of neuronal nicotinic receptors on cells expressing native and recombinant nicotinic receptors: implications for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    González-Cestari, Tatiana F; Henderson, Brandon J; Pavlovicz, Ryan E; McKay, Susan B; El-Hajj, Raed A; Pulipaka, Aravinda B; Orac, Crina M; Reed, Damon D; Boyd, R Thomas; Zhu, Michael X; Li, Chenglong; Bergmeier, Stephen C; McKay, Dennis B

    2009-02-01

    Allosteric modulation of nAChRs is considered to be one of the most promising approaches for drug design targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We have reported previously on the pharmacological activity of several compounds that seem to act noncompetitively to inhibit the activation of alpha3beta4(*) nAChRs. In this study, the effects of 51 structurally similar molecules on native and recombinant alpha3beta4 nAChRs are characterized. These 51 molecules inhibited adrenal neurosecretion activated via stimulation of native alpha3beta4(*) nAChR, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.4 to 13.0 microM. Using cells expressing recombinant alpha3beta4 nAChRs, these molecules inhibited calcium accumulation (a more direct assay to establish nAChR activity), with IC(50) values ranging from 0.7 to 38.2 microM. Radiolabeled nAChR binding studies to orthosteric sites showed no inhibitory activity on either native or recombinant nAChRs. Correlation analyses of the data from both functional assays suggested additional, non-nAChR activity of the molecules. To test this hypothesis, the effects of the drugs on neurosecretion stimulated through non-nAChR mechanisms were investigated; inhibitory effects ranged from no inhibition to 95% inhibition at concentrations of 10 microM. Correlation analyses of the functional data confirmed this hypothesis. Several of the molecules (24/51) increased agonist binding to native nAChRs, supporting allosteric interactions with nAChRs. Computational modeling and blind docking identified a binding site for our negative allosteric modulators near the orthosteric binding site of the receptor. In summary, this study identified several molecules for potential development as negative allosteric modulators and documented the importance of multiple screening assays for nAChR drug discovery.

  4. Effect of Novel Negative Allosteric Modulators of Neuronal Nicotinic Receptors on Cells Expressing Native and Recombinant Nicotinic Receptors: Implications for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    González-Cestari, Tatiana F.; Henderson, Brandon J.; Pavlovicz, Ryan E.; McKay, Susan B.; El-Hajj, Raed A.; Pulipaka, Aravinda B.; Orac, Crina M.; Reed, Damon D.; Boyd, R. Thomas; Zhu, Michael X.; Li, Chenglong; Bergmeier, Stephen C.; McKay, Dennis B.

    2009-01-01

    Allosteric modulation of nAChRs is considered to be one of the most promising approaches for drug design targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We have reported previously on the pharmacological activity of several compounds that seem to act noncompetitively to inhibit the activation of α3β4* nAChRs. In this study, the effects of 51 structurally similar molecules on native and recombinant α3β4 nAChRs are characterized. These 51 molecules inhibited adrenal neurosecretion activated via stimulation of native α3β4* nAChR, with IC50 values ranging from 0.4 to 13.0 μM. Using cells expressing recombinant α3β4 nAChRs, these molecules inhibited calcium accumulation (a more direct assay to establish nAChR activity), with IC50 values ranging from 0.7 to 38.2 μM. Radiolabeled nAChR binding studies to orthosteric sites showed no inhibitory activity on either native or recombinant nAChRs. Correlation analyses of the data from both functional assays suggested additional, non-nAChR activity of the molecules. To test this hypothesis, the effects of the drugs on neurosecretion stimulated through non-nAChR mechanisms were investigated; inhibitory effects ranged from no inhibition to 95% inhibition at concentrations of 10 μM. Correlation analyses of the functional data confirmed this hypothesis. Several of the molecules (24/51) increased agonist binding to native nAChRs, supporting allosteric interactions with nAChRs. Computational modeling and blind docking identified a binding site for our negative allosteric modulators near the orthosteric binding site of the receptor. In summary, this study identified several molecules for potential development as negative allosteric modulators and documented the importance of multiple screening assays for nAChR drug discovery. PMID:18984653

  5. Abacavir and warfarin modulate allosterically kinetics of NO dissociation from ferrous nitrosylated human serum heme-albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Ascenzi, Paolo; National Institute for Infectious Diseases I.R.C.C.S. 'Lazzaro Spallanzani', Via Portuense 292, I-00149 Roma; Imperi, Francesco

    Human serum albumin (HSA) participates to heme scavenging, in turn HSA-heme binds gaseous diatomic ligands at the heme-Fe-atom. Here, the effect of abacavir and warfarin on denitrosylation kinetics of HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO (i.e., k{sub off}) is reported. In the absence of drugs, the value of k{sub off} is (1.3 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}. Abacavir and warfarin facilitate NO dissociation from HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO, the k{sub off} value increases to (8.6 {+-} 0.9) x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}. From the dependence of k{sub off} on the drug concentration, values of the dissociation equilibrium constant for the abacavir and warfarin binding to HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NOmore » (i.e., K = (1.2 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -3} M and (6.2 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup -5} M, respectively) were determined. The increase of k{sub off} values reflects the stabilization of the basic form of HSA-heme-Fe by ligands (e.g., abacavir and warfarin) that bind to Sudlow's site I. This event parallels the stabilization of the six-coordinate derivative of the HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO atom. Present data highlight the allosteric modulation of HSA-heme-Fe(II) reactivity by heterotropic effectors.« less

  6. Negative Allosteric Modulators Selective for The NR2B Subtype of The NMDA Receptor Impair Cognition in Multiple Domains

    PubMed Central

    Weed, Michael R; Bookbinder, Mark; Polino, Joseph; Keavy, Deborah; Cardinal, Rudolf N; Simmermacher-Mayer, Jean; Cometa, Fu-ni L; King, Dalton; Thangathirupathy, Srinivasan; Macor, John E; Bristow, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Antidepressant activity of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists and negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) has led to increased investigation of their behavioral pharmacology. NMDA antagonists, such as ketamine, impair cognition in multiple species and in multiple cognitive domains. However, studies with NR2B subtype-selective NAMs have reported mixed results in rodents including increased impulsivity, no effect on cognition, impairment or even improvement of some cognitive tasks. To date, the effects of NR2B-selective NAMs on cognitive tests have not been reported in nonhuman primates. The current study evaluated two selective NR2B NAMs, CP101,606 and BMT-108908, along with the nonselective NMDA antagonists, ketamine and AZD6765, in the nonhuman primate Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) list-based delayed match to sample (list-DMS) task. Ketamine and the two NMDA NR2B NAMs produced selective impairments in memory in the list-DMS task. AZD6765 impaired performance in a non-specific manner. In a separate cohort, CP101,606 impaired performance of the nonhuman primate CANTAB visuo-spatial Paired Associates Learning (vsPAL) task with a selective impairment at more difficult conditions. The results of these studies clearly show that systemic administration of a selective NR2B NAM can cause transient cognitive impairment in multiple cognitive domains. PMID:26105137

  7. Modulation of Pantothenate Kinase 3 Activity by Small Molecules that Interact with the Substrate/Allosteric Regulatory Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Leonardi, Roberta; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Yun, Mi-Kyung

    2010-09-27

    Pantothenate kinase (PanK) catalyzes the rate-controlling step in coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis. PanK3 is stringently regulated by acetyl-CoA and uses an ordered kinetic mechanism with ATP as the leading substrate. Biochemical analysis of site-directed mutants indicates that pantothenate binds in a tunnel adjacent to the active site that is occupied by the pantothenate moiety of the acetyl-CoA regulator in the PanK3 acetyl-CoA binary complex. A high-throughput screen for PanK3 inhibitors and activators was applied to a bioactive compound library. Thiazolidinediones, sulfonylureas and steroids were inhibitors, and fatty acyl-amides and tamoxifen were activators. The PanK3 activators and inhibitors either stimulated ormore » repressed CoA biosynthesis in HepG2/C3A cells. The flexible allosteric acetyl-CoA regulatory domain of PanK3 also binds the substrates, pantothenate and pantetheine, and small molecule inhibitors and activators to modulate PanK3 activity.« less

  8. 2 × 64 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission over 70 km SSMF using O-band 18G-class directly modulated lasers (DMLs).

    PubMed

    Gao, Fan; Zhou, Shiwei; Li, Xiang; Fu, Songnian; Deng, Lei; Tang, Ming; Liu, Deming; Yang, Qi

    2017-04-03

    We experimentally demonstrate 2 × 64 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission over a 70 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) using two O-band 18G-class directly modulated lasers (DMLs). Only one praseodymium-doped fiber amplifier (PDFA) at the receiver side is used to compensate the transmission loss. Meanwhile, transmission impairments are compensated by a sparse Volterra filter (SVF) equalizer, which can achieve similar system performance but with half the computational complexity (CC), in comparison with a traditional VF equalizer. Finally, we optimize the insignificant factor (IF) of SVF to identify the trade-off between the transmission performance and the CC. Thus, the redundancy of individual SVF kernels can be reasonably removed.

  9. VU0477573: Partial Negative Allosteric Modulator of the Subtype 5 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor with In Vivo Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Nickols, Hilary Highfield; Yuh, Joannes P; Gregory, Karen J; Morrison, Ryan D; Bates, Brittney S; Stauffer, Shaun R; Emmitte, Kyle A; Bubser, Michael; Peng, Weimin; Nedelcovych, Michael T; Thompson, Analisa; Lv, Xiaohui; Xiang, Zixiu; Daniels, J Scott; Niswender, Colleen M; Lindsley, Craig W; Jones, Carrie K; Conn, P Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) have potential applications in the treatment of fragile X syndrome, levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, addiction, and anxiety; however, clinical and preclinical studies raise concerns that complete blockade of mGlu5 and inverse agonist activity of current mGlu5 NAMs contribute to adverse effects that limit the therapeutic use of these compounds. We report the discovery and characterization of a novel mGlu5 NAM, N,N-diethyl-5-((3-fluorophenyl)ethynyl)picolinamide (VU0477573) that binds to the same allosteric site as the prototypical mGlu5 NAM MPEP but displays weak negative cooperativity. Because of this weak cooperativity, VU0477573 acts as a "partial NAM" so that full occupancy of the MPEP site does not completely inhibit maximal effects of mGlu5 agonists on intracellular calcium mobilization, inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation, or inhibition of synaptic transmission at the hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse. Unlike previous mGlu5 NAMs, VU0477573 displays no inverse agonist activity assessed using measures of effects on basal [(3)H]inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation. VU0477573 acts as a full NAM when measuring effects on mGlu5-mediated extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2 phosphorylation, which may indicate functional bias. VU0477573 exhibits an excellent pharmacokinetic profile and good brain penetration in rodents and provides dose-dependent full mGlu5 occupancy in the central nervous system (CNS) with systemic administration. Interestingly, VU0477573 shows robust efficacy, comparable to the mGlu5 NAM MTEP, in models of anxiolytic activity at doses that provide full CNS occupancy of mGlu5 and demonstrate an excellent CNS occupancy-efficacy relationship. VU0477573 provides an exciting new tool to investigate the efficacy of partial NAMs in animal models. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and

  10. AZD8797 is an allosteric non-competitive modulator of the human CX3CR1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Cederblad, Linda; Rosengren, Birgitta; Ryberg, Erik; Hermansson, Nils-Olov

    2016-03-01

    The chemokine receptor CX3CR1 has been implicated as an attractive therapeutic target in several diseases, including atherosclerosis and diabetes. However, there has been a lack of non-peptide CX3CR1 inhibitors to substantiate these findings. A selective small-molecule inhibitor of CX3CR1, AZD8797, was recently reported and we present here an in-depth in vitro characterization of that molecule. In a flow adhesion assay, AZD8797 antagonized the natural ligand, fractalkine (CX3CL1), in both human whole blood (hWB) and in a B-lymphocyte cell line with IC50 values of 300 and 6 nM respectively. AZD8797 also prevented G-protein activation in a [(35)S]GTPγS (guanosine 5'-[γ-thio]triphosphate) accumulation assay. In contrast, dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) experiments revealed a weak Gαi-dependent AZD8797 agonism. Additionally, AZD8797 positively modulated the CX3CL1 response at sub-micromolar concentrations in a β-arrestin recruitment assay. In equilibrium saturation binding experiments, AZD8797 reduced the maximal binding of (125)I-CX3CL1 without affecting Kd. Kinetic experiments, determining the kon and koff of AZD8797, demonstrated that this was not an artefact of irreversible or insurmountable binding, thus a true non-competitive mechanism. Finally we show that both AZD8797 and GTPγS increase the rate with which CX3CL1 dissociates from CX3CR1 in a similar manner, indicating a connection between AZD8797 and the CX3CR1-bound G-protein. Collectively, these data show that AZD8797 is a non-competitive allosteric modulator of CX3CL1, binding CX3CR1 and effecting G-protein signalling and β-arrestin recruitment in a biased way. © 2016 Authors.

  11. Negative allosteric modulation of the mGlu7 receptor reduces visceral hypersensitivity in a stress-sensitive rat strain.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Rachel D; Golubeva, Anna V; O'Connor, Richard M; Kalinichev, Mikhail; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, exerts its effect through ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Of these, group III mGlu receptors (mGlu 4, 6, 7, 8) are among the least studied due to a lack of pharmacological tools. mGlu7 receptors, the most highly conserved isoform, are abundantly distributed in the brain, especially in regions, such as the amygdala, known to be crucial for the emotional processing of painful stimuli. Visceral hypersensitivity is a poorly understood phenomenon manifesting as an increased sensitivity to visceral stimuli. Glutamate has long been associated with somatic pain processing leading us to postulate that crossover may exist between these two modalities. Moreover, stress has been shown to exacerbate visceral pain. ADX71743 is a novel, centrally penetrant, negative allosteric modulator of mGlu7 receptors. Thus, we used this tool to explore the possible involvement of this receptor in the mediation of visceral pain in a stress-sensitive model of visceral hypersensitivity, namely the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat. ADX71743 reduced visceral hypersensitivity in the WKY rat as exhibited by increased visceral sensitivity threshold with concomitant reductions in total number of pain behaviours. Moreover, AD71743 increased total distance and distance travelled in the inner zone of the open field. These findings show, for what is to our knowledge, the first time, that mGlu7 receptor signalling plays a role in visceral pain processing. Thus, negative modulation of the mGlu7 receptor may be a plausible target for the amelioration of stress-induced visceral pain where there is a large unmet medical need.

  12. Negative allosteric modulation of the mGlu7 receptor reduces visceral hypersensitivity in a stress-sensitive rat strain

    PubMed Central

    Moloney, Rachel D.; Golubeva, Anna V.; O'Connor, Richard M.; Kalinichev, Mikhail; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, exerts its effect through ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Of these, group III mGlu receptors (mGlu 4, 6, 7, 8) are among the least studied due to a lack of pharmacological tools. mGlu7 receptors, the most highly conserved isoform, are abundantly distributed in the brain, especially in regions, such as the amygdala, known to be crucial for the emotional processing of painful stimuli. Visceral hypersensitivity is a poorly understood phenomenon manifesting as an increased sensitivity to visceral stimuli. Glutamate has long been associated with somatic pain processing leading us to postulate that crossover may exist between these two modalities. Moreover, stress has been shown to exacerbate visceral pain. ADX71743 is a novel, centrally penetrant, negative allosteric modulator of mGlu7 receptors. Thus, we used this tool to explore the possible involvement of this receptor in the mediation of visceral pain in a stress-sensitive model of visceral hypersensitivity, namely the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat. ADX71743 reduced visceral hypersensitivity in the WKY rat as exhibited by increased visceral sensitivity threshold with concomitant reductions in total number of pain behaviours. Moreover, AD71743 increased total distance and distance travelled in the inner zone of the open field. These findings show, for what is to our knowledge, the first time, that mGlu7 receptor signalling plays a role in visceral pain processing. Thus, negative modulation of the mGlu7 receptor may be a plausible target for the amelioration of stress-induced visceral pain where there is a large unmet medical need. PMID:26844237

  13. Galantamine, an Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor and Positive Allosteric Modulator of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors, Attenuates Nicotine Taking and Seeking in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Thomas J; Rupprecht, Laura E; Hayes, Matthew R; Blendy, Julie A; Schmidt, Heath D

    2012-01-01

    Current smoking cessation pharmacotherapies have limited efficacy in preventing relapse and maintaining abstinence during withdrawal. Galantamine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that also acts as a positive allosteric modulator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Galantamine has recently been shown to reverse nicotine withdrawal-induced cognitive impairments in mice, which suggests that galantamine may function to prevent relapse in human smokers. However, there are no studies examining whether galantamine administration modulates nicotine self-administration and/or reinstatement of nicotine seeking in rodents. The present experiments were designed to determine the effects of galantamine administration on nicotine taking and reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior, an animal model of relapse. Moreover, the effects of galantamine on sucrose-maintained responding and sucrose seeking were also examined to determine whether galantamine's effects generalized to other reinforced behaviors. An inverted U-shaped dose-response curve was obtained when animals self-administered different unit doses of nicotine with the highest responding for 0.03 mg/kg per infusion of nicotine. Acute galantamine administration (5.0 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated nicotine self-administration when animals were maintained on either a fixed-ratio 5 (FR5) or progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. Galantamine administration also attenuated the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior. No significant effects of galantamine on sucrose self-administration or sucrose reinstatement were noted. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors have also been shown to produce nausea and vomiting in humans. However, at doses required to attenuate nicotine self-administration, no effects of galantamine on nausea/malaise as measured by pica were noted. These results indicate that increased extracellular acetylcholine levels and/or nicotinic acetylcholine receptor stimulation is sufficient to attenuate

  14. Positive allosteric modulation of mGlu7 receptors by AMN082 affects sleep and wakefulness in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cavas, María; Scesa, Gianluigi; Navarro, José Francisco

    2013-02-01

    Evidence indicates that metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu) are involved in the regulation of physiological and behavioral processes, and glutamate has been implicated in several pathologies of the Central Nervous System. Pharmacological evidence suggests the therapeutic potential of targeting mGlu7 receptor in a number of pathological conditions; and previous research has shown the involvement of glutamate on sleep and wakefulness regulation. Here, the effects of mGlu7 receptor selective modulation on sleep and wake states are explored. 32 male Wistar rats were implanted with electrodes for recording sleep and wakefulness. N,N'-Bis(diphenylmethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine dihydrochloride (AMN082) (5, 10, and 20mg/kg, i.p.), a potent, selective and systemically active mGlu7 receptor positive allosteric modulator, or vehicle was administered 1 hour after the beginning of the light period. AMN082 (5 and 10mg/kg) significantly increased total time of sleep; and time spent on Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) was increased. AMN082 at 10mg/kg specifically affected Light SWS, increasing time spent on Light SWS. The highest dose of AMN082, 20mg/kg, significantly reduced time spent in Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep, decreasing the number of REM sleep episodes and their mean duration. Total time spent awake was increased and mean episode duration of wakefulness was prolonged. The present results suggest that mGlu7 receptors might be involved in sleep regulation and drugs targeting these receptors could affect sleep and wakefulness architecture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Potentiating mGluR5 Function with a Positive Allosteric Modulator Enhances Adaptive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jian; Zhu, Yongling; Kraniotis, Stephen; He, Qionger; Marshall, John J.; Nomura, Toshihiro; Stauffer, Shaun R.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Contractor, Anis

    2013-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) plays important roles in modulating neural activity and plasticity and has been associated with several neuropathological disorders. Previous work has shown that genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of mGluR5 disrupts fear extinction and spatial reversal learning, suggesting that mGluR5…

  16. Allosteric Modulation of protein oligomerization: an emerging approach to drug design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabizon, Ronen; Friedler, Assaf

    2014-03-01

    Many disease-related proteins are in equilibrium between different oligomeric forms. The regulation of this equilibrium plays a central role in maintaining the activity of these proteins in vitro and in vivo. Modulation of the oligomerization equilibrium of proteins by molecules that bind preferentially to a specific oligomeric state is emerging as a potential therapeutic strategy that can be applied to many biological systems such as cancer and viral infections. The target proteins for such compounds are diverse in structure and sequence, and may require different approaches for shifting their oligomerization equilibrium. The discovery of such oligomerization-modulating compounds is thus achieved based on existing structural knowledge about the specific target proteins, as well as on their interactions with partner proteins or with ligands. In silico design and combinatorial tools such as peptide arrays and phage display are also used for discovering compounds that modulate protein oligomerization. The current review highlights some of the recent developments in the design of compounds aimed at modulating the oligomerization equilibrium of proteins, including the "shiftides" approach developed in our lab.

  17. Arsenic toxicity in the water weed Wolffia arrhiza measured using Pulse Amplitude Modulation Fluorometry (PAM) measurements of photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Raymond J; Mekjinda, Nutsara

    2016-10-01

    Accumulation of arsenic in plants is a serious South-east Asian environmental problem. Photosynthesis in the small aquatic angiosperm Wolffia arrhiza is very sensitive to arsenic toxicity, particularly in water below pH 7 where arsenite (As (OH)3) (AsIII) is the dominant form; at pH >7 AsO4(2-) (As(V) predominates). A blue-diode PAM (Pulse Amplitude Fluorometer) machine was used to monitor photosynthesis in Wolffia. Maximum gross photosynthesis (Pgmax) and not maximum yield (Ymax) is the most reliable indicator of arsenic toxicity. The toxicity of arsenite As(III) and arsenate (H2AsO4(2-)) As(V) vary with pH. As(V) was less toxic than As(III) at both pH 5 and pH 8 but both forms of arsenic were toxic (>90% inhibition) at below 0.1molm(-3) when incubated in arsenic for 24h. Arsenite toxicity was apparent after 1h based on Pgmax and gradually increased over 7h but there was no apparent effect on Ymax or photosynthetic efficiency (α0). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Partial mGlu₅ Negative Allosteric Modulators Attenuate Cocaine-Mediated Behaviors and Lack Psychotomimetic-Like Effects.

    PubMed

    Gould, Robert W; Amato, Russell J; Bubser, Michael; Joffe, Max E; Nedelcovych, Michael T; Thompson, Analisa D; Nickols, Hilary H; Yuh, Johannes P; Zhan, Xiaoyan; Felts, Andrew S; Rodriguez, Alice L; Morrison, Ryan D; Byers, Frank W; Rook, Jerri M; Daniels, John S; Niswender, Colleen M; Conn, P Jeffrey; Emmitte, Kyle A; Lindsley, Craig W; Jones, Carrie K

    2016-03-01

    Cocaine abuse remains a public health concern for which pharmacotherapies are largely ineffective. Comorbidities between cocaine abuse, depression, and anxiety support the development of novel treatments targeting multiple symptom clusters. Selective negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) targeting the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) subtype are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders and have shown promise in preclinical models of substance abuse. However, complete blockade or inverse agonist activity by some full mGlu5 NAM chemotypes demonstrated adverse effects, including psychosis in humans and psychotomimetic-like effects in animals, suggesting a narrow therapeutic window. Development of partial mGlu5 NAMs, characterized by their submaximal but saturable levels of blockade, may represent a novel approach to broaden the therapeutic window. To understand potential therapeutic vs adverse effects in preclinical behavioral assays, we examined the partial mGlu5 NAMs, M-5MPEP and Br-5MPEPy, in comparison with the full mGlu5 NAM MTEP across models of addiction and psychotomimetic-like activity. M-5MPEP, Br-5MPEPy, and MTEP dose-dependently decreased cocaine self-administration and attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine. M-5MPEP and Br-5MPEPy also demonstrated antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity. Dose-dependent effects of partial and full mGlu5 NAMs in these assays corresponded with increasing in vivo mGlu5 occupancy, demonstrating an orderly occupancy-to-efficacy relationship. PCP-induced hyperlocomotion was potentiated by MTEP, but not by M-5MPEP and Br-5MPEPy. Further, MTEP, but not M-5MPEP, potentiated the discriminative-stimulus effects of PCP. The present data suggest that partial mGlu5 NAM activity is sufficient to produce therapeutic effects similar to full mGlu5 NAMs, but with a broader therapeutic index.

  19. In Vitro Functional Characterization of GET73 as Possible Negative Allosteric Modulator of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5.

    PubMed

    Beggiato, Sarah; Borelli, Andrea C; Tomasini, Maria C; Castelli, M Paola; Pintori, Nicholas; Cacciaglia, Roberto; Loche, Antonella; Ferraro, Luca

    2018-01-01

    The present study was aimed to further characterize the pharmacological profile of N-[4-(trifluoromethyl) benzyl]-4-methoxybutyramide (GET73), a putative negative allosteric modulator (NAM) of metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptor (mGluR5) under development as a novel medication for the treatment of alcohol dependence. This aim has been accomplished by means of a series of in vitro functional assays. These assays include the measure of several down-stream signaling [intracellular Ca ++ levels, inositol phosphate (IP) formation and CREB phosphorylation (pCREB)] which are generally affected by mGluR5 ligands. In particular, GET73 (0.1 nM-10 μM) was explored for its ability to displace the concentration-response curve of some mGluR5 agonists/probes (glutamate, L-quisqualate, CHPG) in different native preparations. GET73 produced a rightward shift of concentration-response curves of glutamate- and CHPG-induced intracellular Ca ++ levels in primary cultures of rat cortical astrocytes. The compound also induced a rightward shift of concentration response curve of glutamate- and L-quisqualate-induced increase in IP turnover in rat hippocampus slices, along with a reduction of CHPG (10 mM)-induced increase in IP formation. Moreover, GET73 produced a rightward shift of concentration-response curve of glutamate-, CHPG- and L-quisqualate-induced pCREB levels in rat cerebral cortex neurons. Although the engagement of other targets cannot be definitively ruled out, these data support the view that GET73 acts as an mGluR5 NAM and support the significance of further investigating the possible mechanism of action of the compound.

  20. The cognition-enhancing activity of E1R, a novel positive allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Zvejniece, L; Vavers, E; Svalbe, B; Vilskersts, R; Domracheva, I; Vorona, M; Veinberg, G; Misane, I; Stonans, I; Kalvinsh, I; Dambrova, M

    2014-02-01

    Here, we describe the in vitro and in vivo effects of (4R,5S)-2-(5-methyl-2-oxo-4-phenyl-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-acetamide (E1R), a novel positive allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptors. E1R was tested for sigma receptor binding activity in a [³H](+)-pentazocine assay, in bradykinin (BK)-induced intracellular Ca²⁺ concentration ([Ca²⁺](i)) assays and in an electrically stimulated rat vas deferens model. E1R's effects on cognitive function were tested using passive avoidance (PA) and Y-maze tests in mice. A selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist (NE-100), was used to study the involvement of the sigma-1 receptor in the effects of E1R. The open-field test was used to detect the effects of E1R on locomotion. Pretreatment with E1R enhanced the selective sigma-1 receptor agonist PRE-084's stimulating effect during a model study employing electrically stimulated rat vasa deferentia and an assay measuring the BK-induced [Ca²⁺](i) increase. Pretreatment with E1R facilitated PA retention in a dose-related manner. Furthermore, E1R alleviated the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment during the PA and Y-maze tests in mice. The in vivo and in vitro effects of E1R were blocked by treatment with the selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist NE-100. E1R did not affect locomotor activity. E1R is a novel 4,5-disubstituted derivative of piracetam that enhances cognition and demonstrates efficacy against scopolamine-induced cholinergic dysfunction in mice. These effects are attributed to its positive modulatory action on the sigma-1 receptor and this activity may be relevant when developing new drugs for treating cognitive symptoms related to neurodegenerative diseases. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. The cognition-enhancing activity of E1R, a novel positive allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zvejniece, L; Vavers, E; Svalbe, B; Vilskersts, R; Domracheva, I; Vorona, M; Veinberg, G; Misane, I; Stonans, I; Kalvinsh, I; Dambrova, M

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Here, we describe the in vitro and in vivo effects of (4R,5S)-2-(5-methyl-2-oxo-4-phenyl-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-acetamide (E1R), a novel positive allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptors. Experimental Approach E1R was tested for sigma receptor binding activity in a [3H](+)-pentazocine assay, in bradykinin (BK)-induced intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) assays and in an electrically stimulated rat vas deferens model. E1R's effects on cognitive function were tested using passive avoidance (PA) and Y-maze tests in mice. A selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist (NE-100), was used to study the involvement of the sigma-1 receptor in the effects of E1R. The open-field test was used to detect the effects of E1R on locomotion. Key Results Pretreatment with E1R enhanced the selective sigma-1 receptor agonist PRE-084's stimulating effect during a model study employing electrically stimulated rat vasa deferentia and an assay measuring the BK-induced [Ca2+]i increase. Pretreatment with E1R facilitated PA retention in a dose-related manner. Furthermore, E1R alleviated the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment during the PA and Y-maze tests in mice. The in vivo and in vitro effects of E1R were blocked by treatment with the selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist NE-100. E1R did not affect locomotor activity. Conclusion and Implications E1R is a novel 4,5-disubstituted derivative of piracetam that enhances cognition and demonstrates efficacy against scopolamine-induced cholinergic dysfunction in mice. These effects are attributed to its positive modulatory action on the sigma-1 receptor and this activity may be relevant when developing new drugs for treating cognitive symptoms related to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24490863

  2. Glutamine 89 is a key residue in the allosteric modulation of human serine racemase activity by ATP.

    PubMed

    Canosa, Andrea V; Faggiano, Serena; Marchetti, Marialaura; Armao, Stefano; Bettati, Stefano; Bruno, Stefano; Percudani, Riccardo; Campanini, Barbara; Mozzarelli, Andrea

    2018-06-13

    Serine racemase (SR) catalyses two reactions: the reversible racemisation of L-serine and the irreversible dehydration of L- and D-serine to pyruvate and ammonia. SRs are evolutionarily related to serine dehydratases (SDH) and degradative threonine deaminases (TdcB). Most SRs and TdcBs - but not SDHs - are regulated by nucleotides. SR binds ATP cooperatively and the nucleotide allosterically stimulates the serine dehydratase activity of the enzyme. A H-bond network comprising five residues (T52, N86, Q89, E283 and N316) and water molecules connects the active site with the ATP-binding site. Conservation analysis points to Q89 as a key residue for the allosteric communication, since its mutation to either Met or Ala is linked to the loss of control of activity by nucleotides. We verified this hypothesis by introducing the Q89M and Q89A point mutations in the human SR sequence. The allosteric communication between the active site and the allosteric site in both mutants is almost completely abolished. Indeed, the stimulation of the dehydratase activity by ATP is severely diminished and the binding of the nucleotide is no more cooperative. Ancestral state reconstruction suggests that the allosteric control by nucleotides established early in SR evolution and has been maintained in most eukaryotic lineages.

  3. Challenges in the development of an M4 PAM preclinical candidate: The discovery, SAR, and in vivo characterization of a series of 3-aminoazetidine-derived amides.

    PubMed

    Tarr, James C; Wood, Michael R; Noetzel, Meredith J; Bertron, Jeanette L; Weiner, Rebecca L; Rodriguez, Alice L; Lamsal, Atin; Byers, Frank W; Chang, Sichen; Cho, Hyekyung P; Jones, Carrie K; Niswender, Colleen M; Wood, Michael W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Duggan, Mark E; Conn, P Jeffrey; Bridges, Thomas M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-07-01

    This letter details the continued chemical optimization of a novel series of M 4 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) based on a 5-amino-thieno[2,3-c]pyridazine core by incorporating a 3-amino azetidine amide moiety. The analogs described within this work represent the most potent M 4 PAMs reported for this series to date. The SAR to address potency, clearance, subtype selectivity, CNS exposure, and P-gp efflux are described. This work culminated in the discovery of VU6000918, which demonstrated robust efficacy in a rat amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion reversal model at a minimum efficacious dose of 0.3mg/kg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Amyloid-β peptides act as allosteric modulators of cholinergic signalling through formation of soluble BAβACs

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajnish; Nordberg, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    that amyloid-β interacts readily in an apolipoprotein-facilitated manner with butyrylcholinesterase, forming highly stable and soluble complexes, BAβACs, which can be separated in their native states by sucrose density gradient technique. Enzymological analyses further evinced that amyloid-β concentration dependently increased the acetylcholine-hydrolyzing capacity of cholinesterases. In silico biomolecular analysis further deciphered the allosteric amino acid fingerprint of the amyloid-β-cholinesterase molecular interaction in formation of BAβACs. In the case of butyrylcholinesterase, the results indicated that amyloid-β interacts with a putative activation site at the mouth of its catalytic tunnel, most likely leading to increased acetylcholine influx into the catalytic site, and thereby increasing the intrinsic catalytic rate of butyrylcholinesterase. In conclusion, at least one of the native physiological functions of amyloid-β is allosteric modulation of the intrinsic catalytic efficiency of cholinesterases, and thereby regulation of synaptic and extrasynaptic cholinergic signalling. High apolipoprotein-E may pathologically alter the biodynamics of this amyloid-β function. PMID:26525916

  5. Impact of species variability and ‘probe-dependence’ on the detection and in vivo validation of allosteric modulation at the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Suratman, S; Leach, K; Sexton, PM; Felder, CC; Loiacono, RE; Christopoulos, A

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We recently characterized LY2033298 as a novel allosteric modulator and agonist at M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Evidence also suggested a difference in the potency of LY2033298 at rodent relative to human M4 mAChRs. The current study investigated the basis for the species difference of this modulator and used this knowledge to rationalize its in vivo actions. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH LY2033298 was investigated in vitro in CHO cells stably expressing human or mouse M4 mAChRs, using assays of agonist-induced ERK1/2 or GSK-3α phosphorylation, [35S]-GTPγS binding, or effects on equilibrium binding of [3H]-NMS and ACh. The in vivo actions of LY2033298 were investigated in a mouse model of amphetamine-induced locomotor activity. The function of LY2033298 was examined in combination with ACh, oxotremorine or xanomeline. KEY RESULTS LY2033298 had similar affinities for the human and mouse M4 mAChRs. However, LY2033298 had a lower positive co-operativity with ACh at the mouse relative to the human M4 mAChR. At the mouse M4 mAChR, LY2033298 showed higher co-operativity with oxotremorine than with ACh or xanomeline. The different degrees of co-operativity between LY2033298 and each agonist at the mouse relative to the human M4 mAChR necessitated the co-administration of LY2033298 with oxotremorine in order to show in vivo efficacy of LY2033298. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results provide evidence for species variability when comparing the allosteric interaction between LY2033298 and ACh at the M4 mAChR, and also highlight how the interaction between LY2033298 and different orthosteric ligands is subject to ‘probe dependence’. This has implications for the validation of allosteric modulator actions in vivo. PMID:21198541

  6. Impact of species variability and 'probe-dependence' on the detection and in vivo validation of allosteric modulation at the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Suratman, S; Leach, K; Sexton, Pm; Felder, Cc; Loiacono, Re; Christopoulos, A

    2011-04-01

    We recently characterized LY2033298 as a novel allosteric modulator and agonist at M(4) muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Evidence also suggested a difference in the potency of LY2033298 at rodent relative to human M(4) mAChRs. The current study investigated the basis for the species difference of this modulator and used this knowledge to rationalize its in vivo actions. LY2033298 was investigated in vitro in CHO cells stably expressing human or mouse M(4) mAChRs, using assays of agonist-induced ERK1/2 or GSK-3α phosphorylation, [(35) S]-GTPγS binding, or effects on equilibrium binding of [(3) H]-NMS and ACh. The in vivo actions of LY2033298 were investigated in a mouse model of amphetamine-induced locomotor activity. The function of LY2033298 was examined in combination with ACh, oxotremorine or xanomeline. LY2033298 had similar affinities for the human and mouse M(4) mAChRs. However, LY2033298 had a lower positive co-operativity with ACh at the mouse relative to the human M(4) mAChR. At the mouse M(4) mAChR, LY2033298 showed higher co-operativity with oxotremorine than with ACh or xanomeline. The different degrees of co-operativity between LY2033298 and each agonist at the mouse relative to the human M(4) mAChR necessitated the co-administration of LY2033298 with oxotremorine in order to show in vivo efficacy of LY2033298. These results provide evidence for species variability when comparing the allosteric interaction between LY2033298 and ACh at the M(4) mAChR, and also highlight how the interaction between LY2033298 and different orthosteric ligands is subject to 'probe dependence'. This has implications for the validation of allosteric modulator actions in vivo. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Multiple allosteric sites are involved in the modulation of insulin-degrading-enzyme activity by somatostatin.

    PubMed

    Tundo, Grazia R; Di Muzio, Elena; Ciaccio, Chiara; Sbardella, Diego; Di Pierro, Donato; Polticelli, Fabio; Coletta, Massimo; Marini, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    Somatostatin is a cyclic peptide, released in the gastrointestinal system and the central nervous system, where it is involved in the regulation of cognitive and sensory functions, motor activity and sleep. It is a substrate of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), as well as a modulator of its activity and expression. In the present study, we have investigated the modulatory role of somatostatin on IDE activity at 37 °C and pH 7.3 for various substrates [i.e. insulin, β-amyloid (Aβ) 1-40 and bradykinin], aiming to quantitatively characterize the correlation between the specific features of the substrates and the regulatory mechanism. Functional data indicate that somatostatin, in addition to the catalytic site of IDE (being a substrate), is also able to bind to two additional exosites, which play different roles according to the size of the substrate and its binding mode to the IDE catalytic cleft. In particular, one exosite, which displays high affinity for somatostatin, regulates only the interaction of IDE with larger substrates (such as insulin and Aβ 1-40 ) in a differing fashion according to their various modes of binding to the enzyme. A second exosite, which is involved in the regulation of enzymatic processing by IDE of all substrates investigated (including a 10-25 amino acid long amyloid-like peptide, bradykinin and somatostatin itself, which had been studied previously), probably acts through the alteration of an 'open-closed' equilibrium. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  8. Caveolin versus calmodulin. Counterbalancing allosteric modulators of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Michel, J B; Feron, O; Sase, K; Prabhakar, P; Michel, T

    1997-10-10

    Nitric oxide is synthesized in diverse mammalian tissues by a family of calmodulin-dependent nitric oxide synthases. The endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is targeted to the specialized signal-transducing membrane domains termed plasmalemmal caveolae. Caveolin, the principal structural protein in caveolae, interacts with eNOS and leads to enzyme inhibition in a reversible process modulated by Ca2+-calmodulin (Michel, J. B., Feron, O., Sacks, D., and Michel, T. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 15583-15586). Caveolin also interacts with other structurally distinct signaling proteins via a specific region identified within the caveolin sequence (amino acids 82-101) that appears to subserve the role of a "scaffolding domain." We now report that the co-immunoprecipitation of eNOS with caveolin is completely and specifically blocked by an oligopeptide corresponding to the caveolin scaffolding domain. Peptides corresponding to this domain markedly inhibit nitric oxide synthase activity in endothelial membranes and interact directly with the enzyme to inhibit activity of purified recombinant eNOS expressed in Escherichia coli. The inhibition of purified eNOS by the caveolin scaffolding domain peptide is competitive and completely reversed by Ca2+-calmodulin. These studies establish that caveolin, via its scaffolding domain, directly forms an inhibitory complex with eNOS and suggest that caveolin inhibits eNOS by abrogating the enzyme's activation by calmodulin.

  9. Design, synthesis, and action of oxotremorine-related hybrid-type allosteric modulators of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Disingrini, Teresa; Muth, Mathias; Dallanoce, Clelia; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Bertoni, Simona; Kellershohn, Kerstin; Mohr, Klaus; De Amici, Marco; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2006-01-12

    A novel series of muscarinic receptor ligands of the hexamethonio-type was prepared which contained, on one side, the phthalimidopropane or 1,8-naphthalimido-2,2-dimethylpropane moiety typical for subtype selective allosteric antagonists and, on the other, the acetylenic fragment typical for the nonselective orthosteric muscarinic agonists oxotremorine, oxotremorine-M, and related muscarinic agonists. Binding experiments in M(2) receptors using [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine as an orthosteric probe proved an allosteric action of both groups of hybrids, 7a-10a and 8b-10b. The difference in activity between a-group and b-group hybrids corresponded with the activity difference between the allosteric parent compounds. In M(1)-M(3) muscarinic isolated organ preparations, most of the hybrids behaved as subtype selective antagonists. [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding assays using human M(2) receptors overexpressed in CHO cells revealed that a weak intrinsic efficacy was preserved in 8b-10b. Thus, attaching muscarinic allosteric antagonist moieties to orthosteric muscarinic agonists may lead to hybrid compounds in which functions of both components are mixed.

  10. Optical filter requirements in an EML-based single-sideband PAM4 intensity-modulation and direct-detection transmission system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsing-Yu; Kaneda, Noriaki; Lee, Jeffrey; Chen, Jyehong; Chen, Young-Kai

    2017-03-20

    The feasibility of a single sideband (SSB) PAM4 intensity-modulation and direct-detection (IM/DD) transmission based on a CMOS ADC and DAC is experimentally demonstrated in this work. To cost effectively build a >50 Gb/s system as well as to extend the transmission distance, a low cost EML and a passive optical filter are utilized to generate the SSB signal. However, the EML-induced chirp and dispersion-induced power fading limit the requirements of the SSB filter. To separate the effect of signal-signal beating interference, filters with different roll-off factors are employed to demonstrate the performance tolerance at different transmission distance. Moreover, a high resolution spectrum analysis is proposed to depict the system limitation. Experimental results show that a minimum roll-off factor of 7 dB/10GHz is required to achieve a 51.84Gb/s 40-km transmission with only linear feed-forward equalization.

  11. Augmenting the spectral efficiency of enhanced PAM-DMT-based optical wireless communications.

    PubMed

    Islim, Mohamed Sufyan; Haas, Harald

    2016-05-30

    The energy efficiency of pulse-amplitude-modulated discrete multitone modulation (PAM-DMT) decreases as the modulation order of M-PAM modulation increases. Enhanced PAM-DMT (ePAM-DMT) was proposed as a solution to the reduced energy efficiency of PAM-DMT. This was achieved by allowing multiple streams of PAM-DMT to be superimposed and successively demodulated at the receiver side. In order to maintain a distortion-free unipolar ePAM-DMT system, the multiple time-domain PAM-DMT streams are required to be aligned. However, aligning the antisymmetry in ePAM-DMT is complex and results in efficiency losses. In this paper, a novel simplified method to apply the superposition modulation on M-PAM modulated discrete multitone (DMT) is introduced. Contrary to ePAM-DMT, the signal generation of the proposed system, termed augmented spectral efficiency discrete multitone (ASE-DMT), occurs in the frequency domain. This results in an improved spectral and energy efficiency. The analytical bit error rate (BER) performance bound of the proposed system is derived and compared with Monte-Carlo simulations. The system performance is shown to offer significant electrical and optical energy savings compared with ePAM-DMT and DC-biased optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DCO-OFDM).

  12. The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) induces angiogenesis via allosteric modulation of the M3 muscarinic receptor in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Legeay, Samuel; Clere, Nicolas; Hilairet, Grégory; Do, Quoc-Tuan; Bernard, Philippe; Quignard, Jean-François; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique; Lapied, Bruno; Faure, Sébastien

    2016-06-27

    The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) has been reported to inhibit AChE (acetylcholinesterase) and to possess potential carcinogenic properties with excessive vascularization. In the present paper, we demonstrate that DEET specifically stimulates endothelial cells that promote angiogenesis which increases tumor growth. DEET activates cellular processes that lead to angiogenesis including proliferation, migration and adhesion. This is associated with an enhancement of NO production and VEGF expression in endothelial cells. M3 silencing or the use of a pharmacological M3 inhibitor abrogates all of these effects which reveals that DEET-induced angiogenesis is M3 sensitive. The experiments involving calcium signals in both endothelial and HEK cells overexpressing M3 receptors, as well as binding and docking studies demonstrate that DEET acts as an allosteric modulator of the M3 receptor. In addition, DEET inhibited AChE which increased acetylcholine bioavailability and binding to M3 receptors and also strengthened proangiogenic effects by an allosteric modulation.

  13. Translational PK-PD modelling of molecular target modulation for the AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulator Org 26576.

    PubMed

    Bursi, Roberta; Erdemli, Gul; Campbell, Robert; Hutmacher, Matthew M; Kerbusch, Thomas; Spanswick, David; Jeggo, Ross; Nations, Kari R; Dogterom, Peter; Schipper, Jacques; Shahid, Mohammed

    2011-12-01

    The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor potentiator Org 26576 represents an interesting pharmacological tool to evaluate the utility of glutamatergic enhancement towards the treatment of psychiatric disorders. In this study, a rat-human translational pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model of AMPA receptor modulation was used to predict human target engagement and inform dose selection in efficacy clinical trials. Modelling and simulation was applied to rat plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic measurements to identify a target concentration (EC(80)) for AMPA receptor modulation. Human plasma pharmacokinetics was determined from 33 healthy volunteers and eight major depressive disorder patients. From four out of these eight patients, CSF PK was also determined. Simulations of human CSF levels were performed for several doses of Org 26576. Org 26576 (0.1-10 mg/kg, i.v.) potentiated rat hippocampal AMPA receptor responses in an exposure-dependant manner. The rat plasma and CSF PK data were fitted by one-compartment model each. The rat CSF PK-PD model yielded an EC(80) value of 593 ng/ml (90% confidence interval 406.8, 1,264.1). The human plasma and CSF PK data were simultaneously well described by a two-compartment model. Simulations showed that in humans at 100 mg QD, CSF levels of Org 26576 would exceed the EC(80) target concentration for about 2 h and that 400 mg BID would engage AMPA receptors for 24 h. The modelling approach provided useful insight on the likely human dose-molecular target engagement relationship for Org 26576. Based on the current analysis, 100 and 400 mg BID would be suitable to provide 'phasic' and 'continuous' AMPA receptor engagement, respectively.

  14. The major brain cholesterol metabolite 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol is a potent allosteric modulator of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.

    PubMed

    Paul, Steven M; Doherty, James J; Robichaud, Albert J; Belfort, Gabriel M; Chow, Brian Y; Hammond, Rebecca S; Crawford, Devon C; Linsenbardt, Andrew J; Shu, Hong-Jin; Izumi, Yukitoshi; Mennerick, Steven J; Zorumski, Charles F

    2013-10-30

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate-gated ion channels that are critical to the regulation of excitatory synaptic function in the CNS. NMDARs govern experience-dependent synaptic plasticity and have been implicated in the pathophysiology of various neuropsychiatric disorders including the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia and certain forms of autism. Certain neurosteroids modulate NMDARs experimentally but their low potency, poor selectivity, and very low brain concentrations make them poor candidates as endogenous ligands or therapeutic agents. Here we show that the major brain-derived cholesterol metabolite 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol (24(S)-HC) is a very potent, direct, and selective positive allosteric modulator of NMDARs with a mechanism that does not overlap that of other allosteric modulators. At submicromolar concentrations 24(S)-HC potentiates NMDAR-mediated EPSCs in rat hippocampal neurons but fails to affect AMPAR or GABAA receptors (GABA(A)Rs)-mediated responses. Cholesterol itself and other naturally occurring oxysterols present in brain do not modulate NMDARs at concentrations ≤10 μM. In hippocampal slices, 24(S)-HC enhances the ability of subthreshold stimuli to induce long-term potentiation (LTP). 24(S)-HC also reverses hippocampal LTP deficits induced by the NMDAR channel blocker ketamine. Finally, we show that synthetic drug-like derivatives of 24(S)-HC, which potently enhance NMDAR-mediated EPSCs and LTP, restore behavioral and cognitive deficits in rodents treated with NMDAR channel blockers. Thus, 24(S)-HC may function as an endogenous modulator of NMDARs acting at a novel oxysterol modulatory site that also represents a target for therapeutic drug development.

  15. Effects of nicotine in combination with drugs described as positive allosteric nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulators in vitro: discriminative stimulus and hypothermic effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Moerke, Megan J; de Moura, Fernando B; Koek, Wouter; McMahon, Lance R

    2016-09-05

    Some drugs that are positive allosteric nAChR modulators in vitro, desformylflustrabromine (dFBr), PNU-120596 and LY 2087101, have not been fully characterized in vivo. These drugs were examined for their capacity to share or modify the hypothermic and discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine (1mg/kg s.c.) in male C57Bl/6J mice. Nicotine, dFBr, and PNU-120596 produced significant hypothermia, whereas LY 2087101 (up to 100mg/kg) did not. Nicotine dose-dependently increased nicotine-appropriate responding and decreased response rate; the respective ED50 values were 0.56mg/kg and 0.91mg/kg. The modulators produced no more than 38% nicotine-appropriate responding up to doses that disrupted operant responding. Rank order potency was the same for hypothermia and rate-decreasing effects: nicotine>dFBr>PNU-120596=LY 2087101. Mecamylamine and the α4β2 nAChR antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine, but not the α7 antagonist methyllycaconitine, antagonized the hypothermic effects of nicotine. In contrast, mecamylamine did not antagonize the hypothermic effects of the modulators. The combined discriminative stimulus effects of DFBr and nicotine were synergistic, whereas the combined hypothermic effects of nicotine with either dFBr or PNU-120596 were infra-additive. PNU-120596 did not modify the nicotine discriminative stimulus, and LY 2087101 did not significantly modify either effect of nicotine. Positive modulation of nicotine at nAChRs by PNU-120596 and LY 2087101 in vitro does not appear to confer enhancement of the nAChR-mediated hypothermic or discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine. However, dFBr appears to be a positive allosteric modulator of some behavioral effects of nicotine at doses of dFBr smaller than the doses producing unwanted effects (e.g. hypothermia) through non-nAChR mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of nicotine in combination with drugs described as positive allosteric nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulators in vitro: discriminative stimulus and hypothermic effects in mice

    PubMed Central

    Moerke, Megan J.; de Moura, Fernando B.; Koek, Wouter; McMahon, Lance R.

    2016-01-01

    Some drugs that are positive allosteric nAChR modulators in vitro, desformylflustrabromine (dFBr), PNU-120596 and LY 2087101, have not been fully characterized in vivo. These drugs were examined for their capacity to share or modify the hypothermic and discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine (1 mg/kg s.c.) in male C57Bl/6J mice. Nicotine, dFBr, and PNU-120596 produced significant hypothermia, whereas LY 2087101 (up to 100 mg/kg) did not. Nicotine dose-dependently increased nicotine-appropriate responding and decreased response rate; the respective ED50 values were 0.56 mg/kg and 0.91 mg/kg. The modulators produced no more than 38% nicotine-appropriate responding up to doses that disrupted operant responding. Rank order potency was the same for hypothermia and rate-decreasing effects: nicotine>dFBr>PNU-120596=LY 2087101. Mecamylamine and the α4β2 nAChR antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine, but not the α7 antagonist methyllycaconitine, antagonized the hypothermic effects of nicotine. In contrast, mecamylamine did not antagonize the hypothermic effects of the modulators. The combined discriminative stimulus effects of DFBr and nicotine were synergistic, whereas the combined hypothermic effects of nicotine with either dFBr or PNU-120596 were infra-additive. PNU-120596 did not modify the nicotine discriminative stimulus, and LY 2087101 did not significantly modify either effect of nicotine. Positive modulation of nicotine at nAChRs by PNU-120596 and LY 2087101 in vitro does not appear to confer enhancement of the nAChR-mediated hypothermic or discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine. However, dFBr appears to be a positive allosteric modulator of some behavioral effects of nicotine at doses of dFBr smaller than the doses producing unwanted effects (e.g. hypothermia) through non-nAChR mechanisms. PMID:27238974

  17. On the G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Heteromers and Their Allosteric Receptor-Receptor Interactions in the Central Nervous System: Focus on Their Role in Pain Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O.; Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Rivera, Alicia; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen; Tarakanov, Alexander O.; Agnati, Luigi F.; Fuxe, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    The modulatory role of allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in the pain pathways of the Central Nervous System and the peripheral nociceptors has become of increasing interest. As integrators of nociceptive and antinociceptive wiring and volume transmission signals, with a major role for the opioid receptor heteromers, they likely have an important role in the pain circuits and may be involved in acupuncture. The delta opioid receptor (DOR) exerts an antagonistic allosteric influence on the mu opioid receptor (MOR) function in a MOR-DOR heteromer. This heteromer contributes to morphine-induced tolerance and dependence, since it becomes abundant and develops a reduced G-protein-coupling with reduced signaling mainly operating via β-arrestin2 upon chronic morphine treatment. A DOR antagonist causes a return of the Gi/o binding and coupling to the heteromer and the biological actions of morphine. The gender- and ovarian steroid-dependent recruitment of spinal cord MOR/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) heterodimers enhances antinociceptive functions and if impaired could contribute to chronic pain states in women. MOR1D heterodimerizes with gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in the spinal cord, mediating morphine induced itch. Other mechanism for the antinociceptive actions of acupuncture along meridians may be that it enhances the cross-desensitization of the TRPA1 (chemical nociceptor)-TRPV1 (capsaicin receptor) heteromeric channel complexes within the nociceptor terminals located along these meridians. Selective ionotropic cannabinoids may also produce cross-desensitization of the TRPA1-TRPV1 heteromeric nociceptor channels by being negative allosteric modulators of these channels leading to antinociception and antihyperalgesia. PMID:23956775

  18. Diarylureas as allosteric modulators of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor: structure-activity relationship studies on 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-{3-[6-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pyridin-2-yl]phenyl}urea (PSNCBAM-1).

    PubMed

    German, Nadezhda; Decker, Ann M; Gilmour, Brian P; Gay, Elaine A; Wiley, Jenny L; Thomas, Brian F; Zhang, Yanan

    2014-09-25

    The recent discovery of allosteric modulators of the CB1 receptor including PSNCBAM-1 (4) has generated significant interest in CB1 receptor allosteric modulation. Here in the first SAR study on 4, we have designed and synthesized a series of analogs focusing on modifications at two positions. Pharmacological evaluation in calcium mobilization and binding assays revealed the importance of alkyl substitution at the 2-aminopyridine moiety and electron deficient aromatic groups at the 4-chlorophenyl position for activity at the CB1 receptor, resulting in several analogs with comparable potency to 4. These compounds increased the specific binding of [(3)H]CP55,940, in agreement with previous reports. Importantly, 4 and two analogs dose-dependently reduced the Emax of the agonist curve in the CB1 calcium mobilization assays, confirming their negative allosteric modulator characteristics. Given the side effects associated with CB1 receptor orthosteric antagonists, negative allosteric modulators provide an alternative approach to modulate the pharmacologically important CB1 receptor.

  19. LY2033298, a positive allosteric modulator at muscarinic M₄ receptors, enhances inhibition by oxotremorine of light-induced phase shifts in hamster circadian activity rhythms.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Robert L; Millan, Mark J

    2012-11-01

    Entrainment of circadian rhythms to the light-dark cycle is essential for restorative sleep, and abnormal sleep timing is implicated in central nervous system (CNS) disorders like depression, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Many transmitters, including acetylcholine, that exerts its actions via muscarinic receptors modulate the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the master pacemaker. Since positive allosteric modulators of muscarinic M(4) receptors are candidates for treatment of mood and cognitive deficits of CNS disorders, it is important to evaluate their circadian actions. The effects of intraperitoneally applied muscarinic agents on circadian wheel-running rhythms were measured employing hamsters, a model organism for studying activity rhythms. Systemic administration of the muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine (0.01-0.04 mg/kg) inhibited light-induced phase delays and advances of hamster circadian wheel-running rhythms. The M₄ positive allosteric modulator, LY2033298 (10-40 mg/kg), had no effect on light-induced phase shifts when administered alone, yet significantly enhanced (at 20 mg/kg) the inhibitory influence of oxotremorine on light-induced phase delays. In addition, the muscarinic receptor antagonist, scopolamine, which was without effect on light-induced phase shifts when administered alone (0.001-0.1 mg/kg), antagonized (at 0.1 mg/kg) the inhibitory effect of oxotremorine and LY2033298 on light-induced phase delays. These results are the first to demonstrate that systemically applied muscarinic receptor agonists modulate circadian activity rhythms, and they also reveal a specific role for M₄ receptors. It will be of importance to evaluate circadian actions of psychotropic drugs acting via M₄ receptors, since they may display beneficial properties under pathological conditions.

  20. Comparison of the effect of the GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, and the positive allosteric modulator of the GABAB receptor, GS39783, on alcohol self-administration in three different lines of alcohol-preferring rats

    PubMed Central

    Maccioni, Paola; Zaru, Alessandro; Loi, Barbara; Lobina, Carla; Carai, Mauro A.M.; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Capra, Alessandro; Mugnaini, Claudia; Pasquini, Serena; Corelli, Federico; Hyytiä, Petri; Lumeng, Lawrence; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2012-01-01

    Background Administration of the GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, and positive allosteric modulator (PAM), GS39783, has been repeatedly reported to suppress multiple alcohol-related behaviors, including operant oral alcohol self-administration, in rats. The present study was designed to compare the effect of baclofen and GS39783 on alcohol self-administration in three lines of selectively bred, alcohol-preferring rats: Indiana alcohol-preferring (P), Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP), and Alko Alcohol (AA). Methods Rats of each line were initially trained to respond on a lever, on a fixed ratio (FR) 4 (FR4) schedule of reinforcement, to orally self-administer alcohol (15%, v/v) in daily 30-min sessions. Once responding reached stable levels, rats were exposed to a sequence of experiments testing baclofen (0, 1, 1.7, and 3 mg/kg; i.p.) and GS39783 (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg; i.g.) on FR4 and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. Finally, to assess the specificity of baclofen and GS39783 action, rats were slightly food-deprived and trained to lever-respond for food pellets. Results The rank of order of the reinforcing and motivational properties of alcohol was: P>sP>AA rats. Under both FR and PR schedules of reinforcement, the rank of order of potency and efficacy of baclofen and GS39783 in suppressing alcohol self-administration was: P>sP>AA rats. Only the highest dose of baclofen reduced lever-responding for food pellets; this effect was common to all three rat lines. Conversely, no dose of GS39783 altered lever-responding for food in any rat line. Conclusions These results suggest that: (a) the strength of the reinforcing and motivational properties of alcohol differ among P, sP, and AA rats; (b) the reinforcing and motivational properties of alcohol in P, sP, and AA rats are differentially sensitive to treatment with baclofen and GS39783; (c) the heterogeneity in sensitivity to baclofen and GS39783 of alcohol self-administration in P, sP, and AA rats

  1. The molecular mechanism of flop-selectivity and subsite recognition for an AMPA receptor allosteric modulator: Structures of GluA2 and GluA3 complexed with PEPA

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ahmed H.; Ptak, Christopher P.; Oswald, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Glutamate receptors are important potential drug targets for cognitive enhancement and the treatment of schizophrenia in part because they are the most prevalent excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the vertebrate central nervous system. One approach to the application of therapeutic agents to the AMPA subtype of glutamate receptors is the use of allosteric modulators, which promote dimerization by binding to a dimer interface thereby reducing desensitization and deactivation. AMPA receptors exist in two alternatively spliced variants (flip and flop) that differ in desensitization and receptor activation profiles. Most of the structural information on modulators of the AMPA receptor target the flip subtype. We report here the crystal structure of the flop-selective allosteric modulator, PEPA, bound to the binding domains of the GluA2 and GluA3 flop isoforms of AMPA receptors. Specific hydrogen bonding patterns can explain the preference for the flop isoform. This includes a bidentate hydrogen bonding pattern between PEPA and N754 of the flop isoforms of GluA2 and GluA3 (the corresponding position in the flip isoform is S754). Comparison with other allosteric modulators provides a framework for the development of new allosteric modulators with preferences for either the flip or flop isoforms. In addition to interactions with N/S754, specific interactions of the sulfonamide with conserved residues in the binding site are characteristics of a number of allosteric modulators. These, in combination, with variable interactions with five subsites on the binding surface lead to different stoichiometries, orientations within the binding pockets, and functional outcomes. PMID:20199107

  2. The Role of mGlu Receptors in Hippocampal Plasticity Deficits in Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders: Implications for Allosteric Modulators as Novel Therapeutic Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Senter, Rebecca K.; Ghoshal, Ayan; Walker, Adam G.; Xiang, Zixiu; Niswender, Colleen M.; Conn, P. Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are two distinct forms of synaptic plasticity that have been extensively characterized at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 (SC-CA1) synapse and the mossy fiber (MF)-CA3 synapse within the hippocampus, and are postulated to be the molecular underpinning for several cognitive functions. Deficits in LTP and LTD have been implicated in the pathophysiology of several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, there has been a large effort focused on developing an understanding of the mechanisms underlying these forms of plasticity and novel therapeutic strategies that improve or rescue these plasticity deficits. Among many other targets, the metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors show promise as novel therapeutic candidates for the treatment of these disorders. Among the eight distinct mGlu receptor subtypes (mGlu1-8), the mGlu1,2,3,5,7 subtypes are expressed throughout the hippocampus and have been shown to play important roles in the regulation of synaptic plasticity in this brain area. However, development of therapeutic agents that target these mGlu receptors has been hampered by a lack of subtype-selective compounds. Recently, discovery of allosteric modulators of mGlu receptors has provided novel ligands that are highly selective for individual mGlu receptor subtypes. The mGlu receptors modulate the multiple forms of synaptic plasticity at both SC-CA1 and MF synapses and allosteric modulators of mGlu receptors have emerged as potential therapeutic agents that may rescue plasticity deficits and improve cognitive function in patients suffering from multiple neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:27296640

  3. The future of type 1 cannabinoid receptor allosteric ligands.

    PubMed

    Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Laprairie, Robert B

    2018-02-01

    Allosteric modulation of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) holds great therapeutic potential. This is because allosteric modulators do not possess intrinsic efficacy, but instead augment (positive allosteric modulation) or diminish (negative allosteric modulation) the receptor's response to endogenous ligand. Consequently, CB1R allosteric modulators have an effect ceiling which allows for the tempering of CB1R signaling without the desensitization, tolerance, dependence, and psychoactivity associated with orthosteric compounds. Pain, movement disorders, epilepsy, obesity are all potential therapeutic targets for CB1R allosteric modulation. Several challenges exist for the development of CB1R allosteric modulators, such as receptor subtype specificity, translation to in vivo systems, and mixed allosteric/agonist/inverse agonist activity. Despite these challenges, elucidation of crystal structures of CB1R and compound design based on structure-activity relationships will advance the field. In this review, we will cover recent progress for CB1R allosteric modulators and discuss the future promise of this research.

  4. Allosteric Modulation of Ca2+ flux in Ligand-gated Cation Channel (P2X4) by Actions on Lateral Portals*

    PubMed Central

    Samways, Damien S. K.; Khakh, Baljit S.; Egan, Terrance M.

    2012-01-01

    Human P2X receptors are a family of seven ATP-gated ion channels that transport Na+, K+, and Ca2+ across cell surface membranes. The P2X4 receptor is unique among family members in its sensitivity to the macrocyclic lactone, ivermectin, which allosterically modulates both ion conduction and channel gating. In this paper we show that removing the fixed negative charge of a single acidic amino acid (Glu51) in the lateral entrance to the transmembrane pore markedly attenuates the effect of ivermectin on Ca2+ current and channel gating. Ca2+ entry through P2X4 receptors is known to trigger downstream signaling pathways in microglia. Our experiments show that the lateral portals could present a novel target for drugs in the treatment of microglia-associated disease including neuropathic pain. PMID:22219189

  5. Hotspot Mutations in KIT Receptor Differentially Modulate Its Allosterically Coupled Conformational Dynamics: Impact on Activation and Drug Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Chauvot de Beauchêne, Isaure; Allain, Ariane; Panel, Nicolas; Laine, Elodie; Trouvé, Alain; Dubreuil, Patrice; Tchertanov, Luba

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinase KIT controls many signal transduction pathways and represents a typical allosterically regulated protein. The mutation-induced deregulation of KIT activity impairs cellular physiological functions and causes serious human diseases. The impact of hotspots mutations (D816H/Y/N/V and V560G/D) localized in crucial regulatory segments, the juxtamembrane region (JMR) and the activation (A-) loop, on KIT internal dynamics was systematically studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The mutational outcomes predicted in silico were correlated with in vitro and in vivo activation rates and drug sensitivities of KIT mutants. The allosteric regulation of KIT in the native and mutated forms is described in terms of communication between the two remote segments, JMR and A-loop. A strong correlation between the communication profile and the structural and dynamical features of KIT in the native and mutated forms was established. Our results provide new insight on the determinants of receptor KIT constitutive activation by mutations and resistance of KIT mutants to inhibitors. Depiction of an intra-molecular component of the communication network constitutes a first step towards an integrated description of vast communication pathways established by KIT in physiopathological contexts. PMID:25079768

  6. Behavioral Effects of the Benzodiazepine-Positive Allosteric Modulator SH-053-2’F-S-CH3 in an Immune-Mediated Neurodevelopmental Disruption Model

    PubMed Central

    Richetto, Juliet; Labouesse, Marie A.; Poe, Michael M.; Cook, James M.; Grace, Anthony A.; Riva, Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Impaired γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling may contribute to the emergence of cognitive deficits and subcortical dopaminergic hyperactivity in patients with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. Against this background, it has been proposed that pharmacological interventions targeting GABAergic dysfunctions may prove useful in correcting such cognitive impairments and dopaminergic imbalances. Methods: Here, we explored possible beneficial effects of the benzodiazepine-positive allosteric modulator SH-053-2’F-S-CH3, with partial selectivity at the α2, α3, and α5 subunits of the GABAA receptor in an immune-mediated neurodevelopmental disruption model. The model is based on prenatal administration of the viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid [poly(I:C)] in mice, which is known to capture various GABAergic, dopamine-related, and cognitive abnormalities implicated in schizophrenia and related disorders. Results: Real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses confirmed the expected alterations in GABAA receptor α subunit gene expression in the medial prefrontal cortices and ventral hippocampi of adult poly(I:C) offspring relative to control offspring. Systemic administration of SH-053-2’F-S-CH3 failed to normalize the poly(I:C)-induced deficits in working memory and social interaction, but instead impaired performance in these cognitive and behavioral domains both in control and poly(I:C) offspring. In contrast, SH-053-2’F-S-CH3 was highly effective in mitigating the poly(I:C)-induced amphetamine hypersensitivity phenotype without causing side effects in control offspring. Conclusions: Our preclinical data suggest that benzodiazepine-like positive allosteric modulators with activity at the α2, α3, and α5 subunits of the GABAA receptor may be particularly useful in correcting pathological overactivity of the dopaminergic system, but they may be ineffective in targeting multiple pathological domains that involve the co

  7. Effect of the Novel Positive Allosteric Modulator of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 2 AZD8529 on Incubation of Methamphetamine Craving After Prolonged Voluntary Abstinence in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Daniele; Venniro, Marco; Zeric, Tamara; Li, Xuan; Adhikary, Sweta; Madangopal, Rajtarun; Marchant, Nathan J; Lucantonio, Federica; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin

    2015-10-01

    Cue-induced methamphetamine craving increases after prolonged forced (experimenter-imposed) abstinence from the drug (incubation of methamphetamine craving). Here, we determined whether this incubation phenomenon would occur under conditions that promote voluntary (self-imposed) abstinence. We also determined the effect of the novel metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 positive allosteric modulator, AZD8529, on incubation of methamphetamine craving after forced or voluntary abstinence. We trained rats to self-administer palatable food (6 sessions) and then to self-administer methamphetamine under two conditions: 12 sessions (9 hours/day) or 50 sessions (3 hours/day). We then assessed cue-induced methamphetamine seeking in extinction tests after 1 or 21 abstinence days. Between tests, the rats underwent either forced abstinence (no access to the food- or drug-paired levers) or voluntary abstinence (achieved via a discrete choice procedure between methamphetamine and palatable food; 20 trials per day) for 19 days. We also determined the effect of subcutaneous injections of AZD8529 (20 and 40 mg/kg) on cue-induced methamphetamine seeking 1 day or 21 days after forced or voluntary abstinence. Under both training and abstinence conditions, cue-induced methamphetamine seeking in the extinction tests was higher after 21 abstinence days than after 1 day (incubation of methamphetamine craving). AZD8529 decreased cue-induced methamphetamine seeking on day 21 but not day 1 of forced or voluntary abstinence. We introduce a novel animal model to study incubation of drug craving and cue-induced drug seeking after prolonged voluntary abstinence, mimicking the human condition of relapse after successful contingency management treatment. Our data suggest that positive allosteric modulators of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 should be considered for relapse prevention. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. In vivo pharmacological interactions between a type II positive allosteric modulator of α7 nicotinic ACh receptors and nicotinic agonists in a murine tonic pain model

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, K; Negus, SS; Carroll, FI; Damaj, MI

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The α7 nicotinic ACh receptor subtype is abundantly expressed in the CNS and in the periphery. Recent evidence suggests that α7 nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) subtypes, which can be activated by an endogenous cholinergic tone comprising ACh and the α7 agonist choline, play an important role in chronic pain and inflammation. In this study, we evaluated whether type II α7 positive allosteric modulator PNU-120596 induces antinociception on its own and in combination with choline in the formalin pain model. Experimental Approach We assessed the effects of PNU-120596 and choline and the nature of their interactions in the formalin test using an isobolographic analysis. In addition, we evaluated the interaction of PNU-120596 with PHA-54613, an exogenous selective α7 nAChR agonist, in the formalin test. Finally, we assessed the interaction between PNU-120596 and nicotine using acute thermal pain, locomotor activity, body temperature and convulsing activity tests in mice. Key Results We found that PNU-120596 dose-dependently attenuated nociceptive behaviour in the formalin test after systemic administration in mice. In addition, mixtures of PNU-120596 and choline synergistically reduced formalin-induced pain. PNU-120596 enhanced the effects of nicotine and α7 agonist PHA-543613 in the same test. In contrast, PNU-120596 failed to enhance nicotine-induced convulsions, hypomotility and antinociception in acute pain models. Surprisingly, it enhanced nicotine-induced hypothermia via activation of α7 nAChRs. Conclusions and Implications Our results demonstrate that type II α7 positive allosteric modulators produce antinociceptive effects in the formalin test through a synergistic interaction with the endogenous α7 agonist choline. PMID:23004024

  9. Mutation of I696 and W697 in the TRP box of vanilloid receptor subtype I modulates allosteric channel activation.

    PubMed

    Gregorio-Teruel, Lucia; Valente, Pierluigi; González-Ros, José Manuel; Fernández-Ballester, Gregorio; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor subtype I (TRPV1) channel acts as a polymodal sensory receptor gated by chemical and physical stimuli. Like other TRP channels, TRPV1 contains in its C terminus a short, conserved domain called the TRP box, which is necessary for channel gating. Substitution of two TRP box residues-I696 and W697-with Ala markedly affects TRPV1's response to all activating stimuli, which indicates that these two residues play a crucial role in channel gating. We systematically replaced I696 and W697 with 18 native l-amino acids (excluding cysteine) and evaluated the effect on voltage- and capsaicin-dependent gating. Mutation of I696 decreased channel activation by either voltage or capsaicin; furthermore, gating was only observed with substitution of hydrophobic amino acids. Substitution of W697 with any of the 18 amino acids abolished gating in response to depolarization alone, shifting the threshold to unreachable voltages, but not capsaicin-mediated gating. Moreover, vanilloid-activated responses of W697X mutants showed voltage-dependent gating along with a strong voltage-independent component. Analysis of the data using an allosteric model of activation indicates that mutation of I696 and W697 primarily affects the allosteric coupling constants of the ligand and voltage sensors to the channel pore. Together, our findings substantiate the notion that inter- and/or intrasubunit interactions at the level of the TRP box are critical for efficient coupling of stimulus sensing and gate opening. Perturbation of these interactions markedly reduces the efficacy and potency of the activating stimuli. Furthermore, our results identify these interactions as potential sites for pharmacological intervention.

  10. Allosteric modulation of the group III mGlu4 receptor provides functional neuroprotection in the 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Betts, Matthew J; O'Neill, Michael J; Duty, Susan

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We recently reported that broad spectrum agonist-induced activation of presynaptic group III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors within the substantia nigra pars compacta using L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate provided functional neuroprotection in the 6-hydroxydopamine lesion rat model of Parkinson's disease. The aim of this study was to establish whether selective activation of the mGlu4 receptor alone could afford similar functional neuroprotection. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The neuroprotective effects of 8 days of supranigral treatment with a positive allosteric modulator of mGlu4 receptors, (+/−)-cis-2-(3,5-dichlorphenylcarbamoyl)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (VU0155041), were investigated in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions. The effects of VU0155041 treatment on motor function were assessed using both habitual (cylinder test) and forced (adjusted stepping, amphetamine-induced rotations) behavioural tests. Nigrostriatal tract integrity was examined by analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase, dopa decarboxylase or dopamine levels in the striatum and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cell counts in the substantia nigra pars compacta. KEY RESULTS VU0155041 provided around 40% histological protection against a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion as well as significant preservation of motor function. These effects were inhibited by pre-treatment with (RS)-α-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine, confirming a receptor-mediated response. Reduced levels of inflammatory markers were also evident in the brains of VU0155041-treated animals. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Allosteric potentiation of mGlu4 receptors in the substantia nigra pars compacta provided neuroprotective effects in the 6-hydroxydopamine rat model A reduced inflammatory response may contribute, in part, to this action. In addition to the reported symptomatic effects, activation of mGlu4 receptors may also offer a novel approach for slowing the progressive degeneration observed in

  11. 3.375-Gb/s RGB-LED based WDM visible light communication system employing PAM-8 modulation with phase shifted Manchester coding.

    PubMed

    Chi, Nan; Zhang, Mengjie; Zhou, Yingjun; Zhao, Jiaqi

    2016-09-19

    Optical background noise and second-order nonlinear distortions are two main challenges faced by indoor high-speed VLC system. In this paper, a novel phase shifted Manchester (PS-Manchester) coding based on PAM-8 is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to mitigate these noise and distortions. With the aid of PS-Manchester coding and WDM, a total data rate of 3.375-Gb/s can be successfully achieved in the RGB-LED based VLC system. The BER is under 7% HD-FEC limit of 3.8x10-3 after 1-m indoor free space transmission. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest data rate ever achieved in PAM VLC systems.

  12. Discovery and SAR of muscarinic receptor subtype 1 (M1) allosteric activators from a molecular libraries high throughput screen. Part 1: 2,5-dibenzyl-2H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]quinolin-3(5H)-ones as positive allosteric modulators.

    PubMed

    Han, Changho; Chatterjee, Arindam; Noetzel, Meredith J; Panarese, Joseph D; Smith, Emery; Chase, Peter; Hodder, Peter; Niswender, Colleen; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W; Stauffer, Shaun R

    2015-01-15

    Results from a 2012 high-throughput screen of the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR) against the human muscarinic receptor subtype 1 (M1) for positive allosteric modulators is reported. A content-rich screen utilizing an intracellular calcium mobilization triple-addition protocol allowed for assessment of all three modes of pharmacology at M1, including agonist, positive allosteric modulator, and antagonist activities in a single screening platform. We disclose a dibenzyl-2H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]quinolin-3(5H)-one hit (DBPQ, CID 915409) and examine N-benzyl pharmacophore/SAR relationships versus previously reported quinolin-3(5H)-ones and isatins, including ML137. SAR and consideration of recently reported crystal structures, homology modeling, and structure-function relationships using point mutations suggests a shared binding mode orientation at the putative common allosteric binding site directed by the pendant N-benzyl substructure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of a thiazolidinone derivative as an allosteric modulator of follicle stimulating hormone receptor: evidence for its ability to support follicular development and ovulation.

    PubMed

    Sriraman, Venkataraman; Denis, Deborah; de Matos, Daniel; Yu, Henry; Palmer, Stephen; Nataraja, Selva

    2014-05-15

    FSH signalling through its cognate receptor is critical for follicular development and ovulation. An earlier study had documented thiazolidinone derivatives to activate FSH receptor expressed in CHO cells and rat granulosa cells; however development of this compound for clinical use was halted for unobvious reasons. The objective of the current study is to extend the previous investigations in detail on the ability of thiazolidinone derivative (henceforth referred to as Compound 5) to activate FSH signalling and learn the barriers that preclude development of this derivative for clinical purposes. Our results demonstrate that the Compound 5 in a dose-dependent manner stimulated cAMP production, activated AKT and ERK signalling pathways and induced estradiol production in cultured rat granulosa cells. Compound 5 also caused dose-dependent increase in estradiol production from human granulosa cells. In increasingly more complex in vitro systems, Compound 5 was able to induce the expansion of mouse cumulus-oocyte-complex and support in vitro development of mouse preantral follicle to preovulatory stage and release of oocyte from the follicle. In vivo, the compound stimulated preovulatory follicular development and ovulation in immature rats. Pharmacokinetic and safety investigations reveal poor oral availability and genotoxicity. Together, our results document Compound 5 to act as a FSHR allosteric modulator but have poor pharmacological properties for development of an oral FSH receptor modulator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An Isozyme-specific Redox Switch in Human Brain Glycogen Phosphorylase Modulates Its Allosteric Activation by AMP.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Cécile; Duval, Romain; Cocaign, Angélique; Petit, Emile; Bui, Linh-Chi; Haddad, Iman; Vinh, Joelle; Etchebest, Catherine; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2016-11-11

    Brain glycogen and its metabolism are increasingly recognized as major players in brain functions. Moreover, alteration of glycogen metabolism in the brain contributes to neurodegenerative processes. In the brain, both muscle and brain glycogen phosphorylase isozymes regulate glycogen mobilization. However, given their distinct regulatory features, these two isozymes could confer distinct metabolic functions of glycogen in brain. Interestingly, recent proteomics studies have identified isozyme-specific reactive cysteine residues in brain glycogen phosphorylase (bGP). In this study, we show that the activity of human bGP is redox-regulated through the formation of a disulfide bond involving a highly reactive cysteine unique to the bGP isozyme. We found that this disulfide bond acts as a redox switch that precludes the allosteric activation of the enzyme by AMP without affecting its activation by phosphorylation. This unique regulatory feature of bGP sheds new light on the isoform-specific regulation of glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen metabolism. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. In vitro modulation of cytochrome P450 reductase supported indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity by allosteric effectors cytochrome b(5) and methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Josh T; Siu, Sophia; Meininger, David P; Wienkers, Larry C; Rock, Dan A

    2010-03-30

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a heme-containing dioxygenase involved in the degradation of several indoleamine derivatives and has been indicated as an immunosuppressive. IDO is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in diseases which are known to capitalize on immune suppression, including cancer, HIV, and inflammatory diseases. Conventionally, IDO activity is measured through chemical reduction by the addition of ascorbate and methylene blue. Identification of potential coenzymes involved in the reduction of IDO in vivo should improve in vitro reconstitution systems used to identify potential IDO inhibitors. In this study we show that NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is capable of supporting IDO activity in vitro and that oxidation of l-Trp follows substrate inhibition kinetics (k(cat) = 0.89 +/- 0.04 s(-1), K(m) = 0.72 +/- 0.15 microM, and K(i) = 9.4 +/- 2.0 microM). Addition of cytochrome b(5) to CPR-supported l-Trp incubations results in modulation from substrate inhibition to sigmoidal kinetics (k(cat) = 1.7 +/- 0.3 s(-1), K(m) = 1.5 +/- 0.9 microM, and K(i) = 1.9 +/- 0.3). CPR-supported d-Trp oxidations (+/-cytochrome b(5)) exhibit Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Addition of methylene blue (minus ascorbate) to CPR-supported reactions resulted in inhibition of d-Trp turnover and modulation of l-Trp kinetics from allosteric to Michaelis-Menten with a concurrent decrease in substrate affinity for IDO. Our data indicate that CPR is capable of supporting IDO activity in vitro and oxidation of tryptophan by IDO displays substrate stereochemistry dependent atypical kinetics which can be modulated by the addition of cytochrome b(5).

  16. The effect of the mGlu5 negative allosteric modulator MTEP and NMDA receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine on Pavlovian conditioned fear.

    PubMed

    Handford, Charlotte E; Tan, Shawn; Lawrence, Andrew J; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2014-09-01

    The metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor are critical for processes underlying synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation. mGlu5 signaling increases neuronal excitability and potentiates NMDA receptor currents in the amygdala and the hippocampus. The present study examined the involvement of mGlu5 in the acquisition and consolidation of conditioned fear to a tone and context in mice, and explored the functional relationship between mGlu5 and NMDA receptors in this regard. Experiment 1 showed that systemic administration of the mGlu5 negative allosteric modulator 3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl]pyridine (MTEP) prior to conditioning significantly attenuated cue-elicited freezing during fear conditioning, which suggests that mGlu5 is necessary for the formation of a tone-shock association. This effect was dose-related (Experiment 2) and not due to any effects of MTEP on shock sensitivity or state-dependency (Experiment 3). Post-conditioning injection of MTEP had no effects (Experiment 4). Although post-conditioning injection of the NMDA receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) alone facilitated consolidation of conditioned fear (Experiment 6), it was not able to rescue the acquisition deficit caused by MTEP (Experiment 5). Taken together, these findings indicate a crucial role for mGlu5 signaling in acquisition and NMDA receptor signaling in consolidation of conditioned fear.

  17. Separate and combined effects of the GABAA positive allosteric modulator diazepam and Δ⁹-THC in humans discriminating Δ⁹-THC.

    PubMed

    Lile, Joshua A; Kelly, Thomas H; Hays, Lon R

    2014-10-01

    Our previous research suggested the involvement of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), in particular the GABAB receptor subtype, in the interoceptive effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC). The aim of the present study was to determine the potential involvement of the GABAA receptor subtype by assessing the separate and combined effects of the GABAA positive allosteric modulator diazepam and Δ(9)-THC using pharmacologically selective drug-discrimination procedures. Ten cannabis users learned to discriminate 30 mg oral Δ(9)-THC from placebo and then received diazepam (5 and 10mg), Δ(9)-THC (5, 15 and 30 mg) and placebo, alone and in combination. Self-report, task performance and physiological measures were also collected. Δ(9)-THC functioned as a discriminative stimulus, produced subjective effects typically associated with cannabinoids (e.g., High, Stoned, Like Drug) and elevated heart rate. Diazepam alone impaired performance on psychomotor performance tasks and increased ratings on a limited number of self-report questionnaire items (e.g., Any Effect, Sedated), but did not substitute for the Δ(9)-THC discriminative stimulus or alter the Δ(9)-THC discrimination dose-response function. Similarly, diazepam had limited impact on the other behavioral effects of Δ(9)-THC. These results suggest that the GABAA receptor subtype has minimal involvement in the interoceptive effects of Δ(9)-THC, and by extension cannabis, in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Can a Positive Allosteric Modulation of GABAergic Receptors Improve Motor Symptoms in Patients with Parkinson's Disease? The Potential Role of Zolpidem in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Daniele, Antonio; Panza, Francesco; Greco, Antonio; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Seripa, Davide

    2016-01-01

    At present, patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) are unsatisfactorily controlled by currently used anti-Parkinsonian dopaminergic drugs. Various studies suggest that therapeutic strategies based on nondopaminergic drugs might be helpful in PD. Zolpidem, an imidazopyridine widely used as sleep inducer, shows high affinity only for GABAA receptors containing the α-1 subunit and facilitates GABAergic neurotransmission through a positive allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors. Various observations, although preliminary, consistently suggest that in PD patients zolpidem may induce beneficial (and sometimes remarkable) effects on motor symptoms even after single doses and may also improve dyskinesias. Since a high density of zolpidem binding sites is in the two main output structures of the basal ganglia which are abnormally overactive in PD (internal globus pallidus, GPi, and substantia nigra pars reticulata, SNr), it was hypothesized that in PD patients zolpidem may induce through GABAA receptors an inhibition of GPi and SNr (and, possibly, of the subthalamic nucleus also), resulting in an increased activity of motor cortical areas (such as supplementary motor area), which may give rise to improvement of motor symptoms of PD. Randomized clinical trials are needed in order to assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of zolpidem in treating motor symptoms of PD. PMID:27293955

  19. Artificial proteins as allosteric modulators of PDZ3 and SH3 in two-domain constructs: A computational characterization of novel chimeric proteins.

    PubMed

    Kirubakaran, Palani; Pfeiferová, Lucie; Boušová, Kristýna; Bednarova, Lucie; Obšilová, Veronika; Vondrášek, Jiří

    2016-10-01

    Artificial multidomain proteins with enhanced structural and functional properties can be utilized in a broad spectrum of applications. The design of chimeric fusion proteins utilizing protein domains or one-domain miniproteins as building blocks is an important advancement for the creation of new biomolecules for biotechnology and medical applications. However, computational studies to describe in detail the dynamics and geometry properties of two-domain constructs made from structurally and functionally different proteins are lacking. Here, we tested an in silico design strategy using all-atom explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations. The well-characterized PDZ3 and SH3 domains of human zonula occludens (ZO-1) (3TSZ), along with 5 artificial domains and 2 types of molecular linkers, were selected to construct chimeric two-domain molecules. The influence of the artificial domains on the structure and dynamics of the PDZ3 and SH3 domains was determined using a range of analyses. We conclude that the artificial domains can function as allosteric modulators of the PDZ3 and SH3 domains. Proteins 2016; 84:1358-1374. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Cocaine modulates allosteric D2-σ1 receptor-receptor interactions on dopamine and glutamate nerve terminals from rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Beggiato, Sarah; Borelli, Andrea Celeste; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel; Corbucci, Ilaria; Tomasini, Maria Cristina; Marti, Matteo; Antonelli, Tiziana; Tanganelli, Sergio; Fuxe, Kjell; Ferraro, Luca

    2017-12-01

    The effects of nanomolar cocaine concentrations, possibly not blocking the dopamine transporter activity, on striatal D 2 -σ 1 heteroreceptor complexes and their inhibitory signaling over Gi/o, have been tested in rat striatal synaptosomes and HEK293T cells. Furthermore, the possible role of σ 1 receptors (σ 1 Rs) in the cocaine-provoked amplification of D 2 receptor (D 2 R)-induced reduction of K + -evoked [ 3 H]-DA and glutamate release from rat striatal synaptosomes, has also been investigated. The dopamine D 2 -likeR agonist quinpirole (10nM-1μM), concentration-dependently reduced K + -evoked [ 3 H]-DA and glutamate release from rat striatal synaptosomes. The σ 1 R antagonist BD1063 (100nM), amplified the effects of quinpirole (10 and 100nM) on K + -evoked [ 3 H]-DA, but not glutamate, release. Nanomolar cocaine concentrations significantly enhanced the quinpirole (100nM)-induced decrease of K + -evoked [ 3 H]-DA and glutamate release from rat striatal synaptosomes. In the presence of BD1063 (10nM), cocaine failed to amplify the quinpirole (100nM)-induced effects. In cotransfected σ 1 R and D 2L R HEK293T cells, quinpirole had a reduced potency to inhibit the CREB signal versus D 2L R singly transfected cells. In the presence of cocaine (100nM), the potency of quinpirole to inhibit the CREB signal was restored. In D 2L singly transfected cells cocaine (100nM and 10μM) exerted no modulatory effects on the inhibitory potency of quinpirole to bring down the CREB signal. These results led us to hypothesize the existence of functional D 2 -σ 1 R complexes on the rat striatal DA and glutamate nerve terminals and functional D 2 -σ 1 R-DA transporter complexes on the striatal DA terminals. Nanomolar cocaine concentrations appear to alter the allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in such complexes leading to enhancement of Gi/o mediated D 2 R signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Orexin A/Hypocretin Modulates Leptin Receptor-Mediated Signaling by Allosteric Modulations Mediated by the Ghrelin GHS-R1A Receptor in Hypothalamic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Medrano, Mireia; Aguinaga, David; Reyes-Resina, Irene; Canela, Enric I; Mallol, Josefa; Navarro, Gemma; Franco, Rafael

    2018-06-01

    The hypothalamus is a key integrator of nutrient-seeking signals in the form of hormones and metabolites originated in both the central nervous system and the periphery. The main autocrine and paracrine target of orexinergic-related hormones such as leptin, orexin/hypocretin, and ghrelin are neuropeptide Y neurons located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and the molecular and functional relationships between leptin, orexin/hypocretin and ghrelin receptors. Biophysical studies in a heterologous system showed physical interactions between them, with potential formation of heterotrimeric complexes. Functional assays showed robust allosteric interactions particularly different when the three receptors are expressed together. Further biochemical and pharmacological assays provided evidence of heterotrimer functional expression in primary cultures of hypothalamic neurons. These findings constitute evidence of close relationships in the action of the three hormones already starting at the receptor level in hypothalamic cells.

  2. Loss of object recognition memory produced by extended access to methamphetamine self-administration is reversed by positive allosteric modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Carmela M; Schwendt, Marek; McGinty, Jacqueline F; Olive, M Foster; See, Ronald E

    2011-03-01

    Chronic methamphetamine (meth) abuse can lead to persisting cognitive deficits. Here, we utilized a long-access meth self-administration (SA) protocol to assess recognition memory and metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) expression, and the possible reversal of cognitive impairments with the mGluR5 allosteric modulator, 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl) benzamide (CDPPB). Male, Long-Evans rats self-administered i.v. meth (0.02 mg/infusion) on an FR1 schedule of reinforcement or received yoked-saline infusions. After seven daily 1-h sessions, rats were switched to 6-h daily sessions for 14 days, and then underwent drug abstinence. Rats were tested for object recognition memory at 1 week after meth SA at 90 min and 24 h retention intervals. In a separate experiment, rats underwent the same protocol, but received either vehicle or CDPPB (30 mg/kg) after familiarization. Rats were killed on day 8 or 14 post-SA and brain tissue was obtained. Meth intake escalated over the extended access period. Additionally, meth-experienced rats showed deficits in both short- and long-term recognition memory, demonstrated by a lack of novel object exploration. The deficit at 90 min was reversed by CDPPB treatment. On day 8, meth intake during SA negatively correlated with mGluR expression in the perirhinal and prefrontal cortex, and mGluR5 receptor expression was decreased 14 days after discontinuation of meth. This effect was specific to mGluR5 levels in the perirhinal cortex, as no differences were identified in the hippocampus or in mGluR2/3 receptors. These results from a clinically-relevant animal model of addiction suggest that mGluR5 receptor modulation may be a potential treatment of cognitive dysfunction in meth addiction.

  3. Selective and interactive effects of D2 receptor antagonism and positive allosteric mGluR4 modulation on waiting impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Isherwood, Sarah N; Robbins, Trevor W; Nicholson, Janet R; Dalley, Jeffrey W; Pekcec, Anton

    2017-09-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) and dopamine D 2 receptors are specifically expressed within the indirect pathway neurons of the striato-pallidal-subthalamic pathway. This unique expression profile suggests that mGluR4 and D 2 receptors may play a cooperative role in the regulation and inhibitory control of behaviour. We investigated this possibility by testing the effects of a functionally-characterised positive allosteric mGluR4 modulator, 4-((E)-styryl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamine (Cpd11), both alone and in combination with the D 2 receptor antagonist eticlopride, on two distinct forms of impulsivity. Rats were trained on the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) of sustained visual attention and segregated according to low, mid, and high levels of motor impulsivity (LI, MI and HI, respectively), with unscreened rats used as an additional control group. A separate group of rats was trained on a delay discounting task (DDT) to assess choice impulsivity. Systemic administration of Cpd11 dose-dependently increased motor impulsivity and impaired attentional accuracy on the 5-CSRTT in all groups tested. Eticlopride selectively attenuated the increase in impulsivity induced by Cpd11, but not the accompanying attentional impairment, at doses that had no significant effect on behavioural performance when administered alone. Cpd11 also decreased choice impulsivity on the DDT (i.e. increased preference for the large, delayed reward) and decreased locomotor activity. These findings demonstrate that mGluR4s, in conjunction with D 2 receptors, affect motor- and choice-based measures of impulsivity, and therefore may be novel targets to modulate impulsive behaviour associated with a number of neuropsychiatric syndromes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Deficits in the extinction of ethanol-seeking behavior following chronic intermittent ethanol exposure are attenuated with positive allosteric modulation of mGlu5.

    PubMed

    Gass, J T; McGonigal, J T; Chandler, L J

    2017-02-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by periods of heavy alcohol consumption and unsuccessful attempts at abstinence. Relapse is one of the most problematic aspects in the treatment of alcoholism and is triggered by ethanol-associated cues. Extinction-based cue exposure therapies have proven ineffective in the treatment of alcoholism. However, positive allosteric modulation of mGlu5 with CDPPB enhances the extinction learning of alcohol-seeking behavior. The current study investigated the impact of chronic alcohol exposure on the extinction of ethanol-seeking behavior. Adult Wistar rats were trained to self-administer alcohol with a light/tone stimulus serving as the alcohol cue. After training, one group of rats was exposed to chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) daily for a period of 2 weeks to induce ethanol dependence. Control rats were exposed to air for the same period of time. Both groups were then retrained to self-administer ethanol and subsequently tested for changes in extinction learning. CIE exposed rats consumed more ethanol compared to their pre-CIE levels and to control rats. During extinction training, CIE rats responded significantly more on the previously active lever and required more sessions to reach extinction criteria compared to control rats. Treatment with CDPPB facilitated extinction in control rats and attenuated the increased resistance to extinction in CIE-exposed rats. These results demonstrate that chronic ethanol exposure not only alters ethanol intake, but also the extinction of ethanol-seeking behaviors. The ability to attenuate deficits through modulation of mGlu5 provides a potential target for pharmacological manipulation that could ultimately reduce relapse in alcoholics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Asparagine, valine, and threonine in the third extracellular loop of muscarinic receptor have essential roles in the positive cooperativity of strychnine-like allosteric modulators.

    PubMed

    Jakubík, J; Krejcí, A; Dolezal, V

    2005-05-01

    We have investigated allosteric interactions of four closely related strychnine-like substances: Wieland-Gumlich aldehyde (WGA), propargyl Wieland-Gumlich aldehyde, strychnine, and brucine with N-methylscopolamine (NMS) on M(3) subtype of muscarinic receptor genetically modified in the second or the third extracellular loop to corresponding loops of M(2) subtype (M(3)o2 and M(3)o3 chimera). The M(3)o2 chimeric receptor The exhibited no change in either affinity of strychnine, brucine, and WGA or in cooperativity of brucine or WGA, whereas both parameters for propargyl-WGA changed. In contrast, there was a change in affinity of all tested modulators (except for brucine) and in their cooperativity in the M(3)o3 chimera. Directions of affinity changes in both chimeras were always toward values of the donor M(2) subtype, but changes in cooperativity were variable. Compared with the native M(3) receptor, strychnine displayed a slight increase in positive cooperativity and propargyl-WGA a robust decrease in negative cooperativity at M(3)o2 chimera. Similar changes were found in the M(3)o3 chimera. Interestingly, cooperativity of brucine and WGA at the M(3)o3 chimera changed from negative to positive. This is the first evidence of constitution of positive cooperativity of WGA by switching sequences of two parental receptors, both exhibiting negative cooperativity. Gradual replacement of individual amino acids revealed that only three residues (NVT of the o3 loop of the M(2) receptor) are involved in this effect. Data suggest that these amino acids are essential for propagation of a conformation change resulting in positive cooperativity induced by these modulators.

  6. Pharmacology of basimglurant (RO4917523, RG7090), a unique metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 negative allosteric modulator in clinical development for depression.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Lothar; Porter, Richard H; Scharf, Sebastian H; Kuennecke, Basil; Bruns, Andreas; von Kienlin, Markus; Harrison, Anthony C; Paehler, Axel; Funk, Christoph; Gloge, Andreas; Schneider, Manfred; Parrott, Neil J; Polonchuk, Liudmila; Niederhauser, Urs; Morairty, Stephen R; Kilduff, Thomas S; Vieira, Eric; Kolczewski, Sabine; Wichmann, Juergen; Hartung, Thomas; Honer, Michael; Borroni, Edilio; Moreau, Jean-Luc; Prinssen, Eric; Spooren, Will; Wettstein, Joseph G; Jaeschke, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious public health burden and a leading cause of disability. Its pharmacotherapy is currently limited to modulators of monoamine neurotransmitters and second-generation antipsychotics. Recently, glutamatergic approaches for the treatment of MDD have increasingly received attention, and preclinical research suggests that metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) inhibitors have antidepressant-like properties. Basimglurant (2-chloro-4-[1-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-2,5-dimethyl-1H-imidazol-4-ylethynyl]-pyridine) is a novel mGlu5 negative allosteric modulator currently in phase 2 clinical development for MDD and fragile X syndrome. Here, the comprehensive preclinical pharmacological profile of basimglurant is presented with a focus on its therapeutic potential for MDD and drug-like properties. Basimglurant is a potent, selective, and safe mGlu5 inhibitor with good oral bioavailability and long half-life supportive of once-daily administration, good brain penetration, and high in vivo potency. It has antidepressant properties that are corroborated by its functional magnetic imaging profile as well as anxiolytic-like and antinociceptive features. In electroencephalography recordings, basimglurant shows wake-promoting effects followed by increased delta power during subsequent non-rapid eye movement sleep. In microdialysis studies, basimglurant had no effect on monoamine transmitter levels in the frontal cortex or nucleus accumbens except for a moderate increase of accumbal dopamine, which is in line with its lack of pharmacological activity on monoamine reuptake transporters. These data taken together, basimglurant has favorable drug-like properties, a differentiated molecular mechanism of action, and antidepressant-like features that suggest the possibility of also addressing important comorbidities of MDD including anxiety and pain as well as daytime sleepiness and apathy or lethargy. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for

  7. Nonselective suppression of operant ethanol and sucrose self-administration by the mGluR7 positive allosteric modulator AMN082

    PubMed Central

    Salling, Michael C.; Faccidomo, Sara; Hodge, Clyde W.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that specific metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) modulate ethanol self-administration. In general, inhibition of glutamate transmission through blockade of postsynaptic mGluRs, or activation of presynaptic mGluRs, inhibits ethanol self-administration. The goal of this preclinical study was to further characterize mGluR regulation of ethanol self-administration by examining effects of AMN082, an allosteric positive modulator of presynaptic mGluR7 activity. Separate groups of C57BL/6J male mice were trained to self-administer ethanol or sucrose on a fixed-ratio 4 schedule of reinforcement during 1 hour sessions. On test days, mice were pretreated with AMN082 (0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.6, or 10 mg/kg) 30 minutes prior to self-administration sessions. Functional specificity and activity was examined by testing the effects of AMN082 (0 – 10 mg/kg) on open-field locomotor activity and HPA axis function as measured by plasma corticosterone levels. AMN082 (10 mg/kg) produced a significant reduction in ethanol and sucrose reinforced responding, and inhibited locomotor activity. Plasma corticosterone levels were significantly increased following AMN082 (5.6 and 10 mg/kg) suggesting a dose-dependent dissociation between the behavioral and hormonal effects of the compound. These data suggest that activation of mGluR7 by AMNO82 produces non-specific reductions in motivated behavior that are associated with negative effects on motor activity. PMID:18593591

  8. A translational approach to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the novel AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulator org 26576 in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lenard A; Kroon, René A; Stein, Mark; Shahid, Mohammed; Tarazi, Frank I; Szegedi, Armin; Schipper, Jacques; Cazorla, Pilar

    2012-12-01

    It has been posited that glutamate dysregulation contributes to the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Modulation of glutamate neurotransmission may provide alternative therapeutic options. The novel 2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2-oxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid receptor positive allosteric modulator Org 26576 was investigated with a translational approach including preclinical and clinical testing. Neonatal rat 6-hydroxydopamine lesion-induced hyperactivity was used as preclinical model. Seventy-eight ADHD adults entered a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover trial. After 1 week placebo lead-in, 67 subjects were randomized into one of four treatment sequences: sequence A (n = 15) Org 26576 (100 mg b.i.d.) for 3 weeks, followed by a 2-week placebo crossover and 3 weeks placebo; sequence B (n = 16) 5 weeks placebo followed by 3 weeks Org 26576 (100 mg b.i.d.); sequence C (n = 18) Org 26576 flexible dose (100-300 mg b.i.d.) for 3 weeks, then 5 weeks placebo; sequence D (n = 18) 5 weeks placebo followed by 3 weeks Org 26576 (100-300 mg b.i.d.). The Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale was used to assess changes in ADHD symptomatology. Org 26576 (1, 3, 10 mg/kg intraperitoneal) produced dose-dependent inhibition of locomotor hyperactivity in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. Org 26576 (100 mg b.i.d.) was superior to placebo in treating symptoms of adult ADHD subjects. The primary Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale results were supported by some secondary analyses. However, Org 26576 (100-300 mg b.i.d.) did not confirm these results. Most frequently reported adverse events were nausea, dizziness, and headache. These preclinical and clinical findings suggest that Org 25676 may have utility in the treatment of ADHD. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modulation of the conformational state of the SV2A protein by an allosteric mechanism as evidenced by ligand binding assays

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, V; Wood, M; Leclercq, K; Kaminski, R M; Gillard, M

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) is the specific binding site of the anti-epileptic drug levetiracetam (LEV) and its higher affinity analogue UCB30889. Moreover, the protein has been well validated as a target for anticonvulsant therapy. Here, we report the identification of UCB1244283 acting as a SV2A positive allosteric modulator of UCB30889. Experimental Approach UCB1244283 was characterized in vitro using radioligand binding assays with [3H]UCB30889 on recombinant SV2A expressed in HEK cells and on rat cortex. In vivo, the compound was tested in sound-sensitive mice. Key Results Saturation binding experiments in the presence of UCB1244283 demonstrated a fivefold increase in the affinity of [3H]UCB30889 for human recombinant SV2A, combined with a twofold increase of the total number of binding sites. Similar results were obtained on rat cortex. In competition binding experiments, UCB1244283 potentiated the affinity of UCB30889 while the affinity of LEV remained unchanged. UCB1244283 significantly slowed down both the association and dissociation kinetics of [3H]UCB30889. Following i.c.v. administration in sound-sensitive mice, UCB1244283 showed a clear protective effect against both tonic and clonic convulsions. Conclusions and Implications These results indicate that UCB1244283 can modulate the conformation of SV2A, thereby inducing a higher affinity state for UCB30889. Our results also suggest that the conformation of SV2A per se might be an important determinant of its functioning, especially during epileptic seizures. Therefore, agents that act on the conformation of SV2A might hold great potential in the search for new SV2A-based anticonvulsant therapies. PMID:23530581

  10. Challenges in the development of an M4 PAM preclinical candidate: The discovery, SAR, and biological characterization of a series of azetidine-derived tertiary amides.

    PubMed

    Tarr, James C; Wood, Michael R; Noetzel, Meredith J; Melancon, Bruce J; Lamsal, Atin; Luscombe, Vincent B; Rodriguez, Alice L; Byers, Frank W; Chang, Sichen; Cho, Hyekyung P; Engers, Darren W; Jones, Carrie K; Niswender, Colleen M; Wood, Michael W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Duggan, Mark E; Jeffrey Conn, P; Bridges, Thomas M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-12-01

    Herein we describe the continued optimization of M 4 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) within the 5-amino-thieno[2,3-c]pyridazine series of compounds. In this letter, we disclose our studies on tertiary amides derived from substituted azetidines. This series provided excellent CNS penetration, which had been challenging to consistently achieve in other amide series. Efforts to mitigate high clearance, aided by metabolic softspot analysis, were unsuccessful and precluded this series from further consideration as a preclinical candidate. In the course of this study, we found that potassium tetrafluoroborate salts could be engaged in a tosyl hydrazone reductive cross coupling reaction, a previously unreported transformation, which expands the synthetic utility of the methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PAM4 silicon photonic microring resonator-based transceiver circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palermo, Samuel; Yu, Kunzhi; Roshan-Zamir, Ashkan; Wang, Binhao; Li, Cheng; Seyedi, M. Ashkan; Fiorentino, Marco; Beausoleil, Raymond

    2017-02-01

    Increased data rates have motivated the investigation of advanced modulation schemes, such as four-level pulseamplitude modulation (PAM4), in optical interconnect systems in order to enable longer transmission distances and operation with reduced circuit bandwidth relative to non-return-to-zero (NRZ) modulation. Employing this modulation scheme in interconnect architectures based on high-Q silicon photonic microring resonator devices, which occupy small area and allow for inherent wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM), offers a promising solution to address the dramatic increase in datacenter and high-performance computing system I/O bandwidth demands. Two ring modulator device structures are proposed for PAM4 modulation, including a single phase shifter segment device driven with a multi-level PAM4 transmitter and a two-segment device driven by two simple NRZ (MSB/LSB) transmitters. Transmitter circuits which utilize segmented pulsed-cascode high swing output stages are presented for both device structures. Output stage segmentation is utilized in the single-segment device design for PAM4 voltage level control, while in the two-segment design it is used for both independent MSB/LSB voltage levels and impedance control for output eye skew compensation. The 65nm CMOS transmitters supply a 4.4Vppd output swing for 40Gb/s operation when driving depletion-mode microring modulators implemented in a 130nm SOI process, with the single- and two-segment designs achieving 3.04 and 4.38mW/Gb/s, respectively. A PAM4 optical receiver front-end is also described which employs a large input-stage feedback resistor transimpedance amplifier (TIA) cascaded with an adaptively-tuned continuous-time linear equalizer (CTLE) for improved sensitivity. Receiver linearity, critical in PAM4 systems, is achieved with a peak-detector-based automatic gain control (AGC) loop.

  12. Allosteric properties of hemoglobin and the plasma membrane of the erythrocyte: new insights in gas transport and metabolic modulation.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, Maria Cristina; Carelli Alinovi, Cristiana; Galtieri, Antonio; Russo, Annamaria; Giardina, Bruno

    2008-02-01

    Within the red blood cell the hemoglobin molecule is subjected to modulation mechanisms, namely homo- and heterotropic interactions, which optimize its functional behavior to the specific physiological requirements. At the cellular level, these modulation mechanisms are utilized to perform a number of other functions that are not minor with respect to the basic function of oxygen transport. Here we report some key examples concerning: (i) the interaction of hemoglobin with band 3 and its influence on glucose metabolism; (ii) the role of the ligand-linked quaternary transition of hemoglobin in the control of "NO bioactivity" and of gas diffusion; (iii) the interaction of plasma membrane with the various oxidative derivatives of the hemoglobin molecule. (c) 2008 IUBMB.

  13. The natural products magnolol and honokiol are positive allosteric modulators of both synaptic and extra-synaptic GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Alexeev, Mikhail; Grosenbaugh, Denise K.; Mott, David D.; Fisher, Janet L.

    2012-01-01

    The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) estimates that nearly 40% of adults in the United States use alternative medicines, often in the form of an herbal supplement. Extracts from the tree bark of magnolia species have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicines to treat a variety of neurological diseases, including anxiety, depression, and seizures. The active ingredients in the extracts have been identified as the bi-phenolic isomers magnolol and honokiol. These compounds were shown to enhance the activity of GABAA receptors, consistent with their biological effects. The GABAA receptors exhibit substantial subunit heterogeneity, which influences both their functional and pharmacological properties. We examined the activity of magnolol and honokiol at different populations of both neuronal and recombinant GABAA receptors to characterize their mechanism of action and to determine whether sensitivity to modulation was dependent upon the receptor’s subunit composition. We found that magnolol and honokiol enhanced both phasic and tonic GABAergic neurotransmission in hippocampal dentate granule neurons. In addition, all recombinant receptors examined were sensitive to modulation, regardless of the identity of the α, β, or γ subunit subtype, although the compounds showed particularly high efficacy at δ-containing receptors. This direct positive modulation of both synaptic and extra-synaptic populations of GABAA receptors suggests that supplements containing magnolol and/or honokiol would be effective anxiolytics, sedatives, and anti-convulsants. However, significant side-effects and risk of drug interactions would also be expected. PMID:22445602

  14. The allosteric site regulates the voltage sensitivity of muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Anika; Marti-Solano, Maria; Drabek, Matthäus; Bünemann, Moritz; Kolb, Peter; Rinne, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Muscarinic receptors (M-Rs) for acetylcholine (ACh) belong to the class A of G protein-coupled receptors. M-Rs are activated by orthosteric agonists that bind to a specific site buried in the M-R transmembrane helix bundle. In the active conformation, receptor function can be modulated either by allosteric modulators, which bind to the extracellular receptor surface or by the membrane potential via an unknown mechanism. Here, we compared the modulation of M 1 -Rs and M 3 -Rs induced by changes in voltage to their allosteric modulation by chemical compounds. We quantified changes in receptor signaling in single HEK 293 cells with a FRET biosensor for the G q protein cycle. In the presence of ACh, M 1 -R signaling was potentiated by voltage, similarly to positive allosteric modulation by benzyl quinolone carboxylic acid. Conversely, signaling of M 3 -R was attenuated by voltage or the negative allosteric modulator gallamine. Because the orthosteric site is highly conserved among M-Rs, but allosteric sites vary, we constructed "allosteric site" M 3 /M 1 -R chimeras and analyzed their voltage dependencies. Exchanging the entire allosteric sites eliminated the voltage sensitivity of ACh responses for both receptors, but did not affect their modulation by allosteric compounds. Furthermore, a point mutation in M 3 -Rs caused functional uncoupling of the allosteric and orthosteric sites and abolished voltage dependence. Molecular dynamics simulations of the receptor variants indicated a subtype-specific crosstalk between both sites, involving the conserved tyrosine lid structure of the orthosteric site. This molecular crosstalk leads to receptor subtype-specific voltage effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Role of Aldehyde Oxidase and Xanthine Oxidase in the Biotransformation of a Novel Negative Allosteric Modulator of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 5

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Ryan D.; Blobaum, Anna L.; Byers, Frank W.; Santomango, Tammy S.; Bridges, Thomas M.; Stec, Donald; Brewer, Katrina A.; Sanchez-Ponce, Raymundo; Corlew, Melany M.; Rush, Roger; Felts, Andrew S.; Manka, Jason; Bates, Brittney S.; Venable, Daryl F.; Rodriguez, Alice L.; Jones, Carrie K.; Niswender, Colleen M.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.; Emmitte, Kyle A.

    2012-01-01

    Negative allosteric modulation (NAM) of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) represents a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of childhood developmental disorders, such as fragile X syndrome and autism. VU0409106 emerged as a lead compound within a biaryl ether series, displaying potent and selective inhibition of mGlu5. Despite its high clearance and short half-life, VU0409106 demonstrated efficacy in rodent models of anxiety after extravascular administration. However, lack of a consistent correlation in rat between in vitro hepatic clearance and in vivo plasma clearance for the biaryl ether series prompted an investigation into the biotransformation of VU0409106 using hepatic subcellular fractions. An in vitro appraisal in rat, monkey, and human liver S9 fractions indicated that the principal pathway was NADPH-independent oxidation to metabolite M1 (+16 Da). Both raloxifene (aldehyde oxidase inhibitor) and allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor) attenuated the formation of M1, thus implicating the contribution of both molybdenum hydroxylases in the biotransformation of VU0409106. The use of 18O-labeled water in the S9 experiments confirmed the hydroxylase mechanism proposed, because 18O was incorporated into M1 (+18 Da) as well as in a secondary metabolite (M2; +36 Da), the formation of which was exclusively xanthine oxidase-mediated. This unusual dual and sequential hydroxylase metabolism was confirmed in liver S9 and hepatocytes of multiple species and correlated with in vivo data because M1 and M2 were the principal metabolites detected in rats administered VU0409106. An in vitro-in vivo correlation of predicted hepatic and plasma clearance was subsequently established for VU0409106 in rats and nonhuman primates. PMID:22711749

  16. The qEEG Signature of Selective NMDA NR2B Negative Allosteric Modulators; A Potential Translational Biomarker for Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Keavy, Deborah; Bristow, Linda J.; Sivarao, Digavalli V.; Batchelder, Margaret; King, Dalton; Thangathirupathy, Srinivasan; Macor, John E.; Weed, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The antidepressant activity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channel blocker, ketamine, has led to the investigation of negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) selective for the NR2B receptor subtype. The clinical development of NR2B NAMs would benefit from a translational pharmacodynamic biomarker that demonstrates brain penetration and functional inhibition of NR2B receptors in preclinical species and humans. Quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) is a translational measure that can be used to demonstrate pharmacodynamic effects across species. NMDA receptor channel blockers, such as ketamine and phencyclidine, increase the EEG gamma power band, which has been used as a pharmacodynamic biomarker in the development of NMDA receptor antagonists. However, detailed qEEG studies with ketamine or NR2B NAMs are lacking in nonhuman primates. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects on the qEEG power spectra of the NR2B NAMs traxoprodil (CP-101,606) and BMT-108908 in nonhuman primates, and to compare them to the NMDA receptor channel blockers, ketamine and lanicemine. Cynomolgus monkeys were surgically implanted with EEG radio-telemetry transmitters, and qEEG was measured after vehicle or drug administration. The relative power for a number of frequency bands was determined. Ketamine and lanicemine increased relative gamma power, whereas the NR2B NAMs traxoprodil and BMT-108908 had no effect. Robust decreases in beta power were elicited by ketamine, traxoprodil and BMT-108908; and these agents also produced decreases in alpha power and increases in delta power at the doses tested. These results suggest that measurement of power spectra in the beta and delta bands may represent a translational pharmacodynamic biomarker to demonstrate functional effects of NR2B NAMs. The results of these studies may help guide the selection of qEEG measures that can be incorporated into early clinical evaluation of NR2B NAMs in healthy humans. PMID:27035340

  17. Sarm1 deficiency impairs synaptic function and leads to behavioral deficits, which can be ameliorated by an mGluR allosteric modulator.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Wen; Chen, Chiung-Ya; Cheng, Sin-Jhong; Hu, Hsiao-Tang; Hsueh, Yi-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Innate immune responses have been shown to influence brain development and function. Dysregulation of innate immunity is significantly associated with psychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, which are well-known neurodevelopmental disorders. Recent studies have revealed that critical players of the innate immune response are expressed in neuronal tissues and regulate neuronal function and activity. For example, Sarm1, a negative regulator that acts downstream of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 and 4, is predominantly expressed in neurons. We have previously shown that Sarm1 regulates neuronal morphogenesis and the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the brain, which then affects learning ability, cognitive flexibility, and social interaction. Because impaired neuronal morphogenesis and dysregulation of cytokine expression may disrupt neuronal activity, we investigated whether Sarm1 knockdown affects the synaptic responses of neurons. We here show that reduced Sarm1 expression impairs metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-dependent long-term depression (LTD) formation but enhances N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term potentiation production in hippocampal CA1 neurons. The expression levels of post-synaptic proteins, including NR2a, NR1, Shank1 and Shank3, are also altered in Sarm1 knockdown mice, suggesting a role for Sarm1 in the maintenance of synaptic homeostasis. The addition of a positive allosteric modulator of mGluR5, CDPPB, ameliorates the LTD defects in slice recording and the behavioral deficits in social interaction and associative memory. These results suggest an important role for mGluR5 signaling in the function of Sarm1. In conclusion, our study demonstrates a role for Sarm1 in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. Through these mechanisms, Sarm1 knockdown results in the impairment of associative memory and social interactions in mice.

  18. Cognitive enhancement and antipsychotic-like activity following repeated dosing with the selective M4 PAM VU0467154.

    PubMed

    Gould, Robert W; Grannan, Michael D; Gunter, Barak W; Ball, Jacob; Bubser, Michael; Bridges, Thomas M; Wess, Jurgen; Wood, Michael W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Duggan, Mark E; Niswender, Colleen M; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K

    2018-01-01

    Although selective activation of the M 1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtype has been shown to improve cognitive function in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders, recent evidence suggests that enhancing M 4 mAChR function can also improve memory performance. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) targeting the M 4 mAChR subtype have shown therapeutic potential for the treatment of multiple symptoms observed in schizophrenia, including positive and cognitive symptoms when assessed in acute preclinical dosing paradigms. Since the cholinergic system has been implicated in multiple stages of learning and memory, we evaluated the effects of repeated dosing with the highly selective M 4 PAM VU0467154 on either acquisition and/or consolidation of learning and memory when dosed alone or after pharmacologic challenge with the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptors (NMDAR) antagonist MK-801. MK-801 challenge represents a well-documented preclinical model of NMDAR hypofunction that is thought to underlie some of the positive and cognitive symptoms observed in schizophrenia. In wildtype mice, 10-day, once-daily dosing of VU0467154 either prior to, or immediately after daily testing enhanced the rate of learning in a touchscreen visual pairwise discrimination task; these effects were absent in M 4 mAChR knockout mice. Following a similar 10-day, once-daily dosing regimen of VU0467154, we also observed 1) improved acquisition of memory in a cue-mediated conditioned freezing paradigm, 2) attenuation of MK-801-induced disruptions in the acquisition of memory in a context-mediated conditioned freezing paradigm and 3) reversal of MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion. Comparable efficacy and plasma and brain concentrations of VU0467154 were observed after repeated dosing as those previously reported with an acute, single dose administration of this M 4 PAM. Together, these studies are the first to demonstrate that cognitive enhancing and antipsychotic

  19. Calcitonin and Amylin Receptor Peptide Interaction Mechanisms: INSIGHTS INTO PEPTIDE-BINDING MODES AND ALLOSTERIC MODULATION OF THE CALCITONIN RECEPTOR BY RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEINS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Min; Hay, Debbie L; Pioszak, Augen A

    2016-04-15

    Receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMP1-3) determine the selectivity of the class B G protein-coupled calcitonin receptor (CTR) and the CTR-like receptor (CLR) for calcitonin (CT), amylin (Amy), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and adrenomedullin (AM) peptides. RAMP1/2 alter CLR selectivity for CGRP/AM in part by RAMP1 Trp-84 or RAMP2 Glu-101 contacting the distinct CGRP/AM C-terminal residues. It is unclear whether RAMPs use a similar mechanism to modulate CTR affinity for CT and Amy, analogs of which are therapeutics for bone disorders and diabetes, respectively. Here, we reproduced the peptide selectivity of intact CTR, AMY1 (CTR·RAMP1), and AMY2 (CTR·RAMP2) receptors using purified CTR extracellular domain (ECD) and tethered RAMP1- and RAMP2-CTR ECD fusion proteins and antagonist peptides. All three proteins bound salmon calcitonin (sCT). Tethering RAMPs to CTR enhanced binding of rAmy, CGRP, and the AMY antagonist AC413. Peptide alanine-scanning mutagenesis and modeling of receptor-bound sCT and AC413 supported a shared non-helical CGRP-like conformation for their TN(T/V)G motif prior to the C terminus. After this motif, the peptides diverged; the sCT C-terminal Pro was crucial for receptor binding, whereas the AC413/rAmy C-terminal Tyr had little or no influence on binding. Accordingly, mutant RAMP1 W84A- and RAMP2 E101A-CTR ECD retained AC413/rAmy binding. ECD binding and cell-based signaling assays with antagonist sCT/AC413/rAmy variants with C-terminal residue swaps indicated that the C-terminal sCT/rAmy residue identity affects affinity more than selectivity. rAmy(8-37) Y37P exhibited enhanced antagonism of AMY1 while retaining selectivity. These results reveal unexpected differences in how RAMPs determine CTR and CLR peptide selectivity and support the hypothesis that RAMPs allosterically modulate CTR peptide affinity. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Exploiting protein flexibility to predict the location of allosteric sites

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Allostery is one of the most powerful and common ways of regulation of protein activity. However, for most allosteric proteins identified to date the mechanistic details of allosteric modulation are not yet well understood. Uncovering common mechanistic patterns underlying allostery would allow not only a better academic understanding of the phenomena, but it would also streamline the design of novel therapeutic solutions. This relatively unexplored therapeutic potential and the putative advantages of allosteric drugs over classical active-site inhibitors fuel the attention allosteric-drug research is receiving at present. A first step to harness the regulatory potential and versatility of allosteric sites, in the context of drug-discovery and design, would be to detect or predict their presence and location. In this article, we describe a simple computational approach, based on the effect allosteric ligands exert on protein flexibility upon binding, to predict the existence and position of allosteric sites on a given protein structure. Results By querying the literature and a recently available database of allosteric sites, we gathered 213 allosteric proteins with structural information that we further filtered into a non-redundant set of 91 proteins. We performed normal-mode analysis and observed significant changes in protein flexibility upon allosteric-ligand binding in 70% of the cases. These results agree with the current view that allosteric mechanisms are in many cases governed by changes in protein dynamics caused by ligand binding. Furthermore, we implemented an approach that achieves 65% positive predictive value in identifying allosteric sites within the set of predicted cavities of a protein (stricter parameters set, 0.22 sensitivity), by combining the current analysis on dynamics with previous results on structural conservation of allosteric sites. We also analyzed four biological examples in detail, revealing that this simple coarse

  1. Exploiting protein flexibility to predict the location of allosteric sites.

    PubMed

    Panjkovich, Alejandro; Daura, Xavier

    2012-10-25

    Allostery is one of the most powerful and common ways of regulation of protein activity. However, for most allosteric proteins identified to date the mechanistic details of allosteric modulation are not yet well understood. Uncovering common mechanistic patterns underlying allostery would allow not only a better academic understanding of the phenomena, but it would also streamline the design of novel therapeutic solutions. This relatively unexplored therapeutic potential and the putative advantages of allosteric drugs over classical active-site inhibitors fuel the attention allosteric-drug research is receiving at present. A first step to harness the regulatory potential and versatility of allosteric sites, in the context of drug-discovery and design, would be to detect or predict their presence and location. In this article, we describe a simple computational approach, based on the effect allosteric ligands exert on protein flexibility upon binding, to predict the existence and position of allosteric sites on a given protein structure. By querying the literature and a recently available database of allosteric sites, we gathered 213 allosteric proteins with structural information that we further filtered into a non-redundant set of 91 proteins. We performed normal-mode analysis and observed significant changes in protein flexibility upon allosteric-ligand binding in 70% of the cases. These results agree with the current view that allosteric mechanisms are in many cases governed by changes in protein dynamics caused by ligand binding. Furthermore, we implemented an approach that achieves 65% positive predictive value in identifying allosteric sites within the set of predicted cavities of a protein (stricter parameters set, 0.22 sensitivity), by combining the current analysis on dynamics with previous results on structural conservation of allosteric sites. We also analyzed four biological examples in detail, revealing that this simple coarse-grained methodology is

  2. Non-caloric sweeteners, sweetness modulators, and sweetener enhancers.

    PubMed

    DuBois, Grant E; Prakash, Indra

    2012-01-01

    For a new sweetness technology to realize strong commercial success, it must be safe, exhibit good taste quality, be sufficiently soluble and stable in food and beverage systems, and be cost effective and patentable. Assessments of the commercial promise of eight synthetic and eight natural non-caloric sweeteners are made relevant to these metrics. High-potency (HP) non-caloric sweeteners, both synthetic and natural, are generally limited in taste quality by (a) low maximal sweetness response, (b) "off" tastes, (c) slow-onset sweet tastes that linger, and (d) sweet tastes that adapt or desensitize the gustatory system. Formulation approaches to address these limitations are discussed. Enhancement of the normal sucrose sensory response by action of a sweetener receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM) has been achieved with very significant calorie reduction and with retention of the taste quality of sucrose. Research on PAM discovery over the past decade is summarized.

  3. Allosteric regulation of epigenetic modifying enzymes.

    PubMed

    Zucconi, Beth E; Cole, Philip A

    2017-08-01

    Epigenetic enzymes including histone modifying enzymes are key regulators of gene expression in normal and disease processes. Many drug development strategies to target histone modifying enzymes have focused on ligands that bind to enzyme active sites, but allosteric pockets offer potentially attractive opportunities for therapeutic development. Recent biochemical studies have revealed roles for small molecule and peptide ligands binding outside of the active sites in modulating the catalytic activities of histone modifying enzymes. Here we highlight several examples of allosteric regulation of epigenetic enzymes and discuss the biological significance of these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry Reveals Calcium Binding Properties and Allosteric Regulation of Downstream Regulatory Element Antagonist Modulator (DREAM).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Jing; Craig, Theodore A; Kumar, Rajiv; Gross, Michael L

    2017-07-18

    Downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM) is an EF-hand Ca 2+ -binding protein that also binds to a specific DNA sequence, downstream regulatory elements (DRE), and thereby regulates transcription in a calcium-dependent fashion. DREAM binds to DRE in the absence of Ca 2+ but detaches from DRE under Ca 2+ stimulation, allowing gene expression. The Ca 2+ binding properties of DREAM and the consequences of the binding on protein structure are key to understanding the function of DREAM. Here we describe the application of hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) and site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the Ca 2+ binding properties and the subsequent conformational changes of full-length DREAM. We demonstrate that all EF-hands undergo large conformation changes upon calcium binding even though the EF-1 hand is not capable of binding to Ca 2+ . Moreover, EF-2 is a lower-affinity site compared to EF-3 and -4 hands. Comparison of HDX profiles between wild-type DREAM and two EF-1 mutated constructs illustrates that the conformational changes in the EF-1 hand are induced by long-range structural interactions. HDX analyses also reveal a conformational change in an N-terminal leucine-charged residue-rich domain (LCD) remote from Ca 2+ -binding EF-hands. This LCD domain is responsible for the direct interaction between DREAM and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and regulates the recruitment of the co-activator, CREB-binding protein. These long-range interactions strongly suggest how conformational changes transmit the Ca 2+ signal to CREB-mediated gene transcription.

  5. ONO-8590580, a Novel GABAAα5 Negative Allosteric Modulator Enhances Long-Term Potentiation and Improves Cognitive Deficits in Preclinical Models.

    PubMed

    Kawaharada, Soichi; Nakanishi, Miki; Nakanishi, Nobuto; Hazama, Keisuke; Higashino, Masato; Yasuhiro, Tetsuya; Lewis, Arwel; Clark, Gary S; Chambers, Mark S; Maidment, Scott A; Katsumata, Seishi; Kaneko, Shuji

    2018-07-01

    GABA A receptors containing α 5 subunits (GABA A α 5) are highly expressed in the hippocampus and negatively involved in memory processing, as shown by the fact that GABA A α 5-deficient mice show higher hippocampus-dependent performance than wild-type mice. Accordingly, small-molecule GABA A α 5 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) are known to enhance spatial learning and memory in rodents. Here we introduce a new, orally available GABA A α 5 NAM that improves hippocampal functions. ONO-8590580 [1-(cyclopropylmethyl)-5-fluoro-4-methyl- N -[5-(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-4-yl)-2-pyridinyl]-1H-benzimidazol-6-amine] binds to the benzodiazepine binding sites on recombinant human α 5-containing GABA A receptors with a K i of 7.9 nM, and showed functionally selective GABA A α 5 NAM activity for GABA-induced Cl - channel activity with a maximum 44.4% inhibition and an EC 50 of 1.1 nM. In rat hippocampal slices, tetanus-induced long-term potentiation of CA1 synapse response was significantly augmented in the presence of 300 nM ONO-8590580. Orally administered ONO-8590580 (1-20 mg/kg) dose-dependently occupied hippocampal GABA A α 5 in a range of 40%-90% at 1 hour after intake. In the rat passive avoidance test, ONO-8590580 (3-20 mg/kg, by mouth) significantly prevented (+)-MK-801 hydrogen maleate (MK-801)-induced memory deficit. In addition, ONO-8590580 (20 mg/kg, p.o.) was also effective in improving the cognitive deficit induced by scopolamine and MK-801 in the rat eight-arm radial maze test with equal or greater activity than 0.5 mg/kg donepezil. No anxiogenic-like or proconvulsant effect was associated with ONO-8590580 at 20 mg/kg p.o. in the elevated plus maze test or pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure test, respectively. In sum, ONO-8590580 is a novel GABA A α 5 NAM that enhances hippocampal memory function without an anxiogenic or proconvulsant risk. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  6. Efficacy and safety of an adjunctive mGlu2 receptor positive allosteric modulator to a SSRI/SNRI in anxious depression.

    PubMed

    Kent, Justine M; Daly, Ella; Kezic, Iva; Lane, Rosanne; Lim, Pilar; De Smedt, Heidi; De Boer, Peter; Van Nueten, Luc; Drevets, Wayne C; Ceusters, Marc

    2016-06-03

    This phase 2a, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, proof-of-concept study was designed to evaluate, efficacy, safety and tolerability of JNJ-40411813/ADX71149, a novel metabotropic glutamate 2 receptor positive allosteric modulator as an adjunctive treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) with significant anxiety symptoms. Eligible patients (18-64 years) had a DSM-IV diagnosis of MDD, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HDRS17) score of ≥ 18, HDRS17 anxiety/somatization factor score of ≥ 7, and an insufficient response to current treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. The doubly-randomized, 8-week double-blind treatment phase was comprised of two 4-week periods, from which a combined test statistic was generated, with pre-determined weights assigned to each of the 2 treatment periods. Period 1: patients (n=121) were randomly assigned (1:1) to JNJ-40411813 (n=62; 50mg to 150 mg b.i.d, flexibly dosed) or placebo (n=59); Period 2: placebo-treated patients (n=22) who continued to meet entry severity criteria were re-randomized (1:1) to JNJ-40411813 or placebo, while other patients underwent sham re-randomization and continued on their same treatment. Of 121 randomized patients, 100 patients (82.6%) were completers. No efficacy signal was detected on the primary endpoint, the 6-item Hamilton Anxiety Subscale (HAM-A6, p=0.51). Efficacy signals (based on prespecified 1-sided p<0.20) were evident on several secondary outcome measures of both depression (HDRS17 total score, 6-item subscale of HDRS17 assessing core depressive symptoms [HAM-D6], and Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology [IDS-C30]) and anxiety (HDRS17 anxiety/somatization factor, IDS-C30 anxiety subscale). Although well-tolerated, the results do not suggest efficacy for JNJ-40411813 as an adjunctive treatment for patients with MDD with significant anxious symptoms in the dose range studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  7. Inhibition of follicle-stimulating hormone-induced preovulatory follicles in rats treated with a nonsteroidal negative allosteric modulator of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Dias, James A; Campo, Brice; Weaver, Barbara A; Watts, Julie; Kluetzman, Kerri; Thomas, Richard M; Bonnet, Béatrice; Mutel, Vincent; Poli, Sonia M

    2014-01-01

    We previously described a negative allosteric modulator (NAM) of FSHR (ADX61623) that blocked FSH-induced cAMP and progesterone production but did not block estradiol production. That FSHR NAM did not affect FSH-induced preovulatory follicle development as evidenced by the lack of an effect on the number of FSH-dependent oocytes found in the ampullae following ovulation with hCG. A goal is the development of a nonsteroidal contraceptive. Toward this end, a high-throughput screen using human FSHR identified an additional nonsteroidal small molecule (ADX68692). Although ADX68692 behaved like ADX61623 in inhibiting production of cAMP and progesterone, it also inhibited FSH-induced estradiol in an in vitro rat granulosa primary cell culture bioassay. When immature, noncycling female rats were injected subcutaneously or by oral dosing prior to exogenous FSH administration, it was found that ADX68692 decreased the number of oocytes recovered from the ampullae. The estrous cycles of mature female rats were disrupted by administration by oral gavage of 25 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg ADX68692. In the highest dose tested (25 mg/kg), 55% of animals cohabited with mature males had implantation sites compared to 33% in the 10 mg/kg group and 77% in the control group. A surprising finding was that a structural analog ADX68693, while effectively blocking progesterone production with similar efficacy as ADX68692, did not block estrogen production and despite better oral availability did not decrease the number of oocytes found in the ampullae even when used at 100 mg/kg. These data demonstrate that because of biased antagonism of the FSHR, nonsteroidal contraception requires that both arms of the FSHR steroidogenic pathway must be effectively blocked, particularly estrogen biosynthesis. Thus, a corollary to these findings is that it seems reasonable to propose that the estrogen-dependent diseases such as endometriosis may benefit from inhibition of FSH action at the ovary using the FSHR

  8. Power budget enhancement in NG-EPON system employing novel twisted-PAM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longsheng; Bi, Meihua; Fu, Yan; Miao, Xin; Zhu, Qingming; Hu, Weisheng

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we firstly design a novel modulation format named Twisted-PAM4 (T-PAM4) for the high-speed NG-EPON and the PON-based digital fronthaul system. Compared to other high-order modulation formats like 4-ary pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4), T-PAM4 provides two independent sampling values in each symbol period and enables two-dimensional symbol decision, which significantly improves the receiver sensitivity and hence enlarges the system power budget. Based on this advantage, six types of T-PAM4 are experimentally demonstrated in 28-Gb/s/ λ NG-PON and 32-Gb/s/ λ PON-based digital fronthaul system. The experimental results show that, compared to the ordinary PAM4, the T-PAM4 can bring 5-dB and 4-dB extra power budget in NG-EPON and PON-based fronthaul system respectively. In addition, by experiment, it is also depicted that the T-PAM4 is remarkably robust to system nonlinearity, which would ease the linearity requirement on system components and hence reduce system cost.

  9. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XC. multisite pharmacology: recommendations for the nomenclature of receptor allosterism and allosteric ligands.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Arthur; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Catterall, William A; Fabbro, Doriano; Burris, Thomas P; Cidlowski, John A; Olsen, Richard W; Peters, John A; Neubig, Richard R; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Sexton, Patrick M; Kenakin, Terry P; Ehlert, Frederick J; Spedding, Michael; Langmead, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Allosteric interactions play vital roles in metabolic processes and signal transduction and, more recently, have become the focus of numerous pharmacological studies because of the potential for discovering more target-selective chemical probes and therapeutic agents. In addition to classic early studies on enzymes, there are now examples of small molecule allosteric modulators for all superfamilies of receptors encoded by the genome, including ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors, nuclear hormone receptors, and receptor tyrosine kinases. As a consequence, a vast array of pharmacologic behaviors has been ascribed to allosteric ligands that can vary in a target-, ligand-, and cell-/tissue-dependent manner. The current article presents an overview of allostery as applied to receptor families and approaches for detecting and validating allosteric interactions and gives recommendations for the nomenclature of allosteric ligands and their properties. U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  10. Experimental demonstration of PAM-DWMT for passive optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bangjiang; Zhang, Kaiwei; Tang, Xuan; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Lin, Chun; Zhou, Zhenlei

    2018-07-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a discrete wavelet multitone (DWMT) modulation scheme based on pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) for next generation passive optical network (PON), which offers high tolerance against chromatic dispersion, high spectral efficiency, low peak to average power ratio (PAPR) and low side lobes. The experimental results show the chromatic dispersion induced power penalties are negligible after 20km fiber transmission. Compared with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), DWMT offers a better receiver sensitivity.

  11. An evolution-based strategy for engineering allosteric regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincus, David; Resnekov, Orna; Reynolds, Kimberly A.

    2017-04-01

    Allosteric regulation provides a way to control protein activity at the time scale of milliseconds to seconds inside the cell. An ability to engineer synthetic allosteric systems would be of practical utility for the development of novel biosensors, creation of synthetic cell signaling pathways, and design of small molecule pharmaceuticals with regulatory impact. To this end, we outline a general approach—termed rational engineering of allostery at conserved hotspots (REACH)—to introduce novel regulation into a protein of interest by exploiting latent allostery that has been hard-wired by evolution into its structure. REACH entails the use of statistical coupling analysis (SCA) to identify ‘allosteric hotspots’ on protein surfaces, the development and implementation of experimental assays to test hotspots for functionality, and a toolkit of allosteric modulators to impinge on endogenous cellular circuitry. REACH can be broadly applied to rewire cellular processes to respond to novel inputs.

  12. Pam2 lipopeptides systemically increase myeloid-derived suppressor cells through TLR2 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Akira; Shime, Hiroaki, E-mail: shime@med.hokudai.ac.jp; Takeda, Yohei

    2015-02-13

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immature myeloid cells that exhibit potent immunosuppressive activity. They are increased in tumor-bearing hosts and contribute to tumor development. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on MDSCs may modulate the tumor-supporting properties of MDSCs through pattern-recognition. Pam2 lipopeptides represented by Pam2CSK4 serve as a TLR2 agonist to exert anti-tumor function by dendritic cell (DC)-priming that leads to NK cell activation and cytotoxic T cell proliferation. On the other hand, TLR2 enhances tumor cell progression/invasion by activating tumor-infiltrating macrophages. How MDSCs respond to TLR2 agonists has not yet been determined. In this study, we found intravenous administration of Pam2CSK4more » systemically up-regulated the frequency of MDSCs in EG7 tumor-bearing mice. The frequency of tumor-infiltrating MDSCs was accordingly increased in response to Pam2CSK4. MDSCs were not increased by Pam2CSK4 stimuli in TLR2 knockout (KO) mice. Adoptive transfer experiments using CFSE-labeled MDSCs revealed that the TLR2-positive MDSCs survived long in tumor-bearing mice in response to Pam2CSK4 treatment. Since the increased MDSC population sustained immune-suppressive properties, our study suggests that Pam2CSK4-triggered TLR2 activation enhances the MDSC potential and suppress antitumor immune response in tumor microenvironment. - Highlights: • Pam2CSK4 administration induces systemic accumulation of CD11b{sup +}Gr1{sup +} MDSCs. • TLR2 is essential for Pam2CSK4-induced accumulation of CD11b{sup +}Gr1{sup +} MDSCs. • Pam2CSK4 supports survival of CD11b{sup +}Gr1{sup +} MDSCs in vivo.« less

  13. Computational Tools for Allosteric Drug Discovery: Site Identification and Focus Library Design.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenkang; Nussinov, Ruth; Zhang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Allostery is an intrinsic phenomenon of biological macromolecules involving regulation and/or signal transduction induced by a ligand binding to an allosteric site distinct from a molecule's active site. Allosteric drugs are currently receiving increased attention in drug discovery because drugs that target allosteric sites can provide important advantages over the corresponding orthosteric drugs including specific subtype selectivity within receptor families. Consequently, targeting allosteric sites, instead of orthosteric sites, can reduce drug-related side effects and toxicity. On the down side, allosteric drug discovery can be more challenging than traditional orthosteric drug discovery due to difficulties associated with determining the locations of allosteric sites and designing drugs based on these sites and the need for the allosteric effects to propagate through the structure, reach the ligand binding site and elicit a conformational change. In this study, we present computational tools ranging from the identification of potential allosteric sites to the design of "allosteric-like" modulator libraries. These tools may be particularly useful for allosteric drug discovery.

  14. 50Gb/s PAM-4 oxide VCSEL development progress at Broadcom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingyi; Murty, M. V. Ramana; Wang, Charlie; Hui, David; Lehman Harren, Ann; Chang, Hsu-Hao; Feng, Zheng-Wen; Fanning, Thomas R.; Sridhara, Aaditya; Taslim, Sumitro-Joyo; Cai, Xinle; Chu, Jason; Giovane, Laura M.

    2017-02-01

    This paper will review the device design and performance of Broadcom's 50Gb/s PAM-4 VCSEL to enable the next generation of transceivers using a PAM-4 advanced modulation scheme at 25-28 GBd. The VCSEL has been optimized to minimize noise and improve dynamic performance for cleaner eyes. Preliminary wear out lifetime studies indicate that the time to 1% failure exceeds 10 years, making the VCSELs suitable for data communication applications.

  15. PAM-4 signal delivery in one radio-over-fiber system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hada; Zhou, Wen; Yu, Jianjun

    2017-10-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate four-level pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM-4) signal delivery in a radio-over-fiber system for the first time. Over 8-Gbit/s PAM-4 signals have been transmitted over 20-km single-mode fiber-28 and 1-m wireless distance. The signal after transmission is detected directly by an envelope detector at the receiver side. The maximal bit rate could be increased if the bandpass amplifier and envelope detector have more bandwidth.

  16. Atom-based 3D-QSAR, induced fit docking, and molecular dynamics simulations study of thieno[2,3-b]pyridines negative allosteric modulators of mGluR5.

    PubMed

    Vijaya Prabhu, Sitrarasu; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar

    2018-05-28

    Atom-based three dimensional-quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model was developed on the basis of 5-point pharmacophore hypothesis (AARRR) with two hydrogen bond acceptors (A) and three aromatic rings for the derivatives of thieno[2,3-b]pyridine, which modulates the activity to inhibit the mGluR5 receptor. Generation of a highly predictive 3D-QSAR model was performed using the alignment of predicted pharmacophore hypothesis for the training set (R 2  = 0.84, SD = 0.26, F = 45.8, N = 29) and test set (Q 2  = 0.74, RMSE = 0.235, Pearson-R = 0.94, N = 9). The best pharmacophore hypothesis AARRR was selected, and developed three dimensional-quantitative structure activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model also supported the outcome of this study by means of favorable and unfavorable electron withdrawing group and hydrophobic regions of most active compound 42d and least active compound 18b. Following, induced fit docking and binding free energy calculations reveals the reliable binding orientation of the compounds. Finally, molecular dynamics simulations for 100 ns were performed to depict the protein-ligand stability. We anticipate that the resulted outcome could be supportive to discover potent negative allosteric modulators for metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5).

  17. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites which measure ozone precursors (approximately 60 volatile hydrocarbons and carbonyl), as required by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, in areas with persistently high ozone levels (mostly large metropolitan areas). In these areas, the States have established ambient air monitoring sites which collect and report detailed data for volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, ozone and meteorological parameters. This file displays 199 monitoring sites reporting measurements for 2010. A wide range of related monitoring site attributes is also provided.

  18. Performance Comparison of 112-Gb/s DMT, Nyquist PAM4, and Partial-Response PAM4 for Future 5G Ethernet-Based Fronthaul Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Muench, Daniel; Dochhan, Annika; Griesser, Helmut; Eiselt, Michael; Olmos, Juan Jose Vegas; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur; Elbers, Joerg-Peter

    2018-05-01

    For a future 5G Ethernet-based fronthaul architecture, 100G trunk lines of a transmission distance up to 10 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) in combination with cheap grey optics to daisy chain cell site network interfaces are a promising cost- and power-efficient solution. For such a scenario, different intensity modulation and direct detect (IMDD) Formats at a data rate of 112 Gb/s, namely Nyquist four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4), discrete multi-tone Transmission (DMT) and partial-response (PR) PAM4 are experimentally investigated, using a low-cost electro-absorption modulated laser (EML), a 25G driver and current state-of-the-art high Speed 84 GS/s CMOS digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and analog-to-digital converter (ADC) test chips. Each modulation Format is optimized independently for the desired scenario and their digital signal processing (DSP) requirements are investigated. The performance of Nyquist PAM4 and PR PAM4 depend very much on the efficiency of pre- and post-equalization. We show the necessity for at least 11 FFE-taps for pre-emphasis and up to 41 FFE coefficients at the receiver side. In addition, PR PAM4 requires an MLSE with four states to decode the signal back to a PAM4 signal. On the contrary, bit- and power-loading (BL, PL) is crucial for DMT and an FFT length of at least 512 is necessary. With optimized parameters, all Modulation formats result in a very similar performances, demonstrating a transmission distance of up to 10 km over SSMF with bit error rates (BERs) below a FEC threshold of 4.4E-3, allowing error free transmission.

  19. A passive and active microwave-vector radiative transfer (PAM-VRT) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Min, Qilong

    2015-11-01

    A passive and active microwave vector radiative transfer (PAM-VRT) package has been developed. This fast and accurate forward microwave model, with flexible and versatile input and output components, self-consistently and realistically simulates measurements/radiation of passive and active microwave sensors. The core PAM-VRT, microwave radiative transfer model, consists of five modules: gas absorption (two line-by-line databases and four fast models); hydrometeor property of water droplets and ice (spherical and nonspherical) particles; surface emissivity (from Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM)); vector radiative transfer of successive order of scattering (VSOS); and passive and active microwave simulation. The PAM-VRT package has been validated against other existing models, demonstrating good accuracy. The PAM-VRT not only can be used to simulate or assimilate measurements of existing microwave sensors, but also can be used to simulate observation results at some new microwave sensors.

  20. Positive and Negative Allosteric Modulation of an α1β3γ2 γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A (GABAA) Receptor by Binding to a Site in the Transmembrane Domain at the γ+-β− Interface*

    PubMed Central

    Jayakar, Selwyn S.; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Savechenkov, Pavel Y.; Chiara, David C.; Desai, Rooma; Bruzik, Karol S.; Miller, Keith W.; Cohen, Jonathan B.

    2015-01-01

    In the process of developing safer general anesthetics, isomers of anesthetic ethers and barbiturates have been discovered that act as convulsants and inhibitors of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs) rather than potentiators. It is unknown whether these convulsants act as negative allosteric modulators by binding to the intersubunit anesthetic-binding sites in the GABAAR transmembrane domain (Chiara, D. C., Jayakar, S. S., Zhou, X., Zhang, X., Savechenkov, P. Y., Bruzik, K. S., Miller, K. W., and Cohen, J. B. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288, 19343–19357) or to known convulsant sites in the ion channel or extracellular domains. Here, we show that S-1-methyl-5-propyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyl-diazirynylphenyl) barbituric acid (S-mTFD-MPPB), a photoreactive analog of the convulsant barbiturate S-MPPB, inhibits α1β3γ2 but potentiates α1β3 GABAAR responses. In the α1β3γ2 GABAAR, S-mTFD-MPPB binds in the transmembrane domain with high affinity to the γ+-β− subunit interface site with negative energetic coupling to GABA binding in the extracellular domain at the β+-α− subunit interfaces. GABA inhibits S-[3H]mTFD-MPPB photolabeling of γ2Ser-280 (γM2–15′) in this site. In contrast, within the same site GABA enhances photolabeling of β3Met-227 in βM1 by an anesthetic barbiturate, R-[3H]methyl-5-allyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyl-diazirynylphenyl)barbituric acid (mTFD-MPAB), which differs from S-mTFD-MPPB in structure only by chirality and two hydrogens (propyl versus allyl). S-mTFD-MPPB and R-mTFD-MPAB are predicted to bind in different orientations at the γ+-β− site, based upon the distance in GABAAR homology models between γ2Ser-280 and β3Met-227. These results provide an explanation for S-mTFD-MPPB inhibition of α1β3γ2 GABAAR function and provide a first demonstration that an intersubunit-binding site in the GABAAR transmembrane domain binds negative and positive allosteric modulators. PMID:26229099

  1. Potent Mechanism-Based Inactivation Of Cytochrome P450 2B4 By 9-Ethynylphenanthrene: Implications For Allosteric Modulation Of Cytochrome P450 Catalysis1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haoming; Gay, Sean C.; Shah, Manish; Foroozesh, Maryam; Liu, Jiawang; Osawa, Yoichi; Zhang, Qinghai; Stout, C. David; Halpert, James R.; Hollenberg, Paul F.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 2B4 (CYP2B4) by 9-ethynylphenanthrene (9EP) has been investigated. The partition ratio and kinact are 0.2 and 0.25 min−1, respectively. Intriguingly, the inactivation exhibits sigmoidal kinetics with a Hill coefficient of 2.5 and S50 of 4.5 μM indicative of homotropic cooperativity. Enzyme inactivation led to an increase in mass of the apo-CYP2B4 by 218 Da as determined by ESI-LC/MS, consistent with covalent protein modification. The modified CYP2B4 was purified to homogeneity and its structure determined by X-ray crystallography. The structure showed that 9EP is covalently attached to the Oγ of Thr 302 via an ester bond, which is consistent with the increased mass of the protein. The presence of the bulky phenanthrenyl ring resulted in inward rotations of Phe 297 and Phe 206 leading to a compact active site. Thus, binding of another molecule of 9EP in the active site is prohibited. However, results from the quenching of 9EP fluorescence by unmodified or 9EP-modified CYP2B4 revealed at least two binding sites with distinct affinities, with the low affinity site being the catalytic site and the high affinity site on the protein periphery. Computer-aided docking and MD simulations with one or two ligands bound revealed that the high affinity site is situated at the entrance of a substrate access channel surrounded by the F’ helix, β1/β2 loop and β4 loop and functions as an allosteric site to enhance the efficiency of activation of the acetylenic group of 9EP and subsequent covalent modification of Thr 302. PMID:23276288

  2. 3D-QSAR and 3D-QSSR models of negative allosteric modulators facilitate the design of a novel selective antagonist of human α4β2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Brandon J; Orac, Crina M; Maciagiewicz, Iwona; Bergmeier, Stephen C; McKay, Dennis B

    2012-02-15

    Subtype selective molecules for α4β2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been sought as novel therapeutics for nicotine cessation. α4β2 nAChRs have been shown to be involved in mediating the addictive properties of nicotine while other subtypes (i.e., α3β4 and α7) are believed to mediate the undesired effects of potential CNS drugs. To obtain selective molecules, it is important to understand the physiochemical features of ligands that affect selectivity and potency on nAChR subtypes. Here we present novel QSAR/QSSR models for negative allosteric modulators of human α4β2 nAChRs and human α3β4 nAChRs. These models support previous homology model and site-directed mutagenesis studies that suggest a novel mechanism of antagonism. Additionally, information from the models presented in this work was used to synthesize novel molecules; which subsequently led to the discovery of a new selective antagonist of human α4β2 nAChRs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 3D-QSAR and 3D-QSSR models of negative allosteric modulators facilitate the design of a novel selective antagonist of human α4β2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Brandon J.; Orac, Crina M.; Maciagiewicz, Iwona; Bergmeier, Stephen C.; McKay, Dennis B.

    2011-01-01

    Subtype selective molecules for α4β2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been sought as novel therapeutics for nicotine cessation. α4β2 nAChRs have been shown to be involved in mediating the addictive properties of nicotine while other subtypes (i.e., α3β4 and α7) are believed to mediate the undesired effects of potential CNS drugs. To obtain selective molecules, it is important to understand the physiochemical features of ligands that affect selectivity and potency on nAChR subtypes. Here we present novel QSAR/QSSR models for negative allosteric modulators of human α4β2 nAChRs and human α3β4 nAChRs. These models support previous homology model and site-directed mutagenesis studies that suggest a novel mechanism of antagonism. Additionally, information from the models presented in this work was used to synthesize novel molecules; which subsequently led to the discovery of a new selective antagonist of human α4β2 nAChRs. PMID:22285942

  4. Structure-activity relationships of substituted N-benzyl piperidines in the GBR series: Synthesis of 4-(2-(bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy)ethyl)-1-(2-trifluoromethylbenzyl)piperidine, an allosteric modulator of the serotonin transporter.

    PubMed

    Boos, Terrence L; Greiner, Elisabeth; Calhoun, W Jason; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Nightingale, Barbara; Dersch, Christina M; Rothman, Richard B; Jacobson, Arthur E; Rice, Kenner C

    2006-06-01

    A series of 4-(2-(bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy)ethyl)-(substituted benzyl) piperidines with substituents at the ortho and meta positions in the aromatic ring of the N-benzyl side chain were synthesized and their affinities and selectivities for the dopamine transporter (DAT), serotonin transporter (SERT), and norepinephrine transporter (NET) were determined. One analogue, 4-(2-(bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy)ethyl)-1-(2-trifluoromethylbenzyl)piperidine (the C(2)-trifluoromethyl substituted compound), has been found to act as an allosteric modulator of hSERT binding and function. It had little affinity for any of the transporters. Several compounds showed affinity for the DAT in the low nanomolar range and displayed a broad range of SERT/DAT selectivity ratios and very little affinity for the NET. The pharmacological tools provided by the availability of compounds with varying transporter affinity and selectivity could be used to obtain additional information about the properties a compound should have to act as a useful pharmacotherapeutic agent for cocaine addiction and help unravel the pharmacological mechanisms relevant to stimulant abuse.

  5. 7-Phenoxy-Substituted 3,4-Dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-Dioxides as Positive Allosteric Modulators of α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid (AMPA) Receptors with Nanomolar Potency.

    PubMed

    Goffin, Eric; Drapier, Thomas; Larsen, Anja Probst; Geubelle, Pierre; Ptak, Christopher P; Laulumaa, Saara; Rovinskaja, Karoline; Gilissen, Julie; Tullio, Pascal de; Olsen, Lars; Frydenvang, Karla; Pirotte, Bernard; Hanson, Julien; Oswald, Robert E; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm; Francotte, Pierre

    2018-01-11

    We report here the synthesis of 7-phenoxy-substituted 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides and their evaluation as AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulators (AMPApams). The impact of substitution on the phenoxy ring and on the nitrogen atom at the 4-position was examined. At GluA2(Q) expressed in HEK293 cells (calcium flux experiment), the most potent compound was 11m (4-cyclopropyl-7-(3-methoxyphenoxy)-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide, EC 50 = 2.0 nM). The Hill coefficient in the screening and the shape of the dimerization curve in small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments using isolated GluA2 ligand-binding domain (GluA2-LBD) are consistent with binding of one molecule of 11m per dimer interface, contrary to most benzothiadiazine dioxides developed to date. This observation was confirmed by the X-ray structure of 11m bound to GluA2-LBD and by NMR. This is the first benzothiadiazine dioxide AMPApam to reach the nanomolar range.

  6. Allosteric dynamics of SAMHD1 studied by molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, K. K.; Bhattacharya, A.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2016-10-01

    SAMHD1 is a human cellular enzyme that blocks HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells and non-cycling CD4+T cells. The enzyme is an allosterically regulated triphosphohydrolase that modulates the level of cellular dNTP. The virus restriction is attributed to the lowering of the pool of dNTP in the cell to a point where reverse-transcription is impaired. Mutations in SAMHD1 are also implicated in Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome. A mechanistic understanding of the allosteric activation of the enzyme is still elusive. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations to examine the allosteric site dynamics of the protein and to examine the connection between the stability of the tetrameric complex and the Allosite occupancy.

  7. Binding Leverage as a Molecular Basis for Allosteric Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Mitternacht, Simon; Berezovsky, Igor N.

    2011-01-01

    Allosteric regulation involves conformational transitions or fluctuations between a few closely related states, caused by the binding of effector molecules. We introduce a quantity called binding leverage that measures the ability of a binding site to couple to the intrinsic motions of a protein. We use Monte Carlo simulations to generate potential binding sites and either normal modes or pairs of crystal structures to describe relevant motions. We analyze single catalytic domains and multimeric allosteric enzymes with complex regulation. For the majority of the analyzed proteins, we find that both catalytic and allosteric sites have high binding leverage. Furthermore, our analysis of the catabolite activator protein, which is allosteric without conformational change, shows that its regulation involves other types of motion than those modulated at sites with high binding leverage. Our results point to the importance of incorporating dynamic information when predicting functional sites. Because it is possible to calculate binding leverage from a single crystal structure it can be used for characterizing proteins of unknown function and predicting latent allosteric sites in any protein, with implications for drug design. PMID:21935347

  8. An expanded allosteric network in PTP1B by multitemperature crystallography, fragment screening, and covalent tethering.

    PubMed

    Keedy, Daniel A; Hill, Zachary B; Biel, Justin T; Kang, Emily; Rettenmaier, T Justin; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Pearce, Nicholas M; von Delft, Frank; Wells, James A; Fraser, James S

    2018-06-07

    Allostery is an inherent feature of proteins, but it remains challenging to reveal the mechanisms by which allosteric signals propagate. A clearer understanding of this intrinsic circuitry would afford new opportunities to modulate protein function. Here we have identified allosteric sites in protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) by combining multiple-temperature X-ray crystallography experiments and structure determination from hundreds of individual small-molecule fragment soaks. New modeling approaches reveal 'hidden' low-occupancy conformational states for protein and ligands. Our results converge on allosteric sites that are conformationally coupled to the active-site WPD loop and are hotspots for fragment binding. Targeting one of these sites with covalently tethered molecules or mutations allosterically inhibits enzyme activity. Overall, this work demonstrates how the ensemble nature of macromolecular structure, revealed here by multitemperature crystallography, can elucidate allosteric mechanisms and open new doors for long-range control of protein function. © 2018, Keedy et al.

  9. Rescue of deficient amygdala tonic γ-aminobutyric acidergic currents in the Fmr-/y mouse model of fragile X syndrome by a novel γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-positive allosteric modulator.

    PubMed

    Martin, Brandon S; Martinez-Botella, Gabriel; Loya, Carlos M; Salituro, Francesco G; Robichaud, Albert J; Huntsman, Molly M; Ackley, Mike A; Doherty, James J; Corbin, Joshua G

    2016-06-01

    Alterations in the ratio of excitatory to inhibitory transmission are emerging as a common component of many nervous system disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Tonic γ-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) transmission provided by peri- and extrasynaptic GABA type A (GABAA ) receptors powerfully controls neuronal excitability and plasticity and, therefore, provides a rational therapeutic target for normalizing hyperexcitable networks across a variety of disorders, including ASDs. Our previous studies revealed tonic GABAergic deficits in principal excitatory neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in the Fmr1(-/y) knockout (KO) mouse model fragile X syndrome. To correct amygdala deficits in tonic GABAergic neurotransmission in Fmr1(-/y) KO mice, we developed a novel positive allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors, SGE-872, based on endogenously active neurosteroids. This study shows that SGE-872 is nearly as potent and twice as efficacious for positively modulating GABAA receptors as its parent molecule, allopregnanolone. Furthermore, at submicromolar concentrations (≤1 μM), SGE-872 is selective for tonic, extrasynaptic α4β3δ-containing GABAA receptors over typical synaptic α1β2γ2 receptors. We further find that SGE-872 strikingly rescues the tonic GABAergic transmission deficit in principal excitatory neurons in the Fmr1(-/y) KO BLA, a structure heavily implicated in the neuropathology of ASDs. Therefore, the potent and selective action of SGE-872 on tonic GABAA receptors containing α4 subunits may represent a novel and highly useful therapeutic avenue for ASDs and related disorders involving hyperexcitability of neuronal networks. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. PAM: A Program for Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robichaux, Faye B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Program for Adolescent Mothers (PAM) established to provide opportunities for teen mothers in Louisiana to increase their self-esteem, become productive citizens, and become aware of the physical and emotional development of children. (JOW)

  11. Reduction by the Positive Allosteric Modulator of the GABAB Receptor, GS39783, of Alcohol Self-Administration in Sardinian Alcohol-Preferring Rats Exposed to the “Sipper” Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Maccioni, Paola; Flore, Paolo; Carai, Mauro A. M.; Mugnaini, Claudia; Pasquini, Serena; Corelli, Federico; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate (a) alcohol self-administration behavior of selectively bred, Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats exposed to the so-called “sipper” procedure (characterized by the temporal separation between alcohol-seeking and -taking phases), and (b) the effect of the positive allosteric modulator of the GABAB receptor, GS39783, on alcohol self-administration in sP rats exposed to this procedure. To this end, sP rats were initially trained to lever-respond under a reinforcement requirement (RR) 55 (RR55) for alcohol. Achievement of RR55 resulted in the 20-min presentation of the alcohol (15%, v/v)-containing sipper bottle. Once stable levels of lever-responding and alcohol consumption were reached, rats were treated with 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg GS39783 (i.g.) 60 min before the self-administration session. Rats displayed robust alcohol-seeking (as suggested by relatively short latencies to the first lever-response and high frequencies of lever-responding) and -taking (as suggested by alcohol intakes averaging approximately 1.5 g/kg) behaviors. Pretreatment with GS39783 inhibited both alcohol-seeking (the number of rats achieving RR55 and the mean RR value were virtually halved) and -taking (the amount of self-administered alcohol was reduced by approximately 60%). The results of the present study suggest the power of the “sipper” procedure in triggering high levels of alcohol-seeking and -taking behavior in sP rats. Further, these results extend to this additional procedure of alcohol self-administration the capacity of GS39783 to reduce the motivational properties of alcohol and alcohol consumption in sP rats. PMID:21423431

  12. A Negative Allosteric Modulator for α5 Subunit-Containing GABA Receptors Exerts a Rapid and Persistent Antidepressant-Like Action without the Side Effects of the NMDA Receptor Antagonist Ketamine in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Mackenzie E.; Krimmel, Samuel R.; Georgiou, Polymnia; Gould, Todd D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract New antidepressant pharmacotherapies that provide rapid relief of depressive symptoms are needed. The NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine exerts rapid antidepressant actions in depressed patients but also side effects that complicate its clinical utility. Ketamine promotes excitatory synaptic strength, likely by producing high-frequency correlated activity in mood-relevant regions of the forebrain. Negative allosteric modulators of GABA-A receptors containing α5 subunits (α5 GABA-NAMs) should also promote high-frequency correlated electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and should therefore exert rapid antidepressant responses. Because α5 subunits display a restricted expression in the forebrain, we predicted that α5 GABA-NAMs would produce activation of principle neurons but exert fewer side effects than ketamine. We tested this hypothesis in male mice and observed that the α5 GABA-NAM MRK-016 exerted an antidepressant-like response in the forced swim test at 1 and 24 h after administration and an anti-anhedonic response after chronic stress in the female urine sniffing test (FUST). Like ketamine, MRK-016 produced a transient increase in EEG γ power, and both the increase in γ power and its antidepressant effects in the forced swim test were blocked by prior administration of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor antagonist 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX). Unlike ketamine, however, MRK-016 produced no impairment of rota-rod performance, no reduction of prepulse inhibition (PPI), no conditioned-place preference (CPP), and no change in locomotion. α5 GABA-NAMs, thus reproduce the rapid antidepressant-like actions of ketamine, perhaps via an AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-dependent increase in coherent neuronal activity, but display fewer potential negative side effects. These compounds thus demonstrate promise as clinically useful fast-acting antidepressants. PMID:28275719

  13. Achievable Strength-Based Signal Detection in Quantity-Constrained PAM OOK Concentration-Encoded Molecular Communication.

    PubMed

    Mahfuz, Mohammad Upal

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the expressions of achievable strength-based detection probabilities of concentration-encoded molecular communication (CEMC) system have been derived based on finite pulsewidth (FP) pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) on-off keying (OOK) modulation scheme and strength threshold. An FP-PAM system is characterized by its duty cycle α that indicates the fraction of the entire symbol duration the transmitter remains on and transmits the signal. Results show that the detection performance of an FP-PAM OOK CEMC system significantly depends on the statistical distribution parameters of diffusion-based propagation noise and intersymbol interference (ISI). Analytical detection performance of an FP-PAM OOK CEMC system under ISI scenario has been explained and compared based on receiver operating characteristics (ROC) for impulse (i.e., spike)-modulated (IM) and FP-PAM CEMC schemes. It is shown that the effects of diffusion noise and ISI on ROC can be explained separately based on their communication range-dependent statistics. With full duty cycle, an FP-PAM scheme provides significantly worse performance than an IM scheme. The paper also analyzes the performance of the system when duty cycle, transmission data rate, and quantity of molecules vary.

  14. Antipsychotic-like Effects of M4 Positive Allosteric Modulators Are Mediated by CB2 Receptor-Dependent Inhibition of Dopamine Release.

    PubMed

    Foster, Daniel J; Wilson, Jermaine M; Remke, Daniel H; Mahmood, M Suhaib; Uddin, M Jashim; Wess, Jürgen; Patel, Sachin; Marnett, Lawrence J; Niswender, Colleen M; Jones, Carrie K; Xiang, Zixiu; Lindsley, Craig W; Rook, Jerri M; Conn, P Jeffrey

    2016-09-21

    Muscarinic receptors represent a promising therapeutic target for schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underlying the antipsychotic efficacy of muscarinic modulators are not well understood. Here, we report that activation of M4 receptors on striatal spiny projection neurons results in a novel form of dopaminergic regulation resulting in a sustained depression of striatal dopamine release that is observed more than 30 min after removal of the muscarinic receptor agonist. Furthermore, both the M4-mediated sustained inhibition of dopamine release and the antipsychotic-like efficacy of M4 activators were found to require intact signaling through CB2 cannabinoid receptors. These findings highlight a novel mechanism by which striatal cholinergic and cannabinoid signaling leads to sustained reductions in dopaminergic transmission and concurrent behavioral effects predictive of antipsychotic efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tropical cyclone Pam field survey in Vanuatu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Hermann M.; Pilarczyk, Jessica E.; Kosciuch, Thomas; Hong, Isabel; Rarai, Allan; Harrison, Morris J.; Jockley, Fred R.; Horton, Benjamin P.

    2016-04-01

    Severe tropical cyclone Pam (Cat. 5, SSHS) crossed the Vanuatu archipelago with sustained winds of 270 km/h on March 13 and 14, 2015 and made landfall on Erromango. Pam is the most intense tropical cyclone to make landfall on Vanuatu since the advent of satellite imagery based intensity estimates in the 1970s. Pam caused one of the worst natural disaster in Vanuatu's recorded history. Eleven fatalities were directly attributed to cyclone Pam and mostly due to lack of shelter from airborne debris. On March 6 Pam formed east of the Santa Cruz Islands causing coastal inundation on Tuvalu's Vaitupu Island located some 1100 km east of the cyclone center. Pam intensified while tracking southward along Vanuatu severely affecting the Shefa and Tafea Provinces. An international storm surge reconnaissance team was deployed to Vanuatu from June 3 to 17, 2015 to complement earlier local surveys. Cyclone Pam struck a remote island archipelago particularly vulnerable to the combined cyclonic multi-hazards encompassing extreme wind gusts, massive rainfall and coastal flooding due to a combination of storm surge and storm wave impacts. The team surveyed coastal villages on Epi, the Shepherd Islands (Tongoa and Mataso), Efate (including Lelepa), Erromango, and Tanna. The survey spanned 320 km parallel to the cyclone track between Epi and Tanna encompassing more than 45 sites including the hardest hit settlements. Coastal flooding profiles were surveyed from the shoreline to the limit of inundation. Maximum coastal flood elevations and overland flow depths were measured based on water marks on buildings, scars on trees, rafted debris and corroborated with eyewitness accounts. We surveyed 91 high water marks with characteristic coastal flood levels in the 3 to 7 m range and composed of storm surge with superimposed storm waves. Inundation distances were mostly limited to a few hundred meters but reached 800 m on Epi Island. Wrack lines containing pumice perfectly delineated the

  16. NOVEL POSITIVE ALLOSTERIC MODULATORS OF GABAA RECEPTORS: DO SUBTLE DIFFERENCES IN ACTIVITY AT α1 PLUS α5 VERSUS α2 PLUS α3 SUBUNITS ACCOUNT FOR DISSIMILARITIES IN BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS IN RATS?

    PubMed Central

    Savić, Miroslav M.; Majumder, Samarpan; Huang, Shengming; Edwankar, Rahul V.; Furtmüller, Roman; Joksimović, Srđan; Clayton, Terry; Ramerstorfer, Joachim; Milinković, Marija M.; Roth, Bryan L.; Sieghart, Werner; Cook, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last years, genetic studies have greatly improved our knowledge on the receptor subtypes mediating various pharmacological effects of positive allosteric modulators at GABAA receptors. This stimulated the development of new benzodiazepine (BZ)-like ligands, especially those inactive/low-active at GABAA receptors containing the α1 subunit, with the aim of generating more selective drugs. Hereby, the affinity and efficacy of four recently-synthesized BZ site ligands: SH-053-2’N, SH-053-S-CH3-2’F, SH-053-R-CH3-2’F and JY-XHe-053 were assessed. They were also studied in behavioral tests of spontaneous locomotor activity, elevated plus maze, and water maze in rats, which are considered predictive of, respectively, the sedative, anxiolytic, and amnesic influence of BZs. The novel ligands had moderately low to low affinity and mild to partial agonistic efficacy at GABAA receptors containing the α1 subunit, with variable, but more pronounced efficacy at other BZ-sensitive binding sites. While presumably α1 receptor-mediated sedative effects of GABAA modulation were not fully eliminated with any of the ligands tested, only SH-053-2’N and SH-053-S-CH3-2’F, both dosed at 30 mg/kg, exerted anxiolytic effects. The lack of clear anxiolytic-like activity of JY-XHe-053, despite its efficacy at α2- and α3-GABAA receptors, may have been partly connected with its preferential affinity at α5-GABAA receptors coupled with weak agonist activity at α1-containing subtypes. The memory impairment in water-maze experiments, generally reported with BZ site agonists, was completely circumvented with all four ligands. The results suggest that a substantial amount of activity at α1 GABAA receptors is needed for effecting spatial learning and memory impairments, while much weaker activity at α1- and α5-GABAA receptors is sufficient for eliciting sedation. PMID:20074611

  17. Examination of Org 26576, an AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulator, in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder: an exploratory, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nations, Kari R; Dogterom, Peter; Bursi, Roberta; Schipper, Jacques; Greenwald, Scott; Zraket, David; Gertsik, Lev; Johnstone, Jack; Lee, Allen; Pande, Yogesh; Ruigt, Ge; Ereshefsky, Larry

    2012-12-01

    Org 26576 acts by modulating ionotropic AMPA-type glutamate receptors to enhance glutamatergic neurotransmission. The aim of this Phase 1b study (N=54) was to explore safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of Org 26576 in depressed patients. Part I (N=24) evaluated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and optimal titration schedule in a multiple rising dose paradigm (range 100 mg BID to 600 mg BID); Part II (N=30) utilized a parallel groups design (100 mg BID, 400 mg BID, placebo) to examine all endpoints over a 28-day dosing period. Based on the number of moderate intensity adverse events reported at the 600 mg BID dose level, the MTD established in Part I was 450 mg BID. Symptomatic improvement as measured by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale was numerically greater in the Org 26576 groups than in the placebo group in both study parts. In Part II, the 400 mg BID dose was associated with improvements in executive functioning and speed of processing cognitive tests. Org 26576 was also associated with growth hormone increases and cortisol decreases at the end of treatment but did not influence prolactin or brain-derived neurotrophic factor. The quantitative electroencephalogram index Antidepressant Treatment Response at Week 1 was able to significantly predict symptomatic response at endpoint in the active treatment group, as was early improvement in social acuity. Overall, Org 26576 demonstrated good tolerability and pharmacokinetic properties in depressed patients, and pharmacodynamic endpoints suggested that it may show promise in future well-controlled, adequately powered proof of concept trials.

  18. OFDM and PAM comparison using a high baudrate low resolution IM/DD interface for 400G Ethernet access.

    PubMed

    André, Nuno Sequeira; Louchet, Hadrien; Filsinger, Volker; Hansen, Erik; Richter, André

    2016-05-30

    We compare OFDM and PAM for 400G Ethernet based on a 3-bit high baudrate IM/DD interface at 1550nm. We demonstrate 27Gb/s and 32Gb/s transmission over 10km SSMF using OFDM and PAM respectively. We show that capacity can be improved through adaptation/equalization to achieve 42Gb/s and 64Gb/s for OFDM and PAM respectively. Experimental results are used to create realistic simulations to extrapolate the performance of both modulation formats under varied conditions. For the considered interface we found that PAM has the best performance, OFDM is impaired by quantization noise. When the resolution limitation is relaxed, OFDM shows better performance.

  19. Molecular Dynamics Simulations Reveal the Mechanisms of Allosteric Activation of Hsp90 by Designed Ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vettoretti, Gerolamo; Moroni, Elisabetta; Sattin, Sara; Tao, Jiahui; Agard, David A.; Bernardi, Anna; Colombo, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    Controlling biochemical pathways through chemically designed modulators may provide novel opportunities to develop therapeutic drugs and chemical tools. The underlying challenge is to design new molecular entities able to act as allosteric chemical switches that selectively turn on/off functions by modulating the conformational dynamics of their target protein. We examine the origins of the stimulation of ATPase and closure kinetics in the molecular chaperone Hsp90 by allosteric modulators through atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and analysis of protein-ligand interactions. In particular, we focus on the cross-talk between allosteric ligands and protein conformations and its effect on the dynamic properties of the chaperone’s active state. We examine the impact of different allosteric modulators on the stability, structural and internal dynamics properties of Hsp90 closed state. A critical aspect of this study is the development of a quantitative model that correlates Hsp90 activation to the presence of a certain compound, making use of information on the dynamic adaptation of protein conformations to the presence of the ligand, which allows to capture conformational states relevant in the activation process. We discuss the implications of considering the conformational dialogue between allosteric ligands and protein conformations for the design of new functional modulators.

  20. Druggable orthosteric and allosteric hot spots to target protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Buyong; Nussinov, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Drug designing targeting protein-protein interactions is challenging. Because structural elucidation and computational analysis have revealed the importance of hot spot residues in stabilizing these interactions, there have been on-going efforts to develop drugs which bind the hot spots and out-compete the native protein partners. The question arises as to what are the key 'druggable' properties of hot spots in protein-protein interactions and whether these mimic the general hot spot definition. Identification of orthosteric (at the protein- protein interaction site) and allosteric (elsewhere) druggable hot spots is expected to help in discovering compounds that can more effectively modulate protein-protein interactions. For example, are there any other significant features beyond their location in pockets in the interface? The interactions of protein-protein hot spots are coupled with conformational dynamics of protein complexes. Currently increasing efforts focus on the allosteric drug discovery. Allosteric drugs bind away from the native binding site and can modulate the native interactions. We propose that identification of allosteric hot spots could similarly help in more effective allosteric drug discovery. While detection of allosteric hot spots is challenging, targeting drugs to these residues has the potential of greatly increasing the hot spot and protein druggability.

  1. USDA-ARS perspective on PAM

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) described herein is a synthetic organic polymer used globally by a number of important industries. It also has a number of valuable applications in irrigated agriculture, including its use in furrow irrigation to control erosion and sediment loss in runoff, manage infiltration,...

  2. Generation-3 programmable array microscope (PAM) with digital micro-mirror device (DMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Beule, Pieter A. A.; de Vries, Anthony H. B.; Arndt-Jovin, Donna J.; Jovin, Thomas M.

    2011-03-01

    We report progress on the construction of an optical sectioning programmable array microscope (PAM) implemented with a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) spatial light modulator (SLM) utilized for both fluorescence illumination and detection. The introduction of binary intensity modulation at the focal plane of a microscope objective in a computer controlled pixilated mode allows the recovery of an optically sectioned image. Illumination patterns can be changed very quickly, in contrast to static Nipkow disk or aperture correlation implementations, thereby creating an optical system that can be optimized to the optical specimen in a convenient manner, e.g. for patterned photobleaching, photobleaching reduction, or spatial superresolution. We present a third generation (Gen-3) dual path PAM module incorporating the 25 kHz binary frame rate TI 1080p DMD and a newly developed optical system that offers diffraction limited imaging with compensation of tilt angle distortion.

  3. Allosteric Pathways in the PPARγ-RXRα nuclear receptor complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Clarisse G.; Silveira, Rodrigo L.; Rivalta, Ivan; Batista, Victor S.; Skaf, Munir S.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of allostery in DNA-nuclear receptor (NR) complexes is of fundamental importance for drug development since NRs regulate the transcription of a myriad of genes in humans and other metazoans. Here, we investigate allostery in the peroxisome proliferator-activated/retinoid X receptor heterodimer. This important NR complex is a target for antidiabetic drugs since it binds to DNA and functions as a transcription factor essential for insulin sensitization and lipid metabolism. We find evidence of interdependent motions of Ω-loops and PPARγ-DNA binding domain with contacts susceptible to conformational changes and mutations, critical for regulating transcriptional functions in response to sequence-dependent DNA dynamics. Statistical network analysis of the correlated motions, observed in molecular dynamics simulations, shows preferential allosteric pathways with convergence centers comprised of polar amino acid residues. These findings are particularly relevant for the design of allosteric modulators of ligand-dependent transcription factors.

  4. Kinetics of Interaction between ADP-ribosylation Factor-1 (Arf1) and the Sec7 Domain of Arno Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor, Modulation by Allosteric Factors, and the Uncompetitive Inhibitor Brefeldin A

    PubMed Central

    Rouhana, Jad; Padilla, André; Estaran, Sébastien; Bakari, Sana; Delbecq, Stephan; Boublik, Yvan; Chopineau, Joel; Pugnière, Martine; Chavanieu, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The GDP/GTP nucleotide exchange of Arf1 is catalyzed by nucleotide exchange factors (GEF), such as Arno, which act through their catalytic Sec7 domain. This exchange is a complex mechanism that undergoes conformational changes and intermediate complex species involving several allosteric partners such as nucleotides, Mg2+, and Sec7 domains. Using a surface plasmon resonance approach, we characterized the kinetic binding parameters for various intermediate complexes. We first confirmed that both GDP and GTP counteract equivalently to the free-nucleotide binary Arf1-Arno complex stability and revealed that Mg2+ potentiates by a factor of 2 the allosteric effect of GDP. Then we explored the uncompetitive inhibitory mechanism of brefeldin A (BFA) that conducts to an abortive pentameric Arf1-Mg2+-GDP-BFA-Sec7 complex. With BFA, the association rate of the abortive complex is drastically reduced by a factor of 42, and by contrast, the 15-fold decrease of the dissociation rate concurs to stabilize the pentameric complex. These specific kinetic signatures have allowed distinguishing the level and nature as well as the fate in real time of formed complexes according to experimental conditions. Thus, we showed that in the presence of GDP, the BFA-resistant Sec7 domain of Arno can also associate to form a pentameric complex, which suggests that the uncompetitive inhibition by BFA and the nucleotide allosteric effect combine to stabilize such abortive complex. PMID:23255605

  5. Scaling single-wavelength optical interconnects to 180 Gb/s with PAM-M and pulse shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dris, Stefanos; Bakopoulos, Paraskevas; Argyris, Nikolaos; Spatharakis, Christos; Avramopoulos, Hercules

    2016-03-01

    Faced with surging datacenter traffic demand, system designers are turning to multi-level optical modulation with direct detection as the means of reaching 100 Gb/s in a single optical lane; a further upgrade to 400 Gb/s is envisaged through wavelength-multiplexing of multiple 100 Gb/s strands. In terms of modulation formats, PAM-4 and PAM-8 are considered the front-runners, striking a good balance between bandwidth-efficiency and implementation complexity. In addition, the emergence of energy-efficient, high-speed CMOS digital-to-analog converters (DACs) opens up new possibilities: Spectral shaping through digital filtering will allow squeezing even more data through low-cost, low-bandwidth electro-optic components. In this work we demonstrate an optical interconnect based on an EAM that is driven directly with sub-volt electrical swing by a 65 GSa/s arbitrary waveform generator (AWG). Low-voltage drive is particularly attractive since it allows direct interfacing with the switch/server ASIC, eliminating the need for dedicated, power-hungry and expensive electrical drivers. Single-wavelength throughputs of 180 and 120 Gb/s are experimentally demonstrated with 60 Gbaud optical PAM-8 and PAM-4 respectively. Successful transmission over 1250 m SMF is achieved with direct-detection, using linear equalization via offline digital signal processing in order to overcome the strong bandwidth limitation of the overall link (~20 GHz). The suitability of Nyquist pulse shaping for optical interconnects is also investigated experimentally with PAM-4 and PAM-8, at a lower symbol rate of 40 Gbaud (limited by the sampling rate of the AWG). To the best of our knowledge, the rates achieved are the highest ever using optical PAM-M formats.

  6. BicPAMS: software for biological data analysis with pattern-based biclustering.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Rui; Ferreira, Francisco L; Madeira, Sara C

    2017-02-02

    Biclustering has been largely applied for the unsupervised analysis of biological data, being recognised today as a key technique to discover putative modules in both expression data (subsets of genes correlated in subsets of conditions) and network data (groups of coherently interconnected biological entities). However, given its computational complexity, only recent breakthroughs on pattern-based biclustering enabled efficient searches without the restrictions that state-of-the-art biclustering algorithms place on the structure and homogeneity of biclusters. As a result, pattern-based biclustering provides the unprecedented opportunity to discover non-trivial yet meaningful biological modules with putative functions, whose coherency and tolerance to noise can be tuned and made problem-specific. To enable the effective use of pattern-based biclustering by the scientific community, we developed BicPAMS (Biclustering based on PAttern Mining Software), a software that: 1) makes available state-of-the-art pattern-based biclustering algorithms (BicPAM (Henriques and Madeira, Alg Mol Biol 9:27, 2014), BicNET (Henriques and Madeira, Alg Mol Biol 11:23, 2016), BicSPAM (Henriques and Madeira, BMC Bioinforma 15:130, 2014), BiC2PAM (Henriques and Madeira, Alg Mol Biol 11:1-30, 2016), BiP (Henriques and Madeira, IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinforma, 2015), DeBi (Serin and Vingron, AMB 6:1-12, 2011) and BiModule (Okada et al., IPSJ Trans Bioinf 48(SIG5):39-48, 2007)); 2) consistently integrates their dispersed contributions; 3) further explores additional accuracy and efficiency gains; and 4) makes available graphical and application programming interfaces. Results on both synthetic and real data confirm the relevance of BicPAMS for biological data analysis, highlighting its essential role for the discovery of putative modules with non-trivial yet biologically significant functions from expression and network data. BicPAMS is the first biclustering tool offering the

  7. Biological applications of an LCoS-based programmable array microscope (PAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Guy M.; Caarls, Wouter; Thomas, Martin; Hill, Andrew; Lidke, Keith A.; Rieger, Bernd; Fritsch, Cornelia; van Geest, Bert; Jovin, Thomas M.; Arndt-Jovin, Donna J.

    2007-02-01

    We report on a new generation, commercial prototype of a programmable array optical sectioning fluorescence microscope (PAM) for rapid, light efficient 3D imaging of living specimens. The stand-alone module, including light source(s) and detector(s), features an innovative optical design and a ferroelectric liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCoS) spatial light modulator (SLM) instead of the DMD used in the original PAM design. The LCoS PAM (developed in collaboration with Cairn Research, Ltd.) can be attached to a port of a(ny) unmodified fluorescence microscope. The prototype system currently operated at the Max Planck Institute incorporates a 6-position high-intensity LED illuminator, modulated laser and lamp light sources, and an Andor iXon emCCD camera. The module is mounted on an Olympus IX71 inverted microscope with 60-150X objectives with a Prior Scientific x,y, and z high resolution scanning stages. Further enhancements recently include: (i) point- and line-wise spectral resolution and (ii) lifetime imaging (FLIM) in the frequency domain. Multiphoton operation and other nonlinear techniques should be feasible. The capabilities of the PAM are illustrated by several examples demonstrating single molecule as well as lifetime imaging in live cells, and the unique capability to perform photoconversion with arbitrary patterns and high spatial resolution. Using quantum dot coupled ligands we show real-time binding and subsequent trafficking of individual ligand-growth factor receptor complexes on and in live cells with a temporal resolution and sensitivity exceeding those of conventional CLSM systems. The combined use of a blue laser and parallel LED or visible laser sources permits photoactivation and rapid kinetic analysis of cellular processes probed by photoswitchable visible fluorescent proteins such as DRONPA.

  8. [Research progress on wind erosion control with polyacrylamide (PAM).

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan Yuan; Wang, Zhan Li

    2016-03-01

    Soil wind erosion is one of the main reasons for soil degradation in the northwest region of China. Polyacrylamide (PAM), as an efficient soil amendment, has gained extensive attention in recent years since it is effective in improving the structure of surface soil due to its special physical and chemical properties. This paper introduced the physical and chemical properties of PAM, reviewed the effects of PAM on soil wind erosion amount and threshold wind velocity, as well as the effect differences of PAM in soil wind erosion control under conditions of various methods and doses. Its effect was proved by comparing with other materials in detail. Furthermore, we analyzed the mecha-nism of wind erosion control with PAM according to its influence on soil physical characteristics. Comprehensive analysis showed that, although some problems existed in wind erosion control with (PAM), PAM as a sand fixation agent, can not only enhance the capacity of the soil resis-tance to wind erosion, but also improve soil physical properties to form better soil conditions. Besides, we proposed that combination of PAM and plant growth would increase the survival rate of plants greatly, control soil wind erosion in wind-erosive areas, and improve the quality of the ecological environment construction. Thus, PAM has practically important significance and wide application prospect in controlling soil wind erosion.

  9. Pro-2-PAM Therapy for Central and Peripheral Cholinesterases

    PubMed Central

    DeMar, James C.; Clarkson, Edward D.; Ratcliffe, Ruthie H.; Campbell, Amy J.; Thangavelu, Sonia G.; Herdman, Christine A.; Leader, Haim; Schulz, Susan M.; Marek, Elizabeth; Medynets, Marie A.; Ku, Theresa C.; Evans, Sarah A.; Khan, Farhat A.; Owens, Roberta R.; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P.; Gordon, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Novel therapeutics to overcome the toxic effects of organophosphorus (OP) chemical agents are needed due to the documented use of OPs in warfare (e.g. 1980–1988 Iran/Iraq war) and terrorism (e.g. 1995 Tokyo subway attacks). Standard OP exposure therapy in the United States consists of atropine sulfate (to block muscarinic receptors), the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator (oxime) pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM), and a benzodiazepine anticonvulsant to ameliorate seizures. A major disadvantage is that quaternary nitrogen charged oximes, including 2-PAM, do not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) to treat brain AChE. Therefore, we have synthesized and evaluated pro-2-PAM (a lipid permeable 2-PAM derivative) that can enter the brain and reactivate CNS AChE, preventing seizures in guinea pigs after exposure to OPs. The protective effects of the pro-2-PAM after OP exposure were shown using a) surgically-implanted radiotelemetry probes for electroencephalogram (EEG) b) neurohistopathology of brain, c) cholinesterase activities in the PNS and CNS, and d) survivability. The PNS oxime 2-PAM was ineffective at reducing seizures/status epilepticus (SE) in diisopropyl-fluorophosphate (DFP)-exposed animals. In contrast, pro-2-PAM significantly suppressed and then eliminated seizure activity. In OP-exposed guinea pigs, there was a significant reduction in neurological damage with pro-2-PAM, but not 2-PAM. Distinct regional areas of the brains showed significantly higher AChE activity 1.5 h after OP exposure in pro-2-PAM treated animals compared to the 2-PAM treated ones. However, blood and diaphragm showed similar AChE activities in animals treated with either oxime, as both 2-PAM and pro 2-PAM are PNS active oximes. In conclusion, pro-2-PAM can cross the BBB, is rapidly metabolized inside the brain to 2-PAM, and protects against OP-induced SE through restoration of brain AChE activity. Pro-2-PAM represents the first non-invasive means of administering a CNS therapeutic for

  10. Fully Automated Data Collection Using PAM and the Development of PAM/SPACE Reversible Cassettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraki, Masahiko; Watanabe, Shokei; Chavas, Leonard M. G.; Yamada, Yusuke; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Miki, Kunio; Baba, Seiki; Ueno, Go; Yamamoto, Masaki; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Tanaka, Isao

    2010-06-01

    To remotely control and automatically collect data in high-throughput X-ray data collection experiments, the Structural Biology Research Center at the Photon Factory (PF) developed and installed sample exchange robots PAM (PF Automated Mounting system) at PF macromolecular crystallography beamlines; BL-5A, BL-17A, AR-NW12A and AR-NE3A. We developed and installed software that manages the flow of the automated X-ray experiments; sample exchanges, loop-centering and X-ray diffraction data collection. The fully automated data collection function has been available since February 2009. To identify sample cassettes, PAM employs a two-dimensional bar code reader. New beamlines, BL-1A at the Photon Factory and BL32XU at SPring-8, are currently under construction as part of Targeted Proteins Research Program (TPRP) by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. However, different robots, PAM and SPACE (SPring-8 Precise Automatic Cryo-sample Exchanger), will be installed at BL-1A and BL32XU, respectively. For the convenience of the users of both facilities, pins and cassettes for PAM and SPACE are developed as part of the TPRP.

  11. Allosteric ligands for the pharmacologically dark receptors GPR68 and GPR65

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xi-Ping; Karpiak, Joel; Kroeze, Wesley K.; Zhu, Hu; Chen, Xin; Moy, Sheryl S.; Saddoris, Kara A.; Nikolova, Viktoriya; Farrell, Martilias S.; Wang, Sheng; Mangano, Thomas J.; Deshpande, Deepak A.; Jiang, Alice; Penn, Raymond B.; Jin, Jian; Koller, Beverly H.; Kenakin, Terry; Shoichet, Brian K.; Roth, Bryan L.

    2016-01-01

    At least 120 non-olfactory G protein-coupled receptors in the human genome are ”orphans” for which endogenous ligands are unknown, and many have no selective ligands, hindering elucidation of their biological functions and clinical relevance. Among these is GPR68, a proton receptor that lacks small molecule modulators for probing its biology. Yeast-based screens against GPR68 identified the benzodiazepine drug lorazepam as a non-selective GPR68 positive allosteric modulator. Over 3000 GPR68 homology models were refined to recognize lorazepam in a putative allosteric site. Docking 3.1 million molecules predicted new GPR68 modulators many of which were confirmed in functional assays. One potent GPR68 modulator—ogerin– suppressed recall in fear conditioning in wild-type, but not in GPR68 knockout mice. The same approach led to the discovery of allosteric agonists and negative allosteric modulators for GPR65. Combining physical and structure-based screening may be broadly useful for ligand discovery for understudied and orphan GPCRs. PMID:26550826

  12. Role of Terahertz (THz) Fluctuations in the Allosteric Properties of the PDZ Domains.

    PubMed

    Conti Nibali, Valeria; Morra, Giulia; Havenith, Martina; Colombo, Giorgio

    2017-11-09

    With the aim of investigating the relationship between the fast fluctuations of proteins and their allosteric behavior, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of two model PDZ domains with differential allosteric responses. We focus on protein dynamics in the THz regime (0.1-3 THz) as opposed to lower frequencies. By characterizing the dynamic modulation of the protein backbone induced by ligand binding in terms of single residue and pairwise distance fluctuations, we identify a response nucleus modulated by the ligand that is visible only at THz frequencies. The residues of this nucleus undergo a significant stiffening and an increase in mutual coordination upon binding. Additionally, we find that the dynamic modulation is significantly more intense for the side chains, where it is also redistributed to distal regions not immediately in contact with the ligand allowing us to better define the response nucleus at THz frequencies. The overlap between the known allosterically responding residues of the investigated PDZ domains and the modulated region highlighted here suggests that fast THz dynamics could play a role in allosteric mechanisms.

  13. PAM-4 delivery based on pre-distortion and CMMA equalization in a ROF system at 40 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen; Zhang, Jiao; Han, Xifeng; Kong, Miao; Gou, Pengqi

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we proposed a PAM-4 delivery in a ROF system at 40-GHz. PAM-4 transmission data can be generated via look-up table (LUT) pre-distortion, then delivered over 25km single-mode fiber and 0.5m wireless link. At the receiver side, the received signal can be processed with cascaded multi-module algorithm (CMMA) equalization to improve the decision precision. Our measured results show that 10Gbaud PAM-4 transmission in a ROF system at 40-GHz can be achieved with BER of 1.6 × 10-3. To our knowledge, this is the first time to introduce LUT pre-distortion and CMMA equalization in a ROF system to improve signal performance.

  14. Metalloregulatory Proteins: Metal Selectivity and Allosteric Switching

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, Hermes Reyes; Campanello, Gregory C.; Giedroc, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Prokaryotic organisms have evolved an impressive capacity to quickly adapt to a changing and challenging microenvironment in which the availability of both biologically required and non-essential transition metal ions can vary dramatically. In all bacteria, a panel of metalloregulatory proteins control the expression of genes encoding membrane transporters and metal trafficking proteins, that collectively manage metal homeostasis and resistance. These “metal sensors” are specialized allosteric proteins, in which the direct binding of a specific or small number of “cognate” metal ion(s) drives a conformational change in the regulator that allosterically activates or inhibits operator DNA binding, or alternatively, distorts the promoter structure thereby converting a poor promoter to a strong one. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the features that control metal specificity of the allosteric response in these systems, and the role that structure, thermodynamics and conformational dynamics play in mediating allosteric activation or inhibition of DNA binding. PMID:21511390

  15. Allosteric cross-talk in chromatin can mediate drug-drug synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhireksan, Zenita; Palermo, Giulia; Riedel, Tina; Ma, Zhujun; Muhammad, Reyhan; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Dyson, Paul J.; Davey, Curt A.

    2017-03-01

    Exploitation of drug-drug synergism and allostery could yield superior therapies by capitalizing on the immensely diverse, but highly specific, potential associated with the biological macromolecular landscape. Here we describe a drug-drug synergy mediated by allosteric cross-talk in chromatin, whereby the binding of one drug alters the activity of the second. We found two unrelated drugs, RAPTA-T and auranofin, that yield a synergistic activity in killing cancer cells, which coincides with a substantially greater number of chromatin adducts formed by one of the compounds when adducts from the other agent are also present. We show that this occurs through an allosteric mechanism within the nucleosome, whereby defined histone adducts of one drug promote reaction of the other drug at a distant, specific histone site. This opens up possibilities for epigenetic targeting and suggests that allosteric modulation in nucleosomes may have biological relevance and potential for therapeutic interventions.

  16. Detection of allosteric signal transmission by information-theoretic analysis of protein dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Pandini, Alessandro; Fornili, Arianna; Fraternali, Franca; Kleinjung, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Allostery offers a highly specific way to modulate protein function. Therefore, understanding this mechanism is of increasing interest for protein science and drug discovery. However, allosteric signal transmission is difficult to detect experimentally and to model because it is often mediated by local structural changes propagating along multiple pathways. To address this, we developed a method to identify communication pathways by an information-theoretical analysis of molecular dynamics simulations. Signal propagation was described as information exchange through a network of correlated local motions, modeled as transitions between canonical states of protein fragments. The method was used to describe allostery in two-component regulatory systems. In particular, the transmission from the allosteric site to the signaling surface of the receiver domain NtrC was shown to be mediated by a layer of hub residues. The location of hubs preferentially connected to the allosteric site was found in close agreement with key residues experimentally identified as involved in the signal transmission. The comparison with the networks of the homologues CheY and FixJ highlighted similarities in their dynamics. In particular, we showed that a preorganized network of fragment connections between the allosteric and functional sites exists already in the inactive state of all three proteins.—Pandini, A., Fornili, A., Fraternali, F., Kleinjung, J. Detection of allosteric signal transmission by information-theoretic analysis of protein dynamics. PMID:22071506

  17. Designing Allosteric Control into Enzymes by Chemical Rescue of Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Deckert, Katelyn; Budiardjo, S. Jimmy; Brunner, Luke C.

    2012-08-07

    Ligand-dependent activity has been engineered into enzymes for purposes ranging from controlling cell morphology to reprogramming cellular signaling pathways. Where these successes have typically fused a naturally allosteric domain to the enzyme of interest, here we instead demonstrate an approach for designing a de novo allosteric effector site directly into the catalytic domain of an enzyme. This approach is distinct from traditional chemical rescue of enzymes in that it relies on disruption and restoration of structure, rather than active site chemistry, as a means to achieve modulate function. We present two examples, W33G in a {beta}-glycosidase enzyme ({beta}-gly) and W492Gmore » in a {beta}-glucuronidase enzyme ({beta}-gluc), in which we engineer indole-dependent activity into enzymes by removing a buried tryptophan side chain that serves as a buttress for the active site architecture. In both cases, we observe a loss of function, and in both cases we find that the subsequent addition of indole can be used to restore activity. Through a detailed analysis of {beta}-gly W33G kinetics, we demonstrate that this rescued enzyme is fully functionally equivalent to the corresponding wild-type enzyme. We then present the apo and indole-bound crystal structures of {beta}-gly W33G, which together establish the structural basis for enzyme inactivation and rescue. Finally, we use this designed switch to modulate {beta}-glycosidase activity in living cells using indole. Disruption and recovery of protein structure may represent a general technique for introducing allosteric control into enzymes, and thus may serve as a starting point for building a variety of bioswitches and sensors.« less

  18. Solar Radiation Stress in Natural Acidophilic Biofilms of Euglena mutabilis Revealed by Metatranscriptomics and PAM Fluorometry.

    PubMed

    Puente-Sánchez, Fernando; Olsson, Sanna; Gómez-Rodriguez, Manuel; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Altamirano-Jeschke, Maria; Amils, Ricardo; Parro, Victor; Aguilera, Angeles

    2016-02-01

    The daily photosynthetic performance of a natural biofilm of the extreme acidophilic Euglena mutabilis from Río Tinto (SW, Spain) under full solar radiation was analyzed by means of pulse amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorescence measurements and metatrascriptomic analysis. Natural E. mutabilis biofilms undergo large-scale transcriptomic reprogramming during midday due to a dynamic photoinhibition and solar radiation stress. Photoinhibition is due to UV radiation and not to light intensity, as revealed by PAM fluorometry analysis. In order to minimize the negative effects of solar radiation, our data supports the presence of a circadian rhythm in this euglenophyte that increases their opportunity to survive. Differential gene expression throughout the day (at 12:00, 20:00 and night) was monitored by massive Illumina parallel sequencing of metatranscriptomic libraries. The transcription pattern was altered in genes involved in Photosystem II stability and repair, UV damaged DNA repair, non-photochemical quenching and oxidative stress, supporting the photoinhibition detected by PAM fluorometry at midday. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurement of photosynthesis using PAM technology in a purple sulfur bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum (Chromatiaceae).

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Raymond J; Mekjinda, Nutsara

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that Blue-diode-based pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) technology can be used to measure the photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) of purple sulfur bacteria (Thermochromatium tepidum, Chromatiaceae). Previous studies showed that PAM technology could be used to estimate photosynthesis in purple nonsulfur bacteria and so PAM technology can be used to estimate photosynthesis of both kinds of purple photosynthetic bacteria. The absorptance of Thermochromatium films on glass fiber disks was measured and used to calculate actual ETR. ETR vs Irradiance (P vs E) curves fitted the waiting-in-line model (ETR = (ETRmax × E/Eopt) × exp (1−E/Eopt)). Yield (Y) was only ≈ 0.3–0.4. Thermochromatium saturates at 325 ± 13.8 μmol photons m(−2) s(−1) or ≈15% sunlight and shows photoinhibition at high irradiances. A pond of Thermochromatium would exhibit classic surface inhibition. Photosynthesis is extremely low in the absence of an electron source: ETR increases in the presence of acetate (5 mol m(−3)) provided as an organic carbon source and also increases in the presence of sulfite (3 mol m(−3)) but not sulfide and is only marginally increased by the presence of Fe(2+). Nonphotochemical quenching does occur in Thermochromatium but at very low levels compared to oxygenic photo-organisms or Rhodopseudomonads.

  20. Brown at aft controls during PAMS STU deploy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-22

    S77-E-5066 (22 May 1996) --- Astronaut Curtis L. Brown, Jr., pilot, is seen on the starboard side of the Space Shuttle Endeavour's aft flight deck just prior to the deployment of the Satellite Test Unit (STU), part of the Passive Aerodynamically Stabilized Magnetically Damped Satellite (PAMS). Brown's image was captured with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC). Minutes later the camera was being used to document the deployment of PAMS-STU. The six-member crew will continue operations (tracking, rendezvousing and station-keeping) with PAMS-STU periodically throughout the remainder of the mission.

  1. 2013 Philip S. Portoghese Medicinal Chemistry Lectureship: Drug Discovery Targeting Allosteric Sites†

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The identification of sites on receptors topographically distinct from the orthosteric sites, so-called allosteric sites, has heralded novel approaches and modes of pharmacology for target modulation. Over the past 20 years, our understanding of allosteric modulation has grown significantly, and numerous advantages, as well as caveats (e.g., flat structure–activity relationships, species differences, “molecular switches”), have been identified. For multiple receptors and proteins, numerous examples have been described where unprecedented levels of selectivity are achieved along with improved physiochemical properties. While not a panacea, these novel approaches represent exciting opportunities for tool compound development to probe the pharmacology and therapeutic potential of discrete molecular targets, as well as new medicines. In this Perspective, in commemoration of the 2013 Philip S. Portoghese Medicinal Chemistry Lectureship (LindsleyC. W.Adventures in allosteric drug discovery. Presented at the 246th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Indianapolis, IN, September 10, 2013; The 2013 Portoghese Lectureship), several vignettes of drug discovery campaigns targeting novel allosteric mechanisms will be recounted, along with lessons learned and guidelines that have emerged for successful lead optimization. PMID:25180768

  2. Conformational Transition Pathway in the Activation Process of Allosteric Glucokinase

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ting; Zhao, Yaxue; Chen, Yingyi; Li, Xiaobai; Liu, Xinyi; Huang, Zhimin; Zhang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Glucokinase (GK) is a glycolytic enzyme that plays an important role in regulating blood glucose level, thus acting as a potentially attractive target for drug discovery in the treatment of diabetes of the young type 2 and persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy. To characterize the activation mechanism of GK from the super-open state (inactive state) to the closed state (active state), a series of conventional molecular dynamics (MD) and targeted MD (TMD) simulations were performed on this enzyme. Conventional MD simulation showed a specific conformational ensemble of GK when the enzyme is inactive. Seven TMD simulations depicted a reliably conformational transition pathway of GK from the inactive state to the active state, and the components important to the conformational change of GK were identified by analyzing the detailed structures of the TMD trajectories. In combination with the inactivation process, our findings showed that the whole conformational pathway for the activation-inactivation-activation of GK is a one-direction circulation, and the active state is less stable than the inactive state in the circulation. Additionally, glucose was demonstrated to gradually modulate its binding pose with the help of residues in the large domain and connecting region of GK during the activation process. Furthermore, the obtained energy barriers were used to explain the preexisting equilibrium and the slow binding kinetic process of the substrate by GK. The simulated results are in accordance with the recent findings from the mutagenesis experiments and kinetic analyses. Our observations reveal a complicated conformational process in the allosteric protein, resulting in new knowledge about the delicate mechanisms for allosteric biological macromolecules that will be useful in drug design for targeting allosteric proteins. PMID:23409066

  3. Exploring with PAM: Prospecting ANTS Missions for Solar System Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.; Rilee, M. L.; Curtis, S. A.

    2003-03-01

    ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm of hundreds of picoclass autonomous spacecraft) have many applications. A version designed for surveying and the resource potential of the asteroid belt, called PAM (Prospecting ANTS Mission), is examined here.

  4. Allosteric substrate switching in a voltage-sensing lipid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Sasha S; Isacoff, Ehud Y

    2016-04-01

    Allostery provides a critical control over enzyme activity, biasing the catalytic site between inactive and active states. We found that the Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensing phosphatase (Ci-VSP), which modifies phosphoinositide signaling lipids (PIPs), has not one but two sequential active states with distinct substrate specificities, whose occupancy is allosterically controlled by sequential conformations of the voltage-sensing domain (VSD). Using fast fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) reporters of PIPs to monitor enzyme activity and voltage-clamp fluorometry to monitor conformational changes in the VSD, we found that Ci-VSP switches from inactive to a PIP3-preferring active state when the VSD undergoes an initial voltage-sensing motion and then into a second PIP2-preferring active state when the VSD activates fully. This two-step allosteric control over a dual-specificity enzyme enables voltage to shape PIP concentrations in time, and provides a mechanism for the complex modulation of PIP-regulated ion channels, transporters, cell motility, endocytosis and exocytosis.

  5. Allosteric substrate switching in a voltage sensing lipid phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Sasha S.; Isacoff, Ehud Y.

    2016-01-01

    Allostery provides a critical control over enzyme activity, biasing the catalytic site between inactive and active states. We find the Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensing phosphatase (Ci-VSP), which modifies phosphoinositide signaling lipids (PIPs), to have not one but two sequential active states with distinct substrate specificities, whose occupancy is allosterically controlled by sequential conformations of the voltage sensing domain (VSD). Using fast FRET reporters of PIPs to monitor enzyme activity and voltage clamp fluorometry to monitor conformational changes in the VSD, we find that Ci-VSP switches from inactive to a PIP3-preferring active state when the VSD undergoes an initial voltage sensing motion and then into a second PIP2-preferring active state when the VSD activates fully. This novel 2-step allosteric control over a dual specificity enzyme enables voltage to shape PIP concentrations in time, and provides a mechanism for the complex modulation of PIP-regulated ion channels, transporters, cell motility and endo/exocytosis. PMID:26878552

  6. Transmission of 2 × 56 Gb/s PAM-4 signal over 100 km SSMF using 18 GHz DMLs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiwei; Li, Xiang; Yi, Lilin; Yang, Qi; Fu, Songnian

    2016-04-15

    We experimentally demonstrate C-band 2 × 56 Gb/s pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM)-4 signal transmission over 100 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) using 18 GHz direct-modulated lasers (DMLs) and direct detection, without inline optical amplifier. A delay interferometer (DI) at the transmitter side is used to extend the transmission reach from 40 to 100 km. A digital Volterra filter at the receiver side is used to mitigate the nonlinear distortions. We obtain an average bit error ratio (BER) of 1.5 × 10(-3) for 2 × 56 Gb/s PAM-4 signal after 100 km SSMF transmission at the optimal input power, which is below the 7% forward error correction (FEC) threshold (3.8 × 10(-3)).

  7. Optimum quantum receiver for detecting weak signals in PAM communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Navneet; Rawat, Tarun Kumar; Parthasarathy, Harish; Gautam, Kumar

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with the modeling of an optimum quantum receiver for pulse amplitude modulator (PAM) communication systems. The information bearing sequence {I_k}_{k=0}^{N-1} is estimated using the maximum likelihood (ML) method. The ML method is based on quantum mechanical measurements of an observable X in the Hilbert space of the quantum system at discrete times, when the Hamiltonian of the system is perturbed by an operator obtained by modulating a potential V with a PAM signal derived from the information bearing sequence {I_k}_{k=0}^{N-1}. The measurement process at each time instant causes collapse of the system state to an observable eigenstate. All probabilities of getting different outcomes from an observable are calculated using the perturbed evolution operator combined with the collapse postulate. For given probability densities, calculation of the mean square error evaluates the performance of the receiver. Finally, we present an example involving estimating an information bearing sequence that modulates a quantum electromagnetic field incident on a quantum harmonic oscillator.

  8. Screening for AMPA receptor auxiliary subunit specific modulators

    PubMed Central

    Azumaya, Caleigh M.; Days, Emily L.; Vinson, Paige N.; Stauffer, Shaun; Sulikowski, Gary; Weaver, C. David; Nakagawa, Terunaga

    2017-01-01

    AMPA receptors (AMPAR) are ligand gated ion channels critical for synaptic transmission and plasticity. Their dysfunction is implicated in a variety of psychiatric and neurological diseases ranging from major depressive disorder to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Attempting to potentiate or depress AMPAR activity is an inherently difficult balancing act between effective treatments and debilitating side effects. A newly explored strategy to target subsets of AMPARs in the central nervous system is to identify compounds that affect specific AMPAR-auxiliary subunit complexes. This exploits diverse spatio-temporal expression patterns of known AMPAR auxiliary subunits, providing means for designing brain region-selective compounds. Here we report a high-throughput screening-based pipeline that can identify compounds that are selective for GluA2-CNIH3 and GluA2-stargazin complexes. These compounds will help us build upon the growing library of AMPAR-auxiliary subunit specific inhibitors, which have thus far all been targeted to TARP γ-8. We used a cell-based assay combined with a voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) to identify changes in glutamate-gated cation flow across the membranes of HEK cells co-expressing GluA2 and an auxiliary subunit. We then used a calcium flux assay to further validate hits picked from the VSD assay. VU0612951 and VU0627849 are candidate compounds from the initial screen that were identified as negative and positive allosteric modulators (NAM and PAM), respectively. They both have lower IC50/EC50s on complexes containing stargazin and CNIH3 than GSG1L or the AMPAR alone. We have also identified a candidate compound, VU0539491, that has NAM activity in GluA2(R)-CNIH3 and GluA2(Q) complexes and PAM activity in GluA2(Q)-GSG1L complexes. PMID:28358902

  9. Pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias; Wu, Jie

    2015-12-29

    Chlorophyll fluorometry may be used for detecting toxins in a sample because of changes in micro algae. A portable lab on a chip ("LOAC") based chlorophyll fluorometer may be used for toxin detection and environmental monitoring. In particular, the system may include a microfluidic pulse amplitude modulated ("PAM") chlorophyll fluorometer. The LOAC PAM chlorophyll fluorometer may analyze microalgae and cyanobacteria that grow naturally in source drinking water.

  10. Allosteric and Orthosteric Activators of mGluR8 differentially affect the Chemotherapeutic-induced Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cell Damage: The Impact of Cell Differentiation State.

    PubMed

    Jantas, Danuta; Grygier, Beata; Zatorska, Justyna; Lasoń, Władysław

    2018-05-12

    The participation of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in cancer growth and progression is still an understudied issue. Based on our recent data on high expression of mGluR8 in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, in the present study we evaluated the effect of an mGluR8-specific positive allosteric modulator (PAM: AZ12216052) and orthosteric agonist ((S)-3,4-DCPG) on chemotherapeutic (doxorubicin, irinotecan or cisplatin)-evoked cell damage in undifferentiated (UN-) and retinoic acid-differentiated (RA-) SH-SY5Y cells. The data showed that AZ12216052 as well as a group III mGluR antagonist (UBP1112) but not (S)-3,4-DCPG partially inhibited the cell damage evoked by doxorubicin, irinotecan or cisplatin in UN-SH-SY5Y cells. In RA-SH-SY5Y, we observed only a modest protective effect of mGluR8 PAM. In contrast, both types of mGluR8 activators significantly enhanced toxic effects of doxorubicin and irinotecan in RA-SH-SY5Y cells. These data suggest that in undifferentiated neuroblastoma malignant cells, some mGluR8 modulators can decrease cytotoxic effects of chemotherapeutics which exclude them from the group of putative anti-cancer agents. On the other hand, in SH-SY5Y cells differentiated to a more mature neuron-like phenotype, i.e. nonmalignant cells, the mGluR8 activators can aggravate the chemotherapeutic neurotoxicity which is a well-known undesired effect of these drugs. Our pharmacological data add new observations to the unexplored field of research on the role of mGluR8 in cancer, pointing to complexity of response which could be mediated by particular types of mGluR8 ligands at least in neuroblastoma cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Ras activation by SOS: Allosteric regulation by altered fluctuation dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Lars; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Lin, Wan-Chen; Christensen, Sune M.; Abel, Steven M.; Iwig, Jeff; Wu, Hung-Jen; Gureasko, Jodi; Rhodes, Christopher; Petit, Rebecca S.; Hansen, Scott D.; Thill, Peter; Yu, Cheng-Han; Stamou, Dimitrios; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Kuriyan, John; Groves, Jay T.

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase H-Ras by the exchange factor Son of Sevenless (SOS) is an important hub for signal transduction. Multiple layers of regulation, through protein and membrane interactions, govern activity of SOS. We characterized the specific activity of individual SOS molecules catalyzing nucleotide exchange in H-Ras. Single-molecule kinetic traces revealed that SOS samples a broad distribution of turnover rates through stochastic fluctuations between distinct, long-lived (more than 100 seconds), functional states. The expected allosteric activation of SOS by Ras–guanosine triphosphate (GTP) was conspicuously absent in the mean rate. However, fluctuations into highly active states were modulated by Ras-GTP. This reveals a mechanism in which functional output may be determined by the dynamical spectrum of rates sampled by a small number of enzymes, rather than the ensemble average. PMID:24994643

  12. Engineered Cpf1 variants with altered PAM specificities.

    PubMed

    Gao, Linyi; Cox, David B T; Yan, Winston X; Manteiga, John C; Schneider, Martin W; Yamano, Takashi; Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Nureki, Osamu; Crosetto, Nicola; Zhang, Feng

    2017-08-01

    The RNA-guided endonuclease Cpf1 is a promising tool for genome editing in eukaryotic cells. However, the utility of the commonly used Acidaminococcus sp. BV3L6 Cpf1 (AsCpf1) and Lachnospiraceae bacterium ND2006 Cpf1 (LbCpf1) is limited by their requirement of a TTTV protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) in the DNA substrate. To address this limitation, we performed a structure-guided mutagenesis screen to increase the targeting range of Cpf1. We engineered two AsCpf1 variants carrying the mutations S542R/K607R and S542R/K548V/N552R, which recognize TYCV and TATV PAMs, respectively, with enhanced activities in vitro and in human cells. Genome-wide assessment of off-target activity using BLISS indicated that these variants retain high DNA-targeting specificity, which we further improved by introducing an additional non-PAM-interacting mutation. Introducing the identified PAM-interacting mutations at their corresponding positions in LbCpf1 similarly altered its PAM specificity. Together, these variants increase the targeting range of Cpf1 by approximately threefold in human coding sequences to one cleavage site per ∼11 bp.

  13. Time skewing and amplitude nonlinearity mitigation by feedback equalization for 56 Gbps VCSEL-based PAM-4 links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yue; Zhang, Wenjia; Sun, Lin; Du, Jiangbing; Liang, Chenyu; Yang, Fan; He, Zuyuan

    2018-03-01

    The vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL)-based multimode optical transceivers enabled by pulse amplitude modulation (PAM)-4 will be commercialized in near future to meet the 400-Gbps standard short reach optical interconnects. It is still challenging to achieve over 56/112-Gbps with the multilevel signaling as the multimode property of the device and link would introduce the nonlinear temporal response for the different levels. In this work, we scrutinize the distortions that relates to the multilevel feature of PAM-4 modulation, and propose an effective feedback equalization scheme for 56-Gbps VCSEL-based PAM-4 optical interconnects system to mitigate the distortions caused by eye timing-skew and nonlinear power-dependent noise. Level redistribution at Tx side is theoretically modeled and constructed to achieve equivalent symbol error ratios (SERs) of four levels and improved BER performance. The cause of the eye skewing and the mitigation approach are also simulated at 100-Gbps and experimentally investigated at 56-Gbps. The results indicate more than 2-dB power penalty improvement has been achieved by using such a distortion aware equalizer.

  14. SB-205384 Is a Positive Allosteric Modulator of Recombinant GABAA Receptors Containing Rat α3, α5, or α6 Subunit Subtypes Coexpressed with β3 and γ2 Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Heidelberg, Laura S.; Warren, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Many drugs used to treat anxiety are positive modulators of GABAA receptors, which mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission. The GABAA receptors can be assembled from a combination of at least 16 different subunits. The receptor’s subunit composition determines its pharmacologic and functional properties, and subunit expression varies throughout the brain. A primary goal for new treatments targeting GABAA receptors is the production of subunit-selective modulators acting upon a discrete population of receptors. The anxiolytic 4-amino-7-hydroxy-2-methyl-5,6,7,8,-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thieno[2,3-b]pyridine-3-carboxylic acid, but-2-ynyl ester (SB-205384) is widely considered to be selective for α3-containing GABAA receptors. However, it has been tested only on α1-, α2-, and α3-containing receptors. We examined the activity of SB-205384 at recombinant receptors containing the six different α subunits and found that receptors containing the α3, α5, and α6 subunits were potentiated by SB-205384, with the α6 subunit conferring the greatest responsiveness. Properties associated with chimeric α1/α6 subunits suggested that multiple structural domains influence sensitivity to SB-205384. Point mutations of residues within the extracellular N-terminal domain identified a leucine residue located in loop E of the agonist binding site as an important determinant of high sensitivity to modulation. In the α6 subunit the identity of this residue is species-dependent, with the leucine found in rat subunits but not in human. Our results indicate that SB-205384 is not an α3-selective modulator, and instead acts at several GABAA receptor isoforms. These findings have implications for the side-effect profile of this anxiolytic as well as for its use in neuronal and animal studies as a marker for contribution from α3-containing receptors. PMID:23902941

  15. Allosteric Regulation of E-Cadherin Adhesion*

    PubMed Central

    Shashikanth, Nitesh; Petrova, Yuliya I.; Park, Seongjin; Chekan, Jillian; Maiden, Stephanie; Spano, Martha; Ha, Taekjip; Gumbiner, Barry M.; Leckband, Deborah E.

    2015-01-01

    Cadherins are transmembrane adhesion proteins that maintain intercellular cohesion in all tissues, and their rapid regulation is essential for organized tissue remodeling. Despite some evidence that cadherin adhesion might be allosterically regulated, testing of this has been hindered by the difficulty of quantifying altered E-cadherin binding affinity caused by perturbations outside the ectodomain binding site. Here, measured kinetics of cadherin-mediated intercellular adhesion demonstrated quantitatively that treatment with activating, anti-E-cadherin antibodies or the dephosphorylation of a cytoplasmic binding partner, p120ctn, increased the homophilic binding affinity of E-cadherin. Results obtained with Colo 205 cells, which express inactive E-cadherin and do not aggregate, demonstrated that four treatments, which induced Colo 205 aggregation and p120ctn dephosphorylation, triggered quantitatively similar increases in E-cadherin affinity. Several processes can alter cell aggregation, but these results directly demonstrated the allosteric regulation of cell surface E-cadherin by p120ctn dephosphorylation. PMID:26175155

  16. Computational Modeling of Allosteric Regulation in the Hsp90 Chaperones: A Statistical Ensemble Analysis of Protein Structure Networks and Allosteric Communications

    PubMed Central

    Blacklock, Kristin; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental role of the Hsp90 chaperone in regulating functional activity of diverse protein clients is essential for the integrity of signaling networks. In this work we have combined biophysical simulations of the Hsp90 crystal structures with the protein structure network analysis to characterize the statistical ensemble of allosteric interaction networks and communication pathways in the Hsp90 chaperones. We have found that principal structurally stable communities could be preserved during dynamic changes in the conformational ensemble. The dominant contribution of the inter-domain rigidity to the interaction networks has emerged as a common factor responsible for the thermodynamic stability of the active chaperone form during the ATPase cycle. Structural stability analysis using force constant profiling of the inter-residue fluctuation distances has identified a network of conserved structurally rigid residues that could serve as global mediating sites of allosteric communication. Mapping of the conformational landscape with the network centrality parameters has demonstrated that stable communities and mediating residues may act concertedly with the shifts in the conformational equilibrium and could describe the majority of functionally significant chaperone residues. The network analysis has revealed a relationship between structural stability, global centrality and functional significance of hotspot residues involved in chaperone regulation. We have found that allosteric interactions in the Hsp90 chaperone may be mediated by modules of structurally stable residues that display high betweenness in the global interaction network. The results of this study have suggested that allosteric interactions in the Hsp90 chaperone may operate via a mechanism that combines rapid and efficient communication by a single optimal pathway of structurally rigid residues and more robust signal transmission using an ensemble of suboptimal multiple communication routes. This

  17. Computational modeling of allosteric regulation in the hsp90 chaperones: a statistical ensemble analysis of protein structure networks and allosteric communications.

    PubMed

    Blacklock, Kristin; Verkhivker, Gennady M

    2014-06-01

    A fundamental role of the Hsp90 chaperone in regulating functional activity of diverse protein clients is essential for the integrity of signaling networks. In this work we have combined biophysical simulations of the Hsp90 crystal structures with the protein structure network analysis to characterize the statistical ensemble of allosteric interaction networks and communication pathways in the Hsp90 chaperones. We have found that principal structurally stable communities could be preserved during dynamic changes in the conformational ensemble. The dominant contribution of the inter-domain rigidity to the interaction networks has emerged as a common factor responsible for the thermodynamic stability of the active chaperone form during the ATPase cycle. Structural stability analysis using force constant profiling of the inter-residue fluctuation distances has identified a network of conserved structurally rigid residues that could serve as global mediating sites of allosteric communication. Mapping of the conformational landscape with the network centrality parameters has demonstrated that stable communities and mediating residues may act concertedly with the shifts in the conformational equilibrium and could describe the majority of functionally significant chaperone residues. The network analysis has revealed a relationship between structural stability, global centrality and functional significance of hotspot residues involved in chaperone regulation. We have found that allosteric interactions in the Hsp90 chaperone may be mediated by modules of structurally stable residues that display high betweenness in the global interaction network. The results of this study have suggested that allosteric interactions in the Hsp90 chaperone may operate via a mechanism that combines rapid and efficient communication by a single optimal pathway of structurally rigid residues and more robust signal transmission using an ensemble of suboptimal multiple communication routes. This

  18. Polarization-insensitive PAM-4-carrying free-space orbital angular momentum (OAM) communications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Jian

    2016-02-22

    We present a simple configuration incorporating single polarization-sensitive phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM) to facilitate polarization-insensitive free-space optical communications employing orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes. We experimentally demonstrate several polarization-insensitive optical communication subsystems by propagating a single OAM mode, multicasting 4 and 10 OAM modes, and multiplexing 8 OAM modes, respectively. Free-space polarization-insensitive optical communication links using OAM modes that carry four-level pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM-4) signal are demonstrated in the experiment. The observed optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties are less than 1 dB in both polarization-insensitive N-fold OAM modes multicasting and multiple OAM modes multiplexing at a bit-error rate (BER) of 2e-3 (enhanced forward-error correction (EFEC) threshold).

  19. PAM4 based symmetrical 112-Gbps long-reach TWDM-PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liyu; Gao, Fan; Zhang, Minming; Fu, Songnian; Deng, Lei; Choi, Michael; Chang, Donald; Lei, Gordon K. P.; Liu, Deming

    2018-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate cost effective symmetrical 112-Gbps long-reach passive optical network (LR-PON) over 70-km standard signal mode fiber (SSMF), based on pulse amplitude modulation (PAM)-4. Four 10G-class directly modulated lasers (DMLs) at C-band are used for achieving 4 × 28-Gbps downstream transmission, while two 18G-class DMLs at O-band are used to realize 2 × 56-Gbps upstream transmission, without any optical amplification in optical distributed network (ODN). Both dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) for downstream signal and praseodymium-doped fiber amplifier (PDFA) for upstream signal are equipped at optical line terminal (OLT). Meanwhile, sparse Volterra filter (SVF) equalizer is proposed to mitigate the transmission impairments with substantial reduction of computation complexity. Finally, we can successfully provide a loss budget of 33 dB per downstream wavelength channel, indicating of 64 optical network units (ONUs) with more than 1.25 Gbps per ONU.

  20. Allosteric Control of Icosahedral Capsid Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Lazaro, Guillermo R.

    2017-01-01

    During the lifecycle of a virus, viral proteins and other components self-assemble to form an ordered protein shell called a capsid. This assembly process is subject to multiple competing constraints, including the need to form a thermostable shell while avoiding kinetic traps. It has been proposed that viral assembly satisfies these constraints through allosteric regulation, including the interconversion of capsid proteins among conformations with different propensities for assembly. In this article we use computational and theoretical modeling to explore how such allostery affects the assembly of icosahedral shells. We simulate assembly under a wide range of protein concentrations, protein binding affinities, and two different mechanisms of allosteric control. We find that, above a threshold strength of allosteric control, assembly becomes robust over a broad range of subunit binding affinities and concentrations, allowing the formation of highly thermostable capsids. Our results suggest that allostery can significantly shift the range of protein binding affinities that lead to successful assembly, and thus should be accounted for in models that are used to estimate interaction parameters from experimental data. PMID:27117092

  1. Identifiability, reducibility, and adaptability in allosteric macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Bohner, Gergő; Venkataraman, Gaurav

    2017-05-01

    The ability of macromolecules to transduce stimulus information at one site into conformational changes at a distant site, termed "allostery," is vital for cellular signaling. Here, we propose a link between the sensitivity of allosteric macromolecules to their underlying biophysical parameters, the interrelationships between these parameters, and macromolecular adaptability. We demonstrate that the parameters of a canonical model of the mSlo large-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + (BK) ion channel are non-identifiable with respect to the equilibrium open probability-voltage relationship, a common functional assay. We construct a reduced model with emergent parameters that are identifiable and expressed as combinations of the original mechanistic parameters. These emergent parameters indicate which coordinated changes in mechanistic parameters can leave assay output unchanged. We predict that these coordinated changes are used by allosteric macromolecules to adapt, and we demonstrate how this prediction can be tested experimentally. We show that these predicted parameter compensations are used in the first reported allosteric phenomena: the Bohr effect, by which hemoglobin adapts to varying pH. © 2017 Bohner and Venkataraman.

  2. Identifiability, reducibility, and adaptability in allosteric macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Bohner, Gergő

    2017-01-01

    The ability of macromolecules to transduce stimulus information at one site into conformational changes at a distant site, termed “allostery,” is vital for cellular signaling. Here, we propose a link between the sensitivity of allosteric macromolecules to their underlying biophysical parameters, the interrelationships between these parameters, and macromolecular adaptability. We demonstrate that the parameters of a canonical model of the mSlo large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) ion channel are non-identifiable with respect to the equilibrium open probability-voltage relationship, a common functional assay. We construct a reduced model with emergent parameters that are identifiable and expressed as combinations of the original mechanistic parameters. These emergent parameters indicate which coordinated changes in mechanistic parameters can leave assay output unchanged. We predict that these coordinated changes are used by allosteric macromolecules to adapt, and we demonstrate how this prediction can be tested experimentally. We show that these predicted parameter compensations are used in the first reported allosteric phenomena: the Bohr effect, by which hemoglobin adapts to varying pH. PMID:28416647

  3. Modular architecture of protein structures and allosteric communications: potential implications for signaling proteins and regulatory linkages

    PubMed Central

    del Sol, Antonio; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Amoros, Dolors; Nussinov, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Background Allosteric communications are vital for cellular signaling. Here we explore a relationship between protein architectural organization and shortcuts in signaling pathways. Results We show that protein domains consist of modules interconnected by residues that mediate signaling through the shortest pathways. These mediating residues tend to be located at the inter-modular boundaries, which are more rigid and display a larger number of long-range interactions than intra-modular regions. The inter-modular boundaries contain most of the residues centrally conserved in the protein fold, which may be crucial for information transfer between amino acids. Our approach to modular decomposition relies on a representation of protein structures as residue-interacting networks, and removal of the most central residue contacts, which are assumed to be crucial for allosteric communications. The modular decomposition of 100 multi-domain protein structures indicates that modules constitute the building blocks of domains. The analysis of 13 allosteric proteins revealed that modules characterize experimentally identified functional regions. Based on the study of an additional functionally annotated dataset of 115 proteins, we propose that high-modularity modules include functional sites and are the basic functional units. We provide examples (the Gαs subunit and P450 cytochromes) to illustrate that the modular architecture of active sites is linked to their functional specialization. Conclusion Our method decomposes protein structures into modules, allowing the study of signal transmission between functional sites. A modular configuration might be advantageous: it allows signaling proteins to expand their regulatory linkages and may elicit a broader range of control mechanisms either via modular combinations or through modulation of inter-modular linkages. PMID:17531094

  4. Characterization of plasticized PEO-PAM blend polymer electrolyte system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, Gargi; Kanchan, Dinesh

    2017-05-01

    Present study reports characterization studies of NaCF3SO3 based PEO-PAM Blend Polymer Electrolyte (BPE) system with varying amount of EC+PC as plasticizer prepared by solution cast technique. Structural analysis and surface topography have been performed using FTIR and SEM studies. To understand, thermal properties, DSC studies have been undertaken in the present paper

  5. Experimental study of PAM-4, CAP-16, and DMT for 100 Gb/s short reach optical transmission systems.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Kangping; Zhou, Xian; Gui, Tao; Tao, Li; Gao, Yuliang; Chen, Wei; Man, Jiangwei; Zeng, Li; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Lu, Chao

    2015-01-26

    Advanced modulation formats combined with digital signal processing and direct detection is a promising way to realize high capacity, low cost and power efficient short reach optical transmission system. In this paper, we present a detailed investigation on the performance of three advanced modulation formats for 100 Gb/s short reach transmission system. They are PAM-4, CAP-16 and DMT. The detailed digital signal processing required for each modulation format is presented. Comprehensive simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of each modulation format in terms of received optical power, transmitter bandwidth, relative intensity noise and thermal noise. The performance of each modulation format is also experimentally studied. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first demonstration of a 112 Gb/s transmission over 10km of SSMF employing single band CAP-16 with EML. Finally, a comparison of computational complexity of DSP for the three formats is presented.

  6. Neuronal activity patterns in the mediodorsal thalamus and related cognitive circuits are modulated by metabotropic glutamate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, C.S.; Neale, S.A.; Salt, T.E.

    2015-01-01

    The mediodorsal thalamus (MD) likely plays an important role in cognition as it receives abundant afferent connections from the amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Indeed, disturbed activity within the MD is thought to precipitate cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. As compounds acting at the Group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors (subtypes mGlu2/mGlu3) have efficacy in animal models of schizophrenia, we investigated whether a Group II agonist and an mGlu2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) could modulate MD activity. Extracellular single-unit recordings were made in vivo from MD neurones in anaesthetised rats. Responses were elicited by electrical stimulation of the PFC and/or amygdala, with Group II compounds locally applied as required. The Group II agonist reduced inhibition evoked in the MD: an effect manifested as an increase in short-latency responses, and a decrease in long-latency burst-firing. This disinhibitory action of the Group II receptors in the MD represents a mechanism of potential therapeutic importance as increased inhibition in the MD has been associated with cognitive deficit-onset. Furthermore, as co-application of the mGlu2 PAM did not potentiate the Group II agonist effects in the MD, we suggest that the Group II disinhibitory effect is majority-mediated via mGlu3. This heterogeneity in Group II receptor thalamic physiology bears consequence, as compounds active exclusively at the mGlu2 subtype are unlikely to perturb maladapted MD firing patterns associated with cognitive deficits, with activity at mGlu3 receptors possibly more appropriate. Indeed, polymorphisms in the mGlu3, but not the mGlu2, gene have been detected in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25576798

  7. Full duplex fiber link for alternative wired and wireless access based on SSB optical millimeter-wave with 4-PAM signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianxin; Zhang, Junjie

    2015-03-01

    A novel full-duplex fiber-wireless link based on single sideband (SSB) optical millimeter (mm)-wave with 10 Gbit/s 4-pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) signal is proposed to provide alternative wired and 40 GHz wireless accesses for the user terminals. The SSB optical mm-wave with 4-PAM signal consists of two tones: one bears the 4-PAM signal and the other is unmodulated with high power. After transmission over the fiber to the hybrid optical network unit (HONU), the SSB optical mm-wave signal can be decomposed by fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) as the SSB optical mm-wave signal with reduced carrier-to-sideband ratio (the baseband 4-PAM optical signal) and the uplink optical carrier for the wireless (wired) access. This makes the HONU free from the laser source. For the uplink, since the wireless access signal is converted to the baseband by power detection, both the transmitter in the HONU and the receiver in optical line terminal (OLT) are co-shared for both wireless and wired accesses, which makes the full duplex link much simpler. In our scheme, the optical electrical field of the square-root increment level 4-PAM signal assures an equal level spacing receiving for both the downlink wired and wireless accesses. Since the downlink wireless signal is down-converted to the baseband by power detection, RF local oscillator is unnecessary. To confirm the feasibility of our proposed scheme, a simulation full duplex link with 40 GHz SSB optical mm-wave with 10 Gbit/s 4-PAM signal is built. The simulation results show that both down- and up-links for either wired or wireless access can keep good performance even if the link length of the SSMF is extended to 40 km.

  8. Inverse effects of Polyacrylamide (PAM) usage in furrow irrigation on advance time and deep percolation.

    PubMed

    Meral, Ramazan; Cemek, Bilal; Apan, Mehmet; Merdun, Hasan

    2006-10-01

    The positive effects of Polyacrylamide (PAM), which is used as a soil conditioner in furrow irrigation, on sediment transport, erosion, and infiltration have been investigated intensively in recent years. However, the effects of PAM have not been considered enough in irrigation system planning and design. As a result of increased infiltration because of PAM, advance time may be inversely affected and deep percolation increases. However, advance time in furrow irrigation is a crucial parameter in order to get high application efficiency. In this study, inverse effects of PAM were discussed, and as an alternative solution, the applicability of surge flow was investigated. PAM application significantly increased the advance time at the rates of 41.3-56.3% in the first irrigation. The application of surge flow with PAM removed this negative effect on advance time, where there was no statistically significant difference according to normal continuous flow (without PAM). PAM applications significantly increased the deep percolation, 80.3-117.1%. Surge flow with PAM had significantly positive effect on the deep percolation compared to continuous flow with PAM but not compared to normal continuous flow. These results suggested that irrigation planning should me made based on the new soil and flow conditions because of PAM usage, and surge flow can be a solution to these problems.

  9. Are there physicochemical differences between allosteric and competitive ligands?

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Carlson, Heather A.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have compared the physicochemical properties of allosteric compounds to non-allosteric compounds. Those studies have found that allosteric compounds tend to be smaller, more rigid, more hydrophobic, and more drug-like than non-allosteric compounds. However, previous studies have not properly corrected for the fact that some protein targets have much more data than other systems. This generates concern regarding the possible skew that can be introduced by the inherent bias in the available data. Hence, this study aims to determine how robust the previous findings are to the addition of newer data. This study utilizes the Allosteric Database (ASD v3.0) and ChEMBL v20 to systematically obtain large datasets of both allosteric and competitive ligands. This dataset contains 70,219 and 9,511 unique ligands for the allosteric and competitive sets, respectively. Physically relevant compound descriptors were computed to examine the differences in their chemical properties. Particular attention was given to removing redundancy in the data and normalizing across ligand diversity and varied protein targets. The resulting distributions only show that allosteric ligands tend to be more aromatic and rigid and do not confirm the increase in hydrophobicity or difference in drug-likeness. These results are robust across different normalization schemes. PMID:29125840

  10. Targeting allosteric disulphide bonds in cancer.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Philip J

    2013-06-01

    Protein action in nature is generally controlled by the amount of protein produced and by chemical modification of the protein, and both are often perturbed in cancer. The amino acid side chains and the peptide and disulphide bonds that bind the polypeptide backbone can be post-translationally modified. Post-translational cleavage or the formation of disulphide bonds are now being identified in cancer-related proteins and it is timely to consider how these allosteric bonds could be targeted for new therapies.

  11. The toll-like receptor 2 agonist Pam3CSK4 is neuroprotective after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Stivers, Nicole S; Pelisch, Nicolas; Orem, Ben C; Williams, Joshua; Nally, Jacqueline M; Stirling, David P

    2017-08-01

    Microglia/macrophage activation and recruitment following spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with both detrimental and reparative functions. Stimulation of the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) has shown to be beneficial following SCI, and it increases axonal regeneration following optic nerve crush. However, the mechanism(s) remain unclear. As microglia express high levels of TLR2, we hypothesized that modulating the microglial response to injury using a specific TLR2 agonist, Pam3CSK4, would prevent secondary-mediated white matter degeneration following SCI. To test this hypothesis, we documented acute changes in microglia, axons, and oligodendroglia over time using two-photon excitation and an ex vivo laser-induced SCI (LiSCI) model. We utilized double transgenic mice that express GFP in either microglia or oligodendroglia, and YFP in axons, and we applied the lipophilic fluorescent dye (Nile Red) to visualize myelin. We found that treatment with Pam3CSK4 initiated one hour after injury induced a significant increase in the extent and timing of the microglial response to injury compared to vehicle controls. This enhanced response was observed 2 to 4h following SCI and was most prominent in areas closer to the ablation site. In addition, Pam3CSK4 treatment significantly reduced axonal dieback rostral and caudal to the ablation at 6h post-SCI. This protective effect of Pam3CSK4 was also mirrored when assessing secondary bystander axonal damage (i.e., axons spared by the primary injury that then succumb to secondary degeneration), and when assessing the survival of oligodendroglia. Following these imaging experiments, custom microarray analysis of the ex vivo spinal cord preparations revealed that Pam3CSK4-treatment induced an alternative (mixed M1:M2) microglial activation profile. In summary, our data suggest that by providing a second "sterile" activation signal to microglia through TLR2/TLR1 signaling, the microglial response to injury can

  12. Targeting S-adenosylmethionine biosynthesis with a novel allosteric inhibitor of Mat2A

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, Casey L.; Kaiser, Stephen E.; Bolaños, Ben

    S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) is an enzyme cofactor used in methyl transfer reactions and polyamine biosynthesis. The biosynthesis of SAM from ATP and L-methionine is performed by the methionine adenosyltransferase enzyme family (Mat; EC 2.5.1.6). Human methionine adenosyltransferase 2A (Mat2A), the extrahepatic isoform, is often deregulated in cancer. We identified a Mat2A inhibitor, PF-9366, that binds an allosteric site on Mat2A that overlaps with the binding site for the Mat2A regulator, Mat2B. Studies exploiting PF-9366 suggested a general mode of Mat2A allosteric regulation. Allosteric binding of PF-9366 or Mat2B altered the Mat2A active site, resulting in increased substrate affinity and decreased enzymemore » turnover. These data support a model whereby Mat2B functions as an inhibitor of Mat2A activity when methionine or SAM levels are high, yet functions as an activator of Mat2A when methionine or SAM levels are low. The ramification of Mat2A activity modulation in cancer cells is also described.« less

  13. Identification of an allosteric binding site for RORγt inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Scheepstra, Marcel; Leysen, Seppe; van Almen, Geert C.; Miller, J. Richard; Piesvaux, Jennifer; Kutilek, Victoria; van Eenennaam, Hans; Zhang, Hongjun; Barr, Kenneth; Nagpal, Sunil; Soisson, Stephen M.; Kornienko, Maria; Wiley, Kristen; Elsen, Nathaniel; Sharma, Sujata; Correll, Craig C.; Trotter, B. Wesley; van der Stelt, Mario; Oubrie, Arthur; Ottmann, Christian; Parthasarathy, Gopal; Brunsveld, Luc

    2015-01-01

    RORγt is critical for the differentiation and proliferation of Th17 cells associated with several chronic autoimmune diseases. We report the discovery of a novel allosteric binding site on the nuclear receptor RORγt. Co-crystallization of the ligand binding domain (LBD) of RORγt with a series of small-molecule antagonists demonstrates occupancy of a previously unreported allosteric binding pocket. Binding at this non-canonical site induces an unprecedented conformational reorientation of helix 12 in the RORγt LBD, which blocks cofactor binding. The functional consequence of this allosteric ligand-mediated conformation is inhibition of function as evidenced by both biochemical and cellular studies. RORγt function is thus antagonized in a manner molecularly distinct from that of previously described orthosteric RORγt ligands. This brings forward an approach to target RORγt for the treatment of Th17-mediated autoimmune diseases. The elucidation of an unprecedented modality of pharmacological antagonism establishes a mechanism for modulation of nuclear receptors. PMID:26640126

  14. Electrostatic Interactions as Mediators in the Allosteric Activation of Protein Kinase A RIα.

    PubMed

    P Barros, Emília; Malmstrom, Robert D; Nourbakhsh, Kimya; Del Rio, Jason C; Kornev, Alexandr P; Taylor, Susan S; Amaro, Rommie E

    2017-03-14

    Close-range electrostatic interactions that form salt bridges are key components of protein stability. Here we investigate the role of these charged interactions in modulating the allosteric activation of protein kinase A (PKA) via computational and experimental mutational studies of a conserved basic patch located in the regulatory subunit's B/C helix. Molecular dynamics simulations evidenced the presence of an extended network of fluctuating salt bridges spanning the helix and connecting the two cAMP binding domains in its extremities. Distinct changes in the flexibility and conformational free energy landscape induced by the separate mutations of Arg239 and Arg241 suggested alteration of cAMP-induced allosteric activation and were verified through in vitro fluorescence polarization assays. These observations suggest a mechanical aspect to the allosteric transition of PKA, with Arg239 and Arg241 acting in competition to promote the transition between the two protein functional states. The simulations also provide a molecular explanation for the essential role of Arg241 in allowing cooperative activation, by evidencing the existence of a stable interdomain salt bridge with Asp267. Our integrated approach points to the role of salt bridges not only in protein stability but also in promoting conformational transition and function.

  15. Mechanistic insights into the allosteric regulation of bacterial ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases

    PubMed Central

    Comino, Natalia; Cifuente, Javier O.; Marina, Alberto; Orrantia, Ane; Eguskiza, Ander; Guerin, Marcelo E.

    2017-01-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) controls bacterial glycogen and plant starch biosynthetic pathways, the most common carbon storage polysaccharides in nature. AGPase activity is allosterically regulated by a series of metabolites in the energetic flux within the cell. Very recently, we reported the first crystal structures of the paradigmatic AGPase from Escherichia coli (EcAGPase) in complex with its preferred physiological negative and positive allosteric regulators, adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP) and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), respectively. However, understanding the molecular mechanism by which AMP and FBP allosterically modulates EcAGPase enzymatic activity still remains enigmatic. Here we found that single point mutations of key residues in the AMP-binding site decrease its inhibitory effect but also clearly abolish the overall AMP-mediated stabilization effect in wild-type EcAGPase. Single point mutations of key residues for FBP binding did not revert the AMP-mediated stabilization. Strikingly, an EcAGPase-R130A mutant displayed a dramatic increase in activity when compared with wild-type EcAGPase, and this increase correlated with a significant increment of glycogen content in vivo. The crystal structure of EcAGPase-R130A revealed unprecedented conformational changes in structural elements involved in the allosteric signal transmission. Altogether, we propose a model in which the positive and negative energy reporters regulate AGPase catalytic activity via intra- and interprotomer cross-talk, with a “sensory motif” and two loops, RL1 and RL2, flanking the ATP-binding site playing a significant role. The information reported herein provides exciting possibilities for industrial/biotechnological applications. PMID:28223362

  16. Allosteric regulation by oleamide of the binding properties of 5-hydroxytryptamine7 receptors.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, P B; Carson, M J; Sutcliffe, J G; Thomas, E A

    1999-12-01

    Oleamide belongs to a family of amidated lipids with diverse biological activities, including sleep induction and signaling modulation of several 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor subtypes, including 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A/2C, and 5-HT7. The 5-HT7 receptor, predominantly localized in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and frontal cortex, stimulates cyclic AMP formation and is thought to be involved in the regulation of sleep-wake cycles. Recently, it was proposed that oleamide acts at an allosteric site on the 5-HT7 receptor to regulate cyclic AMP formation. We have further investigated the interaction between oleamide and 5-HT7 receptors by performing radioligand binding assays with HeLa cells transfected with the 5-HT7 receptor. Methiothepin, clozapine, and 5-HT all displaced specific [3H]5-HT (100 nM) binding, with pK(D) values of 7.55, 7.85, and 8.39, respectively. Oleamide also displaced [3H]5-HT binding, but the maximum inhibition was only 40% of the binding. Taking allosteric (see below) cooperativity into account, a K(D) of 2.69 nM was calculated for oleamide. In saturation binding experiments, oleamide caused a 3-fold decrease in the affinity of [3H]5-HT for the 5-HT7 receptor, without affecting the number of binding sites. A Schild analysis showed that the induced shift in affinity of [3H]5-HT reached a plateau, unlike that of a competitive inhibitor, illustrating the allosteric nature of the interaction between oleamide and the 5-HT7 receptor. Oleic acid, the product of oleamide hydrolysis, had a similar effect on [3H]5-HT binding, whereas structural analogs of oleamide, trans-9,10-octadecenamide, cis-8,9-octadecenamide, and erucamide, did not alter [3H]5-HT binding significantly. The findings support the hypothesis that oleamide acts via an allosteric site on the 5-HT7 receptor regulating receptor affinity.

  17. Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 1 Is Regulated by Its N-Terminal Domain in Response to Allosteric Effectors.

    PubMed

    Caldo, Kristian Mark P; Acedo, Jeella Z; Panigrahi, Rashmi; Vederas, John C; Weselake, Randall J; Lemieux, M Joanne

    2017-10-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) is an integral membrane enzyme catalyzing the final and committed step in the acyl-coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent biosynthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG). The biochemical regulation of TAG assembly remains one of the least understood areas of primary metabolism to date. Here, we report that the hydrophilic N-terminal domain of Brassica napus DGAT1 (BnaDGAT1 1-113 ) regulates activity based on acyl-CoA/CoA levels. The N-terminal domain is not necessary for acyltransferase activity and is composed of an intrinsically disordered region and a folded segment. We show that the disordered region has an autoinhibitory function and a dimerization interface, which appears to mediate positive cooperativity, whereas the folded segment of the cytosolic region was found to have an allosteric site for acyl-CoA/CoA. Under increasing acyl-CoA levels, the binding of acyl-CoA with this noncatalytic site facilitates homotropic allosteric activation. Enzyme activation, on the other hand, is prevented under limiting acyl-CoA conditions (low acyl-CoA-to-CoA ratio), whereby CoA acts as a noncompetitive feedback inhibitor through interaction with the same folded segment. The three-dimensional NMR solution structure of the allosteric site revealed an α-helix with a loop connecting a coil fragment. The conserved amino acid residues in the loop interacting with CoA were identified, revealing details of this important regulatory element for allosteric regulation. Based on these results, a model is proposed illustrating the role of the N-terminal domain of BnaDGAT1 as a positive and negative modulator of TAG biosynthesis. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Allosteric Regulation of E-Cadherin Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Shashikanth, Nitesh; Petrova, Yuliya I; Park, Seongjin; Chekan, Jillian; Maiden, Stephanie; Spano, Martha; Ha, Taekjip; Gumbiner, Barry M; Leckband, Deborah E

    2015-08-28

    Cadherins are transmembrane adhesion proteins that maintain intercellular cohesion in all tissues, and their rapid regulation is essential for organized tissue remodeling. Despite some evidence that cadherin adhesion might be allosterically regulated, testing of this has been hindered by the difficulty of quantifying altered E-cadherin binding affinity caused by perturbations outside the ectodomain binding site. Here, measured kinetics of cadherin-mediated intercellular adhesion demonstrated quantitatively that treatment with activating, anti-E-cadherin antibodies or the dephosphorylation of a cytoplasmic binding partner, p120(ctn), increased the homophilic binding affinity of E-cadherin. Results obtained with Colo 205 cells, which express inactive E-cadherin and do not aggregate, demonstrated that four treatments, which induced Colo 205 aggregation and p120(ctn) dephosphorylation, triggered quantitatively similar increases in E-cadherin affinity. Several processes can alter cell aggregation, but these results directly demonstrated the allosteric regulation of cell surface E-cadherin by p120(ctn) dephosphorylation. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Functional anatomy of an allosteric protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, Prasad; Gupta, Shaweta; Jadey, Snehal; Auerbach, Anthony

    2013-12-01

    Synaptic receptors are allosteric proteins that switch on and off to regulate cell signalling. Here, we use single-channel electrophysiology to measure and map energy changes in the gating conformational change of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Two separated regions in the α-subunits—the transmitter-binding sites and αM2-αM3 linkers in the membrane domain—have the highest ϕ-values (change conformation the earliest), followed by the extracellular domain, most of the membrane domain and the gate. Large gating-energy changes occur at the transmitter-binding sites, α-subunit interfaces, the αM1 helix and the gate. We hypothesize that rearrangements of the linkers trigger the global allosteric transition, and that the hydrophobic gate unlocks in three steps. The mostly local character of side-chain energy changes and the similarly high ϕ-values of separated domains, both with and without ligands, suggest that gating is not strictly a mechanical process initiated by the affinity change for the agonist.

  20. Allosteric Effect of Adenosine Triphosphate on Peptide Recognition by 3'5'-Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits.

    PubMed

    Kivi, Rait; Solovjova, Karina; Haljasorg, Tõiv; Arukuusk, Piret; Järv, Jaak

    2016-12-01

    The allosteric influence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) on the binding effectiveness of a series of peptide inhibitors with the catalytic subunit of 3'5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate dependent protein kinase was investigated, and the dependence of this effect on peptide structure was analyzed. The allosteric effect was calculated as ratio of peptide binding effectiveness with the enzyme-ATP complex and with the free enzyme, quantified by the competitive inhibition of the enzyme in the presence of ATP excess, and by the enzyme-peptide complex denaturation assay, respectively It was found that the principle "better binding-stronger allostery" holds for interactions of the studied peptides with the enzyme, indicating that allostery and peptide binding with the free enzyme are governed by the same specificity pattern. This means that the allosteric regulation does not include new ligand-protein interactions, but changes the intensity (strength) of the interatomic forces that govern the complex formation in the case of each individual ligand. We propose that the allosteric regulation can be explained by the alteration of the intrinsic dynamics of the protein by ligand binding, and that this phenomenon, in turn, modulates the ligand off-rate from its binding site as well as the binding affinity. The positive allostery could therefore be induced by a reduction in the enzyme's overall intrinsic dynamics.

  1. Emerging Computational Methods for the Rational Discovery of Allosteric Drugs

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Allosteric drug development holds promise for delivering medicines that are more selective and less toxic than those that target orthosteric sites. To date, the discovery of allosteric binding sites and lead compounds has been mostly serendipitous, achieved through high-throughput screening. Over the past decade, structural data has become more readily available for larger protein systems and more membrane protein classes (e.g., GPCRs and ion channels), which are common allosteric drug targets. In parallel, improved simulation methods now provide better atomistic understanding of the protein dynamics and cooperative motions that are critical to allosteric mechanisms. As a result of these advances, the field of predictive allosteric drug development is now on the cusp of a new era of rational structure-based computational methods. Here, we review algorithms that predict allosteric sites based on sequence data and molecular dynamics simulations, describe tools that assess the druggability of these pockets, and discuss how Markov state models and topology analyses provide insight into the relationship between protein dynamics and allosteric drug binding. In each section, we first provide an overview of the various method classes before describing relevant algorithms and software packages. PMID:27074285

  2. Emerging Computational Methods for the Rational Discovery of Allosteric Drugs.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Jeffrey R; Lee, Christopher T; Durrant, Jacob D; Malmstrom, Robert D; Feher, Victoria A; Amaro, Rommie E

    2016-06-08

    Allosteric drug development holds promise for delivering medicines that are more selective and less toxic than those that target orthosteric sites. To date, the discovery of allosteric binding sites and lead compounds has been mostly serendipitous, achieved through high-throughput screening. Over the past decade, structural data has become more readily available for larger protein systems and more membrane protein classes (e.g., GPCRs and ion channels), which are common allosteric drug targets. In parallel, improved simulation methods now provide better atomistic understanding of the protein dynamics and cooperative motions that are critical to allosteric mechanisms. As a result of these advances, the field of predictive allosteric drug development is now on the cusp of a new era of rational structure-based computational methods. Here, we review algorithms that predict allosteric sites based on sequence data and molecular dynamics simulations, describe tools that assess the druggability of these pockets, and discuss how Markov state models and topology analyses provide insight into the relationship between protein dynamics and allosteric drug binding. In each section, we first provide an overview of the various method classes before describing relevant algorithms and software packages.

  3. A study on contraction of pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) for load-lifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najmuddin, W. S. W. A.; Mustaffa, M. T.

    2017-10-01

    Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAMs) have been known for its wide application in various aspects of industrial automation and robotic equipments. Many advantages in terms of high power-to-volume ratio, high power-to-weight ratio, stick-slip-free operation and high degree of safety offer by PAM compare to traditional actuators. However, behind this benefits lie a limitation of significant compatibility of PAM mechanism which have to be considered so as to fully understand how the PAM works during load-lifting. In this study, the mesh suitability experiment and the effect of force load on PAM contraction experiment have been carried out. PAM is constructed and compatibility of bladder and the braided mesh to produce uniform expansion is investigated. Moreover, the first experimental result of finding compatibility is used to verify the contraction value under various loads.

  4. The GABA(B) receptor positive modulator BHF177 attenuated anxiety, but not conditioned fear, in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Kaczanowska, Katarzyna; Finn, M G; Markou, Athina; Risbrough, Victoria B

    2015-10-01

    GABAB (γ-aminobutyric acid B) receptors may be a therapeutic target for anxiety disorders. Here we characterized the effects of the GABAB receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM) BHF177 on conditioned and unconditioned physiological responses to threat in the light-enhanced startle (LES), stress-induced hyperthermia, and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) procedures in rats. The effects of BHF177 on LES were compared with those of the GABAB receptor agonists baclofen and CGP44532, and the positive control buspirone, a 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist with anxiolytic activity in humans. Baclofen (0.4, 0.9 and 1.25 mg/kg) and CGP44532 (0.065, 0.125 and 0.25 mg/kg) administration had significant sedative, but not anxiolytic, activity reflected in overall decrease in the startle response in the LES tests. BHF177 (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) had no effect on LES, nor did it produce an overall sedative effect. Interesting, however, when rats were grouped by high and low LES responses, BHF177 had anxiolytic-like effects only on LES in high, but not low, LES responding rats. BHF177 also blocked stress-induced hyperthermia, but had no effect on conditioned fear responses in the FPS test. Buspirone (1 and 3 mg/kg) had an anxiolytic-like profile in both LES and FPS tests. These results indicate that BHF177 may specifically attenuate unconditioned anxiety in individuals that exhibit a high anxiety state, and has fewer sedative effects than direct agonists. Thus, BHF177 or other GABAB receptor PAMs may be promising compounds for alleviating increased anxiety seen in various psychiatric disorders with a superior side-effect profile compared to GABAB receptor agonists. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Allosteric interactions between agonists and antagonists within the adenosine A2A receptor-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer

    PubMed Central

    Bonaventura, Jordi; Navarro, Gemma; Casadó-Anguera, Verònica; Azdad, Karima; Rea, William; Moreno, Estefanía; Brugarolas, Marc; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I.; Lluís, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Volkow, Nora D.; Schiffmann, Serge N.; Ferré, Sergi; Casadó, Vicent

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromers are key modulators of striatal neuronal function. It has been suggested that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine depend on its ability to block an allosteric modulation within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, by which adenosine decreases the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of dopamine at the D2R. We describe novel unsuspected allosteric mechanisms within the heteromer by which not only A2AR agonists, but also A2AR antagonists, decrease the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of D2R agonists and the affinity of D2R antagonists. Strikingly, these allosteric modulations disappear on agonist and antagonist coadministration. This can be explained by a model that considers A2AR-D2R heteromers as heterotetramers, constituted by A2AR and D2R homodimers, as demonstrated by experiments with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence and bioluminescence complementation. As predicted by the model, high concentrations of A2AR antagonists behaved as A2AR agonists and decreased D2R function in the brain. PMID:26100888

  6. Allosteric interactions between agonists and antagonists within the adenosine A2A receptor-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer.

    PubMed

    Bonaventura, Jordi; Navarro, Gemma; Casadó-Anguera, Verònica; Azdad, Karima; Rea, William; Moreno, Estefanía; Brugarolas, Marc; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Volkow, Nora D; Schiffmann, Serge N; Ferré, Sergi; Casadó, Vicent

    2015-07-07

    Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromers are key modulators of striatal neuronal function. It has been suggested that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine depend on its ability to block an allosteric modulation within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, by which adenosine decreases the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of dopamine at the D2R. We describe novel unsuspected allosteric mechanisms within the heteromer by which not only A2AR agonists, but also A2AR antagonists, decrease the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of D2R agonists and the affinity of D2R antagonists. Strikingly, these allosteric modulations disappear on agonist and antagonist coadministration. This can be explained by a model that considers A2AR-D2R heteromers as heterotetramers, constituted by A2AR and D2R homodimers, as demonstrated by experiments with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence and bioluminescence complementation. As predicted by the model, high concentrations of A2AR antagonists behaved as A2AR agonists and decreased D2R function in the brain.

  7. An atomistic view of Hsp70 allosteric crosstalk: from the nucleotide to the substrate binding domain and back

    PubMed Central

    Chiappori, Federica; Merelli, Ivan; Milanesi, Luciano; Colombo, Giorgio; Morra, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    The Hsp70 is an allosterically regulated family of molecular chaperones. They consist of two structural domains, NBD and SBD, connected by a flexible linker. ATP hydrolysis at the NBD modulates substrate recognition at the SBD, while peptide binding at the SBD enhances ATP hydrolysis. In this study we apply Molecular Dynamics (MD) to elucidate the molecular determinants underlying the allosteric communication from the NBD to the SBD and back. We observe that local structural and dynamical modulation can be coupled to large-scale rearrangements, and that different combinations of ligands at NBD and SBD differently affect the SBD domain mobility. Substituting ADP with ATP in the NBD induces specific structural changes involving the linker and the two NBD lobes. Also, a SBD-bound peptide drives the linker docking by increasing the local dynamical coordination of its C-terminal end: a partially docked DnaK structure is achieved by combining ATP in the NBD and peptide in the SBD. We propose that the MD-based analysis of the inter domain dynamics and structure modulation could be used as a tool to computationally predict the allosteric behaviour and functional response of Hsp70 upon introducing mutations or binding small molecules, with potential applications for drug discovery. PMID:27025773

  8. Mapping Cannabinoid 1 Receptor Allosteric Site(s): Critical Molecular Determinant and Signaling Profile of GAT100, a Novel, Potent, and Irreversibly Binding Probe.

    PubMed

    Laprairie, Robert B; Kulkarni, Abhijit R; Kulkarni, Pushkar M; Hurst, Dow P; Lynch, Diane; Reggio, Patricia H; Janero, David R; Pertwee, Roger G; Stevenson, Lesley A; Kelly, Melanie E M; Denovan-Wright, Eileen M; Thakur, Ganesh A

    2016-06-15

    One of the most abundant G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in brain, the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R), is a tractable therapeutic target for treating diverse psychobehavioral and somatic disorders. Adverse on-target effects associated with small-molecule CB1R orthosteric agonists and inverse agonists/antagonists have plagued their translational potential. Allosteric CB1R modulators offer a potentially safer modality through which CB1R signaling may be directed for therapeutic benefit. Rational design of candidate, druglike CB1R allosteric modulators requires greater understanding of the architecture of the CB1R allosteric endodomain(s) and the capacity of CB1R allosteric ligands to tune the receptor's information output. We have recently reported the synthesis of a focused library of rationally designed, covalent analogues of Org27569 and PSNCBAM-1, two prototypic CB1R negative allosteric modulators (NAMs). Among the novel, pharmacologically active CB1R NAMs reported, the isothiocyanate GAT100 emerged as the lead by virtue of its exceptional potency in the [(35)S]GTPγS and β-arrestin signaling assays and its ability to label CB1R as a covalent allosteric probe with significantly reduced inverse agonism in the [(35)S]GTPγS assay as compared to Org27569. We report here a comprehensive functional profiling of GAT100 across an array of important downstream cell-signaling pathways and analysis of its potential orthosteric probe-dependence and signaling bias. The results demonstrate that GAT100 is a NAM of the orthosteric CB1R agonist CP55,940 and the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide for β-arrestin1 recruitment, PLCβ3 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, cAMP accumulation, and CB1R internalization in HEK293A cells overexpressing CB1R and in Neuro2a and STHdh(Q7/Q7) cells endogenously expressing CB1R. Distinctively, GAT100 was a more potent and efficacious CB1R NAM than Org27569 and PSNCBAM-1 in all signaling assays and did not exhibit the inverse

  9. Cardiolipin modulates allosterically peroxynitrite detoxification by horse heart cytochrome c

    SciTech Connect

    Ascenzi, Paolo, E-mail: ascenzi@uniroma3.it; Ciaccio, Chiara; Interuniversity Consortium for the Research on the Chemistry of Metals in Biological Systems, I-70126 Bari

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Cardiolipin binding to cytochrome c. {yields} Cardiolipin-dependent peroxynitrite isomerization by cytochrome c. {yields} Cardiolipin-cytochrome c complex plays pro-apoptotic effects. {yields} Cardiolipin-cytochrome c complex plays anti-apoptotic effects. -- Abstract: Upon interaction with bovine heart cardiolipin (CL), horse heart cytochrome c (cytc) changes its tertiary structure disrupting the heme-Fe-Met80 distal bond, reduces drastically the midpoint potential out of the range required for its physiological role, binds CO and NO with high affinity, and displays peroxidase activity. Here, the effect of CL on peroxynitrite isomerization by ferric cytc (cytc-Fe(III)) is reported. In the absence of CL, hexa-coordinated cytc does notmore » catalyze peroxynitrite isomerization. In contrast, CL facilitates cytc-Fe(III)-mediated isomerization of peroxynitrite in a dose-dependent fashion inducing the penta-coordination of the heme-Fe(III)-atom. The value of the second order rate constant for CL-cytc-Fe(III)-mediated isomerization of peroxynitrite (k{sub on}) is (3.2 {+-} 0.4) x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The apparent dissociation equilibrium constant for CL binding to cytc-Fe(III) is (5.1 {+-} 0.8) x 10{sup -5} M. These results suggest that CL-cytc could play either pro-apoptotic or anti-apoptotic effects facilitating lipid peroxidation and scavenging of reactive nitrogen species, such as peroxynitrite, respectively.« less

  10. Hotspots for allosteric regulation on protein surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Kimberly A.; McLaughlin, Richard N.; Ranganathan, Rama

    2012-01-01

    Recent work indicates a general architecture for proteins in which sparse networks of physically contiguous and co-evolving amino acids underlie basic aspects of structure and function. These networks, termed sectors, are spatially organized such that active sites are linked to many surface sites distributed throughout the structure. Using the metabolic enzyme dihydrofolate reductase as a model system, we show that (1) the sector is strongly correlated to a network of residues undergoing millisecond conformational fluctuations associated with enzyme catalysis and (2) sector-connected surface sites are statistically preferred locations for the emergence of allosteric control in vivo. Thus, sectors represent an evolutionarily conserved “wiring” mechanism that can enable perturbations at specific surface positions to rapidly initiate conformational control over protein function. These findings suggest that sectors enable the evolution of intermolecular communication and regulation. PMID:22196731

  11. Allosteric Inhibition of Human Porphobilinogen Synthase*

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Sarah H.; Ramirez, Ursula D.; Selwood, Trevor; Stith, Linda; Jaffe, Eileen K.

    2009-01-01

    Porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS) catalyzes the first common step in tetrapyrrole (e.g. heme, chlorophyll) biosynthesis. Human PBGS exists as an equilibrium of high activity octamers, low activity hexamers, and alternate dimer configurations that dictate the stoichiometry and architecture of further assembly. It is posited that small molecules can be found that inhibit human PBGS activity by stabilizing the hexamer. Such molecules, if present in the environment, could potentiate disease states associated with reduced PBGS activity, such as lead poisoning and ALAD porphyria, the latter of which is associated with human PBGS variants whose quaternary structure equilibrium is shifted toward the hexamer (Jaffe, E. K., and Stith, L. (2007) Am. J. Hum. Genet. 80, 329–337). Hexamer-stabilizing inhibitors of human PBGS were identified using in silico prescreening (docking) of ∼111,000 structures to a hexamer-specific surface cavity of a human PBGS crystal structure. Seventy-seven compounds were evaluated in vitro; three provided 90–100% conversion of octamer to hexamer in a native PAGE mobility shift assay. Based on chemical purity, two (ML-3A9 and ML-3H2) were subjected to further evaluation of their effect on the quaternary structure equilibrium and enzymatic activity. Naturally occurring ALAD porphyria-associated human PBGS variants are shown to have an increased susceptibility to inhibition by both ML-3A9 and ML-3H2. ML-3H2 is a structural analog of amebicidal drugs, which have porphyria-like side effects. Data support the hypothesis that human PBGS hexamer stabilization may explain these side effects. The current work identifies allosteric ligands of human PBGS and, thus, identifies human PBGS as a medically relevant allosteric enzyme. PMID:19812033

  12. An allosteric model of the molecular interactions of excitation- contraction coupling in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    A contact interaction is proposed to exist between the voltage sensor of the transverse tubular membrane of skeletal muscle and the calcium release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This interaction is given a quantitative formulation inspired in the Monod, Wyman, and Changeux model of allosteric transitions in hemoglobin (Monod, J., J. Wyman, and J.-P. Changeux. 1965. Journal of Molecular Biology. 12:88- 118), and analogous to one proposed by Marks and Jones for voltage- dependent Ca channels (Marks, T. N., and S. W. Jones. 1992. Journal of General Physiology. 99:367-390). The allosteric protein is the calcium release channel, a homotetramer, with two accessible states, closed and open. The kinetics and equilibrium of this transition are modulated by voltage sensors (dihydropyridine receptors) pictured as four units per release channel, each undergoing independent voltage-driven transitions between two states (resting and activating). For each voltage sensor that moves to the activating state, the tendency of the channel to open increases by an equal (large) factor. The equilibrium and kinetic equations of the model are solved and shown to reproduce well a number of experimentally measured relationships including: charge movement (Q) vs. voltage, open probability of the release channel (Po) vs. voltage, the transfer function relationship Po vs. Q, and the kinetics of charge movement, release activation, and deactivation. The main consequence of the assumption of allosteric coupling is that primary effects on the release channel are transmitted backward to the voltage sensor and give secondary effects. Thus, the model reproduces well the effects of perchlorate, described in the two previous articles, under the assumption that the primary effect is to increase the intrinsic tendency of the release channel to open, with no direct effects on the voltage sensor. This modification of the open-closed equilibrium of the release channel causes a shift in the

  13. Conopeptide ρ-TIA defines a new allosteric site on the extracellular surface of the α1B-adrenoceptor.

    PubMed

    Ragnarsson, Lotten; Wang, Ching-I Anderson; Andersson, Åsa; Fajarningsih, Dewi; Monks, Thea; Brust, Andreas; Rosengren, K Johan; Lewis, Richard J

    2013-01-18

    The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily is an important drug target that includes over 1000 membrane receptors that functionally couple extracellular stimuli to intracellular effectors. Despite the potential of extracellular surface (ECS) residues in GPCRs to interact with subtype-specific allosteric modulators, few ECS pharmacophores for class A receptors have been identified. Using the turkey β(1)-adrenergic receptor crystal structure, we modeled the α(1B)-adrenoceptor (α(1B)-AR) to help identify the allosteric site for ρ-conopeptide TIA, an inverse agonist at this receptor. Combining mutational radioligand binding and inositol 1-phosphate signaling studies, together with molecular docking simulations using a refined NMR structure of ρ-TIA, we identified 14 residues on the ECS of the α(1B)-AR that influenced ρ-TIA binding. Double mutant cycle analysis and docking confirmed that ρ-TIA binding was dominated by a salt bridge and cation-π between Arg-4-ρ-TIA and Asp-327 and Phe-330, respectively, and a T-stacking-π interaction between Trp-3-ρ-TIA and Phe-330. Water-bridging hydrogen bonds between Asn-2-ρ-TIA and Val-197, Trp-3-ρ-TIA and Ser-318, and the positively charged N terminus and Glu-186, were also identified. These interactions reveal that peptide binding to the ECS on transmembrane helix 6 (TMH6) and TMH7 at the base of extracellular loop 3 (ECL3) is sufficient to allosterically inhibit agonist signaling at a GPCR. The ligand-accessible ECS residues identified provide the first view of an allosteric inhibitor pharmacophore for α(1)-adrenoceptors and mechanistic insight and a new set of structural constraints for the design of allosteric antagonists at related GPCRs.

  14. Consequences of Energetic Frustration on the Ligand-Coupled Folding/Dimerization Dynamics of Allosteric Protein S100A12.

    PubMed

    Ren, Weitong; Li, Wenfei; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Wei

    2017-10-26

    Allosteric proteins are featured by energetic degeneracy of two (or more) functionally relevant conformations, therefore their energy landscapes are often locally frustrated. How such frustration affects the protein folding/binding dynamics is not well understood. Here, by using molecular simulations we study the consequences of local frustration in the dimerization dynamics of allosteric proteins based on a homodimer protein S100A12. Despite of the structural symmetry of the two EF-hand motifs in the three-dimensional structures, the S100A12 homodimer shows allosteric behaviors and local frustration only in half of its structural elements, i.e., the C-terminal EF-hand. We showed that such spatially asymmetric location of frustration leads to asymmetric dimerization pathways, in which the dimerization is dominantly initiated by the interchain binding of the minimally frustrated N-terminal EF-hands, achieving optimal balance between the requirements of rapid conformational switching and interchain assembling to the energy landscapes. We also showed that the local frustration, as represented by the double-basin topography of the energy landscape, gives rise to multiple cross-linked dimerization pathways, in which the dimerization is coupled with the allosteric motions of the C-terminal EF-hands. Binding of metal ions tends to reshape the energy landscape and modulate the dimerization pathways. In addition, by employing the frustratometer method, we showed that the highly frustrated residue-pairs in the C-terminal EF-hand are partially unfolded during the conformational transitions of the native homodimer, leading to lowing of free energy barrier. Our results revealed tight interplay between the local frustration of the energy landscape and the dimerization dynamics for allosteric proteins.

  15. Ligand Binding to Macromolecules: Allosteric and Sequential Models of Cooperativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, V. L.; Szabo, Attila

    1979-01-01

    A simple model is described for the binding of ligands to macromolecules. The model is applied to the cooperative binding by hemoglobin and aspartate transcarbamylase. The sequential and allosteric models of cooperative binding are considered. (BB)

  16. Structural insight to mutation effects uncover a common allosteric site in class C GPCRs.

    PubMed

    Harpsøe, Kasper; Boesgaard, Michael W; Munk, Christian; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Gloriam, David E

    2017-04-15

    Class C G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate important physiological functions and allosteric modulators binding to the transmembrane domain constitute an attractive and, due to a lack of structural insight, a virtually unexplored potential for therapeutics and the food industry. Combining pharmacological site-directed mutagenesis data with the recent class C GPCR experimental structures will provide a foundation for rational design of new therapeutics. We uncover one common site for both positive and negative modulators with different amino acid layouts that can be utilized to obtain selectivity. Additionally, we show a large potential for structure-based modulator design, especially for four orphan receptors with high similarity to the crystal structures. All collated mutagenesis data is available in the GPCRdb mutation browser at http://gpcrdb.org/mutations/ and can be analyzed online or downloaded in excel format. david.gloriam@sund.ku.dk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. User Instructions for the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS)

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.; Van Buskirk, Robert D.

    PAMS uses country-specific and product-specific data to calculate estimates of impacts of a Minimum Efficiency Performance Standard (MEPS) program. The analysis tool is self-contained in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, and requires no links to external data, or special code additions to run. The analysis can be customized to a particular program without additional user input, through the use of the pull-down menus located on the Summary page. In addition, the spreadsheet contains many areas into which user-generated input data can be entered for increased accuracy of projection. The following is a step-by-step guide for using and customizing the tool.

  18. Differentiation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma from chronic pancreatitis by PAM4 immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chanjuan; Merchant, Nipun; Newsome, Guy; Goldenberg, David M; Gold, David V

    2014-02-01

    PAM4 is a monoclonal antibody that shows high specificity for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and its neoplastic precursor lesions. A PAM4-based serum immunoassay is able to detect 71% of early-stage patients and 91% with advanced disease. However, approximately 20% of patients diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis (CP) are also positive for circulating PAM4 antigen. The specificity of the PAM4 antibody is critical to the interpretation of the serum-based and immunohistochemical assays for detection of PDAC. To determine whether PAM4 can differentiate PDAC from nonneoplastic lesions of the pancreas. Tissue microarrays of PDAC (N = 43) and surgical specimens from CP (N = 32) and benign cystic lesions (N = 19) were evaluated for expression of the PAM4 biomarker, MUC1, MUC4, CEACAM5/6, and CA19-9. PAM4 and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to MUC1, MUC4, CEACAM5/6, and CA19-9 were each reactive with the majority of PDAC cases; however, PAM4 was the only monoclonal antibody not to react with adjacent, nonneoplastic parenchyma. Although PAM4 labeled 19% (6 of 32) of CP specimens, reactivity was restricted to pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia associated with CP; inflamed tissues were negative in all cases. In contrast, MUC1, MUC4, CEACAM5/6, and CA19-9 were detected in 90%, 78%, 97%, and 100% of CP, respectively, with reactivity also present in nonneoplastic inflamed tissue. PAM4 was the only monoclonal antibody able to differentiate PDAC (and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia precursor lesions) from benign, nonneoplastic tissues of the pancreas. These results suggest the use of PAM4 for evaluation of tissue specimens, and support its role as an immunoassay for detection of PDAC.

  19. Mechanism of allosteric regulation of β2-adrenergic receptor by cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Moutusi; Niemelä, Miia; Tynkkynen, Joona; Javanainen, Matti; Kulig, Waldemar; Müller, Daniel J; Rog, Tomasz; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that lipids can be allosteric regulators of membrane protein structure and activation. However, there are no data showing how exactly the regulation emerges from specific lipid-protein interactions. Here we show in atomistic detail how the human β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) – a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor – is modulated by cholesterol in an allosteric fashion. Extensive atomistic simulations show that cholesterol regulates β2AR by limiting its conformational variability. The mechanism of action is based on the binding of cholesterol at specific high-affinity sites located near the transmembrane helices 5–7 of the receptor. The alternative mechanism, where the β2AR conformation would be modulated by membrane-mediated interactions, plays only a minor role. Cholesterol analogues also bind to cholesterol binding sites and impede the structural flexibility of β2AR, however cholesterol generates the strongest effect. The results highlight the capacity of lipids to regulate the conformation of membrane receptors through specific interactions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18432.001 PMID:27897972

  20. Computational Analysis of Residue Interaction Networks and Coevolutionary Relationships in the Hsp70 Chaperones: A Community-Hopping Model of Allosteric Regulation and Communication

    PubMed Central

    Stetz, Gabrielle; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2017-01-01

    Allosteric interactions in the Hsp70 proteins are linked with their regulatory mechanisms and cellular functions. Despite significant progress in structural and functional characterization of the Hsp70 proteins fundamental questions concerning modularity of the allosteric interaction networks and hierarchy of signaling pathways in the Hsp70 chaperones remained largely unexplored and poorly understood. In this work, we proposed an integrated computational strategy that combined atomistic and coarse-grained simulations with coevolutionary analysis and network modeling of the residue interactions. A novel aspect of this work is the incorporation of dynamic residue correlations and coevolutionary residue dependencies in the construction of allosteric interaction networks and signaling pathways. We found that functional sites involved in allosteric regulation of Hsp70 may be characterized by structural stability, proximity to global hinge centers and local structural environment that is enriched by highly coevolving flexible residues. These specific characteristics may be necessary for regulation of allosteric structural transitions and could distinguish regulatory sites from nonfunctional conserved residues. The observed confluence of dynamics correlations and coevolutionary residue couplings with global networking features may determine modular organization of allosteric interactions and dictate localization of key mediating sites. Community analysis of the residue interaction networks revealed that concerted rearrangements of local interacting modules at the inter-domain interface may be responsible for global structural changes and a population shift in the DnaK chaperone. The inter-domain communities in the Hsp70 structures harbor the majority of regulatory residues involved in allosteric signaling, suggesting that these sites could be integral to the network organization and coordination of structural changes. Using a network-based formalism of allostery, we

  1. Computational Analysis of Residue Interaction Networks and Coevolutionary Relationships in the Hsp70 Chaperones: A Community-Hopping Model of Allosteric Regulation and Communication.

    PubMed

    Stetz, Gabrielle; Verkhivker, Gennady M

    2017-01-01

    Allosteric interactions in the Hsp70 proteins are linked with their regulatory mechanisms and cellular functions. Despite significant progress in structural and functional characterization of the Hsp70 proteins fundamental questions concerning modularity of the allosteric interaction networks and hierarchy of signaling pathways in the Hsp70 chaperones remained largely unexplored and poorly understood. In this work, we proposed an integrated computational strategy that combined atomistic and coarse-grained simulations with coevolutionary analysis and network modeling of the residue interactions. A novel aspect of this work is the incorporation of dynamic residue correlations and coevolutionary residue dependencies in the construction of allosteric interaction networks and signaling pathways. We found that functional sites involved in allosteric regulation of Hsp70 may be characterized by structural stability, proximity to global hinge centers and local structural environment that is enriched by highly coevolving flexible residues. These specific characteristics may be necessary for regulation of allosteric structural transitions and could distinguish regulatory sites from nonfunctional conserved residues. The observed confluence of dynamics correlations and coevolutionary residue couplings with global networking features may determine modular organization of allosteric interactions and dictate localization of key mediating sites. Community analysis of the residue interaction networks revealed that concerted rearrangements of local interacting modules at the inter-domain interface may be responsible for global structural changes and a population shift in the DnaK chaperone. The inter-domain communities in the Hsp70 structures harbor the majority of regulatory residues involved in allosteric signaling, suggesting that these sites could be integral to the network organization and coordination of structural changes. Using a network-based formalism of allostery, we

  2. Skylab IMSS checklist application study for emergency medical care. [emergency medical care operations involving the use and operation of the portable ambulance module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, J. G.; Furukawa, S.

    1975-01-01

    A manual is presented that provides basic technical documentation to support the operation and utilization of the Portable Ambulance Module (PAM) in the field. The PAM is designed to be used for emergency resuscitation and victim monitoring. The functions of all the controls, displays, and stowed equipment of the unit are defined. Supportive medical and physiological data in those areas directly related to the uses of the PAM unit are presented.

  3. Mammalian Peptidylglycine α-Amidating Monooxygenase mRNA Expression Can Be Modulated by the La Autoantigen

    PubMed Central

    Brenet, Fabienne; Dussault, Nadège; Borch, Jonas; Ferracci, Géraldine; Delfino, Christine; Roepstorff, Peter; Miquelis, Raymond; Ouafik, L'Houcine

    2005-01-01

    Peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM; EC 1.14.17.3) catalyzes the COOH-terminal α-amidation of peptidylglycine substrates, yielding amidated products. We have previously reported a putative regulatory RNA binding protein (PAM mRNA-BP) that binds specifically to the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of PAM-mRNA. Here, the PAM mRNA-BP was isolated and revealed to be La protein using affinity purification onto a 3′ UTR PAM RNA, followed by tandem mass spectrometry identification. We determined that the core binding sequence is approximately 15-nucleotides (nt) long and is located 471 nt downstream of the stop codon. Moreover, we identified the La autoantigen as a protein that specifically binds the 3′ UTR of PAM mRNA in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, La protein overexpression caused a nuclear retention of PAM mRNAs and resulted in the down-regulation of endogenous PAM activity. Most interestingly, the nuclear retention of PAM mRNA is lost upon expressing the La proteins that lack a conserved nuclear retention element, suggesting a direct association between PAM mRNA and La protein in vivo. Reporter assays using a chimeric mRNA that combined luciferase and the 3′ UTR of PAM mRNA demonstrated a decrease of the reporter activity due to an increase in the nuclear localization of reporter mRNAs, while the deletion of the 15-nt La binding site led to their clear-cut cytoplasmic relocalization. The results suggest an important role for the La protein in the modulation of PAM expression, possibly by mechanisms that involve a nuclear retention and perhaps a processing of pre-PAM mRNA molecules. PMID:16107699

  4. Targeting the Allosteric Site of Oncoprotein BCR-ABL as an Alternative Strategy for Effective Target Protein Degradation.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Kenichiro; Shibata, Norihito; Sameshima, Tomoya; Miyamoto, Naoki; Ujikawa, Osamu; Nara, Hiroshi; Ohoka, Nobumichi; Hattori, Takayuki; Cho, Nobuo; Naito, Mikihiko

    2017-10-12

    Protein degradation technology based on hybrid small molecules is an emerging drug modality that has significant potential in drug discovery and as a unique method of post-translational protein knockdown in the field of chemical biology. Here, we report the first example of a novel and potent protein degradation inducer that binds to an allosteric site of the oncogenic BCR-ABL protein. BCR-ABL allosteric ligands were incorporated into the SNIPER (Specific and Nongenetic inhibitor of apoptosis protein [IAP]-dependent Protein Erasers) platform, and a series of in vitro biological assays of binding affinity, target protein modulation, signal transduction, and growth inhibition were carried out. One of the designed compounds, 6 (SNIPER(ABL)-062), showed desirable binding affinities against ABL1, cIAP1/2, and XIAP and consequently caused potent BCR-ABL degradation.

  5. Performance improvement by orthogonal pulse amplitude modulation and discrete multitone modulation signals in hybrid fiber-visible laser light communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fangliu; He, Jing; Deng, Rui; Chen, Qinghui; Chen, Lin

    2016-10-01

    A modulation format, orthogonal pulse amplitude modulation and discrete multitone modulation (O-PAM-DMT), is experimentally demonstrated in a hybrid fiber-visible laser light communication (fiber-VLLC) system using a cost-effective directly modulated laser and blue laser diode. In addition, low overhead is achieved by utilizing only one training sequence to implement synchronization and channel estimation. Through adjusting the ratio of PAM and DMT signal, three types of O-PAM-DMT signals are investigated. After transmission over a 20-km standard single-mode fiber and 5-m free-space VLLC, the receiver sensitivity for 4.36-Gbit/s O-PAM-DMT signals can be improved by 0.4, 1.4, and 2.7 dB, respectively, at a bit error rate of 1×10-3, compared with a conventional DMT signal.

  6. Understanding the Critical Parameters of the PAMS Mandrel Fabrication Process

    DOE PAGES

    Bhandarkar, Suhas; Paguio, Reny; Elsner, Fred; ...

    2016-07-05

    As a part of an effort to continually better the roundness and roughness of ablator capsules, we looked at improving the same for the poly(alphamethylstyrene) or PAMS mandrels used to make the plastic capsules. The importance of this work is based on the fact that the surface properties of the mandrels set the lower limit for the ultimate attributes of the ablator capsule. These mandrels are made using an elegant double-emulsion process that uses the isotropic forces brought about by hydrostatic pressure and interfacial tension to seek sphericity. This paper describes the reasoning that led to investigating the so-called curingmore » process where a solid PAMS shell is generated from a solution phase for achieving this goal. Using modeling to account for the mass transfer of the fluorobenzene solvent phase, we demonstrate that it is the control of the conditions through the percolation point of the system that leads to better mandrels. These concepts were implemented into the fabrication process to demonstrate significant improvements of the roundness of the mandrels.« less

  7. Comparison of the effects of the GABAB receptor positive modulator BHF177 and the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on anxiety-like behavior, learning, and memory in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Risbrough, Victoria B.; Cates-Gatto, Chelsea; Kaczanowska, Katarzyna; Finn, M. G.; Roberts, Amanda J; Markou, Athina

    2013-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid B (GABAB) receptor activation is a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of drug addiction, pain, anxiety, and depression. However, full agonists of this receptor induce side-effects, such as sedation, muscle relaxation, tolerance, and cognitive disruption. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the GABAB receptor may have similar therapeutic effects as agonists with superior side-effect profiles. The present study behaviorally characterized N-([1R,2R,4S]-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl)-2-methyl-5-(4-[trifluoromethyl]phenyl)-4-pyrimidinamine (BHF177), a GABAB receptor PAM, in mouse models of anxiety-like behavior, learning and memory. In addition, the effects of BHF177 were compared with the agonist baclofen. Unlike the anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide, baclofen (0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and BHF177 (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg, orally) had no effect on anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, light/dark box, or the Vogel conflict test. Baclofen increased punished drinking in the Vogel conflict test, however this effect may be attributable to analgesic actions of baclofen. At the highest dose tested (2.5 mg/kg), baclofen-treated mice exhibited sedation-like effects (i.e., reduced locomotor activity) across many of the tests, whereas BHF177-treated mice exhibited no sedation-like effects. BHF177 exhibited pro-convulsion properties only in mice, but not in rats, indicating that this effect may be species-specific. At doses that were not sedative or pro-convulsant, baclofen and BHF177 had no selective effects on fear memory retrieval in contextual and cued fear conditioning or spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze. These data suggest that BHF177 has little sedative activity, no anxiolytic-like profile, and minimal impairment of learning and memory in mice. PMID:23376712

  8. Methods for decoding Cas9 protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequences: A brief overview.

    PubMed

    Karvelis, Tautvydas; Gasiunas, Giedrius; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2017-05-15

    Recently the Cas9, an RNA guided DNA endonuclease, emerged as a powerful tool for targeted genome manipulations. Cas9 protein can be reprogrammed to cleave, bind or nick any DNA target by simply changing crRNA sequence, however a short nucleotide sequence, termed PAM, is required to initiate crRNA hybridization to the DNA target. PAM sequence is recognized by Cas9 protein and must be determined experimentally for each Cas9 variant. Exploration of Cas9 orthologs could offer a diversity of PAM sequences and novel biochemical properties that may be beneficial for genome editing applications. Here we briefly review and compare Cas9 PAM identification assays that can be adopted for other PAM-dependent CRISPR-Cas systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel glycolipid TLR2 ligands of the type Pam2Cys-α-Gal: synthesis and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Thomann, Jean-Sébastien; Monneaux, Fanny; Creusat, Gaëlle; Spanedda, Maria Vittoria; Heurtault, Béatrice; Habermacher, Chloé; Schuber, Francis; Bourel-Bonnet, Line; Frisch, Benoît

    2012-05-01

    A more complete understanding of the mechanism of action of TLR agonists has fueled the investigation of new synthetic immunoadjuvants. In this context, we designed and synthesized glycolipids of the type Pam(2)Cys-α-Galactose as novel immunoadjuvants. Their synthesis required modifying a hydrophobic tBoc-[2,3-bispalmitoyloxy-(2R)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl moiety, i.e. the minimal structure required for TLR2 agonist activity, by addition of a hydrophilic head, either an α-Galactosylpyranose or an α-Galactosylfuranose to gain respectively Pam(2)CGalp and Pam(2)CGalf. While preparing a carbohydrate building block, an unexpected stereoselectivity was observed during a halide ion-catalytic process on a protected galactofuranose: the alpha anomer was obtained with surprisingly high selectivity (α/β ratio>9) and with good isolated yield (51%). The TLR2 binding properties of Pam(2)CGalp and Pam(2)CGalf were then fully evaluated. Their efficiency in triggering the proliferation of BALB/c mouse splenocytes was also compared to that of Pam(2)CAG and Pam(3)CAG, two well-established ligands of TLRs. Moreover, the maturation state of murine dendritic cells previously incubated with either Pam(2)CGalp or Pam(2)CGalf was monitored by flow cytometry and compared to that induced by lipopolysaccharide. Pam(2)CGalp and Pam(2)CGalf were found to be equivalent TLR2 agonists, and induced splenocyte proliferation and DC maturation. With very similar activity, Pam(2)CGalp and Pam(2)CGalf were also 10-fold to 100-fold better than Pam(2)CAG and Pam(3)CAG at inducing B cell proliferation. This represents the first time a glucidic head has been added to the tBoc-[2,3-bispalmitoyloxy-(2R)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl moiety whilst maintaining the immunomodulating activity. This should greatly enrich the data available on Pam(2)C structure/activity relationships. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Architecture of Allosteric Materials and Edge Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Le; Ravasio, Riccardo; Brito, Carolina; Wyart, Matthieu

    Allostery, a long-range elasticity-mediated interaction, remains the biggest mystery decades after its discovery in proteins. We introduce a numerical scheme to evolve functional materials that can accomplish a specified mechanical task. In this scheme, the number of solutions, their spatial architectures and the correlations among them can be computed. As an example, we consider an ``allosteric'' task, which requires the material to respond specifically to a stimulus at a distant active site. We find that functioning materials evolve a less-constrained trumpet-shaped region connecting the stimulus and active sites and that the amplitude of the elastic response varies non-monotonically along the trumpet. As previously shown for some proteins, we find that correlations appearing during evolution alone are sufficient to identify key aspects of this design. Finally, we show that the success of this architecture stems from the emergence of soft edge modes recently found to appear near the surface of marginally connected materials. Overall, our in silico evolution experiment offers a new window to study the relationship between structure, function, and correlations emerging during evolution. L.Y. was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. NSF PHY11-25915. M.W. thanks the Swiss National Science Foundation for support under Grant No. 200021-165509 and the Simons Foundation Grant (#454953 Matthieu Wyart).

  11. Allosteric regulation of rhomboid intramembrane proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Arutyunova, Elena; Panwar, Pankaj; Skiba, Pauline M; Gale, Nicola; Mak, Michelle W; Lemieux, M Joanne

    2014-09-01

    Proteolysis within the lipid bilayer is poorly understood, in particular the regulation of substrate cleavage. Rhomboids are a family of ubiquitous intramembrane serine proteases that harbour a buried active site and are known to cleave transmembrane substrates with broad specificity. In vitro gel and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based kinetic assays were developed to analyse cleavage of the transmembrane substrate psTatA (TatA from Providencia stuartii). We demonstrate significant differences in catalytic efficiency (kcat/K0.5) values for transmembrane substrate psTatA (TatA from Providencia stuartii) cleavage for three rhomboids: AarA from P. stuartii, ecGlpG from Escherichia coli and hiGlpG from Haemophilus influenzae demonstrating that rhomboids specifically recognize this substrate. Furthermore, binding of psTatA occurs with positive cooperativity. Competitive binding studies reveal an exosite-mediated mode of substrate binding, indicating allostery plays a role in substrate catalysis. We reveal that exosite formation is dependent on the oligomeric state of rhomboids, and when dimers are dissociated, allosteric substrate activation is not observed. We present a novel mechanism for specific substrate cleavage involving several dynamic processes including positive cooperativity and homotropic allostery for this interesting class of intramembrane proteases. © 2014 The Authors.

  12. Allosteric regulation of rhomboid intramembrane proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Arutyunova, Elena; Panwar, Pankaj; Skiba, Pauline M; Gale, Nicola; Mak, Michelle W; Lemieux, M Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Proteolysis within the lipid bilayer is poorly understood, in particular the regulation of substrate cleavage. Rhomboids are a family of ubiquitous intramembrane serine proteases that harbour a buried active site and are known to cleave transmembrane substrates with broad specificity. In vitro gel and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based kinetic assays were developed to analyse cleavage of the transmembrane substrate psTatA (TatA from Providencia stuartii). We demonstrate significant differences in catalytic efficiency (kcat/K0.5) values for transmembrane substrate psTatA (TatA from Providencia stuartii) cleavage for three rhomboids: AarA from P. stuartii, ecGlpG from Escherichia coli and hiGlpG from Haemophilus influenzae demonstrating that rhomboids specifically recognize this substrate. Furthermore, binding of psTatA occurs with positive cooperativity. Competitive binding studies reveal an exosite-mediated mode of substrate binding, indicating allostery plays a role in substrate catalysis. We reveal that exosite formation is dependent on the oligomeric state of rhomboids, and when dimers are dissociated, allosteric substrate activation is not observed. We present a novel mechanism for specific substrate cleavage involving several dynamic processes including positive cooperativity and homotropic allostery for this interesting class of intramembrane proteases. PMID:25009246

  13. PSNCBAM-1, a novel allosteric antagonist at cannabinoid CB1 receptors with hypophagic effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Horswill, J G; Bali, U; Shaaban, S; Keily, J F; Jeevaratnam, P; Babbs, A J; Reynet, C; Wong Kai In, P

    2007-11-01

    Rimonabant (Acomplia, SR141716A), a cannabinoid CB1 receptor inverse agonist, has recently been approved for the treatment of obesity. There are, however, concerns regarding its side effect profile. Developing a CB1 antagonist with a different pharmacological mechanism may lead to a safer alternative. To this end we have screened a proprietary small molecule library and have discovered a novel class of allosteric antagonist at CB1 receptors. Herein, we have characterized an optimized prototypical molecule, PSNCBAM-1, and its hypophagic effects in vivo. A CB1 yeast reporter assay was used as a primary screen. PSNCBAM-1 was additionally characterized in [35S]-GTPgammaS, cAMP and radioligand binding assays. An acute rat feeding model was used to evaluate its effects on food intake and body weight in vivo. In CB1 receptor yeast reporter assays, PSNCBAM-1 blocked the effects induced by agonists such as CP55,940, WIN55212-2, anandamide (AEA) or 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). The antagonist characteristics of PSNCBAM-1 were confirmed in [35S]-GTPgammaS binding and cAMP assays and was shown to be non-competitive by Schild analyses. PSNCBAM-1 did not affect CB2 receptors. In radioligand binding assays, PSNCBAM-1 increased the binding of [3H]CP55,940 despite its antagonist effects. In an acute rat feeding model, PSNCBAM-1 decreased food intake and body weight. PSNCBAM-1 exerted its effects through selective allosteric modulation of the CB1 receptor. The acute effects on food intake and body weight induced in rats provide a first report of in vivo activity for an allosteric CB1 receptor antagonist.

  14. PSNCBAM-1, a novel allosteric antagonist at cannabinoid CB1 receptors with hypophagic effects in rats

    PubMed Central

    Horswill, J G; Bali, U; Shaaban, S; Keily, J F; Jeevaratnam, P; Babbs, A J; Reynet, C; Wong Kai In, P

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Rimonabant (AcompliaTM, SR141716A), a cannabinoid CB1 receptor inverse agonist, has recently been approved for the treatment of obesity. There are, however, concerns regarding its side effect profile. Developing a CB1 antagonist with a different pharmacological mechanism may lead to a safer alternative. To this end we have screened a proprietary small molecule library and have discovered a novel class of allosteric antagonist at CB1 receptors. Herein, we have characterized an optimized prototypical molecule, PSNCBAM-1, and its hypophagic effects in vivo. Experimental approach: A CB1 yeast reporter assay was used as a primary screen. PSNCBAM-1 was additionally characterized in [35S]-GTPγS, cAMP and radioligand binding assays. An acute rat feeding model was used to evaluate its effects on food intake and body weight in vivo. Key results: In CB1 receptor yeast reporter assays, PSNCBAM-1 blocked the effects induced by agonists such as CP55,940, WIN55212-2, anandamide (AEA) or 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). The antagonist characteristics of PSNCBAM-1 were confirmed in [35S]-GTPγS binding and cAMP assays and was shown to be non-competitive by Schild analyses. PSNCBAM-1 did not affect CB2 receptors. In radioligand binding assays, PSNCBAM-1 increased the binding of [3H]CP55,940 despite its antagonist effects. In an acute rat feeding model, PSNCBAM-1 decreased food intake and body weight. Conclusions and implications: PSNCBAM-1 exerted its effects through selective allosteric modulation of the CB1 receptor. The acute effects on food intake and body weight induced in rats provide a first report of in vivo activity for an allosteric CB1 receptor antagonist. PMID:17592509

  15. Disruption of integrin-fibronectin complexes by allosteric but not ligand-mimetic inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mould, A Paul; Craig, Susan E; Byron, Sarah K; Humphries, Martin J; Jowitt, Thomas A

    2014-12-15

    Failure of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-based inhibitors to reverse integrin-ligand binding has been reported, but the prevalence of this phenomenon among integrin heterodimers is currently unknown. In the present study we have investigated the interaction of four different RGD-binding integrins (α5β1, αVβ1, αVβ3 and αVβ6) with fibronectin (FN) using surface plasmon resonance. The ability of inhibitors to reverse ligand binding was assessed by their capacity to increase the dissociation rate of pre-formed integrin-FN complexes. For all four receptors we showed that RGD-based inhibitors (such as cilengitide) were completely unable to increase the dissociation rate. Formation of the non-reversible state occurred very rapidly and did not rely on the time-dependent formation of a high-affinity state of the integrin, or the integrin leg regions. In contrast with RGD-based inhibitors, Ca2+ (but not Mg2+) was able to greatly increase the dissociation rate of integrin-FN complexes, with a half-maximal response at ~0.4 mM Ca2+ for αVβ3-FN. The effect of Ca2+ was overcome by co-addition of Mn2+, but not Mg2+. A stimulatory anti-β1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) abrogated the effect of Ca2+ on α5β1-FN complexes; conversely, a function-blocking mAb mimicked the effect of Ca2+. These results imply that Ca2+ acts allosterically, probably through binding to the adjacent metal-ion-dependent adhesion site (ADMIDAS), and that the α1 helix in the β subunit I domain is the key element affected by allosteric modulators. The data suggest an explanation for the limited clinical efficacy of RGD-based integrin antagonists, and we propose that allosteric antagonists could prove to be of greater therapeutic benefit.

  16. Allosteric mechanism of water channel gating by Ca2+–calmodulin

    PubMed Central

    Reichow, Steve L.; Clemens, Daniel M.; Freites, J. Alfredo; Németh-Cahalan, Karin L.; Heyden, Matthias; Tobias, Douglas J.; Hall, James E.; Gonen, Tamir

    2013-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a universal regulatory protein that communicates the presence of calcium to its molecular targets and correspondingly modulates their function. This key signaling protein is important for controlling the activity of hundreds of membrane channels and transporters. However, our understanding of the structural mechanisms driving CaM regulation of full-length membrane proteins has remained elusive. In this study, we determined the pseudo-atomic structure of full-length mammalian aquaporin-0 (AQP0, Bos Taurus) in complex with CaM using electron microscopy to understand how this signaling protein modulates water channel function. Molecular dynamics and functional mutation studies reveal how CaM binding inhibits AQP0 water permeability by allosterically closing the cytoplasmic gate of AQP0. Our mechanistic model provides new insight, only possible in the context of the fully assembled channel, into how CaM regulates multimeric channels by facilitating cooperativity between adjacent subunits. PMID:23893133

  17. Molecular blueprint of allosteric binding sites in a homologue of the agonist-binding domain of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Spurny, Radovan; Debaveye, Sarah; Farinha, Ana; Veys, Ken; Vos, Ann M.; Gossas, Thomas; Atack, John; Bertrand, Sonia; Bertrand, Daniel; Danielson, U. Helena; Tresadern, Gary; Ulens, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) belongs to the family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels and is involved in fast synaptic signaling. In this study, we take advantage of a recently identified chimera of the extracellular domain of the native α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and acetylcholine binding protein, termed α7-AChBP. This chimeric receptor was used to conduct an innovative fragment-library screening in combination with X-ray crystallography to identify allosteric binding sites. One allosteric site is surface-exposed and is located near the N-terminal α-helix of the extracellular domain. Ligand binding at this site causes a conformational change of the α-helix as the fragment wedges between the α-helix and a loop homologous to the main immunogenic region of the muscle α1 subunit. A second site is located in the vestibule of the receptor, in a preexisting intrasubunit pocket opposite the agonist binding site and corresponds to a previously identified site involved in positive allosteric modulation of the bacterial homolog ELIC. A third site is located at a pocket right below the agonist binding site. Using electrophysiological recordings on the human α7 nAChR we demonstrate that the identified fragments, which bind at these sites, can modulate receptor activation. This work presents a structural framework for different allosteric binding sites in the α7 nAChR and paves the way for future development of novel allosteric modulators with therapeutic potential. PMID:25918415

  18. ‘Partial’ competition of heterobivalent ligand binding may be mistaken for allosteric interactions: a comparison of different target interaction models

    PubMed Central

    Vauquelin, Georges; Hall, David; Charlton, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Non-competitive drugs that confer allosteric modulation of orthosteric ligand binding are of increasing interest as therapeutic agents. Sought-after advantages include a ceiling level to drug effect and greater receptor-subtype selectivity. It is thus important to determine the mode of interaction of newly identified receptor ligands early in the drug discovery process and binding studies with labelled orthosteric ligands constitute a traditional approach for this. According to the general allosteric ternary complex model, allosteric ligands that exhibit negative cooperativity may generate distinctive ‘competition’ curves: they will not reach baseline levels and their nadir will increase in par with the orthosteric ligand concentration. This behaviour is often considered a key hallmark of allosteric interactions. Experimental Approach The present study is based on differential equation-based simulations. Key Results The differential equation-based simulations revealed that the same ‘competition binding’ pattern was also obtained when a monovalent ligand binds to one of the target sites of a heterobivalent ligand, even if this process is exempt of allosteric interactions. This pattern was not strictly reciprocal when the binding of each of the ligands was recorded. The prominence of this phenomenon may vary from one heterobivalent ligand to another and we suggest that this phenomenon may take place with ligands that have been proposed to bind according to ‘two-domain’ and ‘charnière’ models. Conclusions and Implications The present findings indicate a familiar experimental situation where bivalency may give rise to observations that could inadvertently be interpreted as allosteric binding. Yet, both mechanisms could be differentiated based on alternative experiments and structural considerations. PMID:25537684

  19. Metabotropic Glutamate2 Receptors Play a Key Role in Modulating Head Twitches Induced by a Serotonergic Hallucinogen in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Benvenga, Mark J.; Chaney, Stephen F.; Baez, Melvyn; Britton, Thomas C.; Hornback, William J.; Monn, James A.; Marek, Gerard J.

    2018-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that glutamate can modulate the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A) receptor activation through stimulation of metabotropic glutamate2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptors in the prefrontal cortex. Here we show that constitutive deletion of the mGlu2 gene profoundly attenuates an effect of 5-HT2A receptor activation using the mouse head twitch response (HTR). MGlu2 and mGlu3 receptor knockout (KO) as well as age-matched ICR (CD-1) wild type (WT) mice were administered (±)1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) and observed for head twitch activity. DOI failed to produce significant head twitches in mGlu2 receptor KO mice at a dose 10-fold higher than the peak effective dose in WT or mGlu3 receptor KO mice. In addition, the mGlu2/3 receptor agonist LY379268, and the mGlu2 receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM) CBiPES, potently blocked the HTR to DOI in WT and mGlu3 receptor KO mice. Conversely, the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist LY341495 (10 mg/kg) increased the HTR produced by DOI (3 mg/kg) in mGlu3 receptor KO mice. Finally, the mGlu2 receptor potentiator CBiPES was able to attenuate the increase in the HTR produced by LY341495 in mGlu3 receptor KO mice. Taken together, all of these results are consistent with the hypothesis that that DOI-induced head twitches are modulated by mGlu2 receptor activation. These results also are in keeping with a critical autoreceptor function for mGlu2 receptors in the prefrontal cortex with differential effects of acute vs. chronic perturbation (e.g., constitutive mGlu2 receptor KO mice). The robust attenuation of DOI-induced head twitches in the mGlu2 receptor KO mice appears to reflect the critical role of glutamate in ongoing regulation of 5-HT2A receptors in the prefrontal cortex. Future experiments with inducible knockouts for the mGlu2 receptor and/or selective mGlu3 receptor agonists/PAMs/antagonists could provide an important tools in understanding glutamatergic modulation of prefrontal

  20. Allosteric pathway identification through network analysis: from molecular dynamics simulations to interactive 2D and 3D graphs.

    PubMed

    Allain, Ariane; Chauvot de Beauchêne, Isaure; Langenfeld, Florent; Guarracino, Yann; Laine, Elodie; Tchertanov, Luba

    2014-01-01

    Allostery is a universal phenomenon that couples the information induced by a local perturbation (effector) in a protein to spatially distant regulated sites. Such an event can be described in terms of a large scale transmission of information (communication) through a dynamic coupling between structurally rigid (minimally frustrated) and plastic (locally frustrated) clusters of residues. To elaborate a rational description of allosteric coupling, we propose an original approach - MOdular NETwork Analysis (MONETA) - based on the analysis of inter-residue dynamical correlations to localize the propagation of both structural and dynamical effects of a perturbation throughout a protein structure. MONETA uses inter-residue cross-correlations and commute times computed from molecular dynamics simulations and a topological description of a protein to build a modular network representation composed of clusters of residues (dynamic segments) linked together by chains of residues (communication pathways). MONETA provides a brand new direct and simple visualization of protein allosteric communication. A GEPHI module implemented in the MONETA package allows the generation of 2D graphs of the communication network. An interactive PyMOL plugin permits drawing of the communication pathways between chosen protein fragments or residues on a 3D representation. MONETA is a powerful tool for on-the-fly display of communication networks in proteins. We applied MONETA for the analysis of communication pathways (i) between the main regulatory fragments of receptors tyrosine kinases (RTKs), KIT and CSF-1R, in the native and mutated states and (ii) in proteins STAT5 (STAT5a and STAT5b) in the phosphorylated and the unphosphorylated forms. The description of the physical support for allosteric coupling by MONETA allowed a comparison of the mechanisms of (a) constitutive activation induced by equivalent mutations in two RTKs and (b) allosteric regulation in the activated and non

  1. Exploring with PAM: Prospecting ANTS Missions for Solar System Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. E.; Rilee, M. L.; Curtis, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    ANTS (Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm), a large (1000 member) swarm of nano to picoclass (10 to 1 kg) totally autonomous spacecraft, are being developed as a NASA advanced mission concept. ANTS, based on a hierarchical insect social order, use an evolvable, self-similar, hierarchical neural system in which individual spacecraft represent the highest level nodes. ANTS uses swarm intelligence attained through collective, cooperative interactions of the nodes at all levels of the system. At the highest levels this can take the form of cooperative, collective behavior among the individual spacecraft in a very large constellation. The ANTS neural architecture is designed for totally autonomous operation of complex systems including spacecraft constellations. The ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) concept has a number of possible applications. A version of ANTS designed for surveying and determining the resource potential of the asteroid belt, called PAM (Prospecting ANTS Mission), is examined here.

  2. Anisotropic energy flow and allosteric ligand binding in albumin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guifeng; Magana, Donny; Dyer, R. Brian

    2014-01-01

    Allosteric interactions in proteins generally involve propagation of local structural changes through the protein to a remote site. Anisotropic energy transport is thought to couple the remote sites, but the nature of this process is poorly understood. Here, we report the relationship between energy flow through the structure of bovine serum albumin and allosteric interactions between remote ligand binding sites of the protein. Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy is used to probe the flow of energy through the protein backbone following excitation of a heater dye, a metalloporphyrin or malachite green, bound to different binding sites in the protein. We observe ballistic and anisotropic energy flow through the protein structure following input of thermal energy into the flexible ligand binding sites, without local heating of the rigid helix bundles that connect these sites. This efficient energy transport mechanism enables the allosteric propagation of binding energy through the connecting helix structures. PMID:24445265

  3. Anisotropic energy flow and allosteric ligand binding in albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guifeng; Magana, Donny; Dyer, R. Brian

    2014-01-01

    Allosteric interactions in proteins generally involve propagation of local structural changes through the protein to a remote site. Anisotropic energy transport is thought to couple the remote sites, but the nature of this process is poorly understood. Here, we report the relationship between energy flow through the structure of bovine serum albumin and allosteric interactions between remote ligand binding sites of the protein. Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy is used to probe the flow of energy through the protein backbone following excitation of a heater dye, a metalloporphyrin or malachite green, bound to different binding sites in the protein. We observe ballistic and anisotropic energy flow through the protein structure following input of thermal energy into the flexible ligand binding sites, without local heating of the rigid helix bundles that connect these sites. This efficient energy transport mechanism enables the allosteric propagation of binding energy through the connecting helix structures.

  4. Anisotropic energy flow and allosteric ligand binding in albumin.

    PubMed

    Li, Guifeng; Magana, Donny; Dyer, R Brian

    2014-01-01

    Allosteric interactions in proteins generally involve propagation of local structural changes through the protein to a remote site. Anisotropic energy transport is thought to couple the remote sites, but the nature of this process is poorly understood. Here, we report the relationship between energy flow through the structure of bovine serum albumin and allosteric interactions between remote ligand binding sites of the protein. Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy is used to probe the flow of energy through the protein backbone following excitation of a heater dye, a metalloporphyrin or malachite green, bound to different binding sites in the protein. We observe ballistic and anisotropic energy flow through the protein structure following input of thermal energy into the flexible ligand binding sites, without local heating of the rigid helix bundles that connect these sites. This efficient energy transport mechanism enables the allosteric propagation of binding energy through the connecting helix structures.

  5. SPACER: server for predicting allosteric communication and effects of regulation

    PubMed Central

    Goncearenco, Alexander; Mitternacht, Simon; Yong, Taipang; Eisenhaber, Birgit; Eisenhaber, Frank; Berezovsky, Igor N.

    2013-01-01

    The SPACER server provides an interactive framework for exploring allosteric communication in proteins with different sizes, degrees of oligomerization and function. SPACER uses recently developed theoretical concepts based on the thermodynamic view of allostery. It proposes easily tractable and meaningful measures that allow users to analyze the effect of ligand binding on the intrinsic protein dynamics. The server shows potential allosteric sites and allows users to explore communication between the regulatory and functional sites. It is possible to explore, for instance, potential effector binding sites in a given structure as targets for allosteric drugs. As input, the server only requires a single structure. The server is freely available at http://allostery.bii.a-star.edu.sg/. PMID:23737445

  6. ANTS/PAM: Future Exploration of the Asteroid Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S. A.; Rilee, M. L.; Cheung, C. Y.

    2004-05-01

    The Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS) is applied to the Prospecting Asteroid Mission (PAM) concept, as part of a NASA RASC study. The ANTS architecture is inspired by success of social insect colonies, based on the division of labor within the colonies: 1) within their specialties, individual specialists generally outperform general-ists, and 2) with sufficiently efficient social interaction and coordination, the group of specialists generally outper-forms the group of generalists. ANTS as applied to PAM involves a thousand individual specialist `sciencecraft', one subswarm per target, in an environment where detection and tracking of irregular, infrequent targets is a major chal-lenge. Workers, carry and operate eight to nine different scientific instruments, including spectrometers, ranging and radio science devices, imagers. The remaining specialists, Messenger/Rulers, provide communication and coordina-tion. The non-expendable propulsion system is based on autonomously deployable and configurable solar sails, a system suitable to a low gravity environment. The design of the neural basis function requires a minimum of 4 or 5 specialists for collective decision making. Allowing for ten instrument specialist teams and compensating for antici-pated high attrition, we calculate an initial minimum of 100 per subswarm should allow characterization of hundreds of asteroids. The difficulty in observing irregular, rapidly moving, poorly illuminated objects is largely overcome by the ANT sciencecraft capability to optimize conditions for each instrument. Components are composed of carbon nanotubules reversibly deployable from NEMS nodes, allowing 100 times decrease in packaging volume. 1000 smart 10 centimeter, 1 kg cubic boxes create a 1000 kg 1 meter cube.

  7. Cooperative Allosteric Ligand Binding in Calmodulin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandigrami, Prithviraj

    Conformational dynamics is often essential for a protein's function. For example, proteins are able to communicate the effect of binding at one site to a distal region of the molecule through changes in its conformational dynamics. This so called allosteric coupling fine tunes the sensitivity of ligand binding to changes in concentration. A conformational change between a "closed" (apo) and an "open" (holo) conformation upon ligation often produces this coupling between binding sites. Enhanced sensitivity between the unbound and bound ensembles leads to a sharper binding curve. There are two basic conceptual frameworks that guide our visualization about ligand binding mechanisms. First, a ligand can stabilize the unstable "open" state from a dynamic ensemble of conformations within the unbound basin. This binding mechanism is called conformational selection. Second, a ligand can weakly bind to the low-affinity "closed" state followed by a conformational transition to the "open" state. In this dissertation, I focus on molecular dynamics simulations to understand microscopic origins of ligand binding cooperativity. A minimal model of allosteric binding transitions must include ligand binding/unbinding events, while capturing the transition mechanism between two distinct meta-stable free energy basins. Due in part to computational timescales limitations, work in this dissertation describes large-scale conformational transitions through a simplified, coarse-grained model based on the energy basins defined by the open and closed conformations of the protein Calmodulin (CaM). CaM is a ubiquitous calcium-binding protein consisting of two structurally similar globular domains connected by a flexible linker. The two domains of CaM, N-terminal domain (nCaM) and C-terminal domain (cCaM) consists of two helix-loop-helix motifs (the EF-hands) connected by a flexible linker. Each domain of CaM consists of two binding loops and binds 2 calcium ions each. The intact domain binds

  8. Interactions of agonists with an allosteric antagonist at muscarinic acetylcholine M2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lanzafame, A; Christopoulos, A; Mitchelson, F

    1996-11-28

    The interaction of heptane-1,7-bis(dimethyl-3'-phthalimidopropylammonium bromide) (C7/3'-phth), with several agonists, was investigated at the muscarinic M2 receptor in guinea-pig left atria. C7/3'-phth shifted concentration-response curves for the agonists, carbachol, oxotremorine-M and (+)-cis-dioxolane, to the right in a parallel fashion. Arunlakshana-Schild regressions of the data yielded slopes significantly different to unity, suggesting non-competitive antagonism. Non-linear regression analysis, using an equation based on allosteric modulation, gave quantitative estimates of co-operativity (alpha values) and the dissociation constant of C7/3'-phth (KB). In all cases, the KB estimates for C7/3'-phth were not significantly different. Increasing the carbachol contact time 10-fold did not significantly influence the KB or the alpha value obtained with C7/3'-phth. Changing from Krebs to Tyrode solution did not significantly alter the KB for C7/3'-phth, although alpha values obtained were consistently lower in Tyrode solution, suggesting that the allosteric action may be sensitive to buffer composition. A 4-fold higher degree of negative, heterotropic co-operativity between C7/3'-phth and agonists than between C7/3'-phth and competitive antagonists was also found.

  9. Allosteric Inhibition of SHP2: Identification of a Potent, Selective, and Orally Efficacious Phosphatase Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia Fortanet, Jorge; Chen, Christine Hiu-Tung; Chen, Ying-Nan P.

    SHP2 is a nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) encoded by the PTPN11 gene involved in cell growth and differentiation via the MAPK signaling pathway. SHP2 also purportedly plays an important role in the programmed cell death pathway (PD-1/PD-L1). Because it is an oncoprotein associated with multiple cancer-related diseases, as well as a potential immunomodulator, controlling SHP2 activity is of significant therapeutic interest. Recently in our laboratories, a small molecule inhibitor of SHP2 was identified as an allosteric modulator that stabilizes the autoinhibited conformation of SHP2. A high throughput screen was performed to identify progressable chemical matter, and X-ray crystallography revealedmore » the location of binding in a previously undisclosed allosteric binding pocket. Structure-based drug design was employed to optimize for SHP2 inhibition, and several new protein–ligand interactions were characterized. These studies culminated in the discovery of 6-(4-amino-4-methylpiperidin-1-yl)-3-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)pyrazin-2-amine (SHP099, 1), a potent, selective, orally bioavailable, and efficacious SHP2 inhibitor.« less

  10. Long-range allosteric signaling in red light–regulated diguanylyl cyclases

    PubMed Central

    Gourinchas, Geoffrey; Etzl, Stefan; Göbl, Christoph; Vide, Uršula; Madl, Tobias; Winkler, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Nature has evolved an astonishingly modular architecture of covalently linked protein domains with diverse functionalities to enable complex cellular networks that are critical for cell survival. The coupling of sensory modules with enzymatic effectors allows direct allosteric regulation of cellular signaling molecules in response to diverse stimuli. We present molecular details of red light–sensing bacteriophytochromes linked to cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate–producing diguanylyl cyclases. Elucidation of the first crystal structure of a full-length phytochrome with its enzymatic effector, in combination with the characterization of light-induced changes in conformational dynamics, reveals how allosteric light regulation is fine-tuned by the architecture and composition of the coiled-coil sensor-effector linker and also the central helical spine. We anticipate that consideration of molecular principles of sensor-effector coupling, going beyond the length of the characteristic linker, and the appreciation of dynamically driven allostery will open up new directions for the design of novel red light–regulated optogenetic tools. PMID:28275738

  11. Wind tunnel experimental study on the effect of PAM on soil wind erosion control.

    PubMed

    He, Ji-Jun; Cai, Qiang-Guo; Tang, Ze-Jun

    2008-10-01

    In recent years, high-molecular-weight anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) have been widely tested on a variety of soils, primarily in water erosion control. However, little information is available regarding the effectiveness of PAM on preventing soil loss from wind erosion. The research adopted room wind tunnel experiment, two kinds of soils were used which were from the agro-pastoral area of Inner Mongolia, the northwest of China, the clay content of soils were 22.0 and 13.7%, respectively. For these tests, all the treatments were performed under the condition of wind velocity of 14 m s(-1) and a blown angle of 8.75%, according to the actual situation of experimented area. The study results indicated that using PAM on the soil surface could enhance the capability of avoiding the wind erosion, at the same time, the effect of controlling wind soil erosion with 4 g m(-2) PAM was better than 2 g m(-2) PAM's. Economically, the 2 g m(-2) PAM used in soil surface can control wind erosion effectively in this region. The prophase PAM accumulated in soil could not improve the capability of avoiding the wind erosion, owing to the degradation of PAM in the soil and the continual tillage year after year. The texture of soil is a main factor influencing the capability of soil avoiding wind erosion. Soil with higher clay content has the higher capability of preventing soil from wind erosion than one with the opposite one under the together action of PAM and water.

  12. PAM-4 Signaling over VCSELs with 0.13µm CMOS Chip Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, J. E.; Beckman, D.; Zheng, Xuezhe; Huang, Dawei; Sze, T.; Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

    2006-12-01

    We present results for VCSEL based links operating PAM-4 signaling using a commercial 0.13µm CMOS technology. We perform a complete link analysis of the Bit Error Rate, Q factor, random and deterministic jitter by measuring waterfall curves versus margins in time and amplitude. We demonstrate that VCSEL based PAM 4 can match or even improve performance over binary signaling under conditions of a bandwidth limited, 100meter multi-mode optical link at 5Gbps. We present the first sensitivity measurements for optical PAM-4 and compare it with binary signaling. Measured benefits are reconciled with information theory predictions.

  13. PAM-4 Signaling over VCSELs with 0.13microm CMOS Chip Technology.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, J E; Beckman, D; Zheng, Xuezhe; Huang, Dawei; Sze, T; Krishnamoorthy, A V

    2006-12-11

    We present results for VCSEL based links operating PAM-4 signaling using a commercial 0.13microm CMOS technology. We perform a complete link analysis of the Bit Error Rate, Q factor, random and deterministic jitter by measuring waterfall curves versus margins in time and amplitude. We demonstrate that VCSEL based PAM-4 can match or even improve performance over binary signaling under conditions of a bandwidth limited, 100meter multi-mode optical link at 5Gbps. We present the first sensitivity measurements for optical PAM-4 and compare it with binary signaling. Measured benefits are reconciled with information theory predictions.

  14. The Hsp70 interdomain linker is a dynamic switch that enables allosteric communication between two structured domains.

    PubMed

    English, Charles A; Sherman, Woody; Meng, Wenli; Gierasch, Lila M

    2017-09-08

    Hsp70 molecular chaperones play key roles in cellular protein homeostasis by binding to exposed hydrophobic regions of incompletely folded or aggregated proteins. This crucial Hsp70 function relies on allosteric communication between two well-structured domains: an N-terminal nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) and a C-terminal substrate-binding domain (SBD), which are tethered by an interdomain linker. ATP or ADP binding to the NBD alters the substrate-binding affinity of the SBD, triggering functionally essential cycles of substrate binding and release. The interdomain linker is a well-structured participant in the interdomain interface in ATP-bound Hsp70s. By contrast, in the ADP-bound state, exemplified by the Escherichia coli Hsp70 DnaK, the interdomain linker is flexible. Hsp70 interdomain linker sequences are highly conserved; moreover, mutations in this region compromise interdomain allostery. To better understand the role of this region in Hsp70 allostery, we used molecular dynamics simulations to explore the conformational landscape of the interdomain linker in ADP-bound DnaK and supported our simulations by strategic experimental data. We found that while the interdomain linker samples many conformations, it behaves as three relatively ordered segments connected by hinges. As a consequence, the distances and orientations between the NBD and SBD are limited. Additionally, the C-terminal region of the linker forms previously unreported, transient interactions with the SBD, and the predominant linker-docking site is available in only one allosteric state, that with high affinity for substrate. This preferential binding implicates the interdomain linker as a dynamic allosteric switch. The linker-binding site on the SBD is a potential target for small molecule modulators of the Hsp70 allosteric cycle. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Modulation selection for visible light communications using lighting LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siuzdak, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    The paper analyzes suitability of various spectrally efficient modulations (PAM, CAP, OFDM/DMT) in a VLC system using lighting LEDs as a transmitter. Although under ideal conditions all modulation have similar efficiency i.e. they produce similar throughputs with a given BER, their practical performances are different. For example, the level of nonlinear distortions generated by each modulation is the least for PAM and by far the greatest for OFDM/DMT locating CAP in the middle. The suitability of various OFDM/DMT variants in a VLC LED link was also analyzed proving that the asymmetrically clipped (ACO) OFDM has a worse performance as compared with DC biased (DCO) OFDM.

  16. 40-Gb/s PAM4 with low-complexity equalizers for next-generation PON systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xizi; Zhou, Ji; Guo, Mengqi; Qi, Jia; Hu, Fan; Qiao, Yaojun; Lu, Yueming

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate 40-Gb/s four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) transmission with 10 GHz devices and low-complexity equalizers for next-generation passive optical network (PON) systems. Simple feed-forward equalizer (FFE) and decision feedback equalizer (DFE) enable 20 km fiber transmission while high-complexity Volterra algorithm in combination with FFE and DFE can extend the transmission distance to 40 km. A simplified Volterra algorithm is proposed for reducing computational complexity. Simulation results show that the simplified Volterra algorithm reduces up to ∼75% computational complexity at a relatively low cost of only 0.4 dB power budget. At a forward error correction (FEC) threshold of 10-3 , we achieve 31.2 dB and 30.8 dB power budget over 40 km fiber transmission using traditional FFE-DFE-Volterra and our simplified FFE-DFE-Volterra, respectively.

  17. Structures of pyruvate kinases display evolutionarily divergent allosteric strategies

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Hugh P.; Zhong, Wenhe; McNae, Iain W.; Michels, Paul A. M.; Fothergill-Gilmore, Linda A.; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D.

    2014-01-01

    The transition between the inactive T-state (apoenzyme) and active R-state (effector bound enzyme) of Trypanosoma cruzi pyruvate kinase (PYK) is accompanied by a symmetrical 8° rigid body rocking motion of the A- and C-domain cores in each of the four subunits, coupled with the formation of additional salt bridges across two of the four subunit interfaces. These salt bridges provide increased tetramer stability correlated with an enhanced specificity constant (kcat/S0.5). A detailed kinetic and structural comparison between the potential drug target PYKs from the pathogenic protists T. cruzi, T. brucei and Leishmania mexicana shows that their allosteric mechanism is conserved. By contrast, a structural comparison of trypanosomatid PYKs with the evolutionarily divergent PYKs of humans and of bacteria shows that they have adopted different allosteric strategies. The underlying principle in each case is to maximize (kcat/S0.5) by stabilizing and rigidifying the tetramer in an active R-state conformation. However, bacterial and mammalian PYKs have evolved alternative ways of locking the tetramers together. In contrast to the divergent allosteric mechanisms, the PYK active sites are highly conserved across species. Selective disruption of the varied allosteric mechanisms may therefore provide a useful approach for the design of species-specific inhibitors. PMID:26064527

  18. The allosteric communication pathways in KIX domain of CBP.

    PubMed

    Palazzesi, Ferruccio; Barducci, Alessandro; Tollinger, Martin; Parrinello, Michele

    2013-08-27

    Allosteric regulation plays an important role in a myriad of biomacromolecular processes. Specifically, in a protein, the process of allostery refers to the transmission of a local perturbation, such as ligand binding, to a distant site. Decades after the discovery of this phenomenon, models built on static images of proteins are being reconsidered with the knowledge that protein dynamics plays an important role in its function. Molecular dynamics simulations are a valuable tool for studying complex biomolecular systems, providing an atomistic description of their structure and dynamics. Unfortunately, their predictive power has been limited by the complexity of the biomolecule free-energy surface and by the length of the allosteric timescale (in the order of milliseconds). In this work, we are able to probe the origins of the allosteric changes that transcription factor mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) causes to the interactions of KIX domain of CREB-binding protein (CBP) with phosphorylated kinase inducible domain (pKID), by combing all-atom molecular dynamics with enhanced sampling methods recently developed in our group. We discuss our results in relation to previous NMR studies. We also develop a general simulations protocol to study allosteric phenomena and many other biological processes that occur in the micro/milliseconds timescale.

  19. ARDesigner: a web-based system for allosteric RNA design.

    PubMed

    Shu, Wenjie; Liu, Ming; Chen, Hebing; Bo, Xiaochen; Wang, Shengqi

    2010-12-01

    RNA molecules play vital informational, structural, and functional roles in molecular biology, making them ideal targets for synthetic biology. However, several challenges remain for engineering novel allosteric RNA molecules, and the development of efficient computational design techniques is vitally needed. Here we describe the development of Allosteric RNA Designer (ARDesigner), a user-friendly and freely available web-based system for allosteric RNA design that incorporates mutational robustness in the design process. The system output includes detailed design information in a graphical HTML format. We used ARDesigner to engineer a temperature-sensitive AR, and found that the resulting design satisfied the prescribed properties/input. ARDesigner provides a simple means for researchers to design allosteric RNAs with specific properties. With its versatile framework and possibilities for further enhancement, ARDesigner may serve as a useful tool for synthetic biologists and therapeutic design. ARDesigner and its executable version are freely available at http://biotech.bmi.ac.cn/ARDesigner. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Allosteric binding sites in Rab11 for potential drug candidates

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Rab11 is an important protein subfamily in the RabGTPase family. These proteins physiologically function as key regulators of intracellular membrane trafficking processes. Pathologically, Rab11 proteins are implicated in many diseases including cancers, neurodegenerative diseases and type 2 diabetes. Although they are medically important, no previous study has found Rab11 allosteric binding sites where potential drug candidates can bind to. In this study, by employing multiple clustering approaches integrating principal component analysis, independent component analysis and locally linear embedding, we performed structural analyses of Rab11 and identified eight representative structures. Using these representatives to perform binding site mapping and virtual screening, we identified two novel binding sites in Rab11 and small molecules that can preferentially bind to different conformations of these sites with high affinities. After identifying the binding sites and the residue interaction networks in the representatives, we computationally showed that these binding sites may allosterically regulate Rab11, as these sites communicate with switch 2 region that binds to GTP/GDP. These two allosteric binding sites in Rab11 are also similar to two allosteric pockets in Ras that we discovered previously. PMID:29874286

  1. Effects of miso- and mesoscale obstructions on PAM winds obtained during project NIMROD. [Portable Automated Mesonet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T. T.; Wakimoto, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    Data from 27 PAM (Portable Automated Mesonet) stations, operational as a phase of project NIMROD (Northern Illinois Meteorological Research on Downburst), are presented. It was found that PAM-measured winds are influenced by the mesoscale obstruction of the Chicago metropolitan area, as well as by the misoscale obstruction of identified trees and buildings. The mesoscale obstruction was estimated within the range of near zero to 50%, increasing toward the city limits, while the misoscale obstruction was estimated as being as large as 58% near obstructing trees which were empirically calculated to cause a wind speed deficit 50-80 times their height. Despite a statistical analysis based on one-million PAM winds, wind speed and stability transmission factors could not be accurately calculated; thus, in order to calculate the airflow free from obstacle, PAM-measured winds must be corrected.

  2. On the benefit of DMT modulation in nonlinear VLC systems.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hua; Cai, Sunzeng; Yao, Saijie; Zhou, Ting; Yang, Yang; Wang, Xudong

    2015-02-09

    In a visible light communication (VLC) system, the nonlinear characteristic of the light emitting diode (LED) in transmitter is a limiting factor of system performance. Modern modulation signals with large peak-to-power-ratio (PAPR) suffers uneven distortion. The nonlinear response directly impacts the intensity modulation and direct detection VLC system with pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM). The amplitude of the PAM signal is distorted unevenly and large signal is vulnerable to noise. Orthogonal linear transformations, such as discrete multi-tone (DMT) modulation, can spread the nonlinear effects evenly to each data symbol, thus perform better than PAM signals. In this paper, we provide theoretical analysis on the benefit of DMT modulation in nonlinear VLC system. We show that the DMT modulation is a better choice than the PAM modulation for the VLC system as the DMT modulation is more robust against nonlinearity. We also show that the post-distortion nonlinear elimination method, which is applied at the receiver, can be a reliable solution to the nonlinear VLC system. Simulation results show that the post-distortion greatly improves the system performance for the DMT modulation.

  3. PAM multiplicity marks genomic target sites as inhibitory to CRISPR-Cas9 editing.

    PubMed

    Malina, Abba; Cameron, Christopher J F; Robert, Francis; Blanchette, Mathieu; Dostie, Josée; Pelletier, Jerry

    2015-12-08

    In CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, the underlying principles for selecting guide RNA (gRNA) sequences that would ensure for efficient target site modification remain poorly understood. Here we show that target sites harbouring multiple protospacer adjacent motifs (PAMs) are refractory to Cas9-mediated repair in situ. Thus we refine which substrates should be avoided in gRNA design, implicating PAM density as a novel sequence-specific feature that inhibits in vivo Cas9-driven DNA modification.

  4. Allosteric transcriptional regulation via changes in the overall topology of the core promoter

    DOE PAGES

    Philips, Steven J.; Canalizo-Hernandez, Monica; Yildirim, Ilyas; ...

    2015-08-21

    Many transcriptional activators act at a distance from core promoter elements and work by recruiting RNA polymerase through protein-protein interactions. We show here how the prokaryotic regulatory protein CueR both represses and activates transcription by differentially modulating local DNA structure within the promoter. Structural studies reveal that the repressor state slightly bends the promoter DNA, precluding optimal RNA polymerase-promoter recognition. Upon binding a metal ion in the allosteric site, CueR switches into an activator conformation. It maintains all protein-DNA contacts but introduces torsional stresses that kink and undertwist the promoter, stabilizing an A-DNA-like conformation. Finally, these factors switch on andmore » off transcription by exerting dynamic control of DNA stereochemistry, reshaping the core promoter and making it a better or worse substrate for polymerase.« less

  5. Molecular kinetics. Ras activation by SOS: allosteric regulation by altered fluctuation dynamics.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Lars; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Lin, Wan-Chen; Christensen, Sune M; Abel, Steven M; Iwig, Jeff; Wu, Hung-Jen; Gureasko, Jodi; Rhodes, Christopher; Petit, Rebecca S; Hansen, Scott D; Thill, Peter; Yu, Cheng-Han; Stamou, Dimitrios; Chakraborty, Arup K; Kuriyan, John; Groves, Jay T

    2014-07-04

    Activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase H-Ras by the exchange factor Son of Sevenless (SOS) is an important hub for signal transduction. Multiple layers of regulation, through protein and membrane interactions, govern activity of SOS. We characterized the specific activity of individual SOS molecules catalyzing nucleotide exchange in H-Ras. Single-molecule kinetic traces revealed that SOS samples a broad distribution of turnover rates through stochastic fluctuations between distinct, long-lived (more than 100 seconds), functional states. The expected allosteric activation of SOS by Ras-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) was conspicuously absent in the mean rate. However, fluctuations into highly active states were modulated by Ras-GTP. This reveals a mechanism in which functional output may be determined by the dynamical spectrum of rates sampled by a small number of enzymes, rather than the ensemble average. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Haloarcula hispanica CRISPR authenticates PAM of a target sequence to prime discriminative adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Wang, Rui; Xiang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    The prokaryotic immune system CRISPR/Cas (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated genes) adapts to foreign invaders by acquiring their short deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragments as spacers, which guide subsequent interference to foreign nucleic acids based on sequence matching. The adaptation mechanism avoiding acquiring ‘self’ DNA fragments is poorly understood. In Haloarcula hispanica, we previously showed that CRISPR adaptation requires being primed by a pre-existing spacer partially matching the invader DNA. Here, we further demonstrate that flanking a fully-matched target sequence, a functional PAM (protospacer adjacent motif) is still required to prime adaptation. Interestingly, interference utilizes only four PAM sequences, whereas adaptation-priming tolerates as many as 23 PAM sequences. This relaxed PAM selectivity explains how adaptation-priming maximizes its tolerance of PAM mutations (that escape interference) while avoiding mis-targeting the spacer DNA within CRISPR locus. We propose that the primed adaptation, which hitches and cooperates with the interference pathway, distinguishes target from non-target by CRISPR ribonucleic acid guidance and PAM recognition. PMID:24803673

  7. Structural Basis for the Altered PAM Recognition by Engineered CRISPR-Cpf1.

    PubMed

    Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Yamano, Takashi; Gao, Linyi; Zhang, Feng; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu

    2017-07-06

    The RNA-guided Cpf1 nuclease cleaves double-stranded DNA targets complementary to the CRISPR RNA (crRNA), and it has been harnessed for genome editing technologies. Recently, Acidaminococcus sp. BV3L6 (AsCpf1) was engineered to recognize altered DNA sequences as the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), thereby expanding the target range of Cpf1-mediated genome editing. Whereas wild-type AsCpf1 recognizes the TTTV PAM, the RVR (S542R/K548V/N552R) and RR (S542R/K607R) variants can efficiently recognize the TATV and TYCV PAMs, respectively. However, their PAM recognition mechanisms remained unknown. Here we present the 2.0 Å resolution crystal structures of the RVR and RR variants bound to a crRNA and its target DNA. The structures revealed that the RVR and RR variants primarily recognize the PAM-complementary nucleotides via the substituted residues. Our high-resolution structures delineated the altered PAM recognition mechanisms of the AsCpf1 variants, providing a basis for the further engineering of CRISPR-Cpf1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Allosterism in human complement component 5a ((h)C5a): a damper of C5a receptor (C5aR) signaling.

    PubMed

    Rana, Soumendra; Sahoo, Amita Rani; Majhi, Bharat Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The phenomena of allosterism continues to advance the field of drug discovery, by illuminating gainful insights for many key processes, related to the structure-function relationships in proteins and enzymes, including the transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), both in normal as well as in the disease states. However, allosterism is completely unexplored in the native protein ligands, especially when a small covalent change significantly modulates the pharmacology of the protein ligands toward the signaling axes of the GPCRs. One such example is the human C5a ((h)C5a), the potent cationic anaphylatoxin that engages C5aR and C5L2 to elicit numerous immunological and non-immunological responses in humans. From the recently available structure-function data, it is clear that unlike the mouse C5a ((m)C5a), the (h)C5a displays conformational heterogeneity. However, the molecular basis of such conformational heterogeneity, otherwise allosterism in (h)C5a and its precise contribution toward the overall C5aR signaling is not known. This study attempts to decipher the functional role of allosterism in (h)C5a, by exploring the inherent conformational dynamics in (m)C5a, (h)C5a and in its point mutants, including the proteolytic mutant des-Arg(74)-(h)C5a. Prima facie, the comparative molecular dynamics study, over total 500 ns, identifies Arg(74)-Tyr(23) and Arg(37)-Phe(51) "cation-π" pairs as the molecular "allosteric switches" on (h)C5a that potentially functions as a damper of C5aR signaling.

  9. Conopeptide ρ-TIA Defines a New Allosteric Site on the Extracellular Surface of the α1B-Adrenoceptor*♦

    PubMed Central

    Ragnarsson, Lotten; Wang, Ching-I Anderson; Andersson, Åsa; Fajarningsih, Dewi; Monks, Thea; Brust, Andreas; Rosengren, K. Johan; Lewis, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily is an important drug target that includes over 1000 membrane receptors that functionally couple extracellular stimuli to intracellular effectors. Despite the potential of extracellular surface (ECS) residues in GPCRs to interact with subtype-specific allosteric modulators, few ECS pharmacophores for class A receptors have been identified. Using the turkey β1-adrenergic receptor crystal structure, we modeled the α1B-adrenoceptor (α1B-AR) to help identify the allosteric site for ρ-conopeptide TIA, an inverse agonist at this receptor. Combining mutational radioligand binding and inositol 1-phosphate signaling studies, together with molecular docking simulations using a refined NMR structure of ρ-TIA, we identified 14 residues on the ECS of the α1B-AR that influenced ρ-TIA binding. Double mutant cycle analysis and docking confirmed that ρ-TIA binding was dominated by a salt bridge and cation-π between Arg-4-ρ-TIA and Asp-327 and Phe-330, respectively, and a T-stacking-π interaction between Trp-3-ρ-TIA and Phe-330. Water-bridging hydrogen bonds between Asn-2-ρ-TIA and Val-197, Trp-3-ρ-TIA and Ser-318, and the positively charged N terminus and Glu-186, were also identified. These interactions reveal that peptide binding to the ECS on transmembrane helix 6 (TMH6) and TMH7 at the base of extracellular loop 3 (ECL3) is sufficient to allosterically inhibit agonist signaling at a GPCR. The ligand-accessible ECS residues identified provide the first view of an allosteric inhibitor pharmacophore for α1-adrenoceptors and mechanistic insight and a new set of structural constraints for the design of allosteric antagonists at related GPCRs. PMID:23184947

  10. Plasma membrane associated membranes (PAM) from Jurkat cells contain STIM1 protein is PAM involved in the capacitative calcium entry?

    PubMed

    Kozieł, Katarzyna; Lebiedzinska, Magdalena; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Onopiuk, Marta; Brutkowski, Wojciech; Wierzbicka, Katarzyna; Wilczyński, Grzegorz; Pinton, Paolo; Duszyński, Jerzy; Zabłocki, Krzysztof; Wieckowski, Mariusz R

    2009-12-01

    A proper cooperation between the plasma membrane, the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria seems to be essential for numerous cellular processes involved in Ca(2+) signalling and maintenance of Ca(2+) homeostasis. A presence of microsomal and mitochondrial proteins together with those characteristic for the plasma membrane in the fraction of the plasma membrane associated membranes (PAM) indicates a formation of stabile interactions between these three structures. We isolated the plasma membrane associated membranes from Jurkat cells and found its significant enrichment in the plasma membrane markers including plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and CD3 as well as sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase as a marker of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. In addition, two proteins involved in the store-operated Ca(2+) entry, Orai1 located in the plasma membrane and an endoplasmic reticulum protein STIM1 were found in this fraction. Furthermore, we observed a rearrangement of STIM1-containing protein complexes isolated from Jurkat cells undergoing stimulation by thapsigargin. We suggest that the inter-membrane compartment composed of the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum, and isolated as a stabile plasma membrane associated membranes fraction, might be involved in the store-operated Ca(2+) entry, and their formation and rebuilding have an important regulatory role in cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis.

  11. Surface Sites for Engineering Allosteric Control in Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeeyeon; Natarajan, Madhusudan; Nashine, Vishal C.; Socolich, Michael; Vo, Tina; Russ, William P.; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Ranganathan, Rama

    2010-01-01

    Statistical analyses of protein families reveal networks of coevolving amino acids that functionally link distantly positioned functional surfaces. Such linkages suggest a concept for engineering allosteric control into proteins: The intramolecular networks of two proteins could be joined across their surface sites such that the activity of one protein might control the activity of the other. We tested this idea by creating PAS-DHFR, a designed chimeric protein that connects a light-sensing signaling domain from a plant member of the Per/Arnt/Sim (PAS) family of proteins with Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). With no optimization, PAS-DHFR exhibited light-dependent catalytic activity that depended on the site of connection and on known signaling mechanisms in both proteins. PAS-DHFR serves as a proof of concept for engineering regulatory activities into proteins through interface design at conserved allosteric sites. PMID:18927392

  12. Evolution of allosteric regulation in chorismate mutases from early plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, Kourtney; Holland, Cynthia K.; Starks, Courtney M.

    Plants, fungi, and bacteria synthesize the aromatic amino acids: l-phenylalanine, l-tyrosine, and l-tryptophan. Chorismate mutase catalyzes the branch point reaction of phenylalanine and tyrosine biosynthesis to generate prephenate. In Arabidopsis thaliana, there are two plastid-localized chorismate mutases that are allosterically regulated (AtCM1 and AtCM3) and one cytosolic isoform (AtCM2) that is unregulated. Previous analysis of plant chorismate mutases suggested that the enzymes from early plants (i.e. bryophytes/moss, lycophytes, and basal angiosperms) formed a clade distinct from the isoforms found in flowering plants; however, no biochemical information on these enzymes is available. To understand the evolution of allosteric regulation in plantmore » chorismate mutases, we analyzed a basal lineage of plant enzymes homologous to AtCM1 based on sequence similarity. The chorismate mutases from the moss/bryophyte Physcomitrella patens (PpCM1 and PpCM2), the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii (SmCM), and the basal angiosperm Amborella trichopoda (AmtCM1 and AmtCM2) were characterized biochemically. Tryptophan was a positive effector for each of the five enzymes examined. Histidine was a weak positive effector for PpCM1 and AmtCM1. Neither tyrosine nor phenylalanine altered the activity of SmCM; however, tyrosine was a negative regulator of the other four enzymes. Phenylalanine down-regulates both moss enzymes and AmtCM2. The 2.0 Å X-ray crystal structure of PpCM1 in complex with the tryptophan identified the allosteric effector site and reveals structural differences between the R- (more active) and T-state (less active) forms of plant chorismate mutases. Molecular insight into the basal plant chorismate mutases guides our understanding of the evolution of allosteric regulation in these enzymes.« less

  13. Time-resolved observation of protein allosteric communication

    PubMed Central

    Buchenberg, Sebastian; Sittel, Florian; Stock, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Allostery represents a fundamental mechanism of biological regulation that is mediated via long-range communication between distant protein sites. Although little is known about the underlying dynamical process, recent time-resolved infrared spectroscopy experiments on a photoswitchable PDZ domain (PDZ2S) have indicated that the allosteric transition occurs on multiple timescales. Here, using extensive nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, a time-dependent picture of the allosteric communication in PDZ2S is developed. The simulations reveal that allostery amounts to the propagation of structural and dynamical changes that are genuinely nonlinear and can occur in a nonlocal fashion. A dynamic network model is constructed that illustrates the hierarchy and exceeding structural heterogeneity of the process. In compelling agreement with experiment, three physically distinct phases of the time evolution are identified, describing elastic response (≲0.1 ns), inelastic reorganization (∼100 ns), and structural relaxation (≳1μs). Issues such as the similarity to downhill folding as well as the interpretation of allosteric pathways are discussed. PMID:28760989

  14. Impact of mutations on the allosteric conformational equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Weinkam, Patrick; Chen, Yao Chi; Pons, Jaume; Sali, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    Allostery in a protein involves effector binding at an allosteric site that changes the structure and/or dynamics at a distant, functional site. In addition to the chemical equilibrium of ligand binding, allostery involves a conformational equilibrium between one protein substate that binds the effector and a second substate that less strongly binds the effector. We run molecular dynamics simulations using simple, smooth energy landscapes to sample specific ligand-induced conformational transitions, as defined by the effector-bound and unbound protein structures. These simulations can be performed using our web server: http://salilab.org/allosmod/. We then develop a set of features to analyze the simulations and capture the relevant thermodynamic properties of the allosteric conformational equilibrium. These features are based on molecular mechanics energy functions, stereochemical effects, and structural/dynamic coupling between sites. Using a machine-learning algorithm on a dataset of 10 proteins and 179 mutations, we predict both the magnitude and sign of the allosteric conformational equilibrium shift by the mutation; the impact of a large identifiable fraction of the mutations can be predicted with an average unsigned error of 1 kBT. With similar accuracy, we predict the mutation effects for an 11th protein that was omitted from the initial training and testing of the machine-learning algorithm. We also assess which calculated thermodynamic properties contribute most to the accuracy of the prediction. PMID:23228330

  15. Escitalopram, an antidepressant with an allosteric effect at the serotonin transporter--a review of current understanding of its mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Huailing; Haddjeri, Nasser; Sánchez, Connie

    2012-01-01

    Escitalopram is a widely used antidepressant for the treatment of patients with major depression. It is the pure S-enantiomer of racemic citalopram. Several clinical trials and meta-analyses indicate that escitalopram is quantitatively more efficacious than many other antidepressants with a faster onset of action. This paper reviews current knowledge about the mechanism of action of escitalopram. The primary target for escitalopram is the serotonin transporter (SERT), which is responsible for serotonin (or 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) reuptake at the terminals and cell bodies of serotonergic neurons. Escitalopram and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors bind with high affinity to the 5-HT binding site (orthosteric site) on the transporter. This leads to antidepressant effects by increasing extracellular 5-HT levels which enhance 5-HT neurotransmission. SERT also has one or more allosteric sites, binding to which modulates activity at the orthosteric binding site but does not directly affect 5-HT reuptake by the transporter. In vitro studies have shown that through allosteric binding, escitalopram decreases its own dissociation rate from the orthosteric site on the SERT. R-citalopram, the nontherapeutic enantiomer in citalopram, is also an allosteric modulator of SERT but can inhibit the actions of escitalopram by interfering negatively with its binding. Both nonclinical studies and some clinical investigations have demonstrated the cellular, neurochemical, neuroadaptive, and neuroplastic changes induced by escitalopram with acute and chronic administration. The findings from binding, neurochemical, and neurophysiological studies may provide a mechanistic rationale for the clinical difference observed with escitalopram compared to other antidepressant therapies.

  16. Effective PCR-based detection of Naegleria fowleri from cultured sample and PAM-developed mouse.

    PubMed

    Kang, Heekyoung; Seong, Gi-Sang; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Eun; Park, Mi Yeoun; Lee, Won-Ja; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2015-10-01

    Increasing numbers of Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM) cases due to Naegleria fowleri are becoming a serious issue in subtropical and tropical countries as a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD). To establish a rapid and effective diagnostic tool, a PCR-based detection technique was developed based on previous PCR methods. Four kinds of primer pairs, Nfa1, Nae3, Nf-ITS, and Naegl, were employed in the cultured amoebic trophozoites and a mouse with PAM experimentally developed by N. fowleri inoculation (PAM-mouse). For the extraction of genomic DNA from N. fowleri trophozoites (1×10(6)), simple boiling with 10μl of PBS (pH 7.4) at 100°C for 30min was found to be the most rapid and efficient procedure, allowing amplification of 2.5×10(2) trophozoites using the Nfa-1 primer. The primers Nfa1 and Nae3 amplified only N. fowleri DNA, whereas the ITS primer detected N. fowleri and N. gruberi DNA. Using the PAM-mouse brain tissue, the Nfa1 primer was able to amplify the N. fowleri DNA 4 days post infection with 1ng/μl of genomic DNA being detectable. Using the PAM-mouse CSF, amplification of the N. fowleri DNA with the Nae3 primer was possible 5 days post infection showing a better performance than the Nfa1 primer at day 6. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Accelerated Biofluid Filling in Complex Microfluidic Networks by Vacuum-Pressure Accelerated Movement (V-PAM).

    PubMed

    Yu, Zeta Tak For; Cheung, Mei Ki; Liu, Shirley Xiaosu; Fu, Jianping

    2016-09-01

    Rapid fluid transport and exchange are critical operations involved in many microfluidic applications. However, conventional mechanisms used for driving fluid transport in microfluidics, such as micropumping and high pressure, can be inaccurate and difficult for implementation for integrated microfluidics containing control components and closed compartments. Here, a technology has been developed termed Vacuum-Pressure Accelerated Movement (V-PAM) capable of significantly enhancing biofluid transport in complex microfluidic environments containing dead-end channels and closed chambers. Operation of the V-PAM entails a pressurized fluid loading into microfluidic channels where gas confined inside can rapidly be dissipated through permeation through a thin, gas-permeable membrane sandwiched between microfluidic channels and a network of vacuum channels. Effects of different structural and operational parameters of the V-PAM for promoting fluid filling in microfluidic environments have been studied systematically. This work further demonstrates the applicability of V-PAM for rapid filling of temperature-sensitive hydrogels and unprocessed whole blood into complex irregular microfluidic networks such as microfluidic leaf venation patterns and blood circulatory systems. Together, the V-PAM technology provides a promising generic microfluidic tool for advanced fluid control and transport in integrated microfluidics for different microfluidic diagnosis, organs-on-chips, and biomimetic studies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. [Effects of biochar and PAM application on saline soil hydraulic properties of coastal reclamation region].

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu Tong; She, Dong Li

    2017-11-01

    Disc infiltration tests were carried out to study the soil infiltration characteristics under different rates of soil amendments application, and to investigate the effects of biochar and polyacrylamide (PAM) application on saline soil hydraulic properties, pore characteristics and contribution of each pore to soil water flow in coastal reclamation region. The results showed that soil satura-ted hydraulic conductivity increased by 46.4% when biochar was applied at 2% compared with the control, and decreased with increasing PAM application. The total effective soil porosity and r>100 μm pores were increased by 8.3% and 10.2% (P<0.05) with the application of 2% biochar alone. The total effective soil porosity and different radius pores decreased with the PAM application. Particularly, the total effective soil porosity decreased markedly when PAM was applied at 1‰ and the reduction was up to 88%. With the application of biochar and PAM, the contribution of r<100 μm pores to water flow decreased and the pores with r>500 μm played a major role in determining water flows.

  19. Feasibility investigation of oily wastewater treatment by combination of zinc and PAM in coagulation/flocculation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yubin; Yang, Changzhu; Zhang, Jingdong; Pu, Wenhong

    2007-08-25

    Poly-zinc silicate (PZSS) is a new type of coagulant with cationic polymer synthesized by polysilicic acid and zinc sulfate. It has been used in several sorts of wastewaters treatment, but not used in oily wastewater treatment. In this study, we investigated the coagulation/flocculation of oil and suspended solids in heavy oil wastewater (HOW) by PZSS and anion polyacrylamide (A-PAM). The properties of PZSS cooperated with A-PAM were compared with PAC and PFS in dosages, PAMs amount, settling time, pH value and flocs morphology. The results showed that PZSS was more efficient than PAC and PFS. Under the optimum experimental conditions of coagulation/flocculation (dosage: 100mg/L, A-PAM dosage: 1.0mg/L, settling time time: 40min and pH 6.5-9.5), more than 99% of oil was removed and suspended solid value less than 5mg/L by using PZSS cooperated with A-PAM, which could satisfy the demands of the pre-treatment process for HOW to be reused in the steam boiler or recycled into the injecting well.

  20. An Archaeal Immune System Can Detect Multiple Protospacer Adjacent Motifs (PAMs) to Target Invader DNA*

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Susan; Maier, Lisa-Katharina; Stoll, Britta; Brendel, Jutta; Fischer, Eike; Pfeiffer, Friedhelm; Dyall-Smith, Mike; Marchfelder, Anita

    2012-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system provides adaptive and heritable immunity against foreign genetic elements in most archaea and many bacteria. Although this system is widespread and diverse with many subtypes, only a few species have been investigated to elucidate the precise mechanisms for the defense of viruses or plasmids. Approximately 90% of all sequenced archaea encode CRISPR/Cas systems, but their molecular details have so far only been examined in three archaeal species: Sulfolobus solfataricus, Sulfolobus islandicus, and Pyrococcus furiosus. Here, we analyzed the CRISPR/Cas system of Haloferax volcanii using a plasmid-based invader assay. Haloferax encodes a type I-B CRISPR/Cas system with eight Cas proteins and three CRISPR loci for which the identity of protospacer adjacent motifs (PAMs) was unknown until now. We identified six different PAM sequences that are required upstream of the protospacer to permit target DNA recognition. This is only the second archaeon for which PAM sequences have been determined, and the first CRISPR group with such a high number of PAM sequences. Cells could survive the plasmid challenge if their CRISPR/Cas system was altered or defective, e.g. by deletion of the cas gene cassette. Experimental PAM data were supplemented with bioinformatics data on Haloferax and Haloquadratum. PMID:22767603

  1. Borotungstic Acid (BWA)-Polyacrylamide (PAM) Solid Polymer Electrolytes for Electrochemical Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foong, Yee Wei

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) are key enablers for thin and flexible electrochemical capacitors in wearable technologies. Polyacrylamide (PAM) is one such promising hygroscopic polymer host, but its performance had not been optimized. This thesis enhanced PAM with borotungstic acid (BWA) as the heteropolyacid conductors. The BWA-PAM electrolyte achieved a high initial conductivity of ca. 27 mS cm-1, but suffered from a short service life (< 40% conductivity retention after 28 days) due to dehydration. BWA-PAM modified with acidic (H3PO4) and neutral (glycerol) plasticizers showed improved conductivity of ca. 30 mS cm-1 and service life (≥ 70% conductivity retention after 28 days). The high BWA and H3PO4 content accelerated the hydrolysis of PAM to polyacrylic acid, resulting in the undesirable precipitation of NH4+-substituted BWA; whereas, glycerol was found to suppress this reaction. The solid CNT-graphite cells with the optimized electrolytes demonstrated a capacitance of ca. 19.5 mF cm -2; a high rate capability (≥ 75% capacitance retention) at 1Vs -1; excellent cycle life (≥ 90% retention of its initial capacitance); and maintained ca. -85° phase angle over 10,000 charging-discharging cycles.

  2. Prediction of allosteric sites on protein surfaces with an elastic-network-model-based thermodynamic method.

    PubMed

    Su, Ji Guo; Qi, Li Sheng; Li, Chun Hua; Zhu, Yan Ying; Du, Hui Jing; Hou, Yan Xue; Hao, Rui; Wang, Ji Hua

    2014-08-01

    Allostery is a rapid and efficient way in many biological processes to regulate protein functions, where binding of an effector at the allosteric site alters the activity and function at a distant active site. Allosteric regulation of protein biological functions provides a promising strategy for novel drug design. However, how to effectively identify the allosteric sites remains one of the major challenges for allosteric drug design. In the present work, a thermodynamic method based on the elastic network model was proposed to predict the allosteric sites on the protein surface. In our method, the thermodynamic coupling between the allosteric and active sites was considered, and then the allosteric sites were identified as those where the binding of an effector molecule induces a large change in the binding free energy of the protein with its ligand. Using the proposed method, two proteins, i.e., the 70 kD heat shock protein (Hsp70) and GluA2 alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor, were studied and the allosteric sites on the protein surface were successfully identified. The predicted results are consistent with the available experimental data, which indicates that our method is a simple yet effective approach for the identification of allosteric sites on proteins.

  3. Prediction of allosteric sites on protein surfaces with an elastic-network-model-based thermodynamic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ji Guo; Qi, Li Sheng; Li, Chun Hua; Zhu, Yan Ying; Du, Hui Jing; Hou, Yan Xue; Hao, Rui; Wang, Ji Hua

    2014-08-01

    Allostery is a rapid and efficient way in many biological processes to regulate protein functions, where binding of an effector at the allosteric site alters the activity and function at a distant active site. Allosteric regulation of protein biological functions provides a promising strategy for novel drug design. However, how to effectively identify the allosteric sites remains one of the major challenges for allosteric drug design. In the present work, a thermodynamic method based on the elastic network model was proposed to predict the allosteric sites on the protein surface. In our method, the thermodynamic coupling between the allosteric and active sites was considered, and then the allosteric sites were identified as those where the binding of an effector molecule induces a large change in the binding free energy of the protein with its ligand. Using the proposed method, two proteins, i.e., the 70 kD heat shock protein (Hsp70) and GluA2 alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor, were studied and the allosteric sites on the protein surface were successfully identified. The predicted results are consistent with the available experimental data, which indicates that our method is a simple yet effective approach for the identification of allosteric sites on proteins.

  4. Evidence for an allosteric mechanism of substrate release from membrane-transporter accessory binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, Fabrizio; Kuhlmann, Sonja I; Grell, Ernst; Kunte, Hans-Jörg; Ziegler, Christine; Faraldo-Gómez, José D

    2011-12-06

    Numerous membrane importers rely on accessory water-soluble proteins to capture their substrates. These substrate-binding proteins (SBP) have a strong affinity for their ligands; yet, substrate release onto the low-affinity membrane transporter must occur for uptake to proceed. It is generally accepted that release is facilitated by the association of SBP and transporter, upon which the SBP adopts a conformation similar to the unliganded state, whose affinity is sufficiently reduced. Despite the appeal of this mechanism, however, direct supporting evidence is lacking. Here, we use experimental and theoretical methods to demonstrate that an allosteric mechanism of enhanced substrate release is indeed plausible. First, we report the atomic-resolution structure of apo TeaA, the SBP of the Na(+)-coupled ectoine TRAP transporter TeaBC from Halomonas elongata DSM2581(T), and compare it with the substrate-bound structure previously reported. Conformational free-energy landscape calculations based upon molecular dynamics simulations are then used to dissect the mechanism that couples ectoine binding to structural change in TeaA. These insights allow us to design a triple mutation that biases TeaA toward apo-like conformations without directly perturbing the binding cleft, thus mimicking the influence of the membrane transporter. Calorimetric measurements demonstrate that the ectoine affinity of the conformationally biased triple mutant is 100-fold weaker than that of the wild type. By contrast, a control mutant predicted to be conformationally unbiased displays wild-type affinity. This work thus demonstrates that substrate release from SBPs onto their membrane transporters can be facilitated by the latter through a mechanism of allosteric modulation of the former.

  5. A key agonist-induced conformational change in the cannabinoid receptor CB1 is blocked by the allosteric ligand Org 27569.

    PubMed

    Fay, Jonathan F; Farrens, David L

    2012-09-28

    Allosteric ligands that modulate how G protein-coupled receptors respond to traditional orthosteric drugs are an exciting and rapidly expanding field of pharmacology. An allosteric ligand for the cannabinoid receptor CB1, Org 27569, exhibits an intriguing effect; it increases agonist binding, yet blocks agonist-induced CB1 signaling. Here we explored the mechanism behind this behavior, using a site-directed fluorescence labeling approach. Our results show that Org 27569 blocks conformational changes in CB1 that accompany G protein binding and/or activation, and thus inhibit formation of a fully active CB1 structure. The underlying mechanism behind this behavior is that simultaneous binding of Org 27569 produces a unique agonist-bound conformation, one that may resemble an intermediate structure formed on the pathway to full receptor activation.

  6. Allosteric Inhibition of the Neuropeptidase Neurolysin*

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Christina S.; Ray, Kallol; Schmidt, Jack J.; Xiong, Fei; Feenstra, Rolf W.; Pras-Raves, Mia; de Moes, Jan Peter; Lange, Jos H. M.; Melikishvili, Manana; Fried, Michael G.; Mortenson, Paul; Charlton, Michael; Patel, Yogendra; Courtney, Stephen M.; Kruse, Chris G.; Rodgers, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptidases specialize in the hydrolysis of the small bioactive peptides that play a variety of signaling roles in the nervous and endocrine systems. One neuropeptidase, neurolysin, helps control the levels of the dopaminergic circuit modulator neurotensin and is a member of a fold group that includes the antihypertensive target angiotensin converting enzyme. We report the discovery of a potent inhibitor that, unexpectedly, binds away from the enzyme catalytic site. The location of the bound inhibitor suggests it disrupts activity by preventing a hinge-like motion associated with substrate binding and catalysis. In support of this model, the inhibition kinetics are mixed, with both noncompetitive and competitive components, and fluorescence polarization shows directly that the inhibitor reverses a substrate-associated conformational change. This new type of inhibition may have widespread utility in targeting neuropeptidases. PMID:25378390

  7. CYP51 is an essential drug target for the treatment of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM)

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, Anjan; Calvet, Claudia M.; Aksenov, Alexander; Abagyan, Ruben; Nes, W. David; McKerrow, James H.

    2017-01-01

    Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM) is caused by Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba that occasionally infects humans. While considered “rare” (but likely underreported) the high mortality rate and lack of established success in treatment makes PAM a particularly devastating infection. In the absence of economic inducements to invest in development of anti-PAM drugs by the pharmaceutical industry, anti-PAM drug discovery largely relies on drug ‘repurposing’—a cost effective strategy to apply known drugs for treatment of rare or neglected diseases. Similar to fungi, N. fowleri has an essential requirement for ergosterol, a building block of plasma and cell membranes. Disruption of sterol biosynthesis by small-molecule inhibitors is a validated interventional strategy against fungal pathogens of medical and agricultural importance. The N. fowleri genome encodes the sterol 14-demethylase (CYP51) target sharing ~35% sequence identity to fungal orthologues. The similarity of targets raises the possibility of repurposing anti-mycotic drugs and optimization of their usage for the treatment of PAM. In this work, we (i) systematically assessed the impact of anti-fungal azole drugs, known as conazoles, on sterol biosynthesis and viability of cultured N. fowleri trophozotes, (ii) identified the endogenous CYP51 substrate by mass spectrometry analysis of N. fowleri lipids, and (iii) analyzed the interactions between the recombinant CYP51 target and conazoles by UV-vis spectroscopy and x-ray crystallography. Collectively, the target-based and parasite-based data obtained in these studies validated CYP51 as a potentially ‘druggable’ target in N. fowleri, and conazole drugs as the candidates for assessment in the animal model of PAM. PMID:29284029

  8. Allosteric Regulation of the Hsp90 Dynamics and Stability by Client Recruiter Cochaperones: Protein Structure Network Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Blacklock, Kristin; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental role of the Hsp90 chaperone in supporting functional activity of diverse protein clients is anchored by specific cochaperones. A family of immune sensing client proteins is delivered to the Hsp90 system with the aid of cochaperones Sgt1 and Rar1 that act cooperatively with Hsp90 to form allosterically regulated dynamic complexes. In this work, functional dynamics and protein structure network modeling are combined to dissect molecular mechanisms of Hsp90 regulation by the client recruiter cochaperones. Dynamic signatures of the Hsp90-cochaperone complexes are manifested in differential modulation of the conformational mobility in the Hsp90 lid motif. Consistent with the experiments, we have determined that targeted reorganization of the lid dynamics is a unifying characteristic of the client recruiter cochaperones. Protein network analysis of the essential conformational space of the Hsp90-cochaperone motions has identified structurally stable interaction communities, interfacial hubs and key mediating residues of allosteric communication pathways that act concertedly with the shifts in conformational equilibrium. The results have shown that client recruiter cochaperones can orchestrate global changes in the dynamics and stability of the interaction networks that could enhance the ATPase activity and assist in the client recruitment. The network analysis has recapitulated a broad range of structural and mutagenesis experiments, particularly clarifying the elusive role of Rar1 as a regulator of the Hsp90 interactions and a stability enhancer of the Hsp90-cochaperone complexes. Small-world organization of the interaction networks in the Hsp90 regulatory complexes gives rise to a strong correspondence between highly connected local interfacial hubs, global mediator residues of allosteric interactions and key functional hot spots of the Hsp90 activity. We have found that cochaperone-induced conformational changes in Hsp90 may be determined by specific

  9. Allosteric regulation of the Hsp90 dynamics and stability by client recruiter cochaperones: protein structure network modeling.

    PubMed

    Blacklock, Kristin; Verkhivker, Gennady M

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental role of the Hsp90 chaperone in supporting functional activity of diverse protein clients is anchored by specific cochaperones. A family of immune sensing client proteins is delivered to the Hsp90 system with the aid of cochaperones Sgt1 and Rar1 that act cooperatively with Hsp90 to form allosterically regulated dynamic complexes. In this work, functional dynamics and protein structure network modeling are combined to dissect molecular mechanisms of Hsp90 regulation by the client recruiter cochaperones. Dynamic signatures of the Hsp90-cochaperone complexes are manifested in differential modulation of the conformational mobility in the Hsp90 lid motif. Consistent with the experiments, we have determined that targeted reorganization of the lid dynamics is a unifying characteristic of the client recruiter cochaperones. Protein network analysis of the essential conformational space of the Hsp90-cochaperone motions has identified structurally stable interaction communities, interfacial hubs and key mediating residues of allosteric communication pathways that act concertedly with the shifts in conformational equilibrium. The results have shown that client recruiter cochaperones can orchestrate global changes in the dynamics and stability of the interaction networks that could enhance the ATPase activity and assist in the client recruitment. The network analysis has recapitulated a broad range of structural and mutagenesis experiments, particularly clarifying the elusive role of Rar1 as a regulator of the Hsp90 interactions and a stability enhancer of the Hsp90-cochaperone complexes. Small-world organization of the interaction networks in the Hsp90 regulatory complexes gives rise to a strong correspondence between highly connected local interfacial hubs, global mediator residues of allosteric interactions and key functional hot spots of the Hsp90 activity. We have found that cochaperone-induced conformational changes in Hsp90 may be determined by specific

  10. PAM multiplicity marks genomic target sites as inhibitory to CRISPR-Cas9 editing

    PubMed Central

    Malina, Abba; Cameron, Christopher J. F.; Robert, Francis; Blanchette, Mathieu; Dostie, Josée; Pelletier, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    In CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, the underlying principles for selecting guide RNA (gRNA) sequences that would ensure for efficient target site modification remain poorly understood. Here we show that target sites harbouring multiple protospacer adjacent motifs (PAMs) are refractory to Cas9-mediated repair in situ. Thus we refine which substrates should be avoided in gRNA design, implicating PAM density as a novel sequence-specific feature that inhibits in vivo Cas9-driven DNA modification. PMID:26644285

  11. The impact of ions on allosteric functions in human liver pyruvate kinase

    PubMed Central

    Alontaga, Aileen Y.

    2010-01-01

    Experimental designs used to monitor the magnitude of an allosteric response can greatly influence observed values. We report here the impact of buffer, monovalent cation, divalent cation and anion on the magnitude of the allosteric regulation of the affinity of human liver pyruvate kinase (hL-PYK) for substrate, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). The magnitudes of the allosteric activation by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (Fru-1,6-BP) and the allosteric inhibition by alanine are independent of most, but not all buffers tested. However, these magnitudes are dependent on whether Mg2+ or Mn2+ is included as the divalent cation. In the presence of Mn2+, any change in Kapp-PEP caused by Fru-1,6-BP is minimal. hL-PYK activity does not appear to require monovalent cation. Monovalent cation binding in the active site impacts PEP affinity with minimum influence on the magnitude of allosteric coupling. However, Na+ and Li+ reduce the magnitude of the allosteric response to Fru-1,6-BP, likely due to mechanisms outside of the active site. Which anion is used to maintain a constant monovalent cation concentration also influences the magnitude of the allosteric response. The value of determining the impact of ions on allosteric function can be appreciated by considering that representative structures used in comparative studies have often been determined using protein crystals grown in diverse buffer and salt conditions. PMID:21609859

  12. AlloPred: prediction of allosteric pockets on proteins using normal mode perturbation analysis.

    PubMed

    Greener, Joe G; Sternberg, Michael J E

    2015-10-23

    Despite being hugely important in biological processes, allostery is poorly understood and no universal mechanism has been discovered. Allosteric drugs are a largely unexplored prospect with many potential advantages over orthosteric drugs. Computational methods to predict allosteric sites on proteins are needed to aid the discovery of allosteric drugs, as well as to advance our fundamental understanding of allostery. AlloPred, a novel method to predict allosteric pockets on proteins, was developed. AlloPred uses perturbation of normal modes alongside pocket descriptors in a machine learning approach that ranks the pockets on a protein. AlloPred ranked an allosteric pocket top for 23 out of 40 known allosteric proteins, showing comparable and complementary performance to two existing methods. In 28 of 40 cases an allosteric pocket was ranked first or second. The AlloPred web server, freely available at http://www.sbg.bio.ic.ac.uk/allopred/home, allows visualisation and analysis of predictions. The source code and dataset information are also available from this site. Perturbation of normal modes can enhance our ability to predict allosteric sites on proteins. Computational methods such as AlloPred assist drug discovery efforts by suggesting sites on proteins for further experimental study.

  13. An experimental vestibular neural prosthesis: design and preliminary results with rhesus monkeys stimulated with modulated pulses.

    PubMed

    Nie, Kaibao; Ling, Leo; Bierer, Steven M; Kaneko, Chris R S; Fuchs, Albert F; Oxford, Trey; Rubinstein, Jay T; Phillips, James O

    2013-06-01

    A vestibular neural prosthesis was designed on the basis of a cochlear implant for treatment of Meniere's disease and other vestibular disorders. Computer control software was developed to generate patterned pulse stimuli for exploring optimal parameters to activate the vestibular nerve. Two rhesus monkeys were implanted with the prototype vestibular prosthesis and they were behaviorally evaluated post implantation surgery. Horizontal and vertical eye movement responses to patterned electrical pulse stimulations were collected on both monkeys. Pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) and pulse rate modulated (PRM) trains were applied to the lateral canal of each implanted animal. Robust slow-phase nystagmus responses following the PAM or PRM modulation pattern were observed in both implanted monkeys in the direction consistent with the activation of the implanted canal. Both PAM and PRM pulse trains can elicit a significant amount of in-phase modulated eye velocity changes and they could potentially be used for efficiently coding head rotational signals in future vestibular neural prostheses.

  14. Allosteric effects of gold nanoparticles on human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qing; Hall, Carol K

    2017-01-07

    The ability of nanoparticles to alter protein structure and dynamics plays an important role in their medical and biological applications. We investigate allosteric effects of gold nanoparticles on human serum albumin protein using molecular simulations. The extent to which bound nanoparticles influence the structure and dynamics of residues distant from the binding site is analyzed. The root mean square deviation, root mean square fluctuation and variation in the secondary structure of individual residues on a human serum albumin protein are calculated for four protein-gold nanoparticle binding complexes. The complexes are identified in a brute-force search process using an implicit-solvent coarse-grained model for proteins and nanoparticles. They are then converted to atomic resolution and their structural and dynamic properties are investigated using explicit-solvent atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that even though the albumin protein remains in a folded structure, the presence of a gold nanoparticle can cause more than 50% of the residues to decrease their flexibility significantly, and approximately 10% of the residues to change their secondary structure. These affected residues are distributed on the whole protein, even on regions that are distant from the nanoparticle. We analyze the changes in structure and flexibility of amino acid residues on a variety of binding sites on albumin and confirm that nanoparticles could allosterically affect the ability of albumin to bind fatty acids, thyroxin and metals. Our simulations suggest that allosteric effects must be considered when designing and deploying nanoparticles in medical and biological applications that depend on protein-nanoparticle interactions.

  15. Heme Regulates Allosteric Activation of the Slo1 BK Channel

    PubMed Central

    Horrigan, Frank T.; Heinemann, Stefan H.; Hoshi, Toshinori

    2005-01-01

    Large conductance calcium-dependent (Slo1 BK) channels are allosterically activated by membrane depolarization and divalent cations, and possess a rich modulatory repertoire. Recently, intracellular heme has been identified as a potent regulator of Slo1 BK channels (Tang, X.D., R. Xu, M.F. Reynolds, M.L. Garcia, S.H. Heinemann, and T. Hoshi. 2003. Nature. 425:531–535). Here we investigated the mechanism of the regulatory action of heme on heterologously expressed Slo1 BK channels by separating the influences of voltage and divalent cations. In the absence of divalent cations, heme generally decreased ionic currents by shifting the channel's G–V curve toward more depolarized voltages and by rendering the curve less steep. In contrast, gating currents rem