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Sample records for allowable catch tac

  1. 50 CFR 665.211 - Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. 665... Fisheries § 665.211 Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. (a) TAC limits will be set annually for the fishing... Administrator shall publish a notice indicating the annual TAC limit in the Federal Register by August 31...

  2. 50 CFR 665.211 - Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. 665... Fisheries § 665.211 Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. (a) TAC limits will be set annually for the fishing... Administrator shall publish a notice indicating the annual TAC limit in the Federal Register by August 31...

  3. 50 CFR 665.211 - Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. 665... Fisheries § 665.211 Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. (a) TAC limits will be set annually for the fishing... Administrator shall publish a notice indicating the annual TAC limit in the Federal Register by August 31...

  4. 50 CFR 665.211 - Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. 665... Fisheries § 665.211 Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. (a) TAC limits will be set annually for the fishing... Administrator shall publish a notice indicating the annual TAC limit in the Federal Register by August 31...

  5. 50 CFR 665.211 - Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. 665.211... Fisheries § 665.211 Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. (a) TAC limits will be set annually for the fishing... Administrator shall publish a notice indicating the annual TAC limit in the Federal Register by August 31...

  6. 75 FR 69014 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Total Allowable Catch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... August 12, 2010 (75 FR 48874). The 2010 total TAC is 91,200 mt, allocated to the herring management areas... United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Total Allowable Catch Harvested for Management Area 1A AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; notification of trip limit reduction in Area 1A of the Atlantic Herring...

  7. 75 FR 56016 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Total Allowable Catch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... to Area 1B (75 FR 48874, August 12, 2010) is 4,362 mt; 0 mt of the TAC is set aside for research... United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Total Allowable Catch Harvested for Management Area 1B AGENCY...) of Atlantic herring in or from Management Area 1B (Area 1B) per trip or calendar day until January...

  8. 50 CFR 648.231 - Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). 648.231 Section 648.231 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES... dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). (a) The Spiny...

  9. 50 CFR 648.231 - Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). 648.231 Section 648.231 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES... dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). (a) The Spiny...

  10. 50 CFR 648.231 - Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). 648.231 Section 648.231 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED...

  11. TAC-maker: Transit Analytical Curve maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Vladev, A.; Yotov, V.

    2013-03-01

    TAC-maker allows for rapid and interactive calculation of synthetic planet transits by numerical computations of the integrals, allowing the use of an arbitrary limb-darkening law of the host star. This advantage together with the practically arbitrary precision of the calculations makes the code a valuable tool for the continuously increasing photometric precision of ground-based and space observations.

  12. 50 CFR 648.201 - Closures and TAC controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.201 Closures and TAC controls. (a) If NMFS determines that catch will reach... herring per trip and/or >2,000 lb (907.2 kg) of Atlantic herring per day in such area pursuant to... with > 2,000 lb (907.2 kg) of herring on board, provided such herring were caught in an area or...

  13. TacNet Tracker Software

    2008-08-04

    The TacNet Tracker will be used for the monitoring and real-time tracking of personnel and assets in an unlimited number of specific applications. The TacNet Tracker software is a VxWorks Operating System based programming package that controls the functionality for the wearable Tracker. One main use of the TacNet Tracker is in Blue Force Tracking, the ability to track the good guys in an adversarial situation or in a force-on-force or real battle conditions. Themore » purpose of blue force tracking is to provide situational awareness to the battlefield commanders and personnel. There are practical military applications with the TacNet Tracker.The mesh network is a wireless IP communications network that moves data packets from source IP addresses to specific destination IP addresses. Addresses on the TacNet infrastructure utilize an 8-bit network mask (255.0.0.0). In other words, valid TacNet addresses range from 10.0.0.1 to 10.254.254.254. The TacNet software design uses uni-cast transmission techniques because earlier mesh network software releases did not provide for the ability to utilize multi-cast data movement. The TacNet design employs a list of addresses to move information within the TacNet infrastructure. For example, a convoy text file containing the IP addresses of all valid receivers of TacNet information could be used for transmitting the information and for limiting transmission to addresses on the list.« less

  14. TacNet Tracker Software

    SciTech Connect

    WISEMAN, JAMES; & STEVENS, JAMES

    2008-08-04

    The TacNet Tracker will be used for the monitoring and real-time tracking of personnel and assets in an unlimited number of specific applications. The TacNet Tracker software is a VxWorks Operating System based programming package that controls the functionality for the wearable Tracker. One main use of the TacNet Tracker is in Blue Force Tracking, the ability to track the good guys in an adversarial situation or in a force-on-force or real battle conditions. The purpose of blue force tracking is to provide situational awareness to the battlefield commanders and personnel. There are practical military applications with the TacNet Tracker.The mesh network is a wireless IP communications network that moves data packets from source IP addresses to specific destination IP addresses. Addresses on the TacNet infrastructure utilize an 8-bit network mask (255.0.0.0). In other words, valid TacNet addresses range from 10.0.0.1 to 10.254.254.254. The TacNet software design uses uni-cast transmission techniques because earlier mesh network software releases did not provide for the ability to utilize multi-cast data movement. The TacNet design employs a list of addresses to move information within the TacNet infrastructure. For example, a convoy text file containing the IP addresses of all valid receivers of TacNet information could be used for transmitting the information and for limiting transmission to addresses on the list.

  15. Catching Sunlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Alan

    Everyone knows that astronomy is done in the dark. Astronomers are creatures of the night, like vampires, sleeping during the day and working all night long to catch the faint light of their elusive prey.

  16. TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot research study to assess methodologies and research instruments needed for including asthma as a health outcome in the National Children's Study (NCS). This was one of a series of pilot studies focusing on (a) simple, cos...

  17. Overview of the TAC-BIO detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabalo, Jerry; DeLucia, Marla; Goad, Aime; Lacis, John; Narayanan, Fiona; Sickenberger, David

    2008-10-01

    Ultra Violet (UV) induced fluorescence remains a core technique for the real time detection of biological aerosols. With this approach, the detection of an aerosolized biological event is based on the fluorescent and scattering signals observed from biological particles when exposed to one or more UV sources. In 2004, the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC) initiated an effort to develop a low cost, small, lightweight, low power biological agent detector, identified as the TAC-BIO, based on this principle. Unlike previous laser based detectors, this program has capitalized on Semiconductor UV Optical Sources (SUVOS) being developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Compared to the existing UV lasers, these SUVOS devices and their commercial counter-parts offered a means of achieving small, low cost, low power UV excitation sources. A general design philosophy of incorporating these devices with other low cost components has allowed ECBC to develop a detector that provides a credible degree of performance while maintaining the target size weight and power attributes. This paper presents an overview of the TAC-BIO and some of the findings to date.

  18. Catch a Star!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-11-01

    ESO and the European Association for Astronomy Education are launching today the 2007 edition of 'Catch a Star!', their international astronomy competition for school students. Now in its fifth year, the competition offers students the chance to win a once-in-a-lifetime trip to ESO's flagship observatory in Chile, as well as many other prizes. Students are invited to 'become astronomers' and embark on a journey to explore the Universe. ESO PR Photo 42/06 The competition includes separate categories - 'Catch a Star Researchers' and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' - to ensure that every student, whatever their level, has the chance to enter and win exciting prizes. For the artistically minded, 'Catch a Star!' also includes an artwork competition, 'Catch a Star Artists'. "'Catch a Star!' offers a unique opportunity for students to learn more about astronomy and about the methods scientists use to discover new things about the Universe", said Douglas Pierce-Price, Education Officer at ESO. In teams, students choose an astronomical topic to study and produce an in-depth report. An important part of the project for 'Catch a Star Researchers' is to think about how ESO's telescopes or a telescope of the future can contribute to their investigations of the subject. As well as the top prize - a trip to one of ESO's observatory sites in Chile - visits to observatories in Germany, Austria and Spain, and many other prizes are also available to be won. 'Catch a Star Researchers' winners will be chosen by an international jury, and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' will be awarded further prizes by lottery. Entries for 'Catch a Star Artists' will be displayed on the web and winners chosen with the help of a public online vote. The first editions of 'Catch a Star!' have attracted several hundred entries from more than 25 countries worldwide. Previous winning entries have included "Star clusters and the structure of the Milky Way" (Budapest, Hungary), "Vega" (Acqui Terme, Italy) and "Venus

  19. Tic Tac Toe Math. Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Richard

    This instructional guide and set of three companion workbooks are intended for use in an arithmetic course based on the Tic Tac Toe method of addition and multiplication, which is an alternative means of learning to add and multiply that was developed for students whose learning disabilities (including difficulty in distinguishing left from right…

  20. Tic Tac Toe Math. Train the Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Alternative Learning, Bryn Mawr, PA.

    This report describes a project that developed a "Train the Trainer" program that would enable individuals to learn and teach the alternative instructional technique, Tic Tac Toe Math, developed by Richard Cooper for adult basic education students. The pilot workshop conducted as part of the project identified problems that traditional teachers…

  1. Catch a Star 2008!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-10-01

    ESO and the European Association for Astronomy Education have just launched the 2008 edition of 'Catch a Star', their international astronomy competition for school students. Now in its sixth year, the competition offers students the chance to win a once-in-a-lifetime trip to ESO's flagship observatory in Chile, as well as many other prizes. CAS logo The competition includes separate categories - 'Catch a Star Researchers' and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' - to ensure that every student, whatever their level, has the chance to enter and win exciting prizes. In teams, students investigate an astronomical topic of their choice and write a report about it. An important part of the project for 'Catch a Star Researchers' is to think about how ESO's telescopes such as the Very Large Telescope (VLT) or future telescopes such as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) could contribute to investigations of the topic. Students may also include practical activities such as observations or experiments. For the artistically minded, 'Catch a Star' also offers an artwork competition, 'Catch a Star Artists'. Last year, hundreds of students from across Europe and beyond took part in 'Catch a Star', submitting astronomical projects and artwork. "'Catch a Star' gets students thinking about the wonders of the Universe and the science of astronomy, with a chance of winning great prizes. It's easy to take part, whether by writing about astronomy or creating astronomically inspired artwork," said Douglas Pierce-Price, Education Officer at ESO. As well as the top prize - a trip to ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile - visits to observatories in Austria and Spain, and many other prizes, can also be won. 'Catch a Star Researchers' winners will be chosen by an international jury, and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' will be awarded further prizes by lottery. Entries for 'Catch a Star Artists' will be displayed on the web and winners

  2. 48 CFR 1201.301-72 - TAC or TN numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false TAC or TN numbering. 1201... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 1201.301-72 TAC or TN numbering. TACs and TNs will be numbered consecutively on a fiscal year basis beginning with number “01”...

  3. 48 CFR 1201.301-72 - TAC or TN numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false TAC or TN numbering. 1201... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 1201.301-72 TAC or TN numbering. TACs and TNs will be numbered consecutively on a fiscal year basis beginning with number “01”...

  4. 48 CFR 1201.301-72 - TAC or TN numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false TAC or TN numbering. 1201... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 1201.301-72 TAC or TN numbering. TACs and TNs will be numbered consecutively on a fiscal year basis beginning with number “01”...

  5. 48 CFR 1201.301-72 - TAC or TN numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false TAC or TN numbering. 1201... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 1201.301-72 TAC or TN numbering. TACs and TNs will be numbered consecutively on a fiscal year basis beginning with number “01”...

  6. 48 CFR 1201.301-72 - TAC or TN numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TAC or TN numbering. 1201... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 1201.301-72 TAC or TN numbering. TACs and TNs will be numbered consecutively on a fiscal year basis beginning with number “01”...

  7. Review of TAC superferric magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.; Humphries, D.

    1985-09-03

    The studies reported here include conductor current level optimizations at 0.15 T, 2.0 T, 3.0 T, and 3.25 T, maximum conductor fields at 3.25 T, sensitivity of field quality to variations in the magnetic shunt, and effects of up-down asymmetries. This design is characterized by a magnetic shunt which separates the aperture from the primary coils. The current in the three coils, labeled I/sub c'/ I/sub in'/ and I/sub out'/ may be individually controlled. Two configurations of the trim coil, labeled I/sub c'/ were investigated. The three currents are to be used as parameters to control the dipole field value, and to zero the first two allowed harmonic components, the sextupole and decapole.

  8. Overview of the TAC-BIO sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabalo, Jerry; Sickenberger, Richard; De Lucia, Marla; Briles, John; Poldmae, Aime; Sickenberger, David

    2005-05-01

    In light of the current state of detection technologies designed to meet the current threat from biological agents, the need for a low-cost and lightweight sensor is clear. Such a sensor based on optical detection, with real time responses and no consumables, is possible. Devices arising from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) Semiconductor UV Optical Sources (SUVOS) are the enabling technology. These sources are capable of emitting UV wavelengths known to excite fluorescence from biological agent particles while costing a few dollars apiece and consuming low power. These devices are exploited in the TAC-Bio Sensor. A unique optical design is used to collect the usable portion of the LED emission and focus it into the probing region of the sensor. To compensate for the low UV power density relative to UV lasers, the TAC-Bio utilizes a unique opposed flow configuration to increase the interaction between particles and the UV beam. The current TAC-Bio sensor testbed is capable of detecting fluorescence Bacillus globigii (BG, an anthrax simulant) spore agglomerates down to 5 microns in diameter. Ongoing work is focusing on increasing signal to noise so that smaller particles, possibly single spores, can be detected, as well as on including additional data channels, such as light scattering, to increase selectivity of the sensor.

  9. Nitrogen catch crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High costs of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and the potential for N losses to ground and surface water have resulted in increased interest in using catch crops to recover this N. Research on potatoes has shown that the amount of N lost to leaching can be as much as the amount of N removed from the field ...

  10. Experiments in robotic catching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hove, Barbara; Slotine, Jean-Jacques E.

    1991-01-01

    Real-time coordination of visual information with high-speed manipulator control is studied in the context of three-dimensional robotic catching. All path planning for the catch occurs in real-time during the half-second that the targeted object is airborne. A trajectory-matching algorithm is used that combines an observer with a varying-strength filter, an error estimator, and an initial motion algorithm. The results are demonstrated experimentally using a real-time vision system and a four-degree-of-freedom, cable-driven arm with a workspace of 4.2 m3 and speed capabilities of up to 2.0 m/s.

  11. Probing the causal role of prestimulus interregional synchrony for perceptual integration via tACS.

    PubMed

    Stonkus, Rolandas; Braun, Verena; Kerlin, Jess R; Volberg, Gregor; Hanslmayr, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The phase of prestimulus oscillations at 7-10 Hz has been shown to modulate perception of briefly presented visual stimuli. Specifically, a recent combined EEG-fMRI study suggested that a prestimulus oscillation at around 7 Hz represents open and closed windows for perceptual integration by modulating connectivity between lower order occipital and higher order parietal brain regions. We here utilized brief event-related transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to specifically modulate this prestimulus 7 Hz oscillation, and the synchrony between parietal and occipital brain regions. To this end we tested for a causal role of this particular prestimulus oscillation for perceptual integration. The EEG was acquired at the same time allowing us to investigate frequency specific after effects phase-locked to stimulation offset. On a behavioural level our results suggest that tACS did modulate perceptual integration, however, in an unexpected manner. On an electrophysiological level our results suggest that brief tACS does induce oscillatory entrainment, as visible in frequency specific activity phase-locked to stimulation offset. Together, our results do not strongly support a causal role of prestimulus 7 Hz oscillations for perceptual integration. However, our results suggest that brief tACS is capable of modulating oscillatory activity in a temporally sensitive manner. PMID:27616188

  12. Condor TAC: EO/IR tactical aerial reconnaissance photography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrushevsky, Vladimir; Tsur, David

    2012-06-01

    Based on the experience gained with the Condor2 long-range oblique photography (LOROP) camera, ELOP is expanding its airborne reconnaissance product line with the Condor TAC tactical photography system. The latter was designed for overflight imaging of extended areas from a fighter or special mission aircraft, at day and night. The Condor TAC is mounted in an aerodynamically shaped pod and can operate in wide envelope of flight altitude and speed. Besides the camera, the pod contains mission management and video processing unit (MVU), solid state recorder (SSR), wide-band data link (DL) for real-time imagery transmission, and two environmental control units (ECU). Complex multi-segment optical windows were successfully developed for the system. The camera system design is modular and highly flexible. Two independent imaging payload modules are mounted inside a gimbal system. Each of the modules is equipped with a strap-down IMU, and may carry a cluster of cameras or a single large camera with gross weight up to 35 kg. The payload modules are interchangeable, with an identical interface to the gimbal. The modularity and open architecture of the system facilitate its adaptation to various operational requirements, as well as allow easy and relatively non-expensive upgrades and configuration changes. In the current configuration, both EO and IR payload modules are equipped with a combination of longer focal length cameras for bi-directional panoramic scan at medium and high flight altitudes, and shorter focal length cameras for fixed wide angle coverage at low altitudes. All the camera types are equipped with standard format, off-the-shelf area detector arrays. Precise motion compensation is achieved by calibrated back-scan mirrors.

  13. Trypanosomal TAC40 constitutes a novel subclass of mitochondrial β-barrel proteins specialized in mitochondrial genome inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Schnarwiler, Felix; Niemann, Moritz; Doiron, Nicholas; Harsman, Anke; Käser, Sandro; Mani, Jan; Chanfon, Astrid; Dewar, Caroline E.; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Jackson, Christopher B.; Pusnik, Mascha; Schmidt, Oliver; Meisinger, Chris; Hiller, Sebastian; Warscheid, Bettina; Schnaufer, Achim C.; Ochsenreiter, Torsten; Schneider, André

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria cannot form de novo but require mechanisms allowing their inheritance to daughter cells. In contrast to most other eukaryotes Trypanosoma brucei has a single mitochondrion whose single-unit genome is physically connected to the flagellum. Here we identify a β-barrel mitochondrial outer membrane protein, termed tripartite attachment complex 40 (TAC40), that localizes to this connection. TAC40 is essential for mitochondrial DNA inheritance and belongs to the mitochondrial porin protein family. However, it is not specifically related to any of the three subclasses of mitochondrial porins represented by the metabolite transporter voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), the protein translocator of the outer membrane 40 (TOM40), or the fungi-specific MDM10, a component of the endoplasmic reticulum–mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES). MDM10 and TAC40 mediate cellular architecture and participate in transmembrane complexes that are essential for mitochondrial DNA inheritance. In yeast MDM10, in the context of the ERMES, is postulated to connect the mitochondrial genomes to actin filaments, whereas in trypanosomes TAC40 mediates the linkage of the mitochondrial DNA to the basal body of the flagellum. However, TAC40 does not colocalize with trypanosomal orthologs of ERMES components and, unlike MDM10, it regulates neither mitochondrial morphology nor the assembly of the protein translocase. TAC40 therefore defines a novel subclass of mitochondrial porins that is distinct from VDAC, TOM40, and MDM10. However, whereas the architecture of the TAC40-containing complex in trypanosomes and the MDM10-containing ERMES in yeast is very different, both are organized around a β-barrel protein of the mitochondrial porin family that mediates a DNA–cytoskeleton linkage that is essential for mitochondrial DNA inheritance. PMID:24821793

  14. Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) Project: Status and Regional Importance

    SciTech Connect

    Yavas, Oe.

    2010-01-21

    The Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) Project was started in 1997 with support of the State Planning Organization (SPO) of Turkey under Ankara University's coordination. After completing Feasibility Report (FR, 2000) and Conceptual Design Repot (CDR, 2005), third phase of the project was started in 2006 as an inter-university project with support of SPO. Third phase of the project has two main scientific goals: to write Technical Design Report (TDR) of TAC and to establish an Infrared Free Electron Laser (IR FEL) facility as a first step. The first facility and TDR studies are planned to be completed in 2012. Construction phase of TAC will cover 2013-2023. TAC collaboration include ten Turkish Universities: Ankara, Gazi, Istanbul, Bogazici, Dogus, Uludag, Dumlupmar, Nigde, Erciyes and S. Demirel Universities. It was planned that the first facility will be an IR FEL and Bremsstrahlung laboratory based on 15-40 MeV electron linac and two optical cavities with 2.5 and 9 cm undulators to scan 2-250 microns wavelength range. Main purpose of the facility is to use IR FEL for research in material science, nonlinear optics, semiconductors, biotechnology, medicine and photochemical processes. In this study; aims, regional importance, main parts and main parameters of TAC and TAC IR FEL and Bremsstrahlung facility are explained. Road map of the TAC project is given. National and international collaborations are explained.

  15. Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) Project: Status and Regional Importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavaş, Ö.

    2010-01-01

    The Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) Project was started in 1997 with support of the State Planning Organization (SPO) of Turkey under Ankara University's coordination. After completing Feasibility Report (FR, 2000) and Conceptual Design Repot (CDR, 2005), third phase of the project was started in 2006 as an inter-university project with support of SPO. Third phase of the project has two main scientific goals: to write Technical Design Report (TDR) of TAC and to establish an Infrared Free Electron Laser (IR FEL) facility as a first step. The first facility and TDR studies are planned to be completed in 2012. Construction phase of TAC will cover 2013-2023. TAC collaboration include ten Turkish Universities: Ankara, Gazi, İstanbul, Boğaziçi, Doğuş, Uludağ, Dumlupmar, Niğde, Erciyes and S. Demirel Universities. It was planned that the first facility will be an IR FEL & Bremsstrahlung laboratory based on 15-40 MeV electron linac and two optical cavities with 2.5 and 9 cm undulators to scan 2-250 microns wavelength range. Main purpose of the facility is to use IR FEL for research in material science, nonlinear optics, semiconductors, biotechnology, medicine and photochemical processes. In this study; aims, regional importance, main parts and main parameters of TAC and TAC IR FEL & Bremsstrahlung facility are explained. Road map of the TAC project is given. National and international collaborations are explained.

  16. 50 CFR 622.379 - Purse seine incidental catch allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources (Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic) § 622.379 Purse... violation of a prohibition of purse seines under § 622.375(b), in violation of the possession limits...

  17. 50 CFR 622.379 - Purse seine incidental catch allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources (Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic) § 622.379 Purse... violation of a prohibition of purse seines under § 622.375(b), in violation of the possession limits...

  18. Present Status of the TAC Proton Accelerator Proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Akkus, B.; Bilgin, P. S.; Caliskan, A.; Yilmaz, M.; Sultansoy, S.

    2007-04-23

    Recently, conceptual design of the Turkic Accelerator Center (TAC) proposal was completed. The main goal of this proposal is a charm factory that consist of a linac-ring type electron-positron collider. In addition, synchrotron radiation from the positron ring, free electron laser from the electron linac and a GeV energy proton accelerator are proposed. The Project related with this proposal has been accepted by the Turkish State Planning Committee. It is planned that the Tecnical Design Repotr of the TAC will have been written in the next three years. In this study we consider main parameters of the TAC proton accelerator, secondary beams and their applications.

  19. The Arabidopsis TAC Position Viewer: a high-resolution map of transformation-competent artificial chromosome (TAC) clones aligned with the Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia-0 genome.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Yoshitsugu; Suda, Kunihiro; Liu, Yao-Guang; Sato, Shusei; Nakamura, Yukino; Yokoyama, Koji; Yamamoto, Naoki; Hanano, Shigeru; Takita, Eiji; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Kaneko, Takakazu; Yano, Kentaro; Tabata, Satoshi; Shibata, Daisuke

    2015-09-01

    We present a high-resolution map of genomic transformation-competent artificial chromosome (TAC) clones extending over all Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) chromosomes. The Arabidopsis genomic TAC clones have been valuable genetic tools. Previously, we constructed an Arabidopsis genomic TAC library consisting of more than 10,000 TAC clones harboring large genomic DNA fragments extending over the whole Arabidopsis genome. Here, we determined 13,577 end sequences from 6987 Arabidopsis TAC clones and mapped 5937 TAC clones to precise locations, covering approximately 90% of the Arabidopsis chromosomes. We present the large-scale data set of TAC clones with high-resolution mapping information as a Java application tool, the Arabidopsis TAC Position Viewer, which provides ready-to-go transformable genomic DNA clones corresponding to certain loci on Arabidopsis chromosomes. The TAC clone resources will accelerate genomic DNA cloning, positional walking, complementation of mutants and DNA transformation for heterologous gene expression. PMID:26227242

  20. "Catch a Star !"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    ESO and EAAE Launch Web-based Educational Programme for Europe's Schools Catch a star!... and discover all its secrets! This is the full title of an innovative educational project, launched today by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). It welcomes all students in Europe's schools to an exciting web-based programme with a competition. It takes place within the context of the EC-sponsored European Week of Science and Technology (EWST) - 2002 . This unique project revolves around a web-based competition and is centred on astronomy. It is specifically conceived to stimulate the interest of young people in various aspects of this well-known field of science, but will also be of interest to the broad public. What is "Catch a Star!" about? [Go to Catch a Star Website] The programme features useful components from the world of research, but it is specifically tailored to (high-)school students. Younger participants are also welcome. Groups of up to four persons (e.g., three students and one teacher) have to select an astronomical object - a bright star, a distant galaxy, a beautiful comet, a planet or a moon in the solar system, or some other celestial body. Like detectives, they must then endeavour to find as much information as possible about "their" object. This information may be about the position and visibility in the sky, the physical and chemical characteristics, particular historical aspects, related mythology and sky lore, etc. They can use any source available, the web, books, newspaper and magazine articles, CDs etc. for this work. The group members must prepare a (short) summarising report about this investigation and "their" object, with their own ideas and conclusions, and send it to ESO (email address: eduinfo@eso.org). A jury, consisting of specialists from ESO and the EAAE, will carefully evaluate these reports. All projects that are found to fulfill the stipulated requirements, including a

  1. 50 CFR 679.81 - Rockfish Program annual harvester and processor privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... deducting the incidental catch allowance (ICA) the Regional Administrator determines is required on an... paragraphs (g)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section: (i) (TAC - ICA) x 0.95 = TACs. (ii) (TAC - ICA) x 0.05 =...

  2. 50 CFR 679.81 - Rockfish Program annual harvester and processor privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... deducting the incidental catch allowance (ICA) the Regional Administrator determines is required on an... paragraphs (g)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section: (i) (TAC - ICA) x 0.95 = TACs. (ii) (TAC - ICA) x 0.05 =...

  3. "Catch a Star !"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    ESO and EAAE Launch Web-based Educational Programme for Europe's Schools Catch a star!... and discover all its secrets! This is the full title of an innovative educational project, launched today by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). It welcomes all students in Europe's schools to an exciting web-based programme with a competition. It takes place within the context of the EC-sponsored European Week of Science and Technology (EWST) - 2002 . This unique project revolves around a web-based competition and is centred on astronomy. It is specifically conceived to stimulate the interest of young people in various aspects of this well-known field of science, but will also be of interest to the broad public. What is "Catch a Star!" about? [Go to Catch a Star Website] The programme features useful components from the world of research, but it is specifically tailored to (high-)school students. Younger participants are also welcome. Groups of up to four persons (e.g., three students and one teacher) have to select an astronomical object - a bright star, a distant galaxy, a beautiful comet, a planet or a moon in the solar system, or some other celestial body. Like detectives, they must then endeavour to find as much information as possible about "their" object. This information may be about the position and visibility in the sky, the physical and chemical characteristics, particular historical aspects, related mythology and sky lore, etc. They can use any source available, the web, books, newspaper and magazine articles, CDs etc. for this work. The group members must prepare a (short) summarising report about this investigation and "their" object, with their own ideas and conclusions, and send it to ESO (email address: eduinfo@eso.org). A jury, consisting of specialists from ESO and the EAAE, will carefully evaluate these reports. All projects that are found to fulfill the stipulated requirements, including a

  4. Using TACS functions within EMTP to teach protective relaying fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, R.W.; Johnson, B.K.

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this discussion is to provide an educational tool for investigating relaying concepts by modeling digital relays using TACS functions within EMTP in a closed-loop manner. Various elements of digital protection systems are identified and organized to generate an systematic approach to modeling the actual hardware of relay systems. Discussion is limited to conventional relaying systems that monitor the vitality of the 60 Hz voltages and/or currents. TACS functions for transport delay and pulse generators are used to model dynamics associated with analog to digital conversion and sampling systems. DSP algorithms convert a sequence of sampled data into a sequence of values for magnitude and phase components. A simple example of a time overcurrent relay is developed to demonstrate the techniques to implement relay control in EMTP with TACS and illustrates the kinds of phenomena that can be studied using these techniques.

  5. The improved code TAC maker for modeling of planet transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Vladev, A.

    We present improvements of the code TAC-maker for modeling of planet transits. While the initial version of the code calculated synthetic transits for certain values of the input parameters, the new version TAC-maker 1.1.0 gives a possibility to obtain simultaneously numerous synthetic transits corresponding to chosen ranges of values for each fitted parameter. The most valuable property of the improved version of the code is the ability to obtain the global minimum of χ^{2} in the multidimensional parametric space and to estimate the errors of the searched parameters.

  6. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  7. PILOT STUDY: THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot research study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools for children in the age range of 1-5 years old. The pilot study focused on (a) simple, cost-...

  8. Catch the Cash.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letsch, Dianne

    2002-01-01

    Successful grant writing can help school counselors capture excess money to fund projects and programs that the school budget might otherwise not allow. This article provides tips for developing grant proposals that increase the chances of garnering funds for special programs and projects. (GCP)

  9. Passing and Catching in Rugby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namudu, Mike M.

    This booklet contains the fundamentals for rugby at the primary school level. It deals primarily with passing and catching the ball. It contains instructions on (1) holding the ball for passing, (2) passing the ball to the left--standing, (3) passing the ball to the left--running, (4) making a switch pass, (5) the scrum half's normal pass, (6) the…

  10. Solar Technology Acceleration Center (SolarTAC): Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-259

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, W.

    2011-10-01

    This agreement allowed NREL to serve as an advisor on SolarTAC - a collaborative effort between Xcel Energy, NREL, and the University of Colorado at Boulder. The collaboration was formed to accelerate pre-commercial and early commercial solar energy technologies to the marketplace. Through this CRADA, NREL participated in the deployment of solar energy generation technologies and related solar equipment for research, testing, validation, and demonstration purposes.

  11. Drawing strategies for generalized tic-tac-toe (p, q)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diptarama, Narisawa, Kazuyuki; Shinohara, Ayumi

    2016-02-01

    GTTT(p, q) is an achievement game for polyominoes, which is an extension of Harary's generalized tic-tac-toe. Two players alternately put p stones over a board with the exception that the first player Black puts q stones for the first move. The player who first achieves a given polyomino wins the game. Unlike the generalized tic-tac-toe, we define winner for polyomino that Black can achieve, loser that White can achieve, and draw that both players cannot achieve in each GTTT(p, q). In this paper we define three classes of polyominoes for GTTT(p, q) and show that any polyomino that satisfies some conditions for each classes is a draw.

  12. Ordering Effects in NbC and TaC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venables, J. D.; Meyerhoff, M. H.

    1972-01-01

    By means of transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, evidence has been obtained for the existence of long range carbon atom ordering in single-crystal niobium carbide that has a carbon-to-metal ratio close to the integral composition Nb6C5. The ordering, which gives rise to superlattice and domain structures similar to those observed in V6C5, appears, however, only in samples that have been cooled slowly through the order-disorder temperature of 1025 C. In TaC of similar composition, the ordering, although present, remains very imperfect even after the crystals are subjected to the same thermal treatment. The results are interpreted in terms of the electronic structure of the transition metal carbides as it is currently understood, and their relevance to the mechanical properties of NbC and TaC are discussed.

  13. Flexible tab-assisted control concept (FlexTAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thang D.; Carpenter, Bernie F.; Hall, Jeffrey

    2001-06-01

    In late 1997 under ONR and DARPA funding members of the SAMPSON Marine Naval Team (Naval Surface Warfare Center, Lockeed Martin and General Dynamics Electric Boat) began investigating the benefits of the tab assisted control (TAC) concept for underwater control surfaces. Results of water tunnel tests conducted in 1998 indicated that the addition of a small trailing-edge tab, typically 10% of the mean chord of the entire control surface structure, vastly enhances the versatility of the control surface system. Depending on the orientation of the tab with respect to the primary control surface (flap) this tab may be used to significantly modify lift, reduce torque, and increase maneuvering capabilities. In 1999 a plan was established to actuate the tab with Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuators as a first step towards development of a continuously compliant or flexible control surface similar to that demonstrated in the DARPA Smart Vortex Leveraging Tab (SVLT) program. Testing of a SMA-actuated TAC device occurred late summer 2000. This paper presents a summary of these activities as well as current plant to test and evaluate the FlexTAC (Flexible Tab Assisted Control) concept, which replaces the tab with a continuously compliant trailing edge.

  14. How Specialised Are Specialists? Generalisation Properties of Entries from the 2008 and 2009 TAC Market Design Competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Edward; McBurney, Peter; Yao, Xin

    Unlike the classic Trading Agent competition (TAC), where participants enter trading strategies into a market, the TAC Market Design Competition (CAT) allows participants to create rules for their own double auction market and set fees for traders, which they embody in agents known as specialists. Although the generalisation properties of traders when the specialist (i.e., the market mechanism) is fixed have been assessed, generalisation properties of specialists have not. It is unclear whether and how a specialist might (intentionally or unintentionally) favour certain trading strategies. We present an empirical analysis of specialists' generalisation abilities in various trading environments. Our results show that specialists can be sensitive to a number of factors, including the other trading and specialist strategies in the environment.

  15. A novel strategy for the construction of genomic mutants of the Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Maria; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Pezzella, Cinzia; Rippa, Valentina; Duilio, Angela; Marino, Gennaro; Tutino, Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    The sequencing and the annotation of the marine Antarctic Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125 genome has paved the way to investigate on the molecular mechanisms involved in adaptation to cold conditions. The growing interest in this unique bacterium prompted the developing of several genetic tools for studying it at the molecular level. To allow a deeper understanding of the PhTAC125 physiology a genetic system for the reverse genetics in this bacterium was developed. In the present work, we describe a practical technique for allelic exchange and/or gene inactivation by in-frame deletion and the use of a counterselectable marker in P. haloplanktis. The construction of suitable non-replicating plasmid and methods used to carry out a two-step integration-segregation strategy in this bacterium are reported in detail.Furthermore two examples, in which the developed methodology was applied to find out gene function or to construct genetically engineered bacterial strains, were described. PMID:22160901

  16. Leaching and utilization of nitrogen during a spring wheat catch crop succession.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Juan M; Liedgens, Markus

    2009-01-01

    An experiment covering a 2-yr spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) catch crop succession was conducted in lysimeters to account for the losses of N due to leaching. We sought to relate these losses to the N uptake of the main crop and to integrate the estimated N loss and uptake into a balance. The non-winter hardy catch crops [yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.), Phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)] as well as bare soil fallow were studied at low and high N input levels of 4 and 29 g N m(-2) yr(-1), respectively. Catch crops allowed for an effective reduction of N leaching of 0.33 to 1.67 g N m(-2) yr(-1) compared to fallow. Reductions in N leaching were achieved mainly by avoiding the fallow period during autumn and winter while the catch crop species grown had little impact. During the spring wheat growing season, N leaching losses were highest after yellow mustard, the most effective catch crop for the entire crop succession. A balance of N indicated that the reductions in N leaching exerted by the catch crops did not result in a higher overall utilization of N by spring wheat. Thus, the efficacy shown by catch crops in reducing N leaching during growth is relatively lower when considering the entire crop succession. In addition, the N saved by growing catch crops does not increase N utilization by succeeding spring wheat. PMID:19465716

  17. Visual factors in hitting and catching.

    PubMed

    Regan, D

    1997-12-01

    To hit or catch an approaching ball, it is necessary to move a bat or hand to the right place at the right time. The performance of top sports players is remarkable: positional errors of less than 5 cm and temporal errors of less than 2 or 3 ms are reliably maintained. There are three schools of thought about how this is achieved. One holds that predictive visual information about where the ball will be at some future instance (when) is used to achieve the hit or catch. The second holds that the bat or hand is moved to the correct position by exploiting some relation between visual information and the required movement. The third focuses on the use of prior knowledge to supplement inadequate visual information. For a rigid spherical ball travelling at constant speed along or close to the line of sight, the retinal images contain both binocular and monocular correlates of the ball's instantaneous direction of motion in depth. Also, the retinal images contain both binocular and monocular information about time of arrival. Humans can unconfound and use this visual information, but they are unable to estimate the absolute distance of the ball or its approach speed other than crudely. In cricket, this visual inadequacy allows a slow bowler to cause the batsman to misjudge where the ball will hit the ground. Such a bowler uses a three-pronged strategy: first, to deliver the ball in such a way as to prevent the batsman from obtaining the necessary visual information until it is too late to react; secondly, to force the batsman to rely entirely on inadequate retinal image information; thirdly, to allow the batsman to learn a particular relationship between the early part of the ball's flight and the point where the ball hits the ground, and then to change the relationship with such skill that the batsman does not detect the change. PMID:9486432

  18. Catch bonds: physical models and biological functions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cheng; McEver, Rodger P

    2005-09-01

    Force can shorten the lifetimes of receptor-ligand bonds by accelerating their dissociation. Perhaps paradoxical at first glance, bond lifetimes can also be prolonged by force. This counterintuitive behavior was named catch bonds, which is in contrast to the ordinary slip bonds that describe the intuitive behavior of lifetimes being shortened by force. Fifteen years after their theoretical proposal, catch bonds have finally been observed. In this article we review recently published data that have demonstrated catch bonds in the selectin system and suggested catch bonds in other systems, the theoretical models for their explanations, and their function as a mechanism for flow-enhanced adhesion. PMID:16708472

  19. Spectrophotometric assays for total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in dog serum: an update.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Camila Peres; Hernández-Ruiz, Josefa; Martinez-Subiela, Silvia; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Ceron, José Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to study the main spectrophotometric methods used to evaluate total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in serum samples of dogs. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is an analyte frequently used to assess the antioxidant status of biological samples and can evaluate the antioxidant response against the free radicals produced in a given disease. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) are different assays described to determine TAC of a sample. This review explains the basis of each assay and their application in the determination of TAC in dogs, and also provides selected information about reports in humans for comparative purposes. It is concluded that, ideally, various different assays integrated in a panel should be used for TAC evaluation, since depending on the assay performed TAC results can be markedly different. PMID:27526688

  20. 5 CFR 1600.23 - Catch-up contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Catch-up contributions. 1600.23 Section... Catch-up contributions. (a) A participant may make traditional catch-up contributions or Roth catch-up... annual limit on catch-up contributions contained in section 414(v) the Internal Revenue Code. (b)...

  1. 5 CFR 1600.23 - Catch-up contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Catch-up contributions. 1600.23 Section... Catch-up contributions. (a) A participant may make traditional catch-up contributions or Roth catch-up... annual limit on catch-up contributions contained in section 414(v) the Internal Revenue Code. (b)...

  2. Concurrent Electroencephalography Recording During Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS)

    PubMed Central

    Fehér, Kristoffer D.; Morishima, Yosuke

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory brain activities are considered to reflect the basis of rhythmic changes in transmission efficacy across brain networks and are assumed to integrate cognitive neural processes. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) holds the promise to elucidate the causal link between specific frequencies of oscillatory brain activity and cognitive processes. Simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) recording during tACS would offer an opportunity to directly explore immediate neurophysiological effects of tACS. However, it is not trivial to measure EEG signals during tACS, as tACS creates a huge artifact in EEG data. Here we explain how to set up concurrent tACS-EEG experiments. Two necessary considerations for successful EEG recording while applying tACS are highlighted. First, bridging of the tACS and EEG electrodes via leaking EEG gel immediately saturates the EEG amplifier. To avoid bridging via gel, the viscosity of the EEG gel is the most important parameter. The EEG gel must be viscous to avoid bridging, but at the same time sufficiently fluid to create contact between the tACS electrode and the scalp. Second, due to the large amplitude of the tACS artifact, it is important to consider using an EEG system with a high resolution analog-to-digital (A/D) converter. In particular, the magnitude of the tACS artifact can exceed 100 mV at the vicinity of a stimulation electrode when 1 mA tACS is applied. The resolution of the A/D converter is of importance to measure good quality EEG data from the vicinity of the stimulation site. By following these guidelines for the procedures and technical considerations, successful concurrent EEG recording during tACS will be realized. PMID:26862814

  3. Concurrent Electroencephalography Recording During Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS).

    PubMed

    Fehér, Kristoffer D; Morishima, Yosuke

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory brain activities are considered to reflect the basis of rhythmic changes in transmission efficacy across brain networks and are assumed to integrate cognitive neural processes. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) holds the promise to elucidate the causal link between specific frequencies of oscillatory brain activity and cognitive processes. Simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) recording during tACS would offer an opportunity to directly explore immediate neurophysiological effects of tACS. However, it is not trivial to measure EEG signals during tACS, as tACS creates a huge artifact in EEG data. Here we explain how to set up concurrent tACS-EEG experiments. Two necessary considerations for successful EEG recording while applying tACS are highlighted. First, bridging of the tACS and EEG electrodes via leaking EEG gel immediately saturates the EEG amplifier. To avoid bridging via gel, the viscosity of the EEG gel is the most important parameter. The EEG gel must be viscous to avoid bridging, but at the same time sufficiently fluid to create contact between the tACS electrode and the scalp. Second, due to the large amplitude of the tACS artifact, it is important to consider using an EEG system with a high resolution analog-to-digital (A/D) converter. In particular, the magnitude of the tACS artifact can exceed 100 mV at the vicinity of a stimulation electrode when 1 mA tACS is applied. The resolution of the A/D converter is of importance to measure good quality EEG data from the vicinity of the stimulation site. By following these guidelines for the procedures and technical considerations, successful concurrent EEG recording during tACS will be realized. PMID:26862814

  4. TaC Studios New Construction Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, T.; Curtis, O.; Kim, E.; Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2013-03-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA in the mixed humid climate zone. This home will serve as a model home for the builder partner and addresses Building America energy savings targets through the planning and implementation of a design package will serve as a basis of design for the builder partner's future homes. As a BA test house, this home will be evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and HVAC and hot water efficiency.

  5. TaC Studios New Construction Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, T.; Curtis, O.; Kim, E.; Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2013-03-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA, in the mixed humid climate zone. This home will serve as a model home for the builder partner and addresses Building America energy savings targets through the planning and implementation of a design package will serve as a basis of design for the builder partner’s future homes. As a BA test house, this home will be evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and HVAC and hot water efficiency.

  6. TAC Proton Accelerator Facility: The Status and Road Map

    SciTech Connect

    Algin, E.; Akkus, B.; Caliskan, A.; Yilmaz, M.; Sahin, L.

    2011-06-28

    Proton Accelerator (PA) Project is at a stage of development, working towards a Technical Design Report under the roof of a larger-scale Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) Project. The project is supported by the Turkish State Planning Organization. The PA facility will be constructed in a series of stages including a 3 MeV test stand, a 55 MeV linac which can be extended to 100+ MeV, and then a full 1-3 GeV proton synchrotron or superconducting linac. In this article, science applications, overview, and current status of the PA Project will be given.

  7. 50 CFR 648.53 - Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual catch limits (ACL), annual catch targets (ACT), DAS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... failure to meet the requirements of the regulations in 50 CFR part 648. Upon denial of an application to... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual... Measures for the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.53 Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual...

  8. 50 CFR 648.53 - Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual catch limits (ACL), annual catch targets (ACT), DAS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... failure to meet the requirements of the regulations in 50 CFR part 648. Upon denial of an application to... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual... Measures for the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.53 Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual...

  9. 50 CFR 648.53 - Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual catch limits (ACL), annual catch targets (ACT), DAS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements of the regulations in 50 CFR part 648. Upon denial of an application to transfer IFQ, the Regional... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual... Measures for the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.53 Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual...

  10. Catching a Cold When It's Warm

    MedlinePlus

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Catching a Cold When It’s Warm What’s the Deal with Summertime Sniffles? Most ... be more unfair than catching a cold when it’s warm? How can cold symptoms arise when it’s ...

  11. Evidence for regulatory diversity and auto-regulation at the TAC1 locus in sensory neurones

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The neuropeptide substance-P (SP) is expressed from the TAC1 gene in sensory neurones where it acts as a key modulator of neurogenic inflammation. The promoter of TAC1 (TAC1prom) plays a central role in the regulation of the TAC1 gene but requires the presence of a second regulatory element; ECR2, to support TAC1 expression in sensory neurones and to respond appropriately to signalling pathways such as MAPkinases and noxious induction by capsaicin. We examined whether the effect of capsaicin on ECR2-TAC1prom activity in larger diameter neurones was cell autonomous or non- cell autonomous. We demonstrate that TRPV1 is not expressed in all the same cells as SP following capsaicin induction suggesting the presence of a non-cell autonomous mechanism for TAC1 up-regulation following capsaicin induction. In addition, we demonstrate that induction of SP and ECR1-TAC1prom activity in these larger diameter neurones can be induced by potassium depolarisation suggesting that, in addition to capsaicin induction, transgene activity may be modulated by voltage gated calcium channels. Furthermore, we show that NK1 is expressed in all SP- expressing cells after capsaicin induction and that an agonist of NK1 can activate both SP and the transgene in larger diameter neurones. These observations suggest the presence of an autocrine loop that controls the expression of the TAC1 promoter in sensory neurones. In contrast, induction of the TAC1 promoter by LPS was not dependent on ECR2 and did not occur in large diameter neurones. These studies demonstrate the diversity of mechanisms modulating the activity of the TAC1 promoter and provide novel directions for the development of new anti-inflammatory therapies. PMID:21294877

  12. Measuring Teacher Attitudes toward Instructional Technology: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the TAC and TAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shattuck, Dominick; Corbell, Kristen A.; Osbourne, Jason W.; Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda; Grable, Lisa Leonor

    2011-01-01

    In this article the authors present a confirmatory factor analysis of the Teachers' Attitudes Toward Computers (TAC) and the Teachers' Attitudes Toward Information Technology (TAT) scales by Christensen and Knezek (1996, 1998) using large samples from three states. The TAC was reduced from 98 items and nine factors to 35 items and eight factors,…

  13. Grasping in One-Handed Catching in Relation to Performance

    PubMed Central

    Cesqui, Benedetta; Russo, Marta; Lacquaniti, Francesco; d’Avella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Catching a flying ball involves bringing the hand to the aimed interception point at the right time, adjusting the hand posture to receive the incoming ball and to absorb the ball momentum, and closing the hand to ensure a stable grip. A small error in any of these actions can lead to a failure in catching the ball. Here we sought to gather new insights on what aspects of the catching movements affect the interceptive performance most. In particular, we wondered whether the errors occurred in bringing the hand to the interception point or in closing the fingers on the ball, and whether these two phases of interception differed between individuals. To this end, we characterized grasping and wrist movement kinematics of eleven participants attempting to catch a ball projected in space with different ball arrival heights and flight durations. The spatial position of the ball and of several markers placed on the participant’s arm were recorded by a motion capture system, the hand joint angles were recorded with an instrumented glove, and several movement features were extracted. All participants were able to intercept the ball trajectory (i.e. to touch the ball) in over 90% of cases, but they differed in the ability to grasp the ball (success rate varied between 2% and 85%). Similar temporal features were observed across individuals when they caught the ball. In particular, all participants adapted their wrist movements under varying temporal and arrival height constraints, they aligned the time of peak hand closing velocity to the time of hand-ball contact, and they maintained the same hand closing duration in the different experimental conditions. These movement features characterized successful trials, and hence allowed to evaluate the possible sources of errors underlying unsuccessful trials. Thus, inter-individual and inter-trial variability in the modulation of each kinematic feature were related to catching performance. We observed that different participants

  14. Catch reconstructions reveal that global marine fisheries catches are higher than reported and declining

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, Daniel; Zeller, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries data assembled by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) suggest that global marine fisheries catches increased to 86 million tonnes in 1996, then slightly declined. Here, using a decade-long multinational ‘catch reconstruction' project covering the Exclusive Economic Zones of the world's maritime countries and the High Seas from 1950 to 2010, and accounting for all fisheries, we identify catch trajectories differing considerably from the national data submitted to the FAO. We suggest that catch actually peaked at 130 million tonnes, and has been declining much more strongly since. This decline in reconstructed catches reflects declines in industrial catches and to a smaller extent declining discards, despite industrial fishing having expanded from industrialized countries to the waters of developing countries. The differing trajectories documented here suggest a need for improved monitoring of all fisheries, including often neglected small-scale fisheries, and illegal and other problematic fisheries, as well as discarded bycatch. PMID:26784963

  15. Catch reconstructions reveal that global marine fisheries catches are higher than reported and declining.

    PubMed

    Pauly, Daniel; Zeller, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries data assembled by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) suggest that global marine fisheries catches increased to 86 million tonnes in 1996, then slightly declined. Here, using a decade-long multinational 'catch reconstruction' project covering the Exclusive Economic Zones of the world's maritime countries and the High Seas from 1950 to 2010, and accounting for all fisheries, we identify catch trajectories differing considerably from the national data submitted to the FAO. We suggest that catch actually peaked at 130 million tonnes, and has been declining much more strongly since. This decline in reconstructed catches reflects declines in industrial catches and to a smaller extent declining discards, despite industrial fishing having expanded from industrialized countries to the waters of developing countries. The differing trajectories documented here suggest a need for improved monitoring of all fisheries, including often neglected small-scale fisheries, and illegal and other problematic fisheries, as well as discarded bycatch. PMID:26784963

  16. School students "Catch a Star"!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-04-01

    School students from across Europe and beyond have won prizes in an astronomy competition, including the trip of a lifetime to one of the world's most powerful astronomical observatories, on a mountaintop in Chile. ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, together with the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE), has just announced the winners of the 2007 "Catch a Star!" competition. ESO PR Photo 21/07 "Catch a Star!" is an international astronomy competition for school students, in which students are invited to 'become astronomers' and explore the Universe. The competition includes two categories for written projects on astronomical themes, to ensure that every student, whatever their level, has the chance to enter and win exciting prizes. For the artistically minded, "Catch a Star!" also includes an astronomy-themed artwork competition. Students from 22 countries submitted hundreds of written projects and pieces of artwork. "The standard of entries was most impressive, and made the jury's task of choosing winners both enjoyable and difficult! We hope that everyone, whether or not they won a prize, had fun taking part, and learnt some exciting things about our Universe", said Douglas Pierce-Price, Education Officer at ESO. The top prize, of a week-long trip to Chile to visit the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Paranal, was won by students Jan Mestan and Jan Kotek from Gymnazium Pisek in the Czech Republic, together with their teacher Marek Tyle. Their report on "Research and Observation of the Solar Eclipse" told how they had studied solar eclipses, and involved their fellow students in observations of an eclipse from their school in 2006. The team will travel to Chile and visit the ESO VLT - one of the world's most powerful optical/infrared telescopes - where they will meet astronomers and be present during a night of observations on the 2600m high Paranal mountaintop. "It's fantastic that we will see the

  17. 50 CFR 660.511 - Catch restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.511 Catch restrictions. (a) All CPS harvested shoreward of the outer boundary of the EEZ...

  18. 50 CFR 660.511 - Catch restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.511 Catch restrictions. (a) All CPS harvested shoreward of the outer boundary of the EEZ...

  19. 50 CFR 660.511 - Catch restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.511 Catch restrictions. (a) All CPS harvested shoreward of the outer boundary of the EEZ...

  20. 50 CFR 660.511 - Catch restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.511 Catch restrictions. (a) All CPS harvested shoreward of the outer boundary of the EEZ...

  1. 50 CFR 660.511 - Catch restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.511 Catch restrictions. (a) All CPS harvested shoreward of the outer boundary of the EEZ...

  2. Environmental effects on recreational squid jigging fishery catches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanellas-Reboredo, Miguel; Alós, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Morales-Nin, Beatriz

    2012-08-01

    Experimental fishing sessions simulating the operating procedures of the recreational fishery for the European squid that operates at inshore Palma Bay (Balearic Islands, Spain) were conducted to investigate the effects of environmental variables on squid catches. The catch per unit of effort (cpue) of recreational-like jigging sessions showed a seasonal pattern (higher cpue during colder months). Two alternative hypotheses can explain such a pattern. First, squid could migrate inshore during colder months to seek spatio-temporal windows within which the sea temperature maximize spawning success. Second, the timing of the seasonal reproductive peak and the growth rate of any given cohort would result in a higher percentage of squid whose body size is greater than the gear-specific vulnerability threshold during the colder months. The combination of environmental variables that maximized cpue was a low sea surface temperature, a low windspeed, low atmospheric pressure, and days close to the new moon. A specific period of the day, narrowly around sunset, favoured the catches. Within this narrow period, the sunlight is still sufficient to allow the recreational fishing lures to be effective, and the squid have already shifted to a more active pattern of movement characteristic of the night-time period.

  3. By-catch of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in Baltic fisheries--a Bayesian analysis of interview survey.

    PubMed

    Vanhatalo, Jarno; Vetemaa, Markus; Herrero, Annika; Aho, Teija; Tiilikainen, Raisa

    2014-01-01

    Baltic seals are recovering after a population decline. The increasing seal stocks cause notable damage to fisheries in the Baltic Sea, with an unknown number of seals drowning in fishing gear every year. Thus, sustainable seal management requires updated knowledge of the by-catch of seals--the number of specimens that die in fishing gear. We analyse the by-catch of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in Finland, Sweden, and Estonia in 2012. We collect data with interviews (35 in Finland, 54 in Sweden, and 72 in Estonia) and analyse them with a hierarchical Bayesian model. The model accounts for variability in seal abundance, seal mortality and fishing effort in different sub-areas of the Baltic Sea and allows us to predict the by-catch in areas where interview data was not available. We provide a detailed description of the survey design and interview methods, and discuss different factors affecting fishermen's motivation to report by-catch and how this may affect the results. Our analysis shows that the total yearly by-catch by trap and gill nets in Finland, Sweden and Estonia is, with 90% probability, more than 1240 but less than 2860; and the posterior median and mean of the total by-catch are 1550 and 1880 seals, respectively. Trap nets make about 88% of the total by-catch. However, results also indicate that in one of the sub-areas of this study, fishermen may have underreported their by-catch. Taking the possible underreporting into account the posterior mean of the total by-catch is between 2180 and 2380. The by-catch in our study area is likely to represent at least 90% of the total yearly grey seal by-catch in the Baltic Sea. PMID:25423168

  4. By-Catch of Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus) in Baltic Fisheries—A Bayesian Analysis of Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Vanhatalo, Jarno; Vetemaa, Markus; Herrero, Annika; Aho, Teija; Tiilikainen, Raisa

    2014-01-01

    Baltic seals are recovering after a population decline. The increasing seal stocks cause notable damage to fisheries in the Baltic Sea, with an unknown number of seals drowning in fishing gear every year. Thus, sustainable seal management requires updated knowledge of the by-catch of seals—the number of specimens that die in fishing gear. We analyse the by-catch of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in Finland, Sweden, and Estonia in 2012. We collect data with interviews (35 in Finland, 54 in Sweden, and 72 in Estonia) and analyse them with a hierarchical Bayesian model. The model accounts for variability in seal abundance, seal mortality and fishing effort in different sub-areas of the Baltic Sea and allows us to predict the by-catch in areas where interview data was not available. We provide a detailed description of the survey design and interview methods, and discuss different factors affecting fishermen's motivation to report by-catch and how this may affect the results. Our analysis shows that the total yearly by-catch by trap and gill nets in Finland, Sweden and Estonia is, with 90% probability, more than 1240 but less than 2860; and the posterior median and mean of the total by-catch are 1550 and 1880 seals, respectively. Trap nets make about 88% of the total by-catch. However, results also indicate that in one of the sub-areas of this study, fishermen may have underreported their by-catch. Taking the possible underreporting into account the posterior mean of the total by-catch is between 2180 and 2380. The by-catch in our study area is likely to represent at least 90% of the total yearly grey seal by-catch in the Baltic Sea. PMID:25423168

  5. TAC102 Is a Novel Component of the Mitochondrial Genome Segregation Machinery in Trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Trikin, Roman; Doiron, Nicholas; Hoffmann, Anneliese; Haenni, Beat; Jakob, Martin; Schnaufer, Achim; Schimanski, Bernd; Zuber, Benoît; Ochsenreiter, Torsten

    2016-05-01

    Trypanosomes show an intriguing organization of their mitochondrial DNA into a catenated network, the kinetoplast DNA (kDNA). While more than 30 proteins involved in kDNA replication have been described, only few components of kDNA segregation machinery are currently known. Electron microscopy studies identified a high-order structure, the tripartite attachment complex (TAC), linking the basal body of the flagellum via the mitochondrial membranes to the kDNA. Here we describe TAC102, a novel core component of the TAC, which is essential for proper kDNA segregation during cell division. Loss of TAC102 leads to mitochondrial genome missegregation but has no impact on proper organelle biogenesis and segregation. The protein is present throughout the cell cycle and is assembled into the newly developing TAC only after the pro-basal body has matured indicating a hierarchy in the assembly process. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the TAC is replicated de novo rather than using a semi-conservative mechanism. Lastly, we demonstrate that TAC102 lacks an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence and requires sequences in the C-terminal part of the protein for its proper localization. PMID:27168148

  6. The effect of 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on corticomuscular coherence

    PubMed Central

    Wach, Claudia; Krause, Vanessa; Moliadze, Vera; Paulus, Walter; Schnitzler, Alfons; Pollok, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Synchronous oscillatory activity at alpha (8–12 Hz), beta (13–30 Hz), and gamma (30–90 Hz) frequencies is assumed to play a key role for motor control. Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) represents an established measure of the pyramidal system's integrity. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) offers the possibility to modulate ongoing oscillatory activity. Behaviorally, 20 Hz tACS in healthy subjects has been shown to result in movement slowing. However, the neurophysiological changes underlying these effects are not entirely understood yet. The present study aimed at ascertaining the effects of tACS at 10 and 20 Hz in healthy subjects on CMC and local power of the primary sensorimotor cortex. Neuromagnetic activity was recorded during isometric contraction before and at two time points (2–10 min and 30–38 min) after tACS of the left primary motor cortex (M1), using a 306 channel whole head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system. Additionally, electromyography (EMG) of the right extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscle was measured. TACS was applied at 10 and 20 Hz, respectively, for 10 min at 1 mA. Sham stimulation served as control condition. The data suggest that 10 Hz tACS significantly reduced low gamma band CMC during isometric contraction. This implies that tACS does not necessarily cause effects at stimulation frequency. Rather, the findings suggest cross-frequency interplay between alpha and low gamma band activity modulating functional interaction between motor cortex and muscle. PMID:24009573

  7. TAC102 Is a Novel Component of the Mitochondrial Genome Segregation Machinery in Trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Anneliese; Haenni, Beat; Jakob, Martin; Schnaufer, Achim; Schimanski, Bernd; Zuber, Benoît; Ochsenreiter, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomes show an intriguing organization of their mitochondrial DNA into a catenated network, the kinetoplast DNA (kDNA). While more than 30 proteins involved in kDNA replication have been described, only few components of kDNA segregation machinery are currently known. Electron microscopy studies identified a high-order structure, the tripartite attachment complex (TAC), linking the basal body of the flagellum via the mitochondrial membranes to the kDNA. Here we describe TAC102, a novel core component of the TAC, which is essential for proper kDNA segregation during cell division. Loss of TAC102 leads to mitochondrial genome missegregation but has no impact on proper organelle biogenesis and segregation. The protein is present throughout the cell cycle and is assembled into the newly developing TAC only after the pro-basal body has matured indicating a hierarchy in the assembly process. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the TAC is replicated de novo rather than using a semi-conservative mechanism. Lastly, we demonstrate that TAC102 lacks an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence and requires sequences in the C-terminal part of the protein for its proper localization. PMID:27168148

  8. The effects of theta transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on fluid intelligence.

    PubMed

    Pahor, Anja; Jaušovec, Norbert

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to explore the influence of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on resting brain activity and on measures of fluid intelligence. Theta tACS was applied to the left parietal and left frontal brain areas of healthy participants after which resting electroencephalogram (EEG) data was recorded. Following sham/active stimulation, the participants solved two tests of fluid intelligence while their EEG was recorded. The results showed that active theta tACS affected spectral power in theta and alpha frequency bands. In addition, active theta tACS improved performance on tests of fluid intelligence. This influence was more pronounced in the group of participants that received stimulation to the left parietal area than in the group of participants that received stimulation to the left frontal area. Left parietal tACS increased performance on the difficult test items of both tests (RAPM and PF&C) whereas left frontal tACS increased performance only on the easy test items of one test (RAPM). The observed behavioral tACS influences were also accompanied by changes in neuroelectric activity. The behavioral and neuroelectric data tentatively support the P-FIT neurobiological model of intelligence. PMID:24998643

  9. Nutritional catch-up growth.

    PubMed

    Gat-Yablonski, Galia; Pando, Rakefet; Phillip, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition, marked by variant nutrient deficiencies, is considered a leading cause of stunted growth worldwide. In developing countries, malnutrition is caused mainly by food shortage and infectious diseases. Malnutrition may also be found in the developed world, where it is due mostly to prematurity, chronic diseases, and anorexia nervosa. In most cases, when food consumption is corrected, spontaneous catch-up (CU) growth occurs. However, CU growth is not always complete, leading to growth deficits. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms that govern this process. Using a rat model of food restriction followed by refeeding, we established a nutrition-induced CU growth model. Levels of leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were found to significantly decrease when food was restricted and to increase already 1 day after refeeding. Gene expression analysis of the growth plate revealed that food restriction specifically affects transcription factors such as the hypoxia inducible factor-1 and its downstream targets on the one hand, and global gene expression, indicating epigenetic regulation, on the other. Food restriction also reduced the level of several microRNAs, including the chondrocyte-specific miR-140, which led to an increase in its target, SIRT1, a class III histone deacetylase. These findings may explain the global changes in gene expression observed under nutritional manipulation. We suggest that multiple levels of regulation, including transcription factors, epigenetic mechanisms, and microRNAs respond to nutritional cues and offer a possible explanation for some of the effects of food restriction on epiphyseal growth plate growth. The means whereby these components sense changes in nutritional status are still unknown. Deciphering the role of epigenetic regulation in growth may pave the way for the development of new treatments for children with growth disorders. PMID:23428685

  10. Effect of survey design and catch rate estimation on total catch estimates in Chinook salmon fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Roving–roving and roving–access creel surveys are the primary techniques used to obtain information on harvest of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho sport fisheries. Once interviews are conducted using roving–roving or roving–access survey designs, mean catch rate can be estimated with the ratio-of-means (ROM) estimator, the mean-of-ratios (MOR) estimator, or the MOR estimator with exclusion of short-duration (≤0.5 h) trips. Our objective was to examine the relative bias and precision of total catch estimates obtained from use of the two survey designs and three catch rate estimators for Idaho Chinook salmon fisheries. Information on angling populations was obtained by direct visual observation of portions of Chinook salmon fisheries in three Idaho river systems over an 18-d period. Based on data from the angling populations, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate the properties of the catch rate estimators and survey designs. Among the three estimators, the ROM estimator provided the most accurate and precise estimates of mean catch rate and total catch for both roving–roving and roving–access surveys. On average, the root mean square error of simulated total catch estimates was 1.42 times greater and relative bias was 160.13 times greater for roving–roving surveys than for roving–access surveys. Length-of-stay bias and nonstationary catch rates in roving–roving surveys both appeared to affect catch rate and total catch estimates. Our results suggest that use of the ROM estimator in combination with an estimate of angler effort provided the least biased and most precise estimates of total catch for both survey designs. However, roving–access surveys were more accurate than roving–roving surveys for Chinook salmon fisheries in Idaho.

  11. Theoretical aspects of the biological catch bond.

    PubMed

    Prezhdo, Oleg V; Pereverzev, Yuriy V

    2009-06-16

    The biological catch bond is fascinating and counterintuitive. When an external force is applied to a catch bond, either in vivo or in vitro, the bond resists breaking and becomes stronger instead. In contrast, ordinary slip bonds, which represent the vast majority of biological and chemical bonds, dissociate faster when subjected to a force. Catch-bond behavior was first predicted theoretically 20 years ago and has recently been experimentally observed in a number of protein receptor-ligand complexes. In this Account, we review the simplest physical-chemical models that lead to analytic expressions for bond lifetime, the concise universal representations of experimental data, and the explicit requirements for catch binding. The phenomenon has many manifestations: increased lifetime with growing constant force is its defining characteristic. If force increases with time, as in jump-ramp experiments, catch binding creates an additional maximum in the probability density of bond rupture force. The new maximum occurs at smaller forces than the slip-binding maximum, merging with the latter at a certain ramp rate in a process resembling a phase transition. If force is applied periodically, as in blood flows, catch-bond properties strongly depend on force frequency. Catch binding results from a complex landscape of receptor-ligand interactions. Bond lifetime can increase if force (i) prevents dissociation through the native pathway and drives the system over a higher energy barrier or (ii) alters protein conformations in a way that strengthens receptor-ligand binding. The bond deformations can be associated with allostery; force-induced conformational changes at one end of the protein propagate to the binding site at the other end. Surrounding water creates further exciting effects. Protein-water tension provides an additional barrier that can be responsible for significant drops in bond lifetimes observed at low forces relative to zero force. This strong dependence of

  12. Finite-Element Model Predicts Current Density Distribution for Clinical Applications of tDCS and tACS.

    PubMed

    Neuling, Toralf; Wagner, Sven; Wolters, Carsten H; Zaehle, Tino; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2012-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been applied in numerous scientific studies over the past decade. However, the possibility to apply tDCS in therapy of neuropsychiatric disorders is still debated. While transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been approved for treatment of major depression in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), tDCS is not as widely accepted. One of the criticisms against tDCS is the lack of spatial specificity. Focality is limited by the electrode size (35 cm(2) are commonly used) and the bipolar arrangement. However, a current flow through the head directly from anode to cathode is an outdated view. Finite-element (FE) models have recently been used to predict the exact current flow during tDCS. These simulations have demonstrated that the current flow depends on tissue shape and conductivity. To face the challenge to predict the location, magnitude, and direction of the current flow induced by tDCS and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), we used a refined realistic FE modeling approach. With respect to the literature on clinical tDCS and tACS, we analyzed two common setups for the location of the stimulation electrodes which target the frontal lobe and the occipital lobe, respectively. We compared lateral and medial electrode configuration with regard to their usability. We were able to demonstrate that the lateral configurations yielded more focused stimulation areas as well as higher current intensities in the target areas. The high resolution of our simulation allows one to combine the modeled current flow with the knowledge of neuronal orientation to predict the consequences of tDCS and tACS. Our results not only offer a basis for a deeper understanding of the stimulation sites currently in use for clinical applications but also offer a better interpretation of observed effects. PMID:23015792

  13. 50 CFR 660.18 - Certification and decertification procedures for observers, catch monitors, catch monitor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification and decertification procedures for observers, catch monitors, catch monitor providers, and observer providers. 660.18 Section 660.18 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  14. F/A-18 tactical reconnaissance (tac recce) capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, David; Pugh, Gregory G.; Wolters, David

    1996-11-01

    In 1995 the F/A-18 TAC RECCE Program was expanded beyond the initial electro-optic and infrared image recording capability of the Advanced Tactical Air Reconnaissance System (ATARS). The program now also includes integration of new high-resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) reconnaissance modes and air-to-ground data link of ATARS and SAR image data. Delivery of the first reconnaissance equipment production units and fleet release is scheduled for 1998. F/A-18D two-seat aircraft will be retrofit with the RECCE equipment and designated F/A-18D(RC) (Reconnaissance Capable). This presentation describes recent F/A-18D(RC) operational assessment results, tactical reconnaissance equipment, functions, and interfaces for the 1998 fleet release. The equipment consists of the ATARS, the aircraft RECCE kit (access door, sensor windows, fairings), the upgraded APG-73 radar, and the data link pod. Functions include mission planning, automatic and manual acquisition of RECCE targets, image data recording, crew-station image review and edit, and data link. Interfaces include those with the Tactical Automated Mission Planning System, ground exploitation stations, and the aircraft carrier environment.

  15. Targeting the neurophysiology of cognitive systems with transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS)

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Flavio; Sellers, Kristin K.; Cordle, Asa L.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment represents one of the most debilitating and most difficult symptom to treat of many psychiatric illnesses. Human neurophysiology studies have suggested specific pathologies of cortical network activity correlate with cognitive impairment. However, we lack (1) demonstration of causal relationships between specific network activity patterns and cognitive capabilities and (2) treatment modalities that directly target impaired network dynamics of cognition. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), a novel non-invasive brain stimulation approach, may provide a crucial tool to tackle these challenges. We here propose that tACS can be used to elucidate the causal role of cortical synchronization in cognition and, eventually, to enhance pathologically weakened synchrony that may underlie cognitive deficits. To accelerate such development of tACS as a treatment for cognitive deficits, we discuss studies on tACS and cognition (all performed in healthy participants) according to the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) of the National Institute of Mental Health. PMID:25547149

  16. Rising catch variability preceded historical fisheries collapses in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Litzow, Michael A; Mueter, Franz J; Urban, J Daniel

    2013-09-01

    Statistical indicators such as rising variance and rising skewness in key system parameters may provide early warning of "regime shifts" in communities and populations. However, the utility of these indicators has rarely been tested in the large, complex ecosystems that are of most interest to managers. Crustacean fisheries in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea experienced a series of collapses beginning in the 1970s, and we used spatially resolved catch data from these fisheries to test the predictions that increasing variability and skewness would precede stock collapse. Our data set consisted of catch data from 14 fisheries (12 collapsing and two non-collapsing), spanning 278 cumulative years. Our sampling unit for analysis was the Alaska Department of Fish and Game statistical reporting area (mean n for individual fisheries = 42 areas, range 7-81). We found that spatial variability in catches increased prior to stock collapse: a random-effects model estimating trend in variability across all 12 collapsing fisheries showed strong evidence of increasing variability prior to collapse. Individual trends in variability were statistically significant for only four of the 12 collapsing fisheries, suggesting that rising variability might be most effective as an indicator when information from multiple populations is available. Analyzing data across multiple fisheries allowed us to detect increasing variability 1-4 years prior to collapse, and trends in variability were significantly different for collapsing and non-collapsing fisheries. In spite of theoretical expectations, we found no evidence of pre-collapse increases in catch skewness. Further, while models generally predict that rising variability should be a transient phenomenon around collapse points, increased variability was a persistent feature of collapsed fisheries in our study. We conclude that this result is more consistent with fishing effects as the cause of increased catch variability, rather than the

  17. Development of X-Shape Filtered Arc Deposition Apparatus for Thick ta-C Film Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikokasa, Hiroki; Iwasaki, Yasuhiro; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Sakakibara, Tateki; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Nobuhiro

    Novel X-shape filtered arc deposition (X-FAD) apparatus is specially designed and newly developed for thick hydrogen-free tetrahedral amorphous-carbon (ta-C) film coating on superhard alloy (or cemented carbide) substrate. The apparatus has a graphite cathode for deposition of hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC; ta-C and amorphous carbon: a-C) film and a chromium (Cr) cathode for deposition of Cr layer. The filter duct shapes a composed form of a T-shape filter (T-FAD) for DLC film and a crank-shape filter (Crank FAD) for Cr film. Both carbon plasma beam and Cr plasma beam finally pass through a common plasma duct and scanner part, and go forward to the substrate. It is known that the adhesion of ta-C film to the superhard alloy is not good and the employment of binding interlayer between ta-C film and superhard alloy is one of the solutions. In this paper, using X-FAD, thick ta-C film was prepared on the superhard alloy. Principal results were as follows. (1) Crank FAD remarkably worked to prepare droplet-free Cr film. (2) Cr single layer did not work as appropriate biding interlayer between superhard alloy and ta-C. (3) Multi interlayer composed of Cr, a-C, and functionally graded DLC (a-C to ta-C), worked as a good biding interlayer for ta-C film on superhard alloy with thickness of more than 1 μm.

  18. Final report of the UMTRA independent technical review of TAC audit programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This report details the findings of an Independent Technical Review (ITR) of practices and procedures for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project audit program. The audit program is conducted by Jacobs Engineering Group Inc., the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) for the UMTRA Project. The purpose of the ITR was to ensure that the TAC audit program is effective and is conducted efficiently. The ITR was conducted from May 16-20, 1994. A review team observed audit practices in the field, reviewed the TAC audit program`s documentation, and discussed the program with TAC staff and management. The format of this report has been developed around EPA guidelines; they comprise most of the major section headings. Each section begins by identifying the criteria that the TAC program is measured against, then describing the approach used by the ITR team to measure each TAC audit program against the criteria. An assessment of each type of audit is then summarized for each component in the following order: Radiological audit summary; Health and safety audit summary; Environmental audit summary; Quality assurance audit summary.

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Light-Trap Catches, Electric Motor Mosquito Catches and Human Biting Catches of Anopheles in the Three Gorges Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Duo-quan, Wang; Lin-hua, Tang; Zhen-cheng, Gu; Xiang, Zheng; Man-ni, Yang; Wei-kang, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    The mosquito sampling efficiency of light-trap catches and electric motor mosquito catches were compared with that of human biting catches in the Three Gorges Reservoir. There was consistency in the sampling efficiency between light-trap catches and human biting catches for Anopheles sinensis (r = 0.82, P<0.01) and light-trap catches were 1.52 (1.35–1.71) times that of human biting catches regardless of mosquito density (r = 0.33, P>0.01), while the correlation between electric motor mosquito catches and human biting catches was found to be not statistically significant (r = 0.43, P>0.01) and its sampling efficiency was below that of human biting catches. It is concluded that light-traps can be used as an alternative to human biting catches of Anopheles sinensis in the study area and is a promising tool for sampling malaria vector populations. PMID:22235256

  20. 50 CFR 648.53 - Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual catch limits (ACL), annual catch targets (ACT), DAS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... failure to meet the requirements of the regulations in 50 CFR part 648. Upon denial of an application to... section, and research set-aside specified in Section 648.56(d). The ABC/ACL for the 2013 fishing year is... this section, after deducting incidental catch, observer set-aside, and research set-aside,...

  1. 2. CATCH BASIN, INFLOW PIPES AT CENTER, COLD FLOW LABORATORY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CATCH BASIN, INFLOW PIPES AT CENTER, COLD FLOW LABORATORY AT LEFT, VIEW TOWARDS NORTHWEST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Catch Basin, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  2. Eight Ways to Catch an Insect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Alice

    1977-01-01

    The webs of eight North American spiders are illustrated and discussed. Using these webs, the spiders are able to catch insects for their meals. Each of the webs are unique and require a different approach to the problem of food getting. (MA)

  3. Book review: Methods for catching beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beetles are the most speciose animal group and found in virtually all habitats on Earth. Methods for Catching Beetles is a comprehensive general sourcebook about where and how to collect members of this diverse group. The book makes a compelling case in its Introduction about the value of scientif...

  4. Project Catch-Up. Awareness Brochure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newport-Mesa Unified School District, Newport Beach, CA.

    Project Catch-Up, an ESEA Title I program, operates in Newport Beach and in Costa Mesa, California. It is said to be designed to provide remedial instruction in reading and arithmetic to underachieving children, kindergarten through sixth grade, in schools serving low socioeconomic level suburban areas. Among its key features are the following:…

  5. 30 CFR 57.19132 - Safety catches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety catches. 57.19132 Section 57.19132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel...

  6. 30 CFR 56.19132 - Safety catches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety catches. 56.19132 Section 56.19132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel...

  7. 30 CFR 57.19132 - Safety catches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety catches. 57.19132 Section 57.19132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel...

  8. 30 CFR 56.19132 - Safety catches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety catches. 56.19132 Section 56.19132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel...

  9. 30 CFR 56.19132 - Safety catches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety catches. 56.19132 Section 56.19132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel...

  10. 30 CFR 56.19132 - Safety catches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety catches. 56.19132 Section 56.19132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel...

  11. 30 CFR 57.19132 - Safety catches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety catches. 57.19132 Section 57.19132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel...

  12. 30 CFR 57.19132 - Safety catches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety catches. 57.19132 Section 57.19132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel...

  13. 30 CFR 57.19132 - Safety catches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety catches. 57.19132 Section 57.19132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel...

  14. 30 CFR 56.19132 - Safety catches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety catches. 56.19132 Section 56.19132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel...

  15. Data Report for Catch Tank Vapor Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    2000-09-28

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) is responsible for developing and maintaining the authorization basis for River Protection Project (RPP) facilities and operations. This responsibility includes closure of the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) for waste tank ancillary equipment such as catch tanks, double-contained receiver tanks, 244-AR and 244-CR vaults, 242-S and 242-T Evaporators, and inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks. To support closure of the Flammable Gas USQ for catch tanks, an analysis of the flammable gas hazard was performed. This document provides a summary of flammable gas data obtained from RPP active catch tanks in FY 2000. Flammable gas level measurements for each catch tank (other than 241-AX-152) are discussed on a tank-by-tank basis in Section 3.0. Conclusions based on the data are provided in Section 4.0. This section also includes recommendations that would be useful when conducting vapor sampling for other miscellaneous tanks (e.g., inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks).

  16. 50 CFR 648.71 - Catch quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... propose surfclam and or ocean quahog quotas that differ from the annual quotas specified for the current 3... Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.71 Catch quotas. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 60622, Sept. 29, 2011. (a) Establishing quotas. Beginning in 2005, the amount of surfclams or ocean...

  17. 50 CFR 648.71 - Catch quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.71 Catch quotas. (a) Establishing quotas. Beginning in 2005, the amount of surfclams or ocean quahogs that may be caught annually by fishing vessels subject to these... ocean quahogs. Subsequent 3-year specifications of the annual quotas will be accomplished in the...

  18. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Harris, Robert V.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

  19. Liberal Arts Catch-Up Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyder, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper replicates the work of Giles and Drewes from the 1990s. They showed a catch-up effect whereby graduates of liberal arts undergraduate programs, although at an early-career disadvantage compared with graduates of applied programs, had higher incomes by mid-career. Working with the Panel 5 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (2005-2010),…

  20. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, M.S.; Harris, R.V.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  1. Electrophysiology of Arcuate Neurokinin B Neurons in Female Tac2-EGFP Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cholanian, Marina; Krajewski-Hall, Sally J.; Levine, Richard B.; McMullen, Nathaniel T.

    2014-01-01

    Neurons in the arcuate nucleus that coexpress kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB), and dynorphin (KNDy neurons) play an important role in the modulation of reproduction by estrogens. Here, we study the anatomical and electrophysiological properties of arcuate NKB neurons in heterozygous female transgenic mice with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the Tac2 (NKB) promoter (Tac2-EGFP mice). The onset of puberty, estrous cyclicity, and serum LH were comparable between Tac2-EGFP and wild-type mice. The location of EGFP-immunoreactive neurons was consistent with previous descriptions of Tac2 mRNA-expressing neurons in the rodent. In the arcuate nucleus, nearly 80% of EGFP neurons expressed pro-NKB-immunoreactivity. Moreover, EGFP fluorescent intensity in arcuate neurons was increased by ovariectomy and reduced by 17β-estradiol (E2) treatment. Electrophysiology of single cells in tissue slices was used to examine the effects of chronic E2 treatment on Tac2-EGFP neurons in the arcuate nucleus of ovariectomized mice. Whole-cell recordings revealed arcuate NKB neurons to be either spontaneously active or silent in both groups. E2 had no significant effect on the basic electrophysiological properties or spontaneous firing frequencies. Arcuate NKB neurons exhibited either tonic or phasic firing patterns in response to a series of square-pulse current injections. Notably, E2 reduced the number of action potentials evoked by depolarizing current injections. This study demonstrates the utility of the Tac2-EGFP mouse for electrophysiological and morphological studies of KNDy neurons in tissue slices. In parallel to E2 negative feedback on LH secretion, E2 decreased the intensity of the EGFP signal and reduced the excitability of NKB neurons in the arcuate nucleus of ovariectomized Tac2-EGFP mice. PMID:24735328

  2. Limited catching bias in a wild population of birds with near-complete census information

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Mirre J P; Winney, Isabel; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Burke, Terry; Schroeder, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Animal research often relies on catching wild animals; however, individuals may have different trappability, and this can generate bias. We studied bias in mist netting, the main method for catching wild birds. The unusually high resighting rate in our study population—house sparrows (Passer domesticus) on Lundy Island (England)—allowed us to obtain accurate estimates of the population size. This unique situation enabled us to test for catching bias in mist netting using deviations from the expected Poisson distribution. There was no evidence that a fraction of the birds in the population consistently remained uncaught. However, we detected a different bias: More birds than expected were captured only once within a year. This bias probably resulted from a mixture of fieldworkers sometimes ignoring rapid recaptures and birds becoming net shy after their first capture. We had sufficient statistical power with the available data to detect a substantial uncaught fraction. Therefore, our data are probably unbiased toward catching specific individuals from our population. Our analyses demonstrate that intensively monitored natural insular populations, in which population size can be estimated precisely, provide the potential to address important unanswered questions without concerns about a fraction of the population remaining uncaught. Our approach can help researchers to test for catching bias in closely monitored wild populations for which reliable estimates of population size and dispersal are available. PMID:26380681

  3. Limited catching bias in a wild population of birds with near-complete census information.

    PubMed

    Simons, Mirre J P; Winney, Isabel; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Burke, Terry; Schroeder, Julia

    2015-08-01

    Animal research often relies on catching wild animals; however, individuals may have different trappability, and this can generate bias. We studied bias in mist netting, the main method for catching wild birds. The unusually high resighting rate in our study population-house sparrows (Passer domesticus) on Lundy Island (England)-allowed us to obtain accurate estimates of the population size. This unique situation enabled us to test for catching bias in mist netting using deviations from the expected Poisson distribution. There was no evidence that a fraction of the birds in the population consistently remained uncaught. However, we detected a different bias: More birds than expected were captured only once within a year. This bias probably resulted from a mixture of fieldworkers sometimes ignoring rapid recaptures and birds becoming net shy after their first capture. We had sufficient statistical power with the available data to detect a substantial uncaught fraction. Therefore, our data are probably unbiased toward catching specific individuals from our population. Our analyses demonstrate that intensively monitored natural insular populations, in which population size can be estimated precisely, provide the potential to address important unanswered questions without concerns about a fraction of the population remaining uncaught. Our approach can help researchers to test for catching bias in closely monitored wild populations for which reliable estimates of population size and dispersal are available. PMID:26380681

  4. Effects of variable recruitment on catch-curve analysis for crappie populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Catch-curve analysis is frequently used to estimate total annual mortality (A) of exploited fishes, but the method assumes constant recruitment. Because populations of crappie Pomoxis spp. have exhibited large fluctuations in recruitment, I conducted simulations to assess the amount of variability in recruitment that precludes the use of a catch curve and compared results to recruitment dynamics in six crappie populations. Coefficients of variation (CV = 100 ?? SD/mean) in recruitment to age 1 ranged from 55% to 84% among the six crappie populations. Simulations suggested that recruitment variability in these ranges would likely allow estimation of A within ?? 10%, but the probability of obtaining estimates of A that were ??5% or more of the true A would exceed 0.15. I suggest that catch curves may be used to approximate A in crappie populations but that managers should consider the effects on management recommendations if A were ??10% of the estimated A.

  5. ImmTACs for targeted cancer therapy: Why, what, how, and which.

    PubMed

    Oates, Joanne; Hassan, Namir J; Jakobsen, Bent K

    2015-10-01

    Overcoming immunosuppression and activating a cytotoxic T cell response has the potential to halt the progression of cancer and, in some circumstances, eradicate it. Designing therapeutic interventions that achieve this goal has proven challenging, but now a greater understanding of the complexities of immune responses is beginning to produce some notable breakthroughs. ImmTACs (immune-mobilising monoclonal TCRs against cancer) are a new class of bispecific reagents, based on soluble monoclonal T cell receptors, which have been engineered to possess extremely high affinity for cognate tumour antigen. In this way, ImmTACs overcome the problem of low affinity tumour-specific T cells imposed by thymic selection and provide access to the large number of antigens presented as peptide-HLA complexes. Once bound to tumour cells the anti-CD3 effector end of the ImmTAC drives recruitment of polyclonal T cells to the tumour site, leading to a potent redirected T cell response and tumour cell destruction. Extensive in vitro testing coupled with promising early clinical data has provided an enhanced appreciation of ImmTAC function in vivo and indicates their potential therapeutic benefit in terms of a durable response and ultimately the breaking of T cell tolerance. This review introduces ImmTACs in the context of immunotherapy, and outlines their design, construction and mechanism of action, as well as examining target selection and aspects of preclinical safety testing. PMID:25708206

  6. Effect of high pressure on the formation of ordered phases in Ta-C systems

    SciTech Connect

    Markhasev, B.I.; Dzhamarov, S.S.; Geshko, E.I.; Klyugvant, V.V.; Pilipovskii, Y.L.; Shamatov, Y.M.

    1985-03-01

    This paper considers the effect of pressure on the completion of the transformations TaC /SUB x/ Ta/sub 4/C/sub 3/ and TaC /SUB x/ Ta/sub 2/C. The data show that in the samples with C/Ta = 0.68 and 0.71, the applied pressure substantially increases the diffraction peak heights of the ordered phases, Ta/sub 4/C/sub 3/ and Ta/sub 2/C. In samples with C/Ta = 0.76, high pressure does not generally increase the intensities of the diffracted peaks of Ta/sub 4/C/sub 3/ and Ta/sub 2/C, however the equilibrium between them is displaced to the side of increased Ta/sub 2/C content. In one of the samples a complete disappearance of the disordered TaC /SUB x/ is not observed. It is concluded that high pressure ( about7GPa) promotes the transition of nonstoichiometric TaC /SUB x/ into ordered Ta/sub 4/C/sub 3/ and Ta/sub 2/C as well as broadens the existence region of the latter. A complete transformation of TaC /SUB x/ into the ordered phase does not occur even at pressures up to about 9 GPa.

  7. Comparison of low-voltage field emission from TaC and tungsten fiber arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.K.; Lee, K.J.; Hill, D.N.

    1988-01-01

    Field emitter array (FEA) devices were constructed using thin-film fabrication techniques based on in situ eutectic composites containing either TaC or NbC fibers in a NiCr alloy matrix. The emission characteristics of the TaC devices were measured and compared to those of W--ZrO/sub 2/ FEA's. Both devices produced the linear Fowler--Nordheim plots common to all field emission devices; however, the array current density of the TaC FEA's was more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of the W--ZrO/sub 2/ FEA's. This was primarily due to the lower fiber density and lower field enhancement of the carbide fiber devices. If it were possible to produce cathode geometries comparable to those of the W--ZrO/sub 2/ FEA's, a theoretical analysis indicates that emission performance of the TaC devices would be superior because of the lower work function of TaC. However, post-emission observations indicated that the carbide fiber emitters failed more readily than the tungsten emitters under comparable operating conditions.

  8. Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon (ta-C) Ultra Thin Films for Slider Overcoat Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.; Hu, Y. H.; Hu, L.

    Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon (ta-C) thin film by using Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc (FCVA) technique has proven to be wear-resistive and corrosion resistant for a wide range of electrical, optical, and mechanical applications. Many investigations have shown that the ta-C film prepared by the FCVA technique can provide a superior ultra thin overcoat for the sliders and media compared to ECR-CVD and IBD coating technology. The ta-C film excels in terms of the film density, hardness, surface roughness and corrosion resistance. Nanofilm Technology International (NTI) has successfully developed and commercialized the FCVA coating system (FS series) for the slider overcoat application, which provides a good quality film with a high hardness (~50 GPa), low stress (2~3 GPa), low macro-particle density (~1/cm2 for particles > 0.3 μm), good uniformity (< 4%$ in 8 inch coating area) and high production repeatability (< 5%).

  9. Quantum tic-tac-toe: A teaching metaphor for superposition in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, Allan

    2006-11-01

    Quantum tic-tac-toe was developed as a metaphor for the counterintuitive nature of superposition exhibited by quantum systems. It offers a way of introducing quantum physics without advanced mathematics, provides a conceptual foundation for understanding the meaning of quantum mechanics, and is fun to play. A single superposition rule is added to the child's game of classical tic-tac-toe. Each move consists of a pair of marks subscripted by the number of the move ("spooky" marks) that must be placed in different squares. When a measurement occurs, one spooky mark becomes real and the other disappears. Quantum tic-tac-toe illustrates a number of quantum principles including states, superposition, collapse, nonlocality, entanglement, the correspondence principle, interference, and decoherence. The game can be played on paper or on a white board. A Web-based version provides a refereed playing board to facilitate the mechanics of play, making it ideal for classrooms with a computer projector.

  10. Ultrathin ta-C films on heads depositied by twist-filteredcathodic arc carbon plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Ryan, Francis W.

    2000-07-14

    It is known that filtered cathodic-arc-deposited ta-C films have outstanding properties even within the family of diamondlike materials. However, filtering of macroparticles is usually incomplete or accompanied by significant plasma losses. Ongoing research effort is directed towards the following goals: (1) complete elimination of macro- and nanoparticles from the vacuum arc plasma, (2) increase of plasma utilization in the cathodic-arc and macroparticle-filter system, (3) precise control and reproducibility of film deposition, and (4) synthesis of ultrathin films (< 5 nm) that meet requirements of the magnetic storage industry. The development of new filters, in particular the ''Twist Filter'', enables cathodic arc plasma deposition to synthesize ultrathin ta-C films of 3 nm on heads that pass corrosion and other relevant tests. We describe the Twist Filter system and report about recent ta-C tests results. In light of these results, even thinner films seem to be possible.

  11. Preparation and in vivo evaluation of linkers for 211At labeling of humanized anti-Tac.

    PubMed

    Yordanov, A T; Garmestani, K; Zhang, M; Zhang, Z; Yao, Z; Phillips, K E; Herring, B; Horak, E; Beitzel, M P; Schwarz, U P; Gansow, O A; Plascjak, P S; Eckelman, W C; Waldmann, T A; Brechbiel, M W

    2001-10-01

    The syntheses, radiolabeling, antibody conjugation, and in vivo evaluation of new linkers for 211At labeling of humanized anti-Tac (Hu-anti-Tac), an antibody to the alpha-chain of the IL-2 receptor (IL-2Ralpha) shown to be a useful target for radioimmunotherapy are described. Synthesis of the organometallic linker precursors is accomplished by reaction of the corresponding bromo- or iodoaryl esters with bis(tributyltin) in the presence of a palladium catalyst. Subsequent conversion to the corresponding N-succinimidyl ester and labeling with 211At of two new linkers, N-succinimidyl 4-[211At]astato-3-methylbenzoate and N-succinimidyl N-(4-[211At]astatophenethyl)succinamate (SAPS), together with the previously reported N-succinimidyl 4-[211At]astatobenzoate and N-succinimidyl 3-[211At]astato-4-methylbenzoate, are each conjugated to Hu-anti-Tac. The plasma survival times of these conjugates are compared to those of directly iodinated (125I) Hu-anti-Tac. The N-succinimidyl N-(4-[211At]astatophenethyl)succinamate compound (SAPS) emerged from this assay as the most viable candidate for 211At-labeling of Hu-anti-Tac. SAPS, along with the directly analogous radio-iodinated reagent, N-succinimidyl N-(4-[125I]astatophenethyl)succinamate (SIPS), are evaluated in a biodistribution study along with directly iodinated (125I) Hu-anti-Tac. Blood clearance and biological accretion results indicate that SAPS is a viable candidate for further evaluation for radioimmunotherapy of cancer. PMID:11578907

  12. Vision Algorithms Catch Defects in Screen Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Andrew Watson, a senior scientist at Ames Research Center, developed a tool called the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO), which models human vision for use in robotic applications. Redmond, Washington-based Radiant Zemax LLC licensed the technology from NASA and combined it with its imaging colorimeter system, creating a powerful tool that high-volume manufacturers of flat-panel displays use to catch defects in screens.

  13. 50 CFR 648.53 - Target total allowable catch, DAS allocations, and individual fishing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be made electronically via the Federal web portal, www.pay.gov, or other Internet sites as... payment Web site and the paper bill. Payment options shall include payment via a credit card, as...

  14. Chandra Catches "Piranha" Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-07-01

    Supermassive black holes have been discovered to grow more rapidly in young galaxy clusters, according to new results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. These "fast-track" supermassive black holes can have a big influence on the galaxies and clusters that they live in. Using Chandra, scientists surveyed a sample of clusters and counted the fraction of galaxies with rapidly growing supermassive black holes, known as active galactic nuclei (or AGN). The data show, for the first time, that younger, more distant galaxy clusters contained far more AGN than older, nearby ones. Galaxy clusters are some of the largest structures in the Universe, consisting of many individual galaxies, a few of which contain AGN. Earlier in the history of the universe, these galaxies contained a lot more gas for star formation and black hole growth than galaxies in clusters do today. This fuel allows the young cluster black holes to grow much more rapidly than their counterparts in nearby clusters. Illustration of Active Galactic Nucleus Illustration of Active Galactic Nucleus "The black holes in these early clusters are like piranha in a very well-fed aquarium," said Jason Eastman of Ohio State University (OSU) and first author of this study. "It's not that they beat out each other for food, rather there was so much that all of the piranha were able to really thrive and grow quickly." The team used Chandra to determine the fraction of AGN in four different galaxy clusters at large distances, when the Universe was about 58% of its current age. Then they compared this value to the fraction found in more nearby clusters, those about 82% of the Universe's current age. The result was the more distant clusters contained about 20 times more AGN than the less distant sample. AGN outside clusters are also more common when the Universe is younger, but only by factors of two or three over the same age span. "It's been predicted that there would be fast-track black holes in clusters, but we never

  15. 78 FR 13812 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catch Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ...)(iii) on February 14, 2013 (78 FR 11790, February 20, 2013). As of February 25, 2013, NMFS has... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) using trawl gear in the Western Regulatory Area... allowance of the 2013 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to CVs using trawl gear in the...

  16. Tic-Tac-Toe Binary Lattices from the Interfacial Self-Assembly of Branched and Spherical Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Andrea; de Graaf, Joost; Prato, Mirko; Manna, Liberato; Arciniegas, Milena P

    2016-04-26

    The self-organization of nanocrystals has proven to be a versatile route to achieve increasingly sophisticated structures of materials, where the shape and properties of individual particles impact the final functionalities. Recent works have addressed this topic by combining various shapes to achieve more complex arrangements of particles than are possible in single-component samples. However, the ability to create intricate architectures over large regions by exploiting the shape of multiply branched nanocrystals to host a second component remains unexplored. Here, we show how the concave shape of a branched nanocrystal, the so-called octapod, is able to anchor a sphere. The two components self-assemble into a locally ordered monolayer consisting of an intercalated square lattice of octapods and spheres, which is reminiscent of the "tic-tac-toe" game. These tic-tac-toe domains form through an interfacial self-assembly that occurs by the dewetting of a hexane layer containing both particle types. By varying the experimental conditions and performing molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the ligands coating the octapods are crucial to the formation of this structure. We find that the tendency of an octapod to form an interlocking-type structure with a second octapod strongly depends on the ligand shell of the pods. Breaking this tendency by ligand exchange allows the octapods to assemble into a more relaxed configuration, which is able to form a lock-and-key-type structure with a sphere, when they have a suitable size ratio. Our findings provide an example of a more versatile use of branched nanocrystals in self-assembled functional materials. PMID:27027973

  17. High total antioxidant capacity of the porcine seminal plasma (SP-TAC) relates to sperm survival and fertility

    PubMed Central

    Barranco, Isabel; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Ceron, Jose J.; Martinez, Emilio A.; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The study attempted to clarify the role of total antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma (SP-TAC) on boar sperm survival and fertility after artificial insemination (AI). SP-TAC differed (P < 0.001) among boars (n° = 15) and, to a lesser degree, among ejaculates within male (4 ejaculates/boar). SP-TAC also differed (P < 0.001) among ejaculate fractions (43 ejaculates and 3 fractions per ejaculate), of which the sperm-peak portion of the sperm rich ejaculate fraction (SRF) had the highest SP-TAC. SP-TAC was not correlated with sperm quality (motility and viability) or functionality (intracellular ROS generation and lipid peroxidation) of liquid AI-semen samples stored at 17 °C for 72 h (90 AI-samples), but the decline in sperm quality was larger (P < 0.05) in ejaculates with low, compared with high SP-TAC (hierarchically grouped). The SP-TAC differences among ejaculate portions agree with sperm cryosurvival rates (14 ejaculates from 7 boars), showing sperm from sperm-peak portion better (P < 0.01) post-thaw quality and functionality than those from the entire ejaculate (mainly post-SRF). Boars (n° = 18) with high SP-TAC (hierarchically grouped) had higher (P < 0.05) fertility outcomes (5,546 AI-sows) than those with low SP-TAC. Measurement of SP-TAC ought to be a discriminative tool to prognosis fertility in breeding boars. PMID:26688188

  18. Tic Tac TOE: Effects of Predictability and Importance on Acoustic Prominence in Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Duane G.; Arnold, Jennifer E.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Importance and predictability each have been argued to contribute to acoustic prominence. To investigate whether these factors are independent or two aspects of the same phenomenon, naive participants played a verbal variant of Tic Tac Toe. Both importance and predictability contributed independently to the acoustic prominence of a word, but in…

  19. 40Hz-Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) selectively modulates speech perception.

    PubMed

    Rufener, Katharina S; Zaehle, Tino; Oechslin, Mathias S; Meyer, Martin

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated the functional relevance of gamma oscillations for the processing of rapidly changing acoustic features in speech signals. For this purpose we analyzed repetition-induced perceptual learning effects in 18 healthy adult participants. The participants received either 6Hz or 40Hz tACS over the bilateral auditory cortex, while repeatedly performing a phoneme categorization task. In result, we found that 40Hz tACS led to a specific alteration in repetition-induced perceptual learning. While participants in the non-stimulated control group as well as those in the experimental group receiving 6Hz tACS considerably improved their perceptual performance, the application of 40Hz tACS selectively attenuated the repetition-induced improvement in phoneme categorization abilities. Our data provide causal evidence for a functional relevance of gamma oscillations during the perceptual learning of acoustic speech features. Moreover, we demonstrate that even less than twenty minutes of alternating current stimulation below the individual perceptual threshold is sufficient to affect speech perception. This finding is relevant in that this novel approach might have implications with respect to impaired speech processing in dyslexics and older adults. PMID:26779822

  20. Catch tank inhibitor addition 200-East and 200-West Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Palit, A.N.

    1996-06-21

    Reported is the study of 11 catch tanks in the 200-East Area and the 7 catch tanks in the 200-West Area listed as active. The location, capacity, material of construction, annual total accumulation, annual rain intrusion, waste transfer rate, and access for chemical injection in these tanks are documented. The present and future utilization and isolation plans for the catch tanks are established.

  1. 50 CFR 648.62 - Northern Gulf of Maine (NGOM) scallop management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... against the total allowable catch and allocations specified in § 648.53(a). (1) NGOM annual hard TACs. The annual hard TAC for the NGOM is 70,000 lb (31.8 mt) for the 2011, 2012, and 2013 fishing years. The NGOM TAC for the 2013 fishing year is a default allocation and is subject to change in a future...

  2. Catching up: The rise of the Chinese wind turbine industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefevre-Marton, Nicolas

    This thesis argues that Chinese firms can catch up with the technological frontier in the scope of new climate friendly energy technologies and provides a detailed study of the case of wind power. Chapter 2 assesses the nature and extent of wind turbine technology catch-up. Firstly, it uses various wind turbine technology indicators to detail the convergence of trends of leading Chinese firms with firms at the technological frontier. Secondly, the chapter assesses the evolution of technological capabilities among leading Chinese turbine manufacturers. It shows that Chinese firms were progressively introducing turbine technologies similar to those produced by frontier firms and had rapidly improved their capabilities, allowing them to increasingly rely on independent technology development efforts. Chapter 3 describes how the Chinese wind power technology development system, characterized by the presence of a powerful and proactive government, provided the necessary conditions for Chinese wind turbine manufacturers to make rapid technological progress. In particular, it highlights the policies introduced by the government to create a large and rapidly growing wind power market in China and the steps taken by the government to ensure that Chinese firms entered and progressively dominated the domestic turbine manufacturing market. The competition which ensued among domestic turbine manufacturers was arguably the main driver of technology development efforts. The most significant challenge to the continued progress of the industry was whether the Chinese system could transition from a model of technology development based on technology transfer to one based on its own innovation efforts. Chapter 4 shows that due to limited government support over the years in both Europe and the United States, the wind power technology frontier has evolved relatively slowly, making it easier for Chinese firms to catch up. Firstly, using patenting rates as indicators of knowledge

  3. How to catch a falling fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marantan, Andrew; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2015-03-01

    A variety of fish engage in complex hunting behaviors involving catching airborne prey falling to the surface of the water. In principle this requires that the fish develop internal models describing both the falling prey and its own motion relative to that prey. However learning such models is complicated by the fact that the fish must also account for noise in optical measurements and the refraction occurring at the air/water interface. Inspired by experimental observations, we describe how one such species (Brycon guatemalensis) might feasibly overcome these obstacles and learn a model accurate enough to catch falling fruit. Instead of learning a model for how the fruit falls and a model for how it moves in the water and a model accounting for refraction, we argue that the fish could instead learn one approximate linear model relating a set of measured inputs to a set of measured outputs valid in a limited domain of initial conditions. The fish could then make its control decisions based on the outcome predicted by this combined linear model. We also discuss how the fish can leverage neural transformations of raw data to learn a model with a larger domain of validity and yet more sensitive to noise due to nontrivial Jacobians arising from the neural transformations.

  4. Increased Throwing Accuracy Improves Children's Catching Performance in a Ball-Catching Task from the Movement Assessment Battery (MABC-2)

    PubMed Central

    Dirksen, Tim; De Lussanet, Marc H. E.; Zentgraf, Karen; Slupinski, Lena; Wagner, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2) is a functional test for identifying deficits in the motor performance of children. The test contains a ball-catching task that requires the children to catch a self-thrown ball with one hand. As the task can be executed with a variety of different catching strategies, it is assumed that the task success can also vary considerably. Even though it is not clear, whether the performance merely depends on the catching skills or also to some extent on the throwing skills, the MABC-2 takes into account only the movement outcome. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine (1) to what extent the throwing accuracy has an effect on the children's catching performance and (2) to what extent the throwing accuracy influences their choice of catching strategy. In line with the test manual, the children's catching performance was quantified on basis of the number of correctly caught balls. The throwing accuracy and the catching strategy were quantified by applying a kinematic analysis on the ball's trajectory and the hand movements. Based on linear regression analyses, we then investigated the relation between throwing accuracy, catching performance and catching strategy. The results show that an increased throwing accuracy is significantly correlated with an increased catching performance. Moreover, a higher throwing accuracy is significantly correlated with a longer duration of the hand on the ball's parabola, which indicates that throwing the ball more accurately could enable the children to effectively reduce the requirements on temporal precision. As the children's catching performance and their choice of catching strategy in the ball-catching task of the MABC-2 are substantially determined by their throwing accuracy, the test evaluation should not be based on the movement outcome alone, but should also take into account the children's throwing performance. Our findings could be of particular value for the

  5. Complementarity of no-take marine reserves and individual transferable catch quotas for managing the line fishery of the great barrier reef.

    PubMed

    Little, L R; Grafton, R Q; Kompas, T; Smith, A D M; Punt, A E; Mapstone, B D

    2011-04-01

    Changes in the management of the fin fish fishery of the Great Barrier Reef motivated us to investigate the combined effects on economic returns and fish biomass of no-take areas and regulated total allowable catch allocated in the form of individual transferable quotas (such quotas apportion the total allowable catch as fishing rights and permits the buying and selling of these rights among fishers). We built a spatially explicit biological and economic model of the fishery to analyze the trade-offs between maintaining given levels of fish biomass and the net financial returns from fishing under different management regimes. Results of the scenarios we modeled suggested that a decrease in total allowable catch at high levels of harvest either increased net returns or lowered them only slightly, but increased biomass by up to 10% for a wide range of reserve sizes and an increase in the reserve area from none to 16% did not greatly change net returns at any catch level. Thus, catch shares and no-take reserves can be complementary and when these methods are used jointly they promote lower total allowable catches when harvest is relatively high and encourage larger no-take areas when they are small. PMID:20964713

  6. Catch bond interaction between cell-surface sulfatase Sulf1 and glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Harder, Alexander; Möller, Ann-Kristin; Milz, Fabian; Neuhaus, Phillipp; Walhorn, Volker; Dierks, Thomas; Anselmetti, Dario

    2015-04-01

    In biological adhesion, the biophysical mechanism of specific biomolecular interaction can be divided in slip and catch bonds, respectively. Conceptually, slip bonds exhibit a reduced bond lifetime under increased external force and catch bonds, in contrast, exhibit an increased lifetime (for a certain force interval). Since 2003, a handful of biological systems have been identified to display catch bond properties. Upon investigating the specific interaction between the unique hydrophilic domain (HD) of the human cell-surface sulfatase Sulf1 against its physiological glycosaminoglycan (GAG) target heparan sulfate (HS) by single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS), we found clear evidence of catch bond behavior in this system. The HD, ∼320 amino acids long with dominant positive charge, and its interaction with sulfated GAG-polymers were quantitatively investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) based force clamp spectroscopy (FCS) and dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS). In FCS experiments, we found that the catch bond character of HD against GAGs could be attributed to the GAG 6-O-sulfation site whereas only slip bond interaction can be observed in a GAG system where this site is explicitly lacking. We interpreted the binding data within the theoretical framework of a two state two path model, where two slip bonds are coupled forming a double-well interaction potential with an energy difference of ΔE ≈ 9 kBT and a compliance length of Δx ≈ 3.2 nm. Additional DFS experiments support this assumption and allow identification of these two coupled slip-bond states that behave consistently within the Kramers-Bell-Evans model of force-mediated dissociation. PMID:25863062

  7. TacSat-2: Path finder for a Close Space Support Asset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhopale, A.; Finley, C.

    2008-08-01

    With th e launch of TacSat-2, the Oper ationally Responsive Sp ace (O RS) commun ity had its f irst on- orbit asset and opportunity to prove or disprove the premise that small, in expensiv e, and quickly constructed spacecraf t could perform useful operation al missions when needed and for as long as need ed. All of the components of the comp lex TacSat-2 system had to work together to answer the basic questions, "In a crisis, can a lab-developed spacecraf t and ground architecture competen tly p erform th e mission of systems that cost twen ty times the price and tak e four times as long to develop? Mor eover, can th is system actu ally improve on the responsiveness of Nation al Systems to a certain set of underserv ed Oper ational customers?" When all w as said and done, TacSat-2 was a sp acecraf t that h ad to: 1) Carry th irteen tactical and scientific payloads to orbit, many of which doubled as essen tial, non-redundant subsystems; 2) Launch from an unproven launch base on a last minute "rep lacement" launch vehicle; and 3) Fulfill about 140 on-orbit mission requirements. It had tactical sensors, two unproven communication links, numerous next-gen eration single- string componen ts (e.g., h igh-efficiency propulsion system, thin-film so lar arrays, low-power versatile star camera) , and autonomous softw are to mak e the system more friendly and familiar to Tactical, rather than Spacecraf t Op erators. However, the mission was as mu ch about the implementation as it w as about the components. TacSat-2 was designed for and emp loyed with a different concept of operations ( CONOPS) than tradition al N ational Operational Assets. It w as designed to be th e fir st-ev er Clo se Space Support platform and operated in a manner more analogous to Close Air Support aircraf t than to tr aditional spacecraft. Therefore, th e primary objective of the TacSat-2 mission was to use th e TacSat-2 system to id entify those parts of the spacecr aft, ground system, and CON OPS

  8. Marginal Bidding: An Application of the Equimarginal Principle to Bidding in TAC SCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwald, Amy; Naroditskiy, Victor; Odean, Tyler; Ramirez, Mauricio; Sodomka, Eric; Zimmerman, Joe; Cutler, Clark

    We present a fast and effective bidding strategy for the Trading Agent Competition in Supply Chain Management (TAC SCM). In TAC SCM, manufacturers compete to procure computer parts from suppliers (the procurement problem), and then sell assembled computers to customers in reverse auctions (the bidding problem). This paper is concerned only with bidding, in which an agent must decide how many computers to sell and at what prices to sell them. We propose a greedy solution, Marginal Bidding, inspired by the Equimarginal Principle, which states that revenue is maximized among possible uses of a resource when the return on the last unit of the resource is the same across all areas of use. We show experimentally that certain variations of Marginal Bidding can compute bids faster than our ILP solution, which enables Marginal Bidders to consider future demand as well as current demand, and hence achieve greater revenues when knowledge of the future is valuable.

  9. Nutritionally-Induced Catch-Up Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gat-Yablonski, Galia; Phillip, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is considered a leading cause of growth attenuation in children. When food is replenished, spontaneous catch-up (CU) growth usually occurs, bringing the child back to its original growth trajectory. However, in some cases, the CU growth is not complete, leading to a permanent growth deficit. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding the mechanism regulating nutrition and growth, including systemic factors, such as insulin, growth hormone, insulin- like growth factor-1, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-21, etc., and local mechanisms, including autophagy, as well as regulators of transcription, protein synthesis, miRNAs and epigenetics. Studying the molecular mechanisms regulating CU growth may lead to the establishment of better nutritional and therapeutic regimens for more effective CU growth in children with malnutrition and growth abnormalities. It will be fascinating to follow this research in the coming years and to translate the knowledge gained to clinical benefit. PMID:25594438

  10. Playing Tic-Tac-Toe with a Sugar-Based Molecular Computer.

    PubMed

    Elstner, M; Schiller, A

    2015-08-24

    Today, molecules can perform Boolean operations and circuits at a level of higher complexity. However, concatenation of logic gates and inhomogeneous inputs and outputs are still challenging tasks. Novel approaches for logic gate integration are possible when chemical programming and software programming are combined. Here it is shown that a molecular finite automaton based on the concatenated implication function (IMP) of a fluorescent two-component sugar probe via a wiring algorithm is able to play tic-tac-toe. PMID:26203667

  11. 50 CFR 622.496 - Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and accountability measures (AMs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and accountability measures (AMs). 622.496 Section 622.496 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  12. 50 CFR 622.439 - Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and accountability measures (AMs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and accountability measures (AMs). 622.439 Section 622.439 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  13. 50 CFR 622.457 - Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and accountability measures (AMs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and accountability measures (AMs). 622.457 Section 622.457 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  14. Solar Technology Acceleration Center (SolarTAC): Solar Resource & Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP); Aurora, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    2011-02-11

    Located in Colorado, near Denver International Airport, SolarTAC is a private, member-based, 74-acre outdoor facility where the solar industry tests, validates, and demonstrates advanced solar technologies. SolarTAC was launched in 2008 by a public-private consortium, including Midwest Research Institute (MRI). As a supporting member of SolarTAC, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has established a high quality solar and meteorological measurement station at this location. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result is high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  15. Texture structure and ablation behavior of TaC coating on carbon/carbon composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao-Ke, Chen; Xiang, Xiong; Guo-Dong, Li; Wei, Sun; Ying, Long

    2010-11-01

    TaC coatings with hybrid, (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) texture structure were prepared on carbon/carbon (C/C) composites by isothermal chemical vapor deposition with TaCl5-Ar-C3H6 system. The residual stress, hardness and ablation behaviors of the different coatings were characterized by Raman spectra, nano-indentation and oxyacetylene flame ablation machine respectively. Results shown tensile stress exists in the TaC coatings and increases when texture orientation turns from hybrid to (2 2 0) and (2 0 0), while nano-indentation hardness of the coatings also obeys the same trend. The deposited coatings could improve the ablation-resistance properties of C/C composites effectively. The texture structure also had great effects on the ablation properties and ablation morphologies of the coatings. The mass ablation rate obviously decreases when the texture structure changes from hybrid orientation to (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) orientations. The hybrid orientation and (2 0 0) texture coatings exhibit coarse oxide morphologies with crater or some breakage existed; while the (2 2 0) texture coating shows dense, molten oxide morphology. The main ablation behaviors of the hybrid, (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) texture TaC coatings are oxidation and particle denudation and block denudation, oxidation and block denudation, oxidation and mechanical erosion and block denudation, respectively.

  16. Trade-Based Estimation of Bluefin Tuna Catches in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean, 2005–2011

    PubMed Central

    Gagern, Antonius; van den Bergh, Jeroen; Sumaila, Ussif Rashid

    2013-01-01

    The Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean stock of Bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (BFTE) has long been considered overfished and at risk of collapse. Although ICCAT quotas for this stock have decreased considerably over the past years, uncertainty exists about the degree of catch beyond this quota. The extent of such catch is an important piece of information in stock assessment models as well as being an indicator of the effectiveness of fisheries management. We present a model using Bluefin tuna trade data to infer actual catches. Basing our calculations on 25 countries involved in BFTE trade, we estimate that between 2005 and 2011, allowable quotas were exceeded by 44 percent. This gap between catch and quotas has slightly increased over past years, leading to estimated excess catches of 57 percent for the period between 2008 and 2011. To improve assessments, preparation and design of BFTE management, we suggest that the estimated total removals reported in this paper be included in stock assessment models for BFTE. An implication of our findings is that ICCAT member states should take stronger measures to monitor and enforce compliance with quotas. PMID:23922870

  17. Antipsychotic-Like Effect of the Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist BuTAC in Non-Human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Dencker, Ditte; Werge, Thomas; Bymaster, Frank P.; Felder, Christian C.; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic, muscarinic receptor agonists exhibit functional dopamine antagonism and muscarinic receptors have been suggested as possible future targets for the treatment of schizophrenia and drug abuse. The muscarinic ligand (5R,6R)-6-(3-butylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane (BuTAC) exhibits high affinity for muscarinic receptors with no or substantially less affinity for a large number of other receptors and binding sites, including the dopamine receptors and the dopamine transporter. In the present study, we wanted to examine the possible antipsychotic-like effects of BuTAC in primates. To this end, we investigated the effects of BuTAC on d-amphetamine-induced behaviour in antipsychotic-naive Cebus paella monkeys. Possible adverse events of BuTAC, were evaluated in the same monkeys as well as in monkeys sensitized to antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects. The present data suggests that, the muscarinic receptor ligand BuTAC exhibits antipsychotic-like behaviour in primates. The behavioural data of BuTAC as well as the new biochemical data further substantiate the rationale for the use of muscarinic M1/M2/M4-preferring receptor agonists as novel pharmacological tools in the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:25880220

  18. Antipsychotic-like effect of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist BuTAC in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Croy, Carrie Hughes; Dencker, Ditte; Werge, Thomas; Bymaster, Frank P; Felder, Christian C; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic, muscarinic receptor agonists exhibit functional dopamine antagonism and muscarinic receptors have been suggested as possible future targets for the treatment of schizophrenia and drug abuse. The muscarinic ligand (5R,6R)-6-(3-butylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane (BuTAC) exhibits high affinity for muscarinic receptors with no or substantially less affinity for a large number of other receptors and binding sites, including the dopamine receptors and the dopamine transporter. In the present study, we wanted to examine the possible antipsychotic-like effects of BuTAC in primates. To this end, we investigated the effects of BuTAC on d-amphetamine-induced behaviour in antipsychotic-naive Cebus paella monkeys. Possible adverse events of BuTAC, were evaluated in the same monkeys as well as in monkeys sensitized to antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects. The present data suggests that, the muscarinic receptor ligand BuTAC exhibits antipsychotic-like behaviour in primates. The behavioural data of BuTAC as well as the new biochemical data further substantiate the rationale for the use of muscarinic M1/M2/M4-preferring receptor agonists as novel pharmacological tools in the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:25880220

  19. tACS Phase Locking of Frontal Midline Theta Oscillations Disrupts Working Memory Performance

    PubMed Central

    Chander, Bankim S.; Witkowski, Matthias; Braun, Christoph; Robinson, Stephen E.; Born, Jan; Cohen, Leonardo G.; Birbaumer, Niels; Soekadar, Surjo R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Frontal midline theta (FMT) oscillations (4–8 Hz) are strongly related to cognitive and executive control during mental tasks such as memory processing, arithmetic problem solving or sustained attention. While maintenance of temporal order information during a working memory (WM) task was recently linked to FMT phase, a positive correlation between FMT power, WM demand and WM performance was shown. However, the relationship between these measures is not well understood, and it is unknown whether purposeful FMT phase manipulation during a WM task impacts FMT power and WM performance. Here we present evidence that FMT phase manipulation mediated by transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) can block WM demand-related FMT power increase (FMTΔpower) and disrupt normal WM performance. Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers were assigned to one of two groups (group A, group B) and performed a 2-back task across a baseline block (block 1) and an intervention block (block 2) while 275-sensor magnetoencephalography (MEG) was recorded. After no stimulation was applied during block 1, participants in group A received tACS oscillating at their individual FMT frequency over the prefrontal cortex (PFC) while group B received sham stimulation during block 2. After assessing and mapping phase locking values (PLV) between the tACS signal and brain oscillatory activity across the whole brain, FMT power and WM performance were assessed and compared between blocks and groups. Results: During block 2 of group A but not B, FMT oscillations showed increased PLV across task-related cortical areas underneath the frontal tACS electrode. While WM task-related FMTΔpower and WM performance were comparable across groups in block 1, tACS resulted in lower FMTΔpower and WM performance compared to sham stimulation in block 2. Conclusion: tACS-related manipulation of FMT phase can disrupt WM performance and influence WM task-related FMTΔpower. This finding may have important

  20. Precordial Catch Syndrome in Elite Swimmers With Asthma.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Don; Younger, Bradley R; Mansour, Heidi M; Strawbridge, Heather

    2016-02-01

    Precordial catch syndrome is a benign cause of chest pain in children and adolescents that remains underrecognized. Because of distinctive symptoms, precordial catch syndrome is not necessarily a diagnosis of exclusion. However, a detailed history eliciting diagnostic features is important, along with a physical examination excluding other pathologic disorders. We present the cases of 2 elite swimmers with asthma who had acute episodes of precordial catch syndrome, one associated with an acute asthma exacerbation and one not, while swimming during competitive swim meets that required rescue efforts for both and eventual evaluation in the emergency department. PMID:26835568

  1. Catch Them Being Good: Training Parents as Behavioral Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, John L.; Meyer, Erica M.

    1977-01-01

    Catch Them Being Good is a behavior modification program that may be used by school counselors to teach parents skills that can help them deal with their child's behavioral problems. This article describes the sessions with parents. (Author)

  2. 1. VIEW EAST, COMPONENTS TEST LABORATORY SHOWING CATCH BASINS, TURBINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW EAST, COMPONENTS TEST LABORATORY SHOWING CATCH BASINS, TURBINE TESTING AREA, AND PUMP TESTING TOWER. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Components Test Laboratory, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  3. Does load uncertainty affect adaptation to catch training?

    PubMed

    Berg, William P; Richards, Brian J; Hannigan, Aaron M; Biller, Kelsey L; Hughes, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Catching relies on anticipatory and compensatory control processes. Load uncertainty increases anticipatory and compensatory neuromotor effort in catching. This experiment tested the effect of load uncertainty in plyometric catch/throw training on elbow flexion reaction time (RT), movement time (MT) and peak torque, as well as the distribution of anticipatory and compensatory neuromotor effort in catching. We expected load uncertainty training to be superior to traditional training for improving elbow flexion MT and peak torque, as well as for reallocating neuromotor effort from compensatory to anticipatory control in catching. Three groups of men (mean age = 21), load knowledge training (K) (n = 14), load uncertainty training (U) (n = 13) and control (C) (n = 14), participated. Groups K and U trained three times/week for 6 weeks using single-arm catch/throw exercises with 0.45-4.08 kg balls. Sets involved 16 repetitions of four different ball masses presented randomly. Group K had knowledge of ball mass on every repetition, whereas group U never did. Change scores were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis tests and follow-up Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Group K improved both RT and MT (by 6.2 and 12 %, respectively), whereas group U did not. Both groups K and U improved peak eccentric elbow flexion torque. Group K reallocated neuromotor effort from compensatory to anticipatory processes in the biceps, triceps and the all muscle average, whereas group U did so in the triceps only. In sum, plyometric catch/throw training caused a reallocation of neuromotor effort from compensatory to anticipatory control in catching. However, load uncertainty training did not amplify this effect and in fact appeared to inhibit the reallocation of neuromotor effort from compensatory to anticipatory control. PMID:27215774

  4. A design study on high power RF system for the TARLA facility of TAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karslı, Özlem; Yavaş, Ömer

    2012-11-01

    The Turkish Accelerator and Radiation Laboratory in Ankara (TARLA) is a superconducting electron linac based IR FEL and Bremsstrahlung facility and it is under construction in Ankara as the first facility of the Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) Project. TARLA will compose of two optical cavity systems to produce oscillator FEL in infrared region (2-250 μm) and also Bremsstrahlung radiation to be used in basic and applied sciences. In this study, main parameters of TARLA's high power RF and power transmission line systems are defined and a 20 kW RF solid state power amplifier is optimized.

  5. Catch-up growth and catch-up fat in children born small for gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of perinatal morbidity, persistent short stature, and metabolic alterations in later life. Recent studies have focused on the association between birth weight (BW) and later body composition. Some reports suggest that fetal nutrition, as reflected by BW, may have an inverse programing effect on abdominal adiposity later in life. This inverse association between BW and abdominal adiposity in adults may contribute to insulin resistance. Rapid weight gain during infancy in SGA children seemed to be associated with increased fat mass rather than lean mass. Early catch-up growth after SGA birth rather than SGA itself has been noted as a cardiovascular risk factor in later life. Children who are born SGA also have a predisposition to accumulation of fat mass, particularly intra-abdominal fat. It is not yet clear whether this predisposition is due to low BW itself, rapid postnatal catch-up growth, or a combination of both. In this report, we review the published literature on central fat accumulation and metabolic consequences of being SGA, as well as the currently popular research area of SGA, including growth aspects. PMID:26893597

  6. Mitigating by-catch of diamondback terrapins in crab pots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, Kristen M.; Crowder, Larry B.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic by-catch of diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) pots is a concern for terrapin conservation along the United States Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Despite the availability of by-catch reduction devices (BRDs) for crab pots, adoption of BRDs has not been mandated and by-catch of terrapins continues. We conducted experimental fishing studies in North Carolina's year-round blue crab fishery from 2000 to 2004 to evaluate the ability of various BRDs to reduce terrapin by-catch without a concomitant reduction in the catch of blue crabs. In 4,822 crab pot days fished, we recorded only 21 terrapin captures. Estimated capture rates were 0.003 terrapins/pot per day in hard crab experimental fishing and 0.008 terrapins/pot per day in peeler experimental fishing. All terrapin captures occurred from April to mid-May within 321.4 m of the shoreline. Longer soak times produced more dead terrapins, with 4 live and 4 dead during hard crab experimental fishing and 11 live and 2 dead during peeler experimental fishing. The 4.0-cm BRDs in fall and 4.5-cm and 5.0-cm BRDs in spring reduced the catch of legal-sized male hard crabs by 26.6%, 21.2%, and 5.7%, respectively. Only the 5.0-cm BRDs did not significantly affect the catch of legal-sized hard male crabs. However, BRDs had no measurable effect on catch of target crabs in the peeler crab fishery. Our results identify 3 complementary and economically feasible tools for blue crab fishery managers to exclude terrapins from commercially fished crab pots in North Carolina: 1) gear modifications (e.g., BRDs); 2) distance-to-shore restrictions; and 3) time-of-year regulations. These measures combined could provide a reduction in terrapin by-catch of up to 95% without a significant reduction in target crab catch.

  7. Deuterium retention in TiC and TaC doped tungsten at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibrov, M.; Mayer, M.; Gao, L.; Elgeti, S.; Kurishita, H.; Gasparyan, Yu.; Pisarev, A.

    2015-08-01

    Samples made of tungsten doped either with titanium carbide (W-1.1TiC) or tantalum carbide (W-3.3TaC) were either exposed to D2 gas at a pressure of 100 kPa at 800-963 K or irradiated by 38 eV/D ions at 800 K. The deuterium (D) inventory in the samples was examined by nuclear reaction analysis and thermal desorption spectroscopy. The D bulk concentration and total retention in W-3.3TaC were comparable in all cases to that in pure polycrystalline W. The D bulk concentration in W-1.1TiC was more than one order of magnitude higher than that in pure W after exposure to D2 gas, and was also several times higher than that in W-1.1TiC after irradiation at 800 K. It is suggested that D trapping inside the carbide precipitates in W-1.1TiC becomes essential at high temperatures.

  8. Molecular cloning of Reteplase and its expression in E. coli using tac promoter

    PubMed Central

    Aghaabdollahian, Safieh; Rabbani, Mohammad; Ghaedi, Kamran; Sadeghi, Hamid Mir Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: This study aimed to clone and express the reteplase cDNA, a thrombolytic agent used for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction and stroke, in E. coli, utilizing tac promoter for its expression. Materials and Methods: Reteplase cDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with designed primers. The product was then cloned into pTZ57R plasmid. The cloned cDNA was digested out and ligated into pGEX-5x-1 expression vector. The presence of the insert was confirmed by restriction digestion. By using 0.2, 0.5 and 1 mM isopropyl beta-D thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), expression of reteplase was induced in E. coli TOP10 cells and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Results: Electrophoresis of PCR product and also double digested recombinant pTZ57R plasmid, also, pGEX-5x-1 vector, showed a 1068bp band of reteplase. SDS-PAGE analysis showed a 60 KDa band of protein product induced with different concentrations of IPTG. Conclusion: In the present study, reteplase cDNA was successfully cloned and expressed using tac promoter. This vector will be used for the optimization of the expression of reteplase in E. coli. PMID:25298959

  9. Normosmic Congenital Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism Due to TAC3/TACR3 Mutations: Characterization of Neuroendocrine Phenotypes and Novel Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Voican, Adela; Amazit, Larbi; Trabado, Séverine; Fagart, Jérôme; Meduri, Geri; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Chanson, Philippe; Lecomte, Pierre; Guiochon-Mantel, Anne; Young, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Context TAC3/TACR3 mutations have been reported in normosmic congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nCHH) (OMIM #146110). In the absence of animal models, studies of human neuroendocrine phenotypes associated with neurokinin B and NK3R receptor dysfunction can help to decipher the pathophysiology of this signaling pathway. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of TAC3/TACR3 mutations, characterize novel TACR3 mutations and to analyze neuroendocrine profiles in nCHH caused by deleterious TAC3/TACR3 biallelic mutations. Results From a cohort of 352 CHH, we selected 173 nCHH patients and identified nine patients carrying TAC3 or TACR3 variants (5.2%). We describe here 7 of these TACR3 variants (1 frameshift and 2 nonsense deleterious mutations and 4 missense variants) found in 5 subjects. Modeling and functional studies of the latter demonstrated the deleterious consequence of one missense mutation (Tyr267Asn) probably caused by the misfolding of the mutated NK3R protein. We found a statistically significant (p<0.0001) higher mean FSH/LH ratio in 11 nCHH patients with TAC3/TACR3 biallelic mutations than in 47 nCHH patients with either biallelic mutations in KISS1R, GNRHR, or with no identified mutations and than in 50 Kallmann patients with mutations in KAL1, FGFR1 or PROK2/PROKR2. Three patients with TAC3/TACR3 biallelic mutations had an apulsatile LH profile but low-frequency alpha-subunit pulses. Pulsatile GnRH administration increased alpha-subunit pulsatile frequency and reduced the FSH/LH ratio. Conclusion The gonadotropin axis dysfunction associated with nCHH due to TAC3/TACR3 mutations is related to a low GnRH pulsatile frequency leading to a low frequency of alpha-subunit pulses and to an elevated FSH/LH ratio. This ratio might be useful for pre-screening nCHH patients for TAC3/TACR3 mutations. PMID:22031817

  10. What's the catch? Validity of whaling data for Japanese catches of sperm whales in the North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Ivashchenko, Yulia V; Clapham, Phillip J

    2015-07-01

    The failure of international efforts to manage commercial whaling was exemplified by revelations of large-scale illegal whale catches by the USSR over a 30 year period following World War II. Falsifications of catch data have also been reported for Japanese coastal whaling, but to date there has been no investigation of the reliability of catch statistics for Japanese pelagic (factory fleet) whaling operations. Here, we use data of known reliability from Soviet whaling industry reports to show that body lengths reported to the International Whaling Commission (IWC) by Japanese factory fleets for female sperm whales caught in the North Pacific are not credible. In 1968/1969, Japanese whaling fleets in the North Pacific killed 1568 females, of which 1525 (97.3%) were reported as being at or above the IWC's minimum length of 11.6 m (legal-sized females, LSFs). By contrast, Soviet fleets operating during this period killed 12 578 females; only 824 (6.6%) were LSFs. Adjusting for effort, catches of LSFs were up to 9.1 times higher for Japan compared with the USSR, and even higher for very large females. Dramatic differences in body length statistics were evident when both nations operated in the same area. Significantly, the frequency of LSFs and very large females in the Japanese catch markedly declined after the IWC's International Observer Scheme in 1972 made illegal whaling more difficult. We conclude that the Japanese length data reflect systematic falsification of catch statistics submitted to the IWC, with serious implications for the reliability of data used in current population assessments. The apparent ease with which catch data were falsified in the past underscores the necessity of transparent and independent inspection procedures in any future commercial whaling. PMID:26587276

  11. What's the catch? Validity of whaling data for Japanese catches of sperm whales in the North Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Ivashchenko, Yulia V.; Clapham, Phillip J.

    2015-01-01

    The failure of international efforts to manage commercial whaling was exemplified by revelations of large-scale illegal whale catches by the USSR over a 30 year period following World War II. Falsifications of catch data have also been reported for Japanese coastal whaling, but to date there has been no investigation of the reliability of catch statistics for Japanese pelagic (factory fleet) whaling operations. Here, we use data of known reliability from Soviet whaling industry reports to show that body lengths reported to the International Whaling Commission (IWC) by Japanese factory fleets for female sperm whales caught in the North Pacific are not credible. In 1968/1969, Japanese whaling fleets in the North Pacific killed 1568 females, of which 1525 (97.3%) were reported as being at or above the IWC's minimum length of 11.6 m (legal-sized females, LSFs). By contrast, Soviet fleets operating during this period killed 12 578 females; only 824 (6.6%) were LSFs. Adjusting for effort, catches of LSFs were up to 9.1 times higher for Japan compared with the USSR, and even higher for very large females. Dramatic differences in body length statistics were evident when both nations operated in the same area. Significantly, the frequency of LSFs and very large females in the Japanese catch markedly declined after the IWC's International Observer Scheme in 1972 made illegal whaling more difficult. We conclude that the Japanese length data reflect systematic falsification of catch statistics submitted to the IWC, with serious implications for the reliability of data used in current population assessments. The apparent ease with which catch data were falsified in the past underscores the necessity of transparent and independent inspection procedures in any future commercial whaling. PMID:26587276

  12. Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch.

    PubMed

    Cheung, William W L; Watson, Reg; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-05-16

    Marine fishes and invertebrates respond to ocean warming through distribution shifts, generally to higher latitudes and deeper waters. Consequently, fisheries should be affected by 'tropicalization' of catch (increasing dominance of warm-water species). However, a signature of such climate-change effects on global fisheries catch has so far not been detected. Here we report such an index, the mean temperature of the catch (MTC), that is calculated from the average inferred temperature preference of exploited species weighted by their annual catch. Our results show that, after accounting for the effects of fishing and large-scale oceanographic variability, global MTC increased at a rate of 0.19 degrees Celsius per decade between 1970 and 2006, and non-tropical MTC increased at a rate of 0.23 degrees Celsius per decade. In tropical areas, MTC increased initially because of the reduction in the proportion of subtropical species catches, but subsequently stabilized as scope for further tropicalization of communities became limited. Changes in MTC in 52 large marine ecosystems, covering the majority of the world's coastal and shelf areas, are significantly and positively related to regional changes in sea surface temperature. This study shows that ocean warming has already affected global fisheries in the past four decades, highlighting the immediate need to develop adaptation plans to minimize the effect of such warming on the economy and food security of coastal communities, particularly in tropical regions. PMID:23676754

  13. A novel tool to mitigate by-catch mortality of baltic seals in coastal fyke net fishery.

    PubMed

    Oksanen, Sari M; Ahola, Markus P; Oikarinen, Jyrki; Kunnasranta, Mervi

    2015-01-01

    Developing methods to reduce the incidental catch of non-target species is important, as by-catch mortality poses threats especially to large aquatic predators. We examined the effectiveness of a novel device, a "seal sock", in mitigating the by-catch mortality of seals in coastal fyke net fisheries in the Baltic Sea. The seal sock developed and tested in this study was a cylindrical net attached to the fyke net, allowing the seals access to the surface to breathe while trapped inside fishing gear. The number of dead and live seals caught in fyke nets without a seal sock (years 2008-2010) and with a sock (years 2011-2013) was recorded. The seals caught in fyke nets were mainly juveniles. Of ringed seals (Phoca hispida botnica) both sexes were equally represented, while of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) the ratio was biased (71%) towards males. All the by-caught seals were dead in the fyke nets without a seal sock, whereas 70% of ringed seals and 11% of grey seals survived when the seal sock was used. The seal sock proved to be effective in reducing the by-catch mortality of ringed seals, but did not perform as well with grey seals. PMID:25993534

  14. A Novel Tool to Mitigate By-Catch Mortality of Baltic Seals in Coastal Fyke Net Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Oksanen, Sari M.; Ahola, Markus P.; Oikarinen, Jyrki; Kunnasranta, Mervi

    2015-01-01

    Developing methods to reduce the incidental catch of non-target species is important, as by-catch mortality poses threats especially to large aquatic predators. We examined the effectiveness of a novel device, a “seal sock”, in mitigating the by-catch mortality of seals in coastal fyke net fisheries in the Baltic Sea. The seal sock developed and tested in this study was a cylindrical net attached to the fyke net, allowing the seals access to the surface to breathe while trapped inside fishing gear. The number of dead and live seals caught in fyke nets without a seal sock (years 2008–2010) and with a sock (years 2011–2013) was recorded. The seals caught in fyke nets were mainly juveniles. Of ringed seals (Phoca hispida botnica) both sexes were equally represented, while of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) the ratio was biased (71%) towards males. All the by-caught seals were dead in the fyke nets without a seal sock, whereas 70% of ringed seals and 11% of grey seals survived when the seal sock was used. The seal sock proved to be effective in reducing the by-catch mortality of ringed seals, but did not perform as well with grey seals. PMID:25993534

  15. Retractable tool bit having latch type catch mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voellmer, George (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A retractable tool bit assembly for a tool such as an allen key is presented. The assembly includes one or more spring loaded nestable or telescoping tubular sections together with a catch mechanism for capturing and holding the tool in its retracted position. The catch mechanism consists of a latch mechanism located in a base section and which engages a conically shaped tool head located at the inner end of the tool. The tool head adjoins an eccentric oval type neck portion which extends to a rear lip of the tool head. The latch mechanism releases when the ovular neck portion rotates about the catch members upon actuation of a rotary tool drive motor. When released, all the telescoping sections and the tool extends fully outward to a use position.

  16. Resolving the molecular mechanism of cadherin catch bond formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manibog, Kristine; Li, Hui; Rakshit, Sabyasachi; Sivasankar, Sanjeevi

    2014-06-01

    Classical cadherin Ca2+-dependent cell-cell adhesion proteins play key roles in embryogenesis and in maintaining tissue integrity. Cadherins mediate robust adhesion by binding in multiple conformations. One of these adhesive states, called an X-dimer, forms catch bonds that strengthen and become longer lived in the presence of mechanical force. Here we use single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy with an atomic force microscope along with molecular dynamics and steered molecular dynamics simulations to resolve the molecular mechanisms underlying catch bond formation and the role of Ca2+ ions in this process. Our data suggest that tensile force bends the cadherin extracellular region such that they form long-lived, force-induced hydrogen bonds that lock X-dimers into tighter contact. When Ca2+ concentration is decreased, fewer de novo hydrogen bonds are formed and catch bond formation is eliminated.

  17. Criticality Safety Evaluation of a LLNL Training Assembly for Criticality Safety (TACS)

    SciTech Connect

    Heinrichs, D P

    2006-06-26

    Hands-on experimental training in the physical behavior of multiplying systems is one of ten key areas of training required for practitioners to become qualified in the discipline of criticality safety as identified in DOE-STD-1135-99, ''Guidance for Nuclear Criticality Safety Engineer Training and Qualification''. This document is a criticality safety evaluation of the training activities (or operations) associated with HS-3200, ''Laboratory Class for Criticality Safety''. These activities utilize the Training Assembly for Criticality Safety (TACS). The original intent of HS-3200 was to provide LLNL fissile material handlers with a practical hands-on experience as a supplement to the academic training they receive biennially in HS-3100, ''Fundamentals of Criticality Safety'', as required by ANSI/ANS-8.20-1991, ''Nuclear Criticality Safety Training''. HS-3200 is to be enhanced to also address the training needs of nuclear criticality safety professionals under the auspices of the NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program.

  18. Electrical and Electrochemical Properties of Nitrogen-Containing Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon (ta-C) Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xingyi

    Tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) is a diamond-like carbon (DLC) material comprised of a mixture of sp2 (˜40%) and sp3-bonded (˜60%) carbon domains. The physicochemical structure and electrochemical properties depend strongly on the sp2/sp3 bonding ratio as well as the incorporation of impurities, such as hydrogen or nitrogen. The ability to grow ta-C films at lower temperatures (25-100 °C) on a wider variety of substrates is a potential advantage of these materials as compared with diamond films. In this project, the basic structural and electrochemical properties of nitrogen-incorporated ta-C thin films will be discussed. The major goal of this work was to determine if the ta-C:N films exhibit electrochemical properties more closely aligned with those of boron-doped diamond (sp 3 carbon) or glassy carbon (amorphous sp2 carbon). Much like diamond, ta-C:N thin-film electrodes are characterized by a low background voltammetric current, a wide working potential window, relatively rapid electron-transfer kinetics for aqueous redox systems, such as Fe(CN) 6-3/-4 and Ru(NH3)6+3/+2 , and weak adsorption of polar molecules from solution. For example, negligible adsorption of methylene blue was found on the ta-C:N films in contrast to glassy carbon; a surface on which this molecule strongly adsorbs. The film microstructure was studied with x-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS), visible Raman spectroscopy and electron-energy loss spectroscopy (EELS); all of which revealed the sp2-bonded carbon content increased with increasing nitrogen. The electrical properties of ta-C:N films were studied by four-point probe resistance measurement and conductive-probe AFM (CP-AFM). The incorporation of nitrogen into ta-C films increased the electrical conductivity primarily by increasing the sp2-bonded carbon content. CP-AFM showed the distribution of the conductive sp2-carbon on the film surface was not uniform. These films have potential to be used in field emission area. The

  19. DTL cavity design and beam dynamics for a TAC linear proton accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliskan, A.; Yılmaz, M.

    2012-02-01

    A 30 mA drift tube linac (DTL) accelerator has been designed using SUPERFISH code in the energy range of 3-55 MeV in the framework of the Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) project. Optimization criteria in cavity design are effective shunt impedance (ZTT), transit-time factor and electrical breakdown limit. In geometrical optimization we have aimed to increase the energy gain in each RF gap of the DTL cells by maximizing the effective shunt impedance (ZTT) and the transit-time factor. Beam dynamics studies of the DTL accelerator have been performed using beam dynamics simulation codes of PATH and PARMILA. The results of both codes have been compared. In the beam dynamical studies, the rms values of beam emittance have been taken into account and a low emittance growth in both x and y directions has been attempted.

  20. Rupture of multiple catch-slip bonds: Two-state two-pathway catch-slip bonds.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V K

    2013-11-01

    We performed Monte Carlo simulation of the detachment of a polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte immersed in a Newtonian fluid and adhered to a substrate by multiple catch-slip bonds. We found that at certain loading rates the interplay of multiple catch-slip bonds leads to a bimodal distribution of the bond rupture force. We also found that the low force peak in these bond rupture force distributions switches to a high force peak with a gradual increase in the loading rate. These trends in the bond rupture force distributions are characteristics of two-state systems. Consequently, though individual catch-slip bonds follow one-state two-pathway energy landscape, their interplay mimics a two-state two-pathway energy landscape. PMID:24272665

  1. Measured Whole-House Performance of TaC Studios Test Home

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, T.; Curtis, O.; Stephenson, R.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta-based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA, in the mixed humid climate. This home serves as a residence and home office for the firm's owners, as well as a demonstration of their design approach to potential and current clients. Southface believes the home demonstrates current best practices for the mixed-humid climate, including a building envelope featuring advanced air sealing details and low density spray foam insulation, glazing that exceeds ENERGY STAR requirements, and a high performance heating and cooling system. Construction quality and execution was a high priority for TaC Studios and was ensured by a third party review process. Post-construction testing showed that the project met stated goals for envelope performance, an air infiltration rate of 2.15 ACH50. The homeowners wished to further validate whole house energy savings through the project's involvement with Building America and this long-term monitoring effort. As a Building America test home, this home was evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and the efficiency and operation of the ground source heat pump and associated systems. Given that the home includes many non-typical end use loads including a home office, pool, landscape water feature, and other luxury features not accounted for in Building America modeling tools, these end uses were separately monitored to determine their impact on overall energy consumption.

  2. Catching the Light - The Entwined History of Light and Mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajonc, Arthur

    1995-04-01

    In 1910, the surgeons Moreau and LePrince wrote about their successful operation on an eight-year-old boy who had been blind since birth because of cataracts. When the boy's eyes were healed they removed the bandages and, waving a hand in front of the child's physically perfect eyes, asked him what he saw. "I don't know," was his only reply. What he saw was only a varying brightness in front of him. However, when allowed to touch the hand as it began to move, he cried out in a voice of triumph, "It's moving!" He could feel it move, but he still needed laboriously to learn to see it move. Light and eyes were not enough to grant him sight. How, then, do we see? What's the difference between seeing and perception? What is light? From ancient times to the present, from philosophers to quantum physicists, nothing has so perplexed, so fascinated, so captivated the mind as the elusive definition of light. In Catching the Light , Arthur Zajonc takes us on an epic journey into history, tracing how humans have endeavored to understand the phenomenon of light. Blending mythology, religion, science, literature, and painting, Zajonc reveals in poetic detail the human struggle to identify the vital connection between the outer light of nature and the inner light of the human spirit. He explains the curiousness of the Greeks' blue and green "color blindness": Odysseus gazing longingly at the "wine-dark sea"; the use of chloros (green) as the color of honey in Homer's Odessey ; and Euripides' use of the color green to describe the hue of tears and blood. He demonstrates the complexity of perception through the work of Paul Cézanne--the artist standing on the bank of a river, painting the same scene over and over again, the motifs multiplying before his eyes. And Zajonc goes on to show how our quest for an understanding of light, as well as the conclusions we draw, reveals as much about the nature of our own psyche as it does about the nature of light itself. For the ancient

  3. CONCENTRATIONS OF PARTICULATE ORGANIC SPECIES MEASURED IN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENTS DURING THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY ( TACS )

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was completed to assess environmental exposures for a group of asthmatic children (n = 9) under the age of six and living in Tampa, Florida. Concentrations of particulate organic species are reported from residential indoor, residential...

  4. Use of computer modeling to investigate a dynamic interaction problem in the Skylab TACS quad-valve package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesser, R. J.; Gershman, R.

    1975-01-01

    A valve opening-response problem encountered during development of a control valve for the Skylab thruster attitude control system (TACS) is described. The problem involved effects of dynamic interaction among valves in the quad-redundant valve package. Also described is a detailed computer simulation of the quad-valve package which was helpful in resolving the problem.

  5. Tic-Tac-Toe Performance as a Function of Maturational Level of Retarded Adolescents and Nonretarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, Herman H.; Winters, Emilia A.

    1977-01-01

    Available from: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 355 Chestnut Street, Norwood, New Jersey 07648. Two groups (36 Ss) of educable and trainable mentally retarded adolescents in an institution were compared with two groups (38 Ss) of nonretarded children (ages 8-9 years old) on a modified tic-tac-toe game for foresight in logical problem solving. (MH)

  6. 77 FR 14698 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    .... The B season allowance of the 2012 total allowable catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of... groundfish of the GOA (76 FR 11111, March 1, 2011) and inseason adjustment (77 FR 438, January 5, 2012). In... TAC in Statistical Area 630 is 2,410 mt (2,589 mt minus 179 mt) In accordance with Sec....

  7. 76 FR 21705 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Catch Accounting in the Longline Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Alaska; Catch Accounting in the Longline Catcher/Processor Pacific Cod Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... Islands to support different catch accounting methods for Pacific cod catch. NMFS is considering...

  8. Acute phase cytokines, TAC1, and toll-like receptor4 mRNA expression and health associated with group size in veal calves.

    PubMed

    Abdelfattah, E M; Karousa, M M; Schutz, M M; Lay, D C; Marchant-Forde, J N; Eicher, S D

    2015-04-15

    Chronic stressors are a major health and well-being issue in animals. Immune status of animals under chronic stress is compromised, thus reducing disease resistance and compromising well-being of the animal. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of group size of veal calves on immune status and leukocyte mRNA expression of acute phase cytokines, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and tachykinin 1 (TAC1) over a five-month finishing period. Holstein bull calves (n=168), 44±3 days of age were assigned to one of three treatments; 2, 4, or 8 calves/pen (pen space allowance of 1.82m(2)/calf). Jugular blood samples were collected at the day of grouping and then monthly for 4 months. The differential leukocyte counts were determined and mRNA was extracted from the leukocytes. Reverse transcription-qPCR was used to measure the gene expression of interleukin-1 (IL-1β), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), TLR4, and TAC1 in leukocytes. Health was evaluated before grouping and monthly for 4 months. On the 1st month after grouping, veal calves that were housed in groups of 8 have greater expression of IL-1β mRNA than calves housed in groups of 4 or 2 (treatment×month, P=0.04). Also at 1 month, groups of 8 had greater TAC1 expression (P<0.05) than calves housed in groups of 4 or 2. However, the expression of IL-1Ra, TNF-α, and TLR4 were not influenced by group size. In the first month of the trial, calves in groups of 8 coughed more (P<0.05) than calves in groups of 2 and coughed more than calves in groups of 4 and 2 during the 2nd month (treatment×month, P=0.03). Calves housed in groups of 8 tended to have greater neutrophil percentage (P=0.09), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (P=0.06), and had lower lymphocyte percentage (P=0.06) than those housed in groups of 4 or 2. In conclusion, the number of veal calves in a group, given the same space during the finishing period did not alter IL-1Ra, TNF-α, and TLR4 mRNA expression

  9. Distinctive features of the biological catch bond in the jump-ramp force regime predicted by the two-pathway model.

    PubMed

    Pereverzev, Yuriy V; Prezhdo, Oleg V; Thomas, Wendy E; Sokurenko, Evgeni V

    2005-07-01

    The receptor-ligand unbinding in the biological catch bond is analyzed within a simple model that comprises a single bound state and two unbinding pathways. This model is investigated in detail for the jump-ramp force regime, where the pulling force quickly jumps to a finite value and then is ramped linearly with time. Two qualitative criteria are identified that distinguish the catch bond from the slip bond. First, the rupture force probability density of the catch-bond exhibits a maximum-minimum pair, which develops at finite forces. In contrast, the slip bond produces a maximum that first appears at zero force. Second, the catch bond can be identified over a wide range of ramp rates by high rupture probabilities at low forces relative to the probability at the maximum, in contrast to the slip bond, where the probability at the maximum always corresponds to the most likely rupture force. Both distinctive features of the catch bond are masked by large jump forces, indicating that the catch bond is best identified in experiments with moderate loading rates and small jump forces. The catch-bond lifetime in the constant force regime is related to the probability density in the jump-ramp regime, allowing one to determine the bond lifetime for a constant force by measuring the initial probability density in the jump-ramp experiments with different jump forces and a fixed ramp rate. The key analytic results are illustrated with the P -selectin/P-selectin glucoprotein ligand-1 bond. PMID:16089930

  10. Bismuth-212-labeled anti-Tac monoclonal antibody: alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides as modalities for radioimmunotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kozak, R.W.; Atcher, R.W.; Gansow, O.A.; Friedman, A.M.; Hines, J.J.; Waldmann, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    Anti-Tac, a monoclonal antibody directed to the human interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor, has been successfully conjugated to the alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide bismuth-212 by use of a bifunctional ligand, the isobutylcarboxycarbonic anhydride of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. The physical properties of 212Bi are appropriate for radioimmunotherapy in that it has a short half-life, deposits its high energy over a short distance, and can be obtained in large quantities from a radium generator. Antibody specific activities of 1-40 microCi/microgram (1 Ci = 37 GBq) were achieved. Specificity of the 212Bi-labeled anti-Tac was demonstrated for the IL-2 receptor-positive adult T-cell leukemia line HUT-102B2 by protein synthesis inhibition and clonogenic assays. Activity levels of 0.5 microCi or the equivalent of 12 rad/ml of alpha radiation targeted by anti-Tac eliminated greater than 98% the proliferative capabilities of HUT-102B2 cells with more modest effects on IL-2 receptor-negative cell lines. Specific cytotoxicity was blocked by excess unlabeled anti-Tac but not by human IgG. In addition, an irrelevant control monoclonal antibody of the same isotype labeled with 212Bi was unable to target alpha radiation to cell lines. Therefore, 212Bi-labeled anti-Tac is a potentially effective and specific immunocytotoxic reagent for the elimination of IL-2 receptor-positive cells. These experiments thus provide the scientific basis for use of alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides in immunotherapy.

  11. Snap! Catch Students' Attention with Mousetrap Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Ed; Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson J.

    2006-01-01

    The current paradigm in science education calls for greater emphasis on guiding students in active and extended scientific inquiry. This is supported by research suggesting that using a hands-on approach to learning fosters ownership in the learning process and allows students to gain greater appreciation for the design and implementation of…

  12. Comparing catch orientation among Minnesota walleye, northern pike, and bass anglers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-01-01

    We compared the catch orientations of Minnesota walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) anglers. Results were derived from 2009, 2010, and 2012 surveys of anglers targeting these different species. Consistent with previous research, we identified four dimensions of anglers’ catch orientation: (a) catching something, (b) catching big fish, (c) catching many fish, and (d) keeping fish. Walleye anglers were the most motivated to keep fish, while northern pike anglers were more oriented toward catching big fish. Largemouth bass anglers, and to a lesser extent smallmouth bass anglers, were also oriented toward catching big fish. Bass anglers reported the lowest interest in keeping fish. An orientation to keep fish was negatively related to more restrictive management actions, regardless of species. A stronger orientation to catch big fish was associated with support for increased harvest restrictions only for northern pike and smallmouth bass.

  13. 77 FR 28924 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel VAN'S CATCH TWO; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel VAN'S CATCH TWO... the vessel VAN'S CATCH TWO is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Sport Fishing...

  14. Day Care Babies Catch Stomach Bugs Earlier, but Get Fewer Later

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158513.html Day Care Babies Catch Stomach Bugs Earlier, But Get ... TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Babies in day care catch their first stomach bug earlier than ...

  15. Emerging Technologies Look Deeper into the Eyes to Catch Signs of Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eyes to catch signs of disease Emerging technologies look deeper into the eyes to catch signs ... using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope fluorescein angiography.” Biomedical Optics Express, August 2013. DOI: 10.1364/BOE. ...

  16. Day Care Babies Catch Stomach Bugs Earlier, but Get Fewer Later

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158513.html Day Care Babies Catch Stomach Bugs Earlier, But Get ... TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Babies in day care catch their first stomach bug earlier than ...

  17. 50 CFR 648.161 - Bluefish Annual Catch Targets (ACTs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bluefish Annual Catch Targets (ACTs). 648.161 Section 648.161 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Bluefish...

  18. 50 CFR 648.120 - Catch quotas and other restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Catch quotas and other restrictions. 648.120 Section 648.120 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES...

  19. 50 CFR 648.140 - Catch quotas and other restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Catch quotas and other restrictions. 648.140 Section 648.140 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES...

  20. 50 CFR 648.100 - Catch quotas and other restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Catch quotas and other restrictions. 648.100 Section 648.100 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES...

  1. 75 FR 13024 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ...The Assistant Administrator for Fisheries, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA AA), on behalf of the International Pacific Halibut Commission (IPHC), publishes annual management measures promulgated as regulations by the IPHC and approved by the Secretary of State governing the Pacific halibut fishery. The AA also announces modifications to the Catch Sharing Plan (CSP) for......

  2. 78 FR 16423 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    .... In 1995, NMFS implemented the long-term catch sharing plan recommended by the PFMC (60 FR 14651; March 20, 1995, as amended by 61 FR 35548). In each of the intervening years between 1995 and the... CSP and resulting proposed Area 2A regulations for 2013 was published on February 11, 2013 (78 FR...

  3. Catch Up® Literacy: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutt, Simon; Kettlewell, Kelly; Bernardinelli, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Catch Up® Literacy is a structured one-to-one literacy intervention for pupils between the ages of 6 and 14 who are struggling to learn to read. It teaches pupils to blend phonemes (combine letter sounds into words), segment phonemes (separate words into letter sounds), and memorise particular words so they can be understood without needing to use…

  4. 50 CFR 648.230 - Catch quotas and other restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Measures for the Spiny Dogfish Fishery § 648.230 Catch quotas and other restrictions. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 60642, Sept. 29, 2011. (a) Process for setting specifications. The Spiny Dogfish... target fishing mortality rate specified in the Spiny Dogfish Fishery Management Plan will not be...

  5. West Indian Ocean variability and East African fish catch.

    PubMed

    Jury, M; McClanahan, T; Maina, J

    2010-08-01

    We describe marine climate variability off the east coast of Africa in the context of fish catch statistics for Tanzania and Kenya. The time series exhibits quasi-decadal cycles over the period 1964-2007. Fish catch is up when sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric humidity are below normal in the tropical West Indian Ocean. This pattern relates to an ocean Rossby wave in one phase of its east-west oscillation. Coastal-scale analyses indicate that northward currents and uplift on the shelf edge enhance productivity of East African shelf waters. Some of the changes are regulated by the south equatorial current that swings northward from Madagascar. The weather is drier and a salty layer develops in high catch years. While the large-scale West Indian Ocean has some impact on East African fish catch, coastal dynamics play a more significant role. Climatic changes are reviewed using 200 years of past and projected data. The observed warming trend continues to increase such that predicted SST may reach 30 degrees C by 2100 while SW monsoon winds gradually increase, according to a coupled general circulation model simulation with a gradual doubling of CO(2). PMID:20471674

  6. CATCH: Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health. [Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health has launched an initiative called the Cardiovascular Health Promotion Project to teach heart-healthy habits to children. One of the programs developed by this initiative, CATCH, the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health, is the largest…

  7. Direct observation of catch bonds involving cell-adhesion molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Bryan T.; Long, Mian; Piper, James W.; Yago, Tadayuki; McEver, Rodger P.; Zhu, Cheng

    2003-05-01

    Bonds between adhesion molecules are often mechanically stressed. A striking example is the tensile force applied to selectin-ligand bonds, which mediate the tethering and rolling of flowing leukocytes on vascular surfaces. It has been suggested that force could either shorten bond lifetimes, because work done by the force could lower the energy barrier between the bound and free states (`slip'), or prolong bond lifetimes by deforming the molecules such that they lock more tightly (`catch'). Whereas slip bonds have been widely observed, catch bonds have not been demonstrated experimentally. Here, using atomic force microscopy and flow-chamber experiments, we show that increasing force first prolonged and then shortened the lifetimes of P-selectin complexes with P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1, revealing both catch and slip bond behaviour. Transitions between catch and slip bonds might explain why leukocyte rolling on selectins first increases and then decreases as wall shear stress increases. This dual response to force provides a mechanism for regulating cell adhesion under conditions of variable mechanical stress.

  8. Scholarships and School Improvement: Annual Report of Catching the Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavers, Dean, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "The Native Scholar" is comprised entirely of the annual report of Catching the Dream (CTD), an organization that awards scholarships to Native American students and grants for improving Native American schools. CTD scholarship programs are described, as are scholarships in general and how to find them. Fourteen scholarship websites…

  9. A minimum attention control law for ball catching.

    PubMed

    Jang, Cheongjae; Lee, Jee-eun; Lee, Sohee; Park, F C

    2015-10-01

    Digital implementations of control laws typically involve discretization with respect to both time and space, and a control law that can achieve a task at coarser levels of discretization can be said to require less control attention, and also reduced implementation costs. One means of quantitatively capturing the attention of a control law is to measure the rate of change of the control with respect to changes in state and time. In this paper we present an attention-minimizing control law for ball catching and other target tracking tasks based on Brockett's attention criterion. We first highlight the connections between this attention criterion and some well-known principles from human motor control. Under the assumption that the optimal control law is the sum of a linear time-varying feedback term and a time-varying feedforward term, we derive an LQR-based minimum attention tracking control law that is stable, and obtained efficiently via a finite-dimensional optimization over the symmetric positive-definite matrices. Taking ball catching as our primary task, we perform numerical experiments comparing the performance of the various control strategies examined in the paper. Consistent with prevailing theories about human ball catching, our results exhibit several familiar features, e.g., the transition from open-loop to closed-loop control during the catching movement, and improved robustness to spatiotemporal discretization. The presented control laws are applicable to more general tracking problems that are subject to limited communication resources. PMID:26440578

  10. Optical Trajectories and the Informational Basis of Fly Ball Catching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marken, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    D. M. Shaffer and M. K. McBeath (see record 2002-02027-006) plotted the optical trajectories of uncatchable fly balls and concluded that linear optical trajectory is the informational basis of the actions taken to catch these balls. P. McLeod, N. Reed, and Z. Dienes (see record 2002-11140-016) replotted these trajectories in terms of changes in…

  11. Catching Ourselves in the Act: Writing about Teaching Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connections: A Journal of Adult Literacy, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This issue features articles by adult basic education (ABE) practitioners within the field about their approaches to teaching essay writing. In preparing this issue, nine teachers attempted to "catch themselves in the act" of teaching essay writing and subsequently document their approaches and questions. Most of the articles explain how a student…

  12. Deepening Thermocline Displaces Salmon Catch On The Oregon Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, C. S.; Lawson, P.

    2015-12-01

    Establishing a linkage between fish stock distributions and physical oceanography at a fine scale provides insights into the dynamic nature of near-shore ocean habitats. Characterization of habitat preferences adds to our understanding of the ecosystem, and may improve forecasts of distribution for harvest management. The Project CROOS (Collaborative Research on Oregon Ocean Salmon) Chinook salmon catch data set represents an unprecedented high-resolution record of catch location and depth, with associated in-situ temperature measurements and stock identification derived from genetic data. Here we connect this data set with physical ocean observations to gain understanding of how circulation affects salmon catch distributions. The CROOS observations were combined with remote and in situ observations of temperature, as well as a data assimilative regional ocean model that incorporates satellite and HF radar data. Across the CROOS data set, catch is primarily located within the upwelling front over the seamounts and reef structures associated with Heceta and Stonewall Banks along the shelf break. In late September of 2014 the anomalously warm "blob" began to arrive on the Oregon coast coincident with a strong downwelling event. At this time the thermocline deepened from 20 to 40 m, associated with a deepening of salmon catch depth. A cold "bulb" of water over Heceta Bank may have provided a thermal refuge for salmon during the initial onshore movement of the anomalously warm water. These observations suggest that a warming ocean, and regional warming events in particular, will have large effects on fish distributions at local and regional scales, in turn impacting fisheries.

  13. Computer-aided tracking and characterization of homicides and sexual assaults (CATCH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangas, Lars J.; Terrones, Kristine M.; Keppel, Robert D.; La Moria, Robert D.

    1999-03-01

    When a serial offender strikes, it usually means that the investigation is unprecedented for that police agency. The volume of incoming leads and pieces of information in the case(s) can be overwhelming as evidenced by the thousands of leads gathered in the Ted Bundy Murders, Atlanta Child Murders, and the Green River Murders. Serial cases can be long term investigations in which the suspect remains unknown and continues to perpetrate crimes. With state and local murder investigative systems beginning to crop up, it will become important to manage that information in a timely and efficient way by developing computer programs to assist in that task. One vital function will be to compare violent crime cases from different jurisdictions so investigators can approach the investigation knowing that similar cases exist. CATCH (Computer Aided Tracking and Characterization of Homicides) is being developed to assist crime investigations by assessing likely characteristics of unknown offenders, by relating a specific crime case to other cases, and by providing a tool for clustering similar cases that may be attributed to the same offenders. CATCH is a collection of tools that assist the crime analyst in the investigation process by providing advanced data mining and visualization capabilities.These tools include clustering maps, query tools, geographic maps, timelines, etc. Each tool is designed to give the crime analyst a different view of the case data. The clustering tools in CATCH are based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). The ANNs learn to cluster similar cases from approximately 5000 murders and 3000 sexual assaults residing in a database. The clustering algorithm is applied to parameters describing modus operandi (MO), signature characteristics of the offenders, and other parameters describing the victim and offender. The proximity of cases within a two-dimensional representation of the clusters allows the analyst to identify similar or serial murders and sexual

  14. Different Strategies for Using Motion-in-Depth Information in Catching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rob; Sieffert, Randy

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies on ball catching have had the limitation that the catcher was restricted to lateral hand movements. The authors investigated catching behavior in the more natural situation in which hand movements were unconstrained. Movements of the hand were tracked as participants tried to "catch" an approaching ball simulated with changing…

  15. 50 CFR 679.32 - CDQ fisheries monitoring and catch accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accounting. 679.32 Section 679.32 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... monitoring and catch accounting. Link to an amendment published at 77 FR 59060, Sept. 26, 2012. (a... the catch accounting of halibut CDQ are at § 679.40(h). (b) PSQ catch. Time and area closures...

  16. 75 FR 9157 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Scale and Catch Weighing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... Region Scale and Catch Weighing Requirements AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... or patsy.bearden@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The scale and catch weighing... accurately weighed and accounted for. Scale and catch-weighing monitoring is required for Western...

  17. 36 CFR 13.908 - Fishing limit of catch and in possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fishing limit of catch and in possession. 13.908 Section 13.908 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Preserve General Provisions § 13.908 Fishing limit of catch and in possession. The limit of catch...

  18. 36 CFR 13.908 - Fishing limit of catch and in possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fishing limit of catch and in possession. 13.908 Section 13.908 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Preserve General Provisions § 13.908 Fishing limit of catch and in possession. The limit of catch...

  19. 36 CFR 13.908 - Fishing limit of catch and in possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fishing limit of catch and in possession. 13.908 Section 13.908 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Preserve General Provisions § 13.908 Fishing limit of catch and in possession. The limit of catch...

  20. 36 CFR 13.908 - Fishing limit of catch and in possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fishing limit of catch and in possession. 13.908 Section 13.908 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Preserve General Provisions § 13.908 Fishing limit of catch and in possession. The limit of catch...

  1. 36 CFR 13.908 - Fishing limit of catch and in possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fishing limit of catch and in possession. 13.908 Section 13.908 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Preserve General Provisions § 13.908 Fishing limit of catch and in possession. The limit of catch...

  2. 26 CFR 1.402(g)-2 - Increased limit for catch-up contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Increased limit for catch-up contributions. 1.... § 1.402(g)-2 Increased limit for catch-up contributions. (a) General rule. Under section 402(g)(1)(C...(g) for a catch-up eligible participant (within the meaning of § 1.414(v)-1(g)), the...

  3. 26 CFR 1.402(g)-2 - Increased limit for catch-up contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Increased limit for catch-up contributions. 1.... § 1.402(g)-2 Increased limit for catch-up contributions. (a) General rule. Under section 402(g)(1)(C...(g) for a catch-up eligible participant (within the meaning of § 1.414(v)-1(g)), the...

  4. 26 CFR 1.402(g)-2 - Increased limit for catch-up contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Increased limit for catch-up contributions. 1.... § 1.402(g)-2 Increased limit for catch-up contributions. (a) General rule. Under section 402(g)(1)(C...(g) for a catch-up eligible participant (within the meaning of § 1.414(v)-1(g)), the...

  5. Catch rates relative to angler party size with implications for monitoring angler success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, L.E.

    2005-01-01

    Angler catch rates often are used to monitor angler success, assess the need for additional management actions, and evaluate the effectiveness of management practices. Potential linkages between catch rate and angler party size were examined to assess how party size might affect the use of catch rate as an index of angler success in recreational fisheries. Data representing 22,355 completed interviews conducted at access points in lakes and reservoirs throughout Mississippi during 1987-2003 were analyzed. Total party catch was not proportional to total party effort; thus, catch rate decreased as party size increased. Depending on the taxa targeted, the average catch rate per angler decreased 40-50% between parties of one and parties of two, although subsequent decreases were less substantial. Because party size accounted for a considerable portion of the variability in catch rate over time and space, failure to remove this variability weakens the manager's ability to detect differences or changes in catch rates. Therefore, the use of catch rates to monitor fisheries may be inappropriate unless party size is taken into account. Party size may influence the angler's ability to catch fish through a variety of processes, including partitioning a limited number of catchable fish among members of a party and party composition. When catch rates are used to estimate total catch rather than to index angler success, party size is not a concern.

  6. Catching Comet's Particles in the Earth's Atmosphere by Using Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potashko, Oleksandr; Viso, Michel

    The project is intended to catch cometary particles in the atmosphere by using balloons. The investigation is based upon knowledge that the Earth crosses the comet’s tails during the year. One can catch these particles at different altitudes in the atmosphere. So, we will be able to gradually advance in the ability to launch balloons from low to high altitudes and try to catch particles from different comet tails. The maximum altitude that we have to reach is 40 km. Both methods - distance observation and cometary samples from mission Stardust testify to the presence of organic components in comet’s particles. It would be useful to know more details about this organic matter for astrobiology; besides, the factor poses danger to the Earth. Moreover, it is important to prove that it is possible to get fundamental scientific results at low cost. In the last 5 years launching balloons has become popular and this movement looks like hackers’ one - as most of them occur without launch permission to airspace. The popularity of ballooning is connected with low cost of balloon, GPS unit, video recording unit. If you use iPhone, you have a light solution with GPS, video, picture and control function in one unit. The price of balloon itself begins from $50; it depends on maximum altitude, payload weight and material. Many university teams realized balloon launching and reached even stratosphere at an altitude of 33 km. But most of them take only video and picture. Meanwhile, it is possible to carry out scientific experiments by ballooning, for example to collect comet particles. There is rich experience at the moment of the use of mineral, chemical and isotopic analysis techniques and data of the comet’s dust after successful landing of StarDust capsule with samples in 2006. Besides, we may use absolutely perfect material to catch particles in the atmosphere, which was used by cosmic missions such as Stardust and Japanese Hayabusa. As to balloon launches, we could use

  7. Synthesis of underreported small-scale fisheries catch in Pacific island waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, D.; Harper, S.; Zylich, K.; Pauly, D.

    2015-03-01

    We synthesize fisheries catch reconstruction studies for 25 Pacific island countries, states and territories, which compare estimates of total domestic catches with officially reported catch data. We exclude data for the large-scale tuna fleets, which have largely foreign beneficial ownership, even when flying Pacific flags. However, we recognize the considerable financial contributions derived from foreign access or charter fees for Pacific host countries. The reconstructions for the 25 entities from 1950 to 2010 suggested that total domestic catches were 2.5 times the data reported to FAO. This discrepancy was largest in early periods (1950: 6.4 times), while for 2010, total catches were 1.7 times the reported data. There was a significant difference in trend between reported and reconstructed catches since 2000, with reconstructed catches declining strongly since their peak in 2000. Total catches increased from 110,000 t yr-1 in 1950 (of which 17,400 t were reported) to a peak of over 250,000 t yr-1 in 2000, before declining to around 200,000 t yr-1 by 2010. This decrease is driven by a declining artisanal (small-scale commercial) catch, which was not compensated for by increasing domestic industrial (large-scale commercial) catches. The artisanal fisheries appear to be declining from a peak of 97,000 t yr-1 in 1992 to less than 50,000 t yr-1 by 2010. However, total catches were dominated by subsistence (small-scale, non-commercial) fisheries, which accounted for 69 % of total catches, with the majority missing from the reported data. Artisanal catches accounted for 22 %, while truly domestic industrial fisheries accounted for only 6 % of total catches. The smallest component is the recreational (small-scale, non-commercial and largely for leisure) sector (2 %), which, although small in catch, is likely of economic importance in some areas due to its direct link to tourism income.

  8. Mutagenesis of Bordetella pertussis with transposon Tn5tac1: conditional expression of virulence-associated genes.

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, B T; Berg, D E; Goldman, W E

    1990-01-01

    The Tn5tac1 transposon contains a strong outward-facing promoter, Ptac, a lacI repressor gene, and a selectable Kanr gene. Transcription from Ptac is repressed by the lacI protein unless an inducer (isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside [IPTG]) is present. Thus, Tn5tac1 generates insertion mutations in Escherichia coli with conditional phenotypes because it is polar on distal gene expression when IPTG is absent and directs transcription of these genes when the inducer is present. To test the usefulness of Tn5tac1 in Bordetella pertussis, a nonenteric gram-negative bacterial pathogen, we chose the bifunctional adenylate cyclase-hemolysin determinant as an easily scored marker to monitor insertional mutagenesis. Tn5tac1 delivered to B. pertussis on conjugal suicide plasmids resulted in Kanr exconjugants at a frequency of 10(-3) per donor cell, and nonhemolytic (Hly-) mutants were found among the Kanr colonies at a frequency of about 1%. Of eight independent Kanr Hly- mutants, two were conditional and exhibited an Hly+ phenotype only in the presence of IPTG. Using a new quantitative assay for adenylate cyclase based on high-pressure liquid chromatography, we found that enzymatic activity in these two strains was specifically induced at least 500-fold in a dose-dependent fashion over the range of 0 to 125 microM IPTG. These data show that Ptac serves as a promoter, lacI is expressed and is functional, and IPTG can induce Ptac transcription in B. pertussis. Adenylate cyclase expression in whole cells, culture supernatants, and cell extracts from these strains depended upon IPTG, suggesting that the insertions do not merely alter secretion of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin. Other virulence determinants under control of the vir locus are expressed normally, implying that these Tn5tac1 insertions specifically regulate adenylate cyclase-hemolysin expression. We conclude that Tn5tac1 insertion mutations permit sensitive, exogenous control over the expression of genes of

  9. Determination of Pb(II) by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy with a Solid-Phase Spectrophotometry Approach Using 2-(2-Thiazolylazo)--cresol (TAC) Coated on Resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, R.; Gómez, R.; Soto, C.; Aguayo, D.; Candia, C.; Yañez, J.; Zuñiga, V.

    2013-09-01

    In this study, preliminary results obtained for Pb(II) determination by photoacoustic spectroscopy are introduced. It is based on an amplitude measurement of a photoacoustic signal obtained from a Pb(II) complex formation with2-(2-thiazolylazo)- p-cresol (TAC) retained in an anionic resin such as Dowex 1X8. The Pb(II)-TAC complex spectrum reveals an absorption band, which is assigned to a Pb(II)-TAC complex retained on the resin. The peak height of this band is proportional to the Pb(II) concentration, and it can be used to obtain quantitative information of the metal content.

  10. Catching transcriptional regulation by thermostatistical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Till D.; Cheong, Alex; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Kholodenko, Boris N.

    2012-08-01

    Gene expression is frequently regulated by multiple transcription factors (TFs). Thermostatistical methods allow for a quantitative description of interactions between TFs, RNA polymerase and DNA, and their impact on the transcription rates. We illustrate three different scales of the thermostatistical approach: the microscale of TF molecules, the mesoscale of promoter energy levels and the macroscale of transcriptionally active and inactive cells in a cell population. We demonstrate versatility of combinatorial transcriptional activation by exemplifying logic functions, such as AND and OR gates. We discuss a metric for cell-to-cell transcriptional activation variability known as Fermi entropy. Suitability of thermostatistical modeling is illustrated by describing the experimental data on transcriptional induction of NFκB and the c-Fos protein.

  11. Nitrate leaching, yields and carbon sequestration after noninversion tillage, catch crops, and straw retention.

    PubMed

    Hansen, E M; Munkholm, L J; Olesen, J E; Melander, B

    2015-05-01

    Crop management factors, such as tillage, rotation, and straw retention, need to be long-term to allow conclusions on effects on crop yields, nitrate leaching, and carbon sequestration. In 2002, two field experiments, each including four cash crop rotations, were established on soils with 9 and 15% clay, under temperate, coastal climate conditions. Direct drilling and harrowing to two different depths were compared to plowing with respect to yield, nitrate N leaching, and carbon sequestration. For comparison of yields across rotations, grain and seed dry matter yields for each crop were converted to grain equivalents (GE). Leaching was compared to yields by calculating yield-scaled leaching (YSL, g N kg GE), and N balances were calculated as the N input in manure minus the N output in products removed from the fields. Direct drilling reduced yields, but no effect on leaching was found. Straw retention did not significantly increase yields, nor did it reduce leaching, while fodder radish ( L.) as a catch crop was capable of reducing nitrate leaching to a low level. Thus, YSL of winter wheat ( L.) was higher than for spring barley ( L.) grown after fodder radish due to the efficient catch crop. Soil organic carbon (SOC) did not increase significantly after 7 yr of straw incorporation or noninversion tillage. There was no correlation between N balances calculated for each growing season and N leaching measured in the following percolation period. PMID:26024267

  12. Effect of loading conditions on the dissociation behaviour of catch bond clusters

    PubMed Central

    Sun, L.; Cheng, Q. H.; Gao, H. J.; Zhang, Y. W.

    2012-01-01

    Under increasing tensile load, the lifetime of a single catch bond counterintuitively increases up to a maximum and then decreases exponentially like a slip bond. So far, the characteristics of single catch bond dissociation have been extensively studied. However, it remains unclear how a cluster of catch bonds behaves under tensile load. We perform computational analysis on the following models to examine the characteristics of clustered catch bonds: (i) clusters of catch bonds with equal load sharing, (ii) clusters of catch bonds with linear load sharing, and (iii) clusters of catch bonds in micropipette-manipulated cell detachment. We focus on the differences between the slip and catch bond clusters, identifying the critical factors for exhibiting the characteristics of catch bond mechanism for the multiple-bond system. Our computation reveals that for a multiple-bond cluster, the catch bond behaviour could only manifest itself under relatively uniform loading conditions and at certain stages of decohesion, explaining the difficulties in observing the catch bond mechanism under real biological conditions. PMID:21937488

  13. Effect of loading conditions on the dissociation behaviour of catch bond clusters.

    PubMed

    Sun, L; Cheng, Q H; Gao, H J; Zhang, Y W

    2012-05-01

    Under increasing tensile load, the lifetime of a single catch bond counterintuitively increases up to a maximum and then decreases exponentially like a slip bond. So far, the characteristics of single catch bond dissociation have been extensively studied. However, it remains unclear how a cluster of catch bonds behaves under tensile load. We perform computational analysis on the following models to examine the characteristics of clustered catch bonds: (i) clusters of catch bonds with equal load sharing, (ii) clusters of catch bonds with linear load sharing, and (iii) clusters of catch bonds in micropipette-manipulated cell detachment. We focus on the differences between the slip and catch bond clusters, identifying the critical factors for exhibiting the characteristics of catch bond mechanism for the multiple-bond system. Our computation reveals that for a multiple-bond cluster, the catch bond behaviour could only manifest itself under relatively uniform loading conditions and at certain stages of decohesion, explaining the difficulties in observing the catch bond mechanism under real biological conditions. PMID:21937488

  14. Microstructure and Scratch Resistance of TaC Dense Ceramic Layer on an Iron Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Nana; Xu, Yunhua; Zhong, Lisheng; Yan, Honghua; Ovcharenko, Vladimir E.

    2016-05-01

    A tantalum carbide dense ceramic layer with a thickness of ~20 μm was produced on the surface of an iron matrix using an in situ technique. The morphology, microstructure, and phase composition of the layer were characterized by means of SEM, TEM, and XRD. The results show fairly agglomerated and uniformly sized (~200 nm) TaC particulates with a face-cantered cubic structure. The values of nano-hardness for the surface and cross section of reinforcing layer can be as high as 29.5 ± 0.6 and 26.7 ± 0.1 GPa, respectively, which were analyzed using a nano-indentation apparatus. Moreover, the scratch resistance of the layer was measured by scratch tests under a progressively increasing load of 0-100 N. A high critical load of 90.4 N is obtained. It is worthy to note that there are only cracking, slight splitting, and small flaking pits (even at the maximum load) all over the whole scratch process, namely the reinforcing layer can protect the iron matrix from serious abrasion effectively. In addition, the excellent scratch resistance and mechanism are discussed in detail.

  15. Microstructure and Scratch Resistance of TaC Dense Ceramic Layer on an Iron Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Nana; Xu, Yunhua; Zhong, Lisheng; Yan, Honghua; Ovcharenko, Vladimir E.

    2016-06-01

    A tantalum carbide dense ceramic layer with a thickness of ~20 μm was produced on the surface of an iron matrix using an in situ technique. The morphology, microstructure, and phase composition of the layer were characterized by means of SEM, TEM, and XRD. The results show fairly agglomerated and uniformly sized (~200 nm) TaC particulates with a face-cantered cubic structure. The values of nano-hardness for the surface and cross section of reinforcing layer can be as high as 29.5 ± 0.6 and 26.7 ± 0.1 GPa, respectively, which were analyzed using a nano-indentation apparatus. Moreover, the scratch resistance of the layer was measured by scratch tests under a progressively increasing load of 0-100 N. A high critical load of 90.4 N is obtained. It is worthy to note that there are only cracking, slight splitting, and small flaking pits (even at the maximum load) all over the whole scratch process, namely the reinforcing layer can protect the iron matrix from serious abrasion effectively. In addition, the excellent scratch resistance and mechanism are discussed in detail.

  16. Role of catch bonds in actomyosin mechanics and cell mechanosensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernerey, Franck J.; Akalp, Umut

    2016-07-01

    We propose a mechanism of adherent cell mechanosensing, based on the idea that the contractile actomyosin machinery behaves as a catch bond. For this, we construct a simplified model of the actomyosin structure that constitutes the building block of stress fibers and express the stability of cross bridges in terms of the force-dependent bonding energy of the actomyosin bond. Consistent with experimental measurements, we then consider that the energy barrier of the actomyosin bond increases for tension and show that this response is enough to explain the force-induced stabilization of a stress fiber. Further numerical simulations at the cellular level show that the catch-bond hypothesis can help in understanding and predict the sensitivity of adherent cells to substrate stiffness.

  17. Role of catch bonds in actomyosin mechanics and cell mechanosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Vernerey, Franck J; Akalp, Umut

    2016-07-01

    We propose a mechanism of adherent cell mechanosensing, based on the idea that the contractile actomyosin machinery behaves as a catch bond. For this, we construct a simplified model of the actomyosin structure that constitutes the building block of stress fibers and express the stability of cross bridges in terms of the force-dependent bonding energy of the actomyosin bond. Consistent with experimental measurements, we then consider that the energy barrier of the actomyosin bond increases for tension and show that this response is enough to explain the force-induced stabilization of a stress fiber. Further numerical simulations at the cellular level show that the catch-bond hypothesis can help in understanding and predict the sensitivity of adherent cells to substrate stiffness. PMID:27575160

  18. Aging of oxygen and hydrogen plasma discharge treated a-C:H and ta-C coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Svenja; Schulze, Marcus; Morasch, Jan; Hesse, Sabine; Hussein, Laith; Krell, Lisa; Schnagl, Johann; Stark, Robert W.; Narayan, Suman

    2016-05-01

    Surface modification with gas plasma is an efficient and easy way to improve the surface energy and the tribological behavior of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, e.g., in biomedical implants or as protective coatings. However, the long-term performance of the plasma treated DLC coatings is not fully clear. We thus studied the long-term stability of two kinds of DLC coatings, namely (a) hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) and (b) tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) treated at different radio frequency (RF) power and time of oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2) plasma. Their surface properties, e.g. surface wettability, structure and tribological behavior, were studied at regular intervals for a period of two months using contact angle goniometer, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), lateral force microscopy (LFM) and ball on disc apparatus. The surface energy of both the coatings decreased upon aging. The higher the RF power and time of treatment, the higher was the hydrophobicity upon aging. XPS analysis showed that the increase in hydrophobicity could be due to adsorption of unavoidable volatile organic components in the atmosphere. The H2 plasma treated ta-C was capable of rearranging its structural bonds upon aging. The nano-friction measurements by LFM showed that the coefficient of friction of plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C decreased upon aging. The results indicate that the surface properties of plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C are not stable on long-term and are influenced by the environmental conditions.

  19. Dissociation of biological catch-bond by periodic perturbation.

    PubMed

    Pereverzev, Yuriy V; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2006-07-15

    The analysis of the P-selectin/PSGL-1 catch-slip bond that is periodically driven by a detaching force predicts that in the frequency range on the order of 1 s(-1) the bond lifetime undergoes significant changes with respect to both frequency and amplitude of the force. The result indicates how variations in the heart rate could have a substantial effect on leukocyte and lymphoid cell transport and adhesion to endothelial cells and platelets during inflammatory processes. PMID:16698784

  20. A quick-catch corral trap for wintering canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Derleth, E.L.; McAuley, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    We designed a bait trap for wintering Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) that has proven more effective than conventional funnel or slot entrance traps for diving ducks. The unique feature of this trap is the corral entrance that presents unimpaired access to the bait and thus ease of entrance to the trap. Catches of 50-75 ducks have been made in a matter of minutes at prebaited sites.

  1. People Favour Imperfect Catching by Assuming a Stable World

    PubMed Central

    López-Moliner, Joan; Keil, Matthias S.

    2012-01-01

    The visual angle that is projected by an object (e.g. a ball) on the retina depends on the object's size and distance. Without further information, however, the visual angle is ambiguous with respect to size and distance, because equal visual angles can be obtained from a big ball at a longer distance and a smaller one at a correspondingly shorter distance. Failure to recover the true 3D structure of the object (e.g. a ball's physical size) causing the ambiguous retinal image can lead to a timing error when catching the ball. Two opposing views are currently prevailing on how people resolve this ambiguity when estimating time to contact. One explanation challenges any inference about what causes the retinal image (i.e. the necessity to recover this 3D structure), and instead favors a direct analysis of optic flow. In contrast, the second view suggests that action timing could be rather based on obtaining an estimate of the 3D structure of the scene. With the latter, systematic errors will be predicted if our inference of the 3D structure fails to reveal the underlying cause of the retinal image. Here we show that hand closure in catching virtual balls is triggered by visual angle, using an assumption of a constant ball size. As a consequence of this assumption, hand closure starts when the ball is at similar distance across trials. From that distance on, the remaining arrival time, therefore, depends on ball's speed. In order to time the catch successfully, closing time was coupled with ball's speed during the motor phase. This strategy led to an increased precision in catching but at the cost of committing systematic errors. PMID:22558205

  2. Flexible timing of eye movements when catching a ball.

    PubMed

    López-Moliner, Joan; Brenner, Eli

    2016-01-01

    In ball games, one cannot direct ones gaze at the ball all the time because one must also judge other aspects of the game, such as other players' positions. We wanted to know whether there are times at which obtaining information about the ball is particularly beneficial for catching it. We recently found that people could catch successfully if they saw any part of the ball's flight except the very end, when sensory-motor delays make it impossible to use new information. Nevertheless, there may be a preferred time to see the ball. We examined when six catchers would choose to look at the ball if they had to both catch the ball and find out what to do with it while the ball was approaching. A catcher and a thrower continuously threw a ball back and forth. We recorded their hand movements, the catcher's eye movements, and the ball's path. While the ball was approaching the catcher, information was provided on a screen about how the catcher should throw the ball back to the thrower (its peak height). This information disappeared just before the catcher caught the ball. Initially there was a slight tendency to look at the ball before looking at the screen but, later, most catchers tended to look at the screen before looking at the ball. Rather than being particularly eager to see the ball at a certain time, people appear to adjust their eye movements to the combined requirements of the task. PMID:26982371

  3. The Effect of TaC Reinforcement on the Oxidation Resistance of CNTs/SiC CMCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qiaoyun; Wosu, Sylvanus N.

    2016-03-01

    This study focuses on a two-stage spark plasma sintering (SPS) of TaC and/or carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-reinforced SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). The oxidation mechanism of SiC-based CMCs with CNTs reinforcement as well as the TaC additives effect on the thermal oxidation resistance of the SiC-CNTs-TaC systems are investigated. The oxidation behavior up to 1500 °C is characterized in terms of mass changes, oxide layer formation, and thickness. The results showed that more disorder occurred in the CNT network with increased oxidation temperature. TaC additives exhibited an enhanced protective effect in increasing the oxidation temperature of CNTs from 460 to 550 °C, and this protective effect was effective at 1200 °C achieved by the crystalized Ta2O5 which grew with a preferred orientation giving rise to the phase separation in the glassy protective layer. Degraded oxidation resistance was found at 1500 °C.

  4. Estimating historical eastern North Pacific blue whale catches using spatial calling patterns.

    PubMed

    Monnahan, Cole C; Branch, Trevor A; Stafford, Kathleen M; Ivashchenko, Yulia V; Oleson, Erin M

    2014-01-01

    Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) were exploited extensively around the world and remain endangered. In the North Pacific their population structure is unclear and current status unknown, with the exception of a well-studied eastern North Pacific (ENP) population. Despite existing abundance estimates for the ENP population, it is difficult to estimate pre-exploitation abundance levels and gauge their recovery because historical catches of the ENP population are difficult to separate from catches of other populations in the North Pacific. We collated previously unreported Soviet catches and combined these with known catches to form the most current estimates of North Pacific blue whale catches. We split these conflated catches using recorded acoustic calls from throughout the North Pacific, the knowledge that the ENP population produces a different call than blue whales in the western North Pacific (WNP). The catches were split by estimating spatiotemporal occurrence of blue whales with generalized additive models fitted to acoustic call patterns, which predict the probability a catch belonged to the ENP population based on the proportion of calls of each population recorded by latitude, longitude, and month. When applied to the conflated historical catches, which totaled 9,773, we estimate that ENP blue whale catches totaled 3,411 (95% range 2,593 to 4,114) from 1905-1971, and amounted to 35% (95% range 27% to 42%) of all catches in the North Pacific. Thus most catches in the North Pacific were for WNP blue whales, totaling 6,362 (95% range 5,659 to 7,180). The uncertainty in the acoustic data influence the results substantially more than uncertainty in catch locations and dates, but the results are fairly insensitive to the ecological assumptions made in the analysis. The results of this study provide information for future studies investigating the recovery of these populations and the impact of continuing and future sources of anthropogenic mortality. PMID

  5. Estimating Historical Eastern North Pacific Blue Whale Catches Using Spatial Calling Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Monnahan, Cole C.; Branch, Trevor A.; Stafford, Kathleen M.; Ivashchenko, Yulia V.; Oleson, Erin M.

    2014-01-01

    Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) were exploited extensively around the world and remain endangered. In the North Pacific their population structure is unclear and current status unknown, with the exception of a well-studied eastern North Pacific (ENP) population. Despite existing abundance estimates for the ENP population, it is difficult to estimate pre-exploitation abundance levels and gauge their recovery because historical catches of the ENP population are difficult to separate from catches of other populations in the North Pacific. We collated previously unreported Soviet catches and combined these with known catches to form the most current estimates of North Pacific blue whale catches. We split these conflated catches using recorded acoustic calls from throughout the North Pacific, the knowledge that the ENP population produces a different call than blue whales in the western North Pacific (WNP). The catches were split by estimating spatiotemporal occurrence of blue whales with generalized additive models fitted to acoustic call patterns, which predict the probability a catch belonged to the ENP population based on the proportion of calls of each population recorded by latitude, longitude, and month. When applied to the conflated historical catches, which totaled 9,773, we estimate that ENP blue whale catches totaled 3,411 (95% range 2,593 to 4,114) from 1905–1971, and amounted to 35% (95% range 27% to 42%) of all catches in the North Pacific. Thus most catches in the North Pacific were for WNP blue whales, totaling 6,362 (95% range 5,659 to 7,180). The uncertainty in the acoustic data influence the results substantially more than uncertainty in catch locations and dates, but the results are fairly insensitive to the ecological assumptions made in the analysis. The results of this study provide information for future studies investigating the recovery of these populations and the impact of continuing and future sources of anthropogenic mortality. PMID

  6. Measured Whole-House Performance of TaC Studios Test Home

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, T.; Curtis, O.; Stephenson, R.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta-based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA in the mixed humid climate. This home serves as a residence and home office for the firm's owners, as well as a demonstration of their design approach topotential and current clients. Southface believes the home demonstrates current best practices for the mixed-humid climate, including a building envelope featuring advanced air sealing details and low density spray foam insulation, glazing that exceeds ENERGY STAR requirements, and a high performance heating and cooling system. Construction quality and execution was a high priority for TaCStudios and was ensured by a third party review process. Post-construction testing showed that the project met stated goals for envelope performance, an air infiltration rate of 2.15 ACH50. The homeowners wished to further validate whole house energy savings through the project's involvement with Building America and this long-term monitoring effort. As a Building America test home, this homewas evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and the efficiency and operation of the ground source heat pump and associated systems. Given that the home includes many non-typical end use loads including a home office, pool, landscape water feature, and other luxury features not accounted for in Building America modeling tools, these end uses were separately monitored todetermine their impact on overall energy consumption.

  7. Advanced order management in ERM systems: the tic-tac-toe algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badell, Mariana; Fernandez, Elena; Puigjaner, Luis

    2000-10-01

    The concept behind improved enterprise resource planning systems (ERP) systems is the overall integration of the whole enterprise functionality into the management systems through financial links. Converting current software into real management decision tools requires crucial changes in the current approach to ERP systems. This evolution must be able to incorporate the technological achievements both properly and in time. The exploitation phase of plants needs an open web-based environment for collaborative business-engineering with on-line schedulers. Today's short lifecycles of products and processes require sharp and finely tuned management actions that must be guided by scheduling tools. Additionally, such actions must be able to keep track of money movements related to supply chain events. Thus, the necessary outputs require financial-production integration at the scheduling level as proposed in the new approach of enterprise management systems (ERM). Within this framework, the economical analysis of the due date policy and its optimization become essential to manage dynamically realistic and optimal delivery dates with price-time trade-off during the marketing activities. In this work we propose a scheduling tool with web-based interface conducted by autonomous agents when precise economic information relative to plant and business actions and their effects are provided. It aims to attain a better arrangement of the marketing and production events in order to face the bid/bargain process during e-commerce. Additionally, management systems require real time execution and an efficient transaction-oriented approach capable to dynamically adopt realistic and optimal actions to support marketing management. To this end the TicTacToe algorithm provides sequence optimization with acceptable tolerances in realistic time.

  8. Real-world adjuvant TAC or FEC-D for HER2-negative node-positive breast cancer in women less than 50 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Lupichuk, S.; Tilley, D.; Kostaras, X.; Joy, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We compared the efficacy, toxicity, and use of granulocyte colony–stimulating factor (g-csf) with tac (docetaxel–doxorubicin–cyclophosphamide) and fec-d (5-fluorouracil–epirubicin–cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel) in women less than 50 years of age. Methods The study included all women more than 18 years but less than 50 years of age with her2-negative, node-positive, stage ii or iii breast cancer diagnosed in Alberta between 2008 and 2012 who received tac (n = 198) or fec-d (n = 274). Results The patient groups were well-balanced, except that radiotherapy use was higher in the tac group (91.9% vs. 79.9%, p < 0.001). At a median follow-up of 49.6 months, disease-free survival was 91.4% for tac and 92.0% for fec-d (p = 0.76). Overall survival (os) was 96% with tac and 95.3% with fec-d (p = 0.86).The incidences of grades 3 and 4 toxicities were similar in the two groups (all p > 0.05). Overall, febrile neutropenia (fn) was reported in 11.6% of tac patients and 15.7% of fec-d patients (p = 0.26). However, use of g-csf was higher in the tac group than in the fec-d group (96.4% vs. 71.5%, p < 0.001). Hospitalization for fn was required in 10.5% of tac patients and 13.0% of fec-d patients (p = 0.41). In g-csf–supported and –unsupported patients receiving tac, fn occurred at rates of 11.1% and 33.3% respectively (p = 0.08); in patients receiving the fec portion of fec-d, those proportions were 2.9% and 8.1% respectively (p = 0.24); and in patients receiving docetaxel after fec, the proportions were 4.1% and 17.6% respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions In women less than 50 years of age receiving adjuvant tac or fec-d, we observed no differences in efficacy or other nonhematologic toxicities. Based on the timing and rates of fn, use of prophylactic g-csf should be routine for the docetaxel-containing portion of treatment; however, prophylactic g-csf could potentially be avoided during the fec portion of fec-d treatment. PMID:27330344

  9. Interactions between finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Ronald H; Smith, Ruth E; Fisher, E Brian

    2014-11-15

    Interactions between open-net pen finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay in Nova Scotia, Canada, were investigated using fishermen's participatory research in annual lobster trap surveys over seven years. Fishermen recorded lobster catches during the last two weeks of May from 2007 to 2013. Catches for each trap haul were recorded separately for ovigerous and market-sized lobsters. Catch trends within the bay were compared to regional trends. Results of correlation analyses indicated that ovigerous catch trends were strongly affected by the fish farm's feeding/fallow periods. There was no significant correlation between trends for bay and LFA lobster landings. Patterns of lobster catch per unit effort extending over considerable distance in Port Mouton Bay appear to be influenced by proximity to the fish farm regardless of year-to-year variation in water temperatures and weather conditions. Odours and habitat changes surrounding open-net pen finfish operations are potential factors affecting lobster displacement. PMID:25242235

  10. 26 CFR 1.402(g)-2 - Increased limit for catch-up contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Increased limit for catch-up contributions. 1.402.... § 1.402(g)-2 Increased limit for catch-up contributions. (a) General rule. Under section 402(g)(1)(C...(g) for a catch-up eligible participant (within the meaning of § 1.414(v)-1(g)), the...

  11. Catch-disperse-release readout for superconducting qubits.

    PubMed

    Sete, Eyob A; Galiautdinov, Andrei; Mlinar, Eric; Martinis, John M; Korotkov, Alexander N

    2013-05-24

    We analyze a single-shot readout for superconducting qubits via the controlled catch, dispersion, and release of a microwave field. A tunable coupler is used to decouple the microwave resonator from the transmission line during the dispersive qubit-resonator interaction, thus circumventing damping from the Purcell effect. We show that, if the qubit frequency tuning is sufficiently adiabatic, a fast high-fidelity qubit readout is possible, even in the strongly nonlinear dispersive regime. Interestingly, the Jaynes-Cummings nonlinearity leads to the quadrature squeezing of the resonator field below the standard quantum limit, resulting in a significant decrease of the measurement error. PMID:23745846

  12. Reconstruction of coral reef fisheries catches in American Samoa, 1950 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, Dirk; Booth, Shawn; Craig, Peter; Pauly, Daniel

    2006-03-01

    Fisheries catches from Pacific Island coral reefs are rarely recorded in official statistics. Reconstruction of catch estimates with limited hard data requires interpolation and assumptions, justifiable only by the unsatisfactory alternative of continued substitution of zero catches, a common policy interpretation for ‘no data’. Uncertainties associated with reconstructions are high, requiring conservative estimation. American Samoan domestic fisheries consist of an artisanal, small-boat sector, whose commercial catches are reported, and a shore-based subsistence sector, with no regular reporting. Our catch reconstruction (with large pelagic species removed) suggested a 79% decrease in catches between 1950 (752 t) and 2002 (155 t). Accounting for rapid human population growth on the main island, the per capita catch rate may have declined from 36.3 kg·person-1 year-1 in 1950 to 1.3 kg·person-1 year-1 by 2002, while the catch rate for the inhabited outer islands has been independently reported as 58.6 kg·person-1 year-1. Catch per area of coral reef (to 50-m depth) may have declined from 5.5 to 0.7 t km-2 year-1 for the main island, and from 9.1 to 4.9 t km-2 year-1 for the outer islands, for 1950 and 2002, respectively. Summed for 1950 2002, our reconstruction suggested a 17-fold difference between reconstructed estimates and reported statistics.

  13. Effect of oceanographic parameters on daily albacore catches in the Northeast Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goñi, Nicolas; Didouan, Canelle; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Chifflet, Marina; Arregui, Igor; Goikoetxea, Nerea; Santiago, Josu

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, albacore (Thunnus alalunga) catches decreased strongly in the Eastern part of the Bay of Biscay. In order to understand the drivers of local albacore catches by fisheries in this area, we analyzed the influence of temperature, salinity and trophic parameters on albacore daily catches by three fleets (baitboat, trolling line and pelagic trawling) traditionally operating in the Bay of Biscay and its surrounding waters. For this, we used oceanographic data obtained from the operational model Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS), for each catch date and location. A Principal Component Analysis performed on these oceanographic data, on Julian day, latitude and longitude, yielded three synthetic variables used as explanatory variables in Generalized Additive Models (GAMs). The first one synthesized most of the variability related to temperature, plankton concentration and longitude. The second one synthesized most of the variability related to surface mixing associated with a seasonal trend. The third one synthesized most of the variability related to salinity and latitude. GAMs revealed a non-linear effect of salinity and latitude on daily catches for all fleets. The effect of mixing was negative for surface gear catches and positive for trawl catches. The trophic and planktonic component had a clear influence only on baitboat and trolling catches. The results are discussed in terms of albacore habitat preferences, vertical distribution and feeding behavior. We suggest that these environmental influences should be considered when using albacore catch data for stock assessment and extrapolating the effects of climate change on albacore abundance in the Bay of Biscay.

  14. Efficacy of methoprene for mosquito control in storm water catch basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, M.; LeBrun, R.A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gettman, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of methoprene, a widely used juvenile hormone mimic, formulated as 30-day slow release Altosid? pellets, at controlling mosquitoes in underground storm water drainage catch basins. Data from applications to ?-sized cement catch basins in the laboratory, field observations from treated and untreated basins, and an experiment that confined mosquito larvae in floating emergence jars in catch basins showed that methoprene effectively controlled mosquitoes for a month under field conditions and substantially longer under laboratory conditions when applied at a dose of 3.5 g pellets per average-sized catch basin.

  15. Catch-bond behavior of DNA condensate under tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Wong, Wei-Juan; Lim, Ci-Ji; Ju, Hai-Peng; Li, Ming; Yan, Jie; Wang, Peng-Ye

    2015-12-01

    Toroid formation is an important mechanism underlying DNA condensation, which has been investigated extensively by single-molecule experiments in vitro. Here, the de-condensation dynamics of DNA condensates were studied using magnetic tweezers combined with Brownian dynamics simulations. The experimental results revealed a surprising non-monotonic dependence of the unfolding rate on the force applied under strong adhesion conditions, resembling the catch-bond behavior reported in the field of ligand-receptor interactions. Simulation results showed that the different unfolding pathways of DNA condensate under large forces derive from the force-dependent deformation of the DNA toroid, which explains the catch-bond behavior of DNA condensate in the magnetic tweezers experiments. These results challenge the universality of the regular toroidal DNA unwrapping mechanism and provide the most complete description to date of multivalent cation-dependent DNA unwrapping under tension. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11104341, 11474346, 11274374, and 61275192), the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), and the Mechanobiology Institute at National University of Singapore.

  16. Catch-bond behavior of bacteria binding by slip bonds.

    PubMed

    Björnham, Oscar; Axner, Ove

    2010-09-01

    It is shown that multipili-adhering bacteria expressing helix-like pili binding by slip bonds can show catch-bond behavior. When exposed to an external force, such bacteria can mediate adhesion to their hosts by either of two limiting means: sequential or simultaneous pili force exposure (referring to when the pili mediate force in a sequential or simultaneous manner, respectively). As the force is increased, the pili can transition from sequential to simultaneous pili force exposure. Since the latter mode of adhesion gives rise to a significantly longer bacterial adhesion lifetime than the former, this results in a prolongation of the lifetime, which shows up as a catch-bond behavior. The properties and conditions of this effect were theoretically investigated and assessed in some detail for dual-pili-adhering bacteria, by both analytical means and simulations. The results indicate that the adhesion lifetime of such bacteria can be prolonged by more than an order of magnitude. This implies that the adhesion properties of multibinding systems cannot be directly conveyed to the individual adhesion-receptor bonds. PMID:20816044

  17. Spatiotemporal characteristics of muscle patterns for ball catching

    PubMed Central

    D'Andola, M.; Cesqui, B.; Portone, A.; Fernandez, L.; Lacquaniti, F.; d'Avella, A.

    2013-01-01

    What sources of information and what control strategies the central nervous system (CNS) uses to perform movements that require accurate sensorimotor coordination, such as catching a flying ball, is still debated. Here we analyzed the EMG waveforms recorded from 16 shoulder and elbow muscles in six subjects during catching of balls projected frontally from a distance of 6 m and arriving at two different heights and with three different flight times (550, 650, 750 ms). We found that a large fraction of the variation in the muscle patterns was captured by two time-varying muscle synergies, coordinated recruitment of groups of muscles with specific activation waveforms, modulated in amplitude and shifted in time according to the ball's arrival height and flight duration. One synergy was recruited with a short and fixed delay from launch time. Remarkably, a second synergy was recruited at a fixed time before impact, suggesting that it is timed according to an accurate time-to-contact estimation. These results suggest that the control of interceptive movements relies on a combination of reactive and predictive processes through the intermittent recruitment of time-varying muscle synergies. Knowledge of the dynamic effect of gravity and drag on the ball may be then implicitly incorporated in a direct mapping of visual information into a small number of synergy recruitment parameters. PMID:23966939

  18. Optical trajectories and the informational basis of fly ball catching.

    PubMed

    Marken, Richard S

    2005-06-01

    D. M. Shaffer and M. K. McBeath (see record 2002-02027-006) plotted the optical trajectories of uncatchable fly balls and concluded that linear optical trajectory is the informational basis of the actions taken to catch these balls. P. McLeod, N. Reed, and Z. Dienes (see record 2002-11140-016) replotted these trajectories in terms of changes in the tangent of optical angle over time and concluded that optical acceleration is the informational basis of fielder actions. Neither of these conclusions is warranted, however, because the optical trajectories of even uncatchable balls confound the information that is the basis of fielder action with the effects of those same actions on these trajectories. To determine the informational basis of fielder action, it is necessary to do the control-theory-based Test for the Controlled Variable, in which the informational basis of catching is found by looking for features of optical trajectories that are protected from experimentally or naturally applied disturbances. PMID:15982135

  19. Measuring genome-wide nucleosome turnover using CATCH-IT.

    PubMed

    Teves, Sheila S; Deal, Roger B; Henikoff, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic interplay between DNA-binding proteins and nucleosomes underlies essential nuclear processes such as transcription, replication, and DNA repair. Manifestations of this interplay include the assembly, eviction, and replacement of nucleosomes. Hence, measurements of nucleosome turnover kinetics can lead to insights into the regulation of dynamic chromatin processes. In this chapter, we describe a genome-wide method for measuring nucleosome turnover that uses metabolic labeling followed by capture of newly synthesized histones, which we have termed Covalent Attachment of Tagged Histones to Capture and Identify Turnover (CATCH-IT). Although CATCH-IT can be used with any genome-wide mapping procedure, high-resolution profiling is attainable using paired-end sequencing of native chromatin. Our protocol also includes an efficient Solexa DNA sequencing library preparation protocol that can be used for single base-pair resolution mapping of both nucleosome and subnucleosomal particles. We not only describe the use of these protocols in the context of a Drosophila cell line but also provide the necessary changes for adaptation to other model systems. PMID:22929769

  20. PyCatch: catchment modelling in the PCRaster framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karssenberg, Derek; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Schmitz, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    PCRaster is an open source software framework for the construction and execution of stochastic, spatio-temporal, forward, models. It provides a large number of spatial operations on raster maps, with an emphasis on operations that are capable of transporting material (water, sediment) over a drainage network. These operations have been written in C++ and are provided to the model builder as Python functions. Models are constructed by combining these functions in a Python script. To ease implementation of models that use time steps and Monte Carlo iterations, the software comes with a Python framework providing control flow for temporal modelling and Monte Carlo simulation, including options for Bayesian data assimilation (Ensemble Kalman Filter, Particle Filter). A sophisticated visualization tool is provided capable of visualizing, animating, and exploring stochastic, spatio-temporal input or model output data. PCRaster is used for construction of for instance hydrological models (hillslope to global scale), land use change models, and geomorphological models. It is still being improved upon, for instance by adding under the hood functionality for executing models on multiple CPU cores, and by adding components for agent-based and network simulation. The software runs in MS Windows and Linux and is available at http://www.pcraster.eu. We provide an extensive set of online course materials (partly available free of charge). Using the PCRaster software framework, we recently developed the PyCatch model components for hydrological modelling and land degradation modelling at catchment scale. The PyCatch components run at time steps of seconds to weeks, and grid cell sizes of approximately 1-100 m, which can be selected depending on the case study for which PyCatch is used. Hydrological components currently implemented include classes for simulation of incoming solar radiation, evapotranspiration (Penman-Monteith), surface storage, infiltration (Green and Ampt

  1. Cortico-muscular coupling and motor performance are modulated by 20 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Vanessa; Wach, Claudia; Südmeyer, Martin; Ferrea, Stefano; Schnitzler, Alfons; Pollok, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with pathologically altered oscillatory activity. While synchronized oscillations between 13 and 30 Hz are increased within a cortico-subcortical network, cortico-muscular coupling (CMC) is decreased. The present study aims at investigating the effect of non-invasive transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) on motor symptoms and motor-cortical oscillations in PD. In 10 PD patients and 10 healthy control subjects, static isometric contraction, dynamic fast finger tapping, and diadochokinesia of the more severely affected hand were investigated prior to and shortly after tACS of the contralateral M1 at 10 Hz vs. 20 Hz vs. sham. During isometric contraction, neuromagnetic activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography. 20 Hz tACS attenuated beta band CMC during isometric contraction and amplitude variability during finger tapping in PD patients but not in healthy control subjects. 10 Hz tACS yielded no significant after-effects. The present data suggest that PD is associated with pathophysiological alterations which abet a higher responsiveness toward frequency-specific tACS – possibly due to pathologically altered motor-cortical oscillatory synchronization at frequencies between 13 and 30 Hz. PMID:24474912

  2. Platelet glycoprotein Ibalpha forms catch bonds with human WT vWF but not with type 2B von Willebrand disease vWF.

    PubMed

    Yago, Tadayuki; Lou, Jizhong; Wu, Tao; Yang, Jun; Miner, Jonathan J; Coburn, Leslie; López, José A; Cruz, Miguel A; Dong, Jing-Fei; McIntire, Larry V; McEver, Rodger P; Zhu, Cheng

    2008-09-01

    Arterial blood flow enhances glycoprotein Ibalpha (GPIbalpha) binding to vWF, which initiates platelet adhesion to injured vessels. Mutations in the vWF A1 domain that cause type 2B von Willebrand disease (vWD) reduce the flow requirement for adhesion. Here we show that increasing force on GPIbalpha/vWF bonds first prolonged ("catch") and then shortened ("slip") bond lifetimes. Two type 2B vWD A1 domain mutants, R1306Q and R1450E, converted catch bonds to slip bonds by prolonging bond lifetimes at low forces. Steered molecular dynamics simulations of GPIbalpha dissociating from the A1 domain suggested mechanisms for catch bonds and their conversion by the A1 domain mutations. Catch bonds caused platelets and GPIbalpha-coated microspheres to roll more slowly on WT vWF and WT A1 domains as flow increased from suboptimal levels, explaining flow-enhanced rolling. Longer bond lifetimes at low forces eliminated the flow requirement for rolling on R1306Q and R1450E mutant A1 domains. Flowing platelets agglutinated with microspheres bearing R1306Q or R1450E mutant A1 domains, but not WT A1 domains. Therefore, catch bonds may prevent vWF multimers from agglutinating platelets. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif-13 (ADAMTS-13) reduced platelet agglutination with microspheres bearing a tridomain A1A2A3 vWF fragment with the R1450E mutation in a shear-dependent manner. We conclude that in type 2B vWD, prolonged lifetimes of vWF bonds with GPIbalpha on circulating platelets may allow ADAMTS-13 to deplete large vWF multimers, causing bleeding. PMID:18725999

  3. An isochromosome confers drug resistance in vivo by amplification of two genes, ERG11 and TAC1.

    PubMed

    Selmecki, Anna; Gerami-Nejad, Maryam; Paulson, Carsten; Forche, Anja; Berman, Judith

    2008-05-01

    Acquired azole resistance is a serious clinical problem that is often associated with the appearance of aneuploidy and, in particular, with the formation of an isochromosome [i(5L)] in the fungal opportunist Candida albicans. Here we exploited a series of isolates from an individual patient during the rapid acquisition of fluconazole resistance (Flu(R)). Comparative genome hybridization arrays revealed that the presence of two extra copies of Chr5L, on the isochromosome, conferred increased Flu(R) and that partial truncation of Chr5L reduced Flu(R). In vitro analysis of the strains by telomere-mediated truncations and by gene deletion assessed the contribution of all Chr5L genes and of four specific genes. Importantly, ERG11 (encoding the drug target) and a hyperactive allele of TAC1 (encoding a transcriptional regulator of drug efflux pumps) made independent, additive contributions to Flu(R) in a gene copy number-dependent manner that was not different from the contributions of the entire Chr5L arm. Thus, the major mechanism by which i(5L) formation causes increased azole resistance is by amplifying two genes: ERG11 and TAC1. PMID:18363649

  4. Combining TMS and tACS for Closed-Loop Phase-Dependent Modulation of Corticospinal Excitability: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Raco, Valerio; Bauer, Robert; Tharsan, Srikandarajah; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: The corticospinal excitability indexed by motor evoked potentials (MEPs) following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the sensorimotor cortex is characterized by large variability. The instantaneous phase of cortical oscillations at the time of the stimulation has been suggested as a possible source of this variability. To explore this hypothesis, a specific phase needs to be targeted by TMS pulses with high temporal precision. Objective: The aim of this feasibility study was to introduce a methodology capable of exploring the effects of phase-dependent stimulation by the concurrent application of alternating current stimulation (tACS) and TMS. Method: We applied online calibration and closed-loop TMS to target four specific phases (0°, 90°, 180° and 270°) of simultaneous 20 Hz tACS over the primary motor cortex (M1) of seven healthy subjects. Result: The integrated stimulation system was capable of hitting the target phase with high precision (SD ± 2.05 ms, i.e., ± 14.45°) inducing phase-dependent MEP modulation with a phase lag (CI95% = −40.37° to −99.61°) which was stable across subjects (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The combination of different neuromodulation techniques facilitates highly specific brain state-dependent stimulation, and may constitute a valuable tool for exploring the physiological and therapeutic effect of phase-dependent stimulation, e.g., in the context of neurorehabilitation. PMID:27252625

  5. A new dielectric ta-C film coating of Ag-nanoparticle hybrids to enhance TiO2 photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fanxin; Tang, Chaojun; Wang, Zhenlin; Sui, Chenghua; Ma, Hongtao

    2014-03-28

    We have demonstrated a novel method to enhance TiO₂ photocatalysis by adopting a new ultrathin tetrahedral-amorphous-carbon (ta-C) film coating on Ag nanoparticles to create strong plasmonic near-field enhancement. The result shows that the decomposition rate of methylene blue on the Ag/10 Å ta-C/TiO₂ composite photocatalyst is ten times faster than that on a TiO₂ photocatalyst and three times faster than that on a Ag/TiO₂ photocatalyst. This can be ascribed to the simultaneous realization of two competitive processes: one that excites the surface plasmons (SPs) of the ta-C-film/Ag-nanoparticle hybrid and provides a higher electric field near the ta-C/TiO₂ interface compared to Ag nanoparticles alone, while the other takes advantage of the dense diamond-like ta-C layer to help reduce the transfer of photogenerated electrons from the conduction band of TiO₂ to the metallic surface, since any electron transfer will suppress the excitation of SP modes in the metal nanoparticles. PMID:24572147

  6. 50 CFR 648.140 - Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.140 Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL). (a) The Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee shall recommend to the MAFMC separate ACLs for the commercial...

  7. 50 CFR 648.141 - Black sea bass Annual Catch Target (ACT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass Annual Catch Target (ACT... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.141 Black sea bass Annual Catch Target (ACT). (a) The Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee shall identify and review the relevant sources of...

  8. 50 CFR 648.140 - Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.140 Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL). (a) The Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee shall recommend to the MAFMC separate ACLs for the commercial...

  9. 50 CFR 648.141 - Black sea bass Annual Catch Target (ACT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass Annual Catch Target (ACT... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.141 Black sea bass Annual Catch Target (ACT). (a) The Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee shall identify and review the relevant sources of...

  10. 50 CFR 648.140 - Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.140 Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL). (a) The Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee shall recommend to the MAFMC separate ACLs for the commercial...

  11. 50 CFR 648.141 - Black sea bass Annual Catch Target (ACT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass Annual Catch Target (ACT... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.141 Black sea bass Annual Catch Target (ACT). (a) The Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee shall identify and review the relevant sources of...

  12. A Global Analysis of the Relationship between Farmed Seaweed Production and Herbivorous Fish Catch.

    PubMed

    Hehre, E James; Meeuwig, Jessica J

    2016-01-01

    Globally, farmed seaweed production is expanding rapidly in shallow marine habitats. While seaweed farming provides vital income to millions of artisanal farmers, it can negatively impact shallow coral reef and seagrass habitats. However, seaweed farming may also potentially provide food subsidies for herbivorous reef fish such as the Siganidae, a valuable target family, resulting in increased catch. Comparisons of reef fish landings across the central Philippines revealed that the catch of siganids was positively correlated to farmed seaweed production whilst negatively correlated to total reef fish catch over the same period of time. We tested the generality of this pattern by analysing seaweed production, siganid catch, and reef fish catch for six major seaweed-producing countries in the tropics. We hypothesized that increased seaweed production would correspond with increased catch of siganids but not other reef fish species. Analysis of the global data showed a positive correlation between farmed seaweeds and siganids in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines) but not Africa (Tanzania and Zanzibar), or the Western Pacific (Fiji). In Southeast Asia, siganid catch increased disproportionately faster with seaweed production than did reef fish catch. Low continuity, sporadic production and smaller volumes of seaweed farming may explain the differences. PMID:26894553

  13. Estimating insect flight densities from attractive trap catches and flight height distributions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect species often exhibit a specific mean flight height and vertical flight distribution that approximates a normal distribution with a characteristic standard deviation (SD). Many studies in the literature report catches on passive (non-attractive) traps at several heights. These catches were us...

  14. Catching up with Harvard: Results from Regression Analysis of World Universities League Tables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Mei; Shankar, Sriram; Tang, Kam Ki

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses regression analysis to test if the universities performing less well according to Shanghai Jiao Tong University's world universities league tables are able to catch up with the top performers, and to identify national and institutional factors that could affect this catching up process. We have constructed a dataset of 461…

  15. 50 CFR 648.230 - Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Limits (ACLs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Limits (ACLs... Management Measures for the Spiny Dogfish Fishery § 648.230 Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Limits (ACLs). (a) The Spiny Dogfish Monitoring Committee shall recommend to the Joint Spiny Dogfish Committee, an ACL for...

  16. 50 CFR 648.230 - Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Limits (ACLs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Limits (ACLs... Management Measures for the Spiny Dogfish Fishery § 648.230 Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Limits (ACLs). (a) The Spiny Dogfish Monitoring Committee shall recommend to the Joint Spiny Dogfish Committee, an ACL for...

  17. 50 CFR 679.63 - Catch weighing requirements for vessels and processors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and processors. 679.63 Section 679.63 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... Management Measures § 679.63 Catch weighing requirements for vessels and processors. (a) What are the requirements for listed AFA catcher/processors and AFA motherships?—(1) Catch weighing. All groundfish...

  18. Time series analyses reveal environmental and fisheries controls on Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) catch rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Time-series models (Dynamic factorial analyses and; Min/max autocorrelation factor analysis) were used to explore the relative influences of environmental variables and fishing pressure of trawl, seine and artisanal fleets on catch rates on Trachurus trachurus in ICES IXa sub-divisions (IXaCN-North coast; IXa- CS-South coast; IXaS-Algarve, South coast, Algarve). Fishing effort influenced catch rates in all areas with a 2 year lag and fishing pressure for each area was related to specific fleet sectors effort. In IXaCN, winter upwelling (spawning peak) and both summer northerly wind and wind magnitude (outside of the spawning peak) were strongly correlated with catch rates. In IXaCS summer/autumn westerly winds were related with catch rates. Northerly winds in spring, upwelling and SST (winter and autumn) were related with catch rates in IXaS-Algarve. For species with a long spawning season such as horse mackerel, seasonal analyses at broad regional scales can detract from a better understanding of variability in short term sub-stock catch rates. Favorable environmental conditions, even during seasons with low spawning activity can positively affect catch rates. Ignoring the role of regional oceanographic features on the spatial distribution of the sub-stocks when analysing variability in catch rates can lead to poor inferences about the productivity of the populations.

  19. Consumer perception versus scientific evidence about alternatives for manual catching of broilers in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Delezie, E; Verbeke, W; De Tavernier, J; Decuypere, E

    2007-02-01

    Commercial broiler chickens are exposed to a number of potential stressors prior to slaughter, including catching, crating, and transportation. To ameliorate animal welfare and prevent product quality loss during these processes, numerous scientific studies have been performed. As a result, different technical innovations have been presented such as mechanical catching instead of manual catching. The success of a catching machine as an alternative for manual catching of broilers will not only depend on its economic, animal, and human welfare benefits but also on its acceptance by society and consumers. The aim of this research was to assess if individuals' subjective perceptions of catching methods align with objective scientific facts. This research was focused on questions and issues related to the consumers' expected bottlenecks and motives for accepting these technologies after being exposed to video segments of each catching method. In general, the gap between consumer perception and scientific evidence related to manual and mechanical catching is limited. For those bottlenecks where science is inconclusive, respondents also have no explicit preference. Despite absence of major gaps between consumer perception and expert knowledge, preferences of particular consumer segments do not align well with scientific evidence. This holds in particular for female, younger, urban individuals who attach high importance to animal welfare issues. PMID:17234859

  20. Tyrosine requirement during the rapid catch-up growth phase of recovery from severe childhood undernutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The requirement for aromatic amino acids, during the rapid catch-up in weight phase of recovery from severe childhood under nutrition (SCU) is not clearly established. As a first step, the present study aimed to estimate the tyrosine requirement of children with SCU during the catch-up growth phase ...

  1. Factorial Validity of the Chedoke-McMaster Attitudes towards Children with Handicaps Scale (CATCH)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossaert, Goele; Petry, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The Chedoke-McMaster Attitudes towards Children with Handicaps Scale (CATCH) has been developed to measure the attitudes of children toward peers with disabilities. The present study aims to evaluate the factorial validity of the CATCH in a sample of 2396 students in 7th grade, including 179 students with disabilities and 2217 typically developing…

  2. 26 CFR 1.414(v)-1 - Catch-up contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Catch-up contributions. 1.414(v)-1 Section 1.414(v)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(v)-1 Catch-up...

  3. Movement Coordination in Ball Catching: Comparison between Boys with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Przysucha, Eryk P.; Maraj, Brian K. V.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation examined the catching coordination of 12 boys (M age = 9.9 years, SD = 0.8) with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD; M age = 10.5 years, SD = 0.8), under different task constraints. Participants attempted a total of 60 catches in central and lateral locations, under blocked and randomized conditions. No effect…

  4. A Global Analysis of the Relationship between Farmed Seaweed Production and Herbivorous Fish Catch

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Globally, farmed seaweed production is expanding rapidly in shallow marine habitats. While seaweed farming provides vital income to millions of artisanal farmers, it can negatively impact shallow coral reef and seagrass habitats. However, seaweed farming may also potentially provide food subsidies for herbivorous reef fish such as the Siganidae, a valuable target family, resulting in increased catch. Comparisons of reef fish landings across the central Philippines revealed that the catch of siganids was positively correlated to farmed seaweed production whilst negatively correlated to total reef fish catch over the same period of time. We tested the generality of this pattern by analysing seaweed production, siganid catch, and reef fish catch for six major seaweed-producing countries in the tropics. We hypothesized that increased seaweed production would correspond with increased catch of siganids but not other reef fish species. Analysis of the global data showed a positive correlation between farmed seaweeds and siganids in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines) but not Africa (Tanzania and Zanzibar), or the Western Pacific (Fiji). In Southeast Asia, siganid catch increased disproportionately faster with seaweed production than did reef fish catch. Low continuity, sporadic production and smaller volumes of seaweed farming may explain the differences. PMID:26894553

  5. 26 CFR 1.402(g)-2 - Increased limit for catch-up contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Increased limit for catch-up contributions. 1... Increased limit for catch-up contributions. (a) General rule. Under section 402(g)(1)(C), in determining the amount of elective deferrals that are includible in gross income under section 402(g) for a...

  6. Comprehensive Quantification of the Spastic Catch in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Bar-On; Erwin, Aertbelien; Guy, Molenaers; Herman, Bruyninckx; Davide, Monari; Ellen, Jaspers; Anne, Cazaerck; Kaat, Desloovere

    2013-01-01

    In clinical settings, the spastic catch is judged subjectively. This study assessed the psychometric properties of objective parameters that define and quantify the severity of the spastic catch in children with cerebral palsy (CP). A convenience sample of children with spastic CP (N = 46; age range: 4-16 years) underwent objective spasticity…

  7. Control of mosquitoes in catch basins in Connecticut with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Bacillus sphearicus, and Spinosad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catch basins are a major source of Culex pipiens pipiens, Cx. restuans, and Aedes japonicus in northeastern U.S. VectoBac CG®, VectoLex CG®, and VectoBac 12AS® applied at maximum label rates to catch basins in Stratford, CT on June 30 and July 28, 2008 significantly reduced numbers of larvae for on...

  8. Catch-and-release science and its application to conservation and management of recreational fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooke, S.J.; Schramm, H.L.

    2007-01-01

    Catch-and-release angling is a well-established practice in recreational angler behaviour and fisheries management. Accompanying this is a growing body of catch-and-release research that can be applied to reduce injury, mortality and sublethal alterations in behaviour and physiology. Here, the status of catch-and-release research from a symposium on the topic is summarised. Several general themes emerged including the need to: (1) better connect sublethal assessments to population-level processes; (2) enhance understanding of the variation in fish, fishing practices and gear and their role in catch and release; (3) better understand animal welfare issues related to catch and release; (4) increase the exchange of information on fishing-induced stress, injury and mortality between the recreational and commercial fishing sectors; and (5) improve procedures for measuring and understanding the effect of catch-and-release angling. Through design of better catch-and-release studies, strategies could be developed to further minimise stress, injury and mortality arising from catch-and-release angling. These strategies, when integrated with other fish population and fishery characteristics, can be used by anglers and managers to sustain or enhance recreational fishing resources. ?? 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. How the CATCH eat smart program helps implement the USDA regulations in school cafeterias.

    PubMed

    Hoelscher, Deanna M; Mitchell, Paul; Dwyer, Johanna; Elder, John; Clesi, Ann; Snyder, Patricia

    2003-08-01

    This article describes the implementation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National School Lunch Program (NSLP) standards in school lunch menus in 56 intervention and 20 control schools from the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) 5 years after the main trial, compared with 12 schools previously unexposed to CATCH. School food service personnel completed questionnaires to assess CATCH guideline implementation, demographic data, behavioral constructs, training, program material use, and participation in competing programs. Five days of menus and recipes were collected from school cafeteria staff, averaged, and compared to USDA School Meal Initiative (SMI) standards. Significant differences between intervention and unexposed schools were found for training and knowledge of CATCH and in mean percentage energy from fat and carbohydrates. Intervention schools most closely met USDA SMI recommendations for fat. Thus, the CATCH Eat Smart Program assisted school cafeterias in meeting USDA guidelines 5 years postimplementation. PMID:12929895

  10. Seasonal changes in the performance of a catch crop for mitigating diffuse agricultural pollution.

    PubMed

    Kondo, K; Inoue, K; Fujiwara, T; Yamane, S; Yasutake, D; Maeda, M; Nagare, H; Akao, S; Ohtoshi, K

    2013-01-01

    An in situ technology for mitigating diffuse agricultural pollution using catch crops was developed for simultaneously preventing nitrate groundwater pollution, reducing nitrous oxide (N2O) gas emissions, and removing salts from the topsoil. Seasonal changes in the performance of a catch crop were investigated using lysimeters in a full-scale greenhouse experiment with 50 d cultivation of dent corn. Catch crop cultivation significantly reduced the leached mineral nitrogen by 89-91% in summer, 87-89% in spring, and 61-82% in winter, and it also significantly reduced the N2O emission by 68-84% in summer. The amounts of nitrogen uptake by the catch crop were remarkably higher than those of leached nitrogen and N2O emission in each season. Catch crop cultivation is a promising technology for mitigating diffuse agricultural pollution. PMID:23985506

  11. Beta Band Transcranial Alternating (tACS) and Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Applied After Initial Learning Facilitate Retrieval of a Motor Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Vanessa; Meier, Anna; Dinkelbach, Lars; Pollok, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    The primary motor cortex (M1) contributes to the acquisition and early consolidation of a motor sequence. Although the relevance of M1 excitability for motor learning has been supported, the significance of M1 oscillations remains an open issue. This study aims at investigating to what extent retrieval of a newly learned motor sequence can be differentially affected by motor-cortical transcranial alternating (tACS) and direct current stimulation (tDCS). Alpha (10 Hz), beta (20 Hz) or sham tACS was applied in 36 right-handers. Anodal or cathodal tDCS was applied in 30 right-handers. Participants learned an eight-digit serial reaction time task (SRTT; sequential vs. random) with the right hand. Stimulation was applied to the left M1 after SRTT acquisition at rest for 10 min. Reaction times were analyzed at baseline, end of acquisition, retrieval immediately after stimulation and reacquisition after eight further sequence repetitions. Reaction times during retrieval were significantly faster following 20 Hz tACS as compared to 10 Hz and sham tACS indicating a facilitation of early consolidation. tDCS yielded faster reaction times, too, independent of polarity. No significant differences between 20 Hz tACS and tDCS effects on retrieval were found suggesting that 20 Hz effects might be associated with altered motor-cortical excitability. Based on the behavioral modulation yielded by tACS and tDCS one might speculate that altered motor-cortical beta oscillations support early motor consolidation possibly associated with neuroplastic reorganization. PMID:26834593

  12. Wireless ultrasound pitch-catch sensor powered by microwave energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedi, Farshad; Yao, Jun; Huang, Haiying

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a compact, batteryless wireless ultrasound pitch-catch system that wirelessly transmits the excitation signals to the actuator installed on the structure, and acquires the ultrasound sensing signal from the wireless sensor. The principle of frequency conversion is used to transform the ultrasound signals to microwave signals so that it can be wirelessly transmitted without digitization. As such, the power hungry digital-to-analog data conversion at the wireless actuator is eliminated. The wireless sensor node is equipped with a low power amplifier, which can be powered continuously by a microwave energy harvester. In addition, compact microstrip patch antennas are implemented for wireless transmissions, which help to achieve a compact interrogation unit.

  13. Egocentric and allocentric reference frames for catching a falling object.

    PubMed

    Le Séac'h, Anne Brec'hed; Senot, Patrice; McIntyre, Joseph

    2010-04-01

    When programming movement, one must account for gravitational acceleration. This is particularly important when catching a falling object because the task requires a precise estimate of time-to-contact. Knowledge of gravity's effects is intimately linked to our definition of 'up' and 'down'. Both directions can be described in an allocentric reference frame, based on visual and/or gravitational cues, or in an egocentric reference frame in which the body axis is taken as vertical. To test which frame humans use to predict gravity's effect, we asked participants to intercept virtual balls approaching from above or below with artificially controlled acceleration that could be congruent or not with gravity. To dissociate between these frames, subjects were seated upright (trunk parallel to gravity) or lying down (body axis orthogonal to the gravitational axis). We report data in line with the use of an allocentric reference frame and discuss its relevance depending on available gravity-related cues. PMID:20024651

  14. Catch trials in force field learning influence adaptation and consolidation of human motor memory

    PubMed Central

    Stockinger, Christian; Focke, Anne; Stein, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Force field studies are a common tool to investigate motor adaptation and consolidation. Thereby, subjects usually adapt their reaching movements to force field perturbations induced by a robotic device. In this context, so-called catch trials, in which the disturbing forces are randomly turned off, are commonly used to detect after-effects of motor adaptation. However, catch trials also produce sudden large motor errors that might influence the motor adaptation and the consolidation process. Yet, the detailed influence of catch trials is far from clear. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of catch trials on motor adaptation and consolidation in force field experiments. Therefore, 105 subjects adapted their reaching movements to robot-generated force fields. The test groups adapted their reaching movements to a force field A followed by learning a second interfering force field B before retest of A (ABA). The control groups were not exposed to force field B (AA). To examine the influence of diverse catch trial ratios, subjects received catch trials during force field adaptation with a probability of either 0, 10, 20, 30, or 40%, depending on the group. First, the results on motor adaptation revealed significant differences between the diverse catch trial ratio groups. With increasing amount of catch trials, the subjects' motor performance decreased and subjects' ability to accurately predict the force field—and therefore internal model formation—was impaired. Second, our results revealed that adapting with catch trials can influence the following consolidation process as indicated by a partial reduction to interference. Here, the optimal catch trial ratio was 30%. However, detection of consolidation seems to be biased by the applied measure of performance. PMID:24795598

  15. Regulation of catch bonds by rate of force application.

    PubMed

    Sarangapani, Krishna K; Qian, Jin; Chen, Wei; Zarnitsyna, Veronika I; Mehta, Padmaja; Yago, Tadayuki; McEver, Rodger P; Zhu, Cheng

    2011-09-16

    The current paradigm for receptor-ligand dissociation kinetics assumes off-rates as functions of instantaneous force without impact from its prior history. This a priori assumption is the foundation for predicting dissociation from a given initial state using kinetic equations. Here we have invalidated this assumption by demonstrating the impact of force history with single-bond kinetic experiments involving selectins and their ligands that mediate leukocyte tethering and rolling on vascular surfaces during inflammation. Dissociation of bonds between L-selectin and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) loaded at a constant ramp rate to a constant hold force behaved as catch-slip bonds at low ramp rates that transformed to slip-only bonds at high ramp rates. Strikingly, bonds between L-selectin and 6-sulfo-sialyl Lewis X were impervious to ramp rate changes. This ligand-specific force history effect resembled the effect of a point mutation at the L-selectin surface (L-selectinA108H) predicted to contact the former but not the latter ligand, suggesting that the high ramp rate induced similar structural changes as the mutation. Although the A108H substitution in L-selectin eliminated the ramp rate responsiveness of its dissociation from PSGL-1, the inverse mutation H108A in P-selectin acquired the ramp rate responsiveness. Our data are well explained by the sliding-rebinding model for catch-slip bonds extended to incorporate the additional force history dependence, with Ala-108 playing a pivotal role in this structural mechanism. These results call for a paradigm shift in modeling the mechanical regulation of receptor-ligand bond dissociation, which includes conformational coupling between binding pocket and remote regions of the interacting molecules. PMID:21775439

  16. Using demographic data to better interpret pitfall trap catches

    PubMed Central

    Matalin, Andrey V.; Makarov, Kirill V.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The results of pitfall trapping are often interpreted as abundance in a particular habitat. At the same time, there are numerous cases of almost unrealistically high catches of ground beetles in seemingly unsuitable sites. The correlation of catches by pitfall trapping with the true distribution and abundance of Carabidae needs corroboration. During a full year survey in 2006/07 in the Lake Elton region (Volgograd Area, Russia), 175 species of ground beetles were trapped. Considering the differences in demographic structure of the local populations, and not their abundances, three groups of species were recognized: residents, migrants and sporadic. In residents, the demographic structure of local populations is complete, and their habitats can be considered “residential”. In migrants and sporadic species, the demographic structure of the local populations is incomplete, and their habitats can be considered “transit”. Residents interact both with their prey and with each other in a particular habitat. Sporadic species are hardly important to a carabid community because of their low abundances. The contribution of migrants to the structure of carabid communities is not apparent and requires additional research. Migrants and sporadic species represent a “labile” component in ground beetles communities, as opposed to a “stable” component, represented by residents. The variability of the labile component substantially limits our interpretation of species diversity in carabid communities. Thus, the criteria for determining the most abundant, or dominant species inevitably vary because the abundance of migrants in some cases can be one order of magnitude higher than that of residents. The results of pitfall trapping adequately reflect the state of carabid communities only in zonal habitats, while azonal and disturbed habitats are merely transit ones for many species of ground beetles. A study of the demographic structure of local populations and

  17. Regulation of Catch Bonds by Rate of Force Application*

    PubMed Central

    Sarangapani, Krishna K.; Qian, Jin; Chen, Wei; Zarnitsyna, Veronika I.; Mehta, Padmaja; Yago, Tadayuki; McEver, Rodger P.; Zhu, Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The current paradigm for receptor-ligand dissociation kinetics assumes off-rates as functions of instantaneous force without impact from its prior history. This a priori assumption is the foundation for predicting dissociation from a given initial state using kinetic equations. Here we have invalidated this assumption by demonstrating the impact of force history with single-bond kinetic experiments involving selectins and their ligands that mediate leukocyte tethering and rolling on vascular surfaces during inflammation. Dissociation of bonds between L-selectin and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) loaded at a constant ramp rate to a constant hold force behaved as catch-slip bonds at low ramp rates that transformed to slip-only bonds at high ramp rates. Strikingly, bonds between L-selectin and 6-sulfo-sialyl Lewis X were impervious to ramp rate changes. This ligand-specific force history effect resembled the effect of a point mutation at the L-selectin surface (L-selectinA108H) predicted to contact the former but not the latter ligand, suggesting that the high ramp rate induced similar structural changes as the mutation. Although the A108H substitution in L-selectin eliminated the ramp rate responsiveness of its dissociation from PSGL-1, the inverse mutation H108A in P-selectin acquired the ramp rate responsiveness. Our data are well explained by the sliding-rebinding model for catch-slip bonds extended to incorporate the additional force history dependence, with Ala-108 playing a pivotal role in this structural mechanism. These results call for a paradigm shift in modeling the mechanical regulation of receptor-ligand bond dissociation, which includes conformational coupling between binding pocket and remote regions of the interacting molecules. PMID:21775439

  18. A study on in situ growth of TaC whiskers in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix powder for ceramic cutting tools

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Guolong; Huang, Chuanzhen; Liu, Hanlian; Xu, Liang; Chong, Xuewen; Zou, Bin; Zhu, Hongtao

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: In situ growth of TaC whiskers (TaC{sub w}) was synthesized in an α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix powder via a carbothermal reduction technique. The whiskers were 0.2–0.5 μm in diameter and 5–15 μm in length; they were straight and had smooth surfaces. Highlights: ► In situ growth of TaC whiskers was synthesized in an α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix powder. ► The wet mixing method and 1450 °C were suitable for whiskers growth. ► The growth of TaC whiskers is not influenced by the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. ► The major impurities were TaC particles, nickel and unreacted carbon. -- Abstract: In situ growth of tantalum carbide (TaC) whiskers was synthesized in an α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix powder via a carbothermal reduction technique within a temperature range of 1350–1500 °C in an argon atmosphere. The starting materials consisted of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, C, Ni and NaCl powders. Different mixing methods and various reaction temperatures were employed. Most of the prepared whiskers were 0.2–0.5 μm in diameter and 5–15 μm in length. The reaction temperature of 1400–1450 °C was suitable for the growth of TaC whiskers and a wet mixing method was beneficial to increase the whisker yield. Some of the whiskers exhibited the needle shape while others exhibited the screw shape. The growth mechanism of the whiskers was a complex mechanism involving a helical screw dislocation mechanism and a vapor–liquid–solid process. No obvious influences of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix powder on the growth of TaC whiskers were found and the major impurities in the obtained powder were TaC particles, nickel and unreacted carbon.

  19. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(17)-1 - Remuneration for services performed on a boat engaged in catching fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... engaged in catching fish. 31.3401(a)(17)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(17)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Remuneration for services performed on a boat engaged in catching fish. (a) Remuneration for services performed on or after December 31, 1954, by an individual on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms...

  20. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(17)-1 - Remuneration for services performed on a boat engaged in catching fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... engaged in catching fish. 31.3401(a)(17)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(17)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Remuneration for services performed on a boat engaged in catching fish. (a) Remuneration for services performed on or after December 31, 1954, by an individual on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms...

  1. 50 CFR 300.209 - Alternative procedures for nations identified as having vessels engaged in shark catch that are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... identified as having vessels engaged in shark catch that are not certified in this subpart. 300.209 Section... identified as having vessels engaged in shark catch that are not certified in this subpart. (a) These... not target or incidentally catch sharks, or were harvested by practices that— (1) Are comparable...

  2. 50 CFR 300.209 - Alternative procedures for nations identified as having vessels engaged in shark catch that are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... identified as having vessels engaged in shark catch that are not certified in this subpart. 300.209 Section... identified as having vessels engaged in shark catch that are not certified in this subpart. (a) These... not target or incidentally catch sharks, or were harvested by practices that— (1) Are comparable...

  3. 50 CFR 300.204 - Identification and certification of nations whose vessels are engaged in shark catch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... nations whose vessels are engaged in shark catch. 300.204 Section 300.204 Wildlife and Fisheries... shark catch. (a) Procedures to identify nations if fishing vessels of that nation are engaged in fishing activities or practices in waters beyond any national jurisdiction that target or incidentally catch...

  4. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(17)-1 - Remuneration for services performed on a boat engaged in catching fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... engaged in catching fish. 31.3401(a)(17)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(17)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Remuneration for services performed on a boat engaged in catching fish. (a) Remuneration for services performed on or after December 31, 1954, by an individual on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms...

  5. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(17)-1 - Remuneration for services performed on a boat engaged in catching fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... engaged in catching fish. 31.3401(a)(17)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(17)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Remuneration for services performed on a boat engaged in catching fish. (a) Remuneration for services performed on or after December 31, 1954, by an individual on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms...

  6. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(17)-1 - Remuneration for services performed on a boat engaged in catching fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... engaged in catching fish. 31.3401(a)(17)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(17)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Remuneration for services performed on a boat engaged in catching fish. (a) Remuneration for services performed on or after December 31, 1954, by an individual on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms...

  7. Evaluation of nontarget effects of methoprene applied to catch basins for mosquito control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, Mari; Ginsberg, Howard S.; LeBrun, Roger A.; Gettman, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The mosquito larvicide methoprene is a juvenile growth hormone mimic that is widely used to control mosquito larvae in stormwater catch basins. This study addresses two concerns pertaining to methoprene's use for mosquito control. First, measurements of methoprene concentrations were made from water in catch basins that had been treated with methoprene and from an adjoining salt pond near where the treated catch basins emptied. The concentrations of methoprene in catch basins and at drainage outlets after application at the rates currently used for mosquito control in southern Rhode Island were 0.5 ppb and lower, orders of magnitude below what has been determined as detrimental to organisms other than mosquitoes. Second, the effects of methoprene on the communities that live in catch basins were evaluated both in simulated catch basins in the laboratory and in actual catch basins in the field. We found no evidence of declines in abundances of any taxa attributable to the application. Furthermore, we found no consistent changes in community-level parameters (e.g., taxonomic richness, and dominance-diversity relationships) related to methoprene application in either field or laboratory trials.

  8. Evaluation of nontarget effects of methoprene applied to catch basins for mosquito control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, M.; Ginsberg, H.S.; LeBrun, R.A.; Gettman, A.

    2010-01-01

    The mosquito larvicide methoprene is a juvenile growth hormone mimic that is widely used to control mosquito larvae in stormwater catch basins. This study addresses two concerns pertaining to methoprene's use for mosquito control. First, measurements of methoprene concentrations were made from water in catch basins that had been treated with methoprene and from an adjoining salt pond near where the treated catch basins emptied. The concentrations of methoprene in catch basins and at drainage outlets after application at the rates currently used for mosquito control in southern Rhode Island were 0.5 ppb and lower, orders of magnitude below what has been determined as detrimental to organisms other than mosquitoes. Second, the effects of methoprene on the communities that live in catch basins were evaluated both in simulated catch basins in the laboratory and in actual catch basins in the field. We found no evidence of declines in abundances of any taxa attributable to the application. Furthermore, we found no consistent changes in community-level parameters (e.g., taxonomic richness, and dominance-diversity relationships) related to methoprene application in either field or laboratory trials. ?? 2010 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  9. Freeze-thaw effects on phosphorus loss in runoff from manured and catch-cropped soils.

    PubMed

    Bechmann, Marianne E; Kleinman, Peter J A; Sharpley, Andrew N; Saporito, Lou S

    2005-01-01

    Concern over nonpoint source P losses from agricultural lands to surface waters in frigid climates has focused attention on the role of freezing and thawing on P loss from catch crops (cover crops). This study evaluated the effect of freezing and thawing on the fate of P in bare soils, soils mixed with dairy manure, and soils with an established catch crop of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.). Experiments were conducted to evaluate changes in P runoff from packed soil boxes (100 by 20 by 5 cm) and P leaching from intact soil columns (30 cm deep). Before freezing and thawing, total P (TP) in runoff from catch-cropped soils was lower than from manured and bare soils due to lower erosion. Repeated freezing and thawing significantly increased water-extractable P (WEP) from catch crop biomass and resulted in significantly elevated concentrations of dissolved P in runoff (9.7 mg L(-1)) compared with manured (0.18 mg L(-1)) and bare soils (0.14 mg L(-1)). Catch crop WEP was strongly correlated with the number of freeze-thaw cycles. Freezing and thawing did not change the WEP of soils mixed with manures, nor were differences observed in subsurface losses of P between catch-cropped and bare soils before or after manure application. This study illustrates the trade-offs of establishing catch crops in frigid climates, which can enhance P uptake by biomass and reduce erosion potential but increase dissolved P runoff. PMID:16275731

  10. 50 CFR 300.63 - Catch sharing plan and domestic management measures in Area 2A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... regulated under 50 CFR 660.372. This fishing opportunity is only available in years in which the Area 2A TAC... retention of halibut during the primary sablefish fishery described at 50 CFR 660.231; or (iii) The... approximating the 30-fm (55-m) depth contour. Coordinates for the 30-fm (55-m) boundary are listed at 50 CFR...

  11. 50 CFR 300.63 - Catch sharing plan and domestic management measures in Area 2A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR 660.231. This fishing opportunity is only available in years in which the Area 2A TAC is greater... retention of halibut during the sablefish primary fishery described at 50 CFR 660.231; or (iii) The... approximating the 30-fm (55-m) depth contour. Coordinates for the 30-fm (55-m) boundary are listed at 50 CFR...

  12. 50 CFR 300.63 - Catch sharing plan and domestic management measures in Area 2A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... regulated under 50 CFR 660.372. This fishing opportunity is only available in years in which the Area 2A TAC... retention of halibut during the primary sablefish fishery described at 50 CFR 660.372; or (iii) The... Cape Falcon, Oregon are not projected to utilize their respective quotas by September 30, NMFS may...

  13. 50 CFR 300.63 - Catch sharing plan and domestic management measures in Area 2A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CFR 660.231. This fishing opportunity is only available in years in which the Area 2A TAC is greater... retention of halibut during the sablefish primary fishery described at 50 CFR 660.231; or (iii) The... approximating the 30-fm (55-m) depth contour. Coordinates for the 30-fm (55-m) boundary are listed at 50 CFR...

  14. 50 CFR 300.63 - Catch sharing plan and domestic management measures in Area 2A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR 660.231. This fishing opportunity is only available in years in which the Area 2A TAC is greater... retention of halibut during the sablefish primary fishery described at 50 CFR 660.231; or (iii) The... approximating the 30-fm (55-m) depth contour. Coordinates for the 30-fm (55-m) boundary are listed at 50 CFR...

  15. TAC BRAWLER - An application of engagement simulation modeling to simulator visual system display requirements for air combat maneuvering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerchner, R. M.; Hughes, R. G.; Lee, A.

    1984-01-01

    The TAC BRAWLER air combat simulation models both the acquisition and use of visual information by the pilot. It was used to provide the designers of manned simulators for air-to-air combat with information regarding the training implications of display system resolution, inherent target contrast, field of view, and transport delay. Various display designs were simulated, and the resulting quantitative and qualitative differences in engagements were considered indicators of possible mistraining. Display resolution was found to alter combats primarily through its effect on detection ranges; the 'pixel averaging' contrast management technique was shown to largely compensate for this problem. Transport delay significantly degrades pilot tracking ability, but the training impact of the effect is unclear.

  16. An assessment of West African seahorses in fisheries catch and trade.

    PubMed

    Cisneros-Montemayor, A M; West, K; Boiro, I S; Vincent, A C J

    2016-02-01

    This study provides the first assessment of a heavily traded West African seahorse species, Hippocampus algiricus, and the first information on short-snouted seahorse Hippocampus hippocampus biology in Africa. A total of 219 seahorses were sampled from fisher catch in Senegal and The Gambia, with estimated height at reproductive activity for H. algiricus (161 mm) larger than mean ± S.D. catch height (150 ± 31 mm). Catch composition, height at reproductive activity and potential biases in fishery retention are discussed with regard to the current Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES) guidelines. PMID:26676971

  17. A sampling device for the fauna of storm water catch basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, M.; Casagrande, R.; LeBrun, R.; Ginsberg, H.; Gettman, A.

    2007-01-01

    Storm water drainage catch basins provide habitat to a variety of different aquatic organisms including arthropods, molluscs and annelid worms. Arthropods such as mosquitoes are known to use these environments as larval habitat. Because of health concerns, catch basins are often targeted for mosquito control exposing all inhabitants to pesticides such as methoprene or BTI. In this paper we describe a sampler that we used to evaluate catch basin communities in southern Rhode Island over a six month period. We also examine its efficacy and consistency. We found that the sampler effectively estimated organism abundances.

  18. Influence of the incident angle of energetic carbon ions on the properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongping; Benstetter, Günther; Lodermeier, Edgar; Vancea, Johann

    2003-09-01

    Tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films have been grown on Ar+-beam-cleaned silicon substrates by changing the incident angle of energetic carbon ions produced in the plasma of pulsed cathodic vacuum arc discharge. Their surface roughness, deposition rate, composition, and mechanical and frictional properties as a function of the incident angle of energetic carbon ions were reported. The substrate holder can be rotated, and so an angle of deposition was defined as the angle of ion flux with respect to the substrate surface. While the deposition angle is varied from 20° to 59°, the root-mean-square (rms) roughness decreases from 0.5 to 0.1 nm, then it turns to increase at a slow rate when the deposition angle is over 77°. The variation correlates well with the one of hardness with the deposition angle and the films with lower rms roughness exhibit the higher hardness. The soft graphite-like surface layers existing at the surfaces of these films were revealed by atomic force microscopy-based nanowear tests and their thickness increases from 0.35 to 2.9 nm with the deposition angle decreasing from 90° to 30°. The soft surface layer thickness can have a great effect on the sp3 contents measured by x-ray photoelectron spectra. Nanoscale friction coefficient measurements were performed from lateral force microscopy by using a V-shaped Si3N4 cantilever. The low friction coefficients (0.076-0.093) of ta-C films can be attributed to their graphite-like surface structure. The implications of these results on the mechanisms proposed for the film formation were discussed.

  19. ELR-Negative CXC Chemokine CXCL11 (IP-9/I-TAC) Facilitates Dermal and Epidermal Maturation during Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Cecelia C.; Whaley, Diana; Y-Chen, Amy; Kulesekaran, Priya; Hebda, Patricia A.; Wells, Alan

    2008-01-01

    In skin wounds, the chemokine CXCR3 receptor appears to play a key role in coordinating the switch from regeneration of the ontogenically distinct mesenchymal and epithelial compartments toward maturation. However, because CXCR3 equivalently binds four different ELR-devoid CXC chemokines (ie, PF4/CXCL4, IP-10/CXCL10, MIG/CXCL9, and IP-9/CXCL11), we sought to identify the ligand that coordinates epidermal coverage with the maturation of the underlying superficial dermis. Because CXCL11 (IP-9 or I-TAC) is produced by redifferentiating keratinocytes late in the regenerative phase when re-epithelialization is completed and matrix maturation ensues, we generated mice in which an antisense construct (IP-9AS) eliminated IP-9 expression during the wound-healing process. Both full and partial thickness excisional wounds were created and analyzed histologically throughout a 2-month period. Wound healing was impaired in the IP-9AS mice, with a hypercellular and immature dermis noted even after 60 days. Re-epithelialization was delayed with a deficient delineating basement membrane persisting in mice expressing the IP-9AS construct. Provisional matrix components persisted in the dermis, and the mature basement membrane components laminin V and collagen IV were severely diminished. Interestingly, the inflammatory response was not diminished despite IP-9/I-TAC being chemotactic for such cells. We conclude that IP-9 is a key ligand in the CXCR3 signaling system for wound repair, promoting re-epithelialization and modulating the maturation of the superficial dermis. PMID:18669615

  20. [XPS and Raman spectral analysis of nitrogenated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C : N) films with different nitrogen content].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wang-Shou; Zhu, Jia-Qi; Han, Jie-Cai; Tian, Gui; Tan, Man-Lin

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogenated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C : N) films were prepared on the polished C--Si substrates by introducing highly pure nitrogen gas into the cathode region and the depositing chamber synchronously using filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) technology. The nitrogen content in the films was controlled by changing the flow rate of nitrogen gas. The configuration of ta-C : N films was investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and visible Raman spectroscopy. It was shown that the nitrogen content in the films increased from 0.84 at% to 5.37 at% monotonously when the nitrogen flow rate was varied from 2 seem to 20 sccm. The peak position of C (1s) core level moved towards higher binding energy with the increase in nitrogen content. The shift of C (1s) peak position could be ascribed to the chemical bonding between carbon and nitrogen atoms even though more three-fold coordinated sp2 configuration as in graphite was formed when the films were doped with more nitrogen atoms. Additionally, the half width of C(1s) peak gradually was also broadened with increasing nitrogen content. In order to discover clearly the changing regularities of the microstructure of the films, the XPS C(1s) spectra and Raman spectra were deconvoluted using a Gaussian-Lorentzian mixed lineshape. It was shown that the tetrahedral hybridization component was still dominant even though the ratio of sp2/sp3 obtained from C(1s) spectra rose with the increase in nitrogen content. The Raman measurements demonstrated that the G peak position shifted towards higher frequency from 1,561 to 1,578 cm(-1) and the ratio of ID/IG also rose with the increase in nitrogen content. Both results indicated that the graphitizing tendency could occur with the increase in nitrogen content in the films. PMID:19385255

  1. Building America Case Study: Ground Source Heat Pump Research, TaC Studios Residence, Atlanta, Georigia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA in the mixed-humid climate. This home serves as a residence and home office for the firm's owners, as well as a demonstration of their design approach to potential and current clients. Southface believes the home demonstrates current best practices for the mixed-humid climate, including a building envelope featuring advanced air sealing details and low density spray foam insulation, glazing that exceeds ENERGY STAR requirements, and a high performance heating and cooling system. Construction quality and execution was a high priority for TaC Studios and was ensured by a third party review process. Post construction testing showed that the project met stated goals for envelope performance, an air infiltration rate of 2.15 ACH50. The homeowner's wished to further validate whole house energy savings through the project's involvement with Building America and this long-term monitoring effort. As a Building America test home, this home was evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and the efficiency and operation of the ground source heat pump and associated systems. Given that the home includes many non-typical end use loads including a home office, pool, landscape water feature, and other luxury features not accounted for in Building America modeling tools, these end uses were separately monitored to determine their impact on overall energy consumption.

  2. Using Tic-Tac Software to Reduce Anxiety-Related Behaviour in Adults with Autism and Learning Difficulties during Waiting Periods: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campillo, Cristina; Herrera, Gerardo; Remírez de Ganuza, Conchi; Cuesta, José L.; Abellán, Raquel; Campos, Arturo; Navarro, Ignacio; Sevilla, Javier; Pardo, Carlos; Amati, Fabián

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in the perception of time and processing of changes across time are commonly observed in individuals with autism. This pilot study evaluated the efficacy of the use of the software tool Tic-Tac, designed to make time visual, in three adults with autism and learning difficulties. This research focused on applying the tool in waiting…

  3. Non-Straub type actin from molluscan catch muscle.

    PubMed

    Shelud'ko, Nikolay S; Girich, Ulyana V; Lazarev, Stanislav S; Vyatchin, Ilya G

    2016-05-27

    We have developed a method of obtaining natural actin from smooth muscles of the bivalves on the example of the Сrenomytilus grayanus catch muscle. The muscles were previously rigorized to prevent a loss of thin filaments during homogenization and washings. Thin filaments were isolated with a low ionic strength solution in the presence of ATP and sodium pyrophosphate. Surface proteins of thin filaments-tropomyosin, troponin, calponin and some minor actin-binding proteins-were dissociated from actin filaments by increasing the ionic strength to 0.6 M KCL. Natural fibrillar actin obtained in that way depolymerizes easily in low ionic strength solutions commonly used for the extraction of Straub-type actin from acetone powder. Purification of natural actin was carried out by the polymerization-depolymerization cycle. The content of inactivated actin remaining in the supernatant is much less than at a similar purification of Straub-type actin. A comparative investigation was performed between the natural mussel actin and the Straub-type rabbit skeletal actin in terms of the key properties of actin: polymerization, activation of Mg-ATPase activity of myosin, and the electron-microscopic structure of actin polymers. PMID:27120462

  4. Mortality of Palmetto bass following catch-and-release angling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.J.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2013-01-01

    Palmetto bass (Striped Bass Morone saxatilis x White Bass M. chrysops) have been stocked into reservoirs in the southeastern USA since the late 1960s and have gained widespread acceptance as a sport fish. These fisheries are growing in popularity and catch-and-release (CR) fishing is commonplace; however, there is a dearth of information on CR mortality of palmetto bass. We experimentally angled palmetto bass (n = 56; >373-mm TL) in a Tennessee reservoir using traditional angling gear in water temperatures ranging from 13 °C to 32 °C. Ultrasonic transmitters equipped with floats were externally attached to fish, which were released immediately and tracked multiple times within 10 d of release. Mortality was negligible (3.6%) in fall and spring at cool water temperatures but was high (39.3%) in summer when water temperatures exceeded 26 °C. The best logistic regression model based on Akaike's information criterion for small sample sizes scores relied on water temperature alone to predict CR mortality of palmetto bass; there was little support for other models that included all possible combinations of the six other predictor variables we tested. Palmetto bass in our study experienced lower CR mortality than Striped Bass in other systems, but CR mortality rates for palmetto bass that approach or exceed 40% during summer are still problematic if the goal is to maintain fishing quality.

  5. Will a catch share for whales improve social welfare?

    PubMed

    Smith, Martin D; Asche, Frank; Bennear, Lori S; Havice, Elizabeth; Read, Andrew J; Squires, Dale

    2014-01-01

    We critique a proposal to use catch shares to manage transboundary wildlife resources with potentially high non-extractive values, and we focus on the case of whales. Because whales are impure public goods, a policy that fails to capture all nonmarket benefits (due to free riding) could lead to a suboptimal outcome. Even if free riding were overcome, whale shares would face four implementation challenges. First, a whale share could legitimize the international trade in whale meat and expand the whale meat market. Second, a legal whale trade creates monitoring and enforcement challenges similar to those of organizations that manage highly migratory species such as tuna. Third, a whale share could create a new political economy of management that changes incentives and increases costs for nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to achieve the current level of conservation. Fourth, a whale share program creates new logistical challenges for quota definition and allocation regardless of whether the market for whale products expands or contracts. Each of these issues, if left unaddressed, could result in lower overall welfare for society than under the status quo. PMID:24640530

  6. Police posing as juveniles online to catch sex offenders: is it working?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David

    2005-07-01

    This paper explores the extent and effectiveness of proactive investigations in which investigators pose as minors on the Internet to catch potential sex offenders. It utilizes a subsample of cases from the National Juvenile Online Victimization Survey, which concerned persons arrested for Internet sex crimes against minors in the year beginning July 1, 2000. Results suggest proactive investigations represented a significant proportion (25%) of all arrests for Internet sex crimes against minors. Such investigations were being conducted at all levels of law enforcement. The online personas assumed by investigators paralleled the ages and genders of real youth victimized in sex crimes that started as online encounters. These proactive investigations accessed an offender group that appeared somewhat less deviant in terms of adult sexual behavior and arrest history but equally deviant as other online offenders in terms of possession of child pornography. Prosecution of these cases produced high rates of guilty pleas and low rates of dismissed or dropped cases. The entrapment, fantasy or role-playing, and factual impossibility defenses were used but not successfully. Findings suggest that the Internet sometimes allows law enforcement to interdict before a youth is victimized, gather solid evidence of offenses, and find and track some offenders. PMID:16121838

  7. 76 FR 66913 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Catch Share Panel Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA796 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Catch Share Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22-P...

  8. Maintenance of caspase-3 proenzyme dormancy by an intrinsic "safety catch" regulatory tripeptide.

    PubMed

    Roy, S; Bayly, C I; Gareau, Y; Houtzager, V M; Kargman, S; Keen, S L; Rowland, K; Seiden, I M; Thornberry, N A; Nicholson, D W

    2001-05-22

    Caspase-3 is synthesized as a dormant proenzyme and is maintained in an inactive conformation by an Asp-Asp-Asp "safety-catch" regulatory tripeptide contained within a flexible loop near the large-subunit/small-subunit junction. Removal of this "safety catch" results in substantially enhanced autocatalytic maturation as well as increased vulnerability to proteolytic activation by upstream proteases in the apoptotic pathway such as caspase-9 and granzyme B. The safety catch functions through multiple ionic interactions that are disrupted by acidification, which occurs in the cytosol of cells during the early stages of apoptosis. We propose that the caspase-3 safety catch is a key regulatory checkpoint in the apoptotic cascade that regulates terminal events in the caspase cascade by modulating the triggering of caspase-3 activation. PMID:11353841

  9. Catch bonds: physical models, structural bases, biological function and rheological relevance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cheng; Lou, Jizhong; McEver, Rodger P

    2005-01-01

    Force can shorten the lifetimes of macromolecular complexes (e.g., receptor-ligand bonds) by accelerating their dissociation. Perhaps paradoxical at first glance, bond lifetimes can also be prolonged by force. This counterintuitive behavior was named catch bonds, which is in contrast to the ordinary slip bonds that describe the intuitive behavior of lifetimes being shortened by force. Fifteen years after their theoretical proposal, catch bonds have finally been observed. In this article we review recently published data that have demonstrated catch bonds in the selectin system and suggested catch bonds in other systems, the theoretical models for their explanations, possible structural bases, their relation to flow-enhanced adhesion, and the potential biorheological relevance. PMID:16369083

  10. Enhanced Mechanical Properties of Nanoparticle Networks Cross-Linked by Biomimetic Catch Bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbanga, Badel L.; Iyer, Balaji V. S.; Yashin, Victor V.; Balazs, Anna C.

    2015-03-01

    The tunable behavior of cross-linked networks of Polymer-Grafted Nanoparticles (PGNs) makes them excellent candidates for designing novel materials with enhanced mechanical properties. The building block of a PGN network is a nanoparticle with grafted polymer chains whose free ends' reactive groups can form bonds with the end chains on the nearby particles. We use computer modeling to study the tensile behavior of 3D samples, in which some fraction of cross-links is formed through the biomimetic ``catch'' bonds. In contrast to conventional ``slip'' bonds, the catch bonds might become stronger under an applied force due to transitions between two conformational states. The mechanical properties of the PGN networks are shown to exhibit a drastic improvement upon introduction of the catch bonds into the network. We discuss how ductility, toughness, and rate of strain recovery of the network depend on the catch bond content.

  11. Combining Telephone Surveys and Fishing Catches Self-Report: The French Sea Bass Recreational Fishery Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Rocklin, Delphine; Levrel, Harold; Drogou, Mickaël; Herfaut, Johanna; Veron, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various types of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European sea bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish) were released at sea and that the mean length of a kept sea bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and type of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of sea bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective type of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small sea bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few sea bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational sea bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools. PMID:24489885

  12. Combining telephone surveys and fishing catches self-report: the French sea bass recreational fishery assessment.

    PubMed

    Rocklin, Delphine; Levrel, Harold; Drogou, Mickaël; Herfaut, Johanna; Veron, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various types of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European sea bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish) were released at sea and that the mean length of a kept sea bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and type of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of sea bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective type of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small sea bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few sea bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational sea bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools. PMID:24489885

  13. A spatially explicit capture-recapture estimator for single-catch traps.

    PubMed

    Distiller, Greg; Borchers, David L

    2015-11-01

    Single-catch traps are frequently used in live-trapping studies of small mammals. Thus far, a likelihood for single-catch traps has proven elusive and usually the likelihood for multicatch traps is used for spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) analyses of such data. Previous work found the multicatch likelihood to provide a robust estimator of average density. We build on a recently developed continuous-time model for SECR to derive a likelihood for single-catch traps. We use this to develop an estimator based on observed capture times and compare its performance by simulation to that of the multicatch estimator for various scenarios with nonconstant density surfaces. While the multicatch estimator is found to be a surprisingly robust estimator of average density, its performance deteriorates with high trap saturation and increasing density gradients. Moreover, it is found to be a poor estimator of the height of the detection function. By contrast, the single-catch estimators of density, distribution, and detection function parameters are found to be unbiased or nearly unbiased in all scenarios considered. This gain comes at the cost of higher variance. If there is no interest in interpreting the detection function parameters themselves, and if density is expected to be fairly constant over the survey region, then the multicatch estimator performs well with single-catch traps. However if accurate estimation of the detection function is of interest, or if density is expected to vary substantially in space, then there is merit in using the single-catch estimator when trap saturation is above about 60%. The estimator's performance is improved if care is taken to place traps so as to span the range of variables that affect animal distribution. As a single-catch likelihood with unknown capture times remains intractable for now, researchers using single-catch traps should aim to incorporate timing devices with their traps. PMID:26640683

  14. Evaluation of different methods of catching anopheline mosquitoes in western Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Palis, Y; Curtis, C F

    1992-09-01

    During a longitudinal study of vector biology and malaria transmission in western Venezuela, adult mosquitoes were collected by different methods and their efficiency was compared with human landing catches. CDC light traps, a double-net, a calf-baited trap and collection of resting mosquitoes on vegetation were tested. These methods did not prove to be effective substitutes for human landing catches. PMID:1402863

  15. Root growth and nitrate-nitrogen leaching of catch crops following spring wheat.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Juan M; Feil, Boy; Stamp, Peter; Liedgens, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Growing nitrogen (N) catch crops can reduce NO(3)-N leaching after cultivating cereals. The objective of this study was to relate NO(3)-N leaching to variation in the uptake of N and the size and distribution of the root systems of different catch crops species. In a 3-yr lysimeter experiment, phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), and a Brassica species (yellow mustard [Brassica alba L.] or a hybrid of turnip rape [B. rapa L. spp. oleifera (DC.) Metzg.] and Chinese cabbage [B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Hanelt]) were grown after the harvest of spring wheat under two levels of N supply. Bare soil lysimeters served as the control. Water percolation from the lysimeters and the NO(3)(-) concentration in the leachate were measured weekly from the sowing until the presumed frost-kill of the catch crops. Minirhizotrons were used to assess the spatial and temporal patterns of root growth from 0.10 to 1.00 m. The catch crop species differed in their shoot biomass, N uptake, total NO(3)-N leaching, and root growth. The results suggested that there was no strict relationship between the total NO(3)-N leaching of each catch crop species and the N uptake or parameters that indicate static characteristics of the root system. In contrast, the ranking of each catch crop species by parameters that indicate early root growth was inversely related to the ranking of each catch crop species in NO(3)-N leaching. The rapid establishment of the root system is essential for a catch crop following spring wheat to reduce the amount of NO(3)-N leaching after the harvest of spring wheat. PMID:20400580

  16. Vietnam recommended dietary allowances 2007.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Hoan, Pham Van

    2008-01-01

    It has been well acknowledged that Vietnam is undergoing a nutrition transition. With a rapid change in the country's reform and economic growth, food supply at the macronutrient level has improved. Changes of the Vietnamese diet include significantly more foods of animal origin, and an increase of fat/oils, and ripe fruits. Consequently, nutritional problems in Vietnam now include not only malnutrition but also overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases related to nutrition and lifestyles. The recognition of these shifts, which is also associated with morbidity and mortality, was a major factor in the need to review and update the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for the Vietnamese population. This revised RDA established an important science-based tool for evaluation of nutrition adequacy, for teaching, and for scientific communications within Vietnam. It is expected that the 2007 Vietnam RDA and its conversion to food-based dietary guidelines will facilitate education to the public, as well as the policy implementation of programs for prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases and addressing the double burden of both under and over nutrition. PMID:18460440

  17. Catch Rates, Composition and Fish Size from Reefs Managed with Periodically-Harvested Closures

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philippa Jane; Alexander, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Periodically-harvested closures are commonly employed within co-management frameworks to help manage small-scale, multi-species fisheries in the Indo-Pacific. Despite their widespread use, the benefits of periodic harvesting strategies for multi-species fisheries have, to date, been largely untested. We examine catch and effort data from four periodically-harvested reef areas and 55 continuously-fished reefs in Solomon Islands. We test the hypothesis that fishing in periodically-harvested closures would yield: (a) higher catch rates, (b) proportionally more short lived, fast growing, sedentary taxa, and (c) larger finfish and invertebrates, compared to catches from reefs continuously open to fishing. Our study showed that catch rates were significantly higher from periodically-harvested closures for gleaning of invertebrates, but not for line and spear fishing. The family level composition of catches did not vary significantly between open reefs and periodically-harvested closures. Fish captured from periodically-harvested closures were slightly larger, but Trochus niloticus were significantly smaller than those from continuously open reefs. In one case of intense and prolonged harvesting, gleaning catch rates significantly declined, suggesting invertebrate stocks were substantially depleted in the early stages of the open period. Our study suggests periodically-harvested closures can have some short term benefits via increasing harvesting efficiency. However, we did not find evidence that the strategy had substantially benefited multi-species fin-fisheries. PMID:24066044

  18. Commercial catch rates of the clam Spisula solida reflect local environmental coastal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, V.; Leitão, F.

    2014-02-01

    The effect of environmental variables and fishing pressure (explanatory variables were lagged 1 year) on commercial catch rates of the clam Spisula solida was studied on an annual basis over a 21 year period in three areas off the Portuguese coast (the Northwest, the Southwest and the South) between 1989 and 2009. Each area showed distinct environmental (oceanographic and hydrological) characteristics. Different sensitivities of S. solida fishing grounds to environmental variables were found among the study areas. On the Northwest coast, the combined effect of NAO indices and sea surface temperature had a positive effect on S. solida fisheries, particularly during the spawning season. On the Southwest coast, the variation of S. solida catches was negatively associated with wind magnitude and positively related with South-Southeast winds. Winter river discharges and summer sea surface temperature negatively affected S. solida catches on the South coast. Fishing effort also affected S. solida catch rates in the South. However, “extreme” changes in environmental conditions were the main drivers of short-term variations in catch rates. These results indicate that variations of S. solida catches strongly reflect a regional signature of local climatic features off the coast. Information on local environmental conditions should therefore be used for the purpose of identifying management actions to ensure long-term sustainability of S. solida fisheries.

  19. Factors influencing implementation of the Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH) Eat Smart School Nutrition Program in Texas.

    PubMed

    McCullum-Gomez, Christine; Barroso, Cristina S; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Ward, Jerri L; Kelder, Steven H

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate factors influencing the implementation of the Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH) Eat Smart School Nutrition Program in Texas using data from the CATCH dissemination study. A mail survey was sent to school foodservice personnel (N = 213) who attended a CATCH training from August 2000 through January 2002. A response rate of 40% (n = 85) was achieved. The mean score for the percentage of CATCH Eat Smart guidelines implemented was 80.44. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that, after adjusting for age and number of years employed in school foodservice, the following factors were significantly associated with the percentage of CATCH Eat Smart guidelines implemented: utility of CATCH and CATCH Eat Smart in meeting requirements for Coordinated School Health Programs (P = 0.006), school foodservice personnel's satisfaction with food made using the CATCH Eat Smart guidelines (P = 0.008), utility of CATCH in facilitating interschool communication about children's health (P = 0.019), and perceived student satisfaction with food made using the CATCH Eat Smart guidelines (P = 0.046). These results suggest that dissemination approaches for Coordinated School Health Programs should focus on ways to enhance program satisfaction, be consistent with legislated mandates, and increase interschool staff communication to increase program implementation by school foodservice personnel. PMID:17126635

  20. Fog collection and deposition modelling - EcoCatch Lunz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koller, M. W.; Ramírez-Santa Cruz, C.; Leder, K.; Bauer, H.; Dorninger, M.; Hofhansl, F.; Wanek, W.; Kasper-Giebl, A.

    2010-07-01

    The area of Lunz am See (N 047.855°, E 015.068°, 650 m a.s.l.) in Lower Austria has been subject to long term monitoring of meteorological parameters as well as wet deposition. Even though Lunz is known for its good air quality, with about 200 days of precipitation per year reaching an annual average of 1500 mm deposition, immission fluxes reach levels of critical loads. For instance, nitrogen input from wet deposition of nitrate and ammonium is > 14 kg ha-1 a-1, and sulphur input from sulphate is 5 kg ha-1 a-1. In the framework of the EcoCatch project1) wet, dry and occult deposition have been investigated in detail in an alluvial forest near the Biological Station (Lunz/See) since September 2008. The overall contribution of dry and occult deposition was expected to be comparably low and only of importance in times of decreased wet deposition. Collection of fog samples was performed with an active fog sampler, regulated by a Vaisala PWD-12 sensor monitoring visibility. Temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction were logged by a HOBO weather station. Filter stacks were used for sampling of aerosol particles and gaseous components and a Wet And Dry Only Sampler (WADOS) was used to sample precipitation. Solute analysis was carried out via ion chromatography. Alkali and earth alkali metals, chloride as well as ammonium, sulphate and nitrate were quantified in rain, aerosol and fog samples on an event basis. In addition dry deposition included nitrogen oxide and dioxide, sulphur dioxide and ammonia measurements. A site specific relation of liquid water content (LWC) to visibility was established using the collection rate and the known collection efficiency of the fog sampler. A modified version of the fog deposition resistance model devised by G.M. Lovett was used to quantify occult deposition onto the alluvial forest. The surface area index of local vegetation was measured with a SunScan System and tree height was determined using a Vertex IV

  1. Community implementation outcomes of Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up.

    PubMed

    Caron, E B; Weston-Lee, Patria; Haggerty, Danielle; Dozier, Mary

    2016-03-01

    Bringing evidence-based treatments to community practice is a critical challenge for the field. When implemented in the community, evidence-based treatments often fail to provide the benefits shown in laboratory settings. Therefore, when evidence-based treatments are transported to the community, it is essential to investigate implementation process and outcomes. The present study assessed whether Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC), an intervention for high-risk parents that has been shown to be efficacious in randomized clinical trials (RCTs), changed parent behavior in a community-based setting. This study examined data collected from 78 cases by 9 parent coaches in a diverse community setting in Hawaii, and compared data to benchmarks from RCTs. Parent coach fidelity was coded from intervention session video clips, and was also compared with benchmarks. Caregivers participating in ABC were primarily birth parents, and most were referred through Child Protective Services involvement or for reasons of harsh parenting or neglect. Parental behavior was assessed before and after intervention using a semi-structured play task. Increases in parental following the lead and delight, and decreases in parental intrusiveness, were observed; these changes were comparable to effect sizes observed in RCTs. Intent to treat analyses were conducted using behavioral data from videotaped sessions, and suggested that ABC also improved following the lead in parents who subsequently dropped out of treatment. These results support the viability of ABC for enhancing parenting behavior among parents at high risk for maltreatment, and demonstrate that parent coaches in community agencies can successfully implement ABC. PMID:26746112

  2. A new automated method for the determination of the Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) of human plasma, based on the crocin bleaching assay

    PubMed Central

    Kampa, Marilena; Nistikaki, Anastasia; Tsaousis, Vassilios; Maliaraki, Niki; Notas, George; Castanas, Elias

    2002-01-01

    Background Antioxidant molecules, which scavenge free radical species to prevent or delay oxidative damage of important macromolecules, membrane lipids and lipoproteins, are prevalent in plasma and other biological fluids. Among them, bilirubin, uric acid and protein thiols are the major endogenous antioxidants, while vitamins C and E, as well as a number of food-derived (poly)aromatic substances, belonging to stilbens, flavonoids and phenolic acids, are the main classes of nutritional antioxidants. Assays for total antioxidant capacity in plasma differ in their type of oxidation source, target and measurement used to detect the oxidized product. Methods In the present work we present an automated assay for the estimation of blood total antioxidant capacity (TAC assay), based on the crocin bleaching (oxidation) method. This method was adapted on a modern autoanalyzer, was linear over a wide range of values (0–3 mmol/L), and performed using an end point measurement. Results The TAC method presented a linear correlation with another automated commercial Total Antioxidant Status (TAS) test. Detection of the interference of different metabolites revealed a significant participation of TAC from uric acid, bilirubin, albumin, a minor interference from ascorbic acid, and no interference from hemoglobin. TAC was not modified by two freeze/thawing cycles, and was stable in samples stored at room temperature for 4 hours. K-EDTA and heparin were the best anticoagulants, while citrate decreased TAC by 20%. Reference values derived from samples of normal blood donors was 1.175 ± 0.007 mmol/L (mean ± SEM), while a diet rich in antioxidants more than doubled this value. Conclusions The proposed TAC assay, is fully automated, stable and reliable, and could be of value in the estimation of the AC of plasma. It is further proposed to calculate the antioxidant capacity of plasma after a subtraction of all interference deriving from endogenous and/or exogenous metabolites. The

  3. Parallel synthesis of 1,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-ones employing catch and release.

    PubMed

    Laustsen, Line S; Sams, Christian K

    2007-01-01

    An efficient solid-phase method has been developed for the parallel synthesis of 1,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-one derivatives. A key step in this procedure involves catching crude 2-aminobenzoimine products 4 on an amino acid Wang resin 10. Mild acidic conditions then promote a ring closure and in the same step cleavage from the resin to give pure benzodiazepine products 12. The 2-aminobenzoimines 4 can be synthesized from either 2-aminobenzonitriles 1 and Grignard reagents 2 or from iodoanilines 5 and nitriles 7 allowing a range of diversification. Further diversification can be introduced to the benzodiazepine products by N-alkylation promoted by a resin bound base and alkylating agents 13. PMID:17915962

  4. Variance in age-specific sex composition of Pacific halibut catches, and comparison of statistical and genetic methods for reconstructing sex ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loher, Timothy; Woods, Monica A.; Jimenez-Hidalgo, Isadora; Hauser, Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    Declines in size at age of Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis, in concert with sexually-dimorphic growth and a constant minimum commercial size limit, have led to the expectation that the sex composition of commercial catches should be increasingly female-biased. Sensitivity analyses suggest that variance in sex composition of landings may be the most influential source of uncertainty affecting current understanding of spawning stock biomass. However, there is no reliable way to determine sex at landing because all halibut are eviscerated at sea. In 2014, a statistical method based on survey data was developed to estimate the probability that fish of any given length at age (LAA) would be female, derived from the fundamental observation that large, young fish are likely female whereas small, old fish have a high probability of being male. Here, we examine variability in age-specific sex composition using at-sea commercial and closed-season survey catches, and compare the accuracy of the survey-based LAA technique to genetic markers for reconstructing the sex composition of catches. Sexing by LAA performed best for summer-collected samples, consistent with the hypothesis that the ability to characterize catches can be influenced by seasonal demographic shifts. Additionally, differences between survey and commercial selectivity that allow fishers to harvest larger fish within cohorts may generate important mismatch between survey and commercial datasets. Length-at-age-based estimates ranged from 4.7% underestimation of female proportion to 12.0% overestimation, with mean error of 5.8 ± 1.5%. Ratios determined by genetics were closer to true sample proportions and displayed less variability; estimation to within < 1% of true ratios was limited to genetics. Genetic estimation of female proportions ranged from 4.9% underestimation to 2.5% overestimation, with a mean absolute error of 1.2 ± 1.2%. Males were generally more difficult to assign than females: 6.7% of

  5. Distinct roles of Candida albicans drug resistance transcription factors TAC1, MRR1, and UPC2 in virulence.

    PubMed

    Lohberger, Andrea; Coste, Alix T; Sanglard, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Azoles are widely used in antifungal therapy in medicine. Resistance to azoles can occur in Candida albicans principally by overexpression of multidrug transporter gene CDR1, CDR2, or MDR1 or by overexpression of ERG11, which encodes the azole target. The expression of these genes is controlled by the transcription factors (TFs) TAC1 (involved in the control of CDR1 and CDR2), MRR1 (involved in the control of MDR1), and UPC2 (involved in the control of ERG11). Several gain-of-function (GOF) mutations are present in hyperactive alleles of these TFs, resulting in the overexpression of target genes. While these mutations are beneficial to C. albicans survival in the presence of the antifungal drugs, their effects could potentially alter the fitness and virulence of C. albicans in the absence of the selective drug pressure. In this work, the effect of GOF mutations on C. albicans virulence was addressed in a systemic model of intravenous infection by mouse survival and kidney fungal burden assays. We engineered a set of strains with identical genetic backgrounds in which hyperactive alleles were reintroduced in one or two copies at their genomic loci. The results obtained showed that neither TAC1 nor MRR1 GOF mutations had a significant effect on C. albicans virulence. In contrast, the presence of two hyperactive UPC2 alleles in C. albicans resulted in a significant decrease in virulence, correlating with diminished kidney colonization compared to that by the wild type. In agreement with the effect on virulence, the decreased fitness of an isolate with UPC2 hyperactive alleles was observed in competition experiments with the wild type in vivo but not in vitro. Interestingly, UPC2 hyperactivity delayed filamentation of C. albicans after phagocytosis by murine macrophages, which may at least partially explain the virulence defects. Combining the UPC2 GOF mutation with another hyperactive TF did not compensate for the negative effect of UPC2 on virulence. In conclusion

  6. PhAP protease from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125: Gene cloning, recombinant production in E. coli and enzyme characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pascale, D.; Giuliani, M.; De Santi, C.; Bergamasco, N.; Amoresano, A.; Carpentieri, A.; Parrilli, E.; Tutino, M. L.

    2010-08-01

    Cold-adapted proteases have been found to be the dominant activity throughout the cold marine environment, indicating their importance in bacterial acquisition of nitrogen-rich complex organic compounds. However, few extracellular proteases from marine organisms have been characterized so far, and the mechanisms that enable their activity in situ are still largely unknown. Aside from their ecological importance and use as model enzyme for structure/function investigations, cold-active proteolytic enzymes offer great potential for biotechnological applications. Our studies on cold adapted proteases were performed on exo-enzyme produced by the Antarctic marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125. By applying a proteomic approach, we identified several proteolytic activities from its culture supernatant. PhAP protease was selected for further investigations. The encoding gene was cloned and the protein was recombinantly produced in E. coli cells. The homogeneous product was biochemically characterised and it turned out that the enzyme is a Zn-dependent aminopeptidase, with an activity dependence from assay temperature typical of psychrophilic enzymes.

  7. A novel chemokine receptor for SDF-1 and I-TAC involved in cell survival, cell adhesion, and tumor development

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Jennifer M.; Summers, Bretton C.; Wang, Yu; Melikian, Anita; Berahovich, Rob; Miao, Zhenhua; Penfold, Mark E. T.; Sunshine, Mary Jean; Littman, Dan R.; Kuo, Calvin J.; Wei, Kevin; McMaster, Brian E.; Wright, Kim; Howard, Maureen C.; Schall, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    The chemokine stromal cell–derived factor (SDF-1; also known as chemokine ligand 12 [CXCL12]) regulates many essential biological processes, including cardiac and neuronal development, stem cell motility, neovascularization, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. It is generally believed that SDF-1 mediates these many disparate processes via a single cell surface receptor known as chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). This paper characterizes an alternate receptor, CXCR7, which binds with high affinity to SDF-1 and to a second chemokine, interferon-inducible T cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC; also known as CXCL11). Membrane-associated CXCR7 is expressed on many tumor cell lines, on activated endothelial cells, and on fetal liver cells, but on few other cell types. Unlike many other chemokine receptors, ligand activation of CXCR7 does not cause Ca2+ mobilization or cell migration. However, expression of CXCR7 provides cells with a growth and survival advantage and increased adhesion properties. Consistent with a role for CXCR7 in cell survival and adhesion, a specific, high affinity small molecule antagonist to CXCR7 impedes in vivo tumor growth in animal models, validating this new receptor as a target for development of novel cancer therapeutics. PMID:16940167

  8. 50 CFR 648.230 - Catch quotas and other restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management... every 5 years, subject to availability, to determine the total allowable level of landings (TAL)...

  9. The transcription factor Ndt80 does not contribute to Mrr1-, Tac1-, and Upc2-mediated fluconazole resistance in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Sasse, Christoph; Schillig, Rebecca; Dierolf, Franziska; Weyler, Michael; Schneider, Sabrina; Mogavero, Selene; Rogers, P David; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenic yeast Candida albicans can develop resistance to the widely used antifungal agent fluconazole, which inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis, by the overexpression of genes encoding multidrug efflux pumps or ergosterol biosynthesis enzymes. Zinc cluster transcription factors play a central role in the transcriptional regulation of drug resistance. Mrr1 regulates the expression of the major facilitator MDR1, Tac1 controls the expression of the ABC transporters CDR1 and CDR2, and Upc2 regulates ergosterol biosynthesis (ERG) genes. Gain-of-function mutations in these transcription factors result in constitutive overexpression of their target genes and are responsible for fluconazole resistance in many clinical C. albicans isolates. The transcription factor Ndt80 contributes to the drug-induced upregulation of CDR1 and ERG genes and also binds to the MDR1 and CDR2 promoters, suggesting that it is an important component of all major transcriptional mechanisms of fluconazole resistance. However, we found that Ndt80 is not required for the induction of MDR1 and CDR2 expression by inducing chemicals. CDR2 was even partially derepressed in ndt80Δ mutants, indicating that Ndt80 is a repressor of CDR2 expression. Hyperactive forms of Mrr1, Tac1, and Upc2 promoted overexpression of MDR1, CDR1/CDR2, and ERG11, respectively, with the same efficiency in the presence and absence of Ndt80. Mrr1- and Tac1-mediated fluconazole resistance was even slightly enhanced in ndt80Δ mutants compared to wild-type cells. These results demonstrate that Ndt80 is dispensable for the constitutive overexpression of Mrr1, Tac1, and Upc2 target genes and the increased fluconazole resistance of strains that have acquired activating mutations in these transcription factors. PMID:21980509

  10. Endocrine MPA enhances the effects of TAC chemotherapy on improvement of prognosis and increase in long-term survival rates for patients with endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, XIUHONG; WANG, LU; XUE, JUAN; LI, LI; ZHANG, JING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of taxol, adriamycin and carboplatin (TAC) chemotherapy combined with endocrine medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) therapy for the treatment of patients with endometrial cancer. A retrospective analysis of 124 patients with endometrial cancer was performed by dividing the cohort into an experimental and control group. The 64 patients in the experimental group received TAC and MPA chemotherapy, whereas the 60 patients in the control group were treated with TAC chemotherapy only. Tissue samples scraped from the uterus were used to extract the total proteins and RNAs for the western blot and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses, respectively. All the patients were followed up for 20–45 months, during which time prognostic data, and one- to three-year survival rates were recorded and compared. The rate of recurrence or metastasis was significantly lower in the experimental group compared with that in the control group (P<0.05) and the three-year survival rate of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). Furthermore, the mean metastasis-associated 1 (MTA1) protein and RNA expression levels were significantly lower in the experimental group compared with the control group (P<0.05), exhibiting ~30 and ~15% of the levels in the control group, respectively. Therefore, a treatment strategy of TAC chemotherapy combined with endocrine MPA therapy appears to effectively improve the prognosis and increase the long-term survival rates of patients with endometrial cancer. Such an enhancing effect may be mediated by the transcriptional downregulation of MTA1 expression. PMID:26622772

  11. Temperature effects on pitfall catches of epigeal arthropods: a model and method for bias correction.

    PubMed

    Saska, Pavel; van der Werf, Wopke; Hemerik, Lia; Luff, Martin L; Hatten, Timothy D; Honek, Alois; Pocock, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Carabids and other epigeal arthropods make important contributions to biodiversity, food webs and biocontrol of invertebrate pests and weeds. Pitfall trapping is widely used for sampling carabid populations, but this technique yields biased estimates of abundance ('activity-density') because individual activity - which is affected by climatic factors - affects the rate of catch. To date, the impact of temperature on pitfall catches, while suspected to be large, has not been quantified, and no method is available to account for it. This lack of knowledge and the unavailability of a method for bias correction affect the confidence that can be placed on results of ecological field studies based on pitfall data.Here, we develop a simple model for the effect of temperature, assuming a constant proportional change in the rate of catch per °C change in temperature, r, consistent with an exponential Q10 response to temperature. We fit this model to 38 time series of pitfall catches and accompanying temperature records from the literature, using first differences and other detrending methods to account for seasonality. We use meta-analysis to assess consistency of the estimated parameter r among studies.The mean rate of increase in total catch across data sets was 0·0863 ± 0·0058 per °C of maximum temperature and 0·0497 ± 0·0107 per °C of minimum temperature. Multiple regression analyses of 19 data sets showed that temperature is the key climatic variable affecting total catch. Relationships between temperature and catch were also identified at species level. Correction for temperature bias had substantial effects on seasonal trends of carabid catches.Synthesis and Applications. The effect of temperature on pitfall catches is shown here to be substantial and worthy of consideration when interpreting results of pitfall trapping. The exponential model can be used both for effect estimation and for bias correction of observed data. Correcting for temperature

  12. Shrimp by-catch reduction using a short funnel net, in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, South Pacific, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento-Náfate, Saúl; Gil-López, Heldail A; Arroyo, Daisy

    2007-01-01

    Reduction of the by-catch in shrimp fishery is an important goal worldwide. In order to compare by-catch using the conventional trawling net and a newly designed short funnel net, nine cruises were carried out by the commercial fleet operating in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. A total of 480 trawls were done (mean duration: 85 min). The experimental trawls using the modified net produced a 21.13-28.86% by-catch reduction (confidence interval 95%), a 3% increase of shrimp catch, and a significant reduction on net recovery time. PMID:19086393

  13. CATCH/IT: a data warehouse to support comprehensive assessment for tracking community health.

    PubMed Central

    Berndt, D. J.; Hevner, A. R.; Studnicki, J.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic methodology, Comprehensive Assessment for Tracking Community Health (CATCH), for analyzing the health status of communities has been under development at the University of South Florida since the early 1990s. CATCH draws 226 health status indicators from multiple data sources and uses an innovative comparative framework and weighted evaluation criteria to produce a rank-ordered list of community health problems. CATCH has been applied successfully in many Florida counties; focusing attention on high priority health issues and measuring the impact of health expenditures on community health status outcomes. Previously performed manually, we are using information technology (IT) to automate the CATCH methodology with a full-scale data warehouse, user-friendly forms and reports, and extended analysis and data mining capabilities. The automated system, CATCH/IT, will reduce the time to prepare community health status reports from months to days. In this paper, we present the current status of the project, along with the principal research and development issues and future directions of the project. PMID:9929220

  14. An original experiment to determine impact of catch crop introduction in a crop rotation on N2O production fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallec, Tiphaine; Le Dantec, Valérie; Zawilski, Bartosz; Brut, Aurore; Boussac, Marion; Ferlicoq, Morgan; Ceschia, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The raise in N2O concentration from the preindustrial era (280 ppb) to nowadays (324 ppb) is estimated to account for approximately 6% of the predicted global warming (IPCC 2014). Worldwide, soils are considered to be the dominant source of N2O, releasing an estimated 9.5 Tg N2O-N y-1 (65% of global N2O emissions), of which 36.8% are estimated to originate from agricultural soils (IPCC 2001). Most N2O originating from agricultural soils is a by- or end-product of nitrification or denitrification. The fate of N2O produced by microbiological processes in the subsoil is controlled by biotic (crop species, occurring soil organic matter, human pressure via mineral and organic nitrogen fertilisation) and abiotic (environmental conditions such as temperature, soil moisture, pH, etc.) factors. In cropland, contrary to forest and grassland, long bare soil periods can occurred between winter and summer crops with a high level of mineral (fertilizer) and organic (residues) nitrogen remaining in the soil, causing important emissions of carbon and nitrogen induced by microbial activities. Introduction of catch crop has been identified as an important mitigation option to reduce environmental impact of crops mainly thanks to their ability to increase CO2 fixation, to decrease mineral nitrogen lixiviation and also reduce the potential fate of N2O production. Uncertainty also remains about the impact of released mineral nitrogen coming from crushed catch crop on N2O production if summer crop seedling and mineral nitrogen release are not well synchronized. To verify those assumptions, a unique paired-plot experiment was carried in the south-west of France from September 2013 to august 2014 to test impact of management change on N2O budget and production dynamic. A crop plot was divided into two subplots, one receiving a catch crop (mustard), the other one remaining conventionally managed (bare-soil during winter). This set-up allowed avoiding climate effect. Each subplot was

  15. Dynamics of unbinding of cell adhesion molecules: transition from catch to slip bonds.

    PubMed

    Barsegov, V; Thirumalai, D

    2005-02-01

    The unbinding dynamics of complexes involving cell-adhesion molecules depends on the specific ligands. Atomic force microscopy measurements have shown that for the specific P-selectin-P-selectin glycoprotein ligand (sPSGL-1) the average bond lifetime t initially increases (catch bonds) at low (< or =10 pN) constant force, f, and decreases when f > 10 pN (slip bonds). In contrast, for the complex with G1 anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody t monotonically decreases with f. To quantitatively map the energy landscape of such complexes we use a model that considers the possibility of redistribution of population from one force-free state to another force-stabilized bound state. The excellent agreement between theory and experiments allows us to extract energy landscape parameters by fitting the calculated curves to the lifetime measurements for both sPSGL-1 and G1. Surprisingly, the unbinding transition state for P-selectin-G1 complex is close (0.32 nm) to the bound state, implying that the interaction is brittle, i.e., once deformed, the complex fractures. In contrast, the unbinding transition state of the P-selectin-sPSGL-1 complex is far (approximately 1.5 nm) from the bound state, indicative of a compliant structure. Constant f energy landscape parameters are used to compute the distributions of unbinding times and unbinding forces as a function of the loading rate, rf. For a given rf, unbinding of sPSGL-1 occurs over a broader range of f with the most probable f being an order of magnitude less than for G1. The theory for cell adhesion complexes can be used to predict the outcomes of unbinding of other protein-protein complexes. PMID:15701706

  16. Dynamics of unbinding of cell adhesion molecules: Transition from catch to slip bonds

    PubMed Central

    Barsegov, V.; Thirumalai, D.

    2005-01-01

    The unbinding dynamics of complexes involving cell-adhesion molecules depends on the specific ligands. Atomic force microscopy measurements have shown that for the specific P-selectin–P-selectin glycoprotein ligand (sPSGL-1) the average bond lifetime 〈t〉 initially increases (catch bonds) at low (≤10 pN) constant force, f, and decreases when f > 10 pN (slip bonds). In contrast, for the complex with G1 anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody 〈t〉 monotonically decreases with f. To quantitatively map the energy landscape of such complexes we use a model that considers the possibility of redistribution of population from one force-free state to another force-stabilized bound state. The excellent agreement between theory and experiments allows us to extract energy landscape parameters by fitting the calculated curves to the lifetime measurements for both sPSGL-1 and G1. Surprisingly, the unbinding transition state for P-selectin–G1 complex is close (0.32 nm) to the bound state, implying that the interaction is brittle, i.e., once deformed, the complex fractures. In contrast, the unbinding transition state of the P-selectin–sPSGL-1 complex is far (≈ 1.5 nm) from the bound state, indicative of a compliant structure. Constant f energy landscape parameters are used to compute the distributions of unbinding times and unbinding forces as a function of the loading rate, rf. For a given rf, unbinding of sPSGL-1 occurs over a broader range of f with the most probable f being an order of magnitude less than for G1. The theory for cell adhesion complexes can be used to predict the outcomes of unbinding of other protein–protein complexes. PMID:15701706

  17. Synthesis of Seafood Catch, Distribution, and Consumption Patterns in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    SciTech Connect

    Steimle and Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    The purpose of this task was to gather and assemble information that will provide a synthesis of seafood catch, distribution and consumption patterns for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) region. This task was part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project entitled ''Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations.'' Personal interviews were conducted with a total of 905 recreational fishermen and 218 commercial fishermen (inclusive of shrimpers, crabbers, oystermen and finfishermen) in Louisiana and Texas using survey questionnaires developed for the study. Results of these interviews detail the species and quantities caught, location of catch, mode of fishing, distribution of catch, family consumption patterns and demographics of the fishermen.

  18. Test plan for measuring ventilation rates and combustible gas levels in RPP active catch tanks

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    1999-06-03

    The purpose of this test is to provide an initial screening of combustible gas concentrations in catch tanks that currently are operated by River Protection Project (RPP). The data will be used to determine whether or not additional data will be needed for closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. This test will involve field measurements of ammonia, organic vapor, and total combustible gas levels in the headspace of the catch tanks. If combustible gas level in a tank exceeds an established threshold, gas samples will be collected in SUMMA canisters for more extensive laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be measured to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flow through the tanks.

  19. Test plan for measuring ventilation rates and combustible gas levels in TWRS active catch tanks

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    1999-05-20

    The purpose of this test is to provide an initial screening of combustible gas concentrations in catch tanks that currently are operated by Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The data will be used to determine whether or not additional data will be needed for closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. This test will involve field measurements of ammonia, organic vapor, and total combustible gas levels in the headspace of the catch tanks. If combustible gas level in a tank exceeds an established threshold, gas samples will be collected in SUMMA canisters for more extensive laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be measured to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flow through the tanks.

  20. Design of Catch-and-release System by Utilizing Thermo-responsive Gel-Hairpin Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ya; Kuksenok, Olga; He, Ximin; Balazs, Anna

    Inspired by properties of aptamers that can bind (unbind) to target proteins in their specific hairpin (chain) conformation dependent on external temperature, we use computational modeling to design an effective catch-and-release device by attaching an array of thermo-responsive hairpins to the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) thermo-responsive gels. With an increase in temperature, the polymer network swells and the hairpins can catch the target naroparticles in the upper mixture fluid. As the temperature decreases, the polymer network collapses and the hairpins unfold to a chain conformation, releasing the arrested particles into the lower fluid for collection. We pinpoint the optimal values for obtaining the robust structural changes of the hairpins and explore the effects of the shear flow on the catch-and-release process. Our approach can be utilized for the detection, separation, and sorting of the components within the multi-component mixtures.

  1. Realization of Cooperative Behavior for Multiple Mobile Robots on Catching Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kariya, Manabu; Kamano, Takuya; Yasuno, Takashi; Suzuki, Takayuki; Harada, Hironobu; Ogura, Sayaka

    In this paper, the realization of cooperative knowledge for a catching problem of multiple hunter robots and an escaping target is considered. To achieve successful catching, a pincer attack movement between two hunter robots is introduced as the basic cooperation strategy. The pincer attack movement of each hunter robot is described by the fuzzy rules. The fuzzy rules are tuned by genetic algorithm that the hunter robots can realize the pincer attack formation. Furthermore, the indirect approach is discussed in which the tuned fuzzy pincer attack rules are only applied to the nearest pair among the multiple hunter robots. Experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the suitable cooperative movement among the robots is realized and the proposed cooperation scheme is effective to the catching problem.

  2. Tuning mechanical properties of polymer-grafted nanoparticle networks by using biomimetic catch bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbanga, Badel L.; Iyer, Balaji V. S.; Yashin, Victor V.; Balazs, Anna C.

    Cross-linked networks of polymer-grafted nanoparticles (PGNs) constitute a class of composites with tunable mechanical properties that exhibit a self-healing behavior. A PGN network consists of nanoparticles that are decorated with end-grafted polymer chains. Reactive groups on the free ends of these grafted chains can form bonds with the chain ends on the nearby particles. We study these materials using a 3D computational model that encompasses the particle-particle interactions, the kinetics of bond formation and rupture, and the external forces applied to the network. In our model, a fraction of cross-links is formed through biomimetic ``catch'' bonds. In contrast to conventional ``slip'' bonds, catch bonds can effectively become stronger under a deformation. We show that by varying the fraction of these catch bonds in the network, the toughness, ductility, and tensile strength of the material could be tuned to desired levels.

  3. 50 CFR 648.140 - Catch quotas and other restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... otter trawls, pots and traps on the mortality of black sea bass; and any other relevant information. (b...) Restrictions on gear other than otter trawls and pots or traps. (11) Total allowable landings on an...

  4. 5 CFR 591.305 - Allowance rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowance rates. 591.305 Section 591.305 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Allowance Based on Duty at Remote Worksites § 591.305 Allowance rates. (a) General. An allowance rate may not exceed $10 a day....

  5. Efficacy of Electrocuting Devices to Catch Tsetse Flies (Glossinidae) and Other Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Glyn A.; Hargrove, John W.; Cullis, N. Alan; Chamisa, Andrew; Torr, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The behaviour of insect vectors has an important bearing on the epidemiology of the diseases they transmit, and on the opportunities for vector control. Two sorts of electrocuting device have been particularly useful for studying the behaviour of tsetse flies (Glossina spp), the vectors of the trypanosomes that cause sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock. Such devices consist of grids on netting (E-net) to catch tsetse in flight, or on cloth (E-cloth) to catch alighting flies. Catches are most meaningful when the devices catch as many as possible of the flies potentially available to them, and when the proportion caught is known. There have been conflicting indications for the catching efficiency, depending on whether the assessments were made by the naked eye or assisted by video recordings. Methodology/Principal Findings Using grids of 0.5m2 in Zimbabwe, we developed catch methods of studying the efficiency of E-nets and E-cloth for tsetse, using improved transformers to supply the grids with electrical pulses of ~40kV. At energies per pulse of 35–215mJ, the efficiency was enhanced by reducing the pulse interval from 3200 to 1ms. Efficiency was low at 35mJ per pulse, but there seemed no benefit of increasing the energy beyond 70mJ. Catches at E-nets declined when the fine netting normally used became either coarser or much finer, and increased when the grid frame was moved from 2.5cm to 27.5cm from the grid. Data for muscoids and tabanids were roughly comparable to those for tsetse. Conclusion/Significance The catch method of studying efficiency is useful for supplementing and extending video methods. Specifications are suggested for E-nets and E-cloth that are ~95% efficient and suitable for estimating the absolute numbers of available flies. Grids that are less efficient, but more economical, are recommended for studies of relative numbers available to various baits. PMID:26505202

  6. Conservation strategies on citrus plantation in eastern Spain. Catch crops, geotextiles and mulches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Dominguez, Alfons; Giménez Morera, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    Tillage (6 %), and herbicides (89 %) are the most widespread soil management methods in eastern Spain citrus orchards. The bare soils, the high intensity thunderstorms and the steep slopes result in high erosion rates. Over the last 3 years an experimental station has been developed at Montesa municipality in order to determine the effect of different types of mulch, geotextiles and catch crops. Rainfall simulation experiments on 20 m2 plots shown that soil losses can be control by catch crops (85 %), chipped pruned branches (89 %), straw mulch (97 %) and geotextiles (99 %). Then, vegetation can contribute to control the soil and water losses on the highly erodible soil of Mediterranean orchards.

  7. Analytical catch-slip bond model for arbitrary forces and loading rates.

    PubMed

    Bullerjahn, J T; Kroy, K

    2016-01-01

    Some biological bonds exhibit a so-called catch regime, where the bond strengthens with increasing load. We build upon recent advances in slip-bond kinetics to develop an analytically tractable, microscopic catch-slip bond model. To facilitate the analysis of force-spectroscopy data, we calculate the bond's mean lifetime and the rupture-force distribution for static loading and linear force ramps. Our results are applicable for arbitrary forces and loading rates, covering the whole range of conditions found in experiments and all-atom simulations. A generalization to account for force transducers of finite stiffness is also provided. PMID:26871098

  8. Analytical catch-slip bond model for arbitrary forces and loading rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullerjahn, J. T.; Kroy, K.

    2016-01-01

    Some biological bonds exhibit a so-called catch regime, where the bond strengthens with increasing load. We build upon recent advances in slip-bond kinetics to develop an analytically tractable, microscopic catch-slip bond model. To facilitate the analysis of force-spectroscopy data, we calculate the bond's mean lifetime and the rupture-force distribution for static loading and linear force ramps. Our results are applicable for arbitrary forces and loading rates, covering the whole range of conditions found in experiments and all-atom simulations. A generalization to account for force transducers of finite stiffness is also provided.

  9. Influence of moonlight on light trap catches of the malaria vector Anopheles nuneztovari in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Palis, Y

    1992-06-01

    A significant effect (P = 0.002) of moonlight on light trap catches of Anopheles nuneztovari females was observed during a longitudinal study in western Venezuela. The catch with no moon was 1.86 times larger than with full moon. Nevertheless, moonlight does not seem to have any effect on the composition of adult mosquito population since the difference in the parous rate of females collected during full moon and during no moon was not significant (P greater than 0.05). PMID:1431859

  10. Cationic starch (Q-TAC) pre-treatment of cotton fabric: influence on dyeing with reactive dye.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shamshad; Mughal, Mohsin Ali; Shoukat, Umair; Baloch, Mansoor Ali; Kim, Seong Hun

    2015-03-01

    Reactive dyes require high concentrations of an electrolyte to improve dye-fiber interaction, leading to the discharge of harmful effluent. One approach to reduce this unsafe release is treatment of the cotton fabric with cationic chemical reagents. This paper reports on the treatment of cotton fabric with cationic starch (Q-TAC), a commercial product, by batchwise method and pad batch method for the first time prior to reactive dyeing process. Furthermore,three commercial reactive dyes, based on monochloro triazine, vinyl sulfone and monochlorotriazine + vinyl sulfonechemistry, was applied on the cotton fabrics by continuous (pad-dry-cure) method. The treated cotton fabric by batchwise method produced 70% higher color yield (K/S) and 20% enhanced dye fixation (%F) than the untreated cotton fabric. X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) analysis revealed the presence of N1s peaks in the treated cotton fabrics. The crystallinity of treated cotton fabrics was reduced in comparison to untreated cotton fabric as revealed by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) measurements. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) showed that the surface of treated cotton fabrics was rougher than untreated cotton fabric due to the deposition of cationic starch. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum confirmed the existence of quaternary ammonium groups, N(+)(CH3)3, in the treated cotton fabrics. The analysis of color fastness tests demonstrated good to excellent ratings for treated cotton fabrics. In this way, cationic starch treatment of cotton fabric before reactive dyeing process has been proven potentially a more environmentally sustainable method than conventional dyeing method. PMID:25498635

  11. 75 FR 56016 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... established by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod...

  12. 75 FR 64956 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... established by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod...

  13. 75 FR 10441 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... specifications for groundfish of the GOA (74 FR 7333, February 17, 2010) and inseason adjustment (74 FR 68713... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod...

  14. 75 FR 64957 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore...; closure. ] SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific...

  15. 75 FR 63402 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... established by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod...

  16. Meeting the Dietary Goals for School Meals by the Year 2000: The CATCH Eat Smart School Nutrition Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Eat Smart School Nutrition Program, an elementary school health promotion program. The article examines components of the CATCH kitchen visits and intervention materials, including the School Meal Program Guide, Fat and Sodium Criteria, Recipe File Box, Vendor…

  17. 76 FR 44155 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ...NMFS proposes regulations that would implement a catch sharing plan for the guided sport and commercial fisheries for Pacific halibut in waters of International Pacific Halibut Commission (IPHC) Regulatory Areas 2C (Southeast Alaska) and 3A (Central Gulf of Alaska). If approved, this catch sharing plan will change the annual process of allocating halibut between the guided sport and commercial......

  18. 78 FR 75843 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ...NMFS issues regulations to implement a catch sharing plan for the guided sport (charter) and commercial fisheries for Pacific halibut in waters of International Pacific Halibut Commission Regulatory Areas 2C (Southeast Alaska) and 3A (Central Gulf of Alaska). This catch sharing plan replaces the Guideline Harvest Level program, defines an annual process for allocating halibut between the......

  19. 78 FR 39121 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ...NMFS proposes regulations that would implement a catch sharing plan for the guided sport (charter) and commercial fisheries for Pacific halibut in waters of International Pacific Halibut Commission (IPHC) Regulatory Areas 2C (Southeast Alaska) and 3A (Central Gulf of Alaska). If approved, this catch sharing plan will replace the Guideline Harvest Level program, define an annual process for......

  20. Total Catch of a Red-Listed Marine Species Is an Order of Magnitude Higher than Official Data

    PubMed Central

    Kleiven, Alf Ring; Olsen, Esben Moland; Vølstad, Jon Helge

    2012-01-01

    Accurate information on total catch and effort is essential for successful fisheries management. Officially reported landings, however, may be underestimates of total catch in many fisheries. We investigated the fishery for the nationally red-listed European lobster (Homarus gammarus) in south-eastern Norway. Probability-based strip transect surveys were used to count buoys in the study area in combination with catch per unit effort data obtained independently from volunteer catch diaries, phone interviews, and questionnaires. We estimate that recreational catch accounts for 65% of total catch in the study area. Moreover, our results indicate that only a small proportion (24%) of lobsters landed commercially were sold through the legal market and documented. Total estimated lobster catch was nearly 14 times higher than reported officially. Our study highlights the need for adequate catch monitoring and data collection efforts in coastal areas, presents a clear warning to resource managers that illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fisheries in coastal areas should not be ignored, and shows the potential impact of recreational fisheries. PMID:22363583

  1. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(20)-1 - Service performed on a boat engaged in catching fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fish. 31.3121(b)(20)-1 Section 31.3121(b)(20)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... catching fish. (a) In general. (1) Service performed on or after December 31, 1954, by an individual on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life (hereinafter “fish”) are...

  2. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(20)-1 - Service performed on a boat engaged in catching fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fish. 31.3121(b)(20)-1 Section 31.3121(b)(20)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... catching fish. (a) In general. (1) Service performed on or after December 31, 1954, by an individual on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life (hereinafter “fish”) are...

  3. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(20)-1 - Service performed on a boat engaged in catching fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fish. 31.3121(b)(20)-1 Section 31.3121(b)(20)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... catching fish. (a) In general. (1) Service performed on or after December 31, 1954, by an individual on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life (hereinafter “fish”) are...

  4. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(20)-1 - Service performed on a boat engaged in catching fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fish. 31.3121(b)(20)-1 Section 31.3121(b)(20)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... catching fish. (a) In general. (1) Service performed on or after December 31, 1954, by an individual on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life (hereinafter “fish”) are...

  5. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(20)-1 - Service performed on a boat engaged in catching fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... fish. 31.3121(b)(20)-1 Section 31.3121(b)(20)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... catching fish. (a) In general. (1) Service performed on or after December 31, 1954, by an individual on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life (hereinafter “fish”) are...

  6. 76 FR 55343 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Extension of Public Comment Period on Proposed Rule for a Catch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... published regulations at 76 FR 44156, that would implement a catch sharing plan for the guided sport and..., 2011 (76 FR 44156), is extended from September 6, 2011, to September 21, 2011. ADDRESSES: Send comments... Fisheries; Extension of Public Comment Period on Proposed Rule for a Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport...

  7. Spatially explicit estimates of stocks sizes, structure and biomass of herring and blue whiting, and catch data of bluefin tuna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huse, G.; MacKenzie, B. R.; Trenkel, V.; Doray, M.; Nøttestad, L.; Oskarsson, G.

    2014-07-01

    The north Atlantic is a productive marine region which has supported important commercial fisheries for centuries. Many of these fisheries have exploited the pelagic species, including herring, blue whiting and tuna. Here we present data on the distribution of herring and blue whiting based on surveys in the Norwegian Sea, the Bay of Biscay and Celtic Sea. We also present catch data on bluefin tuna, which has been depleted for decades, but historically used to be a key predator on the other pelagic stocks during summer. The results show that there have been substantial changes in the herring and blue whiting distribution during the 1990s and early 2000s. The earliest bluefin tuna catches noted were in 1907. The catches in the Norwegian Sea area peaked in the 1950s and there have been very small catches since the 1980s. The catches in the Mediterranean on the other hand peaked in the late 1990, and had subsequently a strong reduction.

  8. 49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 266.11 Section 266.11... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.11 Allowable costs. Allowable costs include only the following costs which are properly allocable to the work performed: Planning and program operation costs which are allowed under...

  9. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  10. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  11. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  12. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  13. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  14. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-522). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may...

  15. Project Catch: A space based solution to combat illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing. Part I: Vessel monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detsis, Emmanouil; Brodsky, Yuval; Knudtson, Peter; Cuba, Manuel; Fuqua, Heidi; Szalai, Bianca

    2012-11-01

    Space assets have a unique opportunity to play a more active role in global resource management. There is a clear need to develop resource management tools in a global framework. Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported (IUU) fishing is placing pressure on the health and size of fishing stocks around the world. Earth observation systems can provide fishery management organizations with cost effective monitoring of large swaths of ocean. Project Catch is a fisheries management project based upon the complimentary, but independent Catch-VMS and Catch-GIS systems. Catch-VMS is a Vessel Monitoring System with increased fidelity over existing offerings. Catch-GIS is a Geographical Information System that combines VMS information with existing Earth Observation data and other data sources to identify Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported (IUU) fishing. Project Catch was undertaken by 19 Masters students from the 2010 class of the International Space University. In this paper, the space-based system architecture of Project Catch is presented and analyzed. The rationale for the creation of the system, as well as the engineering trade-off studies in its creation, are discussed. The Catch-VMS proposal was envisaged in order to address two specific problems: (1) the expansion of illegal fishing to high-latitude regions where existing satellite systems coverage is an issue and (2) the lack of coverage in remote oceanic regions due to reliance on coastal-based monitoring. Catch-VMS utilizes ship-borne transponders and hosted-payload receivers on a Global Navigation Satellite System in order to monitor the position and activity of compliant fishing vessels. Coverage is global and continuous with multiple satellites in view providing positional verification through multilateration techniques. The second part of the paper briefly describes the Catch-GIS system and investigates its cost of implementation.

  16. 50 CFR 622.49 - Annual catch limits (ACLs) and accountability measures (AMs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Annual catch limits (ACLs) and accountability measures (AMs). 622.49 Section 622.49 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures...

  17. 50 CFR 622.280 - Annual catch limits (ACLs) and accountability measures (AMs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery Off the Atlantic States § 622.280 Annual catch limits (ACLs) and accountability measures (AMs). (a) Atlantic dolphin—(1) Commercial sector. (i) If commercial landings for Atlantic dolphin, as estimated by the SRD, reach or are projected to reach...

  18. 50 CFR 622.280 - Annual catch limits (ACLs) and accountability measures (AMs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery Off the Atlantic States § 622.280 Annual catch limits (ACLs) and accountability measures (AMs). (a) Atlantic dolphin—(1) Commercial sector. If commercial landings for Atlantic dolphin, as estimated by the SRD, reach or are projected to reach...

  19. 50 CFR 679.32 - Groundfish and halibut CDQ catch monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Groundfish and halibut CDQ catch monitoring. 679.32 Section 679.32 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... § 679.32, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of...

  20. Catching up to College and Career Readiness in Arkansas. ACT Research Report Series. 2014 (3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Chrys; Hiserote, Linda; Shaw, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    This report focuses on the extent to which students who are academically far off track in fourth or eighth grade in Arkansas catch up by eighth or eleventh and twelfth grades. We studied two recent cohorts of Arkansas students whose eighth-grade ACT Explore® scores were more than one standard deviation below the ACT Explore Benchmark scores…

  1. To Catch a Thief with a Recognition Test: The Model and Some Empirical Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakover, Sam S.; Cahlon, Baruch

    1989-01-01

    A technique and mathematical model--the "Catch Model"--for identifying a face previously seen are presented. Three experiments, involving a total of 38 American and 30 Israeli college students, supported the model for identification of a target face. Practical implications are discussed. (SLD)

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: STORMWATER SOURCE AREA TREATMENT DEVICE - STORMWATER MANAGEMENT INC., CATCH BASIN STORMFILTER®

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Stormwater Management CatchBasin StormFilter® (CBSF) was conducted on a 0.16 acre drainage basin at the City of St. Clair Shores, Michigan Department of Public Works facility. The four-cartridge CBSF consists of a storm grate and filter chamber inlet b...

  3. Pilot-Testing CATCH Early Childhood: A Preschool-Based Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shreela; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Hedberg, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The literature on theoretically-based programs targeting healthy nutrition and physical activity in preschools is scarce. Purpose: To pilot test CATCH Early Childhood (CEC), a preschool-based nutrition and physical activity program among children ages three to five in Head Start. Methods: The study was conducted in two Head Start…

  4. Catch up Numeracy: A Targeted Intervention for Children Who Are Low-Attaining in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Wayne; Dowker, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Many children who would not be identified as having special educational needs are low-attaining in mathematics, which often has a severe impact on their progress at school and their successes in later life. This paper describes Catch Up Numeracy, a non-intensive targeted intervention for children who are low-attaining in mathematics, which is…

  5. To catch a comet 2: Technical update on CAN-DO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    Since the presentation of, To Catch a Comet, was given at the last G.A.S. Symposium, many events have impacted the CAN-DO Comet Halley program. This paper summarizes the changes to the payload and its mission, including improvements in camera control and CAN-DO's participation in the Halley Armada.

  6. The PS 200 catching trap: A new tool for ultra-low energy antiproton physics

    SciTech Connect

    Holzscheiter, M.H.; Dyer, P.L.; King, N.S.P.; Lizon, D.C.; Morgan, G.L.; Schauer, M.M.; Schecker, J.A.; Hoibraten, S.; Lewis, R.A.; Otto, T.; Rochet, J.

    1994-04-01

    Approximately one million antiprotons have been trapped and electron cooled in the PS200 catching trap from a single fast extracted pulse from LEAR. The system is described in detail, different extraction schemes are discussed, and possible applications of this instrument to ultra-low energy atomic and nuclear physics with antiprotons are mentioned.

  7. Affirmative Action in Higher Education in India: Targeting, Catch Up, and Mismatch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisancho, Veronica; Krishna, Kala

    2016-01-01

    Using detailed data on the 2008 graduating class from an elite engineering institution in India, we evaluate the impact of affirmative action policies in higher education focusing on three issues: targeting, catch up, and mismatch. We find that admission preferences effectively target minority students who are poorer than average displaced…

  8. 50 CFR 679.32 - Groundfish and halibut CDQ catch monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Groundfish and halibut CDQ catch monitoring. 679.32 Section 679.32 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Western Alaska...

  9. 50 CFR 679.32 - Groundfish and halibut CDQ catch monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Western Alaska Community Development Quota Program § 679.32 Groundfish and halibut.... Time and area closures required once a CDQ group has reached its salmon PSQ or crab PSQ are listed in § 679.7(d)(5). The catch of salmon or crab by vessels using other than trawl gear does not accrue to...

  10. A Drosera-bioinspired hydrogel for catching and killing cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Shihui; Chen, Niancao; Gaddes, Erin R; Zhang, Xiaolong; Dong, Cheng; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A variety of bioinspired materials have been successfully synthesized to mimic the sophisticated structures or functions of biological systems. However, it is still challenging to develop materials with multiple functions that can be performed synergistically or sequentially. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate a novel bioinspired hydrogel that can interact with cancer cells, functionally similar to Drosera in catching and killing prey. This hydrogel had two layers with the top one functionalized with oligonucleotide aptamers and the bottom one functionalized with double-stranded DNA. The results show that the top hydrogel layer was able to catch target cells with high efficiency and specificity, and that the bottom hydrogel layer could sequester doxorubicin (Dox) for sustained drug release. Importantly, the released Dox could kill 90% of the cells after 1-h residence of the cells on the hydrogel. After the cell release, this bifunctional hydrogel could be regenerated for continuous cell catching and killing. Therefore, the data presented in this study has successfully demonstrated the potential of developing a material system with the functions of attracting, catching and killing diseased cells (e.g., circulating tumor cells) or even invading microorganisms (e.g., bacteria). PMID:26396063

  11. 50 CFR 648.230 - Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Limits (ACLs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES... commercial spiny dogfish fishery, which shall equal to the domestic ABC (i.e., the ABC minus Canadian catch... is exceeded with a frequency greater than 25 percent (i.e., more than once in 4 years or any...

  12. 50 CFR 648.70 - Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch Limit (ACL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch... Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.70 Surfclam and ocean quahog... ocean quahog fisheries, which shall be equal to the ABCs recommended by the SSC. (1) Sectors....

  13. 50 CFR 648.71 - Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch Targets (ACT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch... Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.71 Surfclam and ocean quahog... management uncertainty to recommend ACTs to the MAFMC as part of the surfclam and ocean quahog...

  14. 50 CFR 648.71 - Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch Targets (ACT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch... Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.71 Surfclam and ocean quahog... management uncertainty to recommend ACTs to the MAFMC as part of the surfclam and ocean quahog...

  15. 50 CFR 648.71 - Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch Targets (ACT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch... Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.71 Surfclam and ocean quahog... management uncertainty to recommend ACTs to the MAFMC as part of the surfclam and ocean quahog...

  16. 50 CFR 648.70 - Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch Limit (ACL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch... Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.70 Surfclam and ocean quahog... ocean quahog fisheries, which shall be equal to the ABCs recommended by the SSC. (1) Sectors....

  17. 50 CFR 648.70 - Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch Limit (ACL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch... Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.70 Surfclam and ocean quahog... ocean quahog fisheries, which shall be equal to the ABCs recommended by the SSC. (1) Sectors....

  18. 26 CFR 1.414(v)-1 - Catch-up contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Catch-up contributions. 1.414(v)-1 Section 1.414(v)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(v)-1...

  19. 26 CFR 1.414(v)-1 - Catch-up contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Catch-up contributions. 1.414(v)-1 Section 1.414(v)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(v)-1...

  20. 26 CFR 1.414(v)-1 - Catch-up contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Catch-up contributions. 1.414(v)-1 Section 1.414(v)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(v)-1...

  1. Spatial and temporal variation in artisanal catches of dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus off north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, M F; Kinas, P G; Lessa, R; Ferrandis, E

    2015-02-01

    The sampling of fish from the artisanal fleet operating with surface lines off north-eastern Brazil was carried out between 1998 and 2000. Generalized linear models (GLMs) were used to standardize mean abundance indices using catch and fishing effort data on dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus and to identify abundance trends in time and space, using 1215 surface line deployments. A standard relative abundance index (catch per unit effort, CPUE) was estimated for the most frequent vessels used in the sets, employing factors and coefficients generated in the GLMs. According to the models, C. hippurus catches are affected by the operating characteristics and power of different fishing vessels. These differences highlight the need for standardization of catch and effort data for artisanal fisheries. The highest mean abundance values for C. hippurus were off the state of Rio Grande do Norte, with an increasing tendency in areas with greater depths and more distant from the coast, reaching maximal values in areas whose depths range from 200 to 500 m. The highest mean abundance values occurred between April and June. The higher estimated abundance of C. hippurus in this period off the state of Rio Grande do Norte and within the 200-500 m depth range may be related to a migration pattern of food sources, as its main prey, the flying fish Hirundichthys affinis, uses floating algae as refuge and to deposit its pelagic eggs. PMID:27500372

  2. 76 FR 7155 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Announcement of Billfish and Swordfish Catch Card Pilot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ...Accurate information is vital to NMFS' efforts to manage highly migratory species (HMS). In an effort to improve the accuracy of recreational billfish and swordfish landings data, NMFS will pilot test a new catch card program in Puerto Rico in 2011. Recreational HMS Angling category, HMS Charter Headboat category, and General category (participating in a tournament) permit holders will be......

  3. Spatial-temporal dynamics of stable fly (Diptera:muscidae) trap catches in eastern Nebraska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatial and temporal relationships among catches of adult stable flies on sticky traps in eastern Nebraska were evaluated. Twenty-five alsynite sticky traps were placed in a 5 × 5 grid with ˜1.6 km intervals in a mixed agricultural environment from 2003 to 2011. Denser grids of 45-90 traps were impl...

  4. 50 CFR 679.32 - Groundfish and halibut CDQ catch monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Groundfish and halibut CDQ catch monitoring. 679.32 Section 679.32 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Western Alaska...

  5. Evaluating potential sources of variation in Chironomidae catch rates on sticky traps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joshua T.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.; Kennedy, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Sticky traps are a convenient tool for assessing adult aquatic insect population dynamics, but there are many practical questions about how trap sampling artefacts may affect observed results. Utilising study sites on the Colorado River and two smaller streams in northern Arizona, USA, we evaluated whether catch rates and sex ratios of Chironomidae, a ubiquitous aquatic insect, were affected by spraying traps with insecticide, placing traps at different heights above ground, and placing traps at different locations within a terrestrial habitat patch. We also evaluated temporal variation in Chironomidae counts monthly over a 9-month growing season. We found no significant variation in catch rates or sex ratios between traps treated versus untreated with insecticide, nor between traps placed at the upstream or downstream end of a terrestrial habitat patch. Traps placed near ground level did have significantly higher catch rates than traps placed at 1.5 m, although sex ratios were similar across heights. Chironomidae abundance and sex ratios also varied from month-to-month and seemed to be related to climatic conditions. Our results inform future sticky trap studies by demonstrating that trap height, but not insecticide treatment or precise trap placement within a habitat patch, is an important source of variation influencing catch rates.

  6. Why are prices in wild catch and aquaculture industries so different?

    PubMed

    Villasante, Sebastián; Rodríguez-González, David; Antelo, Manel; Rivero-Rodríguez, Susana; Lebrancón-Nieto, Joseba

    2013-12-01

    Through a comparative analysis of prices in capture fisheries and aquaculture sectors, the objectives of this paper are a) to investigate three the trends in prices of forage catches to feed the aquaculture species, b) to analyze the amount of fish species need to feed aquaculture species in order to assess the level of efficiency in resource use, and c) to examine the degree of economic concentration either in wild-catch industry and aquaculture sectors. The results show that prices of cultivated species are higher than prices of the same species when harvested from the sea. We explain this fact by the interplay of three forces. First, the amount of wild fish to feed aquaculture species continues to improve over time. Second, the pressure of fishing activities has not been reduced since catches of most forage fishes are declining, which induce higher prices of capture species that feed aquaculture production. Third, the level of seafood market concentration is significantly higher in aquaculture than in wild catches, which generates higher prices in aquaculture. PMID:24213993

  7. 50 CFR 679.84 - Rockfish Program recordkeeping, permits, monitoring, and catch accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rockfish Program recordkeeping, permits, monitoring, and catch accounting. 679.84 Section 679.84 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE...

  8. 50 CFR 679.84 - Rockfish Program recordkeeping, permits, monitoring, and catch accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rockfish Program recordkeeping, permits, monitoring, and catch accounting. 679.84 Section 679.84 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE...

  9. 50 CFR 679.93 - Amendment 80 Program recordkeeping, permits, monitoring, and catch accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amendment 80 Program recordkeeping, permits, monitoring, and catch accounting. 679.93 Section 679.93 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE...

  10. 50 CFR 679.93 - Amendment 80 Program recordkeeping, permits, monitoring, and catch accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amendment 80 Program recordkeeping, permits, monitoring, and catch accounting. 679.93 Section 679.93 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE...

  11. Designing I*CATch: A Multipurpose, Education-Friendly Construction Kit for Physical and Wearable Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngai, Grace; Chan, Stephen C. F.; Leong, Hong Va; Ng, Vincent T. Y.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the design and development of i*CATch, a construction kit for physical and wearable computing that was designed to be scalable, plug-and-play, and to provide support for iterative and exploratory learning. It consists of a standardized construction interface that can be adapted for a wide range of soft textiles or electronic…

  12. Microbiological status of broiler respiratory tracts before and after feed withdrawal during catching

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant point of entry for Salmonella into a processing plant is within the broilers to be processed. Prior to transport to the processing plant, feed is withdrawn from the broilers for 4 h on the farm, then birds are caught and cooped. During catching, an increased presence of litter dust in ...

  13. A Drosera-bioinspired hydrogel for catching and killing cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shihui; Chen, Niancao; Gaddes, Erin R.; Zhang, Xiaolong; Dong, Cheng; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A variety of bioinspired materials have been successfully synthesized to mimic the sophisticated structures or functions of biological systems. However, it is still challenging to develop materials with multiple functions that can be performed synergistically or sequentially. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate a novel bioinspired hydrogel that can interact with cancer cells, functionally similar to Drosera in catching and killing prey. This hydrogel had two layers with the top one functionalized with oligonucleotide aptamers and the bottom one functionalized with double-stranded DNA. The results show that the top hydrogel layer was able to catch target cells with high efficiency and specificity, and that the bottom hydrogel layer could sequester doxorubicin (Dox) for sustained drug release. Importantly, the released Dox could kill 90% of the cells after 1-h residence of the cells on the hydrogel. After the cell release, this bifunctional hydrogel could be regenerated for continuous cell catching and killing. Therefore, the data presented in this study has successfully demonstrated the potential of developing a material system with the functions of attracting, catching and killing diseased cells (e.g., circulating tumor cells) or even invading microorganisms (e.g., bacteria). PMID:26396063

  14. Differential magnetic catch and release: Separation, purification, and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles and particle assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beveridge, Jacob S.

    Magnetic nanoparticles uniquely combine superparamagnetic behavior with dimensions that are smaller than or the same size as molecular analytes. The integration of magnetic nanoparticles with analytical methods has opened new avenues for sensing, purification, and quantitative analysis. Applied magnetic fields can be used to control the motion and properties of magnetic nanoparticles; in analytical chemistry, use of magnetic fields provides methods for manipulating and analyzing species at the molecular level. The ability to use applied magnetic fields to control the motion and properties of magnetic nanoparticles is a tool for manipulating and analyzing species at the molecular level, and has led to applications including analyte handing, chemical sensors, and imaging techniques. This is clearly an area where significant growth and impact in separation science and analysis is expected in the future. In Chapter 1, we describe applications of magnetic nanoparticles to analyte handling, chemical sensors, and imaging techniques. Chapter 2 reports the purification and separation of magnetic nanoparticle mixtures using the technique developed in our lab called differential magnetic catch and release (DMCR). This method applies a variable magnetic flux orthogonal to the flow direction in an open tubular capillary to trap and controllably release magnetic nanoparticles. Magnetic moments of 8, 12, and 17 nm diameter CoFe2O4 nanoparticles are calculated using the applied magnetic flux density and experimentally determined force required to trap 50% of the particle sample. Balancing the relative strengths of the drag and magnetic forces enable separation and purification of magnetic CoFe2 O4 nanoparticle samples with < 20 nm diameters. Samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy to determine the average size and size dispersity of the sample population. DMCR is further demonstrated to be useful for separation of a magnetic nanoparticle mixture, resulting

  15. The Impact of Escaped Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) on Catch Statistics in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Green, Darren M.; Penman, David J.; Migaud, Herve; Bron, James E.; Taggart, John B.; McAndrew, Brendan J.

    2012-01-01

    In Scotland and elsewhere, there are concerns that escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) may impact on wild salmon stocks. Potential detrimental effects could arise through disease spread, competition, or inter-breeding. We investigated whether there is evidence of a direct effect of recorded salmon escape events on wild stocks in Scotland using anglers' counts of caught salmon (classified as wild or farmed) and sea trout (Salmo trutta L.). This tests specifically whether documented escape events can be associated with reduced or elevated escapes detected in the catch over a five-year time window, after accounting for overall variation between areas and years. Alternate model frameworks were somewhat inconsistent, however no robust association was found between documented escape events and higher proportion of farm-origin salmon in anglers' catch, nor with overall catch size. A weak positive correlation was found between local escapes and subsequent sea trout catch. This is in the opposite direction to what would be expected if salmon escapes negatively affected wild fish numbers. Our approach specifically investigated documented escape events, contrasting with earlier studies examining potentially wider effects of salmon farming on wild catch size. This approach is more conservative, but alleviates some potential sources of confounding, which are always of concern in observational studies. Successful analysis of anglers' reports of escaped farmed salmon requires high data quality, particularly since reports of farmed salmon are a relatively rare event in the Scottish data. Therefore, as part of our analysis, we reviewed studies of potential sensitivity and specificity of determination of farmed origin. Specificity estimates are generally high in the literature, making an analysis of the form we have performed feasible. PMID:22970132

  16. Physiological response of some economically important freshwater salmonids to catch-and-release fishing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, G.A.; Wydoski, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Catch-and-release fishing regulations are widely used by fishery resource managers to maintain both the quantity and quality of sport fish populations. We evaluated blood chemistry disturbances in wild brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, brown trout Salmo trutta, cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii, and Arctic grayling Thymallus arcticus that had been hooked and played for 1-5 min in waters of the intermountain western United States. A hatchery stock of brown trout was included for comparison. To assess time needed for recovery, additional test groups were played for 5 min and then released into net-pens, where they were held for up to 72 h. The osmoregulatory and metabolic disturbances associated with catch-and-release fishing under the conditions we tested were minimal and judged to be well within normal physiological tolerance limits. In fish that were held for recovery, the blood chemistry alterations that did occur appeared to be related to stress from confinement in the net-pens. Our results confirm the results of previous studies, showing that prerelease air exposure and handling cause more physiological stress than does either hooking per se or playing time. Fishery managers must be aware of the differences in the perceptions, attitudes, and values of different societal groups, some of which feel that catch-and-release fishing should be banned because it is cruel to the animals. On the basis of brain anatomy, it seems highly unlikely that fish experience pain in the same manner as humans experience it, because fish lack a neocortex, the brain structure that enables the sensation of pain in higher vertebrates. However, independent of the neurobiological argument, our results indicate that under conditions similar to those tested, fish subjected to catch and release are neither suffering nor particularly stressed. Improved education programs about the relatively benign physiological effects of catch-and-release fishing as a fishery management practice would

  17. Selectin catch-slip kinetics encode shear threshold adhesive behavior of rolling leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Beste, Michael T; Hammer, Daniel A

    2008-12-30

    The selectin family of leukocyte adhesion receptors is principally recognized for mediating transient rolling interactions during the inflammatory response. Recent studies using ultrasensitive force probes to characterize the force-lifetime relationship between P- and L-selectin and their endogenous ligands have underscored the ability of increasing levels of force to initially extend the lifetime of these complexes before disrupting bond integrity. This so-called "catch-slip" transition has provided an appealing explanation for shear threshold phenomena in which increasing levels of shear stress stabilize leukocyte rolling under flow. We recently incorporated catch-slip kinetics into a mechanical model for cell adhesion and corroborated this hypothesis for neutrophils adhering via L-selectin. Here, using adhesive dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that biomembrane force probe measurements of various P- and L-selectin catch bonds faithfully predict differences in cell adhesion patterns that have been described extensively in vitro. Using phenomenological parameters to characterize the dominant features of molecular force spectra, we construct a generalized phase map that reveals that robust shear-threshold behavior is possible only when an applied force very efficiently stabilizes the bound receptor complex. This criteria explains why only a subset of selectin catch bonds exhibit a shear threshold and leads to a quantitative relationship that may be used to predict the magnitude of the shear threshold for families of catch-slip bonds directly from their force spectra. Collectively, our results extend the conceptual framework of adhesive dynamics as a means to translate complex single-molecule biophysics to macroscopic cell behavior. PMID:19095798

  18. Muskie Lunacy: Does the Lunar Cycle Influence Angler Catch of Muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?

    PubMed Central

    Vinson, Mark R.; Angradi, Ted R.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ≈5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge. PMID:24871329

  19. The impact of escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) on catch statistics in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Green, Darren M; Penman, David J; Migaud, Herve; Bron, James E; Taggart, John B; McAndrew, Brendan J

    2012-01-01

    In Scotland and elsewhere, there are concerns that escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) may impact on wild salmon stocks. Potential detrimental effects could arise through disease spread, competition, or inter-breeding. We investigated whether there is evidence of a direct effect of recorded salmon escape events on wild stocks in Scotland using anglers' counts of caught salmon (classified as wild or farmed) and sea trout (Salmo trutta L.). This tests specifically whether documented escape events can be associated with reduced or elevated escapes detected in the catch over a five-year time window, after accounting for overall variation between areas and years. Alternate model frameworks were somewhat inconsistent, however no robust association was found between documented escape events and higher proportion of farm-origin salmon in anglers' catch, nor with overall catch size. A weak positive correlation was found between local escapes and subsequent sea trout catch. This is in the opposite direction to what would be expected if salmon escapes negatively affected wild fish numbers. Our approach specifically investigated documented escape events, contrasting with earlier studies examining potentially wider effects of salmon farming on wild catch size. This approach is more conservative, but alleviates some potential sources of confounding, which are always of concern in observational studies. Successful analysis of anglers' reports of escaped farmed salmon requires high data quality, particularly since reports of farmed salmon are a relatively rare event in the Scottish data. Therefore, as part of our analysis, we reviewed studies of potential sensitivity and specificity of determination of farmed origin. Specificity estimates are generally high in the literature, making an analysis of the form we have performed feasible. PMID:22970132

  20. Muskie Lunacy: does the lunar cycle influence angler catch of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?

    PubMed

    Vinson, Mark R; Angradi, Ted R

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ≈5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge. PMID:24871329

  1. 75 FR 6588 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock for American Fisheries Act Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock for American Fisheries Act Catcher Vessels in the Inshore Open Access... catcher vessels participating in the inshore open access fishery in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering... season allowance of the 2010 pollock total allowable catch (TAC) allocated to the inshore open...

  2. 75 FR 12463 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the A season allowance of the 2010 Pacific cod allowable catch (TAC) specified for catcher vessels using trawl gear in the...

  3. 76 FR 20891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ...NMFS is opening directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (BSAI). This action is necessary to fully use the B season allowance of the 2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific cod allocated to catcher vessels using trawl gear in the...

  4. 76 FR 18663 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the B season allowance of the 2011 Pacific cod allowable catch (TAC) specified for catcher vessels using trawl gear in the...

  5. 75 FR 55288 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the C season allowance of the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in the...

  6. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... clothing allowance; multiple types of garments affected. A veteran is entitled to an annual clothing...) Two clothing allowances; single type of garment affected. A veteran is entitled to two annual...

  7. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... clothing allowance; multiple types of garments affected. A veteran is entitled to an annual clothing...) Two clothing allowances; single type of garment affected. A veteran is entitled to two annual...

  8. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... clothing allowance; multiple types of garments affected. A veteran is entitled to an annual clothing...) Two clothing allowances; single type of garment affected. A veteran is entitled to two annual...

  9. 45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1157.22 Section 1157.22 Public... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  10. 50 CFR 85.41 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable Federal cost principles in 43 CFR 12.60(b). Purchase of informational signs, program signs, and... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 85.41 Section 85.41... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.41 Allowable costs. (a) Allowable grant costs are limited to those...

  11. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items are... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21...

  12. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1180.56 Section 1180.56 Public... by a Grantee General Administrative Responsibilities § 1180.56 Allowable costs. (a) Determination of costs allowable under a grant is made in accordance with government-wide cost principles in...

  13. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that are proper...

  14. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs...

  15. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... organizations, is to be determined in accordance with: (1) The for-profit cost principles in 48 CFR parts 31 and.... (3) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part 74... Financial and Program Management § 34.17 Allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined...

  16. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid in accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  17. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... organizations, is to be determined in accordance with: (1) The for-profit cost principles in 48 CFR parts 31 and.... (3) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part 74... Financial and Program Management § 34.17 Allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined...

  18. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those requirements as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained in paragraph (b) of this... CFR part 207. (c) Pre-award costs. FEMA may fund eligible pre-award planning or project costs at...

  19. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those requirements as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained in paragraph (b) of this... CFR part 207. (c) Pre-award costs. FEMA may fund eligible pre-award planning or project costs at...

  20. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid in accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  1. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs....

  2. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs....

  3. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  4. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  5. 20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable activities. 632.258 Section 632.258 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable activities. Allowable activities are...

  6. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  7. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  8. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that...

  9. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  10. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items are... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21...

  11. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education... costs. (a)(1) Allowable and unallowable costs. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, costs reasonably related to carrying out the programs described in § 675.32 are allowable. (2)...

  12. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education... costs. (a)(1) Allowable and unallowable costs. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, costs reasonably related to carrying out the programs described in § 675.32 are allowable. (2)...

  13. 45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1157.22 Section 1157.22 Public... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  14. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items are... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21...

  15. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  16. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  17. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  18. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  19. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  20. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  1. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  2. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  3. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  4. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  5. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  6. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs....

  7. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  8. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those requirements as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained in paragraph (b) of this... CFR part 207. (c) Pre-award costs. FEMA may fund eligible pre-award planning or project costs at...

  9. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs....

  10. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid in accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  11. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those requirements as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained in paragraph (b) of this... CFR part 207. (c) Pre-award costs. FEMA may fund eligible pre-award planning or project costs at...

  12. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs....

  13. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those requirements as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained in paragraph (b) of this... CFR part 207. (c) Pre-award costs. FEMA may fund eligible pre-award planning or project costs at...

  14. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  15. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  16. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  17. Terrestrial vegetation and aquatic chemistry influence larval mosquito abundance in catch basins, Chicago, USA

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An important determinant of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission is the spatial distribution of vectors. The primary vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) in Illinois are Culex pipiens Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex restuans Theobald. In urban environments, these mosquitoes commonly oviposit in roadside storm water catch basins. However, use of this habitat is inconsistent, with abundance of larvae varying significantly across catch basins at a fine spatial scale. Methods We tested the hypothesis that attributes of the biotic and abiotic environment contribute to spatial and temporal variation in production of mosquito vectors, characterizing the relationship between terrestrial vegetation and aquatic chemistry and Culex abundance in Chicago, Illinois. Larvae were sampled from 60 catch basins from June 14 to October 3, 2009. Density of shrubs and 14 tree genera surrounding the basins were quantified, as well as aquatic chemistry content of each basin. Results We demonstrate that the spatial pattern of Culex abundance in catch basins is strongly influenced by environmental characteristics, resulting in significant variation across the urban landscape. Using regression and machine learning techniques, we described landscape features and microhabitat characteristics of four Chicago neighborhoods and examined the implications of these measures for larval abundance in adjacent catch basins. The important positive predictors of high larval abundance were aquatic ammonia, nitrates, and area of shrubs of height <1 m surrounding the catch basins, whereas pH and area of flowering shrub were negatively correlated with larval abundance. Tree density, particularly of arborvitae, maple, and pear, also positively influenced the distribution of Culex during the fruit-bearing periods and early senescent periods in August and September. Conclusions This study identifies environmental predictors of mosquito production in urban environments. Because an abundance of

  18. Effects of Catch-and-Release Angling on Salmonids at Elevated Water Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, James W.; Guy, Christopher S.; Horton, Travis; Leathe, Steven A.

    2010-08-01

    Few studies have assessed catch and release mortality of salmonids at water temperatures ≥23°C, despite predictions of warming stream temperatures due to climate change. In addition, the effects of diel temperature fluctuations on salmonid mortality have largely been ignored in catch and release angling studies. The primary objective of this study was to measure catch and release mortality of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, brown trout Salmo trutta, and mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni in three water temperature treatments; when daily maximum water temperatures were cool (<20°C), warm (20 to 22.9°C), and hot ( 23°C). A secondary objective was to assess catch and release mortality of salmonids angled in morning and evening within water-temperature treatments. These objectives were related to Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks’ Drought Fishing Closure Policy (DFCP). Angling (fly-fishing only) occurred in the Gallatin and Smith rivers. All angled fish were confined to in-stream holding cages and monitored for mortality for 72 h. Mortality of rainbow trout peaked at 16% in the Gallatin River and 9% in the Smith River during the hot treatment. Mortality of brown trout was less than 5% in all water-temperature treatments in both rivers. Mountain whitefish mortality peaked at 28% in the hot treatment in the Smith River. No mortality for any species occurred in either river when daily maximum water temperatures were <20°C. Mortality of rainbow trout peaked at 16% in the evening hot treatment in the Smith River. Mortality of brown trout and mountain whitefish was not related to time of day. The catch and release mortality values presented here likely represent fishing mortality given that most anglers in southwest Montana practice catch and release angling. The mortality values we observed were lower than predicted (< 30%), given reports in the literature. The difference is likely related to the in situ nature of the study and periods of cooler water

  19. Neurokinin B-related Peptide Suppresses the Expression of GnRH I, Kiss2 and tac3 in the Brain of Mature Female Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ye Hwa; Park, Jin Woo; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kwon, Joon Yeong

    2016-01-01

    Neurokinin B (NKB) and neurokinin B related peptide (NKBRP) belong to tachykinin peptide family. Theyact as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator. Mutation of NKB and/or its cognate receptor, NK3R resulted in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in mammals, implying a strong involvement of NKB/NK3R system in controlling mammalian reproduction. Teleosts possess NKBRP as well as NKB, but their roles in fish reproduction need to be clarified. In this study, NKB and NKBRP coding gene (tac3) was cloned from Nile tilapia and sequenced. Based on the sequence, Nile tilapia NKB and NKBRP peptide were synthesized and their biological potencies were tested in vitro pituitary culture. The synthetic NKBRP showed direct inhibitory effect on the expression of GTH subunits at the pituitary level. This inhibitory effect was confirmed in vivo by means of intraperitoneal (ip) injection of synthetic NKB and NKBRP to mature female tilapia (20 pmol/g body weight [BW]). Both NKB and NKBRP had no effect on the plasma level of sex steroids, E2 and 11-KT. However, NKBRP caused declines of expression level of GnRH I, Kiss2 and tac3 mRNAs in the brain while NKB seemed to have no distinct effect. These results indicate some inhibitory roles of NKBRP in reproduction of mature female Nile tilapia, although their exact functions are not clear at the moment. PMID:27294210

  20. Neurokinin B-related Peptide Suppresses the Expression of GnRH I, Kiss2 and tac3 in the Brain of Mature Female Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ye Hwa; Park, Jin Woo; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kwon, Joon Yeong

    2016-03-01

    Neurokinin B (NKB) and neurokinin B related peptide (NKBRP) belong to tachykinin peptide family. Theyact as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator. Mutation of NKB and/or its cognate receptor, NK3R resulted in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in mammals, implying a strong involvement of NKB/NK3R system in controlling mammalian reproduction. Teleosts possess NKBRP as well as NKB, but their roles in fish reproduction need to be clarified. In this study, NKB and NKBRP coding gene (tac3) was cloned from Nile tilapia and sequenced. Based on the sequence, Nile tilapia NKB and NKBRP peptide were synthesized and their biological potencies were tested in vitro pituitary culture. The synthetic NKBRP showed direct inhibitory effect on the expression of GTH subunits at the pituitary level. This inhibitory effect was confirmed in vivo by means of intraperitoneal (ip) injection of synthetic NKB and NKBRP to mature female tilapia (20 pmol/g body weight [BW]). Both NKB and NKBRP had no effect on the plasma level of sex steroids, E2 and 11-KT. However, NKBRP caused declines of expression level of GnRH I, Kiss2 and tac3 mRNAs in the brain while NKB seemed to have no distinct effect. These results indicate some inhibitory roles of NKBRP in reproduction of mature female Nile tilapia, although their exact functions are not clear at the moment. PMID:27294210