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Sample records for allowable daily intake

  1. Restricting daily time at pasture at low and high pasture allowance: effects on pasture intake and behavioral adaptation of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ramírez, E; Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R

    2009-07-01

    In pasture-based dairy systems, daily time at pasture is restricted during several periods of the year. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of restricting time at pasture on milk yield, pasture dry matter (DM) intake, and grazing behavior of dairy cows according to pasture allowance (PA), which partly defines pasture availability. The experiment was carried out in spring on strip-grazed perennial ryegrass pastures. The 6 treatments consisted of 3 durations of daily time at pasture [U: unrestricted day and night grazing (22 h at pasture); R9: 1 grazing session restricted to 9 h between the 2 milkings; R5: 2 grazing sessions of 2.75 h after each milking) compared at low and high PA (13 and 24 kg of DM/d per cow >5 cm, respectively). Eighteen mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were used according to a 6 x 4 incomplete Latin square design replicated 3 times with four 14-d periods. Pasture DM intake was measured by the ytterbium-fecal index method and grazing behavior from portable devices. On average, restricting time at pasture from U to R (mean of R5 + R9) decreased pasture intake by 2.9 kg of DM, milk yield by 1.3 kg, and milk protein concentration by 0.11%, and increased milk fat concentration by 0.20%. Pasture intake and milk yield did not differ significantly between R9 and R5. The reduction of pasture intake and milk yield with decreasing time at pasture was greater at high compared with low PA. Grazing times were 536, 414, and 305 min, representing proportions of time spent grazing of 0.40, 0.77, and 0.93 for treatments U, R9, and R5, respectively. The reduction of grazing time with decreasing time at pasture was greater at high compared with low PA. Pasture intake rate greatly increased with decreasing time at pasture, but mainly on R5 (29.8, 31.6, and 42.1 g of DM/min for U, R9, and R5, respectively). The effect of time at pasture on pasture intake rate was unaffected by PA. In conclusion, the effect of restriction of time at pasture on

  2. Estimation of daily micronutrient intake of Filipinos.

    PubMed

    Natera, Erlinda; Trinidad, Trinidad; Valdez, Divina; Kawamura, Hisao; Palad, Lorna; Shiraishi, Kunio

    2002-09-01

    The Fourth National Nutrition Survey of the Food and Nutrition Research Institute conducted in 1993 showed an increasing prevalence of micronutrient-related diseases in various age groups. Hence, the daily diet consumed by the average Filipino was examined for its nutrient content. A total of 19 regional diet samples were collected and analyzed for phosphorous, iron, zinc, magnesium, manganese, calcium, potassium, and sodium by using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Iodine was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Benchmark data for the abovementioned micronutrients showed decreased intake values as compared to the recommended dietary allowance established in 1989. The information will be useful in assessing the existing nutritional status so that appropriate nutrient interventions can possibly be put in place. PMID:12362801

  3. Acceptable daily intake vs actual intake: the aspartame example.

    PubMed

    Butchko, H H; Kotsonis, F N

    1991-06-01

    This article discusses the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and the postmarketing surveillance of consumption levels for a food additive, using the widely used food additive aspartame (APM, L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) as an example. The safety implications of the ADI and consumption levels are also discussed. Aspartame has been assigned an ADI of 40 mg/kg/day by the World Health Organization and regulatory authorities in Europe and Canada, and of 50 mg/kg/day by the US Food and Drug Administration. A number of different methods have been used to measure consumption levels of food additives. Consumption estimations for aspartame from one such method, the food intake survey, have been done in the United States, Canada, Germany, and Finland. APM consumption in all age groups and selected subpopulations, even at the 90th percentile, is approximately 2-10 mg/kg/day and is thus well below the ADI.

  4. Heavy metals in common foodstuff: Daily intake

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoumbaris, P.; Tsoukali-Papadopoulou, H. )

    1994-07-01

    Lately, toxic effects of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd) as well as desirable ones of some others (Ni, Mn, Zn) have been a field of thorough investigation. The main way of human body fortification in metals is through foodchain depending on the kind and quantity of the consumed food, according to dietary habits. The purpose of this study is the calculation of metals daily intake through common foodstuff of Greek inhabitants. The calculation is based on results from quantitative analysis of Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Zn in common foodstuff from the market of the city of Thessaloniki. The daily food consumption data is derived from three sources: (a) answers to a questionnaire distributed to families of the city of Thessaloniki, (b) nutrition data provided by the Agricultural Bank of Greece and (c) nutrition data according to international bibliography.

  5. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin, Xiu-Jing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-08-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ((232)Th, (228)Th, (230)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, and (40)K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: (232)Th, 0.00-0.23; (228)Th, 0.00-2.04; (230)Th, 0.00-0.26; (228)Ra, 0.02-2.73; (226)Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and (40)K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 muSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was (40)K. These values were same level compiled in other countries.

  6. Optimal fluid intake in daily diet: Avicenna's view.

    PubMed

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Tafazoli, Vahid; Daneshfard, Babak; Zare, Manijhe

    2016-07-01

    Adequate daily water consumption is an important factor of keeping regular homeostasis. However, the best quantity of daily water consumption for a healthy individual is not virtually stated in the literature. Despite the dearth of evidence-based recommendations, it is commonly thought that ingesting eight glasses of water a day is good for a healthy person. Avicenna had a unique viewpoint. He believed that daily water intake depended on numerous elements together with age, intercourse, body temperament, season, occupation and various internal and external elements. He also cited a few essential and useful measures regarding proper water consumption, which have additionally been emphasized in Islamic hadiths. PMID:27417170

  7. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake estimate in Greece.

    PubMed

    Bratakos, Sotirios M; Lazou, Andriana E; Bratakos, Michael S; Lazos, Evangelos S

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium content of foods, as well as dietary aluminium intake of the Greek adult population, was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave sample digestion and food consumption data. Al content ranged from 0.02 to 741.2 mg kg⁻¹, with spices, high-spice foods, cereal products, vegetables and pulses found to be high in Al. Differences in aluminium content were found between different food classes from Greece and those from some other countries. Aluminium intake of Greeks is 3.7 mg/day based on DAFNE Food Availability Databank, which uses data from the Household Budget Surveys. On the other hand, according to the per capita food consumption data collected by both national and international organisations, Al intake is 6.4 mg day⁻¹. Greek adult population has an Al intake lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of 7 mg kg⁻¹ body weight established by EFSA. Cereals and vegetables are the main Al contributors, providing 72.4% of daily intake.

  8. Estimation of daily human intake of food flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Mullie, Patrick; Clarys, Peter; Deriemaeker, Peter; Hebbelinck, Marcel

    2008-06-01

    The daily intake of food flavonoids was determined using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 4-day food record (4DFR) in a group of 45 female Flemish dietitians. The subjects were asked to report their food intake three times: day 1 using the FFQ (FFQ1); between days 2 and 13 using a 4-day non-consecutive food diary (4DFR); and again using the FFQ on day 14 (FFQ2). The total flavonoid intakes (mean and standard deviation) as estimated with the different methods were: for FFQ1, 166.0 +/- 146.6 mg/day; for 4DFR, 203.0 +/- 243.2 mg/day; and for FFQ2, 158.3 +/- 151.8 mg/day. There was a significant different estimate for the amount of flavan-3-ols, flavanones and flavones when comparing the two FFQs with the 4DFR. The two research methods classified 88% of the 45 dietitians in the same or in an adjacent quartile for total flavonoid intake. The findings of this study indicate that the developed FFQ seems to be a simple and reliable method to assign subjects in quartiles of flavonoid intake.

  9. Acceptable daily intake and the regulation of intense sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Renwick, A G

    1990-01-01

    At the present time there are four intense sweeteners that are available in a number of countries: acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin. Extensive toxicity databases are available on each sweetener and these have been assessed by both national and international regulatory authorities. This review considers briefly the critical toxicity of each sweetener that is the basis for establishing the no adverse effect level in animal studies. The calculation of an acceptable daily intake (ADI) for human intake employs a large safety factor applied to the no-effect level. The magnitude of the safety factor for each sweetener is discussed in relation to the ADI values recommended by the Scientific Committee for Food in 1985.

  10. Daily intake of trace metals through coffee consumption in India.

    PubMed

    Suseela, B; Bhalke, S; Kumar, A V; Tripathi, R M; Sastry, V N

    2001-02-01

    The trace element contents of five varieties of instant coffee powder available in the Indian market have been analysed. Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sr, Zn and Pb, Cd, Cu have been determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, respectively. The metal levels in the coffee powders observed in this study are comparable with those reported for green coffe beans (Arabica and Robusta variety) reported worldwide with the exception of Sr and Zn, which were on the lower side of the reported values. Concentrations of these metals have been converted into intake figures based on coffee consumption. The daily intakes of the above metals through ingestion of coffee are 1.4 mg, 1.58 microg, 124 microg, 41.5 mg, 4.9 mg, 17.9 microg, 2.9 microg, 3.8 microg, 12.5 microg, 0.2 microg, 0.03 microg and 15.5 microg, respectively. The values, which were compared with the total dietary, intake of metals through ingestion by the Mumbai population, indicate that the contribution from coffee is less than or around 1% for most of the elements except for Cr and Ni which are around 3%. PMID:11288908

  11. Estimated daily intake of Fe, Cu, Ca and Zn through common cereals in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Kashian, S; Fathivand, A A

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the findings of study undertaken to estimate the dietary intake of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) through common cereals in Tehran, Iran. 100 samples of rice, wheat and barley were collected from various brands between August and October 2013. The samples were analyzed performing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The dietary intake for adults was estimated by a total cereal study. Calculations were carried out on the basis of the reported adults' average food consumption rate data. The total daily intake estimated in mgd(-1) for Tehran population were 3.6 (Fe), 10.2 (Zn), 0.3 (Cu) and 234.5 (Ca). Wheat showed the highest contribution to Zn, Cu and Ca intakes. Furthermore, intakes were compared with recommended dietary allowance (RDA). Zn total intake (10.2mgd(-1)) was comparable with RDA values for males (11mgd(-1)) and was higher than recommended value for females (8mgd(-1)). The intakes of other studied elements were below the respective RDAs. PMID:25624223

  12. Wooden hutch space allowance influences male Holstein calf health, performance, daily lying time, and respiratory immunity.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Lorenzo, M S; Hulbert, L E; Fowler, A L; Louie, A; Gershwin, L J; Pinkerton, K E; Ballou, M A; Klasing, K C; Mitloehner, F M

    2016-06-01

    Dairy calves in the western United States are commonly raised individually in wooden hutches with a space allowance of 1.23m(2)/calf. Recent legislative initiatives in California and across the United States were passed regarding concern over space allowance for farm animals. The objective of this study was to determine if rearing male Holstein calves in wooden hutches modified to increase space allowance would influence measures of performance, lying time per day, health, and respiratory immunocompetence. At 4d of age, 60 calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3housing treatments: (1) conventional housing (CONV; 1.23m(2)/calf), (2) 1.5 × CONV (MOD; 1.85m(2)/calf), or (3) 3 × CONV (MAX; 3.71m(2)/calf). Intakes of milk and solid feed were recorded daily and body weight was measured at 0, 3, 6, 10, and 12 wk of age. For the first 3 wk of the trial, calves were scored daily for fecal consistency, hydration, and hide cleanliness. In addition, calves were scored for respiratory health (i.e., nasal and eye discharge, ear position) until 7 wk of age. The total lying duration per day was recorded using data loggers at 3, 6, and 10 wk of age. Eight clinically healthy calves from each treatment were sensitized with subcutaneous ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with aerosolized OVA to assess calf respiratory immunity at 11 wk of age. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected 4d after the OVA challenge and analyzed for leukocyte differentials and OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, IgA, and IgE. Calf average daily gain and body weight were positively associated with space allowance at approximately 3 wk before weaning and throughout postweaning, respectively. A greater space allowance decreased lying time after 46d. Space allowance did not influence fecal consistency, but there was a tendency for MAX calves to take 1d longer to recover from loose feces than MOD calves. The MAX calves had the fewest (%) observations with feces on their body compared with CONV or MOD. At 3 wk of

  13. When, how much and what foods are eaten are related to total daily food intake.

    PubMed

    de Castro, John M

    2009-10-01

    Intake in the morning is associated with a reduction in the total intake for the day, while intake at night is associated with greater overall daily intake. These associations are macronutrient specific, with morning carbohydrate intake associated with reduced daily carbohydrate intake, morning fat intake associated with reduced daily fat intake and morning protein intake associated with reduced daily protein intake. Since different types of foods contain differing proportions of macronutrients, the present study investigated the associations of different types of foods ingested at various times of day with total daily and macronutrient intakes. The intakes of 388 male and 621 female free-living individuals reported in 7 d diet diaries were reanalysed. The intakes of twenty-four different types of foods and seven different drinks occurring during the morning (04.00-10.29 hours), afternoon (10.30-16.59 hours) and evening (17.00-02.00 hours) were identified and related to overall daily intakes. Dairy foods, ice cream, beef, other meats, potatoes, pastry, nuts, chips and snacks, condiments, alcohol and soda were significantly associated with higher total intake over the day, while fruit, soup, breakfast cereal, pasta, pizza, water, coffee/tea and diet soda were either not associated or were associated with lower overall intake. Dietary energy density appeared to mediate the associations between particular foods and beverages and overall energy intake. This suggests that eating low-density foods in the morning and avoiding high-density foods at night might aid in reducing overall intake and may be useful in dietary interventions for overweight and obesity.

  14. Zeaxanthin: Review of Toxicological Data and Acceptable Daily Intake.

    PubMed

    Edwards, James A

    2016-01-01

    Zeaxanthin is a nutritional carotenoid with a considerable amount of safety data based on regulatory studies, which form the basis of its safety evaluation. Subchronic OECD guideline studies with mice and rats receiving beadlet formulations of high purity synthetic zeaxanthin in the diet at dosages up to 1000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day, and in dogs at over 400 mg/kg bw/day, produced no adverse effects or histopathological changes. In developmental toxicity studies, there was no evidence of fetal toxicity or teratogenicity in rats or rabbits at dosages up to 1000 or 400 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Formulated zeaxanthin was not mutagenic or clastogenic in a series of in vitro and in vivo tests for genotoxicity. A 52-week chronic oral study in Cynomolgus monkeys at doses of 0.2 and 20 mg/kg bw/day, mainly designed to assess accumulation and effects in primate eyes, showed no adverse effects. In a rat two-generation study, the NOAEL was 150 mg/kg bw/day. In 2012, this dosage was used by EFSA (NDA Panel), in association with a 200-fold safety factor, to propose an Acceptable Daily Intake equivalent to 53 mg/day for a 70 kg adult. The requested use level of 2 mg/day was ratified by the EU Commission. PMID:26885380

  15. Zeaxanthin: Review of Toxicological Data and Acceptable Daily Intake

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Zeaxanthin is a nutritional carotenoid with a considerable amount of safety data based on regulatory studies, which form the basis of its safety evaluation. Subchronic OECD guideline studies with mice and rats receiving beadlet formulations of high purity synthetic zeaxanthin in the diet at dosages up to 1000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day, and in dogs at over 400 mg/kg bw/day, produced no adverse effects or histopathological changes. In developmental toxicity studies, there was no evidence of fetal toxicity or teratogenicity in rats or rabbits at dosages up to 1000 or 400 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Formulated zeaxanthin was not mutagenic or clastogenic in a series of in vitro and in vivo tests for genotoxicity. A 52-week chronic oral study in Cynomolgus monkeys at doses of 0.2 and 20 mg/kg bw/day, mainly designed to assess accumulation and effects in primate eyes, showed no adverse effects. In a rat two-generation study, the NOAEL was 150 mg/kg bw/day. In 2012, this dosage was used by EFSA (NDA Panel), in association with a 200-fold safety factor, to propose an Acceptable Daily Intake equivalent to 53 mg/day for a 70 kg adult. The requested use level of 2 mg/day was ratified by the EU Commission. PMID:26885380

  16. Polyamines: total daily intake in adolescents compared to the intake estimated from the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations Objectified (SNO)

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed Atiya; Poortvliet, Eric; Strömberg, Roger; Yngve, Agneta

    2011-01-01

    Background Dietary polyamines have been shown to give a significant contribution to the body pool of polyamines. Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in different foods and the contribution of daily food choice to polyamine intake is of interest, due to the association of these bioactive amines to health and disease. Objective To estimate polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake in adolescents compared to a diet fulfilling the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. Design A cross-sectional study of dietary intake in adolescents and an ‘ideal diet’ (Swedish nutrition recommendations objectified [SNO]) list of foods was used to compute polyamine intake using a database of polyamine contents of foods. For polyamine intake estimation, 7-day weighed food records collected from 93 adolescents were entered into dietetic software (Dietist XP) including data on polyamine contents of foods. The content of polyamines in foods recommended according to SNO was entered in the same way. Results The adolescents' mean daily polyamine intake was 316±170 µmol/day, while the calculated contribution according to SNO was considerably higher with an average polyamine intake of 541 µmol/day. In both adolescent's intake and SNO, fruits contributed to almost half of the total polyamine intake. The reason why the intake among the adolescents was lower than the one calculated from SNO was mainly due to the low vegetable consumption in the adolescents group. Conclusions The average daily total polyamine intake was similar to that previously reported in Europe. With an ‘ideal’ diet according to Swedish nutrition recommendations, the intake of this bioactive non-nutrient would be higher than that reported by our adolescents and also higher than that previously reported from Europe. PMID:21249160

  17. Urinary excretion and daily intake rates of diethyl phthalate in the general Canadian population.

    PubMed

    Saravanabhavan, Gurusankar; Walker, Mike; Guay, Mireille; Aylward, Lesa

    2014-12-01

    We have analyzed the trends in the body-weight-adjusted urinary monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations and the diethyl ethyl phthalate (DEP) daily intake estimates in the general Canadian population (aged 6-49 years) using the Canadian Health Measures Survey 2007-2009 dataset. The creatinine correction approach, as well as the urine volume approach in a simple one compartment model were used to calculate the daily urinary MEP excretion rates and DEP intake rates in individual survey participants. Using multiple regression models, we have estimated least square geometric means (LSGMs) of body-weight-adjusted MEP concentration, daily excretion and intake rates among different age groups and sex. We observed that body weight affects the trends in the MEP concentrations significantly among children (aged 6-11 years), adolescents (aged 12-19 years) and adults (aged 20-49 years). The body-weight-adjusted MEP concentrations in children were significantly higher than those in adults. On the other hand the DEP daily intakes in children were significantly lower than those in adults. We did not observe any differences in the DEP daily intake rates between males and females. Although the urinary MEP concentrations are correlated well with DEP daily intake estimates in the overall population, one should be cautious when directly using the urinary concentrations to compare the intake trends in the sub-populations (e.g. children vs. adults) as these trends are governed by additional physiological factors. The DEP daily intake calculated using the creatinine approach and that using the urine volume approach were similar to each other. The estimated geometric mean and 95th percentile of DEP daily intake in the general Canadian population are 2 and 20 μg/kg-bw/day, respectively. These daily intake estimates are significantly lower than the US Environmental Protection Agency's oral reference dose of 800 μg/kg-bw/day. PMID:25217994

  18. Validity and Reliability of an Estimated Daily Intake Scale for Fat

    PubMed Central

    Privitera, Gregory J.; Freeman, Chanel S.

    2012-01-01

    The reliability and validity of an Estimated Daily Intake Scale for Fat (EDIS-F) used to measure daily intake of fat in a participant’s diet was tested. A Cronbach’s alpha was used to determine the reliability of the EDIS-F. To determine the validity of this scale, scores on this scale were correlated with known factors related to daily intake of fat (e.g., ratings of liking for a high fat food and the body mass index score of participants). A 13-item EDIS-F was shown to be reliable, and scores on the EDIS-F significantly correlated with ratings of liking for a high fat cream cheese cracker and BMI, but not with gender, consistent with the assertion that this scale measures daily intake of fat. Implications for using this scale are discussed. PMID:22980149

  19. Daily mercury intake in fish-eating populations in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Passos, Carlos José Sousa; Da Silva, Delaine Sampaio; Lemire, Mélanie; Fillion, Myriam; Guimarães, Jean Rémy Davée; Lucotte, Marc; Mergler, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Although high levels of fish consumption and bioindicators of mercury exposure have been reported for traditional populations in the Amazon, little is known about their actual daily intake of Hg. Using an ecosystem approach, calculate daily mercury intake in adult fish-eaters, examine the relations between mercury intake and bioindicators of exposure and the factors that influence these relations. A cross-sectional dietary survey on fish and fruit consumption frequency was carried out with 256 persons from six villages of the Tapajós River. Fish portion per meal was determined. Mercury concentration was determined for 1123 local fish specimens. Daily mercury intake (microg/kg/day) was determined for men and women from each village using the average fish-mercury concentration for the fish caught in their fishing zone, the average quantity of fish per meal, fish-species frequency consumption and participants' body weight. Fish-mercury averaged 0.33 microg/g+/-0.33. Daily mercury intake varied between 0 and 11.8 microg/kg/day (mean 0.92 microg/kg/day+/-0.89) and varied by gender and village. Mean blood- and hair-mercury were 58.7+/-36.1 microg/l and 17.9+/-11.5 microg/g, respectively. There was a strong and positive relation between blood-mercury and daily mercury intake, with an inverse relation for fruit intake and schooling; significant variations were observed with immigrant status, and among villages. Hair-mercury was directly associated with daily mercury intake and inversely related to schooling and fruit consumption. Fruit consumption modified the relation between daily mercury intake and blood-mercury levels: for the same daily mercury intake, persons eating more fruit had lower blood-mercury concentrations (ANCOVA Interaction term: F=10.9, P<0.0001). The median difference of the ratio of blood-mercury to daily mercury intake between low and high fruit consumers was 26, representing a 26.3% reduction. These findings reveal high levels of daily mercury intake

  20. Children's Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Associations with Maternal Intake and Child Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV…

  1. Cadmium content in rice and its daily intake in various countries

    SciTech Connect

    Rivai, Ida Farida; Koyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Shosuke )

    1990-06-01

    Man ingests cadmium daily from foods and beverages. The major source of cadmium intake is rice for rice eating countries. Cadmium in rice comes from soil via rice plant roots. Rice may thus be the best indicator for the environmental monitoring of cadmium especially in rice eating countries. It is also easy to sample, transport and conserve. Several recent surveys on cadmium content in rice and daily cadmium intake have been reported. However, little data are available on geographical differences in daily cadmium intake from rice. The tolerable weekly intake for cadmium as proposed by FAO/WHO is 400-500 micrograms/person or 57-71 micrograms/day/person weighing 70 kg. Ninety two percent of world rice production is from the Asia-Pacific region, from which samples were obtained for the present study. The following countries were included: India, China, Bangladesh, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Japan, and Korea. This study was conducted to determine cadmium content in rice from the above countries and based on the data obtained, daily cadmium intake from rice and the total daily cadmium intake were calculated.

  2. Daily salt intake estimated by overnight urine collections indicates a high cardiovascular disease risk in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yokokawa, Hirohide; Yuasa, Motoyuki; Nedsuwan, Supalert; Moolphate, Saiyud; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Tsutomu; Minematsu, Kazuo; Tanimura, Susumu; Marui, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study (February 2012 to March 2013) was conducted to estimate daily salt intake and basic characteristics among 793 community-dwelling participants at high risk of cardiovascular disease (Framingham risk score >15%), who had visited diabetes or hypertension clinics at health centres in the Muang district, Chiang Rai, Thailand. We performed descriptive analysis of baseline data and used an automated analyser to estimate the average of 24-hour salt intake estimated from 3 days overnight urine collection. Participants were divided into two groups based on median estimated daily salt intake. Mean age and proportion of males were 65.2 years and 37.6% in the higher salt intake group (>=10.0 g/day, n=362), and 67.5 years and 42.7% in the lower salt intake group (<10.0 g/day, n=431), respectively (p=0.01, p<0.01). The higher salt intake group comprised more patients with a family history of hypertension, antihypertensive drug use, less ideal body mass index (18.5-24.9), higher exercise frequency (>=2 times weekly) and lower awareness of high salt intake. Among higher salt intake participants, those with lower awareness of high salt intake were younger and more often had a family history of hypertension, relative to those with more awareness. Our data indicated that families often share lifestyles involving high salt intake, and discrepancies between actual salt intake and awareness of high salt intake may represent a need for salt reduction intervention aiming at family level. Awareness of actual salt intake should be improved for each family. PMID:26965760

  3. Estimated daily intake of phenolics and antioxidants from green tea consumption in the Korean diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bong Han; Nam, Tae Gyu; Park, Na Young; Chun, Ock K; Koo, Sung I; Kim, Dae-Ok

    2016-01-01

    To estimate daily intake of total phenolics and flavonoids from green tea and the contribution of green tea to the antioxidant intake from the Korean diet, 24 commercial brands of green tea were selected and analyzed. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 and 2011 indicate that the green tea consumption in these 2 years was 2.8 g/tea drinker/day and 2.9 g/tea drinker/day, respectively. Based on data derived from direct measurements of green tea phenolics and the dataset of the 2008 KNHANES, we estimated the daily per tea drinker phenolics intake to be 172 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE), the total flavonoids to be 43 mg catechin equivalents (CE) and the total antioxidants to be 267 mg vitamin C equivalents (VCE; 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and 401 mg VCE (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assay). In 2011, we estimated the daily per tea drinker total phenolics intake to be 246 mg GAE, the total flavonoids to be 60 mg CE and the antioxidants to be 448 mg VCE (DPPH assay) and 630 mg VCE (ABTS assay). The daily intake of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidants from green tea consumption increased from 2008 to 2011. PMID:26940374

  4. Randomized, comparative study of the efficacy and safety of artesunate plus amodiaquine, administered as a single daily intake versus two daily intakes in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Ndiaye, Jean Louis A; Faye, Babacar; Diouf, Amadou M; Kuété, Thomas; Cisse, Moustapha; Seck, Papa A; Brasseur, Phillipe; Same-Ekobo, Albert; Lameyre, Valerie; Gaye, Oumar

    2008-01-01

    Background Artesunate plus amodiaquine is a coblistered ACT, given as a single daily intake. It has been suggested that, in view of the number of tablets to be taken (particularly in adults), it may be possible to improve compliance by allowing patients to divide the daily dose. The objectives of this randomized, comparative, open-label, multicentre study, conducted in Senegal and in Cameroon in 2005, was to demonstrate the non-inferiority and to compare the safety of artesunate plus amodiaquine, as a single daily intake versus two daily intakes. Methods A three-day treatment period and 14-day follow-up period was performed in any subject weighting more than 10 kg, presenting with a malaria paroxysm confirmed by parasitaemia ≥ 1,000/μl, after informed consent. Patients were randomly allocated into one of the two regimens, with dosage according to bodyweight range. All products were administered by an authorized person, blinded to both the investigating physician and the biologist. The primary endpoint was an adequate response to treatment on D14 (WHO definition). The two-sided 90% confidence interval of the difference was calculated on intent to treat (ITT) population; the acceptance limit for non-inferiority was 3%. The safety was evaluated by incidence of adverse events. Results Three-hundred and sixteen patients were included in the study. The two patient groups were strictly comparable on D0. The adequate responses to treatment were similar for the two treatment regimens on D14, PCR-corrected (99,4% in the one-daily intake group versus 99,3% in the comparative group). The statistical analyses demonstrated the non-inferiority of administering artesunate/amodiaquine as two intakes. The drug was well tolerated. The main adverse events were gastrointestinal disorders (2.5%) and pruritus (2.5%); safety profiles were similar in the two groups. Conclusion This pilot study confirms the efficacy and good tolerability of artesunate plus amodiaquine, administrated

  5. Characteristics of U.S. Adults with Usual Daily Folic Acid Intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, Angela M.; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Guo, Jing; Carriquiry, Alicia; Berry, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration mandated that by 1998, all enriched cereal grain products (ECGP) be fortified with folic acid in order to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. The Institute of Medicine established the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid (1000 µg/day for adults) in 1998. We characterized U.S. adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL. Using NHANES 2003–2010 data, we estimated the percentage of 18,321 non-pregnant adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, and among them, we calculated the weighted percentage by sex, age, race/ethnicity, sources of folic acid intake, supplement use and median usual daily folic acid intakes. Overall, 2.7% (standard error 0.6%) of participants had usual daily intake exceeding the UL for folic acid; 62.2% were women; 86.3% were non-Hispanic whites; and 98.5% took supplements containing folic acid. When stratified by sex and age groups among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, 20.8% were women aged 19–39 years. Those with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL were more likely to be female, non-Hispanic white, supplement users or to have at least one chronic medical condition compared to those not exceeding the folic acid UL. Among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL who also took supplements, 86.6% took on average >400 µg of folic acid/day from supplements. Everyone with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL consumed folic acid from multiple sources. No one in our study population had usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL through consumption of mandatorily-fortified enriched cereal grain products alone. Voluntary consumption of supplements containing folic acid is the main factor associated with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL. PMID:27043623

  6. Characteristics of U.S. Adults with Usual Daily Folic Acid Intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Angela M; Yeung, Lorraine F; Guo, Jing; Carriquiry, Alicia; Berry, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration mandated that by 1998, all enriched cereal grain products (ECGP) be fortified with folic acid in order to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. The Institute of Medicine established the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid (1000 µg/day for adults) in 1998. We characterized U.S. adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL. Using NHANES 2003-2010 data, we estimated the percentage of 18,321 non-pregnant adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, and among them, we calculated the weighted percentage by sex, age, race/ethnicity, sources of folic acid intake, supplement use and median usual daily folic acid intakes. Overall, 2.7% (standard error 0.6%) of participants had usual daily intake exceeding the UL for folic acid; 62.2% were women; 86.3% were non-Hispanic whites; and 98.5% took supplements containing folic acid. When stratified by sex and age groups among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, 20.8% were women aged 19-39 years. Those with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL were more likely to be female, non-Hispanic white, supplement users or to have at least one chronic medical condition compared to those not exceeding the folic acid UL. Among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL who also took supplements, 86.6% took on average >400 µg of folic acid/day from supplements. Everyone with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL consumed folic acid from multiple sources. No one in our study population had usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL through consumption of mandatorily-fortified enriched cereal grain products alone. Voluntary consumption of supplements containing folic acid is the main factor associated with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL.

  7. Characteristics of U.S. Adults with Usual Daily Folic Acid Intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Angela M; Yeung, Lorraine F; Guo, Jing; Carriquiry, Alicia; Berry, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration mandated that by 1998, all enriched cereal grain products (ECGP) be fortified with folic acid in order to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. The Institute of Medicine established the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid (1000 µg/day for adults) in 1998. We characterized U.S. adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL. Using NHANES 2003-2010 data, we estimated the percentage of 18,321 non-pregnant adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, and among them, we calculated the weighted percentage by sex, age, race/ethnicity, sources of folic acid intake, supplement use and median usual daily folic acid intakes. Overall, 2.7% (standard error 0.6%) of participants had usual daily intake exceeding the UL for folic acid; 62.2% were women; 86.3% were non-Hispanic whites; and 98.5% took supplements containing folic acid. When stratified by sex and age groups among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, 20.8% were women aged 19-39 years. Those with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL were more likely to be female, non-Hispanic white, supplement users or to have at least one chronic medical condition compared to those not exceeding the folic acid UL. Among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL who also took supplements, 86.6% took on average >400 µg of folic acid/day from supplements. Everyone with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL consumed folic acid from multiple sources. No one in our study population had usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL through consumption of mandatorily-fortified enriched cereal grain products alone. Voluntary consumption of supplements containing folic acid is the main factor associated with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL. PMID:27043623

  8. Daily intake of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead by consumption of edible marine species.

    PubMed

    Falcó, Gemma; Llobet, Juan M; Bocio, Ana; Domingo, José L

    2006-08-01

    The daily intake of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) through the consumption of 14 edible marine species by the general population of Catalonia, Spain, was estimated. Health risks derived from this intake were also assessed. In March-April 2005, samples of sardine, tuna, anchovy, mackerel, swordfish, salmon, hake, red mullet, sole, cuttlefish, squid, clam, mussel, and shrimp were randomly acquired in six cities of Catalonia. Concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were determined by ICP-MS. On the basis of recent fish and seafood consumption data, the daily intake of these elements was calculated for eight age/sex groups of the population. The highest As concentrations were found in red mullet, 16.6 microg/g of fresh weight, whereas clam and mussel (0.14 and 0.13 microg/g of fresh weight, respectively) were the species with the highest Cd levels. In turn, swordfish (1.93 microg/g of fresh weight) and mussel and salmon (0.15 and 0.10 microg/g of fresh weight) showed the highest concentrations of Hg and Pb, respectively. The highest metal intake through fish and seafood consumption corresponded to As (217.7 microg/day), Cd (1.34 microg/day), and Pb (2.48 microg/day) for male seniors, whereas that of Hg was observed in male adults (9.89 microg/day). The daily intake through fish and seafood consumption of these elements was compared with the provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWI). The intakes of As, Cd, Pb, and total Hg by the population of Catalonia were below the respective PTWI values. However, the estimated intake of methylmercury for boys, 1.96 microg/kg/week, was over the PTWI.

  9. Daily Copper and Manganese Intakes and Their Relation to Blood Pressure in Normotensive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeon-Kyung; Lyu, Eun-Soon; Oh, Se-Young; Park, Hae-Ryun; Ro, Hee-Kyong; Heo, Young-Ran; Hyun, Taisun

    2015-01-01

    Although it has been proposed that trace minerals have anti-oxidative functions and are related to the control of blood pressure, only a limited number of studies directly address the issue. Thus, the purpose of our study was to assess the intake of copper and manganese, which are trace minerals, and to clarify their relation to blood pressure. In a cross-sectional study, the blood pressure of 640 normotensive adults, from 19 to 69 year-old (320 males and 320 females), was measured, and its correlation with the intake of copper and manganese was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall method. The average value of the blood pressure was 126.4/80.2 mmHg for the males and 117.8/75.8 mmHg for the females. The daily copper intake was 1.3 mg/day for the males and 1.2 mg/day for the females. For manganese, the daily intake was 4.2 mg/day for the males and 4.1 mg/day for the females. Although the copper intake of all subjects showed a positive correlation with the systolic and diastolic blood pressures, there was no significant correlation when the potential confounding factors were adjusted. The manganese intake of the male subjects had a significantly negative correlation with the systolic blood pressure after adjusting for gender, age, body mass index, and energy intake. In conclusion, the daily manganese intake of the normotensitve adults showed a significantly negative correlation with the systolic blood pressure indicating a possibility of a positive effect of manganese on blood pressure. PMID:26566521

  10. Beverages contribute extra calories to meals and daily energy intake in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Bleil, Maria E; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Nackers, Lisa M; Busch, Andrew M; Whited, Matthew C; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2013-10-01

    Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (≥ 0.165 kcal/g) or low-calorie (<0.165 kcal/g), and total energy intake and energy intake from solid food were calculated for each eating occasion and day. In covariate-adjusted models, energy intake from solid food did not differ between eating occasions that included high-calorie or low-calorie beverages and those with no reported beverage. Energy intake from solid food was also unrelated to the number of high-calorie or low-calorie beverages consumed per day. On average, eating occasions that included a high-calorie beverage were 169 kcal higher in total energy than those with no reported beverage, and 195 kcal higher in total energy than those that included a low-calorie beverage. Each high-calorie beverage consumed per day contributed an additional 147 kcal to women's daily energy intake, whereas low-calorie beverage intake was unrelated to daily energy intake. Beverages contributed to total energy intake in a near-additive fashion among free-living overweight and obese women, suggesting a need to develop more effective interventions to reduce caloric beverage intake in the context of weight management, and to potentially reexamine dietary guidelines.

  11. Beverages contribute extra calories to meals and daily energy intake in overweight and obese women

    PubMed Central

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Bleil, Maria E.; Waring, Molly E.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Nackers, Lisa M.; Busch, Andrew M.; Whited, Matthew C.; Pagoto, Sherry L.

    2013-01-01

    Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (≥0.165 kcal/g) or low-calorie (<0.165 kcal/g), and total energy intake and energy intake from solid food were calculated for each eating occasion and day. In covariate-adjusted models, energy intake from solid food did not differ between eating occasions that included high-calorie or low-calorie beverages and those with no reported beverage. Energy intake from solid food was also unrelated to the number of high-calorie or low-calorie beverages consumed per day. On average, eating occasions that included a high-calorie beverage were 169 kcal higher in total energy than those with no reported beverage, and 195 kcal higher in total energy than those that included a low-calorie beverage. Each high-calorie beverage consumed per day contributed an additional 147 kcal to women’s daily energy intake, whereas low-calorie beverage intake was unrelated to daily energy intake. Beverages contributed to total energy intake in a near-additive fashion among free-living overweight and obese women, suggesting a need to develop more effective interventions to reduce caloric beverage intake in the context of weight management, and to potentially reexamine dietary guidelines. PMID:24041722

  12. Fecal thyroid hormones allow for the noninvasive monitoring of energy intake in capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Schaebs, Franka S; Wolf, Tanja E; Behringer, Verena; Deschner, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    Measuring energetic condition of wild animals is of major importance in ecological research, as it is profoundly linked to fitness. However, noninvasive monitoring of energetic condition in wild-living animals is methodologically challenging. Measuring urinary C-peptide levels is a suitable method to noninvasively assess energy balance in wild-living animals. As collecting urine is not always feasible in the wild, it is essential to establish alternative biomarkers for other sample types to assess energy balance. Thyroid hormones (TH) are potential candidates as they are involved in the regulation of metabolic processes. During periods of low energy intake, serum TH levels are reduced, leading to a decrease in metabolic activity. To investigate whether fecal TH can serve as a biomarker for energy balance, we validated a total T3 ELISA to measure immunoreactive T3 (iT3) in fecal samples of yellow-breasted capuchins. We restricted caloric intake of seven males, assessed daily group caloric intake and determined daily individual fecal iT3 levels. Analytical validation of the assay showed that fecal iT3 levels can be reliably measured; however, proper storage conditions must be implemented and possible degradation to be accounted for. IT3 levels were significantly higher on days with high group caloric intake. However, individual iT3 levels varied substantially, resulting in an overlap across individuals between conditions. Our results indicate that fecal iT3 levels can serve as a useful biomarker to detect changes in energy intake of yellow-breasted capuchins. Overall, measuring fecal iT3 levels may present a suitable method for monitoring energy balance when urine collection is impossible. PMID:27460343

  13. Fecal thyroid hormones allow for the noninvasive monitoring of energy intake in capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Schaebs, Franka S; Wolf, Tanja E; Behringer, Verena; Deschner, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    Measuring energetic condition of wild animals is of major importance in ecological research, as it is profoundly linked to fitness. However, noninvasive monitoring of energetic condition in wild-living animals is methodologically challenging. Measuring urinary C-peptide levels is a suitable method to noninvasively assess energy balance in wild-living animals. As collecting urine is not always feasible in the wild, it is essential to establish alternative biomarkers for other sample types to assess energy balance. Thyroid hormones (TH) are potential candidates as they are involved in the regulation of metabolic processes. During periods of low energy intake, serum TH levels are reduced, leading to a decrease in metabolic activity. To investigate whether fecal TH can serve as a biomarker for energy balance, we validated a total T3 ELISA to measure immunoreactive T3 (iT3) in fecal samples of yellow-breasted capuchins. We restricted caloric intake of seven males, assessed daily group caloric intake and determined daily individual fecal iT3 levels. Analytical validation of the assay showed that fecal iT3 levels can be reliably measured; however, proper storage conditions must be implemented and possible degradation to be accounted for. IT3 levels were significantly higher on days with high group caloric intake. However, individual iT3 levels varied substantially, resulting in an overlap across individuals between conditions. Our results indicate that fecal iT3 levels can serve as a useful biomarker to detect changes in energy intake of yellow-breasted capuchins. Overall, measuring fecal iT3 levels may present a suitable method for monitoring energy balance when urine collection is impossible.

  14. Daily selenium intake in a moderate selenium deficiency area of Suzhou China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Daily dietary selenium (Se) intake in Suzhou China was investigated to determine whether residents were susceptible to Se deficiency. Food samples were purchased from local supermarkets, including vegetables, fruits, meats and seafood. Hair samples were collected from 285 people ranging from 20 to ...

  15. Comparison of three methods to reduce energy density. Effects on daily energy intake.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rachel A; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2013-07-01

    Reductions in food energy density can decrease energy intake, but it is not known if the effects depend on the way that energy density is reduced. We investigated whether three methods of reducing energy density (decreasing fat, increasing fruit and vegetables, and adding water) differed in their effects on energy intake across the day. In a crossover design, 59 adults ate breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory once a week for 4 weeks. Across conditions, the entrées were either standard in energy density or were reduced in energy density by 20% using one of the three methods. Each meal included a manipulated entrée along with unmanipulated side dishes, and all foods were consumed ad libitum. Reducing the energy density of entrées significantly decreased daily energy intake compared to standard entrées (mean intake 2667 ± 77 kcal/day; 11,166 ± 322 kJ/day). The mean decrease was 396 ± 44 kcal/day (1658 ± 184 kJ/day) when fat was reduced, 308 ± 41 kcal/day (1290 ± 172 kJ/day) when fruit and vegetables were increased, and 230 ± 35 kcal/day (963 ± 147 kJ/day) when water was added. Daily energy intake was lower when fat was decreased compared to the other methods. These findings indicate that a variety of diet compositions can be recommended to reduce overall dietary energy density in order to moderate energy intake.

  16. The time of day and the proportions of macronutrients eaten are related to total daily food intake.

    PubMed

    de Castro, John M

    2007-11-01

    Intake in the morning is particularly satiating and associated with lower total amounts ingested for the day while intake at night is associated with greater overall daily intake. But, the influence of carbohydrates, fats or proteins ingested at various times of the day is unknown. The intakes of 375 male and 492 female free-living individuals that were acquired with 7 d diet-diary reports were reanalysed. The intakes of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, and the density of intake occurring during three 6 h periods (06.00 to 11.59 hours (morning), 12.00 to 17.59 hours (afternoon) and 18.00 to 23.59 hours (evening)) were identified and related to overall daily and meal intakes. Energy density of intake during all periods was found to be positively related to overall intake. When the proportion of daily carbohydrate ingested in the morning was high, less total food energy and carbohydrate were ingested over the entire day. When the proportion of daily fat ingested in the morning was high, less total food energy and carbohydrate and fat were ingested over the entire day. When the proportion of daily protein ingested in the morning was high, less protein was ingested over the entire day. Conversely, when intake was relatively high in the evening of either total food energy, carbohydrate or fat, then overall daily energy intakes tended to be higher. The results suggest that the morning intake association with reduced total intake is macronutrient specific, with morning carbohydrate, fat and protein intake associated with reduced daily carbohydrate, fat and protein intake, respectively.

  17. Estimated daily intake and seasonal food sources of quercetin in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishimuro, Haruno; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Sato, Midori; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Matsunaga, Izumi; Naito, Shigehiro; Ippoushi, Katsunari; Oike, Hideaki; Nagata, Tadahiro; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Kobori, Masuko

    2015-04-01

    Quercetin is a promising food component, which can prevent lifestyle related diseases. To understand the dietary intake of quercetin in the subjects of a population-based cohort study and in the Japanese population, we first determined the quercetin content in foods available in the market during June and July in or near a town in Hokkaido, Japan. Red leaf lettuce, asparagus, and onions contained high amounts of quercetin derivatives. We then estimated the daily quercetin intake by 570 residents aged 20-92 years old in the town using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The average and median quercetin intakes were 16.2 and 15.5 mg day(-1), respectively. The quercetin intakes by men were lower than those by women; the quercetin intakes showed a low correlation with age in both men and women. The estimated quercetin intake was similar during summer and winter. Quercetin was mainly ingested from onions and green tea, both in summer and in winter. Vegetables, such as asparagus, green pepper, tomatoes, and red leaf lettuce, were good sources of quercetin in summer. Our results will help to elucidate the association between quercetin intake and risks of lifestyle-related diseases by further prospective cohort study and establish healthy dietary requirements with the consumption of more physiologically useful components from foods. PMID:25849945

  18. Estimated Daily Intake and Seasonal Food Sources of Quercetin in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nishimuro, Haruno; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Sato, Midori; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Matsunaga, Izumi; Naito, Shigehiro; Ippoushi, Katsunari; Oike, Hideaki; Nagata, Tadahiro; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Kobori, Masuko

    2015-01-01

    Quercetin is a promising food component, which can prevent lifestyle related diseases. To understand the dietary intake of quercetin in the subjects of a population-based cohort study and in the Japanese population, we first determined the quercetin content in foods available in the market during June and July in or near a town in Hokkaido, Japan. Red leaf lettuce, asparagus, and onions contained high amounts of quercetin derivatives. We then estimated the daily quercetin intake by 570 residents aged 20–92 years old in the town using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The average and median quercetin intakes were 16.2 and 15.5 mg day−1, respectively. The quercetin intakes by men were lower than those by women; the quercetin intakes showed a low correlation with age in both men and women. The estimated quercetin intake was similar during summer and winter. Quercetin was mainly ingested from onions and green tea, both in summer and in winter. Vegetables, such as asparagus, green pepper, tomatoes, and red leaf lettuce, were good sources of quercetin in summer. Our results will help to elucidate the association between quercetin intake and risks of lifestyle-related diseases by further prospective cohort study and establish healthy dietary requirements with the consumption of more physiologically useful components from foods. PMID:25849945

  19. Taurine content in Chinese food and daily intake of Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X; Jia, J; Lin, Y

    1998-01-01

    The taurine content in Chinese food, including seafood, fresh water fish, meats and some plants, was examined in this study. Seafood was freshly collected from 4 coastal areas in China. Meat and plant food samples were obtained from food markets. The highest concentration of taurine was found in crustaceans and molluses (300-800 mg per 100 g edible portion). The amount of taurine in fish was variable. Beef, pork and lamb contained taurine in concentrations ranging from 30-160 mg per 100 g. No taurine was detected in hen eggs and plants. The daily taurine intake of representative Chinese men (18-45 years old, 60 kg body weight, light physical activity) was also studied in 1990 as a part of the Total Diet Study. Representative food samples were collected from 12 provinces in 4 areas of China. Samples were then combined and cooked according to food categories (meat, seafood, vegetables, etc) The combined meat and seafood samples were analyzed for taurine. The daily taurine intake of a standard man in the 4 areas was calculated based on the amount of food intake obtained from the dietary survey and the taurine concentration in the analyzed food samples. The result showed that the daily taurine intake of a standard Chinese man in the 4 different test areas ranged from 34 to 80 mg per day.

  20. Assessment of fluoride concentration and daily intake by human from tea and herbal infusions.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, E; Inkielewicz, I; Czarnowski, W; Szefer, P

    2008-03-01

    The fluoride content in infusions of commercially available black, green, oolong, pu-erh and white teas was determined by ion-selective electrode. Herbal infusions as well as instant tea and ready-to-drink tea beverages were also examined. It is found that brewing time (5, 10 and 30 min) does increase the fluoride content, which in infusions of black tea (5 min brewing) was higher than that in the other types of tea, with contents ranging between 0.32 and 4.54 mg/l for black tea to 0.37-0.54 mg/l for white tea and with even lower values for herbal tea infusions of 0.02-0.09 mg/l. On the basis of the results obtained, the daily intake of fluoride provided from tea and herbal beverages was estimated for an adult person and for children in comparison with the Polish SAI (Safe and Adequate Daily Intake) of fluoride which is strictly attributable to ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake). The fluoride intake resulted from the regular consumption of black tea infusions was raised as compared to the other types of teas as well as herbal teas. For adult and children tea drinkers consuming five cups of black tea per day the intake of fluoride will be in the range of 8.0-303% and 12-303% of the SAI, respectively. People are often exposed to multiple sources of fluoride, such as in food, water, air and excessive use of toothpaste. The control of tea quality is important to protect human against too high uptake of this element from black tea, which is the most popular beverage. Excessive intake of fluoride with black tea, especially in the regions with its high level in the drinking water, increases the risk of dental fluorosis in children during the years of tooth development. The long-term exposure to large amounts of fluoride can lead to potentially skeletal fluorosis (WHO, 1984).

  1. The Effect of Breakfast Type on Total Daily Energy Intake and Body Mass Index Among Thai School Children.

    PubMed

    Purttiponthanee, Sasiumphai; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen; Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Senaprom, Sayamon; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The study investigated the association between breakfast types consumed, daily energy intake, and body mass index for age Z-score (BAZ). Cross-sectional data from 1258 children aged 7 to 12.9 years were analyzed for breakfast type, nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight or obesity. Analysis of covariance was used to compare energy and nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight/obese children between breakfast groups. Only 19% of children had adequate energy intake from breakfast. Those consuming snacks had a significantly lower BAZ (Z = -0.73), with 5% of them being overweight/obese. Those consuming beverages and desserts had the lowest total daily energy intake (1314 kcal) and lowest protein intake (8.4 g). The results suggest that breakfast type is associated with daily energy intake and BAZ. Most breakfasts are not adequate. School-based nutrition education programs involving families, teachers, and health professionals can contribute to improve this situation. PMID:27183975

  2. Increasing Daily Water Intake and Fluid Adherence in Children Receiving Treatment for Retentive Encopresis

    PubMed Central

    Hoodin, Flora; Rice, Jennifer; Felt, Barbara T.; Rausch, Joseph R.; Patton, Susana R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the efficacy of an enhanced intervention (EI) compared to standard care (SC) in increasing daily water intake and fluid goal adherence in children seeking treatment for retentive encopresis. Methods Changes in beverage intake patterns and fluid adherence were examined by comparing 7-week diet diary data collected during participation in the EI to achieved data for families who had previously completed the SC. Results Compared to children in SC (n = 19), children in the EI (n = 18) demonstrated a significantly greater increase in daily water intake from baseline to the conclusion of treatment ( p ≤ .001), and were four and six times more likely to meet fluid targets in Phases 1 (Weeks 3–4) and 2 (Weeks 5–6) of fluid intervention, respectively (both p ≤ .001). Conclusions Enhanced education and behavioral strategies were efficacious in increasing children’s intake of water and improving fluid adherence. Future research should replicate the findings in a prospective randomized clinical trial to discern their effectiveness. PMID:20439348

  3. Daily Dietary Selenium Intake in a High Selenium Area of Enshi, China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yang; Wang, Quanxin; Gao, Jin; Lin, Zhiqing; Bañuelos, Gary S.; Yuan, Linxi; Yin, Xuebin

    2013-01-01

    Enshi is a high selenium (Se) region in Hubei, China, where human selenosis was observed between 1958 and 1963. This study investigated the daily dietary Se intake of residents in Shadi, a town located 72 km northeast of Enshi City, to assess the risk of human selenosis in the high Se area. Foods consumed typically by the local residents and their hair samples were analyzed for total Se concentration. Concentrations of Se in different diet categories were as follows: cereals: 0.96 ± 0.90 mg kg−1 DW in rice and 0.43 ± 0.55 mg kg−1 DW in corn; tuber: 0.28 ± 0.56 mg kg−1 in potato and 0.36 ± 0.12 mg kg−1 in sweet potato; vegetables: ranging from 0.23 ± 1.00 mg kg−1 in carrot to 1.57 ± 1.06 mg kg−1 in kidney bean; animal proteins: 1.99 ± 1.11 mg kg−1 in chicken and egg. Based on the food Se concentrations and the daily per-capita consumption, the estimated daily Se intake in Shadi was 550 ± 307 µg per capita. Moreover, the Se concentrations in the hairs of local adult residents were 3.13 ± 1.91 mg kg−1 (n = 122) and 2.21 ± 1.14 mg kg−1 (n = 122) for females and males, respectively, suggesting that females might be exposed to higher levels of Se from daily cooking. Although there was no human selenosis occurrence in recent years, the high level of the daily Se intake suggested that the potential risk of selenosis for local residents, especially females, might be a matter of concern. PMID:23462585

  4. Estimated daily intake of benzoic acid through food additives in adult population of South East Serbia.

    PubMed

    Lazarević, Konstansa; Stojanović, Dusica; Rancić, Natasa

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate dietary intake of benzoic acid and its salts through food additives in adult population of South East Serbia. Information on dietary intake among 620 adults (aged 18-65) was collected using a food frequency questionnaire, and 748 food samples were analyzed. The mean estimated intake of benzoic acid -0.32 mg/kg of body weight (bw) per day was below acceptable daily intake (ADI). Dietary exposure to benzoic acid (0.36 mg/kg of bw/day; 7.2% ADI) (consumer only), also did not exceed ADI. The main contributors of benzoic acid to dietary intake were non alcoholic beverages (43.1%), ketchup and tomato products (36.1%), and domestic pickled vegetables (19.4%). The results of this study indicate that dietary exposure to benzoic acid and its salts through food preservatives does not represent a public health risk for the adult population of South East Serbia. PMID:22432399

  5. Relationships between residual feed intake, average daily gain, and feeding behavior in growing dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Green, T C; Jago, J G; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C

    2013-05-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of an individual's efficiency in utilizing feed for maintenance and production during growth or lactation, and is defined as the difference between the actual and predicted feed intake of that individual. The objective of this study was to relate RFI to feeding behavior and to identify behavioral differences between animals with divergent RFI. The intakes and body weight (BW) of 1,049 growing dairy heifers (aged 5-9 mo; 195 ± 25.8 kg of BW) in 5 cohorts were measured for 42 to 49 d to ascertain individual RFI. Animals were housed in an outdoor feeding facility comprising 28 pens, each with 8 animals and 1 feeder per pen, and were fed a dried, cubed alfalfa diet. This forage diet was chosen because most dairy cows in New Zealand are grazed on ryegrass-dominant pastures, without grain or concentrates. An electronic feed monitoring system measured the intake and feeding behavior of individuals. Feeding behavior was summarized as daily intake, daily feeding duration, meal frequency, feeding rate, meal size, meal duration, and temporal feeding patterns. The RFI was moderately to strongly correlated with intake in all cohorts (r=0.54-0.74), indicating that efficient animals ate less than inefficient animals, but relationships with feeding behavior traits (meal frequency, feeding duration, and feeding rate) were weak (r=0.14-0.26), indicating that feeding behavior cannot reliably predict RFI in growing dairy heifers. Comparison of the extremes of RFI (10% most and 10% least efficient) demonstrated similar BW and average daily gain for both groups, but efficient animals ate less; had fewer, longer meals; shorter daily feeding duration; and ate more slowly than the least-efficient animals. These groups also differed in their feeding patterns over 24h, with the most efficient animals eating less and having fewer meals during daylight (0600 to 2100 h), especially during the afternoon (1200 to 1800 h), but ate for a longer time during

  6. Comparisons of urinary phthalate metabolites and daily phthalate intakes among Japanese families.

    PubMed

    Ait Bamai, Yu; Araki, Atsuko; Kawai, Toshio; Tsuboi, Tazuru; Yoshioka, Eiji; Kanazawa, Ayako; Cong, Shi; Kishi, Reiko

    2015-07-01

    We measured urinary phthalate metabolites, including di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-isobutyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBzP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), from 178 school-aged children and their 284 family members using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and we calculated daily phthalate intakes. The highest median levels of phthalate metabolites were for mono-isobutyl phthalate in all participants except schoolchildren, where the highest levels were for mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Comparing the schoolchildren with their parents, the schoolchildren had significantly higher urinary metabolites for MEOHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate, and ΣDEHP. Regarding daily intakes, the schoolchildren had significantly higher daily intakes of DnBP, BBzP, and ΣDEHP. All phthalate metabolite and sums of metabolite levels in the schoolchildren were positively correlated with their mothers' levels, except for MEHP, whereas fathers were less correlated with their children. The DEHP intake in this study was higher than that of most other studies. Moreover, 10% of the children and 3% of the adults exceeded the Reference Dose (RfD) value (20μg/kg/day) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, which indicates that it is important to focus on children's DEHP exposure because the children exceeded the RfD more than adults among the same families who shared similar exposure sources. Our results will contribute to considerations of the regulations for some phthalates and the actual phthalate exposure levels in the Japanese population. PMID:25888094

  7. Effect of milk allowance on concentrate intake, ruminal environment, and ruminal development in milk-fed Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, N B; Sehested, J; Jensen, S K; Vestergaard, M

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that a barley-based concentrate would induce an acidic ruminal environment in young calves and that increased milk allowance would alleviate this condition. Eight Holstein calves ruminally cannulated at d 7 +/- 1 of age were used to study the effect of variation in barley-based starter concentrate intake induced by 4 different milk allowances (3.10, 4.84, 6.60, and 8.34 kg of milk replacer/d; 123 g of dry matter/kg of milk) on the ruminal environment, blood variables, and fore-stomach development from wk 2 to 5 of age. Twelve ruminal fluid samples were collected during a weekly 24-h sampling in 4 consecutive weeks. Blood samples were collected by venipuncture between 1200 and 1300 h on ruminal sampling days. Rumen papillae development and visceral organ mass were recorded at slaughter. A linear treatment x week effect was observed for concentrate intake, with the calves fed the lowest milk allowance having the fastest increase in concentrate intake whereby these calves reached the same ME intake in wk 5 compared with calves with the highest milk allowance. Effects on ruminal variables were dominated by week of sampling, with minor differences among treatments. Ruminal pH was below 5.5 for 5 to 13 h/d and all calves with concentrate intake above 20 g of dry matter/d were observed to have a daily ruminal pH minimum at pH 5.5 or lower. The ruminal concentration of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased from 71 to 133 +/- 9 mmol/L in wk 2 to 5 and was characterized by a relatively high molar proportion of propionate, increasing from 34 to 40 mol/100 mol of VFA in wk 2 to 5. In addition, the presence of ethanol and propanol as well as numerous VFA esters points to a ruminal environment with a relatively high hydrogen pressure. Plasma glucose and insulin responded to the highest milk allowance in wk 2 to 4. Plasma VFA and ketone bodies increased with the lowest milk allowance in wk 4 to 5. At slaughter

  8. Using the overdispersed exponential family to estimate the distribution of usual daily intakes of people aged between 18 and 28 in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, H Y; Suchindran, C M; Pan, W H

    2001-08-15

    Assessment of usual dietary intake of a population is essential to understand the nutrition status of the population. Methods like 24-hour dietary recall and food records are commonly used for this task. However, within-individual variation exists in the food record data. Methods considering measurement errors have been used to evaluate the association between nutrient intakes and diseases. Few have been devoted to estimating the distribution of usual daily intakes. This paper proposes applying the formulation of the overdispersed exponential family to estimate the distribution of usual nutrient intake and applies the adjustments developed by Liu to reduce the variance of the distribution. The proposed method has the advantages of working on the original scale of data and implementation convenience. The adjustment of the variance is carried out by dividing the variance into within-individual variance and among-individual variance. The adjusted variance, then, is used to estimate the distribution of the usual daily intake. Sampling weights are considered in all the steps, except the estimation of the ratio of within to among variance. The data for this study are from the Nutritional and Health Survey in Taiwan conducted between 1993 and 1996 (NAHSIT, 1993-1996). An independent external set of data for people aged between 18 and 28 years (49 males and 20 females) is used to estimate the ratio of within to among individual variance. Due to the availability of data in estimating the ratio of within to among individual variance, 430 males and 422 females in the NAHSIT sample are used to estimate the distribution of usual daily intakes for people aged between 18 and 28 in Taiwan. The distribution also allows us to estimate the proportion of people who do not meet the recommended daily nutrient allowance (RDNA). The results show that the intakes of calcium and vitamin E of this group of people fall far below RDNA. PMID:11468767

  9. Heterogeneity in prey distribution allows for higher food intake in planktivorous fish, particularly when hot.

    PubMed

    Gliwicz, Z Maciej; Maszczyk, Piotr

    2016-02-01

    When prey are scarce, planktivorous fish and other predators feeding on tiny prey should forage within prey-rich patches to attain a net food intake above the ambient mean food concentrations. If they can indeed locate prey-rich patches efficiently, then a patchy distribution of planktonic prey should lead to: (1) an increase in the overall per capita food intake, and (2) greater variability among predators in prey-capture rate due to differences in arrival times. Both phenomena were observed in 34 daily feeding sessions with a cohort of juvenile rudd held in twin experimental systems, each housing the same number of fish free to move in a loop of ten interconnected 200-L tanks. The fish were fed daily with equal numbers of planktonic prey (Artemia nauplii), offered either in a homogeneous or patchy distribution. To simulate low and high temperatures that represent potential global warming scenarios, the feeding protocol was replicated at 16, 21 and 26 °C, on each occasion following a 3-day period of fish acclimation. Up to 40-70 % of fish in the system with the patchy prey distribution assembled rapidly in the high-prey-density tank, the capture rate of first arrivals being up to 60 prey min(-1) at 26 °C, orders of magnitude greater than that of latecomers. The overall capture rates were higher in the system with patchy prey, regardless of the temperature. At the highest temperature (26 °C), the fish located the high-prey-density tank in less than half the time taken at the lowest temperature (16 °C, Q(10) > 2). PMID:26558624

  10. Heterogeneity in prey distribution allows for higher food intake in planktivorous fish, particularly when hot.

    PubMed

    Gliwicz, Z Maciej; Maszczyk, Piotr

    2016-02-01

    When prey are scarce, planktivorous fish and other predators feeding on tiny prey should forage within prey-rich patches to attain a net food intake above the ambient mean food concentrations. If they can indeed locate prey-rich patches efficiently, then a patchy distribution of planktonic prey should lead to: (1) an increase in the overall per capita food intake, and (2) greater variability among predators in prey-capture rate due to differences in arrival times. Both phenomena were observed in 34 daily feeding sessions with a cohort of juvenile rudd held in twin experimental systems, each housing the same number of fish free to move in a loop of ten interconnected 200-L tanks. The fish were fed daily with equal numbers of planktonic prey (Artemia nauplii), offered either in a homogeneous or patchy distribution. To simulate low and high temperatures that represent potential global warming scenarios, the feeding protocol was replicated at 16, 21 and 26 °C, on each occasion following a 3-day period of fish acclimation. Up to 40-70 % of fish in the system with the patchy prey distribution assembled rapidly in the high-prey-density tank, the capture rate of first arrivals being up to 60 prey min(-1) at 26 °C, orders of magnitude greater than that of latecomers. The overall capture rates were higher in the system with patchy prey, regardless of the temperature. At the highest temperature (26 °C), the fish located the high-prey-density tank in less than half the time taken at the lowest temperature (16 °C, Q(10) > 2).

  11. Revising the daily values may affect food fortification and in turn nutrient intake adequacy.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Mary M; Spungen, Judith H; Barraj, Leila M; Bailey, Regan L; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2013-12-01

    The Nutrition Facts panel on food labels in the United States currently displays Daily Values (DVs) that are based on outdated RDAs. The FDA has indicated that it plans to update the DVs based on the newer Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), but there is controversy regarding the best method for calculating new DVs from the DRIs. To better understand the implications of DV revisions, assuming that manufacturers choose to maintain current label claims for micronutrients from voluntarily fortified foods, we modeled intake of 8 micronutrients using NHANES 2007-2008 data and 2 potential methods for calculating DVs: the population-weighted Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and the population-coverage RDA. In each scenario, levels of fortified nutrients were adjusted to maintain the current %DV. Usual nutrient intakes and percentages with usual intakes less than the EAR were estimated for the U.S. population and subpopulations aged ≥ 4 y (n = 7976). For most nutrients, estimates of the percentage of the U.S. population with intakes below the EAR were similar regardless of whether the DV corresponded to the population-weighted EAR or the population-coverage RDA. Potential decreases were observed in adequacy of nutrients of concern for women of childbearing age, namely iron and folate (up to 9% and 3%, respectively), adequacy of calcium among children (up to 6%), and adequacy of vitamin A intakes in the total population (5%) assuming use of the population-weighted EAR compared with the population-coverage RDA for setting the DV. Results of this modeling exercise will help to inform decisions in revising the DVs. PMID:24132571

  12. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China. PMID:26727195

  13. International project on human daily dietary intake of minor and trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, V.

    1986-01-01

    A coordinate research program on dietary intake of nutrient and other elements initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is currently under way. The purpose of the core program of this project is to obtain reliable data on the average daily intakes of several important minor and trace elements in diets consumed in a number of developed and developing countries such as Brazil, Canada, China, Iran, Italy, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Thailand, and Turkey. In the core program which will be collected for determination of the nutrient elements such as calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, iodine, selenium, and zinc, among others. The project also provides for the measurement of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in view of the biological significance of these elements as toxicants in the diet and includes estimation of the energy, phytate, and fiber components of the diet.

  14. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Markwald, Rachel R; Melanson, Edward L; Smith, Mark R; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P

    2013-04-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake--especially at night after dinner--was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to -0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity.

  15. Trace elements in animal-based food from Shanghai markets and associated human daily intake and uptake estimation considering bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Lei, Bingli; Chen, Liang; Hao, Ying; Cao, Tiehua; Zhang, Xinyu; Yu, Yingxin; Fu, Jiamo

    2013-10-01

    The concentrations of four human essential trace elements [iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr)] and non-essential elements [cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg)] in eighteen animal-based foods including meat, fish, and shellfish collected from markets in Shanghai, China, were analyzed, and the associated human daily intake and uptake considering bioaccessibility were estimated. The mean concentration ranges for eight trace elements measured in the foods were 3.98-131µgg(-1) for Fe, 0.437-18.5µgg(-1) for Mn, 5.47-53.8µgg(-1) for Zn, none detected-0.101µgg(-1) for Cr, 2.88×10(-4)-2.48×10(-2)µgg(-1) for Cd, 1.18×10(-3)-0.747µgg(-1) for Pb, none detected-0.498µgg(-1) for As, and 8.98×10(-4)-6.52×10(-2)µgg(-1) for Hg. The highest mean concentrations of four human essential elements were all found in shellfish. For all the trace elements, the observed mean concentrations are mostly in agreement with the reported values around the world. The total daily intake of trace elements via ingestion of animal-based food via an average Shanghai resident was estimated as 7371µgd(-1) for the human essential elements and 13.0µgd(-1) for the human non-essential elements, but the uptake decreased to 4826µgd(-1) and 6.90µgd(-1), respectively, after trace element bioaccessibility was considered. Livestock and fish for human essential and non-essential elements, respectively, were the main contributor, no matter whether the bioaccessibility was considered or not. Risk estimations showed that the intake and uptake of a signal trace element for an average Shanghai resident via ingestion animal-based foods from Shanghai markets do not exceed the recommended dietary allowance values; consequently, a health risk situation is not indicated.

  16. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk from Spain and estimation of infant's daily intake.

    PubMed

    Motas Guzmàn, Miguel; Clementini, Chiara; Pérez-Cárceles, Maria Dolores; Jiménez Rejón, Sandra; Cascone, Aurora; Martellini, Tania; Guerranti, Cristiana; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2016-02-15

    Human milk samples were collected from 67 mothers in 2014 at a Primary Care Centre in Murcia (Spain) and analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Concentrations measured for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) ranged from daily intakes and risk index (RI) were estimated for the first six months of life and we found that ingestion rates of PFOA did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).

  17. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P < 0.05). However, the additives had no significant effect on the fluoride release into the infusions (P > 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers. PMID:27042093

  18. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P < 0.05). However, the additives had no significant effect on the fluoride release into the infusions (P > 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers. PMID:27042093

  19. Safety of polyethylene terephthalate food containers evaluated by HPLC, migration test, and estimated daily intake.

    PubMed

    Park, H J; Lee, Y J; Kim, M R; Kim, K M

    2008-08-01

    A comparative high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of monomers, terephthalic acid (TPA), isophthalic acid (IPA), and dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) food containers was conducted. Monomer linearities and sensitivities were calibrated between established and novel HPLC analyses. Safety of PET containers was evaluated with newly established detection methods for TPA, IPA, and DMT. Migration of the 3 monomers into food simulants (water, 4% acetic acid, 20% alcohol, and n-heptane) from 56 PET containers collected from open markets was monitored. Migrated monomers were not detected over 0.1 ppm of detection limit. The corresponding estimated daily intake was measured to confirm the safety of these publicly available PET containers and to permit comparison to the specific migration limit of the European Union. The estimated daily intake of 3 monomers migrating from PET was 0.0384 mg/kg each. This represented only 0.6% of the European Union's specific migration limit, confirming the safety of the examined containers. PMID:19241591

  20. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P < 0.05). However, the additives had no significant effect on the fluoride release into the infusions (P > 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers.

  1. Mimicking corticosterone's daily rhythm with specific receptor agonists: effects on food, water, and sodium intake.

    PubMed

    Devenport, L; Stith, R

    1992-06-01

    The endogenous pattern of type I and II corticosteroid receptor stimulation was systematically assembled from specific agonists in order to detect any unique receptor interactions in the control of ingestive behavior. The type II agonists dexamethasone (0, 5, or 25 micrograms/kg) or RU28362 (0, 5, or 25 micrograms/kg) were injected daily in the final hour of the light phase of the illumination cycle of adrenalectomized rats. This was carried out in the presence or absence of continuous aldosterone (type I agonist) infusion. Additional comparisons were made with sham-operated groups and animals receiving type II agonists by continuous infusion. Type II agonists increased the intake of 2% saline and the proportion of food taken at night, but had negligible effects on total food intake. Type II agonists did not interact with the type I agonist. Type II effects were greatly potentiated by continuous infusion, though administered at the same doses as acute injection. When the effects of type II receptor stimulation emerged, they always consisted of an exacerbation of the adrenalectomy syndrome, not a return to normal quantities or patterns. In contrast, type I receptor stimulation restored both the quantities and unique day-night patterns of saline, water, and food intake to values matching intact animals. The findings suggest that the behavioral significance of corticosterone's nocturnal peak of type II stimulation is small, and that its most important function may lie in the metabolic processes it instigates during its steady rise in the light phase.

  2. Energy intake, expenditure and pattern of daily activity of Nigerian male students.

    PubMed

    Cole, A H; Ogbe, J O

    1987-11-01

    1. Twenty apparently healthy and normal Nigerian male students, resident at the University of Ibadan campus, were studied for seven consecutive days to assess their food energy intake and expenditure and pattern of their daily activities. 2. The mean age (years) of the group was 24.0 (SD 3.23, range 20-30), mean height (m) 1.71 (SD 0.06, range 1.61-1.84) and body-weight (kg) was 61.1 (SD 5.01, range 51.0-69.5). 3. The food intake of each subject was obtained by direct weighing and its energy value determined using a ballistic bomb calorimeter. Patterns of daily activities were recorded and the energy costs of representative activities were determined by indirect calorimetry. 4. Activities mainly involved sitting, mean 580 (SD 167, range 394-732) min/d. Sleeping and standing activities took a mean of 445 (SD 112) and 115 (SD 75) min/d respectively. Personal domestic activities took a mean of 94 (SD 40) min/d. 5. The mean energy intake of the group was 11,182 (SD 1970) kJ/d or 183 (SD 32) kJ/kg body-weight per d. This value is lower than the 12.5 MJ/d recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) (1973) as the energy requirement for an adult man engaged in moderate activities, but it is higher than the FAO/WHO/United Nations University (UNU) (1985) recommended value of 10.8 MJ/d for a male office clerk (light activity). It is also lower than the recommended energy requirement of 11.6 MJ/d for a subsistence farmer (moderately active work) (FAO/WHO/UNU, 1985). 6. The mean energy expenditure of the male subjects was 9876 (SD 1064, range 7159-12,259) kJ/d and was lower than mean intake. 7. The energy intake and expenditure values indicated that the groups participating in the present study were not physically very active. It is an indication that the Nigerian male students expended less but probably consumed more energy than required. It is suggested for health reasons and for mental fitness that the Nigerian male students

  3. Daily intake of bisphenol A and potential sources of exposure: 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    LaKind, Judy S; Naiman, Daniel Q

    2011-01-01

    Nationally representative data on urinary levels of bisphenol A (BPA) and its metabolites in the United States from the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to estimate daily BPA intakes. In addition, NHANES data on potential sources of BPA exposure and personal characteristics were explored for their association with urinary BPA levels. On the basis of 2005–2006 NHANES urinary BPA data and assumptions described in this paper, median daily intake for the overall population is approximately 34 ng/kg-day. Median daily BPA intakes for men are statistically significantly higher than for women; there is a significant decrease in daily BPA intake with increasing age. Gender- and age-specific median intakes differ from the overall population by less than a factor of 2. Although estimates of daily BPA intake have decreased compared with those from the 2003–2004 NHANES, it is premature to draw conclusions regarding trends at this time, as there is no indication that BPA use declined from 2003 to 2006. On the basis of an assessment of urinary BPA and questionnaire data from the 2005–2006 NHANES, consumption of soda, school lunches, and meals prepared outside the home — but not bottled water or canned tuna — was statistically significantly associated with higher urinary BPA. PMID:20237498

  4. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Markwald, Rachel R.; Melanson, Edward L.; Smith, Mark R.; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake—especially at night after dinner—was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to −0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity. PMID:23479616

  5. Evaluating the coherence between environmental quality objectives and the acceptable or tolerable daily intake.

    PubMed

    Ragas, A M; Huijbregts, M A

    1998-06-01

    Environmental quality objectives (EQOs) for surface water, soil, air, drinking water, and food products are often derived independently. This may result in incoherent EQOs. A set of EQOs is called incoherent if simultaneous exposure to all media which are polluted up to their EQO results in the acceptable or tolerable daily intake (ADI or TDI) being exceeded. This paper outlines an integrated human exposure and uptake model (NORMTOX) which was developed to test the coherence of EQOs. NORMTOX predicts lifetime-averaged daily uptake levels of contaminants and compares these with acceptable or tolerable daily uptake levels. The model deals with variability and uncertainty in put data by using the Monte Carlo simulation technique. The model was applied to test the coherence of Dutch EQOs for benzene, lead, and lindane. The EQOs of these substances turned out to be coherent with probabilities of 100, 23, and 0%, respectively. The variance in the coherence indicators results from interpersonal variability in exposure, consumption, and uptake patterns and from uncertainty in input data due to a lack of knowledge. To prevent incoherent EQOs in the future, induction of a procedure for coherence testing and EQO adjustment is suggested. PMID:9693076

  6. Feeding programs promoting daily feed intake stability in rabbit males reduce sperm abnormalities and improve fertility.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J J; Marco-Jiménez, F; Martínez-Paredes, E; Ródenas, L; Fabre, C; Juvero, M A; Cano, J L

    2016-08-01

    Feeding programs promoting daily feed intake (DFI) stability in rabbit males could be useful to ensure successful coverage of their nutritional requirements and for continued production of quality semen. To evaluate two feeding systems designed to reduce DFI variability, 115 rabbit males at age 1.2 years were randomly assigned to three different treatments for 294 days: CS, animals fed ad libitum with a control diet (127-g starch and 281-g total soluble fiber [hemicellulose + soluble fiber] kg(-1) dry matter); SF, males fed ad libitum with diet enriched in soluble fiber (86-g starch and 330-g total soluble fiber kg(-1) dry matter); and R, animals fed with CS diet but daily restricted to maintenance requirements. Feed intake, body weight, body condition, and variability of DFI were controlled every 42 days, and individual semen volume and sperm motility, concentration, acrosome status, and abnormalities every 15 days. In six commercial farms, the number of females inseminated, pregnant and kindling, as well as the number of kits born alive, was registered for 15,893 inseminations with pooled semen from each treatment. DFI was significantly lower for R males than for the other treatments (on average, -12 ± 4 g/day; P < 0.001). Daily weight gain of R males was close to zero and significantly lower than in the other groups (-1.42 g/day; P < 0.001). Variability of DFI was significantly (P < 0.01) lower for R males (7%) than for males of dietary treatments CS (13%), with SF males showing intermediate values (11%). Semen from R males presented lower sperm abnormalities (-5.9%; P < 0.05) and higher percentages of normal and motile spermatozoa (-3.4% than SF males; P < 0.05). Dietary treatments formulated to reduce DFI variability (SF and R) led to an improvement of kindling to pregnant and kindling to insemination ratio (+0.039 and + 0.060 ± 0.015, respectively; P < 0.05) compared with CS treatment. In conclusion, a moderate restriction of rabbit

  7. Estimation of the oxalate content of foods and daily oxalate intake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. P.; Kennedy, M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate ingested may be an important risk factor in the development of idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Reliable food tables listing the oxalate content of foods are currently not available. The aim of this research was to develop an accurate and reliable method to measure the food content of oxalate. METHODS: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and ion chromatography (IC) were compared as direct techniques for the estimation of the oxalate content of foods. Foods were thoroughly homogenized in acid, heat extracted, and clarified by centrifugation and filtration before dilution in water for analysis. Five individuals consuming self-selected diets maintained food records for three days to determine their mean daily oxalate intakes. RESULTS: Both techniques were capable of adequately measuring the oxalate in foods with a significant oxalate content. With foods of very low oxalate content (<1.8 mg/100 g), IC was more reliable than CE. The mean daily intake of oxalate by the five individuals tested was 152 +/- 83 mg, ranging from 44 to 352 mg/day. CONCLUSIONS: CE appears to be the method of choice over IC for estimating the oxalate content of foods with a medium (>10 mg/100 g) to high oxalate content due to a faster analysis time and lower running costs, whereas IC may be better suited for the analysis of foods with a low oxalate content. Accurate estimates of the oxalate content of foods should permit the role of dietary oxalate in urinary oxalate excretion and stone formation to be clarified. Other factors, apart from the amount of oxalate ingested, appear to exert a major influence over the amount of oxalate excreted in the urine.

  8. Heavy metal content in various types of candies and their daily dietary intake by children.

    PubMed

    Devi, Parmila; Bajala, Vandana; Garg, V K; Mor, Suman; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2016-02-01

    Children are vulnerable to heavy metal contamination through consumption of candies and chocolates. Considering this representative samples (69) of candies and chocolates based on cocoa, milk and sugar were analyzed for selected heavy metals by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The average concentration of Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd was found to be 2.52 ± 2.49, 2.0 ± 1.20, 0.84 ± 1.35, and 0.17 ± 0.22 μg/g respectively. Results indicate that cocoa-based candies have higher metal content than milk- or sugar-based candies. The daily dietary intake of metals for children eating candies and chocolates was also calculated, and results indicated highest intake of Pb and Zn followed by Ni, Cd, and Cu. Comparison of the current study results with other studies around the globe shows that the heavy metal content in candies and chocolates is lower in India than reported elsewhere. However, to reduce the further dietary exposure of heavy metals through candies and chocolates, their content should be monitored regularly and particularly for Pb as children are highly susceptible to its toxicity. PMID:26759032

  9. Heavy metal content in various types of candies and their daily dietary intake by children.

    PubMed

    Devi, Parmila; Bajala, Vandana; Garg, V K; Mor, Suman; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2016-02-01

    Children are vulnerable to heavy metal contamination through consumption of candies and chocolates. Considering this representative samples (69) of candies and chocolates based on cocoa, milk and sugar were analyzed for selected heavy metals by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The average concentration of Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd was found to be 2.52 ± 2.49, 2.0 ± 1.20, 0.84 ± 1.35, and 0.17 ± 0.22 μg/g respectively. Results indicate that cocoa-based candies have higher metal content than milk- or sugar-based candies. The daily dietary intake of metals for children eating candies and chocolates was also calculated, and results indicated highest intake of Pb and Zn followed by Ni, Cd, and Cu. Comparison of the current study results with other studies around the globe shows that the heavy metal content in candies and chocolates is lower in India than reported elsewhere. However, to reduce the further dietary exposure of heavy metals through candies and chocolates, their content should be monitored regularly and particularly for Pb as children are highly susceptible to its toxicity.

  10. Analysis of Naturally Occurring Fluoride in Commercial Teas and Estimation of Its Daily Intake through Tea Consumption.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chuan-yi; Cai, Hui-mei; Zhu, Xiao-hui; Li, Da-xiang; Yang, Yun-qiu; Hou, Ru-yan; Wan, Xiao-chun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of fluoride in commercial teas and to estimate the contribution of tea consumption to the fluoride recommended daily allowance. A total of 558 tea products in 6 categories, green tea, black tea, oolong tea, pu'er tea, white tea, and reprocessed tea, were collected in the period from 2010 to 2013. The levels of fluoride in infusions of these teas were determined by a fluoride-ion selective electrode. The mean fluoride level in all of the tea samples was 85.16 mg/kg. For each category of tea, the mean fluoride levels were 63.04, 99.74, 52.19, 101.67, 159.78, and 110.54 mg/kg for green tea, black tea, white tea, pu'er tea, oolong tea, and reprocessed tea, respectively. The fluoride content of tea from 4 tea zones in descending order were Southern tea zone (111.39 mg/kg) > Southwest tea zone (78.78 mg/kg) > Jiangnan tea zone (71.73 mg/kg) > Jiangbei tea zone (64.63 mg/kg). These areas produced teas with lower fluoride levels than available foreign-produced tea (161.11 mg/kg). The mean chronic daily intake (CDI) was 0.02 mg/(kg•day) or 1.27 mg/kg. Generally, consuming tea from these 6 categories does not result in the intake of excessive amounts of fluoride for the general population.

  11. Intermittent intraperitoneal infusion of peptide YY(3-36) reduces daily food intake and adiposity in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Chelikani, Prasanth K; Haver, Alvin C; Reidelberger, Roger D

    2007-07-01

    Peptide YY(3-36) [PYY(3-36)] is a gut-brain peptide that decreases food intake when administered by intravenous infusion to lean and obese humans and rats. However, chronic administration of PYY(3-36) by osmotic minipump to lean and obese rodents produces only a transient reduction in daily food intake and weight gain. It has recently been shown that 1-h intravenous infusions of PYY(3-36) every other hour for 10 days produced a sustained reduction in daily food intake, body weight, and adiposity in lean rats. Here, we determined whether intermittent delivery of PYY(3-36) can produce a similar response in diet-induced obese rats. During a 21-day period, obese rats (body fat >25%) received twice daily intraperitoneal infusion of vehicle (n = 18) or PYY(3-36) (n = 24) during hours 1-3 and 7-9 of the dark period. Rats had free access to both a 45% fat solid diet and a 29% fat liquid diet; intakes were determined from continuous computer recording of changes in food container weights. To sustain a 15-25% reduction in daily caloric intake, the initial PYY(3-36) dose of 30 pmol.kg(-1).min(-1) was reduced to 10 pmol.kg(-1).min(-1) on day 10 and then increased to 17 pmol.kg(-1).min(-1) on day 13. This dosing strategy produced a sustained reduction in daily caloric intake of 11-32% and prevented body weight gain (8 +/- 6 vs. 51 +/- 11 g) and fat deposition (4.4 +/- 7.6 vs. 41.0 +/- 12.8 g). These results indicate that intermittent intraperitoneal infusion of PYY(3-36) can produce a sustained reduction in food intake and adiposity in diet-induced obese rodents consuming palatable high-fat foods.

  12. Effect of daily concentrate intake at weaning on performance of Belgian Blue double-muscled rearing calves.

    PubMed

    Fiems, Leo; De Boever, Johan; De Campeneere, Sam; Vanacker, José; De Brabander, Daniël

    2005-12-01

    Weaning at a different daily concentrate intake was investigated during a 140-d experimental period, using 54 male and 68 female newborn Belgian Blue double-muscled animals. They were divided into three comparable groups and received milk at 10% of their birth weight up to weaning. Concentrate was levelled off at a maximum daily intake of 3 kg, while grass hay was freely available. Weaning occurred at a daily concentrate intake level (CL) of 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 kg, respectively. Weaning at an increased CL prolonged the milk-feeding period by 13.1 and 14.6 days, and resulted in a higher pre- and post-weaning growth rate (p < 0.05). Daily gain during the entire experimental period averaged 0.84, 0.85 and 0.88 kg for the respective groups (p = 0.065). Daily concentrate intake was not different among groups, with only a small effect of CL on intake around weaning. Early weaning resulted in a significant reduction of hay intake (p = 0.032). Total daily net energy intake increased slightly with a higher CL at weaning, so that energy conversion was slightly improved, amounting to 17.7, 17.6 and 17.4 MJ/kg gain, respectively. Energy balance during the first week after weaning was negative for CL 0.5 kg (-22%), while it was close to 0 for CL 0.75 kg (-2%) or positive for CL 1.0 kg. Most effects of CL at weaning were similar for males and females, but male calves tended to have a higher intake and a faster growth rate than females. It can be concluded that weaning should be delayed until Belgian Blue double-muscled calves consume at least 0.75 kg per day or more for reasons of welfare, although performance was hardly improved by weaning at a daily concentrate intake of more than 0.5 kg per day. PMID:16429825

  13. Effect of daily concentrate intake at weaning on performance of Belgian Blue double-muscled rearing calves.

    PubMed

    Fiems, Leo; De Boever, Johan; De Campeneere, Sam; Vanacker, José; De Brabander, Daniël

    2005-12-01

    Weaning at a different daily concentrate intake was investigated during a 140-d experimental period, using 54 male and 68 female newborn Belgian Blue double-muscled animals. They were divided into three comparable groups and received milk at 10% of their birth weight up to weaning. Concentrate was levelled off at a maximum daily intake of 3 kg, while grass hay was freely available. Weaning occurred at a daily concentrate intake level (CL) of 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 kg, respectively. Weaning at an increased CL prolonged the milk-feeding period by 13.1 and 14.6 days, and resulted in a higher pre- and post-weaning growth rate (p < 0.05). Daily gain during the entire experimental period averaged 0.84, 0.85 and 0.88 kg for the respective groups (p = 0.065). Daily concentrate intake was not different among groups, with only a small effect of CL on intake around weaning. Early weaning resulted in a significant reduction of hay intake (p = 0.032). Total daily net energy intake increased slightly with a higher CL at weaning, so that energy conversion was slightly improved, amounting to 17.7, 17.6 and 17.4 MJ/kg gain, respectively. Energy balance during the first week after weaning was negative for CL 0.5 kg (-22%), while it was close to 0 for CL 0.75 kg (-2%) or positive for CL 1.0 kg. Most effects of CL at weaning were similar for males and females, but male calves tended to have a higher intake and a faster growth rate than females. It can be concluded that weaning should be delayed until Belgian Blue double-muscled calves consume at least 0.75 kg per day or more for reasons of welfare, although performance was hardly improved by weaning at a daily concentrate intake of more than 0.5 kg per day.

  14. Assessment of daily food and nutrient intake in Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients using dietary reference intakes.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yukiko; Hattori, Mikako; Wada, Sayori; Iwase, Hiroya; Kadono, Mayuko; Tatsumi, Hina; Kuwahata, Masashi; Fukui, Michiaki; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Kido, Yasuhiro

    2013-06-26

    Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1) assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2) characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females) aged 40-79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1) the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2) excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3) excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation.

  15. Bone quality associated with daily intake of coffee: a biochemical, radiographic and histometric study.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Suzie Aparecida; Matuoka, Renata Inahara; Macedo, Rander Moreira; Petenusci, Sergio Olavo; Campos, Alessandra Aparecida; Brentegani, Luiz Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine induces loss of calcium and influences the normal development of bone. This study investigated the effects of coffee on bone metabolism in rats by biochemical measurement of calcium, bone densitometry and histometry. Male rats, born of female treated daily with coffee and with coffee intake since born, were anesthetized, subjected to extraction of the upper right incisor, and sacrificed 7, 21 and 42 days after surgery. Blood and urine samples were taken, and their maxilla radiographed and processed to obtain 5-µm-thick semi-serial sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The volume and bone quality were estimated using an image-analysis software. The results showed significantly greater amount of calcium in the plasma (9.40 ± 1.73 versus 9.80 ± 2.05 mg%) and urine (1.00 ± 0.50 versus 1.25 ± 0.70 mg/24 h) and significantly less amount in bone (90.0 ± 1.94 versus 86.0 ± 2.12 mg/mg bone), reduced bone mineral density (1.05 ± 0.11 versus 0.65 ± 0.15 mmAL), and lower amount of bone (76.19 ± 1.6 versus 53.41 ± 2.1 %) (ANOVA; p≤0.01) in animals treated with coffee sacrificed after 42 days. It may be concluded that coffee/caffeine intake caused serious adverse effects on calcium metabolism in rats, including increased levels of calcium in the urine and plasma, decreased bone mineral density and lower volume of bone, thus delaying the bone repair process. PMID:21203700

  16. Environmental factors affecting daily water intake on cattle finished in feedlots.

    PubMed

    Arias, R A; Mader, T L

    2011-01-01

    Records from 7 studies conducted during 1999 to 2005 were utilized to assess the effects of environmental factors on daily water intake (DWI) of finishing cattle. Data from unshaded feedlot pens (up to 24 pens utilized per study; 6 to 9 animals·pen(-1)) containing predominantly Angus crossbred cattle were obtained by dividing total water intake by the number of animals utilizing that waterer. Each waterer was shared by 2 pens; therefore, data were derived from a database containing 72 experimental units comprising 144 pen records. Climatic data were compiled from weather stations located at the feedlot facility. The database included daily measures of mean ambient (Ta), maximum (Tmax), and minimum (Tmin) temperature (°C), precipitation, relative humidity (%), wind speed (m•s(-1)), solar radiation (SR, W•m(-2)), and temperature-humidity index (THI), as well as DMI (kg•d(-1)) and DWI (L•d(-1)). Simple and multiple regression analyses were conducted by season and for the overall data set. Results confirmed that DWI increases during the summer (P < 0.01). When seasons were combined and analyzed by linear regression, the best predictors of DWI were THI (r(2) = 0.57), Ta (r(2) = 0.57), Tmin (r(2) = 0.56), and Tmax (r(2) = 0.54). In multiple regression analyses, smaller coefficients of determination (R(2) < 0.25) were found within summer and winter seasons. Across season, the largest R(2) (0.65) were obtained from the following prediction equations: 1) DWI = 5.92 + (1.03•DMI) + (0.04•SR) + (0.45•Tmin); and 2) DWI = -7.31 + (1.00•DMI) + (0.04•SR) + (0.30•THI). In conclusion, Ta, Tmin, and THI were found to be the primary factors that influence DWI in finishing cattle, whereas SR and DMI were found to have a smaller influence on DWI.

  17. Daily intake of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc from drinking water: the Seattle study of trace metal exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Sharrett, A.R.; Carter, A.P.; Orheim, R.M.; Feinleib, M.

    1982-08-01

    The daily intake of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc from drinking water is estimated for men, women, and children living in Seattle based on their reported water consumption and the metal concentrations in water from their homes. Metal concentrations were closely associated with the type of plumbing in the home, which was found to be accurately reported by the subjects. Residents of homes with copper plumbing consumed a substantial proportion of their daily required copper from their drinking water, an important finding in view of the possible suboptimal copper levels in American diets. Lead intake levels from water in new homes was comparable to estimated U.S. dietary intakes, but was low relative to levels thought to be toxic. The results suggest practical methods for assessing the associations of chronic diseases with long-term, low-level exposures to these metals.

  18. Urinary excretion of arsenicals following daily intake of various seafoods during a two weeks intervention.

    PubMed

    Molin, M; Ulven, S M; Dahl, L; Goessler, W; Fliegel, D; Holck, M; Sloth, J J; Oshaug, A; Alexander, J; Meltzer, H M; Ydersbond, T A

    2014-04-01

    The excretion pattern of arsenic (As) species after seafood intake varies widely depending on species ingested and individual handling. We have previously reported the 72 h urinary excretion of arsenicals following a single dose of seafood. Here, we report the excretion patterns in the same 37 subjects following 15 days daily consumption of either 150 g cod, salmon, blue mussels or potato (control), followed by a 72 h period with a low-As diet. In all seafood groups, total As (tAs) in plasma and urinary excretion of tAs, arsenobetaine (AB) and dimethylarsinate (DMA) increased significantly after the intervention. Confirming the single dose study AB and DMA excreted were apparently endogenously formed from other arsenicals ingested. Total tAs excretion was 1386, 763 and 303 μg in the cod, blue mussel and salmon groups, respectively; about twice the amounts after the single dose study indicating accumulation of arsenicals. In the cod group, rapid excretion after the single dose was associated with lower total As in blood and less accumulation after two weeks with seafood indicating lower accumulation. In the blue mussels group only, inorganic As (iAs) excretion increased significantly, whilst methylarsonate (MA) strongly increased, indicating a possible toxicological concern of repeated mussel consumption. PMID:24468672

  19. Chromium and iron content in duplicate meals at a university residence: daily intake and dialysability.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Mesías, Marta

    2011-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine total Cr and Fe content and the corresponding mineral dialysable fraction in a total of sixty-three duplicate meals. Samples of breakfast, lunch and dinner were taken over twenty-one consecutive days at a female university residence in Granada (Spain). Cr content in the duplicate daily meals ranged from 98·50 to 120·80 μg, with a mean of 110·00 μg, and Fe levels ranged from 9·50 to 40·00 mg, with a mean content of 18·50 mg. The mean Cr and Fe dialysable fractions ranged from 0·50 to 1·50 % and from 7·75 to 11·80 %, respectively. Possible correlations with energy and other nutrient intakes were also evaluated. Adherence of the meals to the Mediterranean dietary patterns was tested, and these findings reveal that a balanced and varied diet based on a Mediterranean-style diet plan provides adequate levels and bioaccessibility of Cr and Fe for young women, which is especially important to avoid mineral deficiencies. PMID:21269534

  20. Dietary intake of pesticide chemicals. Calculated daily consumption of pesticides with foods are discussed and compared with currently accepted values.

    PubMed

    Duggan, R E; Weatherwax, J R

    1967-09-01

    Residues of chlorinated organic pesticide chemicals were commonly found in all diet samples and all food classes within samples except beverages at a daily intake of 0.0014 mg per kilogram of body weight. Meat, fish, and poultry were the major source of pesticide residues and, when combined with dairy products, account for more than half of the intake of chlorinated organic pesticide chemicals. Fruits, garden fruits, and grain foods each accounted for about 10 percent of the intake of chlorinated pesticides. The DDT, its two analogs, dieldrin, lindane, and heptachlor epoxide account for 85 percent of the total intake of chlorinated pesticides. A single pesticide, DDT, accounts for one-third of the total. There was no statistically significant change in frequency or quantities of these compounds during this study. Frequency and quantities of the 14 additional chlorinated pesticides were too low to be meaningful.

  1. Multiple trait model combining random regressions for daily feed intake with single measured performance traits of growing pigs

    PubMed Central

    Schnyder, Urs; Hofer, Andreas; Labroue, Florence; Künzi, Niklaus

    2002-01-01

    A random regression model for daily feed intake and a conventional multiple trait animal model for the four traits average daily gain on test (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass lean content and meat quality index were combined to analyse data from 1 449 castrated male Large White pigs performance tested in two French central testing stations in 1997. Group housed pigs fed ad libitum with electronic feed dispensers were tested from 35 to 100 kg live body weight. A quadratic polynomial in days on test was used as a regression function for weekly means of daily feed intake and to escribe its residual variance. The same fixed (batch) and random (additive genetic, pen and individual permanent environmental) effects were used for regression coefficients of feed intake and single measured traits. Variance components were estimated by means of a Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling. Four Gibbs chains were run for 550 000 rounds each, from which 50 000 rounds were discarded from the burn-in period. Estimates of posterior means of covariance matrices were calculated from the remaining two million samples. Low heritabilities of linear and quadratic regression coefficients and their unfavourable genetic correlations with other performance traits reveal that altering the shape of the feed intake curve by direct or indirect selection is difficult. PMID:11929625

  2. Multiple trait model combining random regressions for daily feed intake with single measured performance traits of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Schnyder, Urs; Hofer, Andreas; Labroue, Florence; Künzi, Niklaus

    2002-01-01

    A random regression model for daily feed intake and a conventional multiple trait animal model for the four traits average daily gain on test (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass lean content and meat quality index were combined to analyse data from 1449 castrated male Large White pigs performance tested in two French central testing stations in 1997. Group housed pigs fed ad libitum with electronic feed dispensers were tested from 35 to 100 kg live body weight. A quadratic polynomial in days on test was used as a regression function for weekly means of daily feed intake and to describe its residual variance. The same fixed (batch) and random (additive genetic, pen and individual permanent environmental) effects were used for regression coefficients of feed intake and single measured traits. Variance components were estimated by means of a Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling. Four Gibbs chains were run for 550000 rounds each, from which 50000 rounds were discarded from the burn-in period. Estimates of posterior means of covariance matrices were calculated from the remaining two million samples. Low heritabilities of linear and quadratic regression coefficients and their unfavourable genetic correlations with other performance traits reveal that altering the shape of the feed intake curve by direct or indirect selection is difficult.

  3. Daily dry matter intake to sustain body weight of mature, nonlactating, nonpregnant cows.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T G; Ferrell, C L

    2007-07-01

    To quantify the relationship between DM consumption, the ability to sustain BW per unit of DMI (BW stasis), and days to reach BW equilibrium among diverse cattle breeds, weekly individual cow BW and DMI data were recorded for mature, nonpregnant, and nonlactating cows sampled from Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Hereford, Gelbvieh, Limousin, Pinzgauer, Red Poll, and Simmental breeds. Within each breed, cows were assigned to receive 1 of 4 daily DM allowances (56, 76, 93, or 111 g.BW(-0.75, kg)) of a ground alfalfa hay-corn grain-based diet. Cows were housed in pens (space for 4 animals/pen) in open-front barns and fed individually using head gates. During the first 60 d of the experiment, BW were recorded every 28 d, after which BW were recorded on a weekly basis until the cows were determined to have attained BW equilibrium. Individual cows were determined to be at BW equilibrium when the rate of weekly BW change did not differ from 0 over an 8-wk period. The number of days to reach BW equilibrium was not affected (P > 0.79) by breed but was affected by the daily DM allowance (P < 0.003). The number of days required to attain BW equilibrium was greater as the rate of feeding (g of DM fed.BW(-0.75)) increased and ranged from 103 to 136 d. Within breed linear and the pooled quadratic regressions were significant for BW. Observed breed differences varied with feeding rate. Weight stasis estimates for mature Red Poll cows (68.3 +/- 3.8) differed (P < 0.05) from estimates for all the breeds, with the exception of Limousin (72.0 +/- 3.8), Braunvieh (74.0 +/- 4.8), and Pinzgauer (75.5 +/- 3.8) cows at the lowest feeding rate. At the 111 g.BW(-0.75) daily DM allowance, the estimates for Limousin (82.2 +/- 3.8) were greater (P < 0.05) than for the other breeds, with the exception of the Pinzgauer (81.0 +/- 4.3) and Braunvieh (75.7 +/- 3.9), which were similar to the remaining breeds in the study (P > 0.05). The change in rank of breed estimates for BW stasis suggests a breed

  4. Zinc levels in foods from southeastern Spain: relationship to daily dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Terrés, C; Navarro, M; Martín-Lagos, F; Giménez, R; López, H; López, M C

    2001-08-01

    The zinc content of 300 food and 79 beverage samples was determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Sample recoveries, repeatability, and analyses of NIST and CBR-CEC reference materials demonstrated the reliability and accuracy of this technique. Mean zinc concentrations varied from 0.02 microg/ml in fresh water to 71.0 microg/g (fresh weight) in pork liver. The daily dietary intake of zinc for inhabitants of southeastern Spain was estimated to be 10.1 mg (5.5, 4.0, 0.5, and 0.1 mg Zn/day per person from foods of animal and vegetable origin, drinks, and other foods, respectively). Zinc levels found in high protein foods (meat, fish, milk products, eggs, dry fruits, cereals and legumes) were significantly higher than those found in food with a low protein content (vegetables, fruits and drinks) (p < 0.001). A significant linear correlation between zinc levels and the corresponding protein content of cereals, legumes and dry fruits was found (r = 0.754, p < 0.005). Zinc concentrations in milk samples were significantly modified by the thermal treatment (p < 0.001), and the skimming (p < 0.05) and calcium enrichment processes (p < 0.001). Shellfish zinc levels were also significantly higher than those measured in fish (p < 0.05). Mean zinc concentrations found in cheese were statistically higher than those determined in the remaining milk products (p < 0.001). Zinc levels measured in distilled beverages were also statistically lower than those found in fermented ones (p < 0.001).

  5. The daily rhythm of milk synthesis is dependent on the timing of feed intake in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Rottman, L. Whitney; Ying, Yun; Zhou, Kan; Bartell, Paul A.; Harvatine, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Regulation of the daily rhythm of milk synthesis is important to production animals and breastfeeding, but is difficult to observe in nursing animals. The rate of food intake varies over the day and is expected to create a daily rhythm of nutrient absorption. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of food intake entrains a daily pattern of milk synthesis. Seventeen Holstein cows were used in a crossover design. Treatments were ad libitum feeding of a total mixed ration once daily (1× fed) or fed in four equal meals every 6 h (4× fed). Cows were milked every 6 h the last 7 days of each period. There was a treatment by time of day interaction for milk and milk component yield and concentration. Milk fat and protein concentration and yield exhibited a daily rhythm and the amplitude of the rhythm was reduced in 4× fed. In addition, milk fat percent was higher in 4× fed than 1× fed at three of the four milking intervals (0.22–0.45% higher) and 4× fed increased daily milk fat yield. Treatment by time of day interactions were detected for plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen. These variables also fit a cosine function with a 24 h period and the amplitudes of plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen rhythms were decreased by 4× feeding. In conclusion, there is a circadian pattern of milk synthesis in the dairy cow that is responsive to the timing of food intake. PMID:24963033

  6. Heritability of electronically recorded daily body weight and correlations with yield, dry matter intake, and body condition score.

    PubMed

    Toshniwal, J K; Dechow, C D; Cassell, B G; Appuhamy, J A D R N; Varga, G A

    2008-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate heritability for daily body weight (BW) and genetic correlations of daily BW with daily milk yield (MY), body condition score (BCS), dry matter intake, fat yield, and protein yield. The Afiweigh cow body weighing system records BW of every cow exiting the milking parlor. The Afiweigh system was installed at the Pennsylvania State University dairy herd in August 2001 and in July 2004 at the Virginia Tech dairy herd. The edited data included 202,143 daily BW and 290,930 daily MY observations from 575 Pennsylvania State University and 120 Virginia Tech Holstein cows. Data were initially analyzed with a series of 4-trait animal models, followed by random regression models. The models included fixed effects for age within lactation group, week of lactation, and herd-date. Random effects included animal, permanent environment, and error. The order of the polynomials for random animal and permanent environmental effects with the random regression model for daily BW was 4 and 6, respectively. Heritability estimates for daily BW ranged from 0.48 to 0.57 and were largest between 200 and 230 and smallest at 305 d of lactation. Genetic correlations were large between BW and BCS (0.60). The genetic correlation between daily BW and MY was -0.14 but was positive (0.24) after adjusting for BCS. Electronically recorded daily BW is highly heritable, and genetic evaluations of daily BW and BW change across the lactation could be used to select for less early lactation BW loss.

  7. Estimating daily methane production in individual cattle with irregular feed intake patterns from short-term methane emission measurements.

    PubMed

    Cottle, D J; Velazco, J; Hegarty, R S; Mayer, D G

    2015-12-01

    Spot measurements of methane emission rate (n = 18 700) by 24 Angus steers fed mixed rations from GrowSafe feeders were made over 3- to 6-min periods by a GreenFeed emission monitoring (GEM) unit. The data were analysed to estimate daily methane production (DMP; g/day) and derived methane yield (MY; g/kg dry matter intake (DMI)). A one-compartment dose model of spot emission rate v. time since the preceding meal was compared with the models of Wood (1967) and Dijkstra et al. (1997) and the average of spot measures. Fitted values for DMP were calculated from the area under the curves. Two methods of relating methane and feed intakes were then studied: the classical calculation of MY as DMP/DMI (kg/day); and a novel method of estimating DMP from time and size of preceding meals using either the data for only the two meals preceding a spot measurement, or all meals for 3 days prior. Two approaches were also used to estimate DMP from spot measurements: fitting of splines on a 'per-animal per-day' basis and an alternate approach of modelling DMP after each feed event by least squares (using Solver), summing (for each animal) the contributions from each feed event by best-fitting a one-compartment model. Time since the preceding meal was of limited value in estimating DMP. Even when the meal sizes and time intervals between a spot measurement and all feeding events in the previous 72 h were assessed, only 16.9% of the variance in spot emission rate measured by GEM was explained by this feeding information. While using the preceding meal alone gave a biased (underestimate) of DMP, allowing for a longer feed history removed this bias. A power analysis taking into account the sources of variation in DMP indicated that to obtain an estimate of DMP with a 95% confidence interval within 5% of the observed 64 days mean of spot measures would require 40 animals measured over 45 days (two spot measurements per day) or 30 animals measured over 55 days. These numbers suggest that

  8. Estimating daily methane production in individual cattle with irregular feed intake patterns from short-term methane emission measurements.

    PubMed

    Cottle, D J; Velazco, J; Hegarty, R S; Mayer, D G

    2015-12-01

    Spot measurements of methane emission rate (n = 18 700) by 24 Angus steers fed mixed rations from GrowSafe feeders were made over 3- to 6-min periods by a GreenFeed emission monitoring (GEM) unit. The data were analysed to estimate daily methane production (DMP; g/day) and derived methane yield (MY; g/kg dry matter intake (DMI)). A one-compartment dose model of spot emission rate v. time since the preceding meal was compared with the models of Wood (1967) and Dijkstra et al. (1997) and the average of spot measures. Fitted values for DMP were calculated from the area under the curves. Two methods of relating methane and feed intakes were then studied: the classical calculation of MY as DMP/DMI (kg/day); and a novel method of estimating DMP from time and size of preceding meals using either the data for only the two meals preceding a spot measurement, or all meals for 3 days prior. Two approaches were also used to estimate DMP from spot measurements: fitting of splines on a 'per-animal per-day' basis and an alternate approach of modelling DMP after each feed event by least squares (using Solver), summing (for each animal) the contributions from each feed event by best-fitting a one-compartment model. Time since the preceding meal was of limited value in estimating DMP. Even when the meal sizes and time intervals between a spot measurement and all feeding events in the previous 72 h were assessed, only 16.9% of the variance in spot emission rate measured by GEM was explained by this feeding information. While using the preceding meal alone gave a biased (underestimate) of DMP, allowing for a longer feed history removed this bias. A power analysis taking into account the sources of variation in DMP indicated that to obtain an estimate of DMP with a 95% confidence interval within 5% of the observed 64 days mean of spot measures would require 40 animals measured over 45 days (two spot measurements per day) or 30 animals measured over 55 days. These numbers suggest that

  9. Consuming More of Daily Caloric Intake at Dinner Predisposes to Obesity. A 6-Year Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Simona; Musso, Giovanni; Beccuti, Guglielmo; Fadda, Maurizio; Fedele, Debora; Gambino, Roberto; Gentile, Luigi; Durazzo, Marilena; Ghigo, Ezio; Cassader, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives It has been hypothesized that assuming most of the caloric intake later in the day leads to metabolic disadvantages, but few studies are available on this topic. Aim of our study was to prospectively examine whether eating more of the daily caloric intake at dinner leads to an increased risk of obesity, hyperglycemia, metabolic syndrome, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Subjects/Methods 1245 non-obese, non-diabetic middle-aged adults from a population-based cohort underwent a 3-day food record questionnaire at enrollment. Anthropometric values, blood pressure, blood metabolic variables, and estimated liver fat were measured at baseline and at 6-year follow-up. Design Prospective cohort study. Results Subjects were divided according to tertiles of percent daily caloric intake at dinner. A significant increase in the incidence rate of obesity (from 4.7 to 11.4%), metabolic syndrome (from 11.1 to 16.1%), and estimated NAFLD (from 16.5 to 23.8%) was observed from the lower to higher tertile. In a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for multiple covariates, subjects in the highest tertile showed an increased risk of developing obesity (OR = 2.33; 95% CI 1.17–4.65; p = 0.02), metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.52; 95% CI 1.01–2.30; p = 0.04), and NAFLD (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.10–2.22; p = 0.01). Conclusions Consuming more of the daily energy intake at dinner is associated with an increased risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and NAFLD. PMID:25250617

  10. Essential and toxic metals in taros (Colocasia esculenta) cultivated in the Canary Islands (Spain): evaluation of content and estimate of daily intake.

    PubMed

    Luis-González, Gara; Rubio, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Ángel; González-Weller, Dailos; Revert, Consuelo; Hardisson, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Taros are a staple in the diet of many people around the world, and they are an excellent source of minerals. Monitoring the levels of metals in food provides basic information that is useful from the perspectives of safety, regulation, and nutrition. Forty-two samples of taros were randomly obtained from supermarkets, vegetable markets, and farmer's plots on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The edible portion (pulp) was the only part considered for analysis. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to determine the contents of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. The levels of Cr, Ni, Cd, and Pb were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Mean concentrations (mg/kg) were 565.6 Na, 2947 K, 231.4 Ca, 364.5 Mg, 1.224 Cu, 3.818 Fe, 1.408 Mn, 2.242 Zn, 0.044 Cr, 0.021 Ni, 0.003 Cd, and 0.006 Pb. The mean concentrations of Cd and Pb were well below the accepted European Commission limits (0.1 mg/kg weight for both metals, respectively). Daily consumption of taro (10.41 g taro/person/day) contributes to the dietary intake of essential metals and trace elements, mainly Mg (1.265% in adult women and 1.084% in adult men) and Cu (1.182% for adult men and women). The average daily intakes of Cd (0.031 μg/day) and Pb (0.062 μg/day) from taro were below the legislated respective tolerable weekly intakes (TWIs). Thus, the samples analyzed were considered safe to eat based on their metal concentrations and legislated allowable intakes. PMID:25412891

  11. Essential and toxic metals in taros (Colocasia esculenta) cultivated in the Canary Islands (Spain): evaluation of content and estimate of daily intake.

    PubMed

    Luis-González, Gara; Rubio, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Ángel; González-Weller, Dailos; Revert, Consuelo; Hardisson, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Taros are a staple in the diet of many people around the world, and they are an excellent source of minerals. Monitoring the levels of metals in food provides basic information that is useful from the perspectives of safety, regulation, and nutrition. Forty-two samples of taros were randomly obtained from supermarkets, vegetable markets, and farmer's plots on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The edible portion (pulp) was the only part considered for analysis. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to determine the contents of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. The levels of Cr, Ni, Cd, and Pb were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Mean concentrations (mg/kg) were 565.6 Na, 2947 K, 231.4 Ca, 364.5 Mg, 1.224 Cu, 3.818 Fe, 1.408 Mn, 2.242 Zn, 0.044 Cr, 0.021 Ni, 0.003 Cd, and 0.006 Pb. The mean concentrations of Cd and Pb were well below the accepted European Commission limits (0.1 mg/kg weight for both metals, respectively). Daily consumption of taro (10.41 g taro/person/day) contributes to the dietary intake of essential metals and trace elements, mainly Mg (1.265% in adult women and 1.084% in adult men) and Cu (1.182% for adult men and women). The average daily intakes of Cd (0.031 μg/day) and Pb (0.062 μg/day) from taro were below the legislated respective tolerable weekly intakes (TWIs). Thus, the samples analyzed were considered safe to eat based on their metal concentrations and legislated allowable intakes.

  12. Levels, fingerprint and daily intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bread baked using wood as fuel.

    PubMed

    Orecchio, Santino; Papuzza, Vera

    2009-05-30

    Concentrations, fingerprint and daily intake of 16 PAHs in 15 bread samples baked using wood as fuel are examined in this work. Analysis was performed by GC/MS after saponification of the samples and clean up of the extract. The total concentration of the 16 analytes varies from 6 to 230 microg/kg on dry weight (d.w.). The better extraction procedure was estimated by analyzing test-samples and using different extraction methods. Additionally, for every analyzed sample, the extraction yield has been determined by the use of surrogate standards. Extraction yields were never less than 77% and in most cases almost 100%. The profiles of PAHs (percentage) are similar for all the analyzed samples but are different from those reported when other types of fuels are taken in consideration. The daily intake of PAHs was found to range between 1.6 and 68 microg day(-1), while the intake of B[a]P ranges from 0.33 to 8.0 microg day(-1). These results are considerably lower than the slope factor for 14 of the 15 analyzed samples. PMID:18842340

  13. Natural occurrence of deoxynivalenol in wheat from Paraná State, Brazil and estimated daily intake by wheat products.

    PubMed

    Sifuentes dos Santos, Joice; Souza, Thiago Montagner; Ono, Elisabete Yurie Sataque; Hashimoto, Elisabete Hiromi; Bassoi, Manoel Carlos; de Miranda, Martha Zavariz; Itano, Eiko Nakagawa; Kawamura, Osamu; Hirooka, Elisa Yoko

    2013-05-01

    The occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) was evaluated in 113 wheat samples from the northern and central/southwestern regions of Paraná State, Brazil during the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons, and this rate of occurrence was used to estimate the DON dietary exposure. The DON determination was carried out by an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. DON was detected in 66.4% samples at levels ranging from 206.3 to 4732.3 μg/kg (mean 1894.9 μg/kg). The estimated daily intake (EDI) of DON through bread and pasta was evaluated in the inhabitants of Londrina City in northern Paraná State, Brazil. The average intake of these inhabitants was 0.79 μg/kg body weight (b.w.) for bread and 0.35 μg/kg b.w. for pasta. The total EDI was 1.13 μg/kg, which is above the Provisional Tolerable Daily Maximum Intake (PTDMI) of 1 μg/kg b.w. To our knowledge, this is the first report on natural DON occurrence in wheat and DON dietary exposure estimation from Paraná, Brazil.

  14. Effects of milk replacer program fed 2 or 4 times daily on nutrient intake and calf growth.

    PubMed

    Kmicikewycz, A D; da Silva, D N L; Linn, J G; Litherland, N B

    2013-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if feeding frequency (FF) of milk replacer (MR; meals/d) alters starter intake, growth, and efficiency of growth in nursery calves fed a conventional or accelerated MR. We hypothesized that smaller and more frequent MR meals would increase starter intake and growth when greater amounts of MR nutrients are fed to nursery calves. Forty-eight Holstein and Holstein-cross heifer and bull calves were assigned to treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of MR and FF. Treatments included (1) standard 20% CP and 20% fat MR fed at 1.5% of body weight (BW; 2 meals/d; STD2), (2) standard 20% CP and 20% fat MR fed at 1.5% of BW (4 meals/d; STD4), (3) modified 26% CP and 18% fat MR fed at 2.0% of BW (2 meals/d; MOD2), and (4) modified 26% CP and 18% fat MR fed at 2.0% of BW (4 meals/d; MOD4; n=12). All calves were fed at 0600 and 1700 h and STD4 and MOD4 calves were fed 2 additional meals at 1100 and 1400 h, resulting in the same amount of MR offered for the 2 × and 4 × treatments. Treatments were fed from d 2 to 42 of age and all MR feeding rates were adjusted weekly to maintain MR solids intakes at 1.5 or 2.0% of BW for STD and MOD diets, respectively, and were reconstituted to 15% total solids. Milk replacer FF was reduced by 50% on d 36 and calves were weaned on d 42. Calves were housed in hutches bedded with straw and offered water and a texturized 18% CP starter ad libitum. Calf body weight and body structure were measured weekly and starter intake and fecal scores were measured daily. Through both 42 and 56 d, calves fed MOD had greater CP and fat intake, resulting in increased average daily gain, heart girth, circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and muscle total lipid compared with calves fed STD diets. Calves fed MOD diets consumed less starter grain than STD calves but total dry matter intake was similar among treatments. Increased FF for STD calves resulted in greater starter intake at weaning but increasing FF

  15. Daily dry matter intake to sustain body weight of mature, nonlactating, nonpregnant cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To quantify the relationship between DM consumption, the ability to sustain weight per unit of DMI and days to reach weight equilibrium among diverse cattle breeds, weight and DM intake data were recorded for mature, non-pregnant and non-lactating cows sampled from Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Heref...

  16. Betel quid chewing as a source of manganese exposure: total daily intake of manganese in a Bangladeshi population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A relationship between betel quid chewing in Bangladeshi populations and the development of skin lesions and tremor has been previously reported, for people exposed to high levels of arsenic (As) through drinking contaminated groundwater. Exposure to manganese (Mn) is also known to induce neurotoxicity and levels of Mn in Bangladeshi groundwater are also high. The present study evaluates betel quid chewing as an overlooked source of Mn exposure in a Bangladeshi population. Methods Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine (1) urinary Mn levels for 15 chewers and 22 non-chewers from the ethnic Bangladeshi community in the United Kingdom, and (2) Mn levels in betel quids, its individual components and other Bangladeshi foods. Results Betel quid chewers displayed a significantly higher (P = 0.009) mean Mn concentration in urine (1.93 μg L-1) compared to non-chewers (0.62 μg L-1). High levels of Mn were detected in Piper betel leaves with an overall average of 135 mg kg-1 (range 26 -518 mg kg-1). The mean concentration of Mn in betel quid was 41 mg kg-1 (SD 27) and the daily intake of Mn in the Bangladeshi population was estimated to be 20.3 mg/day. Chewing six betel quids could contribute up to 18% of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn. Conclusion We have demonstrated that Mn in betel quids is an overlooked source of exposure to Mn in humans. Chewers display a 3.1 fold increased urinary Mn concentration compared to non-chewers. The practice of betel quid chewing contributes a high proportion of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn, which could make chewers in Bangladesh more vulnerable to Mn neurotoxicity. PMID:21299859

  17. Meta-analysis of the effect of pasture allowance on pasture intake, milk production, and grazing behavior of dairy cows grazing temperate grasslands.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Prieto, L A; Delagarde, R

    2013-10-01

    Daily pasture allowance (PA) is defined as the product of pregrazing pasture mass and offered area, and is the major grazing management factor determining pasture utilization per unit area and daily performance of grazing dairy cows. The objective of the present study was to perform a meta-analysis reviewing the effect of PA on pasture intake, milk production, milk composition, and grazing behavior of dairy cows. Experiments studying the effect of PA on pasture intake or milk production, which eventually included milk composition or grazing behavior data, or both, were selected to create a database. Papers were selected only if at least 2 PA were compared under the same experimental conditions, particularly the same pasture mass (i.e., where PA levels were only obtained through changes in daily offered area). The final database included 97 PA comparisons reported in 56 papers. For analytical purposes, the database was subdivided into 3 subsets that varied according to the estimation height (EH) at which PA was determined; that is, PA above ground level (PA₀ subset), PA above 2.5 to 3.5 cm (PA₃ subset), and PA above 4 to 5 cm (PA₅ subset). Statistical analyses were conducted independently on the PA₀, PA₃, and PA₅ subsets and on the whole database (global analysis) by using linear and nonlinear mixed-model procedures. The curves, either exponential, quadratic, or linear, describing the effects of PA on pasture intake, milk production, or grazing behavior of dairy cows are conceptually similar, whatever the EH. The equations describing these curves are, however, specific for each EH. Accordingly, from typical low to high PA, the increase in pasture intake (0.13 vs. 0.21 vs. 0.28 kg/kg of PA), milk production (0.11 vs. 0.17 vs. 0.24 kg/kg of PA), and milk solids production (0.008 vs. 0.010 vs. 0.013 kg/kg of PA) per kilogram of increase in PA was lower for PA₀ than for PA₃, and for PA₃ than for PA₅. Grazing time increased from low to medium PA and

  18. Daily intake assessment of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame from various processed foods in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, M-S; Suh, H-J; Yoo, W; Choi, S-H; Cho, Y-J; Cho, Y-H; Kim, C-J

    2005-11-01

    This study was carried out to estimate the daily intakes (EDIs) of artificial sweeteners such as saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame in order to evaluate the safety of the artificial sweeteners in Korea. A total of 274 food samples were selected from the foods considered to be representative sources of artificial sweeteners in the Korean diet and analysed by using HPLC with evaporative light scattering and ultraviolet detectors. In case of aspartame, the reference values were used without instrumental analysis. The EDIs of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame for average consumers were 0.028, 0.008, 4.9 and 0.14 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, respectively, and as a proportion of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) were not higher than 1% of ADI of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). For 90th percentile consumers, the EDIs of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame were 2.0, 0.20, 141 and 4.6 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, respectively, and as a proportion of the ADI, the EDIs of saccharin and aspartame were 40.7% and 11.4% of the ADI set by the JECFA, respectively. Because JECFA did not assign ADIs for stevioside and D-sorbitol, the values for these sweeteners were not compared. According to these results, the EDIs of artificial sweeteners such as saccharin and aspartame in Korea are significantly lower than ADI set by the JECFA.

  19. Estimation of daily aluminum intake in Japan based on food consumption inspection results: impact of food additives

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kyoko; Suzuki, Ippei; Kubota, Hiroki; Furusho, Noriko; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Yasukouchi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary aluminum (Al) intake by young children, children, youths, and adults in Japan was estimated using the market basket method. The Al content of food category (I–VII) samples for each age group was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Al content in processed foods and unprocessed foods ranged from 0.40 to 21.7 mg/kg and from 0.32 to 0.54 mg/kg, respectively. For processed foods in all age groups, the Al content in food category VI samples, sugar and confections/savories, was the highest, followed by those in category II, cereals. The daily dietary Al intake from processed foods was much larger than that from unprocessed foods. The mean weekly percentages of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2011) from processed foods for all age groups are 43.1, 22.4, 17.6 and 15.1%, respectively. Only the highest consumer Al exposure value (>P95) of the young children group exceeded the PTWI. PMID:25473496

  20. Estimation of daily aluminum intake in Japan based on food consumption inspection results: impact of food additives.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kyoko; Suzuki, Ippei; Kubota, Hiroki; Furusho, Noriko; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Yasukouchi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    Dietary aluminum (Al) intake by young children, children, youths, and adults in Japan was estimated using the market basket method. The Al content of food category (I-VII) samples for each age group was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Al content in processed foods and unprocessed foods ranged from 0.40 to 21.7 mg/kg and from 0.32 to 0.54 mg/kg, respectively. For processed foods in all age groups, the Al content in food category VI samples, sugar and confections/savories, was the highest, followed by those in category II, cereals. The daily dietary Al intake from processed foods was much larger than that from unprocessed foods. The mean weekly percentages of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2011) from processed foods for all age groups are 43.1, 22.4, 17.6 and 15.1%, respectively. Only the highest consumer Al exposure value (>P 95) of the young children group exceeded the PTWI.

  1. Daily intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers via dust and diet from an e-waste recycling area in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong; Lin, Zhenkun; Wu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Xiangping; Hu, Yabing; Li, Yanyan; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2014-07-15

    This study was designed to estimate the human risk to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure via two main exposure routes (dust and diet) in an e-waste recycling area in southern China. A total of 134 dust samples and 129 food samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The mean concentration of ΣPBDE in in-house dust (38,685ng/g dw) was higher than that in out-house dust (24,595ng/g). For food samples, the highest concentration of ΣPBDE was found in fish and shellfish (2755ng/kg ww), followed in descending order by eggs (2423ng/kg), cereals (2239ng/kg) and meat (1799ng/kg). The estimated total daily dietary intake of PBDEs was 1671ng/day for adults and 952ng/day for children. The present study indicated that dust intake was the dominant PBDE exposure route for children, and the dietary intake was the dominant PBDE exposure route for adults. Our findings revealed high PBDE concentrations in dust and food samples collected at the center of e-waste recycling area, raising significant health concerns for residents in this particular region, especially for children.

  2. Daily intake of heavy metals and nitrate through greenhouse cucumber and bell pepper consumption and potential health risks for human.

    PubMed

    Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Aghili, Forough; Sanaeiostovar, Azadeh

    2009-01-01

    Limited information is available on the health quality of greenhouse vegetables. Lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium, and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in greenhouse cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and their dietary intakes were determined. The non-cancer risk for NO3- was determined using the non-cancer hazard quotient. Lead non-cancer risk in children was calculated using the Integrated Exposure-Uptake Biokinetic model. Higher concentrations of cadmium, lead, and chromium were found in bell pepper than cucumber. The mean NO3- concentration in the greenhouse cucumber was about 2.7 times higher than the World Health Organization standard limit. Cadmium, lead, nickel, and chromium daily intake for different populations groups through consumption of the vegetables were < 0.01-0.04, 0.35-1.00, 0.03-0.24, and 0.05-0.27 microg/g, respectively. The dietary intake of NO3- for adult was greater than children. Elevated lead and NO3- concentrations in the greenhouse vegetables are important concerns for consumers. Potential health quality problems in greenhouse products have to be considered.

  3. Selenium in groundwater and its contribution towards daily dietary Se intake under different hydrogeological zones of Punjab, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhillon, Karaj S.; Dhillon, Surjit K.

    2016-02-01

    More than 750 groundwater samples collected from different hydrological zones of Punjab state in India were analysed for selenium and some quality parameters to determine suitability of groundwater for irrigation and drinking purpose. Selenium content varied from 0.01 to 35.6 μg L-1. Average Se content in groundwater was the highest in Northeastern Siwalik foothill zone (NSFZ) followed by Central zone (CZ) and Southwestern zone (SWZ). Majority of the water samples contained <10 μg Se L-1 - the safe limit for drinking purpose except one location each in SWZ and CZ and three locations in NSFZ. Only at one location, water contained >20 μg Se L-1 which is considered unsuitable for irrigation of crops. On the basis of pH, 42% of the samples were unfit for drinking in SWZ, 41% in CZ and 6% in NSFZ. Only in SWZ, 24% of the samples with high total dissolved salts were unfit for drinking and 18% unfit for irrigation purpose due to high EC. Selenium content in groundwater was inversely related to depth of water and the degree of relationship was higher for NSFZ (r = -0.342∗∗) followed by CZ (r = -0.157∗) and SWZ (r = -0.126∗). Depending on the amount of water consumed from 2 to 5 L, average Se intake varied from 1.66 to 6.39 μg d-1 and its contribution towards the recommended daily Se allowance ranged from 3.0% to 11.6% for women and 2.4% to 9.1% for men. Among the grain samples, 94% of wheat and 46% of rice contained Se above the deficiency limit of 100 μg kg-1. Thus, the residents in the study area primarily consuming wheat grains and drinking groundwater are getting adequate supply of Se. Among the materials tested for decreasing Se from drinking waters, scrap iron fillings showed potential for commercial use.

  4. Recommendations for fluoride limits in drinking water based on estimated daily fluoride intake in the Upper East Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Craig, Laura; Lutz, Alexandra; Berry, Kate A; Yang, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Both dental and skeletal fluorosis caused by high fluoride intake are serious public health concerns around the world. Fluorosis is particularly pronounced in developing countries where elevated concentrations of naturally occurring fluoride are present in the drinking water, which is the primary route of exposure. The World Health Organization recommended limit of fluoride in drinking water is 1.5 mg F(-) L(-1), which is also the upper limit for fluoride in drinking water for several other countries such as Canada, China, India, Australia, and the European Union. In the United States the enforceable limit is much higher at 4 mg F(-) L(-1), which is intended to prevent severe skeletal fluorosis but does not protect against dental fluorosis. Many countries, including the United States, also have notably lower unenforced recommended limits to protect against dental fluorosis. One consideration in determining the optimum fluoride concentration in drinking water is daily water intake, which can be high in hot climates such as in northern Ghana. The results of this study show that average water intake is about two times higher in Ghana than in more temperate climates and, as a result, the fluoride intake is higher. The results also indicate that to protect the Ghanaian population against dental fluorosis, the maximum concentration of fluoride in drinking water for children under 6-8 years should be 0.6 mg F(-) L(-1) (and lower in the first two years of life), and the limit for older children and adults should be 1.0 mg F(-) L(-1). However, when considering that water treatment is not cost-free, the most widely recommended limit of 1.5 mg F(-) L(-1) - which is currently the limit in Ghana--may be appropriate for older children and adults since they are not vulnerable to dental fluorosis once the tooth enamel is formed.

  5. Recommendations for fluoride limits in drinking water based on estimated daily fluoride intake in the Upper East Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Craig, Laura; Lutz, Alexandra; Berry, Kate A; Yang, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Both dental and skeletal fluorosis caused by high fluoride intake are serious public health concerns around the world. Fluorosis is particularly pronounced in developing countries where elevated concentrations of naturally occurring fluoride are present in the drinking water, which is the primary route of exposure. The World Health Organization recommended limit of fluoride in drinking water is 1.5 mg F(-) L(-1), which is also the upper limit for fluoride in drinking water for several other countries such as Canada, China, India, Australia, and the European Union. In the United States the enforceable limit is much higher at 4 mg F(-) L(-1), which is intended to prevent severe skeletal fluorosis but does not protect against dental fluorosis. Many countries, including the United States, also have notably lower unenforced recommended limits to protect against dental fluorosis. One consideration in determining the optimum fluoride concentration in drinking water is daily water intake, which can be high in hot climates such as in northern Ghana. The results of this study show that average water intake is about two times higher in Ghana than in more temperate climates and, as a result, the fluoride intake is higher. The results also indicate that to protect the Ghanaian population against dental fluorosis, the maximum concentration of fluoride in drinking water for children under 6-8 years should be 0.6 mg F(-) L(-1) (and lower in the first two years of life), and the limit for older children and adults should be 1.0 mg F(-) L(-1). However, when considering that water treatment is not cost-free, the most widely recommended limit of 1.5 mg F(-) L(-1) - which is currently the limit in Ghana--may be appropriate for older children and adults since they are not vulnerable to dental fluorosis once the tooth enamel is formed. PMID:26058000

  6. Phthalate metabolites in obese individuals undergoing weight loss: Urinary levels and estimation of the phthalates daily intake.

    PubMed

    Dirtu, Alin C; Geens, Tinne; Dirinck, Eveline; Malarvannan, Govindan; Neels, Hugo; Van Gaal, Luc; Jorens, Philippe G; Covaci, Adrian

    2013-09-01

    Human exposure to chemicals commonly encountered in our environment, like phthalates, is routinely assessed through urinary measurement of their metabolites. A particular attention is given to the specific population groups, such as obese, for which the dietary intake of environmental chemicals is higher. To evaluate the exposure to phthalates, nine phthalate metabolites (PMs) were analyzed in urine collected from obese individuals and a control population. Obese individuals lost weight through either bariatric surgery or a conservative weight loss program with dietary and lifestyle counseling. Urine samples were also collected from the obese individuals after 3, 6 and 12months of weight loss. Individual daily intakes of the corresponding phthalate diesters were estimated based on the urinary PM concentrations. A high variability was recorded for the levels of each PM in both obese and control urine samples showing the exposure to high levels of PMs in specific subgroups. The most important PM metabolite as percentage contribution to the total PM levels was mono-ethyl phthalate followed by the metabolites of di-butyl phthalate and di 2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP). No differences in the PM levels and profiles between obese entering the program and controls were observed. Although paralleled by a significant decrease of their weight, an increase in the urinary PM levels after 3 to 6months loss was seen. Constant figures for the estimated phthalates daily intake were observed over the studied period, suggesting that besides food consumption, other human exposure sources to phthalates (e.g. air, dust) might be also important. The weight loss treatment method followed by obese individuals influenced the correlations between PM levels, suggesting a change of the intake sources with time. Except for few gender differences recorded between the urinary DEHP metabolites correlations, no other differences were observed for the urinary PM levels as a function of age, body

  7. Substitution rate and milk yield response to corn silage supplementation of late-lactation dairy cows grazing low-mass pastures at 2 daily allowances in autumn.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Prieto, L A; Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R

    2011-07-01

    Feed costs in dairy production systems may be decreased by extending the grazing season to periods such as autumn when grazing low-mass pastures is highly probable. The aim of this autumn study was to determine the effect of corn silage supplementation [0 vs. 8 kg of dry matter (DM) of a mixture 7:1 of corn silage and soybean meal] on pasture intake (PI), milk production, and grazing behavior of dairy cows grazing low-mass ryegrass pastures at 2 daily pasture allowances (PA; low PA=18 vs. high PA=30 kg of DM/cow above 2.5 cm). Twelve multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Pre-grazing pasture mass and pre-grazing plate meter pasture height averaged 1.8 t of DM/ha (above 2.5 cm) and 6.3 cm, respectively. The quality of the offered pasture (above 2.5 cm) was low because of dry conditions before and during the experiment (crude protein=11.5% of DM; net energy for lactation=5.15 MJ/kg of DM; organic matter digestibility=61.9%). The interaction between PA and supplementation level was significant for PI but not for milk production. Supplementation decreased PI from 11.6 to 7.6 kg of DM/d at low PA and from 13.1 to 7.3 kg of DM/d at high PA. The substitution rate was, therefore, lower at low than at high PA (0.51 vs. 0.75). Pasture intake increased with increasing PA in unsupplemented treatments, and was not affected by PA in supplemented treatments. Milk production averaged 13.5 kg/d and was greater at high than at low PA (+1.4 kg/d) and in supplemented than unsupplemented treatments (+5.2 kg/d). Milk fat concentration averaged 4.39% and was similar between treatments. Milk protein concentration increased from 3.37 to 3.51% from unsupplemented to supplemented treatments, and did not vary according to PA. Grazing behavior parameters were only affected by supplementation. On average, daily grazing time decreased (539 vs. 436 min) and daily ruminating time increased (388 vs. 486 min) from 0 to 8 kg of supplement DM. The PI

  8. Selenium content in wheat and estimation of the selenium daily intake in different regions of Algeria.

    PubMed

    Beladel, B; Nedjimi, B; Mansouri, A; Tahtat, D; Belamri, M; Tchanchane, A; Khelfaoui, F; Benamar, M E A

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we have measured the selenium content in wheat produced locally in eight different regions of Algeria from east to west, and we have established the annual consumption of selenium for five socio-professional categories. Instrumental neutron activation analysis is used. The selenium levels in wheat samples varied from 21 (Tiaret) to 153 μg/kg (Khroub), with a mean value about 52 μg/kg. The mean of selenium daily consumption from ingestion of wheat per person in the eight regions varied from 32 to 52 μg/day which is close to the minimal FAO recommendation.

  9. Diel feeding patterns and daily food intake of juvenile stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, Takeshi; Katayama, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Shoji, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Pleuronectid flatfish are considered visual day feeders, but their ability to feed at night has not been examined in the field. Juvenile (age-0) stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus were collected, and their stomach contents were investigated in situ every 4 h over a 24-h period in an estuarine habitat to elucidate diel feeding periodicity. The weight of juvenile stomach contents was usually the highest around dusk and the main prey was bivalve siphons. To reveal whether juveniles feed only at particular times during the day or throughout a 24-h period, we conducted 24-h cage experiments in which 10 juveniles with empty stomachs were held in a cage for approximately 4 h (six trials). This experiment was carried out three times during different moon phases. Juveniles primarily ingested prey during the day, but 30% of fish that were caged at night also ingested prey. The number of successful captures by the caged fish was much greater during the day than that at night. These results indicate that stone flounder generally feed during the day and they may only feed at night under unusual situations, although they have the ability to capture prey at night. The mean daily ration estimated by diel changes in stomach content weight varied from 3.4% (95% confidence interval, 1.8-4.8%) to 13.2% (11.0-15.6%) of body weight between survey dates, indicating that daily food consumption by fish estimated from a single survey may be strongly biased.

  10. Estimated daily intakes of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) antioxidants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Suh, H-J; Chung, M-S; Cho, Y-H; Kim, J-W; Kim, D-H; Han, K-W; Kim, C-J

    2005-12-01

    The study was conducted to establish the estimated daily intake (EDI) of antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) in Korea. The EDIs were obtained from two sources. One of the estimations was based on the analytical determination of BHA, BHT and TBHQ in 12 food categories (ten food categories for TBHQ) and on individual dietary intake data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in 1998 (n=11 525, age > 1 year). The other EDIs of BHA, BHT and TBHQ were based on the maximum permitted levels specified in national food standards in Korea and on individual dietary intake data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in 1998 (n=11 525, age > 1 year). To establish the EDIs based on the analytical determination and on individual dietary intake data, 133 food samples in 12 food categories were selected from the foods considered to be representative sources of BHA, BHT and TBHQ in the Korean diet. Selected samples were analysed by GC with FID. BHA was not detected in any of the samples analysed. BHT and TBHQ were detected in the samples, but the levels were significantly lower than their maximum limits. The EDIs1 of BHT, and TBHQ for average consumers were 0.0156(-3), and 0.0012(-3) mg kg(-1) body weight bw day(-1) and as a proportion of the ADI were 0.0052 and 0.0002%, respectively. For 95th percentile consumers, the EDIs of BHT and TBHQ were 0.0080 and 0.0006 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), and as a proportion of the ADI were 2.67 and 0.09%, respectively. EDIs for BHA, BHT and TBHQ based on the maximum permitted levels and on individual dietary intake data were 0.04, 0.04 and 0.04 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. The EDIs of BHA, BHT and TBHQ for average consumers ranged from 6.00 to 14.42% of the ADI of each antioxidant. According to these results, the EDIs of BHA, BHT and TBHQ in Korea were significantly lower than ADI of these antioxidants established by the JECFA.

  11. Long-term daily intake estimates of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenylethers from food in Finnish children: risk assessment implications.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Anna K; Hirvonen, Tero; Kiviranta, Hannu; Sinkko, Harri; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Virtanen, Suvi M; Hallikainen, Anja; Leino, Olli; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Olli; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2012-01-01

    Food is contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) worldwide. Previous data show elevated intakes in children. We determined intakes of POPs in Finnish children. Because no children-specific safe limit values exist, we used tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) set for adults by international expert bodies to examine the proportion of the study population that exceed those limits. We utilised dietary monitoring data with food consumption of Finnish boys and girls aged 1-6 years, measured the contaminant concentrations in all the main food items and calculated age-specific contaminant sum and congener-specific long-term daily intake levels. Our food intake and contaminant data correspond to years 2002-2005. The long-term upper-bound dioxin intakes ranged between 0.1 and 12.8 pg WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ/kg bw/d (min and max). An immediate TDI for WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQs of 4.0 pg/kg bw/d were exceeded by 2.5%-7.5% of the children. PBDE long-term upper-bound intake was between 0.1 and 5.8 ng/kg bw/d (min and max). Congener-specific analyses indicated a typical Finnish adult exposure pattern of the children to PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs. The highest POP intakes were observed in children aged 3 years. Long-term daily PCDD/F, PCB and PBDE intakes among Finnish children varied greatly between individuals and ages. In each age group of the study population, there was a proportion of children with their WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ intake exceeding considered safe limits set for adults. Based on the exposure profile reported herein, children should be clearly considered as a specific sub-population in food-mediated contaminant risk assessment.

  12. PBBs, PBDEs, and PCBs in foods collected from e-waste disassembly sites and daily intake by local residents.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gaofeng; Zhou, Huaidong; Wang, Donghong; Zha, Jinmiao; Xu, Yiping; Rao, Kaifeng; Ma, Mei; Huang, Shengbiao; Wang, Zijian

    2009-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the total daily dietary intakes (TDIs) of three PHAHs subfamilies for residents living around the large e-waste disassembly sites in the Zhejiang province of China. A total of 191 food samples (including seven food groups and drinking water) were obtained from the disassembly sites and the control site in April, 2007. The levels of three PHAHs were measured by GC-MS. The estimated TDIs of PBBs (385.5 ng day(-1)), PBDEs (195.9 ng day(-1)), and PCBs (12,372.9 ng day(-1)) in the disassembly sites were approximately 2-3 times higher than those in the control site, which suggested that these PHAHs from e-waste might have entered into the food chain. Rice appeared to be the food group showing the highest contribution to the individual dietary intakes of these PHAHs. The estimated TDIs were also compared with those results reported recently in the literature and their respective reference doses by WHO (or Health Canada). By and large, although the estimated TDIs for the PHAHs under study were lower than their respective reference doses, they were obviously higher than those observed in other places listed in the literature, thus suggesting that residents living around the disassembly sites have been exposed to higher levels of PHAHs than those places, and might thus be at greater health risk. PMID:19200583

  13. Mineral composition of organically grown wheat genotypes: contribution to daily minerals intake.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Johansson, Eva

    2010-09-01

    In this study, 321 winter and spring wheat genotypes were analysed for twelve nutritionally important minerals (B, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, Mo, P, S and K). Some of the genotypes used were from multiple locations and years, resulting in a total number of 493 samples. Investigated genotypes were divided into six genotype groups i.e., selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars. For some of the investigated minerals higher concentrations were observed in selections, primitive wheat, and old cultivars as compared to more modern wheat material, e.g., cultivars and spelt wheat. Location was found to have a significant effect on mineral concentration for all genotype groups, although for primitive wheat, genotype had a higher impact than location. Spring wheat was observed to have significantly higher values for B, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, S and K as compared to winter wheat. Higher levels of several minerals were observed in the present study, as compared to previous studies carried out in inorganic systems, indicating that organic conditions with suitable genotypes may enhance mineral concentration in wheat grain. This study also showed that a very high mineral concentration, close to daily requirements, can be produced by growing specific primitive wheat genotypes in an organic farming system. Thus, by selecting genotypes for further breeding, nutritional value of the wheat flour for human consumption can be improved.

  14. Monitoring programme on nitrates in vegetables and vegetable-based baby foods marketed in the Region of Valencia, Spain: levels and estimated daily intake.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Marín, O; Yusà-Pelechà, V; Villalba-Martín, P; Perez-Dasí, J A

    2010-04-01

    This study was carried out to determine the current levels of nitrates in vegetables and vegetable-based baby foods (a total of 1150 samples) marketed in the Region of Valencia, Spain, over the period 2000-2008, and to estimate the toxicological risk associated with their intake. Average (median) levels of nitrate in lettuce, iceberg-type lettuce and spinach (1156, 798 and 1410 mg kg(-1) w/w, respectively) were lower than the maximum limits established by European Union legislation. Thirteen fresh spinach samples exceeded the regulatory limits. Median nitrate values in other vegetables for which a maximum limit has not been fixed by the European Commission were 196, 203, 1597, 96, 4474 and 2572 mg kg(-1) w/w (for potato, carrot, chard, artichoke, rucola and lamb's lettuce, respectively). The estimated nitrate daily intakes through vegetables consumption for adult, extreme consumers and children were found to be about 29%, 79.8% and 15.1%, respectively, of the acceptable daily intake (3.7 mg kg(-1)). The levels (median = 60.4 mg kg(-1) w/w) found in vegetable-based baby foods were, in all cases, lower the maximum level proposed by European Union legislation. The estimated nitrate daily intake through baby foods for infants between 0-1 and 1-2 years of age were 13% and 18%, respectively, of the acceptable daily intake.

  15. Phytosterol oxidation products (POP) in foods with added phytosterols and estimation of their daily intake: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Knol, Diny; Trautwein, Elke A.

    2016-01-01

    1 To evaluate the content of phytosterol oxidation products (POP) of foods with added phytosterols, in total 14 studies measuring POP contents of foods with added phytosterols were systematically reviewed. In non‐heated or stored foods, POP contents were low, ranging from (medians) 0.03–3.6 mg/100 g with corresponding oxidation rates of phytosterols (ORP) of 0.03–0.06%. In fat‐based foods with 8% of added free plant sterols (FPS), plant sterol esters (PSE) or plant stanol esters (PAE) pan‐fried at 160–200°C for 5–10 min, median POP contents were 72.0, 38.1, and 4.9 mg/100 g, respectively, with a median ORP of 0.90, 0.48, and 0.06%. Hence resistance to thermal oxidation was in the order of PAE > PSE > FPS. POP formation was highest in enriched butter followed by margarine and rapeseed oil. In margarines with 7.5–10.5% added PSE oven‐heated at 140–200°C for 5–30 min, median POP content was 0.3 mg/100 g. Further heating under same temperature conditions but for 60–120 min markedly increased POP formation to 384.3 mg/100 g. Estimated daily upper POP intake was 47.7 mg/d (equivalent to 0.69 mg/kg BW/d) for foods with added PSE and 78.3 mg/d (equivalent to 1.12 mg/kg BW/d) for foods with added FPS as calculated by multiplying the advised upper daily phytosterol intake of 3 g/d with the 90% quantile values of ORP. In conclusion, heating temperature and time, chemical form of phytosterols added and the food matrix are determinants of POP formation in foods with added phytosterols, leading to an increase in POP contents. Practical applications: Phytosterol oxidation products (POP) are formed in foods containing phytosterols especially when exposed to heat treatment. This review summarising POP contents in foods with added phytosterols in their free and esterified forms reveals that heating temperature and time, the chemical form of phytosterols added and the food matrix itself are determinants of POP

  16. Fumonisins B1 and B2 in the corn-milling process and corn-based products, and evaluation of estimated daily intake.

    PubMed

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Marchi, Djeini; Scussel, Vildes M

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of fumonisins (FBs: FB1 and FB2) in the corn-milling process and in corn-based products, as well as daily intake estimates for the Brazilian population were evaluated. Among corn fractions samples, corn meal had the highest mean concentration of FB1 (1305 µg kg(-1)) and FB2 (651 µg kg(-1)) and a distribution factors of 452% and 256% in relation to corn grain, respectively. On the other hand, the distribution factor of FB1 and FB2 in corn flour was found to be 144% and 88% respectively, which demonstrates that fumonisins in this fraction were reduced compared with corn grain. As a result, almost half the corn meal samples (47%) would be non-compliant with future Brazilian regulation (2017) for fumonisins. However, corn-based products, such as corn flakes and popcorn, were in compliance with the regulation. The average probable daily intake and maximum probable daily intake of fumonisins estimated for the Santa Catarina state (Brazil) population were below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for all corn samples. Despite this, the adoption of practices to control the occurrence of fumonisins should be applied to the corn-milling fractions that may contain a higher concentration of this toxin, such as corn meal, often used for animal feed in Brazil.

  17. Fumonisins B1 and B2 in the corn-milling process and corn-based products, and evaluation of estimated daily intake.

    PubMed

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Marchi, Djeini; Scussel, Vildes M

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of fumonisins (FBs: FB1 and FB2) in the corn-milling process and in corn-based products, as well as daily intake estimates for the Brazilian population were evaluated. Among corn fractions samples, corn meal had the highest mean concentration of FB1 (1305 µg kg(-1)) and FB2 (651 µg kg(-1)) and a distribution factors of 452% and 256% in relation to corn grain, respectively. On the other hand, the distribution factor of FB1 and FB2 in corn flour was found to be 144% and 88% respectively, which demonstrates that fumonisins in this fraction were reduced compared with corn grain. As a result, almost half the corn meal samples (47%) would be non-compliant with future Brazilian regulation (2017) for fumonisins. However, corn-based products, such as corn flakes and popcorn, were in compliance with the regulation. The average probable daily intake and maximum probable daily intake of fumonisins estimated for the Santa Catarina state (Brazil) population were below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for all corn samples. Despite this, the adoption of practices to control the occurrence of fumonisins should be applied to the corn-milling fractions that may contain a higher concentration of this toxin, such as corn meal, often used for animal feed in Brazil. PMID:26605670

  18. Polybrominated biphenyl ethers in breast milk and infant formula from Shanghai, China: temporal trends, daily intake, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Kaiqiong; Yang, Dan; Ma, Li; Lei, Bingli; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhou, Jing; Fang, Xiangming; Yu, Yingxin

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the temporal trend of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk and assess the risks to breast- and formula-fed infants, breast milk and infant formula samples were collected from Shanghai, China. The PBDE concentrations decreased from 14.8 to 4.85 pmol/g lipid weight during 2006-2012, with a rate of decrease by half approximately every four years. Although there were no significant correlations between the total PBDEs in breast milk and age, parity, and pre-pregnant BMI of mothers, there were significant differences between primiparous and multiparous mothers for tri- to hepta-BDEs. PBDEs in breast milk were much higher than those in infant formula (equivalent to 91.9 vs. 5.25 pg/mL). Among the different brand infant formulas, there were no significant differences in their PBDE concentrations. The estimated daily intake of PBDEs by breast- and formula-fed infants suggested that breast-fed infants are exposed to much more PBDEs than formula-fed ones (12.9 vs. 0.72 ng/kg-bw/day). However, the hazard quotient values were much smaller than one, indicating that the ingested PBDEs did not exert obvious adverse effects on both breast- and formula-fed infants considering non-carcinogenic effect endpoint. This is the first report on temporal trend of PBDEs in breast milk from China.

  19. The estrogenicity of methylparaben and ethylparaben at doses close to the acceptable daily intake in immature Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Libei; Yu, Tong; Guo, Jilong; Zhang, Zhaobin; Hu, Ying; Xiao, Xuan; Sun, Yingli; Xiao, Han; Li, Junyu; Zhu, Desheng; Sai, Linlin; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The estrogenicity of parabens at human exposure levels has become a focus of concern due to the debate over whether the estrogenicity of parabens is strong enough to play a role in the increased incidence of breast cancer. In this study, the uterotrophic activities of methylparaben (MP) and ethylparaben (EP) at doses close to the acceptable daily intake as allocated by JECFA were demonstrated in immature Sprague-Dawley rats by intragastric administration, and up-regulations of estrogen-responsive biomarker genes were found in uteri of the rats by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (Q-RT-PCR). At the same time, the urinary concentrations of MP and EP, as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in rats that received the same doses of MP and EP, were found to be near the high urinary levels reported in human populations in recent years. These results show the in vivo estrogenicity of MP and EP at human exposure levels, and indicate that populations exposed to large amounts of MP and EP may have a high burden of estrogenicity-related diseases. In addition, a molecular docking simulation showed interaction between the parabens and the agonist-binding pocket of human estrogen receptor α (hERα). PMID:27121550

  20. The estrogenicity of methylparaben and ethylparaben at doses close to the acceptable daily intake in immature Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Libei; Yu, Tong; Guo, Jilong; Zhang, Zhaobin; Hu, Ying; Xiao, Xuan; Sun, Yingli; Xiao, Han; Li, Junyu; Zhu, Desheng; Sai, Linlin; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The estrogenicity of parabens at human exposure levels has become a focus of concern due to the debate over whether the estrogenicity of parabens is strong enough to play a role in the increased incidence of breast cancer. In this study, the uterotrophic activities of methylparaben (MP) and ethylparaben (EP) at doses close to the acceptable daily intake as allocated by JECFA were demonstrated in immature Sprague-Dawley rats by intragastric administration, and up-regulations of estrogen-responsive biomarker genes were found in uteri of the rats by quantitative real-time RT–PCR (Q-RT-PCR). At the same time, the urinary concentrations of MP and EP, as measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in rats that received the same doses of MP and EP, were found to be near the high urinary levels reported in human populations in recent years. These results show the in vivo estrogenicity of MP and EP at human exposure levels, and indicate that populations exposed to large amounts of MP and EP may have a high burden of estrogenicity-related diseases. In addition, a molecular docking simulation showed interaction between the parabens and the agonist-binding pocket of human estrogen receptor α (hERα). PMID:27121550

  1. Estimating daily salt intake based on 24 h urinary sodium excretion in adults aged 18–69 years in Shandong, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ji-yu; Yan, Liu-xia; Tang, Jun-li; Ma, Ji-xiang; Guo, Xiao-lei; Zhao, Wen-hua; Zhang, Xiao-fei; Li, Jian-hong; Chu, Jie; Bi, Zhen-qiang

    2014-01-01

    Objective 24 h urinary sodium extretion was used to estimate the daily salt intake of shandong residents aged from 18 to 69 years in China. Setting 20 selected counties/districts in Shandong stratified by geographic region (Eastern, Central Southern and North Western) and residence type (urban vs rural). Participants Among 2184 randomly selected adults, 2061 provided usable 24 h urine samples. Urine volume <500 mL or male creatinine <3.81 (female creatinine <4.57) are not included in the analysis. Results The mean sodium level excreted over 24 h was 237.61 mmol (95% CI 224.77 to 250.44) mmol. Overall, the estimated mean salt intake was 13.90 g/day (95% CI 13.15 to 14.65). The mean salt intake among rural residents was higher than that among urban residents (14.00 vs 13.68 g; p<0.01). Salt intake in men was higher than that in women (14.40 vs 13.37 g; p<0.01). Approximately 96% of the survey participants had a dietary salt intake of ≥6 g/day. Conclusions The salt intake in Shandong is alarmingly higher than the current recommended amount (6 g/day). Thus, effective interventions to reduce salt intake levels to combat the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases need to be developed and implemented. PMID:25037642

  2. Daily rhythms of food intake and feces reingestion in the degu, an herbivorous Chilean rodent: optimizing digestion through coprophagy.

    PubMed

    Kenagy, G J; Veloso, C; Bozinovic, F

    1999-01-01

    Animals must match their foraging and digestion to seasonal changes in availability and quality of food. When these parameters decline, the animal's performance limits for extracting energy and nutrients may be challenged. In the laboratory, we investigated daily patterns of food processing on a low-quality (high-fiber) diet of alfalfa in an herbivorous, day-active rodent, the degu (Octodon degus), which inhabits semiarid central Chile. We manipulated timing of food availability, from continuous availability down to as little as 5 h/d. Degus maintained weight while digesting only 53% of dry-matter consumption. With food continuously available in a metabolic cage, the animals ate more food and deposited about twice as much feces in the day as at night. Continuous 24-h behavioral observation revealed that degus were actually defecating at the same rate both night and day but then ingesting most of the feces they produced at night. Further experimental treatments challenged animals with limited periods of food availability that matched natural foraging patterns. With either 11 h of daytime food availability or only 5 h (in morning and afternoon periods of 2.5 h each), degus consumed as much food as those with 24-h food availability. Continuous 24-h behavioral observations revealed in the 11-h group that nearly all feces produced at night were reingested and nearly none were reingested in the day, whereas the 5-h group resorted to further coprophagy during the 6-h midday interval with no food. Despite these differences in timing of food intake and coprophagy in response to the three experimental treatments, the degus were defecating at the same rate both night and day, which indicated a constant rate of output from the colon. This suggests a range of adjustments of digestive physiology to the timing of gut function by balancing coprophagy with ingestion of food. Overall, 38% of 24-h feces production was reingested, and 87% of this coprophagy occurred at night. The

  3. Arsenic levels in rice grain and assessment of daily dietary intake of arsenic from rice in arsenic-contaminated regions of Bangladesh--implications to groundwater irrigation.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Owens, Gary; Naidu, Ravi

    2009-04-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) causes significant human health effects, including various cancers and skin disorders. Naturally elevated concentrations of As have been detected in the groundwater of Bangladesh. Dietary intake and drinking water are the major routes of As exposure for humans. The objectives of this study were to measure As concentrations in rice grain collected from households in As-affected villages of Bangladesh where groundwater is used for agricultural irrigation and to estimate the daily intake of As consumed by the villagers from rice. The median and mean total As contents in 214 rice grain samples were 131 and 143 microg/kg, respectively, with a range of 2-557 microg/kg (dry weight, dw). Arsenic concentrations in control rice samples imported from Pakistan and India and on sale in Australian supermarkets were significantly lower (p < 0.001) than in rice from contaminated areas. Daily dietary intake of As from rice was 56.4 microg for adults (males and females) while the total daily intake of As from rice and from drinking water was 888.4 and 706.4 microg for adult males and adult females, respectively. From our study, it appears that the villagers are consuming a significant amount of As from rice and drinking water. The results suggest that the communities in the villages studied are potentially at risk of suffering from arsenic-related diseases. PMID:19142738

  4. Arsenic levels in rice grain and assessment of daily dietary intake of arsenic from rice in arsenic-contaminated regions of Bangladesh--implications to groundwater irrigation.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Owens, Gary; Naidu, Ravi

    2009-04-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) causes significant human health effects, including various cancers and skin disorders. Naturally elevated concentrations of As have been detected in the groundwater of Bangladesh. Dietary intake and drinking water are the major routes of As exposure for humans. The objectives of this study were to measure As concentrations in rice grain collected from households in As-affected villages of Bangladesh where groundwater is used for agricultural irrigation and to estimate the daily intake of As consumed by the villagers from rice. The median and mean total As contents in 214 rice grain samples were 131 and 143 microg/kg, respectively, with a range of 2-557 microg/kg (dry weight, dw). Arsenic concentrations in control rice samples imported from Pakistan and India and on sale in Australian supermarkets were significantly lower (p < 0.001) than in rice from contaminated areas. Daily dietary intake of As from rice was 56.4 microg for adults (males and females) while the total daily intake of As from rice and from drinking water was 888.4 and 706.4 microg for adult males and adult females, respectively. From our study, it appears that the villagers are consuming a significant amount of As from rice and drinking water. The results suggest that the communities in the villages studied are potentially at risk of suffering from arsenic-related diseases.

  5. Beneficial effects of citrus juice fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 on atopic dermatitis: results of daily intake by adult patients in two open trials

    PubMed Central

    HARIMA-MIZUSAWA, Naomi; KAMACHI, Keiko; KANO, Mitsuyoshi; NOZAKI, Daisuke; UETAKE, Tatsuo; YOKOMIZO, Yuji; NAGINO, Takayuki; TANAKA, Akira; MIYAZAKI, Kouji; NAKAMURA, Shinichiro

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether daily intake of citrus juice containing heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132-fermented juice) alleviates symptoms of atopic dermatitis. This was a natural extension of our previous study in which LP0132 was shown to enhance IL-10 production in vitro and LP0132-fermented juice was found to alleviate symptoms and enhance quality of life (QOL) in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In two open trials, Trial 1 and Trial 2, 32 and 18 adult patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis consumed LP0132-fermented juice for 8 weeks. Skin conditions and QOL were subjectively evaluated using Skindex-16 before intake of the juice (Pre-treatment), 8 weeks after starting intake (Treatment) and 8 weeks after termination of intake (Post-treatment). Blood parameters were also analyzed. Comparison of the Treatment and Post-treatment time points with the Pre-treatment time point revealed significant reductions in the Skindex-16 overall score and the 3 domain subscores (symptoms, emotions, and functioning domains) in both trials. Moreover, blood levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgEs for Japanese cedar and cypress pollen were significantly attenuated in Trial 2. The findings suggest that daily intake of citrus fermented juice containing heat-killed LP0132 has beneficial effects on symptoms and QOL in patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis due to an immunomodulatory effect via attenuation of IgE and ECP. PMID:26858928

  6. Beneficial effects of citrus juice fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 on atopic dermatitis: results of daily intake by adult patients in two open trials.

    PubMed

    Harima-Mizusawa, Naomi; Kamachi, Keiko; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Nozaki, Daisuke; Uetake, Tatsuo; Yokomizo, Yuji; Nagino, Takayuki; Tanaka, Akira; Miyazaki, Kouji; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether daily intake of citrus juice containing heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132-fermented juice) alleviates symptoms of atopic dermatitis. This was a natural extension of our previous study in which LP0132 was shown to enhance IL-10 production in vitro and LP0132-fermented juice was found to alleviate symptoms and enhance quality of life (QOL) in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In two open trials, Trial 1 and Trial 2, 32 and 18 adult patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis consumed LP0132-fermented juice for 8 weeks. Skin conditions and QOL were subjectively evaluated using Skindex-16 before intake of the juice (Pre-treatment), 8 weeks after starting intake (Treatment) and 8 weeks after termination of intake (Post-treatment). Blood parameters were also analyzed. Comparison of the Treatment and Post-treatment time points with the Pre-treatment time point revealed significant reductions in the Skindex-16 overall score and the 3 domain subscores (symptoms, emotions, and functioning domains) in both trials. Moreover, blood levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgEs for Japanese cedar and cypress pollen were significantly attenuated in Trial 2. The findings suggest that daily intake of citrus fermented juice containing heat-killed LP0132 has beneficial effects on symptoms and QOL in patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis due to an immunomodulatory effect via attenuation of IgE and ECP.

  7. The daily fluorine and arsenic intake for residents with different dietaries and fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area, Yunnan, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Luo, Kun-Li; Tang, Yue-Gang; Liu, Yong-Lin

    2015-02-01

    The daily fluorine (F)/arsenic (As) intake (DFI/DAsI) for residents at different ages with different dietaries and dietary changes was investigated to analyze the fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area in Yunnan, Southwest China. The DFI for residents with a dietary of roasted corn and roasted chili was 5.06, 9.60, and 14.38 mg for age groups 3-7, 8-15, and over 15 years, respectively. Over 90 % of DFI was from roasted foodstuffs. The DFI for residents of the same age group living on rice and roasted chili was 1.94, 3.50, and 4.95 mg, respectively, which were less than that for the former dietary type, and 65 % of DFI was from roasted chili. The main sources for their DFI are roasted foodstuffs. Both were higher than the dietaries with non-roasted foodstuffs and the recommended daily allowances (RDAs) for USA and China at different levels. The DAsI for all residents ranged from 25 to 135 μg, and at this level of DAsI, it would not influence human health. However, As pollution of roasted foodstuffs might have an important influence for the fluorosis. Residents are changing their staple food from roasted corn to rice, and especially, younger people are more focused on quality life. However, even if residents change their staple food, the habit of eating chili will not change, which also may cause them getting fluorosis. Developing economy, changing dietary types, and changing the habit of drying and keeping chili will help to reduce the fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area of Southwest China. PMID:25167821

  8. The daily fluorine and arsenic intake for residents with different dietaries and fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area, Yunnan, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Luo, Kun-Li; Tang, Yue-Gang; Liu, Yong-Lin

    2015-02-01

    The daily fluorine (F)/arsenic (As) intake (DFI/DAsI) for residents at different ages with different dietaries and dietary changes was investigated to analyze the fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area in Yunnan, Southwest China. The DFI for residents with a dietary of roasted corn and roasted chili was 5.06, 9.60, and 14.38 mg for age groups 3-7, 8-15, and over 15 years, respectively. Over 90 % of DFI was from roasted foodstuffs. The DFI for residents of the same age group living on rice and roasted chili was 1.94, 3.50, and 4.95 mg, respectively, which were less than that for the former dietary type, and 65 % of DFI was from roasted chili. The main sources for their DFI are roasted foodstuffs. Both were higher than the dietaries with non-roasted foodstuffs and the recommended daily allowances (RDAs) for USA and China at different levels. The DAsI for all residents ranged from 25 to 135 μg, and at this level of DAsI, it would not influence human health. However, As pollution of roasted foodstuffs might have an important influence for the fluorosis. Residents are changing their staple food from roasted corn to rice, and especially, younger people are more focused on quality life. However, even if residents change their staple food, the habit of eating chili will not change, which also may cause them getting fluorosis. Developing economy, changing dietary types, and changing the habit of drying and keeping chili will help to reduce the fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area of Southwest China.

  9. Role of self-caught fish in total fish consumption rates for recreational fishermen: Average consumption for some species exceeds allowable intake.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fish consumption focus on recreational or subsistence fishing, on awareness and adherence to advisories, consumption patterns, and contaminants in fish. Yet the general public obtains their fish from commercial sources. In this paper I examine fish consumption patterns of recreational fishermen in New Jersey to determine: 1) consumption rates for self-caught fish and for other fish, 2) meals consumed per year, 3) average meal size, and average daily intake of mercury, and 4) variations in these parameters for commonly-consumed fish, and different methods of computing intake. Over 300 people were interviewed at fishing sites and fishing clubs along the New Jersey shore. Consumption patterns of anglers varied by species of fish. From 2 to 90 % of the anglers ate the different fish species, and between 9 and 75 % gave fish away to family or friends. Self-caught fish made up 7 to 92 % of fish diets. On average, self-caught fish were eaten for only 2 to 6 months of the year, whereas other fish (commercial or restaurant) were eaten up to 10 months a year. Anglers consumed from 5 to 36 meals of different fish a year, which resulted in intake of mercury ranging from 0.01 to 0.22 ug/kg/day. Average intake of Mako shark, swordfish, and tuna (sushi, canned tuna, self-caught tuna) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's oral, chronic reference dose for mercury of 0.1 ug/kg/day. However, computing intake using consumption for the highest month results in average mercury intake exceeding the reference dose for striped bass and bluefish as well. These data, and the variability in consumption patterns, have implications for risk assessors, risk managers, and health professionals. PMID:23914136

  10. Role of self-caught fish in total fish consumption rates for recreational fishermen: Average consumption for some species exceeds allowable intake

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fish consumption focus on recreational or subsistence fishing, on awareness and adherence to advisories, consumption patterns, and contaminants in fish. Yet the general public obtains their fish from commercial sources. In this paper I examine fish consumption patterns of recreational fishermen in New Jersey to determine: 1) consumption rates for self-caught fish and for other fish, 2) meals consumed per year, 3) average meal size, and average daily intake of mercury, and 4) variations in these parameters for commonly-consumed fish, and different methods of computing intake. Over 300 people were interviewed at fishing sites and fishing clubs along the New Jersey shore. Consumption patterns of anglers varied by species of fish. From 2 to 90 % of the anglers ate the different fish species, and between 9 and 75 % gave fish away to family or friends. Self-caught fish made up 7 to 92 % of fish diets. On average, self-caught fish were eaten for only 2 to 6 months of the year, whereas other fish (commercial or restaurant) were eaten up to 10 months a year. Anglers consumed from 5 to 36 meals of different fish a year, which resulted in intake of mercury ranging from 0.01 to 0.22 ug/kg/day. Average intake of Mako shark, swordfish, and tuna (sushi, canned tuna, self-caught tuna) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s oral, chronic reference dose for mercury of 0.1 ug/kg/day. However, computing intake using consumption for the highest month results in average mercury intake exceeding the reference dose for striped bass and bluefish as well. These data, and the variability in consumption patterns, have implications for risk assessors, risk managers, and health professionals. PMID:23914136

  11. Animal responses to herbage allowance: Forage intake and body weight gain of sheep grazing the Inner Mongolian steppe - Results of a six-year study.

    PubMed

    Dickhoefer, U; Bösing, B M; Hasler, M; Hao, J; Lin, L; Müller, K; Wang, C; Glindemann, T; Tas, B; Gierus, M; Taube, F; Susenbeth, A

    2016-05-01

    An increasing human population and the growing demand for food of animal origin are leading to an intensification of sheep production and widespread overgrazing of the grassland steppe in Inner Mongolia. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of herbage allowance (HA) on OM intake (OMI) and BW gain (BWG) of grazing sheep. In July to September 2005 to 2010, a grazing experiment was conducted in the Xilin River Basin using 15-mo-old female Mongolian fat-tailed sheep (31.5 kg BW [SE 0.2]). Six HA classes were tested on 4 experimental plots per HA class that were alternately used for grazing and haymaking each year (i.e., = 2 grazed plots per HA class and year). Mean HA ranged from 15.4 (SD 4.0) to 1.5 kg (SD 0.8) herbage DM/kg BW in HA class 1 to 6, respectively. In 6 sheep per plot (4 sheep in 2009 and 2010), OMI and BWG were determined. Titanium dioxide was used to determine fecal excretion, and digestibility of ingested OM was estimated from CP concentration in feces. Fecal grab samples were collected during 5 d each in July, August, and September. The animals were weighed monthly. Daily OMI of sheep ranged between 68 and 89 g/kg BW and was not affected by HA class ( = 0.373), so that total OMI per hectare was exponentially decreased with increasing HA (root mean square error [RMSE] ≤ 0.31 g/d; ≤ 0.003 for the slope estimates). The BWG of individual sheep increased with increasing HA in 2 of the 6 yr (RMSE 18.4 g/d; ≤ 0.175 for the positive slope estimates). Nevertheless, BWG per hectare strongly decreased with increasing HA (RMSE 0.25 g/d; ≤ 0.006 for the slope estimates). These data support the common practice of farmers to manage the grassland at low HA to allow for greater animal performance per unit of land area. PMID:27285703

  12. Human health risks from metals and metalloid via consumption of food animals near gold mines in Tarkwa, Ghana: estimation of the daily intakes and target hazard quotients (THQs).

    PubMed

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Akoto, Osei; Baidoo, Elvis; Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal and metalloid contamination in food resulting from mining is of major concern due to the potential risk involved. Food consumption is the most likely route of human exposure to metals. This study was therefore to assess metals in different organs and different animal species near gold mines used for human consumption (free-range chicken, goat and sheep) in Tarkwa, Ghana, and to estimate the daily intake and health risk. The concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were measured with an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and Hg analysis was done using the mercury analyzer. Principal component analysis of the results showed a clear separation between chicken, grouped on one side, and the ruminants clustered on another side in both offal and muscle. Interestingly, As, Cd, Hg, Mn and Pb made one cluster in the offal of chicken. Chicken muscle also showed similar distribution with As, Hg and Pb clustered together. The daily intake of metals (μg/kg body weight/day) were in the following ranges; As [0.002 (kidneys of goat and sheep)-0.19 (chicken gizzard)], Cd [0.003 (chicken muscle)-0.55 (chicken liver)], Hg [0.002 (goat muscle)-0.29 (chicken liver)], Pb [0.01 (muscles and kidneys of goat and sheep)-0.96 (chicken gizzard)] and Mn [0.13 (goat kidney)-8.92 (sheep liver)]. From the results, daily intakes of As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Mn in these food animals were low compared to the provisional tolerable daily intake guidelines. The THQs although less than one, indicated that contributions of chicken gizzard and liver to toxic metal exposure in adults and especially children could be significant.

  13. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass does not affect daily water intake or the drinking response to dipsogenic stimuli in rats.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Anikó; Santollo, Jessica; Corteville, Caroline; Lutz, Thomas A; Daniels, Derek

    2014-07-15

    Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for severe obesity, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most common approach in the United States and worldwide. Many studies have documented the changes in body weight, food intake, and glycemic control associated with the procedure. Although dehydration is commonly listed as a postoperative complication, little focus has been directed to testing the response to dipsogenic treatments after RYGB. Accordingly, we used a rat model of RYGB to test for procedure-induced changes in daily water intake and in the response to three dipsogenic treatments: central administration of ANG II, peripheral injection of hypertonic saline, and overnight water deprivation. We did not find any systematic differences in daily water intake of sham-operated and RYGB rats, nor did we find any differences in the response to the dipsogenic treatments. The results of these experiments suggest that RYGB does not impair thirst responses and does not enhance any satiating effect of water intake. Furthermore, these data support the current view that feedback from the stomach is unnecessary for the termination of drinking behavior and are consistent with a role of orosensory or postgastric feedback.

  14. Estimates of the theoretical maximum daily intake of erythorbic acid, gallates, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in Italy: a stepwise approach.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, C; Arcella, D; Turrini, A

    2000-12-01

    The three recent EU directives which fixed maximum permitted levels (MPL) for food additives for all member states also include the general obligation to establish national systems for monitoring the intake of these substances in order to evaluate their use safety. In this work, we considered additives with primary antioxidant technological function for which an acceptable daily intake (ADI) was established by the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF): gallates, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and erythorbic acid. The potential intake of these additives in Italy was estimated by means of a hierarchical approach using, step by step, more refined methods. The likelihood of the current ADI to be exceeded was very low for erythorbic acid, BHA and gallates. On the other hand, the theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) of BHT was above the current ADI. The three food categories found to be main potential sources of BHT were "pastry, cake and biscuits", "chewing gums" and "vegetables oils and margarine"; they overall contributed 74% of the TMDI. Actual use of BHT in these food categories is discussed, together with other aspects such as losses of this substance in the technological process and percentage of ingestion in the case of chewing gums.

  15. Increased food intake and changes in metabolic hormones in response to chronic sleep restriction alternated with short periods of sleep allowance.

    PubMed

    Barf, R Paulien; Desprez, Tifany; Meerlo, Peter; Scheurink, Anton J W

    2012-01-01

    Rodent models for sleep restriction have good face validity when examining food intake and related regulatory metabolic hormones. However, in contrast to epidemiological studies in which sleep restriction is associated with body weight gain, sleep-restricted rats show a decrease in body weight. This difference with the human situation might be caused by the alternation between periods of sleep restriction and sleep allowance that often occur in real life. Therefore, we assessed the metabolic consequences of a chronic sleep restriction protocol that modeled working weeks with restricted sleep time alternated by weekends with sleep allowance. We hypothesized that this protocol could lead to body weight gain. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sleep restriction (SR), forced activity control (FA), and home cage control (HC). SR rats were subjected to chronic sleep restriction by keeping them awake for 20 h per day in slowly rotating drums. To model the human condition, rats were subjected to a 4-wk protocol, with each week consisting of a 5-day period of sleep restriction followed by a 2-day period of sleep allowance. During the first experimental week, SR caused a clear attenuation of growth. In subsequent weeks, two important processes occurred: 1) a remarkable increase in food intake during SR days, 2) an increase in weight gain during the weekends of sleep allowance, even though food intake during those days was comparable to controls. In conclusion, our data revealed that the alternation between periods of sleep restriction and sleep allowance leads to complex changes in food intake and body weight, that prevent the weight loss normally seen in continuous sleep-restricted rats. Therefore, this "week-weekend" protocol may be a better model to study the metabolic consequences of restricted sleep. PMID:22012696

  16. Perchlorate in indoor dust and human urine in China: contribution of indoor dust to total daily intake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Xiaojia; Wang, Dou; Li, Rudan; Ma, Yufang; Mo, Weiwen; Sun, Hongwen; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-02-17

    Perchlorate is used in fireworks and China is the largest fireworks producer and consumer in the world. Information regarding human exposure to perchlorate is scarce in China, and exposure via indoor dust ingestion (EDI indoor dust) has rarely been evaluated. In this study, perchlorate was found in indoor dust (detection rate: 100%, median: 47.4 μg/g), human urine (99%, 26.2 ng/mL), drinking water (100%, 3.99 ng/mL), and dairy milk (100%, 12.3 ng/mL) collected from cities that have fireworks manufacturing areas (Yueyang and Nanchang) and in cities that do not have fireworks manufacturing industries (Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, Yuxi and Guilin) in China. In comparison with perchlorate levels reported for other countries, perchlorate levels in urine samples from fireworks sites and nonfireworks sites in China were higher. Median indoor dust perchlorate concentrations were positively correlated (r = 0.964, p < 0.001) with outdoor dust perchlorate levels reported previously. The total daily intake (EDI total) of perchlorate, estimated based on urinary levels, ranged from 0.090 to 27.72 μg/kg body weight (bw)/day for all studied participants; the percentage of donors who had EDI total exceeding the reference dose (RfD) recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) was 79%, 48%, and 25% for toddlers (median: 1.829 μg/kg bw/day), adults (0.669 μg/kg bw/day), and children (median: 0.373 μg/kg bw/day), respectively. Toddlers (0.258 μg/kg bw/day) had the highest median EDI indoor dust, which was 2 to 5 times greater than the EDI indoor dust calculated for other age groups (the range of median values: 0.044 to 0.127 μg/kg bw/day). Contribution of indoor dust to EDItotal was 26%, 28%, and 7% for toddlers, children, and adults, respectively. Indoor dust contributed higher percentage to EDI total than that by dairy milk (0.5-5%).

  17. Perchlorate in indoor dust and human urine in China: contribution of indoor dust to total daily intake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Xiaojia; Wang, Dou; Li, Rudan; Ma, Yufang; Mo, Weiwen; Sun, Hongwen; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-02-17

    Perchlorate is used in fireworks and China is the largest fireworks producer and consumer in the world. Information regarding human exposure to perchlorate is scarce in China, and exposure via indoor dust ingestion (EDI indoor dust) has rarely been evaluated. In this study, perchlorate was found in indoor dust (detection rate: 100%, median: 47.4 μg/g), human urine (99%, 26.2 ng/mL), drinking water (100%, 3.99 ng/mL), and dairy milk (100%, 12.3 ng/mL) collected from cities that have fireworks manufacturing areas (Yueyang and Nanchang) and in cities that do not have fireworks manufacturing industries (Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, Yuxi and Guilin) in China. In comparison with perchlorate levels reported for other countries, perchlorate levels in urine samples from fireworks sites and nonfireworks sites in China were higher. Median indoor dust perchlorate concentrations were positively correlated (r = 0.964, p < 0.001) with outdoor dust perchlorate levels reported previously. The total daily intake (EDI total) of perchlorate, estimated based on urinary levels, ranged from 0.090 to 27.72 μg/kg body weight (bw)/day for all studied participants; the percentage of donors who had EDI total exceeding the reference dose (RfD) recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) was 79%, 48%, and 25% for toddlers (median: 1.829 μg/kg bw/day), adults (0.669 μg/kg bw/day), and children (median: 0.373 μg/kg bw/day), respectively. Toddlers (0.258 μg/kg bw/day) had the highest median EDI indoor dust, which was 2 to 5 times greater than the EDI indoor dust calculated for other age groups (the range of median values: 0.044 to 0.127 μg/kg bw/day). Contribution of indoor dust to EDItotal was 26%, 28%, and 7% for toddlers, children, and adults, respectively. Indoor dust contributed higher percentage to EDI total than that by dairy milk (0.5-5%). PMID:25587720

  18. Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. Objective To address the question: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990–January 2013) for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies) were included. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete) adults (mean age 18–64 years). Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17), 69% of acute (n = 40), 50% of short-term (n = 10), 92% of non-randomized (n = 12) and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24). Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. Limitations The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure

  19. Daily Manganese Intake Status and Its Relationship with Oxidative Stress Biomarkers under Different Body Mass Index Categories in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bu, So-Young

    2012-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient for human and plays an important role as a cofactor for several enzymes involving fatty acid synthesis, hepatic gluconeogenesis, and oxidative stresses. Also, Mn intake status has been reported to have beneficial effects in reversing metabolic dysfunction including obesity and nonalcoholic steatosis which is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses, however, information on dietary Mn intake in Koreans are limited. Hence we investigated the relationship between dietary Mn intake and antioxidant defense factors in healthy and obese subjects. Total of 333 healthy subjects were recruited in the study and were assigned to one of three study groups: a normal group (18.5-22.9), a overweight group (23-24.9), and a obesity group (>25) according to their body mass index (BMI). We assessed Mn intakes (24-hr recall method) and several indicators for antioxidative defenses such as glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and urinary malonaldehyde (MDA). Results showed that body weight and blood pressure of study subjects were increased in dependent of their BMI (p < 0.01). However dietary Mn intakes and oxidative stress biomarkers (GSH, GPx, and MDA) were not significantly different by groups defined by BMI. In correlation analysis adjusting for age, sex and energy intake, dietary Mn intake of the subjects in different BMI categories were not significantly correlated with GSH, GPx, MDA and showed a weak or no association with these oxidative stress markers. In conclusion dietary Mn intake at least in this study has a little or no influence on markers of oxidative status in both healthy and obese subjects. PMID:23431039

  20. Genetic parameters of a random regression model for daily feed intake of performance tested French Landrace and Large White growing pigs

    PubMed Central

    Schnyder, Urs; Hofer, Andreas; Labroue, Florence; Künzi, Niklaus

    2001-01-01

    Daily feed intake data of 1 279 French Landrace (FL, 1 039 boars and 240 castrates) and 2 417 Large White (LW, 2 032 boars and 385 castrates) growing pigs were recorded with electronic feed dispensers in three French central testing stations from 1992–1994. Male (35 to 95 kg live body weight) or castrated (100 kg live body weight) group housed, ad libitum fed pigs were performance tested. A quadratic polynomial in days on test with fixed regressions for sex and batch, random regressions for additive genetic, pen, litter and individual permanent environmental effects was used, with two different models for the residual variance: constant in model 1 and modelled with a quadratic polynomial depending on the day on test dm as follows in model 2: . Variance components were estimated from weekly means of daily feed intake by means of a Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling. Posterior means of (co)variances were calculated using 800 000 samples from four chains (200 000 each). Heritability estimates of regression coefficients were 0.30 (FL model 1), 0.21 (FL model 2), 0.14 (LW1) and 0.14 (LW2) for the intercept, 0.04 (FL1), 0.04 (FL2), 0.11 (LW1) and 0.06 (LW2) for the linear, 0.03 (FL1), 0.04 (FL2) 0.11 (LW1) and 0.06 (LW2) for the quadratic term. Heritability estimates for weekly means of daily feed intake were the lowest in week 4 (FL1: 0.11, FL2: 0.11) and week 1 (LW1: 0.09, LW2: 0.10), and the highest in week 11 (FL1: 0.25, FL2: 0.24) and week 8 (LW1: 0.19, LW2: 0.18), respectively. Genetic eigenfunctions revealed that altering the shape of the feed intake curve by selection is difficult. PMID:11742633

  1. Daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake, and water consumption: a feasible and effective long-term weight loss maintenance approach.

    PubMed

    Akers, Jeremy D; Cornett, Rachel A; Savla, Jyoti S; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-05-01

    Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals. Thus, practical and effective weight-loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted from June 2007 to February 2010 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a WTLM intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake, and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced individuals (mean weight lost=6.7±0.6 kg; body mass index [calculated as kg/m²] 29.2±1.1), age 63±1 years, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight, step count, and F/V intake (WEV [defined as weight, exercise, and F/V]). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 fl oz of water before each main meal (ie, three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures analysis of variance. Over 12 months, there was a linear decrease in weight (β=-0.32, P<0.001) and a quadratic trend (β=0.02, P<0.01) over time, but no group difference (β=-0.23, P=0.08). Analysis of the 365 days of self-reported body weight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in the WEV+ group than in the WEV group, corresponding to weight changes of -0.67 kg and 1.00 kg, respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (β=-0.01, P<0.01). Overall compliance to daily tracking was 76%±5%. Daily self-monitoring of weight, physical activity, and F/V consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits.

  2. 5 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C to... - Daily Inconvenience or Hardship Allowance Schedule, Commuting Over Land by Motor Vehicle to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Daily Inconvenience or Hardship Allowance... conditions Degree C commuting conditions up to 15 minutes $0.50 $0.63 $0.75 16 to 30 1.00 1.25 1.50 31 to 45 1.50 1.88 2.25 46 to 60 2.00 2.50 3.00 61 to 75 2.50 3.13 3.75 76 to 90 3.00 3.75 4.50 91 to 105...

  3. Quantification of total and hexavalent chromium in lager beers: variability between styles and estimation of daily intake of chromium from beer.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Elsa; Soares, M Elisa; Kozior, Marta; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Bastos, M Lourdes

    2014-09-17

    A survey of the presence of total and hexavalent chromium in lager beers was conducted to understand the variability between different styles of lager beer packaged in glass or cans and to estimate daily intake of total Cr and hexavalent chromium from beer. Graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy using validated methodologies was applied. Selective extraction of hexavalent chromium was performed using a Chromabond NH2/500 mg column and elution with nitric acid. The detection limits were 0.26 and 0.68 μg L(-1) for total Cr and Cr(VI), respectively. The mean content of total Cr ranged between 1.13 μg L(-1) in canned pale lager and 4.32 μg L(-1) in low-alcohol beers, whereas the mean content of Cr(VI) was <2.51 μg L(-1). Considering an intake of 500 mL of beer, beer consumption can contribute approximately 2.28-8.64 and 1.6-6.17% of the recommended daily intake of chromium for women and men, respectively.

  4. Daily consumption of a synbiotic yogurt decreases energy intake but does not improve gastrointestinal transit time: a double-blind, randomized, crossover study in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective Probiotic and synbiotic products are widely marketed to healthy individuals, although potential benefits for these individuals are rarely studied. This study investigated the effect of daily consumption of a synbiotic yogurt on gastrointestinal (GI) function in a sample of healthy adults. Subjects/Methods In a randomized crossover double-blind study, 65 healthy adults consumed 200 g/day of yogurt with (synbiotic) or without (control) added probiotics (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12, Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, Lactobacillus casei CRL431) and 4 g inulin for two 15-day treatment periods, each preceded by a 6-week washout period. GI transit time (GTT), duration of colour (DOC), GI symptoms and dietary intake were assessed and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA, including PRE-treatment GTT as a covariate. Participants were grouped as short GTT (STT, n = 50, ≤32.7 h) or long GTT (LTT, n = 15, >32.7 h) based on their PRE-treatment GTT assessment. Results POST-treatment GTT and DOC were not different between synbiotic and control, and did not change from PRE-treatment, within the STT or LTT groups. There were no changes in GI symptom ratings, indicating that both yogurts were well tolerated. In STT, energy, fat and protein intakes were decreased from baseline with synbiotic (p = 0.055, p = 0.059 and p = 0.005, respectively) and dietary fibre intake was higher POST-treatment with synbiotic versus control (p = 0.0002). In LTT, decreases in energy and fat intakes with synbiotic were not significant (p = 0.14 and p = 0.18, respectively) and there were no differences in dietary fibre intake. Conclusion Consuming 200 g/day of synbiotic yogurt did not significantly alter GTT in healthy adults, but was well tolerated and helped to reduce overall energy intake. PMID:23787118

  5. Decreasing methane yield with increasing food intake keeps daily methane emissions constant in two foregut fermenting marsupials, the western grey kangaroo and red kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Vendl, Catharina; Clauss, Marcus; Stewart, Mathew; Leggett, Keith; Hummel, Jürgen; Kreuzer, Michael; Munn, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Fundamental differences in methane (CH4) production between macropods (kangaroos) and ruminants have been suggested and linked to differences in the composition of the forestomach microbiome. Using six western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and four red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), we measured daily absolute CH4 production in vivo as well as CH4 yield (CH4 per unit of intake of dry matter, gross energy or digestible fibre) by open-circuit respirometry. Two food intake levels were tested using a chopped lucerne hay (alfalfa) diet. Body mass-specific absolute CH4 production resembled values previously reported in wallabies and non-ruminant herbivores such as horses, and did not differ with food intake level, although there was no concomitant proportionate decrease in fibre digestibility with higher food intake. In contrast, CH4 yield decreased with increasing intake, and was intermediate between values reported for ruminants and non-ruminant herbivores. These results correspond to those in ruminants and other non-ruminant species where increased intake (and hence a shorter digesta retention in the gut) leads to a lower CH4 yield. We hypothesize that rather than harbouring a fundamentally different microbiome in their foregut, the microbiome of macropods is in a particular metabolic state more tuned towards growth (i.e. biomass production) rather than CH4 production. This is due to the short digesta retention time in macropods and the known distinct 'digesta washing' in the gut of macropods, where fluids move faster than particles and hence most likely wash out microbes from the forestomach. Although our data suggest that kangaroos only produce about 27% of the body mass-specific volume of CH4 of ruminants, it remains to be modelled with species-specific growth rates and production conditions whether or not significantly lower CH4 amounts are emitted per kg of meat in kangaroo than in beef or mutton production.

  6. Decreasing methane yield with increasing food intake keeps daily methane emissions constant in two foregut fermenting marsupials, the western grey kangaroo and red kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Vendl, Catharina; Clauss, Marcus; Stewart, Mathew; Leggett, Keith; Hummel, Jürgen; Kreuzer, Michael; Munn, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Fundamental differences in methane (CH4) production between macropods (kangaroos) and ruminants have been suggested and linked to differences in the composition of the forestomach microbiome. Using six western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and four red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), we measured daily absolute CH4 production in vivo as well as CH4 yield (CH4 per unit of intake of dry matter, gross energy or digestible fibre) by open-circuit respirometry. Two food intake levels were tested using a chopped lucerne hay (alfalfa) diet. Body mass-specific absolute CH4 production resembled values previously reported in wallabies and non-ruminant herbivores such as horses, and did not differ with food intake level, although there was no concomitant proportionate decrease in fibre digestibility with higher food intake. In contrast, CH4 yield decreased with increasing intake, and was intermediate between values reported for ruminants and non-ruminant herbivores. These results correspond to those in ruminants and other non-ruminant species where increased intake (and hence a shorter digesta retention in the gut) leads to a lower CH4 yield. We hypothesize that rather than harbouring a fundamentally different microbiome in their foregut, the microbiome of macropods is in a particular metabolic state more tuned towards growth (i.e. biomass production) rather than CH4 production. This is due to the short digesta retention time in macropods and the known distinct 'digesta washing' in the gut of macropods, where fluids move faster than particles and hence most likely wash out microbes from the forestomach. Although our data suggest that kangaroos only produce about 27% of the body mass-specific volume of CH4 of ruminants, it remains to be modelled with species-specific growth rates and production conditions whether or not significantly lower CH4 amounts are emitted per kg of meat in kangaroo than in beef or mutton production. PMID:26538176

  7. [Folic acid and cobalamine intake in daily food rations of women from the region of Lower Silesia].

    PubMed

    Bronkowska, Monika; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2008-01-01

    The aim of paper was to assess the folic acid and cobalamine women (n = 960). The information about vitamins intake were collected using 24-hour recall and diet history questionnaire. The intake of vitamins folic acid and cobalamine was too low. The mean folic acid content in the diets of 100 women from Lower Silesia was 221.5 mcg and complied in 79% recommended level. The mean cobalamine content in the diets of 100 women from Lower Silesia was 2.9 mcg and complied in 97% recommended level. In examined group low knowledge about importance role of folic acid and cobalamine in health was noticed. Educational interventions are required to inform women and to increase its intake among them.

  8. Effect of daily feed intake in laying period on laying performance, egg quality and egg composition of genetically fat and lean lines of chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, F; Xu, L M; Shan, A S; Hu, J W; Zhang, Y Y; Li, Y H

    2011-04-01

    1. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feed intake on laying performance, egg quality and egg composition in a Fat line and a Lean line during the laying period (34 to 54 weeks of age). 2. The experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial design with two dietary intake levels (nutrition recommendation and 75% of recommendation) and two broiler genotypes (Fat line and Lean line). Hens (384 of each line) were randomly divided at 23 weeks of age into 4 treatments, with each treatment represented by 12 replicates of 16 birds each. The experiment started when the rate of lay reached 5% and continued until 54 weeks of age. 3. The results indicated that there was a significant interaction between daily feed intake and genotype on egg production, egg weight, percentage yolk, yolk/albumen ratio and yolk cholesterol content. Fat line hens produced significantly more eggs and had a lower incidence of cracked eggs than the Lean line hens. The reduction in feed intake decreased egg weight and increased egg production, egg-shape index and cholesterol content of yolk significantly. PMID:21491238

  9. Genetic variance and covariance components for feed intake, average daily gain, and postweaning gain in growing beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed is the single most expensive cost related to a beef cattle production enterprise. Data collection to determine feed efficient animals is also costly. Currently a 70 d performance test is recommended for accurate calculation of efficiency. Previous research has suggested intake tests can be l...

  10. Elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts demonstrate energy and dietary intake deficiencies during periods of intense training.

    PubMed

    Michopoulou, Eleni; Avloniti, Alexandra; Kambas, Antonios; Leontsini, Diamanda; Michalopoulou, Maria; Tournis, Symeon; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2011-11-01

    This study determined dietary intake and energy balance of elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts during their preseason training. Forty rhythmic gymnasts and 40 sedentary age-matched females (10-12 yrs) participated in the study. Anthropometric profile and skeletal ages were determined. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed to estimate daily energy intake, daily energy expenditure, and resting metabolic rate. Groups demonstrated comparable height, bone age, pubertal development, resting metabolic rate. Gymnasts had lower body mass, BMI, body fat than age-matched controls. Although groups demonstrated comparable daily energy intake, gymnasts exhibited a higher daily energy expenditure resulting in a daily energy deficit. Gymnasts also had higher carbohydrate intake but lower fat and calcium intake. Both groups were below the recommended dietary allowances for fiber, water, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin intake. Gymnasts may need to raise their daily energy intake to avoid the energy deficit during periods of intense training. PMID:22109784

  11. Effect of the method of preparation for consumption on calcium retention, calcium:phosphorus ratio, nutrient density and recommended daily allowance in fourteen vegetables.

    PubMed

    Słupski, Jacek; Gębczyński, Piotr; Korus, Anna; Lisiewska, Zofia

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate calcium retention in 14 species of vegetable (from four usable groups). The material investigated consisted of raw and boiled fresh vegetables and two types of frozen product prepared for consumption after 12-month storage: one traditionally produced; the other obtained using the modified method (convenience food). The highest calcium content was found in leafy vegetables, followed (in descending order) by leguminous, root and brassica vegetables. The proportion by weight of Ca to P was highest in leafy vegetables and decreased with calcium retention despite the fact that levels of phosphorus were highest in leguminous and lowest in leafy vegetables. The nutrient density (ND%) of calcium for adults exceeded 100 for each individual vegetable species. The recommended daily allowance (RDA) percentage value varied between 23.04 (kale) and 1.46 (white cauliflower). Of the three types of product, ND and RDA values were generally greater in the frozen convenience products.

  12. Effect of the method of preparation for consumption on calcium retention, calcium:phosphorus ratio, nutrient density and recommended daily allowance in fourteen vegetables.

    PubMed

    Słupski, Jacek; Gębczyński, Piotr; Korus, Anna; Lisiewska, Zofia

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate calcium retention in 14 species of vegetable (from four usable groups). The material investigated consisted of raw and boiled fresh vegetables and two types of frozen product prepared for consumption after 12-month storage: one traditionally produced; the other obtained using the modified method (convenience food). The highest calcium content was found in leafy vegetables, followed (in descending order) by leguminous, root and brassica vegetables. The proportion by weight of Ca to P was highest in leafy vegetables and decreased with calcium retention despite the fact that levels of phosphorus were highest in leguminous and lowest in leafy vegetables. The nutrient density (ND%) of calcium for adults exceeded 100 for each individual vegetable species. The recommended daily allowance (RDA) percentage value varied between 23.04 (kale) and 1.46 (white cauliflower). Of the three types of product, ND and RDA values were generally greater in the frozen convenience products. PMID:24467467

  13. High average daily intake of PCDD/Fs and serum levels in residents living near a deserted factory producing pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Taiwan: influence of contaminated fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Lee, C C; Lin, W T; Liao, P C; Su, H J; Chen, H L

    2006-05-01

    An abandoned pentachlorophenol plant and nearby area in southern Taiwan was heavily contaminated by dioxins, impurities formed in the PCP production process. The investigation showed that the average serum PCDD/Fs of residents living nearby area (62.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) was higher than those living in the non-polluted area (22.5 and 18.2 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) (P<0.05). In biota samples, average PCDD/F of milkfish in sea reservoir (28.3 pg WHO-TEQ/g) was higher than those in the nearby fish farm (0.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g), and Tilapia and shrimp showed the similar trend. The average daily PCDD/Fs intake of 38% participants was higher than 4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day suggested by the world health organization. Serum PCDD/F was positively associated with average daily intake (ADI) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and smoking status. In addition, a prospective cohort study is suggested to determine the long-term health effects on the people living near factory. PMID:16213641

  14. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni in selected Nigerian tubers, legumes and cereals and estimates of the adult daily intakes.

    PubMed

    Akinyele, I O; Shokunbi, O S

    2015-04-15

    This study was designed to determine the levels of microminerals (manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr)) and heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni)) in some tubers, legumes and cereals obtained from the markets in Abeokuta city, South-West Nigeria. The food samples were digested by dry ashing procedure and their minerals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results show mean values of 1.67-32.00, 7.25-61.58, 1.59-10.56, 6.65-46.99, 0.02-0.58, <0.01-0.09, <0.08, and 0.06-0.14 mg/kg for Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb and Ni respectively. The levels of these metals in all the samples analysed were within the ranges reported for similar tubers, legumes and cereals from various parts of the world. The daily intakes of the metals through tubers, legumes and cereals were found to be lower than the provisional tolerable daily intakes proposed by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

  15. Genetic parameters of a random regression model for daily feed intake of performance tested French Landrace and Large White growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Schnyder, U; Hofer, A; Labroue, F; Künzi, N

    2001-01-01

    Daily feed intake data of 1 279 French Landrace (FL, 1 039 boars and 240 castrates) and 2 417 Large White (LW, 2 032 boars and 385 castrates) growing pigs were recorded with electronic feed dispensers in three French central testing stations from 1992-1994. Male (35 to 95 kg live body weight) or castrated (100 kg live body weight) group housed, ad libitum fed pigs were performance tested. A quadratic polynomial in days on test with fixed regressions for sex and batch, random regressions for additive genetic, pen, litter and individual permanent environmental effects was used, with two different models for the residual variance: constant in model 1 and modelled with a quadratic polynomial depending on the day on test d(m) as follows in model 2: sigma(epsilon(m))(2) = exp (gamma(0) + gamma(1) d(m) + gamma(2) d(m)(2)). Variance components were estimated from weekly means of daily feed intake by means of a Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling. Posterior means of (co)variances were calculated using 800 000 samples from four chains (200 000 each). Heritability estimates of regression coefficients were 0.30 (FL model 1), 0.21 (FL model 2), 0.14 (LW1) and 0.14 (LW2) for the intercept, 0.04 (FL1), 0.04 (FL2), 0.11 (LW1) and 0.06 (LW2) for the linear, 0.03 (FL1), 0.04 (FL2) 0.11 (LW1) and 0.06 (LW2) for the quadratic term. Heritability estimates for weekly means of daily feed intake were the lowest in week 4 (FL1: 0.11, FL2: 0.11) and week 1 (LW1: 0.09, LW2: 0.10), and the highest in week 11 (FL1: 0.25, FL2: 0.24) and week 8 (LW1: 0.19, LW2: 0.18), respectively. Genetic eigenfunctions revealed that altering the shape of the feed intake curve by selection is difficult.

  16. Genome-wide association and systems genetic analyses of residual feed intake, daily feed consumption, backfat and weight gain in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Feed efficiency is one of the major components determining costs of animal production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed and the expected feed intake given a certain production. Residual feed intake 1 (RFI1) was calculated based on regression of individual daily feed intake (DFI) on initial test weight and average daily gain. Residual feed intake 2 (RFI2) was as RFI1 except it was also regressed with respect to backfat (BF). It has been shown to be a sensitive and accurate measure for feed efficiency in livestock but knowledge of the genomic regions and mechanisms affecting RFI in pigs is lacking. The study aimed to identify genetic markers and candidate genes for RFI and its component traits as well as pathways associated with RFI in Danish Duroc boars by genome-wide associations and systems genetic analyses. Results Phenotypic and genotypic records (using the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip) were available on 1,272 boars. Fifteen and 12 loci were significantly associated (p < 1.52 × 10-6) with RFI1 and RFI2, respectively. Among them, 10 SNPs were significantly associated with both RFI1 and RFI2 implying the existence of common mechanisms controlling the two RFI measures. Significant QTL regions for component traits of RFI (DFI and BF) were detected on pig chromosome (SSC) 1 (for DFI) and 2 for (BF). The SNPs within MAP3K5 and PEX7 on SSC 1, ENSSSCG00000022338 on SSC 9, and DSCAM on SSC 13 might be interesting markers for both RFI measures. Functional annotation of genes in 0.5 Mb size flanking significant SNPs indicated regulation of protein and lipid metabolic process, gap junction, inositol phosphate metabolism and insulin signaling pathway are significant biological processes and pathways for RFI, respectively. Conclusions The study detected novel genetic variants and QTLs on SSC 1, 8, 9, 13 and 18 for RFI and indicated significant biological processes and metabolic pathways involved in RFI. The

  17. Restricting night-time eating reduces daily energy intake in healthy young men: a short-term cross-over study.

    PubMed

    LeCheminant, James D; Christenson, Ed; Bailey, Bruce W; Tucker, Larry A

    2013-12-14

    Few experimental data are available to support the notion that reducing night-time eating changes total daily energy intake (EI) or body weight in healthy adults. The present study primarily examined the short-term effect of night eating restriction (NER) on daily EI in healthy young men. It secondarily examined body weight and moods associated with NER. Using a cross-over design, twenty-nine men (20·9 (sd 2·5) years; 24·4 (sd 2·5) kg/m²) initiated a 2-week NER intervention (elimination of EI from 19.00 to 06.00 hours) and a 2-week control condition, counterbalanced and separated by a 1-week washout period. EI and macronutrient intake were assessed using computerised, multiple-pass 24 h food recalls, body weight via a digital scale and mood using the Profile of Mood States survey. Of the twenty-nine participants, twenty-seven (93 %) completed all aspects of the study. During the NER condition, the participants consumed less total energy per d than during the control condition (10 125 v. 11 146 kJ/d; F= 6·41; P= 0·018). During the NER condition, no energy was reported consumed between 19.00 and 06.00 hours; however, during the control condition, the energy intake of participants was 2920 (sd 1347) kJ/d between 19.00 and 06.00 hours. There was a significant difference in weight change between the NER (-0·4 (sd 1·1) kg) and control (+0·6 (sd 0·9) kg) conditions (F= 22·68; P< 0·001). Differences in total mood score or mood subscales between the NER and control conditions were not apparent (P>0·05). These findings provide support for NER decreasing short-term EI in healthy young men.

  18. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the air and comparison of the daily intake and uptake through inhalation by Shanghai residents with those through other matrices and routes.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunlei; Zhao, Zhishen; Lei, Bingli; An, Jing; Zhang, Xinyu; Yu, Yingxin

    2015-02-01

    To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the main source and route of human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), the daily intake and uptakes through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact for Shanghai residents were estimated on the basis of the PBDE concentrations in the air obtained in the present study and previous data reported in the literature. The PBDE concentrations in the gas and particle phases collected in Shanghai were 0.99-57.5 and 0.1-234 pg/m(3), respectively. The contamination levels of PBDEs in the air in Shanghai were similar to or slightly lower than the data from other regions. The estimated total daily intakes of PBDEs through the three routes were 607 and 1,636 ng/day for children and adults, respectively, while they decreased to 63.0 and 93.1 ng/day when the uptake efficiency (which is the fraction of contaminants that reaches the systemic circulation) of PBDEs was added to calculation. The results showed that dust is the main source of human exposure to PBDEs when PBDE uptake efficiency was not considered. It accounted for 66.2-79.2 % of the total PBDE intake. However, food is the main source, which accounted for 66.6-75.1 %, when the uptake efficiency was added to calculation. Among the three routes, dermal contact (53.1-76.6 %) is the main pathway, whereas ingestion (84.7-92.9 %) is the main one when the uptake efficiency was considered. Furthermore, risk assessment showed that the PBDE exposure amount would not cause obvious non-cancer and cancer risks to local residents.

  19. The assessment of daily dietary intake reveals the existence of a different pattern of bioaccumulation of chlorinated pollutants between domestic dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Rial, Cristian; Valerón, Pilar F; Zumbado, Manuel; González, Maira Almeida; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-10-15

    Pet dogs and cats have been proposed as sentinel species to assess environmental contamination and human exposure to a variety of pollutants, including POPs. However, some authors have reported that dogs but not cats exhibit intriguingly low levels of some of the most commonly detected POPs, such as DDT and its metabolites. This research was designed to explore these differences between dogs and cats. Thus, we first determined the concentrations of 53 persistent and semi-persistent pollutants (16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)) in samples of the most consumed brands of commercial feed for dogs and cats, and we calculated the daily dietary intake of these pollutants in both species. Higher levels of pollutants were found in dog food and our results showed that the median values of intake were about twice higher in dogs than in cats for all the three groups of pollutants (ΣPAHs: 274.8 vs. 141.8; ΣOCPs: 233.1 vs. 83; ΣPCBs: 101.8 vs. 43.8 (ng/kg bw/day); respectively). Additionally, we determined the plasma levels of the same pollutants in 42 and 35 pet dogs and cats, respectively. All these animals lived indoors and were fed on the commercial brands of feed analyzed. As expected (considering the intake), the plasma levels of PAHs were higher in dogs than in cats. However, for organochlorines (OCPs and PCBs) the plasma levels were much higher in cats than in dogs (as much as 23 times higher for DDTs), in spite of the higher intake in dogs. This reveals a lower capacity of bioaccumulation of some pollutants in dogs, which is probably related with higher metabolizing capabilities in this species. PMID:26026408

  20. Contents of conjugated linoleic acid isomers in ruminant-derived foods and estimation of their contribution to daily intake in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Martins, Susana V; Lopes, Paula A; Alfaia, Cristina M; Ribeiro, Verónica S; Guerreiro, Teresa V; Fontes, Carlos M G A; Castro, Matilde F; Soveral, Graça; Prates, José A M

    2007-12-01

    The present study provides a detailed overview of the contents of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in the most consumed Portuguese CLA-rich foods (milk, butter, yoghurt, cheese, beef and lamb meat), by using silver ion-HPLC. In addition, the contribution of these ruminant-derived foods to the daily intake of CLA isomers was estimated based on Portuguese consumption habits. The total CLA concentration in milk and dairy products ranged from 4.00 mg/g fat in yoghurt to 7.22 mg/g fat in butter, and, regarding meats, from 4.45 mg/g fat in intensively produced beef to 11.29 mg/g fat in lamb meat. The predominant CLA isomers identified in these products were cis-9, trans-11 (59.89-79.21 %) and trans-7, cis-9 (8.04-20.20 %). The average estimated total CLA intake for the Portuguese population was 73.70 mg/d. Milk and cheese are probably the two products with the highest contribution to the final CLA intake, as a result of their high fat content and consumption values. The results also suggested that cis-9, trans-11 and trans-7, cis-9 are the isomers most represented, with, respectively, 76.10 and 12.56 % of the total CLA intake. Being the first detailed report on the contents of total and individual CLA isomers in Portuguese commercial ruminant-derived foods, we further discuss the implication of the results for diet characteristics and human health.

  1. The assessment of daily dietary intake reveals the existence of a different pattern of bioaccumulation of chlorinated pollutants between domestic dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Rial, Cristian; Valerón, Pilar F; Zumbado, Manuel; González, Maira Almeida; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-10-15

    Pet dogs and cats have been proposed as sentinel species to assess environmental contamination and human exposure to a variety of pollutants, including POPs. However, some authors have reported that dogs but not cats exhibit intriguingly low levels of some of the most commonly detected POPs, such as DDT and its metabolites. This research was designed to explore these differences between dogs and cats. Thus, we first determined the concentrations of 53 persistent and semi-persistent pollutants (16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)) in samples of the most consumed brands of commercial feed for dogs and cats, and we calculated the daily dietary intake of these pollutants in both species. Higher levels of pollutants were found in dog food and our results showed that the median values of intake were about twice higher in dogs than in cats for all the three groups of pollutants (ΣPAHs: 274.8 vs. 141.8; ΣOCPs: 233.1 vs. 83; ΣPCBs: 101.8 vs. 43.8 (ng/kg bw/day); respectively). Additionally, we determined the plasma levels of the same pollutants in 42 and 35 pet dogs and cats, respectively. All these animals lived indoors and were fed on the commercial brands of feed analyzed. As expected (considering the intake), the plasma levels of PAHs were higher in dogs than in cats. However, for organochlorines (OCPs and PCBs) the plasma levels were much higher in cats than in dogs (as much as 23 times higher for DDTs), in spite of the higher intake in dogs. This reveals a lower capacity of bioaccumulation of some pollutants in dogs, which is probably related with higher metabolizing capabilities in this species.

  2. Iron absorption from the whole diet: comparison of the effect of two different distributions of daily calcium intake.

    PubMed

    Gleerup, A; Rossander-Hulthén, L; Gramatkovski, E; Hallberg, L

    1995-01-01

    The possibility of reducing calcium inhibition of iron absorption by decreasing calcium intake in lunch and dinner meals, which provided the most dietary iron, was examined in 21 healthy female volunteers. During a 10-d period, nonheme iron in all meals was extrinsically labeled with radioisotopic iron to a uniform specific activity. Iron absorption from two identical 10-d periods was compared when meals were labeled with two different iron radioisotopes and when the same amount of calcium (937 mg) was distributed in two ways, in either mainly breakfast and late evening meals or more evenly in all meals. About 30-50% more iron was absorbed when no milk or cheese was served with lunch or dinner. The difference was statistically significant. Median iron requirements (1.61 mg/d) calculated from body weight and menstrual iron losses agreed with the mean value of median iron absorption in the two 10-d periods (1.54 mg/d), which supports the validity of the present method. A reasonable separation of calcium and iron intakes would improve iron nutrition.

  3. Data on daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption prepared by household desalinators working by reverse osmosis process.

    PubMed

    Karbasdehi, Vahid Noroozi; Dobaradaran, Sina; Esmaili, Abdolhamid; Mirahmadi, Roghayeh; Ghasemi, Fatemeh Faraji; Keshtkar, Mozhgan

    2016-09-01

    In this data article, we evaluated the daily fluoride contents in 20 household desalinators working by reverse osmosis (RO) process in Bushehr, Iran. The concentration levels of fluoride in inlet and outlet waters were determined by the standard SPADNS method using a spectrophotometer (M501 Single Beam Scanning UV/VIS, UK). The fluoride content in outlet waters were compared with EPA and WHO guidelines for drinking water.

  4. Data on daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption prepared by household desalinators working by reverse osmosis process.

    PubMed

    Karbasdehi, Vahid Noroozi; Dobaradaran, Sina; Esmaili, Abdolhamid; Mirahmadi, Roghayeh; Ghasemi, Fatemeh Faraji; Keshtkar, Mozhgan

    2016-09-01

    In this data article, we evaluated the daily fluoride contents in 20 household desalinators working by reverse osmosis (RO) process in Bushehr, Iran. The concentration levels of fluoride in inlet and outlet waters were determined by the standard SPADNS method using a spectrophotometer (M501 Single Beam Scanning UV/VIS, UK). The fluoride content in outlet waters were compared with EPA and WHO guidelines for drinking water. PMID:27508234

  5. Optimal vitamin D3 daily intake of 2000IU inferred from modeled solar exposure of ancestral humans in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Krzyścin, Janusz W; Guzikowski, Jakub; Rajewska-Więch, Bonawentura

    2016-06-01

    Recently, high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (~110nmol/L) was found in the Hadza tribe still keeping ancient hunter-gather life style. This level could serve as optimal vitamin D level that was built during millennia of human evolution. The personal vitamin D3 effective solar exposures of the Hadza adults are estimated using radiative model simulations with input from the satellite observations over lake Eyasi (3.7°S, 35.0°E). The calculations are carried out assuming the Hadza typical clothing habits and specific scenarios of the out-door activity comprising early morning and late afternoon working time in sun and prolonged midday siesta in the shade. The modeled doses received by the Hadza are converted to the vitamin D3 effective daily doses pertaining to the lighter skinned persons. We propose a novel formula to get adequate vitamin D level - exposure of 1/3 MED around local noon to 1/3 part of the whole body during warm sub-period of the year in the low- and mid-latitude regions. Such daily solar exposure is equivalent to ~2000IU of vitamin D3 taken orally. For many contemporary humans with limited out-door activity habit achieving such daily norm requires vitamin D3 supplementation of 2000IU throughout the whole year. PMID:27043260

  6. A Review of Mycotoxins in Food and Feed Products in Portugal and Estimation of Probable Daily Intakes.

    PubMed

    Abrunhosa, Luís; Morales, Héctor; Soares, Célia; Calado, Thalita; Vila-Chã, Ana Sofia; Pereira, Martinha; Venâncio, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that occur naturally in agricultural commodities worldwide. Aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, fumonisins, zearalenone, trichothecenes, and ergot alkaloids are presently the most important for food and feed safety. These compounds are produced by several species that belong to the Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps genera and can be carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, cytotoxic, neurotoxic, nephrotoxic, estrogenic, and immunosuppressant. Human and animal exposure to mycotoxins is generally assessed by taking into account data on the occurrence of mycotoxins in food and feed as well as data on the consumption patterns of the concerned population. This evaluation is crucial to support measures to reduce consumer exposure to mycotoxins. This work reviews the occurrence and levels of mycotoxins in Portuguese food and feed to provide a global overview of this issue in Portugal. With the information collected, the exposure of the Portuguese population to those mycotoxins is assessed, and the estimated dietary intakes are presented.

  7. Mercury levels and estimated total daily intakes for children and adults from an electronic waste recycling area in Taizhou, China: Key role of rice and fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Cheng, Jinping; Zhao, Wenchang; Wang, Wenhua

    2015-08-01

    In order to assess the potential health risks of Hg pollution, total mercury (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in air, dust, surface soil, crops, poultry, fish and human hair samples from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area in Taizhou, China. High concentrations of T-Hg and MeHg were found in these multiple matrices, and the mean concentration was 30.7 ng/m(3) of T-Hg for atmosphere samples, 3.1 μg/g of T-Hg for soil, 37.6 μg/g of T-Hg for dust, 20.3 ng/g of MeHg for rice and 178.1 ng/g of MeHg for fish, suggesting that the e-waste recycling facility was a significant source of Hg. The inorganic Hg (I-Hg) levels (0.84 μg/g) in hair samples of e-waste workers were much higher than that in the reference samples. Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that strong positive correlations (p<0.01) between hair I-Hg and time staying in industrial area (r=0.81) and between MeHg and fish consumption frequency (r=0.91), imply that workers were mainly exposed to Hg vapor through long-time inhalation of contaminated air and dust, while other population mainly exposed to MeHg through high-frequency fish consumption. The estimated daily intakes of Hg showed that dietary intake was the major Hg exposure source, and Hg intakes from rice and fish were significantly higher than from any other foods. The estimated total daily intakes (TDIs) of MeHg for both children (696.8 ng/(kg·day)) and adults (381.3 ng/(kg·day)) greatly exceeded the dietary reference dose (RfD) of 230 ng/(kg·day), implying greater health risk for humans from Hg exposures around e-waste recycling facilities.

  8. [Intake of folic acid in the total daily diet--effect of food preparation on its folic acid content].

    PubMed

    Müller, H

    1995-03-01

    The folic acid content of total daily diet was determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The contents of tetrahydrofolic acid (THF), 5-methyl-THF and 5-formyl-THF were differentiated. The mean of the folic acid content of the total daily diet samples determined analytically was 205 +/- 60 micrograms and the mean of the individual ingredients of the samples was 401 +/- 78 micrograms, which implies that about 50% of folic acid is destroyed by common household food preparation methods. If the contents of pteroylglutamic acid (PteGlu) and 10-formyl-PteGlu (which cannot be determined analytically) are added, it can be assumed that the folic acid content with only be reduced by about 40%. THF and 5-methyl-THF proved to be less stable than 5-formyl-THF. The monoglutamate portion of the total folat content was higher in the total diet samples than in the individual foodstuffs as a consequence of the action of the enzyme "deconjugase" which is released when the matrix of food-stuffs is destroyed.

  9. The acute effects of daily nicotine intake on heart rate--a toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic modelling study.

    PubMed

    Gajewska, M; Worth, A; Urani, C; Briesen, H; Schramm, K-W

    2014-10-01

    Joint physiologically-based toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic (PBTK/TD) modelling was applied to simulate concentration-time profiles of nicotine, a well-known stimulant, in the human body following single and repeated dosing. Both kinetic and dynamic models were first calibrated by using in vivo literature data for the Caucasian population. The models were then used to estimate the blood and liver concentrations of nicotine in terms of the Area Under Curve (AUC) and the peak concentration (Cmax) for selected exposure scenarios based on inhalation (cigarette smoking), oral intake (nicotine lozenges) and dermal absorption (nicotine patches). The model simulations indicated that whereas frequent cigarette smoking gives rise to high AUC and Cmax in blood, the use of nicotine-rich dermal patches leads to high AUC and Cmax in the liver. Venous blood concentrations were used to estimate one of the most common acute effects, mean heart rate, both at rest and during exercise. These estimations showed that cigarette smoking causes a high peak heart rate, whereas dermal absorption causes a high mean heart rate over 48h. This study illustrates the potential of using PBTK/TD modelling in the safety assessment of nicotine-containing products. PMID:25066669

  10. The acute effects of daily nicotine intake on heart rate--a toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic modelling study.

    PubMed

    Gajewska, M; Worth, A; Urani, C; Briesen, H; Schramm, K-W

    2014-10-01

    Joint physiologically-based toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic (PBTK/TD) modelling was applied to simulate concentration-time profiles of nicotine, a well-known stimulant, in the human body following single and repeated dosing. Both kinetic and dynamic models were first calibrated by using in vivo literature data for the Caucasian population. The models were then used to estimate the blood and liver concentrations of nicotine in terms of the Area Under Curve (AUC) and the peak concentration (Cmax) for selected exposure scenarios based on inhalation (cigarette smoking), oral intake (nicotine lozenges) and dermal absorption (nicotine patches). The model simulations indicated that whereas frequent cigarette smoking gives rise to high AUC and Cmax in blood, the use of nicotine-rich dermal patches leads to high AUC and Cmax in the liver. Venous blood concentrations were used to estimate one of the most common acute effects, mean heart rate, both at rest and during exercise. These estimations showed that cigarette smoking causes a high peak heart rate, whereas dermal absorption causes a high mean heart rate over 48h. This study illustrates the potential of using PBTK/TD modelling in the safety assessment of nicotine-containing products.

  11. Reasons for raising the maximum acceptable daily intake of EDTA and the benefits for iron fortification of foods for children 6-24 months of age.

    PubMed

    Wreesmann, Carel Theo Jozef

    2014-10-01

    The current maximum acceptable daily intake (ADI) of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) of 1.9 mg day(-1) per kilogram bodyweight (mg day(-1)  kgbw(-1) ) limits the daily intake of iron as iron EDTA [ferric sodium EDTA; sodium iron(III) EDTA] to approximately 2-2.5 mg day(-1) for children 6-24 months of age. This limit was defined by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 1973 based on data from an animal-feed study published in 1963. Other animal studies indicate that this limit can be raised to 4.4 or possibly up to 21.7 mg day(-1)  kgbw(-1) , which is 2.3-11.4 times higher than the current value. For nearly 50 years, iron EDTA has been used in France in medicinal syrup for infants 1-6 months of age. The maximum recommended dosage of this drug is 37 times higher than the maximum ADI of EDTA. No adverse health effects have been reported as a result of this medicinal consumption of iron EDTA. Raising the maximum ADI of EDTA to only 4.4 mg day(-1)  kgbw(-1) would enable iron EDTA, an iron fortificant with proven bioavailability in phytate-rich meals, to be added in adequate amounts to cereal-based meals for children 6-24 months of age, who are at risk of iron deficiency.

  12. Evaluation of content and estimation of daily intake of cadmium and lead in several varieties of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivated in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Luis, G; Rubio, C; González-Weller, D; Gutiérrez, A J; Revert, C; Hardisson, A

    2014-04-01

    Monitoring the metal content in foods such as potatoes is an important aspect of food safety and regulation. Samples of nine varieties of potatoes (73 samples of local potatoes and 77 samples of imported potatoes) were randomly obtained from supermarkets, farmers markets, and farmer plots in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The edible portion (pulp) was the only part considered for analysis because Spaniards traditionally eat only peeled potatoes. Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Cd concentrations ranged from 0.006 mg/kg in the Cara and Negra varieties to 0.019 mg/kg in the Bonita variety, and Pb concentrations ranged from 0.007 mg/kg in the Up-to-date variety to 0.023 mg/kg in the Recara variety. The mean concentrations of Cd (0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.014 mg/kg) were below the limits established by European regulations for potatoes (0.1 mg/kg of wet weight for each metal). Based on a mean consumption of 143.2 g of potato per person per day for the Canary Islands population, the mean daily intakes of Cd (0.015 mg/day) and Pb (0.023 mg/day) were below the legislated respective tolerable weekly intakes. Thus, the samples analyzed were considered safe to eat with regard to the metal concentrations found. PMID:24680081

  13. [Peripuberal development of genetic obesity in beta rats. Daily changes in food intake, body weight, deep body temperature, triglyceridemia and glycemia].

    PubMed

    Calderari, S; Gayol, M C; Elliff, M I; Labourdette, V; Troiano, M F; Romano, G

    1990-01-01

    The moderate quality of beta obesity and its relatively slow evolution make it potentially useful for defining the sequence of events that lead to the overt syndrome. Estimates of food intake, live body weight, deep body temperature, triglyceridemia and glycemia were obtained at several times during the day in beta genetically obese and alpha (alpha) control male rats at peripuberal age, in order to characterize the dynamic phase of this obesity and to attempt the definition of some previous proceedings that eventually produce the full obesity syndrome. Beta higher food intake in the light cycle preceded its whole day hyperphagia. Both genotypes showed the normal pattern of predominantly nocturnal feeding. A lower light phase's weight loss in beta preceded the overweight. Thus, beta rats were not significantly heavier than alpha until the end of the last period studied, when they were 75 days old. A defect in adaptive thermogenesis in beta genotype is suggested, as values on deep body temperature in relation to alpha were significantly lower at all times of day tested. Correlation coefficient value between daily net weight gain versus deep body temperature was: r = -0.601 (p less than 0.01), suggesting a diminished lipolytic stimulation in beta brown adipose tissue. A sustained hypertriglyceridemia in beta at every time of the day studied suggested its endogenous source. Differences in glycemia values were not statistically significant between genotypes, though apparently wider variations in beta could reflect a certain glycemic regulation lability in the obese genotype. PMID:2101545

  14. Daily intake of Jeju groundwater improves the skin condition of the model mouse for human atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akane; Jung, Kyungsook; Matsuda, Akira; Jang, Hyosun; Kajiwara, Naoki; Amagai, Yosuke; Oida, Kumiko; Ahn, Ginnae; Ohmori, Keitaro; Kang, Kyung-goo; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    Drinking water is an important nutrient for human health. The mineral ingredients included in drinking water may affect the physical condition of people. Various kinds of natural water are in circulation as bottled water in developed countries; however, its influence on clinical conditions of patients with certain diseases has not been fully evaluated. In this study, effects of the natural groundwater from Jeju Island on clinical symptoms and skin barrier function in atopic dermatitis (AD) were evaluated. NC/Tnd mice, a model for human AD, with moderate to severe dermatitis were used. Mice were given different natural groundwater or tap water for 8 weeks from 4 weeks of age. Clinical skin severity scores were recorded every week. Scratching analysis and measurement of transepidermal water loss were performed every other week. The pathological condition of the dorsal skin was evaluated histologically. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed for cytokine expression in the affected skin. The epidermal hyperplasia and allergic inflammation were reduced in atopic mice supplied with Jeju groundwater when compared to those supplied with tap water or other kinds of natural groundwater. The increase in scratching behavior with the aggravation of clinical severity of dermatitis was favorably controlled. Moreover, transepidermal water loss that reflects skin barrier function was recovered. The early inflammation and hypersensitivity in the atopic skin was alleviated in mice supplied with Jeju groundwater, suggesting its profitable potential on the daily care of patients with skin troubles including AD.

  15. Determination of total vanadium and vanadium(V) in groundwater from Mt. Etna and estimate of daily intake of vanadium(V) through drinking water.

    PubMed

    Arena, Giovanni; Copat, Chiara; Dimartino, Angela; Grasso, Alfina; Fallico, Roberto; Sciacca, Salvatore; Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-06-01

    Vanadium(V) can be found in natural waters in the form of V(IV) and V(V) species, which have different biological properties and toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of total V and V(V) in groundwater from the area of Mt. Etna and to assess the estimated daily intake (EDI) of V(V) of adults and children through drinking water. Water was sampled monthly at 21 sites in 2011. Total vanadium was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and speciation by ion chromatography-ICP-MS (IC-ICP-MS). The concentration of V(V) species ranged from 62.8 to 98.9% of total V, with significantly higher concentrations in samples from the S/SW slope of Mt. Etna. The annual mean concentrations of total V exceeded the Italian legal limit of 140 μg/L at four sites on the S/SW slope. In the absence of thresholds for V(V) intake, only the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has calculated a reference dose. Children's EDI of V(V) at the sites with the higher V concentrations exceeded EPA thresholds (9 μg/kg/day). In particular, we found in Camporotondo, Mascalucia, Ragalna and San Pietro Clarenza sites children's EDIs of 11, 9.3, 11 and 9.9, respectively. The EDI of V(V) was significantly higher than the literature range (0.09-0.34 μg/kg/day).

  16. No evidence of dehydration with moderate daily coffee intake: a counterbalanced cross-over study in a free-living population.

    PubMed

    Killer, Sophie C; Blannin, Andrew K; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-01-01

    It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3-6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4×200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na(+) excretion was higher in C than W (p = 0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p<0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water. PMID:24416202

  17. No Evidence of Dehydration with Moderate Daily Coffee Intake: A Counterbalanced Cross-Over Study in a Free-Living Population

    PubMed Central

    Killer, Sophie C.; Blannin, Andrew K.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.

    2014-01-01

    It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3–6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4×200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na+ excretion was higher in C than W (p = 0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p<0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water. PMID:24416202

  18. Analysis of imidacloprid residues in fruits, vegetables, cereals, fruit juices, and baby foods, and daily intake estimation in and around Lucknow, India.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Upasana; Srivastava, M K; Srivastava, Ashutosh Kumar; Patel, D K; Garg, Veena; Srivastava, L P

    2013-03-01

    A total of 250 samples-including fruits, fruit juices, and baby foods (50 samples each), vegetables (70 samples), and cereals (30 samples)-were collected from Lucknow, India, and analyzed for the presence of imidacloprid residues. The QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method of extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis were carried out, and imidacloprid residues were qualitatively confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Imidacloprid was not detected in samples of fruit juices and baby foods. It was, however, detected in 38 samples of fruits, vegetables, and cereals, which is about 15.20% of the total samples. Of samples of fruits, 22% showed the presence of imidacloprid, and 2% of samples showed residues above the maximal residue limit. Although imidacloprid was detected in 24% of vegetable samples, only 5.71% showed the presence of imidacloprid above the maximal residue limit. However, 33% of cereal samples showed the presence of imidacloprid, and about 3% of samples were above the maximal residue limit. The calculated estimated daily intake ranged between 0.004 and 0.131 µg/kg body weight, and the hazard indices ranged from 0.007 to 0.218 for these food commodities. It is therefore indicated that lifetime consumption of vegetables, fruits, fruit juices, baby foods, wheat, rice, and pulses may not pose a health hazard for the population of Lucknow because the hazard indices for imidacloprid residues were below one.

  19. Diurnal pattern of pulsatile luteinizing hormone and testosterone secretion in adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): influence of the timing of daily meal intake.

    PubMed

    Mattern, L G; Helmreich, D L; Cameron, J L

    1993-03-01

    Adult male rhesus monkeys have a diurnal pattern of reproductive hormone secretion that is characterized by significantly elevated LH and testosterone secretion in the evening hours and a nadir in secretion of these hormones in the morning. To test the hypothesis that the daily pattern of food intake may play a role in regulating the diurnal pattern of reproductive hormone secretion we performed three studies. First, to determine the relationship between the timing of the diurnal rise in LH secretion and meal consumption, blood samples were collected from 13 adult male rhesus monkeys via chronically indwelling venous catheters (samples every 15-20 min from 0800-0800 h) while monkeys were maintained on the standard feeding regimen in our colony (one meal of Purina monkey chow fed between 1100 and 1200 h). On a day of normal feeding there was a significant diurnal rhythm in mean LH concentrations with elevated levels at night (nadir: 13.41 +/- 0.82 ng/ml from 0800-1100 h; peak: 21.34 +/- 1.56 ng/ml from 2000-2300 h, P < or = 0.05). The rising phase of the diurnal rhythm in LH secretion was apparent starting in the early afternoon, shortly after the daily meal, at 1400 h (5 h before lights went off at 1900 h), and the diurnal rise in LH secretion was no longer apparent by 0500 h (several hours before the lights went on at 0700 h). Second, we examined the influence of missing the daily meal on the diurnal pattern of LH and testosterone secretion. Blood samples were collected for a 24-h period on a day of fasting from 9 monkeys. On a day of fasting there was no diurnal rise in plasma LH or testosterone concentrations; plasma concentrations of these hormones remained at the low morning levels throughout the day. Third, we examined the diurnal pattern of LH and testosterone secretion after adapting 5 monkeys (for 6-8 weeks) to a new meal time that was 6 h later in the day than the standard meal time (i.e. at 1700 h). After adaptation to this later feeding time monkeys

  20. Daily Feed Intake, Energy Intake, Growth Rate and Measures of Dietary Energy Efficiency of Pigs from Four Sire Lines Fed Diets with High or Low Metabolizable and Net Energy Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Schinckel, A. P.; Einstein, M. E.; Jungst, S.; Matthews, J. O.; Booher, C.; Dreadin, T.; Fralick, C.; Wilson, E.; Boyd, R. D.

    2012-01-01

    A trial was conducted to: i) evaluate the BW growth, energy intakes and energetic efficiency of pigs fed high and low density diets from 27 to 141 kg BW, ii) evaluate sire line and sex differences when fed both diets, and iii) to compare ME to NE as predictor of pig performance. The experiment had a replicated factorial arrangement of treatments including four sire lines, two sexes (2,192 barrows and 2,280 gilts), two dietary energy densities and a light or heavy target BW, 118 and 131.5 kg in replicates 1 to 6 and 127 and 140.6 kg in replicates 7 to 10. Pigs were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.27 Mcal ME/kg) corn-soybean meal based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.53 to 3.55 Mcal ME/kg) with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Pigs were weighed and pen feed intake (11 or 12 pigs/pen) recorded at 28-d intervals. The barrow and gilt daily feed (DFI), ME (MEI) and NE (NEI) intake data were fitted to a Bridges function of BW. The BW data of each sex were fitted to a generalized Michaelis-Menten function of days of age. ME and NE required for maintenance (Mcal/d) were predicted using functions of BW (0.255 and 0.179 BW^0.60 respectively). Pigs fed LE diets had decreased ADG (915 vs. 945 g/d, p<0.001) than pigs fed HE diets. Overall, DFI was greater (p<0.001) for pigs fed the LE diets (2.62 vs. 2.45 kg/d). However, no diet differences were observed for MEI (8.76 vs. 8.78 Mcal/d, p = 0.49) or NEI (6.39 vs. 6.44 Mcal/d, p = 0.13), thereby indicating that the pigs compensated for the decreased energy content of the diet. Overall ADG:DFI (0.362 vs. 0.377) and ADG:Mcal MEI (0.109 vs. 0.113) was less (p<0.001) for pigs fed LE compared to HE diets. Pigs fed HE diets had 3.6% greater ADG:Mcal MEI above maintenance and only 1.3% greater ADG:Mcal NEI (0.152 versus 0.150), therefore NEI is a more accurate predictor of

  1. Obesity-prone high-fat-fed rats reduce caloric intake and adiposity and gain more fat-free mass when allowed to self-select protein from carbohydrate:fat intake.

    PubMed

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chalvon-Demersay, Tristan; Pimentel, Grégory; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire; Even, Patrick C

    2016-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, for rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), a prioritization of maintaining protein intake may increase energy consumption and hence result in obesity, particularly for individuals prone to obesity ("fat sensitive," FS, vs. "fat resistant," FR). Male Wistar rats (n = 80) first received 3 wk of HFD (protein 15%, fat 42%, carbohydrate 42%), under which they were characterized as being FS (n = 18) or FR (n = 20) based on body weight gain. They then continued on the same HFD but in which protein (100%) was available separately from the carbohydrate:fat (50:50%) mixture. Under this second regimen, all rats maintained their previous protein intake, whereas intake of fat and carbohydrate was reduced by 50%. This increased protein intake to 26% and decreased fat intake to 37%. Adiposity gain was prevented in both FR and FS rats, and gain in fat-free mass was increased only in FS rats. At the end of the study, the rats were killed 2 h after ingestion of a protein meal, and their tissues and organs were collected for analysis of body composition and measurement of mRNA levels in the liver, adipose tissue, arcuate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens. FS rats had a higher expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in lipogenesis in the liver and white adipose tissue. These results show that FS rats strongly reduced food intake and adiposity gain through macronutrient selection, despite maintenance of a relatively high-fat intake and overexpression of genes favoring lipogenesis.

  2. Effect of plane of milk replacer intake and age on glucose and insulin kinetics and abomasal emptying in female Holstein Friesian dairy calves fed twice daily.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, J A R; Berends, H; Leal, L N; Cant, J P; Martín-Tereso, J; Steele, M A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how preweaning plane of milk replacer intake and age can affect insulin and glucose kinetics as well as abomasal emptying rate in dairy calves fed twice a day. A total of 12 female Holstein Friesian calves were blocked by cow parity, paired by colostrum origin, and were randomly assigned to a high plane of milk replacer intake (8 L/d, 1.2kg of milk replacer/d; n=6) or a low plane of nutrition (4 L/d, 0.6kg of milk replacer/d; n=6). All calves received 4 L of colostrum over 2 meals (1 and 6h after birth) and were then directly transferred to their assigned feeding plans until they were stepped-down from milk by 50% during wk 7 and weaned on wk 8. Milk replacer (24% crude protein, 18% crude fat) was fed at 150g/L twice daily (0700 and 1700h) and all calves had ad libitum access to pelleted calf starter, chopped wheat straw, and water. Jugular catheters were placed in all calves at 4, 7, and 10wk of age. Then, postprandial response to plasma glucose, insulin, and acetaminophen (supplied with the meal) were determined to measure abomasal emptying. The next day, a glucose tolerance test was conducted by infusing glucose via the jugular catheter. At 4 and 7wk of age, the rate constant (%/h) for abomasal emptying of the meal was lower in high calves (0.21±0.02 in wk 4; 0.27±0.02 in wk 7) compared with low (0.34±0.02 in wk 4; 0.47±0.02 in wk 7). The postprandial plasma insulin area under the curve over 420min was greater in high calves (18,443±7,329; low=5,834±739 µU/mL) compared with low. We found no differences in glucose tolerance test kinetics between the high and low dairy calves at 4, 7, or 10wk of age. The findings from this study suggest that feeding dairy calves an elevated plane of nutrition in 2 meals of milk replacer per day does not decrease insulin sensitivity. PMID:27522426

  3. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals’ food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study’s aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. Methods In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. Results 1) Food venue availability within activity space – no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice – Shopping at farmers’ markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers’ markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store – those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95

  4. Changes in acyl and total ghrelin concentrations and their association with dry matter intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency of finishing beef steers and heifers.

    PubMed

    Foote, A P; Hales, K E; Freetly, H C

    2016-10-01

    Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced in the gut that is implicated in signaling appetite and regulating dry matter intake (DMI). The objective of this experiment was to determine the change in acyl ghrelin, total ghrelin, and the ghrelin ratio (acyl ghrelin/total ghrelin) over an 84-d DMI and average daily BW gain (ADG) measurement period and to determine the association of those ghrelin measurements with DMI, ADG, ADG:DMI ratio (G:F), and residual feed intake in finishing beef steers and heifers. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and day 83 before feeding and between 0730 h and 1130 h. Samples were analyzed for acyl and total ghrelin using commercially available RIA. DMI in steers was greater during the last 35-d period of the experiment compared with the first 35 d (P < 0.01) and was greater than heifers regardless of period (P < 0.01). Steers had greater acyl ghrelin concentrations on day 0 than heifers, but concentrations decreased by day 83 to equal concentrations in heifers (P < 0.01). Total ghrelin concentrations were lower on day 0 in heifers but increased by day 83 and did not differ from steers on day 83 (P < 0.01). A mixed model analysis was used to determine the association of ghrelin concentrations and ratio with production traits, independent of breed and sire effects. There was an interaction of day 0 acyl ghrelin concentrations with time of sample collection for 84-d DMI (P < 0.01), ADG (P < 0.01), and G:F (P = 0.09), indicating a general positive association of acyl ghrelin with production traits, but the association weakened as time of sample collection increased. The mean ghrelin ratio tended (P = 0.08) to be positively associated with DMI in the last 35-d period. The ghrelin ratio on day 0 interacted with time of sample collection for ADG and G:F (P < 0.05), indicating an overall positive association of the ghrelin ratio with ADG and G:F. Results indicate that ghrelin is associated with DMI, ADG, and feed efficiency of finishing beef

  5. Short communication: genetic relationships among daily energy balance, feed intake, body condition score, and fat to protein ratio of milk in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Buttchereit, N; Stamer, E; Junge, W; Thaller, G

    2011-03-01

    Postpartum energy status is critically important to health and fertility, and it remains a major task to find suitable indicator traits for energy balance. Therefore, genetic parameters for daily energy balance (EB) and dry matter intake (DMI), weekly milk fat to protein ratio (FPR), and monthly body condition score (BCS) were estimated using random regression on data collected from 682 Holstein-Friesian primiparous cows recorded between lactation d 11 to 180. Average energy-corrected milk (ECM), EB, DMI, BCS, and FPR were 32.0 kg, 9.6 MJ of NE(L), 20.3 kg, 2.95, and 1.12, respectively. Heritability estimates for EB, DMI, BCS, and FPR ranged from 0.03 to 0.13, 0.04 to 0.19, 0.34 to 0.59, and 0.20 to 0.54. Fat to protein ratio was a more valid measure for EB in early lactation than DMI, BCS, or single milk components. Correlations between FPR and EB were highest at the beginning of lactation [genetic correlation (r(g)) = -0.62 at days in milk (DIM) 15] and decreased toward zero. Dry matter intake was the trait most closely correlated with EB in mid lactation (r(g) = 0.73 at DIM 120 and 150). Energy balance in early lactation was negatively correlated to EB in mid lactation. The same applied to DMI. Genetic correlations between FPR across lactation stages were all positive; the lowest genetic correlation (0.55) was estimated between the beginning of lactation and early mid lactation. Hence, to improve EB at the beginning of lactation, EB and indicator traits need to be recorded in early lactation. We concluded that FPR is an adequate indicator for EB during the energy deficit phase. Genetic correlations of FPR with ECM, fat percentage, and protein percentage showed that a reduction of FPR in early lactation would have a slightly negative effect on ECM, whereas milk composition would change in a desirable manner.

  6. Compared with Daily, Weekly n–3 PUFA Intake Affects the Incorporation of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid into Platelets and Mononuclear Cells in Humans123

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Lucy M.; Walker, Celia G.; Mander, Adrian P.; West, Annette L.; Gambell, Joanna; Madden, Jackie; Calder, Philip C.; Jebb, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of oily fish is sporadic, whereas controlled intervention studies of n–3 (ω-3) fatty acids usually provide capsules containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a daily dose. This methodologic study explored whether there are differences in the short-, medium-, and long-term incorporation of EPA and DHA into blood plasma and cells with the provision of identical amounts of EPA and DHA, equivalent to 2 oily fish servings per week (or 6.54 g/wk EPA and DHA), either intermittently (i.e., 1 portion twice per week) or continuously (i.e., divided into daily amounts). The study was part of a randomized, double-blind controlled intervention lasting 12 mo, with participants stratified by age and sex. There were 5 intervention groups, 2 of which are reported here: the 2 intermittent portions (2I) and 2 continuous portions (2C) groups. EPA and DHA were measured in plasma phosphatidylcholine, platelets, and blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) at 9 time points. Sixty-five participants completed the study (2I group, n = 30, mean age of 49.2 y; 2C group, n = 35, mean age of 50.6 y). The incorporation pattern over the 12-mo intervention was different between the 2 groups in all samples (P < 0.0001, time × treatment interaction). At the end of the 12-mo intervention, the 2C group had higher EPA, DHA, and EPA + DHA in platelets (all P < 0.01) and higher EPA and EPA + DHA in MNCs (both P < 0.05) compared with the 2I group. No significant differences were shown for plasma phosphatidylcholine EPA (P = 0.1), DHA (P = 0.15), EPA + DHA (P = 0.07), or MNC DHA (P = 0.06). In conclusion, the pattern of consumption does affect the incorporation of EPA and DHA into cells used as biomarkers of intake. The differences identified here need to be considered in the design of studies and when extrapolating results from continuous capsule-based intervention studies to dietary guidelines for oily fish consumption. This trial was registered at www

  7. Once-daily milking during late lactation in pasture-fed dairy cows has minor effects on feed intake, body condition score gain, and hepatic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Grala, T M; Handley, R R; Roche, J R; Walker, C G; Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K

    2016-04-01

    Milking cows once daily (1×) is a management practice occasionally used during mid/late lactation in pasture-based systems. It has been postulated that 1× milking will reduce dry matter intake (DMI) and increase body condition score (BCS) gain; however, this has not been quantified. Lactating, pregnant Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=52) were allocated to either 1× or twice-daily (2×) milking in mid-January (summer, 175d in milk). To obtain accurate DMI measurements, cows underwent 4 periods in a Calan gate indoor feeding facility, interspersed with grazing outdoors. Milk production, body weight (BW), and BCS were recorded 2 wk before treatment start (-2 wk) and weekly thereafter. Blood variables were recorded at -2 wk and weekly when indoors. Liver was biopsied at -2, 2, and 10 wk, and hepatic gene expression measured using quantitative PCR. Milking cows 1× tended to lower DMI (17.8 vs. 18.2 kg of dry matter), but increased BCS gain (0.36 vs. 0.13 BCS units) and BW (546 vs. 533 kg) at wk 12 relative to 2×. The greater BCS and BW of cows milked 1× compared with 2× were reflected in lower plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and lower transcription of genes involved in the oxidation of fatty acids, indicating reduced release and processing of fatty acids. Cows milked 1× produced 20% less milk, and although milk fat and protein concentrations were increased relative to cows milked 2×, yields of fat and protein were 14 and 17% less, respectively. The reduction in milk production with 1× milking (14.1 vs. 16.8 kg/cow per d energy-corrected milk) was accompanied by increases in blood concentrations of glucose and insulin, with a concurrent decrease in the transcription of the insulin receptor and gluconeogenic genes. These results indicate a coordinated response to reduce glucose production due to decreased mammary demand. Expression of 2 genes linked to inflammation and adipokine signaling was reduced in cows milked 1× and may indicate a lower

  8. Once-daily milking during late lactation in pasture-fed dairy cows has minor effects on feed intake, body condition score gain, and hepatic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Grala, T M; Handley, R R; Roche, J R; Walker, C G; Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K

    2016-04-01

    Milking cows once daily (1×) is a management practice occasionally used during mid/late lactation in pasture-based systems. It has been postulated that 1× milking will reduce dry matter intake (DMI) and increase body condition score (BCS) gain; however, this has not been quantified. Lactating, pregnant Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=52) were allocated to either 1× or twice-daily (2×) milking in mid-January (summer, 175d in milk). To obtain accurate DMI measurements, cows underwent 4 periods in a Calan gate indoor feeding facility, interspersed with grazing outdoors. Milk production, body weight (BW), and BCS were recorded 2 wk before treatment start (-2 wk) and weekly thereafter. Blood variables were recorded at -2 wk and weekly when indoors. Liver was biopsied at -2, 2, and 10 wk, and hepatic gene expression measured using quantitative PCR. Milking cows 1× tended to lower DMI (17.8 vs. 18.2 kg of dry matter), but increased BCS gain (0.36 vs. 0.13 BCS units) and BW (546 vs. 533 kg) at wk 12 relative to 2×. The greater BCS and BW of cows milked 1× compared with 2× were reflected in lower plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and lower transcription of genes involved in the oxidation of fatty acids, indicating reduced release and processing of fatty acids. Cows milked 1× produced 20% less milk, and although milk fat and protein concentrations were increased relative to cows milked 2×, yields of fat and protein were 14 and 17% less, respectively. The reduction in milk production with 1× milking (14.1 vs. 16.8 kg/cow per d energy-corrected milk) was accompanied by increases in blood concentrations of glucose and insulin, with a concurrent decrease in the transcription of the insulin receptor and gluconeogenic genes. These results indicate a coordinated response to reduce glucose production due to decreased mammary demand. Expression of 2 genes linked to inflammation and adipokine signaling was reduced in cows milked 1× and may indicate a lower

  9. More efficient mastication allows increasing intake without compromising digestibility or necessitating a larger gut: comparative feeding trials in banteng (Bos javanicus) and pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis).

    PubMed

    Schwarm, Angela; Ortmann, Sylvia; Wolf, Christian; Streich, W Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2009-04-01

    The digestion of plant material in mammalian herbivores basically depends on the chemical and structural composition of the diet, the mean particle size to which the forage is processed, and the ingesta retention time. These different factors can be influenced by the animal, and they can presumably compensate for each other. The pygmy hippopotamus, a non-ruminating foregut fermenter, has longer mean retention times than ruminants; however hippos do not achieve higher (fibre) digestibilities on comparable diets, which could be due to ineffective mastication. We performed feeding trials with six pygmy hippos (Hexaprotodon liberiensis) and six banteng cattle (Bos javanicus) on a grass diet. As predicted, both species achieved similar dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and gross energy digestibilities. However, neutral and acid detergent fibre digestibility was lower in pygmy hippos. Apparently, in these species, fibre digestibility was more influenced by particle size, which was larger in pygmy hippos compared to banteng, than by retention time. In spite of their higher relative food intake, the banteng in this study did not have greater relative gut fills than the hippos. Ruminants traditionally appear intake-limited when compared to equids, because feed particles above a certain size cannot leave the rumen. But when compared to nonruminating foregut fermenters, rumination seems to free foregut fermenters from an intrinsic food intake limitation. The higher energy intakes and metabolic rates in wild cattle compared to hippos could have life-history consequences, such as a higher relative reproductive rate.

  10. More efficient mastication allows increasing intake without compromising digestibility or necessitating a larger gut: comparative feeding trials in banteng (Bos javanicus) and pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis).

    PubMed

    Schwarm, Angela; Ortmann, Sylvia; Wolf, Christian; Streich, W Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2009-04-01

    The digestion of plant material in mammalian herbivores basically depends on the chemical and structural composition of the diet, the mean particle size to which the forage is processed, and the ingesta retention time. These different factors can be influenced by the animal, and they can presumably compensate for each other. The pygmy hippopotamus, a non-ruminating foregut fermenter, has longer mean retention times than ruminants; however hippos do not achieve higher (fibre) digestibilities on comparable diets, which could be due to ineffective mastication. We performed feeding trials with six pygmy hippos (Hexaprotodon liberiensis) and six banteng cattle (Bos javanicus) on a grass diet. As predicted, both species achieved similar dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and gross energy digestibilities. However, neutral and acid detergent fibre digestibility was lower in pygmy hippos. Apparently, in these species, fibre digestibility was more influenced by particle size, which was larger in pygmy hippos compared to banteng, than by retention time. In spite of their higher relative food intake, the banteng in this study did not have greater relative gut fills than the hippos. Ruminants traditionally appear intake-limited when compared to equids, because feed particles above a certain size cannot leave the rumen. But when compared to nonruminating foregut fermenters, rumination seems to free foregut fermenters from an intrinsic food intake limitation. The higher energy intakes and metabolic rates in wild cattle compared to hippos could have life-history consequences, such as a higher relative reproductive rate. PMID:19135544

  11. Prevalence of Dental Caries in relation to Body Mass Index, Daily Sugar Intake, and Oral Hygiene Status in 12-Year-Old School Children in Mathura City: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prahlad; Gupta, Nidhi; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To correlate the prevalence of dental caries to body mass index, daily sugar intake, and oral hygiene status of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city. Material and Methods. The study design was cross-sectional and included 100 school children aged 12 years (n = 50 boys and n = 50 girls) who were randomly selected from two schools based upon inclusion and exclusion criteria. Body weight/height was recorded and BMI was calculated and plotted on CDC-BMI for age growth charts/curves for boys and girls to obtain percentile ranking. Dental caries was recorded using WHO criteria. Oral hygiene status of the study subjects was assessed using oral hygiene index-simplified. Data regarding the daily sugar intake was recorded using 24-hour recall diet frequency chart. The data obtained was analysed using SPSS version 11.5 for windows. Result. Only 27 subjects were affected by caries. The mean DMFT/dmft was 0.37 ± 0.79 and 0.12 ± 0.60, respectively. Statistical analysis by means of a logistic regression model revealed that only oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence (OR = 5.061, P = 0.004), whereas daily sugar intake and body mass index had no significant effect. Conclusion. From the analysis, it was concluded that oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city.

  12. Prevalence of Dental Caries in relation to Body Mass Index, Daily Sugar Intake, and Oral Hygiene Status in 12-Year-Old School Children in Mathura City: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To correlate the prevalence of dental caries to body mass index, daily sugar intake, and oral hygiene status of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city. Material and Methods. The study design was cross-sectional and included 100 school children aged 12 years (n = 50 boys and n = 50 girls) who were randomly selected from two schools based upon inclusion and exclusion criteria. Body weight/height was recorded and BMI was calculated and plotted on CDC-BMI for age growth charts/curves for boys and girls to obtain percentile ranking. Dental caries was recorded using WHO criteria. Oral hygiene status of the study subjects was assessed using oral hygiene index-simplified. Data regarding the daily sugar intake was recorded using 24-hour recall diet frequency chart. The data obtained was analysed using SPSS version 11.5 for windows. Result. Only 27 subjects were affected by caries. The mean DMFT/dmft was 0.37 ± 0.79 and 0.12 ± 0.60, respectively. Statistical analysis by means of a logistic regression model revealed that only oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence (OR = 5.061, P = 0.004), whereas daily sugar intake and body mass index had no significant effect. Conclusion. From the analysis, it was concluded that oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city. PMID:24688550

  13. Measurements of daily urinary uranium excretion in German peacekeeping personnel and residents of the Kosovo region to assess potential intakes of depleted uranium (DU).

    PubMed

    Oeh, U; Priest, N D; Roth, P; Ragnarsdottir, K V; Li, W B; Höllriegl, V; Thirlwall, M F; Michalke, B; Giussani, A; Schramel, P; Paretzke, H G

    2007-08-01

    Following the end of the Kosovo conflict, in June 1999, a study was instigated to evaluate whether there was a cause for concern of health risk from depleted uranium (DU) to German peacekeeping personnel serving in the Balkans. In addition, the investigations were extended to residents of Kosovo and southern Serbia, who lived in areas where DU ammunitions were deployed. In order to assess a possible DU intake, both the urinary uranium excretion of volunteer residents and water samples were collected and analysed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). More than 1300 urine samples from peacekeeping personnel and unexposed controls of different genders and age were analysed to determine uranium excretion parameters. The urine measurements for 113 unexposed subjects revealed a daily uranium excretion rate with a geometric mean of 13.9 ng/d (geometric standard deviation (GSD)=2.17). The analysis of 1228 urine samples from the peacekeeping personnel resulted in a geometric mean of 12.8 ng/d (GSD=2.60). It follows that both unexposed controls and peacekeeping personnel excreted similar amounts of uranium. Inter-subject variation in uranium excretion was high and no significant age-specific differences were found. The second part of the study monitored 24 h urine samples provided by selected residents of Kosovo and adjacent regions of Serbia compared to controls from Munich, Germany. Total uranium and isotope ratios were measured in order to determine DU content. (235)U/(238)U ratios were within +/-0.3% of the natural value, and (236)U/(238)U was less than 2 x 10(-7), indicating no significant DU in any of the urine samples provided, despite total uranium excretion being relatively high in some cases. Measurements of ground and tap water samples from regions where DU munitions were deployed did not show any contamination with DU, except in one sample. It is concluded that both peacekeeping personnel and residents serving or living in the Balkans

  14. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

  15. Increased energy and nutrient intake during training and competition improves elite triathletes' endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Frentsos, J A; Baer, J T

    1997-03-01

    Dietary habits were evaluated in 6 elite triathletes (4 male, 2 female). Analysis of 7-day diet records showed mean daily energy and carbohydrate intake to be insufficient to support estimated requirements. Mean intakes of vitamins and most minerals exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) except zinc chromium, which did not meet 66% of recommended amounts. Individualized nutrition intervention using the Diabetic Food Exchange System to support performance during training and competition was provided. To improve dietary intake, subjects consumed fortified nutrition supplements (Reliv, Inc.) before and after daily training. Follow-up 7-day diet records showed that average energy intake and percentage of energy from carbohydrate increased, as did intakes of zinc and chromium. Triathletes' performance in a short course triathlon was improved compared to a similar competition completed prior to the nutrition intervention. Following the intervention, triathletes were able to meet recommended daily energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes and improve endurance performance.

  16. Increased energy and nutrient intake during training and competition improves elite triathletes' endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Frentsos, J A; Baer, J T

    1997-03-01

    Dietary habits were evaluated in 6 elite triathletes (4 male, 2 female). Analysis of 7-day diet records showed mean daily energy and carbohydrate intake to be insufficient to support estimated requirements. Mean intakes of vitamins and most minerals exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) except zinc chromium, which did not meet 66% of recommended amounts. Individualized nutrition intervention using the Diabetic Food Exchange System to support performance during training and competition was provided. To improve dietary intake, subjects consumed fortified nutrition supplements (Reliv, Inc.) before and after daily training. Follow-up 7-day diet records showed that average energy intake and percentage of energy from carbohydrate increased, as did intakes of zinc and chromium. Triathletes' performance in a short course triathlon was improved compared to a similar competition completed prior to the nutrition intervention. Following the intervention, triathletes were able to meet recommended daily energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes and improve endurance performance. PMID:9063765

  17. [Folic acid intake in daily food rations of 20-25 years old women from Wroclaw and assessment of knowledge about its importance for health].

    PubMed

    Wyka, Joanna; Mikołajczak, Jolanta

    2007-01-01

    The mean folic acid content in the diets of 50 young women from Wroclaw was 282 mcg and complied in 70.5% of recommended intake in prophylactic of neural tube defects. Only 8% of women used peri-conceptional folate supplementation every day. In the examined group low knowledge about importance of folic acid in health was noticed. Educational interventions are required to inform women at childbearing age of the benefits resulting from supplementation of diet with folic acid.

  18. Determination of PCDD/Fs in breast milk of women living in the vicinities of Da Nang Agent Orange hot spot (Vietnam) and estimation of the infant's daily intake.

    PubMed

    Hue, N T M; Nam, V D; Thuong, N V; Huyen, N T; Phuong, N T H; Hung, N X; Tuan, N H; Son, L K; Minh, N H

    2014-09-01

    Seventeen toxic congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in breast milks using the high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) method. Twenty seven breast milk samples were collected from primiparae who have lived over 5 years in wards namely Chinh Gian, An Khe, Khue Trung, and Hoa Thuan Tay which are located near the Da Nang Agent Orange hot spot (the AO/Dioxin hot spot). The samples were then analyzed for PCDD/F residues in order to assess the human exposure to dioxins from the AO/Dioxin hot spot, especially health risk to the breast-fed infants. The average TEQ levels in the four studied cohorts ranged from 8.1 to 26 pg/g lipid, with the highest level up to 51 pg TEQ/g lipid found in the An Khe ward. The TEQ level was correlated with geographical position and ranking in the order of Khue Trung, Hoa Thuan Tay, Chinh Gian and An Khe. The mean estimated PCDD/Fs infant's daily intake in the cohort of Khue Trung, Hoa Thuan Tay, Chinh Gian and An Khe was about 41, 122, 124, and 134 pg TEQ/kg bw/day, respectively, which are much higher than the tolerable daily intake proposed by the World Health Organization (4 pg TEQ/kg bw/day). PMID:24613651

  19. Determination of PCDD/Fs in breast milk of women living in the vicinities of Da Nang Agent Orange hot spot (Vietnam) and estimation of the infant's daily intake.

    PubMed

    Hue, N T M; Nam, V D; Thuong, N V; Huyen, N T; Phuong, N T H; Hung, N X; Tuan, N H; Son, L K; Minh, N H

    2014-09-01

    Seventeen toxic congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in breast milks using the high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) method. Twenty seven breast milk samples were collected from primiparae who have lived over 5 years in wards namely Chinh Gian, An Khe, Khue Trung, and Hoa Thuan Tay which are located near the Da Nang Agent Orange hot spot (the AO/Dioxin hot spot). The samples were then analyzed for PCDD/F residues in order to assess the human exposure to dioxins from the AO/Dioxin hot spot, especially health risk to the breast-fed infants. The average TEQ levels in the four studied cohorts ranged from 8.1 to 26 pg/g lipid, with the highest level up to 51 pg TEQ/g lipid found in the An Khe ward. The TEQ level was correlated with geographical position and ranking in the order of Khue Trung, Hoa Thuan Tay, Chinh Gian and An Khe. The mean estimated PCDD/Fs infant's daily intake in the cohort of Khue Trung, Hoa Thuan Tay, Chinh Gian and An Khe was about 41, 122, 124, and 134 pg TEQ/kg bw/day, respectively, which are much higher than the tolerable daily intake proposed by the World Health Organization (4 pg TEQ/kg bw/day).

  20. Validity and Reproducibility of a Self-Administered Semi-Quantitative Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Estimating Usual Daily Fat, Fibre, Alcohol, Caffeine and Theobromine Intakes among Belgian Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Bolca, Selin; Huybrechts, Inge; Verschraegen, Mia; De Henauw, Stefaan; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2009-01-01

    A novel food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed and validated to assess the usual daily fat, saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acid, fibre, alcohol, caffeine, and theobromine intakes among Belgian post-menopausal women participating in dietary intervention trials with phyto-oestrogens. The relative validity of the FFQ was estimated by comparison with 7 day (d) estimated diet records (EDR, n 64) and its reproducibility was evaluated by repeated administrations 6 weeks apart (n 79). Although the questionnaire underestimated significantly all intakes compared to the 7 d EDR, it had a good ranking ability (r 0.47–0.94; weighted κ 0.25–0.66) and it could reliably distinguish extreme intakes for all the estimated nutrients, except for saturated fatty acids. Furthermore, the correlation between repeated administrations was high (r 0.71–0.87) with a maximal misclassification of 7% (weighted κ 0.33–0.80). In conclusion, these results compare favourably with those reported by others and indicate that the FFQ is a satisfactorily reliable and valid instrument for ranking individuals within this study population. PMID:19440274

  1. Influence of the method of production of eggs on the daily intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine contaminants: an independent study in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Rodríguez-Hernández, Angel; Quesada-Tacoronte, Yohana; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Almeida-González, Maira; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D

    2013-10-01

    Analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were performed on eggs from three different production types (conventional, free-run and organic) collected from the markets of the Canary Islands (Spain). Unlike other studies we did not found differences in the content of PCBs or OCPs of eggs in relation to its production type. Median ∑OCPs content was 3.87 ng g⁻¹ fat, being dieldrin, dicofol, hexachlorobenzene, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT the most frequently detected. Median ∑PCBs value was 3.93 ng g⁻¹ fat, with 79.9% of this amount coming from the marker PCBs. Two samples, one free-run and one organic, greatly exceeded the current European Commission (EC) limit of 2.5 pg TEQ(PCDD/F) g⁻¹ lipid, but the rest were well below of this limit. The concentrations of PAHs in conventionally produced eggs were almost 4 times higher than in free-run or organic eggs. Mean dietary intake estimates of the organochlorine contaminants based on consumption of eggs, regardless of the type chosen, is negligible for the Canary Islands' population. However, the median dietary intake estimates of PAHs greatly depend on the type of eggs chosen, being much lower when free-run and organic eggs are consumed.

  2. Influence of the method of production of eggs on the daily intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine contaminants: an independent study in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Rodríguez-Hernández, Angel; Quesada-Tacoronte, Yohana; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Almeida-González, Maira; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D

    2013-10-01

    Analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were performed on eggs from three different production types (conventional, free-run and organic) collected from the markets of the Canary Islands (Spain). Unlike other studies we did not found differences in the content of PCBs or OCPs of eggs in relation to its production type. Median ∑OCPs content was 3.87 ng g⁻¹ fat, being dieldrin, dicofol, hexachlorobenzene, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT the most frequently detected. Median ∑PCBs value was 3.93 ng g⁻¹ fat, with 79.9% of this amount coming from the marker PCBs. Two samples, one free-run and one organic, greatly exceeded the current European Commission (EC) limit of 2.5 pg TEQ(PCDD/F) g⁻¹ lipid, but the rest were well below of this limit. The concentrations of PAHs in conventionally produced eggs were almost 4 times higher than in free-run or organic eggs. Mean dietary intake estimates of the organochlorine contaminants based on consumption of eggs, regardless of the type chosen, is negligible for the Canary Islands' population. However, the median dietary intake estimates of PAHs greatly depend on the type of eggs chosen, being much lower when free-run and organic eggs are consumed. PMID:23939041

  3. Daily Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know Online Tools Enhancing Daily Life Daily Plan Activities Communication Food & Eating Music & Art Personal Care Incontinence Bathing ... Tweet Email | Print Create a Daily Routine Daily Plan Activities Communication Food/Eating Get Tips on Personal Care Bathing ...

  4. Energy intake highs and lows: how much does consistency matter in weight control?

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Diane L.; Schumacher, Leah M.; Schaumberg, Katherine; Piers, Amani D.; Gaspar, Monika E.; Lowe, Michael R.; Forman, Evan M.; Butryn, Meghan L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Behavioural weight control programmes recommend adherence to daily energy intake goals, yet also allow for flexibility in intake across days. Evidence is lacking as to whether intake consistency is important for weight control. The current study explored the relation between day-to-day intake consistency and weight loss in the context of behavioural weight loss treatment and examined the relationship between variability in intake and several factors known to be associated with weight control success. Participants (N = 283) enrolled in a 12-month behavioural weight loss programme completed 24-h recalls of dietary intake and psychological measures. At the end of treatment, low intake variability and greater weight loss were associated, but variability was not predictive of weight loss independent of mean intake in continuous analyses. Interestingly, participants who met the programme goal of ≥10% weight loss had less intake variability compared to those who lost <10%, although groups did not differ significantly on mean intake. Results suggest that daily intake consistency may facilitate successful weight loss for some. Additionally, autonomous motivation for weight management and cognitive dietary restraint were inversely related to end-of-treatment intake variability. Additional research is needed to examine whether recommendations to limit intake variability during behavioural weight loss treatment improve long-term weight control. PMID:27020845

  5. Daily intake of rosehip extract decreases abdominal visceral fat in preobese subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Nagatomo, Akifumi; Nishida, Norihisa; Fukuhara, Ikuo; Noro, Akira; Kozai, Yoshimichi; Sato, Hisao; Matsuura, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity has become a great problem all over the world. We repeatedly screened to find an effective food to treat obesity and discovered that rosehip extract shows potent anti-obesity effects. Investigations in mice have demonstrated that rosehip extract inhibits body weight gain and decreases visceral fat. Thus, the present study examined the effect of rosehip extract on human body fat in preobese subjects. Methods We conducted a 12-week, single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 32 subjects who had a body mass index of ≥25 but <30. The subjects were assigned to two random groups, and they received one tablet of placebo or rosehip that contained 100 mg of rosehip extract once each day for 12 weeks with no dietary intervention. Abdominal fat area and body fat percent were measured as primary outcomes. The other outcomes were body weight and body mass index. Results Abdominal total fat area, abdominal visceral fat area, body weight, and body mass index decreased significantly in the rosehip group at week 12 compared with their baseline levels (P<0.01) after receiving the rosehip tablet intake, and the decreases in these parameters were significantly higher when compared with those in the placebo group. Additionally, body fat percent tended to decrease compared with the placebo group and their baseline level. Moreover, the abdominal subcutaneous fat area was significantly lower in the rosehip group than in the placebo group at week 12 after the initiation of intake (P<0.05). In addition, there were no abnormalities, subjective symptoms, and findings that may indicate clinical problems during the study period. Conclusion These results suggest that rosehip extract may be a good candidate food material for preventing obesity. PMID:25834460

  6. Daily intake of bisphenol A and triclosan and their association with anthropometric data, thyroid hormones and weight loss in overweight and obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Geens, Tinne; Dirtu, Alin C; Dirinck, Eveline; Malarvannan, Govindan; Van Gaal, Luc; Jorens, Philippe G; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) were determined in urine of Belgian overweight and obese (n=151) and lean (n=43) individuals. After the first urine collection (0M), obese patients started a diet program or have undergone bariatric surgery. Hereafter, three additional urine samples from obese patients were collected after 3 (3M), 6 (6M) and 12 (12M) months. Both compounds were detected in >99% of the samples. BPA had median concentrations of 1.7 and 1.2ng/mL in obese and lean groups, respectively, while TCS had median concentrations of 1.5 and 0.9ng/mL in the obese and lean groups, respectively. The obese group had higher urinary concentrations (ng/mL) of BPA (p<0.5), while no significant differences were found for TCS between the obese and lean groups. No time trends between the different collection moments were observed. The BPA concentrations in the obese group were negatively associated with age, while no gender difference or relationship with body mass index was observed. For TCS, no relationships with gender, BMI, or age were found. The temporal variability of BPA and TCS was assessed with calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient, Spearman rank correlation coefficients, and surrogate category analysis. We observed evidence that single spot urine samples might be predictive of exposure over a longer period of time. Dietary intakes of BPA and TCS did not differ significantly among the time points considered after obese individuals started losing weight (6 and 12months). Multiple linear regression analyses after adjusting for age and weight loss revealed negative associations between urinary TCS and serum FT4 in the 0M and 3M female obese individuals and positive associations between urinary BPA and serum TSH in the lean group.

  7. Nutrient Intake in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; O’Brien, Marian C.; Clark, Patricia C.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Research Objective Approximately 50% of heart failure (HF) patients are thought to be malnourished, and macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies may potentially aggravate HF symptoms. Thus, concerns have been raised about the overall nutrient composition of diets in HF populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the macronutrient and micronutrient intake by caloric adequacy among community-dwelling adults with HF. Participants and Methods A secondary analysis of baseline data of participants in an HF lifestyle intervention study was conducted. Participants (n = 45) were predominantly male (55.6%), white, and non-Hispanic (64.4%); had a mean age of 61 years (SD, 11 years) and mean body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2 (SD, 7.3 kg/m2); were of New York Heart Association functional classes II and III (77.8%); and had a mean ejection fraction of 31.9% (SD,13.2%); and 69% had a college or higher level of education. The Block Food Habits Questionnaire was used to assess the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and Conclusions Individuals reporting inadequate daily caloric intake reported a lower intake of macronutrients and micronutrients as well as other differences in dietary patterns compared with individuals reporting adequate daily caloric intake. More than half of the individuals reporting adequate caloric intake did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and vitamin E. Interventions aimed at increasing overall intake and nutrient density are suggested. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between dietary factors and outcomes in HF. PMID:18596500

  8. Exposure assessment of metal intakes from drinking water relative to those from total diet in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Koichi; Ishikawa, Kohei; Kurosawa, Yuki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2010-01-01

    Daily intakes of 17 metals (boron, aluminium, chromium, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, antimony, lead, uranium, magnesium, calcium, and iron) via drinking water and total diet were investigated in six cities in Japan. The daily metal intakes were estimated and compared with tolerable daily intake (TDI) values proposed by the WHO or Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives for toxic metals and with recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate intake (AI) values proposed for essential metals by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Among the 13 toxic metals, mean dietary intakes of 10 (except arsenic, selenium, and molybdenum) were less than 50% of TDI, suggesting that for these 10 metals the allocation of intake to drinking water in establishing guidelines or standards could possibly be increased from the normal allocation of 10-20% of TDI. For the 13 toxic metals, the contribution of drinking water to TDI was 2% or less in all six cities. Mean dietary intakes of the essential elements magnesium, calcium, and iron were less than the RDA or AI values. Drinking water did not contribute much to essential metal intake, accounting for less than 10% of RDA or AI. PMID:21099058

  9. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  10. Magnesium intake is associated with strength performance in elite basketball, handball and volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Santos, Diana Aguiar; Matias, Catarina Nunes; Monteiro, Cristina Paula; Silva, Analiza Mónica; Rocha, Paulo Manuel; Minderico, Cláudia Sofia; Bettencourt Sardinha, Luís; Laires, Maria José

    2011-12-01

    Magnesium plays significant roles in promoting strength. Surveys of athletes reveal that intake of magnesium is often below recommended levels. We aimed to understand the impact of magnesium intake on strength in elite male basketball, handball, and volleyball players. Energy and nutrient intake were assessed from seven-day diet record. Strength tests included maximal isometric trunk flexion, extension, and rotation, handgrip, squat and countermovement Abalakov jump, and maximal isokinetic knee extension and flexion peak torques. Linear regression models were performed with significance at p<0.1. Mean magnesium intake was significantly lower than the recommended daily allowance. Regression analysis indicated that magnesium was directly associated with maximal isometric trunk flexion, rotation, and handgrip, with jumping performance tests, and with all isokinetic strength variables, independent of total energy intake. The observed associations between magnesium intake and muscle strength performance may result from the important role of magnesium in energetic metabolism, transmembrane transport and muscle contraction and relaxation.

  11. Daily intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) in foodstuffs consumed in Tarragona, Spain: a review of recent studies (2001-2003) on human PCDD/PCDF exposure through the diet.

    PubMed

    Bocio, Ana; Domingo, Jose L

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) were measured in foodstuffs randomly acquired in various locations of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain) in September 2002. A total of 36 composite samples, belonging to various food groups (vegetables, fruits, meat and meat products, fish and seafood, cereals, pulses, milk, dairy products, eggs, and oils and fats) were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. The dietary intake of PCDD/Fs was subsequently determined. For calculations, recent data on consumption of the selected food items were used. Total dietary intake of PCDD/Fs for the general population of Tarragona County was estimated to be 59.6 pg I-TEQ/day (63.8 pg WHO-TEQ/day). Fish and seafood (33.7%), oils and fats (15.3%), cereals (14.4%), and dairy products (13.7%) were the most important contributors to this intake. This PCDD/F intake is notably lower than the intake estimated in 1998 for the same geographical area, 210.1 pg I-TEQ/day. The current PCDD/F dietary intake is below the tolerable intake range of 1-4 pg TEQ/kg body weight/day established by the WHO in 1998. Finally, the current intake is compared with the dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs recently (2001-2003) reported for a number of regions and countries.

  12. Assessment of antioxidant nutrient intake of a population of southern US African-American and Caucasian women of various ages when compared to dietary reference intakes.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S M; Mayhugh, M A; Freni, S C; Thorn, B; Cardoso, S; Buffington, C; Jairaj, K; Feuers, R J

    2003-01-01

    Antioxidant nutrient intervention strategies to ameliorate negative health factors are of notable research interest. Central to the thesis that antioxidant nutrients improve biological defense systems and provide health benefits is an accurate indication of daily antioxidant nutrient intake. Little information is available concerning these nutrient intakes among non-affluent women of the southern U.S. This study examines the 24-h intake of vitamins: A, E, C, -carotene, a-tocopherol, riboflavin, and minerals: zinc, selenium, copper, manganese, iron, and molybdenum among 259 Caucasian (CA) and African-American (AA) women from small urban communities. Women were non-pregnant females, 19-93 y of age. Statistical comparisons of nutrient intake were made by least squares means within age groups. Intakes were compared to various Dietary Reference Intakes including Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) and Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) values as established by the U.S. National Research Council. Numerous dietary deficiencies in important antioxidant nutrients associated with metabolic antioxidant systems were identified. Few race-related differences were detected. Intake of vitamin A was generally within recommended levels while vitamin E intake was below the EAR. The vitamin precursors, -carotene and a-tocopherol, were significantly (P<0.05) below customary intakes at all ages. More than 60% of this population reported dietary copper, zinc, and selenium intakes below recommended levels. A lack of race differences for most nutrient intakes suggests similar socioeconomic or endogeneous regional factors. All women in this population reported dietary intakes of antioxidant vitamins and minerals below recommended values, conditions that could contribute to subsequent health risks unless nutrient-dense food choices and antioxidant supplementation are considered in their overall nutritional support. PMID:12679833

  13. Daily affect and daily beliefs.

    PubMed

    Harris, Claire; Daniels, Kevin

    2005-10-01

    Human resource directorate employees of a large United Kingdom public hospital (N=36) completed an initial questionnaire and then participated in a daily diary study. The questionnaire included measures of affect and beliefs about high work demands' influence on affect and work performance. The diary included measures of affect, extent of high work demands, and daily beliefs, corresponding to those measured in the questionnaire. Participants were required to complete the diary twice daily, before and after work over a 2-week period. Measures of affect after work were associated with beliefs concerning work demands' influence on work performance and on affect measured after work. Beliefs about work demands measured in the questionnaire were associated with subsequent daily assessments of beliefs.

  14. Low sodium and high potassium intake for cardiovascular prevention: evidence revisited with emphasis on challenges in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Bigna, Jean Joel R; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N

    2015-01-01

    Reduction in dietary salt intake and increase in potassium intake can make a major contribution to the prevention and control of hypertension and consequential cardiovascular disease, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where prevalence rates are highest. African populations are going through a westernization of their traditional eating patterns, with a shift towards a US/Western-style diet, which contains an excessive amount of salt. Currently, the mean sodium intake in SSA populations is far above the recommended daily allowance. Besides, potassium intake is low, and, particularly, the supply of fruits and vegetables that are important sources of potassium is insufficient to meet current and growing population needs in SSA countries. Context-relevant strategies are needed for population-wide sodium intake reduction and increase in potassium intake.

  15. Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Cristiane Franco; da Silveira, Carla Rosane; Beghetto, Mariur; de Mello, Paula Daniel; de Mello, Elza Daniel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake. METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg) or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg), parametric and nonparametric tests were used. RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg) and only 25 students (11.7%) had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ≥3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence. PMID:25119753

  16. Chapter 11: Dietary reference intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are a set of recommendations intended to provide guidance in evaluating nutrient intakes and planning meals on the basis of nutrient adequacy. In contrast to their predecessor, Recommended Dietary Allowances last published in 1989, the DRIs differ in two ways: th...

  17. ESTIMATED DAILY AVERAGE PER CAPITA WATER INGESTION BY CHILD AND ADULT AGE CATEGORIES BASED ON USDA'S 1994-96 AND 1998 CONTINUING SURVEY OF FOOD INTAKES BY INDIVIDUALS (JOURNAL ARTICLE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current water ingestion estimates are important for the assessment of risk to human populations of exposure to water-borne pollutants. This paper reports mean and percentile estimates of the distributions of daily average per capita water ingestion for 12 age range groups. The ...

  18. Dietary protein intake is associated with lean body mass in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Geirsdottir, Olof G; Arnarson, Atli; Ramel, Alfons; Jonsson, Palmi V; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-08-01

    Lean body mass (LBM) is important to maintain physical function during aging. We hypothesized that dietary protein intake and leisure-time physical activity are associated with LBM in community-dwelling older adults. To test the hypothesis, participants (n = 237; age, 65-92 years) did 3-day weighed food records and reported physical activity. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Protein intake was 0.98 ± 0.28 and 0.95 ± 0.29 g/kg body weight in male and female participants, respectively. Protein intake (in grams per kilogram of body weight) was associated with LBM (in kilograms); that is, the differences in LBM were 2.3 kg (P < .05) and 2.0 kg (P = .054) between the fourth vs the first and the fourth vs the second quartiles of protein intake, respectively. Only a minor part of this association was explained by increased energy intake, which follows an increased protein intake. Our study shows that dietary protein intake was positively associated with LBM in older adults with a mean protein intake higher than the current recommended daily allowance of 0.8 g/kg per day. Leisure-time physical activity, predominantly consisting of endurance type exercises, was not related to LBM in this group.

  19. Food intake in three groups of cancer patients. A prospective study during cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Hulshof, K F; Gooskens, A C; Wedel, M; Bruning, P F

    1987-02-01

    The dietary intake of 105 adult Dutch Caucasian patients (28 women with endometrial or cervical cancer, 50 men with bladder or prostate cancer and 14 men and 13 women with malignant lymphoma) was studied for 19 weeks. Energy and nutrient intakes of all patients were assessed by a dietary history with cross-check over 2 months prior to treatment and by seven 48-h dietary records filled in just before, during and after cancer therapy. No differences were observed between the results obtained with the dietary history and the first 48-h diary. In females treated with abdominal irradiation the mean daily intake of fat, dietary fibre, iron and thiamin decreased during therapy. In men treated with radiotherapy the intake of vegetable protein, polysaccharides, dietary fibre and thiamin also decreased during treatment. This may be partly explained by the observation that many of these patients had spontaneously chosen a 'constipating diet' because of diarrhoea. As compared with the Dutch Recommended Dietary Allowance only the iron intake of the women gave rise to some concern. In our study we did not observe marked changes in dietary intake and nutritional status. In females who underwent irradiation therapy especially, the dietary intake increased after a period of intensive treatment. This demonstrates that food intake of these groups of cancer patients is not consistently reduced by chemotherapy or even abdominal radiotherapy.

  20. The time of day of food intake influences overall intake in humans.

    PubMed

    de Castro, John M

    2004-01-01

    Circadian and diurnal rhythms affect food intake, and earlier research has suggested that meal sizes increase, whereas the after-meal intervals and satiety ratios decrease over the day. We hypothesized that the time of day of food intake would be related to total intake such that intake early in the day would tend to reduce overall intake, whereas intake later in the day would tend to increase intake over the entire day. The intakes of 375 male and 492 female free-living individuals, previously obtained via 7-d diet diaries, were reanalyzed. The total and meal intakes of food energy, the amounts of the macronutrients ingested and the density of intake occurring during five 4-h periods (0600-0959, 1000-1359, 1400-1759, 1800-2159 and 2200-0159 h) were identified and related to overall and meal intakes during the entire day. The proportion of intake in the morning was negatively correlated with overall intake (r=-0.13, P<0.01), whereas the proportion ingested late in the evening was positively correlated with overall intake (r=0.14, P<0.01). The energy densities of intake during all periods of the day were positively related to overall intake (range, r=0.13-0.23, P<0.01). The results suggest that low energy density intake during any portion of the day can reduce overall intake, that intake in the morning is particularly satiating and can reduce the total amount ingested for the day, and that intake in the late night lacks satiating value and can result in greater overall daily intake.

  1. 30 Days in the Life: Daily Nutrient Balancing in a Wild Chacma Baboon

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Caley A.; Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M.; Clarke, David; Swedell, Larissa

    2013-01-01

    For most animals, the ability to regulate intake of specific nutrients is vital to fitness. Recent studies have demonstrated nutrient regulation in nonhuman primates over periods of one observation day, though studies of humans indicate that such regulation extends to longer time frames. Little is known about longer-term regulation in nonhuman primates, however, due to the challenges of multiple-day focal follows. Here we present the first detailed study of nutrient intake across multiple days in a wild nonhuman primate. We conducted 30 consecutive all day follows on one female chacma baboon (Papio hamadryas ursinus) in the Cape Peninsula of South Africa. We documented dietary composition, compared the nutritional contribution of natural and human-derived foods to the diet, and quantified nutrient intake using the geometric framework of nutrition. Our focus on a single subject over consecutive days allowed us to examine daily dietary regulation within an individual over time. While the amounts varied daily, our subject maintained a strikingly consistent balance of protein to non-protein (fat and carbohydrate) energy across the month. Human-derived foods, while contributing a minority of the diet, were higher in fat and lower in fiber than naturally-derived foods. Our results demonstrate nutrient regulation on a daily basis in our subject, and demonstrate that she was able to maintain a diet with a constant proportional protein content despite wide variation in the composition of component foods. From a methodological perspective, the results of this study suggest that nutrient intake is best estimated over at least an entire day, with longer-term regulatory patterns (e.g., during development and reproduction) possibly requiring even longer sampling. From a management and conservation perspective, it is notable that nearly half the subject’s daily energy intake derived from exotic foods, including those currently being eradicated from the study area for

  2. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate☆

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Debra; Diaz, George A.; Lee, Brendan; Bartley, James; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Le Mons, Cynthia; Rudolph-Angelich, Ingrid; Porter, Marty; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Little prospectively collected data are available comparing the dietary intake of urea cycle disorder (UCD) patients to UCD treatment guidelines or to healthy individuals. Objective To examine the protein and calorie intakes of UCD subjects who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) and compare these data to published UCD dietary guidelines and nutritional surveys. Design Dietary data were recorded for 45 adult and 49 pediatric UCD subjects in metabolic control during participation in clinical trials of GPB. Protein and calorie intakes were compared to UCD treatment guidelines, average nutrient intakes of a healthy US population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). Results In adults, mean protein intake was higher than UCD recommendations but lower than RDA and NHANES values, while calorie intake was lower than UCD recommendations, RDA and NHANES. In pediatric subjects, prescribed protein intake was higher than UCD guidelines, similar to RDA, and lower than NHANES data for all age groups, while calorie intake was at the lower end of the recommended UCD range and close to RDA and NHANES data. In pediatric subjects height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores were within normal range (− 2 to 2). Conclusions Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered. PMID:27014577

  3. Nutrient Intake From Habitual Oral Diet in Patients With Severe Short Bowel Syndrome Living in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Estívariz, Concepción; Luo, Menghua; Umeakunne, Kay; Bazargan, Niloofar; Galloway, John R.; Leader, Lorraine M.; Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Little data are published on habitual home oral diet of short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients living in the United States. Methods We assessed habitual macro-and micronutrient intake from oral food and beverages in 19 stable patients with severe SBS who live in the Southeastern United States. Intestinal absorption of energy, fat, nitrogen (N) and carbohydrate (CHO) was determined in a metabolic ward setting. Results We studied 12 women and 7 men, age 48±3 years (mean±SE) receiving chronic PN for 31±8 months following massive small bowel resection (118±25 cm residual small bowel). Patients had intact (N=5), partial (N=9), or no residual colon (N=5). The subjects demonstrated severe malabsorption of energy (59±3% of oral intake), fat (41±5%), N (42±5%) and CHO (76±3%). Average oral energy intake was 2656±242 kcal/day (39±3 kcal/kg/day) and oral protein intake was 1.4 ±0.1 g/kg/d. Oral food/beverage intake constituted 49±4% of total (enteral + parenteral) daily fluid intake, 66±4% of total daily kcal and 58±5% of total daily N intake. Oral fat intake averaged 92±11g/day (≈ 35% of total oral energy). Oral fluid intake averaged 2712±240 ml/d, primarily from water, soft drinks, sweet tea and coffee. Simple sugars comprised 42±3% of oral CHO intake. Usual dietary intake of multiple micronutrients were below the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) in a large percentage of patients: vitamin A (47%), vitamin D (79%), vitamin E (79%), vitamin K (63%), thiamine (42%), vitamin B6 (68%), vitamin B12 (11%), vitamin C (58%), folate (37%), iron (37%), calcium (63%), magnesium (79%) and zinc (68%). Only 7 patients (37%) were taking oral multivitamin-mineral supplements and only 6 subjects (37%) were taking oral iron and calcium supplements, respectively. Conclusions In these SBS patients living in the Southeastern United States, oral diet provides a significant proportion of daily nutrient intake. However, the types of foods and fluids consumed

  4. The impact of exercise on body composition and nutritional intake in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Oka, Roberta K; Sanders, Mark G

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the nutritional status of heart failure patients and the potential synergistic effects between nutritional intake and exercise. This small, randomized trial examined the effects of a 3-month exercise program on body composition and nutritional intake in 31 men (17 exercisers; 14 controls), aged 30-76 years (mean, 56 years) with stable class II-III heart failure. Baseline and 3-month evaluations included body mass index, body fat mass by triceps skinfold thickness, dietary intake by food frequency questionnaire, and the 6-minute walk test. Exercise consisted of walking 3 d/wk and resistance exercises 2 d/wk for 40-60 minutes. Dietary recommendations were consistent with the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology heart failure guidelines. Exercisers decreased body weight (p=0.001), body mass index (p=0.0001), and triceps skinfold thickness (p=0.03) and improved 6-minute walk test (p=0.01) compared with controls. Exercisers also demonstrated trends toward decreased total caloric and cholesterol intake and a three-fold higher carbohydrate, fiber, and beta carotene intake vs. controls. In this study population, protein, fiber, and magnesium intake were below recommended daily allowance. After exercise, body mass index was reduced, accompanied by dietary modifications including greater intake of foods with higher moisture content. Further study is needed to investigate the interaction among diet, exercise, and weight.

  5. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054) mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084) mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010) and 0.018 (SD 0.008) mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day) the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake. These results showed that

  6. The intake of intense sweeteners - an update review.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Andrew G

    2006-04-01

    Studies on the intakes of intense sweeteners in different countries published since the author's previous review in 1999 indicate that the average and 95th percentile intakes of acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin by adults are below the relevant acceptable daily intake (ADI) values. Fewer data are available for the newer sweeteners, sucralose and alitame, and because they are recent introductions to the market very low intakes were reported in those countries where they were available at the time of the intake study. Overall there has not been a significant change in the intakes of sweeteners in recent years. The only data indicating that the intake of an intense sweetener could exceed its ADI value were the 95th percentile intakes of cyclamate in children, particularly those with diabetes. This sub-group was identified as having high intakes of cyclamate in 1999, and recent studies have not generated reliable intake data to address this possibility.

  7. Dietary intake of sulphites by children in the Slovak Republic.

    PubMed

    Sinková, Terézia; Janeková, Katarína

    2006-03-01

    The mean dietary intake of sulphites by Slovak children aged 7 to 10 years was estimated. Calculations were based on a food model of a specific boarding-school in January, May, July and October while respecting the scientifically recommended dietary allowances. It was assumed that sulphites were used in the widest possible range of foods and at maximum permitted levels. Due to this fact and since sulphites are partially lost during food processing and storage, the results are over-estimated. However the mean daily exposure of consumers with the lowest (21 kg) and the mean (26.5 kg) body weight to sulphites ranged from 44 to 55% and from 36 to 43% of the acceptable daily intake value (ADI) respectively. Due to availability of various foods the dietary models were not affected seasonally and thus no differences among intakes of sulphites in individual months were obvious. The results indicated that the above mentioned group of children is sufficiently protected from the hazard of sulphites in food.

  8. Title VII--Nutrition Program for the Elderly. I. Contribution to one day's dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Kohrs, M B; O'Hanlon, P; Eklund, D

    1978-05-01

    Food records kept by 466 individuals participating in the federally funded Nutrition Program for the Elderly show that those eating at the meal site on the day of the food record consumed more energy, protein, and calcium than non-participants and participants who did not eat there on the day of the record. Dietary ratings, which included eight nutrients and energy, indicated they also had better overall diets than non-participants. Non-participants consumed more iron than participants. The daily intake of all nutrients, except calcium, of those eating at the meal site reflected what was offered. Between 40 and 50 per cent of the total daily intake was consumed at the meal center. Women consumed a significantly greater proportion of their daily intake of most nutrients from the food provided by program than the men. The desirability of providing a high proportion of the recommended allowances for protein and other nutrients through the meal program menus is emphasized. The results of the study demonstrated the importance of nutritionists in administrative roles at the state and area levels in determining the effectiveness of a meal program, since food intake reflected menu planning. PMID:649896

  9. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation: state of the art for daily practice

    PubMed Central

    van der Velde, Robert Y.; Brouwers, Jacobus R. B. J.; Geusens, Piet P.; Lems, Willem F.; van den Bergh, Joop P. W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Calcium and vitamin D play an essential role in bone metabolism but deficiency and/or inadequate intake are common. Objectives To describe a practical approach based on the literature regarding clinically important aspects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Methods A systematic evaluation of relevant literature in Medline was conducted. We included physiological studies, publications on relevant guidelines, meta-analysis, randomized clinical trials, and cohort studies. Results An adequate calcium intake and vitamin D supplementation is recommended in most guidelines xon fracture prevention. Daily supplementation with 800 IU is advocated in most guidelines, appears to be safe, and with this approach it is generally not necessary to determine vitamin D levels. There are no data on additional effects of loading doses of vitamin D on fracture or fall prevention. Calcium supplementation should be tailored to the patient’s need: usually 500 mg per day is required. The intestinal absorption of calcium citrate is approximately 24% better than that of calcium carbonate independent of intake with meals. Data on difference between calcium absorption with calcium carbonate compared to calcium citrate with simultaneous use of proton pump inhibitors are lacking. Concern has arisen about a possible link between calcium supplementation and an increased risk of myocardial infarction. Probably only well-designed prospective randomized controlled trials will be able to allow definite conclusions on this subject. Conclusion Daily supplementation with 800 IU vitamin D is a practical and safe strategy without the need for prior determination of vitamin D levels. Calcium supplementation should be tailored to the patient’s need based on total daily dietary calcium intake. In most patients 500 mg per day is required to achieve a total intake of 1,200 mg, or in some 1,000 mg per day. More calcium is absorbed from calcium citrate compared to calcium carbonate. PMID

  10. Behavioral analysis of marijuana effects on food intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Foltin, R W; Brady, J V; Fischman, M W

    1986-09-01

    Nine male research volunteers, in three groups of three subjects each, resided in a residential laboratory for up to 25 days. All contact with the experimenter was through a networked computer system and subjects' behaviors including food intake were continuously recorded. Subjects brought their own activities such as model-making, and these in combination with those provided by the laboratory resulted in rich behavior repertoires. During the first part of the day, subjects remained in their private rooms doing planned work activities, and during the remainder of the day, they were allowed to socialize. Cigarettes containing active marijuana (1.84% THC) or placebo were smoked prior to the private work period and during the social access period. A single active marijuana cigarette prior to the private work period had no effect on food intake. The administration of two or three active marijuana cigarettes during the social access period increased average daily caloric intake. The increased intake was due to an augmentation of calories consumed as between-meal snack items rather than an increase in meal size per se.

  11. Carbohydrate intake.

    PubMed

    Leturque, Armelle; Brot-Laroche, Edith; Le Gall, Maude

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates represent more than 50% of the energy sources present in most human diets. Sugar intake is regulated by metabolic, neuronal, and hedonic factors, and gene polymorphisms are involved in determining sugar preference. Nutrigenomic adaptations to carbohydrate availability have been evidenced in metabolic diseases, in the persistence of lactose digestion, and in amylase gene copy number. Furthermore, dietary oligosaccharides, fermentable by gut flora, can modulate the microbiotal diversity to the benefit of the host. Genetic diseases linked to mutations in the disaccharidase genes (sucrase-isomaltase, lactase) and in sugar transporter genes (sodium/glucose cotransporter 1, glucose transporters 1 and 2) severely impact carbohydrate intake. These diseases are revealed upon exposure to food containing the offending sugar, and withdrawal of this sugar from the diet prevents disease symptoms, failure to thrive, and premature death. Tailoring the sugar composition of diets to optimize wellness and to prevent the chronic occurrence of metabolic diseases is a future goal that may yet be realized through continued development of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics approaches. PMID:22656375

  12. Zinc intake and status in Australian vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Ball, M J; Ackland, M L

    2000-01-01

    Vegetarians have a lower incidence of many chronic diseases than omnivores. However, vegetarian diets could potentially result in lower intakes of some minerals, particularly Zn. In a cross-sectional study, dietary Zn intake was measured using 12 d weighed records in ninety-nine vegetarians (ten vegans) aged 18-50 years and forty-nine age- and sex-matched omnivores. In men, the mean daily Zn intake and Zn density values were similar in omnivores, ovolactovegetarians and vegans, but in women they were significantly lower in vegetarians (mean intake 6.8 mg v. 8.4 mg in omnivores) and few achieved the recommended intake. Significantly more vegetarian than omnivorous women had a daily Zn intake < 6 mg (44% v. 13%). Mean serum Zn concentrations were similar in female omnivores and vegetarians, despite the differences in intake. However, omnivorous men had a lower mean serum Zn concentration (0.85 microgram/ml v. 0.95 microgram/ml) and more subjects had levels below the reference range of 0.72-1.44 micrograms/ml than ovolactovegetarians (P < 0.01). Overall more women than men had low Zn concentrations; and these women generally had intakes below 6 mg/d. There was a significant correlation between serum Zn concentration and dietary Zn density in vegetarians, especially females (P < 0.001), but not in omnivores. Ovolactovegetarians did not have a significantly greater risk of low Zn status than omnivores.

  13. Three-day dietary intake of incarcerated and nonincarcerated adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Gans, D A; Norwell, N J; Harper, A E

    1992-02-01

    We collected 3-day dietary intake information from both incarcerated (n = 137) and nonincarcerated (n = 42) adolescent males to provide an objective assessment of diets of residents of a juvenile correctional facility. Average daily intake of energy, protein, 13 indicator micronutrients and of macronutrients as percent of energy were calculated. Average intakes of the total group of adolescents (n = 179) were greater than 90% of the 1980 recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for energy, protein, and 10 micronutrients. There were no statistically significant differences between black (n = 63) and white (n = 63) incarcerated subgroups and white (n = 41) nonincarcerated subjects on average measures of energy, protein, macronutrients as percent of energy, and seven micronutrients. Cumulative intakes (as a proportion of the 1980 RDA) of nonincarcerated subjects and at least one group of incarcerated subjects were significantly different for vitamin B6, folate, vitamin C, iron, sodium, and thiamin. However, average intakes of vitamin C, sodium, and iron by all groups exceeded the RDA. Overall, the total group of adolescents did not appear to be at significant nutritional risk. Folate, copper, and magnesium intakes were consistently below RDA in all groups. We suggest that these findings are not indicative of nutritional inadequacy but are, rather, cues that some RDAs may be inappropriately high.

  14. Preprandial ghrelin is not affected by macronutrient intake, energy intake or energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Paul, David R; Kramer, Matthew; Rhodes, Donna G; Rumpler, William V

    2005-01-01

    Background Ghrelin, a peptide secreted by endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract, is a hormone purported to have a significant effect on food intake and energy balance in humans. The influence of factors related to energy balance on ghrelin, such as daily energy expenditure, energy intake, and macronutrient intake, have not been reported. Secondly, the effect of ghrelin on food intake has not been quantified under free-living conditions over a prolonged period of time. To investigate these effects, 12 men were provided with an ad libitum cafeteria-style diet for 16 weeks. The macronutrient composition of the diets were covertly modified with drinks containing 2.1 MJ of predominantly carbohydrate (Hi-CHO), protein (Hi-PRO), or fat (Hi-FAT). Total energy expenditure was measured for seven days on two separate occasions (doubly labeled water and physical activity logs). Results Preprandial ghrelin concentrations were not affected by macronutrient intake, energy expenditure or energy intake (all P > 0.05). In turn, daily energy intake was significantly influenced by energy expenditure, but not ghrelin. Conclusion Preprandial ghrelin does not appear to be influenced by macronutrient composition, energy intake, or energy expenditure. Similarly, ghrelin does not appear to affect acute or chronic energy intake under free-living conditions. PMID:15745452

  15. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  16. Calcium Intake: A Lifelong Proposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amschler, Denise H.

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews the current problem of low calcium intake in the United States among all age groups, the role of calcium in the formation and maintenance of bone mass, and major factors influencing absorption. Osteoporosis is discussed, and current recommendations for Recommended Dietary allowance are provided. (Author/MT)

  17. Intake of intense sweeteners in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bär, A; Biermann, C

    1992-03-01

    The dietary intake of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin was evaluated in Germany (FRG) in 1988/89. In the first part of the study the sweetener intake was evaluated in a representative sample of the population. Complete 24-h records of the amount and type of all foods and drinks consumed were obtained from 2,291 individuals. The total daily intake was calculated for each person from the sweetener content of each product and was expressed in mg/kg body weight (bw). 35.9% of the participants ingested one or more sweeteners on the examination day. Cyclamate and saccharin were the prominent sweeteners because aspartame was at that time permitted only under special regulatory exemption, and products containing acesulfame were not yet available. For users of intense sweeteners the mean intakes of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were 0.15, 2.62, and 0.250 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. At the 90th percentile of intake, i.e., for the heavy consumer, the ingestion of cyclamate and saccharin was about 2.5 times higher. Persons who adhered to a diet (diabetes, weight control) did not ingest sweeteners in substantially higher amounts. Tabletop sweeteners and beverages were the most important sources of sweeteners, and they contributed more than 80% of the total intake. Consumption of sweeteners in excess of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) was rarely observed (saccharin: one person, cyclamate: 16 persons). In the second part of the study, the sweetener intake was further evaluated during a 7-day period in those subjects who in the 1-day study ingested any of the sweeteners in excess of 75% of the ADI. Complete 7-day food records were available from 40 out of the 41 subjects who fulfilled this criterium. In this selected subgroup in which 19 subjects were less than 19 years old, the mean daily intakes of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were 0.13, 4.53, and 0.42 mg/kg body weight (bw), respectively. These levels correspond to 0.33, 41 and 17% of the corresponding ADI

  18. Dietary reference intakes for zinc may require adjustment for phytate intake based upon model predictions.

    PubMed

    Hambidge, K Michael; Miller, Leland V; Westcott, Jamie E; Krebs, Nancy F

    2008-12-01

    The quantity of total dietary zinc (Zn) and phytate are the principal determinants of the quantity of absorbed Zn. Recent estimates of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for Zn by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) were based on data from low-phytate or phytate-free diets. The objective of this project was to estimate the effects of increasing quantities of dietary phytate on these DRI. We used a trivariate model of the quantity of Zn absorbed as a function of dietary Zn and phytate with updated parameters to estimate the phytate effect on the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and Recommended Daily Allowance for Zn for both men and women. The EAR predicted from the model at 0 phytate was very close to the EAR of the IOM. The addition of 1000 mg phytate doubled the EAR and adding 2000 mg phytate tripled the EAR. The model also predicted that the EAR for men and women could not be attained with phytate:Zn molar ratios > 11:1 and 15:1, respectively. The phytate effect on upper limits (UL) was predicted by first estimating the quantity of absorbed Zn corresponding to the UL of 40 mg for phytate-free diets, which is 6.4 mg Zn/d. Extrapolation of the model suggested, for example, that with 900 mg/d phytate, 100 mg dietary Zn is required to attain 6.4 mg absorbed Zn/d. Experimental studies with higher Zn intakes are required to test these predictions.

  19. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  20. Arguments at Mealtime and Child Energy Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnier, Daniel; Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine how arguments at mealtimes relate to children's daily energy intake. Design: A cross-sectional study using data obtained through the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010 (QLSCD), a representative sample of children born in 1998, in the province of Quebec, Canada. Setting: Face-to-face interviews,…

  1. [Effect water intake on body weight].

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska, Klaudia; Kurowska, Ewa; Okręglicka, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Water is essential for life. There wouldn't be the proper functioning of body processes without it. An inadequate water intake relative to recommendation contributes to the decline in physical capacity and adversely effects on cognitive function and mood. On the other hand, an adequate water intake helps maintain the balance between total energy intake and daily energy expenditure and determines the correct rate of fat oxidation. This might be useful and commonly used in weight reduction and thus might favorably affect on body composition in overweight and obese people by increasing the total body water and lean muscle mass and might contribute to a decrease in body fat. Research results indicate clearly that drinking water instead of caloric beverages might be an effective way to reduce daily total energy consumption and in this way might may contribute to the reduction of weight, body circumferences and body fat.

  2. Caffeine intake and low birth weight: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Santos, I S; Victora, C G; Huttly, S; Carvalhal, J B

    1998-04-01

    The authors conducted a matched case-control study to investigate the effects of caffeine intake during pregnancy on birth weight. From January to November 1992, in the first 24 hours after delivery, 1,205 mothers (401 cases and 804 controls) were interviewed and their newborns were examined to assess birth weight and gestational age by means of the method of Capurro et al. (J Pediatr 1978;93:120-2). The cases were children with birth weight < 2,500 g and gestational age > or = 28 weeks. Cases and controls were matched for time of birth and hospital of delivery and were recruited from the four maternity hospitals in Pelotas, southern Brazil. Daily maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy for each trimester was estimated. To assess caffeine intake, 10% of the mothers were reinterviewed at their households and samples of reported information on drip coffee and maté (a caffeine-containing drink widely used in South America) were collected and sent to the laboratory for caffeine determination through liquid chromatography. When instant coffee was reported, the weight of powder was measured using a portable scale, and caffeine intake was estimated from a reference table. Caffeine intake from tea, chocolate, soft drinks, and medicines was estimated from a reference table. Analyses were performed by conditional logistic regression. Crude analyses showed no effect of caffeine on low birth weight, preterm births or intrauterine growth retardation. The results did not change after allowing for confounders.

  3. Types of food and nutrient intake in India: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Maria Gabriella; Paramesh, Elizabeth Cherian; Paramesh, Haralappa; Loganes, Claudia; Ballali, Simonetta; Gafare, Claudia Elena; Verduci, Elvira; Gulati, Achal

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays India is undergoing an impressive economic growth accompanied by a very slow decline, almost stagnation, in malnutrition levels. In developing countries, studies on dietary patterns and their relationship with nutritional status are scarce. Over the years some nutritional studies have been performed to explore different types of food consumed in various Indian regions, among different social samples. The aim of the present paper is to review and describe trends in food and nutrition intake patterns in the different states of India. The review was carried out in PubMed, using the advanced research criteria: [food* OR ("meal pattern*") OR ("eating pattern*")] AND ("nutrient intake") AND India*. PubMed research gave back 84 results and out of these, 7 papers due to their focus on food intake and consumption levels in India have been included in this study. Food intake patterns showed that most of the Indians are vegetarians and that food items rich in micronutrients (pulses, other vegetables, fruits, nuts, oilseeds and animal foods) are generally consumed less frequently. Poor and monotonous cereals-based diet may promote inadequate nutrition intakes according to Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) standards.

  4. Dietary behaviour, food and nutrient intake of pregnant women in a rural community in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Huybregts, Lieven Fernand; Roberfroid, Dominique Albert; Kolsteren, Patrick Wilfried; Van Camp, John Hendrik

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential changes in dietary habits during pregnancy in a rural community in Houndé district, Burkina Faso. In-depth interviews were performed on a random sample of 37 pregnant women in order to analyse specific perceptions and attitudes regarding food consumption during pregnancy. In addition to this, an interactive 24-h recall survey was used to compare the food intake of 218 pregnant and 176 non-pregnant women. The majority of interviewees reported dietary restrictions during pregnancy but no consistent pattern of avoided food types was found. Most of the mentioned 'forbidden' foods were in related to physical discomfort during gestation. Interviewees also admitted to ignoring culturally determined food prohibitions/prescriptions. No differences were observed in food intake, food choice and nutrient intake between the group of pregnant and non-pregnant women. During the third trimester of gestation women did not show any major differences in food and nutrient intake compared with women from the first/second trimester. The mean nutrient intakes were found to be insufficient compared with the recommended daily allowances, especially for pregnant women. In conclusion, pregnant women in this rural area of Burkina Faso do not seem to restrict their diet significantly during pregnancy. The additional nutritional requirements of pregnancy are not accounted for in their dietary practises.

  5. Dietary behaviour, food and nutrient intake of pregnant women in a rural community in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Huybregts, Lieven Fernand; Roberfroid, Dominique Albert; Kolsteren, Patrick Wilfried; Van Camp, John Hendrik

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential changes in dietary habits during pregnancy in a rural community in Houndé district, Burkina Faso. In-depth interviews were performed on a random sample of 37 pregnant women in order to analyse specific perceptions and attitudes regarding food consumption during pregnancy. In addition to this, an interactive 24-h recall survey was used to compare the food intake of 218 pregnant and 176 non-pregnant women. The majority of interviewees reported dietary restrictions during pregnancy but no consistent pattern of avoided food types was found. Most of the mentioned 'forbidden' foods were in related to physical discomfort during gestation. Interviewees also admitted to ignoring culturally determined food prohibitions/prescriptions. No differences were observed in food intake, food choice and nutrient intake between the group of pregnant and non-pregnant women. During the third trimester of gestation women did not show any major differences in food and nutrient intake compared with women from the first/second trimester. The mean nutrient intakes were found to be insufficient compared with the recommended daily allowances, especially for pregnant women. In conclusion, pregnant women in this rural area of Burkina Faso do not seem to restrict their diet significantly during pregnancy. The additional nutritional requirements of pregnancy are not accounted for in their dietary practises. PMID:20572925

  6. Increase in family allowances.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    In July 1989 the family allowance structure in Australia was changed from a 4-rate to a 2-rate structure. The new rates were increased to $A9 a week for the 1st 3 children and $A12 for each additional child. The Family Allowance Supplment rate for children 13-15 years old was raised from $A31 to $A34.10/week. PMID:12344544

  7. TRH decreases food intake and increases water intake and body temperature in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yang-Ho; Hartzell, Diane; Azain, Michael J; Baile, Clifton A

    2002-09-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a key regulator of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, which plays an important role in energy homeostasis and is involved in the regulation of feeding behavior. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic TRH treatment on water intake, body temperature and feeding behavior in rats. TRH (0, 4, 16 and 64 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously twice a day (06:00 and 18:00 h) in rats fed ad libitum. TRH decreased food and water intake in the first few hours (P < .05). There was a small reduction in food intake over the 24-h period, but body weight was not affected (P < .05). When TRH was injected at a dose of 32 mg/kg twice a day (06:00 and 18:00 h) for 5 days, T(3) and T(4) concentrations were increased (P < .05). TRH increased body temperature for 2 h after injection. Water intake was markedly increased (P < .05), but there was no effect on food intake or body weight. These results show that whereas a single injection of TRH decreases short-term food and water intake in rats, repeated daily treatments stimulate water intake but not food intake, and, thus, the increase in water consumption is mediated independently of food intake under these conditions.

  8. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune; Mannio, Jaakko; Hallikainen, Anja

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  9. Exercise and the regulation of energy intake.

    PubMed

    Scheurink, A J; Ammar, A A; Benthem, B; van Dijk, G; Södersten, P A

    1999-04-01

    Energy balance is the resultant of ingested calories and energy expenditure and is generally maintained within narrow limits over prolonged periods. Exercise leads to an increase in energy expenditure which is, in the long-term, counteracted by increased energy intake. Evidence for this comes from a study in voluntarily running female rats that increased their daily food intake to 130% of the sedentary controls. In contrast, when considered on a short-term basis, exercise will suppress food intake to prevent a potentially dangerous disruption of energy substrate homeostasis. Studies in permanently cannulated rats submitted to a test meal and 2 hrs swimming reveal that both food intake and exercise lead to increases in glucose and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in the blood. These changes in glucose and FFA, combined with the exercise-induced alteration in among others glucagon, corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and body temperature, may lead to the short-term anorexic effect of exercise. PMID:10367996

  10. Estimates of food and macronutrient intake in a random sample of Northern Ireland adolescents.

    PubMed

    Strain, J J; Robson, P J; Livingstone, M B; Primrose, E D; Savage, J M; Cran, G W; Boreham, C A

    1994-09-01

    Estimates of food consumption and macronutrient intake were obtained from a randomly selected population sample (2%) of 1015 adolescents aged 12 and 15 years in Northern Ireland during the 1990/1991 school year. Dietary intake was assessed by diet history with photographic album to estimate portion size. Reported median energy intakes were 11.0 and 13.1 MJ/d for boys aged 12 and 15 years respectively and 9.2 and 9.1 MJ/d for girls of these ages. Protein, carbohydrate and total sugars intakes as a percentage of total energy varied little between the age and sex groups and were approximately 11, 49 and 20% respectively of daily total energy intakes. Median dietary fibre intakes were approximately 20 and 24 g/d for boys aged 12 and 15 years respectively and 18 and 19 g/d for girls of these ages. Major food sources of energy (as a percentage of total energy intakes) were bread and cereals (15-18%), cakes and biscuits (12-14%), chips and crisps (13-14%), dairy products (9-11%), meat and meat products (9-11%) and confectionery (9%). Fruit and vegetable intakes were low at about 2.5% and 1.5% respectively of total energy intakes. Median fat intakes were high at 39% of total daily energy intakes. Major food sources of fat as a percentage of total fat intakes were from the food groupings: chips and crisps (16-19%), meat and meat products (14-17%), fats and oils (14-16%), cakes and biscuits (13-16%) and dairy products (12-15%). Median intakes of saturated fatty acids were also high at approximately 15% of daily total energy intake while intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids averaged 12% of daily total energy intake. Median polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intakes were low, comprising 5.2 and 5.5% of daily total energy intake for boys aged 12 and 15 years respectively and were lower than the PUFA intakes (5.9 and 6.3% of daily total energy intake) for girls of these ages. About 1.3% for boys and 1.4% for girls of daily total energy intake was in the form of n-3 PUFA. Ca and

  11. [The intake of proteins and essential amino acids in top-competing women athletes].

    PubMed

    Nuviala Mateo, R J; Lapieza Laínez, M G

    1997-01-01

    In a group of 84 sportswomen (19 karatekas, 20 handball and 20 basketball players and 25 middle- and long-distance runners) the intake of protein and essential amino acids was assessed, as well as the urinary excretion of urea and creatinine. Simultaneously, we have studied 82 women who did not underwent physical activity (control group). After a 7-days long recall, by means of the food weighing method, was assessed by a computerized program the daily average intake of: total energy, macronutrients, proteins of animal origin and essential amino acids. The determination of urinary urea and creatinine was made in a 24-hours sample. The protein intake was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in basketball and handball players and in the runners than in the control group. The protein intake related with the body weight (g/kg) was significantly higher in basketball players (p < 0.05) and in the runners (p < 0.01), taking both the sportswomen and the sedentary women quantities higher than 0.8 g/kg/day established as minimum allowances. The amino acids intake related with the body weight (mg/kg), exceeded widely in all the studied groups the minimum recommended for each of them, outstanding the values significantly high (p < 0,01) found for all the amino acids in the runners. Both for the urinary excretion of the urea and the creatinine, the highest values correspond to the runners. All the sportswomen have superior protein and essential amino acids intake in relation with women without physical activity. The higher body losses of nitrogen in the form of urea and creatinine found in the runners are due to their higher protein/kg of body weight intake.

  12. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kaganov, Boris; Caroli, Margherita; Mazur, Artur; Singhal, Atul; Vania, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population. PMID:25984741

  13. Revised reference values for selenium intake.

    PubMed

    Kipp, A P; Strohm, D; Brigelius-Flohé, R; Schomburg, L; Bechthold, A; Leschik-Bonnet, E; Heseker, H

    2015-10-01

    The German, Austrian and Swiss nutrition societies are the joint editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of selenium and published them in February 2015. The saturation of selenoprotein P (SePP) in plasma is used as a criterion for the derivation of reference values for selenium intake in adults. For persons from selenium-deficient regions (China) SePP saturation was achieved with a daily intake of 49μg of selenium. When using the reference body weights the D-A-CH reference values are based upon, the resulting estimated value for selenium intake is 70μg/day for men and 60μg/day for women. The estimated value for selenium intake for children and adolescents is extrapolated using the estimated value for adults in relation to body weight. For infants aged 0 to under 4 months the estimated value of 10μg/day was derived from the basis of selenium intake via breast milk. For infants aged 4 to under 12 months this estimated value was used and taking into account the differences regarding body weight an estimated value of 15μg/day was derived. For lactating women compared to non-lactating women a higher reference value of 75μg/day is indicated due to the release of selenium with breast milk. The additional selenium requirement for pregnant women is negligible, so that no increased reference value is indicated.

  14. Herbage intake regulation and growth of rabbits raised on grasslands: back to basics and looking forward.

    PubMed

    Martin, G; Duprat, A; Goby, J-P; Theau, J-P; Roinsard, A; Descombes, M; Legendre, H; Gidenne, T

    2016-10-01

    Organic agriculture is developing worldwide, and organic rabbit production has developed within this context. It entails raising rabbits in moving cages or paddocks, which enables them to graze grasslands. As organic farmers currently lack basic technical information, the objective of this article is to characterize herbage intake, feed intake and the growth rate of rabbits raised on grasslands in different environmental and management contexts (weather conditions, grassland type and complete feed supplementation). Three experiments were performed with moving cages at an experimental station. From weaning, rabbits grazed a natural grassland, a tall fescue grassland and a sainfoin grassland in experiments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Rabbit diets were supplemented with a complete pelleted feed limited to 69 g dry matter (DM)/rabbit per day in experiment 1 and 52 g DM/rabbit per day in experiments 2 and 3. Herbage allowance and fiber, DM and protein contents, as well as rabbit intake and live weight, were measured weekly. Mean herbage DM intake per rabbit per day differed significantly (P<0.001) between experiments. It was highest in experiment 1 (78.5 g DM/day) and was 43.9 and 51.2 g DM/day in experiments 2 and 3, respectively. Herbage allowance was the most significant determinant of herbage DM intake during grazing, followed by rabbit metabolic weight (live weight0.75) and herbage protein and fiber contents. Across experiments, a 10 g DM increase in herbage allowance and a 100 g increase in rabbit metabolic weight corresponded to a mean increase of 6.8 and 9.6 g of herbage DM intake, respectively. When including complete feed, daily mean DM intakes differed significantly among experiments (P<0.001), ranging from 96.1 g DM/rabbit per day in experiment 2 to 163.6 g DM/rabbit per day in experiment 1. Metabolic weight of rabbits raised on grasslands increased linearly over time in all three experiments, yielding daily mean growth rates of 26.2, 19.2 and 28.5 g/day in

  15. Herbage intake regulation and growth of rabbits raised on grasslands: back to basics and looking forward.

    PubMed

    Martin, G; Duprat, A; Goby, J-P; Theau, J-P; Roinsard, A; Descombes, M; Legendre, H; Gidenne, T

    2016-10-01

    Organic agriculture is developing worldwide, and organic rabbit production has developed within this context. It entails raising rabbits in moving cages or paddocks, which enables them to graze grasslands. As organic farmers currently lack basic technical information, the objective of this article is to characterize herbage intake, feed intake and the growth rate of rabbits raised on grasslands in different environmental and management contexts (weather conditions, grassland type and complete feed supplementation). Three experiments were performed with moving cages at an experimental station. From weaning, rabbits grazed a natural grassland, a tall fescue grassland and a sainfoin grassland in experiments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Rabbit diets were supplemented with a complete pelleted feed limited to 69 g dry matter (DM)/rabbit per day in experiment 1 and 52 g DM/rabbit per day in experiments 2 and 3. Herbage allowance and fiber, DM and protein contents, as well as rabbit intake and live weight, were measured weekly. Mean herbage DM intake per rabbit per day differed significantly (P<0.001) between experiments. It was highest in experiment 1 (78.5 g DM/day) and was 43.9 and 51.2 g DM/day in experiments 2 and 3, respectively. Herbage allowance was the most significant determinant of herbage DM intake during grazing, followed by rabbit metabolic weight (live weight0.75) and herbage protein and fiber contents. Across experiments, a 10 g DM increase in herbage allowance and a 100 g increase in rabbit metabolic weight corresponded to a mean increase of 6.8 and 9.6 g of herbage DM intake, respectively. When including complete feed, daily mean DM intakes differed significantly among experiments (P<0.001), ranging from 96.1 g DM/rabbit per day in experiment 2 to 163.6 g DM/rabbit per day in experiment 1. Metabolic weight of rabbits raised on grasslands increased linearly over time in all three experiments, yielding daily mean growth rates of 26.2, 19.2 and 28.5 g/day in

  16. Sodium intake among U.S. school-aged children - United States, 2009-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A national health objective is to reduce average U.S. sodium intake to 2,300 mg daily to help prevent high blood pressure, a major cause of heart disease and stroke. Identifying common contributors to sodium intake among children can help reduction efforts. Average sodium intake, sodium consumed p...

  17. Choline and betaine food sources and intakes in Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Chu, Da-Ming; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Yeh, Nai-Hua; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2012-01-01

    Choline and betaine are involved in several similar health-relevant metabolic pathways, but the foods sources are different. We have assessed their intakes (individual, sums and ratios) from a dominantly Chinese food cultural point of view. A representative free-living Taiwanese population aged 13-64 years was drawn from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 1993-1996. Food intake was derived from interviews as 24-hour recalls. The USDA database, with adaptations for Taiwan, provided choline and betaine food compositions. Major food contributors of these nutrients were identified and compared with data from the US Framingham offspring study. Mean and variance reduced median nutrient intakes were calculated. Top ten major food contributors of choline in Taiwan were eggs, pork, chicken, fish, soybean and its products, dark leafy vegetables, dairy, fruit, wheat products and light leafy vegetables in sequence. For betaine, the top ten were dark leafy vegetables, wheat products, fish, pork, bread, chicken, cake/cookies, grain-based alcoholic beverages, rice and its products and sauces. The main contributors of choline in Taiwan and the USA were, respectively, eggs and red meat; and for betaine, greens were similarly best contributor. The rankings of the main food contributors of choline and betaine differed substantially between Taiwan and the USA. The total daily intakes (mean±SE, mg) in Taiwan for choline were 372±19 (median=348) in men and 265±9 (median 261) for women; for betaine, values were 101±3 (median 93) in men and 78±8 (median 76) for women. These allow for health outcome considerations.

  18. The relationship between calcium, phosphorus, and sodium intake, race, and blood pressure in children with renal insufficiency: a report of the Growth Failure in Children with Renal Diseases (GFRD) Study.

    PubMed

    Trachtman, H; Chan, J C; Boyle, R; Farina, D; Baluarte, H J; Chinchilli, V M; Dresner, I G; Feld, L G

    1995-07-01

    Nutritional data compiled during the Growth Failure in Children with Renal Diseases Clinical Trial were analyzed to determine the relationship between the dietary intake of divalent minerals and sodium, nutritional status, and serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations and blood pressure in black versus white children. One hundred eighteen patients are included in this report; 25 were black (21%) and 93 were white (79%). Although more of the blacks were male, the age distribution, midarm circumference, midarm muscle circumference, blood pressure, and serum calcium, phosphorus, and PTH concentrations were comparable in the two groups. Phosphorus intake was within the recommended daily allowance in both groups; in contrast, calcium intake was inadequate in all patients: 81% of the recommended daily allowance in whites, and 74% in blacks. Sixteen children were noted to be hypertensive during the observation period; six patients were receiving a variety of antihypertensive medications, including diuretics in two children. Linear regression analysis revealed that systolic and diastolic blood pressures were directly related to calcium and phosphorus intake in black patients. In white children, only dietary phosphorus intake and diastolic blood pressure were directly related. There was no relationship between sodium intake or GFR and blood pressure in the white or black children. PTH levels were directly correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in all children. The correlations between PTH and blood pressure were stronger in white versus black patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Effect of supplementing urea-treated barley straw with lucerne or vetch hays on feed intake, digestibility and growth of Arsi Bale sheep.

    PubMed

    Abate, Dawit; Melaku, Solomon

    2009-04-01

    The study was conducted at Sinana Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia to assess the supplementation of graded levels of vetch (Vicia dasycarpa 'lana') and lucerne (Medicago sativa,' Hunter river') hay on feed intake, digestibility and body weight (BW) change of Arsi-Bale sheep fed urea treated barley straw (UTBS). A 7 day- digestibility and a 90 day- feed intake trials were conducted using 28 and 35 sheep, respectively. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with seven dietary treatments that consisted of feeding UTBS (T1) as the control treatment, UTBS plus 150, 250 and 350 g dry matter (DM) per day of vetch for T2, T3, T4, respectively and UTBS plus 150, 250 and 350 g DM per day of lucerne for T5, T6 and T7, respectively. Intake of UTBS was not affected (P > 0.05) by inclusion of lucerne hay at 25-35% of daily DM intake. The supplements increased daily intake of total DM, organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and metabolizable energy (ME) (P < 0.001) as well as apparent digestibility of DM, OM (P < 0.001), NDF (P < 0.01), ADF, crude protein (CP) (P < 0.05) and daily BW gain (P < 0.001). Supplementation with lucerne than vetch hay promoted higher (P < 0.001) CP and ME intakes and daily BW gain. Feeding with the UTBS without supplementation was enough to meet the maintenance requirements of the sheep and allow small BW gain. The results of the study showed that urea treatment of barley straw in conjunction with supplementation of lucerne or vetch hay could serve as a useful strategy in improving smallholder sheep production in the tropics.

  20. Potential intake of intense sweeteners in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Toledo, M C; Ioshi, S H

    1995-01-01

    A survey of intense sweetener intakes was carried out in the winter of 1990 and summer of 1991 in Brazil. Data on the potential intake of the intense sweeteners aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin were generated, based on a representative sample of 673 individuals who completed a questionnaire designed to collect information on demographic details and habitual usage of sweetener-containing food and drinks. The respondents were randomly chosen among intense sweetener consumers living the cities of Campinas, São Paulo and Curitiba, Paraná. Potential daily intakes by individuals were calculated for each sweetener by combining each person's consumption of sweetener-containing food and beverages with information generated by the determination of the concentrations of the sweeteners used in these products. The data showed that 72% of the studied population consumed saccharin, 67% cyclamate and 40% aspartame. The main reasons alleged for the use of intense sweeteners were weight-control diet (36%), diabetes (35%) and weight loss (23%). Table-top sweeteners were the major source of sweeteners, followed by soft drinks. The median daily intake of aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin represented approximately 2.9, 15.5, and 16-4% of the corresponding ADI, respectively. Diabetics in general had a much higher intake within the studied population.

  1. Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A secondary aim was to characterize the study population in terms of determinants of the total fluid intake requirements. Methods A child friendly “fluids and liquid food” diary was used to prospectively record the volume and frequency of beverage consumption over 7 days from 1045 schoolchildren. This diary also recorded the practice of physical activity. An adequate fluid intake was defined as an intake ≥ 75% of the age-specific adequate intake recommended by the EFSA. Results The median (P25-P75) of habitual daily fluid intake was 864 (608–1104) ml/day, with 355 (194–579) coming from drinking water. This habitual daily fluid intake varied significantly among the three investigated EFSA groups (girls and boys aged from 8 years, girls from 9 to 13 and boys from 9 to 13), except for the drinking water (P = 0.906). The highest medians of fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and milk and derivatives were found among boys of 9–13. Only 9.5% of the children had an adequate fluid intake, with a value of 19.2% among the 8 years old girls and boys, 7.0% among girls of 9–13 and 8.4% among boys of 9–13. In the whole sample, 27.7% of the children declared to drink less than 3-4x/day, 56% drunk water less than 2x/day and 7.7% drunk no water at all. Every day, 27.1% and 34.1% of the children drank respectively one fruit juice and one sugar-sweetened beverage. Conclusion Belgian schoolchildren have an inadequate total fluid intake. Given the potential health

  2. Dietary Intake and Serum Level of Carotenoids in Lung Cancer Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Asbaghi, Somayeh; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Hosseini, Mostafa; Honarvar, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh; Khosravi, Adnan; Azargashb, Eznollah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake and serum levels of some selected carotenoids of lung cancer patients with healthy subjects. Thirty-five lung cancer patients and 33 healthy people were enrolled into this case-control study. Daily intake of nutrients was estimated using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and a 3-day 24-h food recall questionnaire. The concentration of serum beta-carotene and lycopene were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography method. Case and control groups did not differ by the means of age, gender, smoking habits, weight, body mass index, mean daily energy intake, mean daily fat intake, and the percentage of daily energy provided by fat to total daily energy intake. The beta-carotene and lycopene intake of the case subjects was 96% and 195% greater than that of the control subjects. Daily intake of fruits and vegetables in the cancer group was higher than the control group. However, the serum concentration of 118% beta-carotene and 60% lycopene were higher in the control group. Despite a higher daily dietary intake of beta-carotene and lycopene by lung cancer patients, serum beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations were significantly lower than the group without cancer.

  3. Dietary Intake and Serum Level of Carotenoids in Lung Cancer Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Asbaghi, Somayeh; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Hosseini, Mostafa; Honarvar, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh; Khosravi, Adnan; Azargashb, Eznollah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake and serum levels of some selected carotenoids of lung cancer patients with healthy subjects. Thirty-five lung cancer patients and 33 healthy people were enrolled into this case-control study. Daily intake of nutrients was estimated using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and a 3-day 24-h food recall questionnaire. The concentration of serum beta-carotene and lycopene were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography method. Case and control groups did not differ by the means of age, gender, smoking habits, weight, body mass index, mean daily energy intake, mean daily fat intake, and the percentage of daily energy provided by fat to total daily energy intake. The beta-carotene and lycopene intake of the case subjects was 96% and 195% greater than that of the control subjects. Daily intake of fruits and vegetables in the cancer group was higher than the control group. However, the serum concentration of 118% beta-carotene and 60% lycopene were higher in the control group. Despite a higher daily dietary intake of beta-carotene and lycopene by lung cancer patients, serum beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations were significantly lower than the group without cancer. PMID:26168284

  4. Bayesian modelling of long-term dietary intakes from multiple sources.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Marc C

    2010-01-01

    Human exposure to a specific pesticide or other chemical can occur from a combination of food and drink products. Probabilistic risk assessments are used to quantify the distribution of mean total daily exposures in the population, from the available data on residues and consumptions. We present a new statistical method for estimating this distribution, based on dietary survey data for multiple food types and residue monitoring data. The model allows for between-food correlations in both frequency and amounts of consumption. Three case studies are presented based on consumption data for UK children, considering the distribution of daily intakes of pyrimethanil, captan and chlorpyrifos aggregated over 4, 6 and 10 food types, respectively. We compared three alternative approaches, each using a Bayesian approach to quantify uncertainty: (i) a multivariate model that explicitly includes correlation parameters; (ii) separate independent parametric models for individual food types and (iii) a single parametric model applied to intakes aggregated directly from the data. The results demonstrate the importance of accounting for correlations between foods, using model (i) or (iii), for example, but also show that model (iii) can produce very different results when the aggregated intakes distribution is bimodal. The influence of residue uncertainty is also demonstrated.

  5. Herbage intake, methane emissions and animal performance of steers grazing dwarf elephant grass v. dwarf elephant grass and peanut pastures.

    PubMed

    Andrade, E A; Almeida, E X; Raupp, G T; Miguel, M F; de Liz, D M; Carvalho, P C F; Bayer, C; Ribeiro-Filho, H M N

    2016-10-01

    Management strategies for increasing ruminant legume consumption and mitigating methane emissions from tropical livestock production systems require further study. The aim of this work was to evaluate the herbage intake, animal performance and enteric methane emissions of cattle grazing dwarf elephant grass (DEG) (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) alone or DEG with peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo). The experimental treatments were the following: DEG pastures receiving nitrogen fertilization (150 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate) and DEG intercropped with peanut plus an adjacent area of peanut that was accessible to grazing animals for 5 h/day (from 0700 to 1200 h). The animals grazing legume pastures showed greater average daily gain and herbage intake, and shorter morning and total grazing times. Daily methane emissions were greater from the animals grazing legume pastures, whereas methane emissions per unit of herbage intake did not differ between treatments. Allowing animals access to an exclusive area of legumes in a tropical grass-pasture-based system can improve animal performance without increasing methane production per kg of dry matter intake.

  6. Herbage intake, methane emissions and animal performance of steers grazing dwarf elephant grass v. dwarf elephant grass and peanut pastures.

    PubMed

    Andrade, E A; Almeida, E X; Raupp, G T; Miguel, M F; de Liz, D M; Carvalho, P C F; Bayer, C; Ribeiro-Filho, H M N

    2016-10-01

    Management strategies for increasing ruminant legume consumption and mitigating methane emissions from tropical livestock production systems require further study. The aim of this work was to evaluate the herbage intake, animal performance and enteric methane emissions of cattle grazing dwarf elephant grass (DEG) (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) alone or DEG with peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo). The experimental treatments were the following: DEG pastures receiving nitrogen fertilization (150 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate) and DEG intercropped with peanut plus an adjacent area of peanut that was accessible to grazing animals for 5 h/day (from 0700 to 1200 h). The animals grazing legume pastures showed greater average daily gain and herbage intake, and shorter morning and total grazing times. Daily methane emissions were greater from the animals grazing legume pastures, whereas methane emissions per unit of herbage intake did not differ between treatments. Allowing animals access to an exclusive area of legumes in a tropical grass-pasture-based system can improve animal performance without increasing methane production per kg of dry matter intake. PMID:27101877

  7. Protein intake and bone health.

    PubMed

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe

    2011-03-01

    Adequate nutrition plays an important role in the development and maintenance of bone structures resistant to usual mechanical stresses. In addition to calcium in the presence of an adequate supply of vitamin D, dietary proteins represent key nutrients for bone health and thereby function in the prevention of osteoporosis. Several studies point to a positive effect of high protein intake on bone mineral density or content. This fact is associated with a significant reduction in hip fracture incidence, as recorded in a large prospective study carried out in a homogeneous cohort of postmenopausal women. Low protein intake (< 0.8 g/kg body weight/day) is often observed in patients with hip fractures and an intervention study indicates that following orthopedic management, protein supplementation attenuates post-fracture bone loss, tends to increase muscle strength, and reduces medical complications and rehabilitation hospital stay. There is no evidence that high protein intake per se would be detrimental for bone mass and strength. Nevertheless, it appears reasonable to avoid very high protein diets (i. e. more than 2.0 g/kg body weight/day) when associated with low calcium intake (i. e. less than 600 mg/day). In the elderly, taking into account the attenuated anabolic response to dietary protein with ageing, there is concern that the current dietary protein recommended allowance (RDA), as set at 0.8 g/kg body weight/day, might be too low for the primary and secondary prevention of fragility fractures. PMID:22139564

  8. Glycerol reduces food intake in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Brief, D J; Davis, J D

    1982-10-01

    Streptozotocin diabetic rats received four daily subcutaneous injections of glycerol or a glycerol solution in place of water for a seven day period. Both night and total food intake in the subcutaneous glycerol group were significantly suppressed below untreated diabetic controls. The oral glycerol group showed a nonsignificant decrease in night foot intake and a significant reduction in day and total food intake. Consumption of additional fluid calories by the oral glycerol group contributed to the suppression of food intake in this group, but suppression in the subcutaneous group was unrelated to calculated calories obtained from glycerol. The oral glycerol group also consumed more of the glycerol solution than the other diabetic groups did of water. Results of this study support previous findings that subcutaneous and oral glycerol suppress food intake in normal rats although suppression with oral glycerol may have related to caloric intake, and suggest that low plasma concentrations of insulin do not interfere with the effects obtained with glycerol in normal animals.

  9. Applications of Dietary Reference Intakes in dietary assessment and planning.

    PubMed

    Barr, Susan I

    2006-02-01

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are used for assessing and planning diets of individuals and groups. Assessing individual intakes is complicated by the fact that neither the individual's usual nutrient intake nor their individual requirement is known. However, the degree of confidence that intakes are adequate or excessive can be estimated. Assessing diets of groups requires information on the group's usual nutrient intake distribution, which can be obtained by statistically adjusting 1 d intake distributions to remove within-person variability. For most nutrients with an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), the group prevalence of inadequate intakes can be approximated by the percent whose usual intakes are less than the EAR. However, the prevalence of inadequacy cannot be determined for nutrients with an Adequate Intake (AI). The goals of planning are a low risk (for individuals) or low prevalence (for groups) of inadequate or excessive nutrient intakes. For individuals, these goals are met by planning intakes that meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or AI, are below the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), and fall within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs). For groups, planning involves estimating a "target" usual intake distribution with an acceptably low prevalence less than the EAR and greater than the UL, planning menus to achieve the target distribution, and assessing the results.

  10. Daily Spiritual Experiences and Adolescent Treatment Response

    PubMed Central

    LEE, MATTHEW T.; VETA, PAIGE S.; JOHNSON, BYRON R.; PAGANO, MARIA E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore changes in belief orientation during treatment and the impact of increased daily spiritual experiences (DSE) on adolescent treatment response. One-hundred ninety-five adolescents court-referred to a 2-month residential treatment program were assessed at intake and discharge. Forty percent of youth who entered treatment as agnostic or atheist identified themselves as spiritual or religious at discharge. Increased DSE was associated with greater likelihood of abstinence, increased prosocial behaviors, and reduced narcissistic behaviors. Results indicate a shift in DSE that improves youth self-care and care for others that may inform intervention approaches for adolescents with addiction. PMID:25525291

  11. Daily feeding regimen impacts pig growth and behavior.

    PubMed

    Colpoys, Jessica D; Johnson, Anna K; Gabler, Nicholas K

    2016-05-15

    A primary swine production goal is to increase efficiency of lean tissue gains. While many swine production systems currently utilize ad libitum feeding, recent research suggests that altering feeding patterns may impact feed efficiency. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare two feeding patterns and evaluate their impact on whole body tissue accretion, feeding behavior and activity in growing pigs. Forty eight individually housed gilts (55.9±5.2kg on test BW) were assigned into one of two feeding treatments: 1) Free access to the feeder (Free Access) or 2) twice daily access where gilts were allowed to eat ad libitum between 08:00-09:00h and again from 17:00-18:00h (2×). Pig performance was recorded weekly for 55days and average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain:feed (G:F) was calculated. Body composition was assessed in 12 gilts per treatment using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at day -3 and 55 of treatment, and tissue accretion rates were calculated. Gilt behaviors were assessed via video analysis during week 7 and included time spent eating, feeding rate, enrichment interaction, postural changes, standing, sitting, and lying behaviors. Gilts fed 2× had lower ADG and ADFI compared to Free Access gilts (P≤0.01); however, no treatment difference in G:F was observed (P=0.83). At day 55 gilts fed 2× had a lower fat:protein compared to Free Access gilts (P=0.05). Fat, lean, and protein accretion rates were lower in gilts fed 2× compared to those fed Free Access (P=0.01). Gilts fed 2× ate less frequently and for a shorter duration of time, interacted with enrichment more frequently (P≤0.005), and tended to have less frequent postural changes compared to Free Access gilts (P=0.08). No treatment differences were observed in duration of time spent standing, sitting, or lying (P≥0.39). Although feed regimen did not alter feed efficiency, these data indicate that twice daily feeding reduced gilt adiposity and growth

  12. The beverage intake questionnaire: determining initial validity and reliability.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Comber, Dana L; Estabrooks, Paul A; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Brenda M

    2010-08-01

    Consuming energy-containing beverages may lead to weight gain, yet research investigating this issue is limited. An easily administered beverage intake assessment tool could facilitate research on this topic. The purpose of this cross-sectional investigation was to determine the validity and reliability of a self-administered beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ) that estimates mean daily intake of beverages consumed across 19 beverage categories. Participants (N=105; aged 39+/-2 years) underwent assessments of height, weight, body mass index, and dietary intake using 4-day food intake records from June 2008 to June 2009. The BEVQ was completed at two additional visits (BEVQ1, BEVQ2). Urine samples were collected to objectively determine total fluid intake and encourage accurate self-reporting. Validity was assessed by comparing BEVQ1 with food intake record results; reliability was assessed by comparing BEVQ1 and BEVQ2. Analyses included descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, paired samples t tests, and independent samples t tests. Self-reported water and total beverage intake (in grams) were not different between the BEVQ1 and food intake records (mean difference 129+/-77 g [P=0.096] and 61+/-106 g [P=0.567], respectively). Total beverage and sugar-sweetened beverage energy intake were significantly different, although mean differences were small (63 and 44 kcal, respectively). Daily consumption (in grams) of water (r=0.53), total beverages (r=0.46), and sugar-sweetened beverages (r=0.49) determined by the BEVQ1 were correlated with reported intake determined by the food intake record, as was energy from total beverages (r=0.61) and sugar-sweetened beverages (r=0.59) (all P values <0.001). Reliability was demonstrated, with correlations (P<0.001) detected between BEVQ1 and BEVQ2 results. The BEVQ is a valid, reliable, and rapid self-administered dietary assessment tool.

  13. Nutrient intake of highly competitive male and female collegiate karate players.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Kaori; Imamura, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Nishimura, Seiji; Miyamoto, Noriko; Yamauchi, Yoichi; Hori, Hitoshi; Moriwaki, Chinatsu; Shirota, Tomoko

    2002-07-01

    Nutrient intake of 29 male (M Group) and 16 female (F Group) highly competitive collegiate karate players were compared. The results were also compared with the daily energy expenditure (DEE), Japanese recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate dietary intakes (ADIs). Dietary information was collected using a 3-weekday diet record. Although the M Group showed significantly higher mean %RDAs or %ADIs in iron, vitamin B1, phosphorus, magnesium, and sodium than the F Group, many of the mean %RDAs or %ADIs were below RDAs or ADIs in both groups. The subjects who skipped meals tended to show lower mean %DEE, Japanese %RDAs or %ADIs in minerals and vitamins than the subjects who did not skip in both M and F Groups. The consumption of green and other vegetables and milk and dairy products in both M and F Groups were low. It is concluded that the male and female highly competitive karate players studied in the present study may be at risk of sub-optimal nutrient intake, which increases the potential for nutrient deficiency. The subjects were advised not to skip meals, and to consume a balanced high-carbohydrate, moderate-protein, low-fat diet with increasing green and other vegetables and milk and dairy products to increase mineral, vitamin and dietary fiber intakes.

  14. Contribution of daily and seasonal biorhythms to obesity in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Witowski, Janusz

    2015-04-01

    While the significance of obesity as a serious health problem is well recognized, little is known about whether and how biometerological factors and biorhythms causally contribute to obesity. Obesity is often associated with altered seasonal and daily rhythmicity in food intake, metabolism and adipose tissue function. Environmental stimuli affect both seasonal and daily rhythms, and the latter are under additional control of internal molecular oscillators, or body clocks. Modifications of clock genes in animals and changes to normal daily rhythms in humans (as in shift work and sleep deprivation) result in metabolic dysregulation that favours weight gain. Here, we briefly review the potential links between biorhythms and obesity in humans.

  15. [Intake of trans fats; situation in Spain].

    PubMed

    Riobó, Pilar; Breton, Irene

    2014-04-01

    Current nutritional recommendations include decreasing the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA), since there exists sufficient scientific evidence of its influence to cardiovascular disease. During the last decades, in many European countries the TFA intake has considerably decreased through the established legislation and changes in the technological processes developed by the food industry. In Spain, just 2.1 g/day, a 0.7% of the daily energy intake comes from TFA, a lower value than the recommended maximum (<1%), according to data from TRANSFAIR study. The TFA content of processed products such as margarines, factory-baked goods and etc, has declined over recent years and is less than 1% in more than 90% of all these products in Spain. However, it is necessary to develop and implement regulations, governing the TFA content in the products sold in our country, in which there should be the requirement to include this information in the label too.

  16. [Vitamins and minerals intake from diet and supplements among subjects with a history of cardiovascular events in Polish population].

    PubMed

    Waśkiewicz, Anna; Sygnowska, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    Some vitamins and minerals play an important role in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The aim of this study was the assessment of dietary vitamins and minerals intake and patterns of supplement use among subjects with diagnosed CVD in Polish population. Within the frame of the WOBASZ study, a representative sample of whole Polish population aged 20-74 (7257 subjects) was screened in 2003-2005. A subsample of 803 persons with a clinical history of cardiovascular events was analyzed. It was found, that the average diet of adult Polish citizens with established CVD was not balanced concerning the intake of vitamins and minerals. Daily intake of antioxidant vitamins (A, C and E) and vitamin B12 was satisfactory the realization degree of recommended dietary allowances (RDA) was about 126-310%. The insufficient amounts of vitamins B1, B2, folates, as well as potassium, calcium, magnesium in diet of both genders and vitamin B6 in men and iron in women were noted. The highest deficiency has been noticed in vitamins B1, B2 and calcium and magnesium intake--the realization degree of RDA has stayed on 54-82% level. Around 1% of potassium, calcium and magnesium intake in both genders and more than 25% of vitamins E and B6 consumption in women derived from the supplementation.

  17. Micronutrient Intakes from Food and Supplements in Australian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Caroline M.; Black, Lucinda J.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n = 991). We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements), along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) where appropriate. Results: Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Conclusions: Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements. PMID:24424459

  18. Tips for Daily Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Share Plus on Google Plus I Have Alzheimer's Disease alz.org | IHaveAlz I Have Alz Homepage Know ... others living with Alzheimer's back to top The Alzheimer's ... living with the disease, share their personal insights about the daily strategies ...

  19. Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…

  20. Towards the Fecal Metabolome Derived from Moderate Red Wine Intake

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Girón, Ana; Muñoz-González, Irene; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J.; Moreno-Arribas, María Victoria; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols, including red wine phenolic compounds, are extensively metabolized during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract; and their biological effects at the gut level (i.e., anti-inflammatory activity, microbiota modulation, interaction with cells, among others) seem to be due more to their microbial-derived metabolites rather than to the original forms found in food. In an effort to improve our understanding of the biological effects that phenolic compounds exert at the gut level, this paper summarizes the changes observed in the human fecal metabolome after an intervention study consisting of a daily consumption of 250 mL of wine during four weeks by healthy volunteers (n = 33). It assembles data from two analytical approaches: (1) UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of phenolic metabolites in fecal solutions (targeted analysis); and (2) UHPLC-TOF MS analysis of the fecal solutions (non-targeted analysis). Both approaches revealed statistically-significant changes in the concentration of several metabolites as a consequence of the wine intake. Similarity and complementarity between targeted and non-targeted approaches in the analysis of the fecal metabolome are discussed. Both strategies allowed the definition of a complex metabolic profile derived from wine intake. Likewise, the identification of endogenous markers could lead to new hypotheses to unravel the relationship between moderate wine consumption and the metabolic functionality of gut microbiota. PMID:25532710

  1. Protein supplements: do they alter dietary intakes?

    PubMed

    Mallard, Alistair R; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca T; Rehrer, Nancy J

    2014-06-01

    Effects of protein versus mixed macronutrient supplementation on total energy intake (TEI) and protein intake during an ad libitum diet were examined. Trained males undertook two, 2-week dietary interventions which were randomized, double blinded, and separated by 2 weeks. These were high-protein supplementation (HP: 1034.5 kJ energy, 29.6 g protein, 8.7 g fat and 12.3 g CHO) and standard meal supplementation (SM: 1039 kJ energy, 9.9 g protein, 9.5 g fat, and 29.4 g CHO) consumed daily following a week of baseline measures. Eighteen participants finished both interventions and one only completed HP. TEI (mean ± SD) was not different between baseline (11148 ± 3347 kJ) and HP (10705 ± 3143 kJ) nor between baseline and SM (12381 ± 3877 kJ), however, TEI was greater with SM than HP (923 ± 4015 kJ p = .043). Protein intake (%TEI) was greater with HP (22.4 ± 6.2%) than baseline (19.4 ± 5.4%; p = .008) but not SM (20.0 ± 5.0%). No differences in absolute daily protein intake were found. Absolute CHO intake was greater with SM than HP (52.0 ± 89.5 g, p = .006). No differences in fat intake were found. Body mass did not change between baseline (82.7 ± 11.2 kg) and either HP (83.1 ± 11.7 kg) or SM (82.9 ± 11.0 kg). Protein supplementation increases the relative proportion of protein in the diet, but doesn't increase the absolute amount of total protein or energy consumed. Thus some compensation by a reduction in other foods occurs. This is in contrast to a mixed nutrient supplement, which does not alter the proportion of protein consumed but does increase TEI.

  2. Dietary intake of hexachlorobenzene in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Falcó, G; Bocio, A; Llobet, J M; Domingo, J L; Casas, C; Teixidó, A

    2004-04-25

    To assess the dietary intake of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by the population of Catalonia, Spain, a total-diet study was carried out. Concentrations of HCB were determined in food samples randomly acquired in seven cities of Catalonia between June and August 2000. A total of 11 food groups were included in the study. HCB levels were determined by HRGC/HRMS. Estimates of average daily food consumption were obtained from recent studies. HCB intake was estimated for five population groups: children (aged 4 to 9 years), adolescents (aged 10 to 19 years), male and female adults (aged 20 to 65 years), and seniors (aged >65 years). In general, HCB residues in foods were rather low excepting dairy products with a mean concentration of 0.869 ng/g wet weight. Total dietary intakes of HCB (microgram per kilogram body weight/day) were the following: children (0.0064), adolescents (0.0031), female adults (0.0025), male adults (0.0024) and seniors (0.0019). All these values are considerably lower than the WHO tolerable daily intake (TDI), which is 0.17 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for non-cancer effects and 0.16 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for neoplastic effects in humans.

  3. Problem Behavior, Victimization, and Soda Intake in High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M.; Sherry, Bettylou; Foti, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations of problem behaviors and victimization with nondiet soda intake among a national sample of 16,188 US high school students. Methods We used the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The outcome measure was daily nondiet soda intake. Results Smoking, having any sex partners, not always wearing a seat belt, being bullied/threatened/injured on school property, and being physically hurt by their boyfriend/girlfriend were significantly associated with daily nondiet soda intake after adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and weight status. Conclusions Our findings suggest a need to examine why nondiet soda intake is associated with these behaviors to understand potential mechanisms. PMID:23985188

  4. Daily body energy balance in rats.

    PubMed

    Le Magnen, J; Devos, M

    1982-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the balance between caloric intake and expenditures in successive 12 and 24 hour periods, for several consecutive days in rats. The simultaneous and continuous measurements of respiratory exchanges and of the spontaneous feeding pattern were performed in 6 rats during 38 days, in periods of 2 to 4 successive days. At night, caloric intake exceeded caloric expenditures by 32% on the average. In individual rats, the excess was positively correlated to meal size but not to meal number. During the daytime, caloric intake was 24% lower on the average than the concomitant energy expenditures. In individual subjects, these deficits were correlated to meal number but not to meal size. A nocturnal excess and the subsequent daytime deficit, and the diurnal deficit and the excess during the subsequent night were highly positively correlated. In fact, the 24 hour energy balance was either slightly positive (12% excess) or negative (4% deficit). The daily weight gain or loss was highly correlated to the residual excess and/or deficit with a mean caloric cost of 4.8 kcal per g of body weight. The absence of correlation between balances on successive days indicates that the body energy balance is regulated within 24 hr through 12/12 hr compensations and that no compensatory mechanisms are involved beyond 24 hr.

  5. Calcium Intake, Major Dietary Sources and Bone Health Indicators in Iranian Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Nasrin; Neyestani, Tirang-Reza; Hajifaraji, Majid; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Armin, Saloumeh; Haidari, Homa; Zowghi, Telma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate calcium intake may have a crucial role with regards to prevention of many chronic diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, different types of cancer, obesity and osteoporosis. In children, sufficient calcium intake is especially important to support the accelerated growth spurt during the preteen and teenage years and to increase bone mineral mass to lay the foundation for older age. Objectives: This study aimed to assess daily calcium intake in school-age children to ensure whether they fulfill the FGP dairy serving recommendations, the recommended levels of daily calcium intake and to assess the relationship between dietary calcium intake and major bone health indicators. Patients and Methods: A total of 501 Iranian school-age children were randomly selected. Calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone health indicators were also assessed. Results: Dairy products contributed to 69.3% of the total calcium intake of the children. Daily adequate intake of calcium was achieved by 17.8% of children. Only 29.8% met the Food guide pyramid recommendations for dairy intake. Dietary calcium intake was not significantly correlated with serum calcium and other selected biochemical indicators of bone health. Conclusions: The need for planning appropriate nutrition strategies for overcoming inadequate calcium intake in school age children in the city of Tehran is inevitable. PMID:26199684

  6. Dietary Reference Intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as ...

  7. Dietary sodium intake and its impact factors in adults of Shandong province.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian Hong; Xu, Ai Qiang; Lu, Zi Long; Yan, Liu Xia; Guo, Xiao Lei; Wang, Hui Cheng; Ma, Ji Xiang; Zhang, Ji Yu; Dong, Jing; Wang, Lin Hong

    2014-07-01

    Dietary sodium intake and its impact factors in 2 140 adults aged 18-69 years were analyzed. The mean daily sodium intake was 5745.0 (5427.6-6062.5) mg per day, which was higher in males than in females (P<0.01). After having been adjusted for gender, age and urban/city areas, the mean daily sodium intake was significantly higher in participants with a lower education level, drinkers and smokers than in those with a higher education level, nondrinkers and nonsmokers (P<0.01). The dietary sodium intake in adults of Shandong Province is higher than the recommended standards.

  8. Adults Meeting Fruit and Vegetable Intake Recommendations - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Moore, Latetia V; Thompson, Frances E

    2015-07-10

    Eating more fruits and vegetables adds nutrients to diets, reduces the risk for heart disease, stroke, and some cancers, and helps manage body weight when consumed in place of more energy-dense foods. Adults who engage in <30 minutes of moderate physical activity daily should consume 1.5-2.0 cup equivalents of fruit and 2-3 cups of vegetables daily.* However, during 2007-2010, half of the total U.S. population consumed <1 cup of fruit and <1.5 cups of vegetables daily; 76% did not meet fruit intake recommendations, and 87% did not meet vegetable intake recommendations. Although national estimates indicate low fruit and vegetable consumption, substantial variation by state has been observed (3). Fruit and vegetable intake information from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is the sole source of dietary surveillance information for most states, but frequency of intake captured by BRFSS is not directly comparable to federal intake recommendations, which are expressed in cup equivalents. CDC analyzed median daily frequency of fruit and vegetable intake based on 2013 BRFSS data for the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and applied newly developed prediction equations to BRFSS to calculate the percentage of each state's population meeting fruit and vegetable intake recommendations. Overall, 13.1% of respondents met fruit intake recommendations, ranging from 7.5% in Tennessee to 17.7% in California, and 8.9% met vegetable recommendations, ranging from 5.5% in Mississippi to 13.0% in California. Substantial new efforts are needed to build consumer demand for fruits and vegetables through competitive pricing, placement, and promotion in child care, schools, grocery stores, communities, and worksites.

  9. Dietary intake of advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Walsh, T D; Bowman, K B; Jackson, G P

    1983-02-01

    A state registered dietitian assessed the voluntary dietary intake of 13 advanced cancer inpatients on one ward of St. Christopher's Hospice for five consecutive days. There were 11 females, two males; median age 74 years (range 56 to 83). Two patients died on the fourth day of the study. A partially individualised weighed technique was used. Standard sized scoops and spoons were used to serve the food in small, medium or large standard portions (depending on appetite) and were weighed as served. Individual plate waste (by weight) was subtracted to give estimated individual intake. Foods provided by visitors was not included. The median and range of individual mean daily intakes (estimated) were: energy 5760 (938-8945) kJ, 1376 (224-2137) kcal; protein 44 (11-86) g; fat 52 (9-93) g; carbohydrate 169 (21-194) g; calcium 748 (268-1457) mg; iron 4.8 (0.5-21.0) mg; dietary fibre 5.0 (0.5-21.0) g. Compared to recommended amounts, energy, iron and dietary fibre intakes were low; calcium intake was high. Nutritional status may affect prognosis and/or subjective well-being in advanced cancer. The value of nutritional supplementation and the role of appetite stimulants in improving nutritional status needs investigation.

  10. Dietary intake of advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Walsh, T D; Bowman, K B; Jackson, G P

    1983-02-01

    A state registered dietitian assessed the voluntary dietary intake of 13 advanced cancer inpatients on one ward of St. Christopher's Hospice for five consecutive days. There were 11 females, two males; median age 74 years (range 56 to 83). Two patients died on the fourth day of the study. A partially individualised weighed technique was used. Standard sized scoops and spoons were used to serve the food in small, medium or large standard portions (depending on appetite) and were weighed as served. Individual plate waste (by weight) was subtracted to give estimated individual intake. Foods provided by visitors was not included. The median and range of individual mean daily intakes (estimated) were: energy 5760 (938-8945) kJ, 1376 (224-2137) kcal; protein 44 (11-86) g; fat 52 (9-93) g; carbohydrate 169 (21-194) g; calcium 748 (268-1457) mg; iron 4.8 (0.5-21.0) mg; dietary fibre 5.0 (0.5-21.0) g. Compared to recommended amounts, energy, iron and dietary fibre intakes were low; calcium intake was high. Nutritional status may affect prognosis and/or subjective well-being in advanced cancer. The value of nutritional supplementation and the role of appetite stimulants in improving nutritional status needs investigation. PMID:6841131

  11. The 2011 Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D: what dietetics practitioners need to know.

    PubMed

    Ross, A Catharine; Manson, Joann E; Abrams, Steven A; Aloia, John F; Brannon, Patsy M; Clinton, Steven K; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Gallagher, J Christopher; Gallo, Richard L; Jones, Glenville; Kovacs, Christopher S; Mayne, Susan T; Rosen, Clifford J; Shapses, Sue A

    2011-04-01

    The Institute of Medicine Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D comprehensively reviewed the evidence for both skeletal and nonskeletal health outcomes and concluded that a causal role of calcium and vitamin D in skeletal health provided the necessary basis for the 2011 Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for ages older than 1 year. For nonskeletal outcomes, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, infections, and autoimmune disorders, randomized clinical trials were sparse, and evidence was inconsistent, inconclusive as to causality, and insufficient for Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) development. The EAR and RDA for calcium range from 500 to 1,100 and 700 to 1,300 mg daily, respectively, for ages 1 year and older. For vitamin D (assuming minimal sun exposure), the EAR is 400 IU/day for ages older than 1 year and the RDA is 600 IU/day for ages 1 to 70 years and 800 IU/day for 71 years and older, corresponding to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels of 16 ng/mL (40 nmol/L) for EARs and 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L) or more for RDAs. Prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in North America has been overestimated based on serum 25OHD levels corresponding to the EAR and RDA. Higher serum 25OHD levels were not consistently associated with greater benefit, and for some outcomes U-shaped associations with risks at both low and high levels were observed. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level for calcium ranges from 1,000 to 3,000 mg daily, based on calcium excretion or kidney stone formation, and from 1,000 to 4,000 IU daily for vitamin D, based on hypercalcemia adjusted for uncertainty resulting from emerging risk relationships. Urgently needed are evidence-based guidelines to interpret serum 25OHD levels relative to vitamin D status and intervention.

  12. The use of mHealth to deliver tailored messages reduces reported energy and fat intake

    PubMed Central

    Ambeba, Erica J.; Ye, Lei; Sereika, Susan M.; Styn, Mindi A.; Acharya, Sushama D.; Sevick, Mary Ann; Ewing, Linda J.; Conroy, Molly B.; Glanz, Karen; Zheng, Yaguang; Goode, Rachel W.; Mattos, Meghan; Burke, Lora E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence supports the role of feedback in reinforcing motivation for behavior change. Feedback that provides reinforcement has the potential to increase dietary self-monitoring and enhance attainment of recommended dietary intake. Objective To examine the impact of daily feedback (DFB) messages, delivered remotely, on changes in dietary intake. Methods A secondary analysis of the SMART trial, a single-center, 24-month randomized clinical trial of behavioral treatment for weight loss. Participants included 210 obese adults (mean body mass index=34.0 kg/m2) who were randomized to either a paper diary (PD), personal digital assistant (PDA), or PDA plus daily, tailored feedback messages (PDA+FB). To determine the role of daily tailored feedback in dietary intake, we compared the self-monitoring with daily feedback group (DFB, n=70) to the self-monitoring without daily feedback group (No-DFB, n=140). All participants received a standard behavioral intervention for weight loss. Self-reported changes in dietary intake were compared between the DFB and No-DFB groups and were measured at baseline, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Linear mixed modeling was used to examine percent changes in dietary intake from baseline. Results Compared to the No-DFB group, the DFB group achieved a larger reduction in energy (−22.8% vs. −14.0%, p=0.02) and saturated fat (−11.3% vs. −0.5%, p=0.03) intake, and a trend toward a greater decrease in total fat intake (−10.4% vs. −4.7%, p=0.09). There were significant improvements over time in carbohydrate intake and total fat intake for both groups (p’s<0.05). Conclusion Daily, tailored feedback messages, designed to target energy and fat intake and delivered remotely in real-time using mobile devices, may play an important role in the reduction of energy and fat intake. PMID:24434827

  13. Pistachio intake increases high density lipoprotein levels and inhibits low-density lipoprotein oxidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Nur; Aksoy, Mehmet; Bagci, Cahit; Gergerlioglu, H Serdar; Celik, Hakim; Herken, Emine; Yaman, Abdullah; Tarakcioglu, Mehmet; Soydinc, Serdar; Sari, Ibrahim; Davutoglu, Vedat

    2007-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that nuts have protective effects against coronary artery disease by improving lipid profile and inhibiting lipid oxidation. However, data about pistachio nuts are limited, and to our knowledge, there is no study investigating the effects of pistachio intake on lipid oxidation and serum antioxidant levels. This study, therefore, sought to determine the effects of pistachio intake on serum lipids and determine whether consumption of pistachio would alter serum antioxidant levels. Rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=12 for each): control group fed basic diet for 10 weeks and treated groups fed basic diet plus pistachio which constituted 20% and 40% of daily caloric intake, respectively. Consumption of pistachio as 20% of daily caloric intake increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and decreased total cholesterol (TC)/HDL ratio, compared with those not taking pistachio. However, TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were unaffected by pistachio consumption. Consumption of pistachio as 20% of daily caloric intake increased serum paraoxonase activity by 35% and arylesterase activity by 60%, which are known to inhibit LDL cholesterol oxidation, compared with the control group. However, increased antioxidant activity was blunted when pistachio intake was increased to 40% of daily caloric intake. In conclusion, the present results show that consumption of pistachio as 20% of daily caloric intake leads to significant improvement in HDL and TC/HDL ratio and inhibits LDL cholesterol oxidation. These results suggest that pistachio may be beneficial for both prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease.

  14. Dietary energy density is associated with increased intake in free-living humans.

    PubMed

    de Castro, John M

    2004-02-01

    Dietary energy density markedly influences the daily dietary intake of humans. The present study examined the relation of energy density to dietary intake and body size in 371 male and 581 female adults. The subjects were free-living and provided a detailed record of their everyday food and drink intake in 7-d food diaries. The reported diets were analyzed for the relation of energy density to body size and to per-meal, daily, and weekly dietary intake. High energy density was associated with greater (P < 0.001) total intake, especially of fat, when intake was correlated with energy density (r = 0.26, P < 0.001) and when the daily intake of individual participants was correlated with their daily dietary density (r = 0.66, P < 0.001). These results occurred regardless of sex, low reporting, or the inclusion of drinks in the energy density calculations. High energy density was also associated with a high rate of intake (r = 0.46, P < 0.001) and large meal sizes (r = 0.61, P < 0.001). However, energy density was not correlated with body size, height, weight, or body mass index. High energy density appears to be related to greater overall intake in the short-term, but there may be compensation over the long term, with no net effect on body size. PMID:14747669

  15. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... advance of allowance. (a) Allowance. Step 2+3 and Step 3 grant agreements will include an allowance for facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... would receive under paragraph (a) of this section. (5) In the event a Step 2+3, Step 3 or Step 7...

  16. Dietary Intake In Adult Female Coeliac Disease Patients In Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Mičetić-Turk, Dušanka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to assess dietary intake of coeliac disease (CD) patients and to determine if they are meeting the dietary reference values for a balanced diet. Subjects/Methods 40 women with CD, aged from 23 to 76 participated in our study. Total daily intake was assessed by a three-day food diary. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation. Considering physical activity level (PAL) 1.4, the recommended total energy expenditure (TEE) value was determined. The data was evaluated with professional evaluation software Prodi and statistically analysed. Results 40 participants returned the food diary. The average energy intake was significantly too low to ensure the meeting of all-day energy needs (p<0.05). The meals contained a recommended proportion of protein, but a statistically significantly higher proportion of fat (p<0.05), lower proportion of carbohydrates and a significantly lower intake of dietary fibre (p<0.05). Regarding macro-, micro- elements and vitamins, there was a significant lack in the intake of calcium and iodine, folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin A (p<0.05), meanwhile iron intake was at the lower limit of the recommended intake, whereas zinc, potassium and vitamin K intake were significantly higher according to the recommended values, but were comparable with the intake of the general population in the Central European area. Conclusion Even in subjects with adequate or low daily energy intake, their meals contained too much fat, too few carbohydrates and dietary fibre as well as inorganic substances. The patients with CD should get regular nutritional monitoring and education on the quality and balance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:27284377

  17. The role of fruit drinks in daily diet of some Osijek inhabitants, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Klarić, Maja; Puntarić, Dinko; Miskulin, Ivan; Valek, Marina; Dumić, Albina; Cavar, Suzana; Miskulin, Ivica; Grgić, Matijana

    2007-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the role of fruit drinks in daily diet of Osijek inhabitants. A special questionnaire was administered to 199 patients visiting a family physician's office during December 2003. The concentration of vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) was determined in 42 commercially available fruit drinks. Only 11% (22/199) of study subjects did not take fruit drinks. The mean concentration of vitamin C in all samples was 150.10 +/- 166.83 mg/L. The questionnaire revealed that 89% (177/199) of study subjects using fruit drinks were taking a mean of 0.4 L of fruit drink per day, yielding a mean of 60.04 mg of vitamin C, i.e. 100% of the recommended daily allowance of 60 mg. Study results indicated fruit drinks to be a significant source of vitamin C in daily diet, however, great variation in vitamin C intake according to socioeconomic status of study subjects and type of fruit drink should be noted. PMID:17598388

  18. Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans (KDRIs).

    PubMed

    Paik, Hee Young

    2008-01-01

    For more than 40 years, Recommended Dietary Allowances for Koreans (KRDA) were used as references for nutrient intake. In 2002, the Korean Nutrition Society organized a committee to revise the KRDA, which were transformed into the new Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans (KDRIs) in 2005. KDRIs include Estimated Average Requirements (EAR), Recommended Intake (RI), Adequate Intake (AI) and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for protein, essential amino acids and micronutrients, Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) for energy and Acceptable Macronutrients Distribution Ranges (AMDR) for macronutrients. Evidence-based methods were used to determine the reference value (s) and the levels of nutrient intake for each nutrient. The KDRIs expanded significantly the number of nutrients and the basic concepts of nutrient recommendations compared to the previously used KRDA. In addition, a new food guide, depicted as Food Tower for Koreans, was developed and appended to the KDRIs publication. Continued efforts are needed to facilitate the application of KDRIs as well as to improve the understanding of the concepts. Additional modifications will be made as more scientific data become available.

  19. Dietary intake, food composition and nutrient intake in wild and captive populations of Daubentonia madagascariensis.

    PubMed

    Sterling, E J; Dierenfeld, E S; Ashbourne, C J; Feistner, A T

    1994-01-01

    Data are presented on dietary and nutrient intake in a wild population of aye-ayes. Study animals ate 4 main food types: seeds, nectar, fungus and insect larvae. Calculated calorie intake was slightly lower during the cold season than during the hot, wet and the hot, dry seasons. Total intakes almost doubled to compensate for the lower energy content of the diet during the cold season. Comparison of natural and captive diets suggests that maintenance and even growth requirements of aye-ayes can be met by relatively low-fat, low-protein diets. Daily energy requirements were estimated to average about 280 kcal metabolizable energy/day. Animals in the wild were estimated to eat between 260 and 342 kcal, while captive animals consumed 260 kcal/day. PMID:7721197

  20. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... recommended practice J244 (incorporated by reference at § 92.5) are allowed. (b) Humidity and temperature measurements. (1) Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air...

  1. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... practice J244 (incorporated by reference at § 92.5) are allowed. (b) Humidity and temperature measurements. (1) Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply...

  2. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recommended practice J244 (incorporated by reference at § 92.5) are allowed. (b) Humidity and temperature measurements. (1) Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air...

  3. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recommended practice J244 (incorporated by reference at § 92.5) are allowed. (b) Humidity and temperature measurements. (1) Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air...

  4. Access to food outlets and children's nutritional intake in urban China: a difference-in-difference analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years supermarkets and fast food restaurants have been replacing those “wet markets” of independent vendors as the major food sources in urban China. Yet how these food outlets relate to children’s nutritional intake remains largely unexplored. Method Using a longitudinal survey of households and communities in China, this study examines the effect of the urban built food environment (density of wet markets, density of supermarkets, and density of fast food restaurants) on children’s nutritional intake (daily caloric intake, daily carbohydrate intake, daily protein intake, and daily fat intake). Children aged 6–18 (n = 185) living in cities were followed from 2004 to 2006, and difference-in-difference models are used to address the potential issue of omitted variable bias. Results Results suggest that the density of wet markets, rather than that of supermarkets, positively predicts children’s four dimensions of nutritional intake. In the caloric intake model and the fat intake model, the positive effect of neighborhood wet market density on children’s nutritional intake is stronger with children from households of lower income. Conclusion With their cheaper prices and/or fresher food supply, wet markets are likely to contribute a substantial amount of nutritional intake for children living nearby, especially those in households with lower socioeconomic status. For health officials and urban planners, this study signals a sign of warning as wet markets are disappearing from urban China’s food environment. PMID:22748026

  5. Plant and soil intake by organic broilers reared in tree- or grass-covered plots as determined by means of n-alkanes and of acid-insoluble ash.

    PubMed

    Jurjanz, S; Germain, K; Juin, H; Jondreville, C

    2015-05-01

    Free-range birds such as organic broilers may ingest soil and plants during exploration. The estimation of such intakes is of great interest to quantify possible nutritional supplies and also to evaluate the risk of exposure to parasites or to environmental contaminants. Marker-based techniques are now available and would allow to quantify plant and, especially, soil intake in free-range birds, and this quantification was the aim of this study. Methodologically, the proportion of plants in diet intake was determined first using a method based on n-alkanes. Subsequently, the fraction of soil in the total intake was estimated with a second marker, acid-insoluble ash. This approach was carried out to estimate ingested amounts of plants and soil for five successive flocks of organic broilers, exploring grass-covered yards or those under trees, at two time points for each yard: 51 and 64 days of age. Each factor combination (yard type×period=flock number×age) was repeated on two different yards of 750 broilers each. The birds' plant intake varied widely, especially on grass-covered yards. The proportion of plant intake was significantly higher on grass-covered plots than under trees and was also affected, but to a lesser extent, by age or flock number. The ingestion of plants would generally not exceed 11 g of DM daily, except two extreme outliers of nearly 30 g. The daily plant intake under trees tended to be lower and never exceeded 7 g of DM. The amount of ingested plants increased significantly for spring flocks. It increased slightly but significantly with age. The proportion of ingested soil was significantly higher under trees than on grass-covered yards. Dry soil intake was generally low with not more than 3 g per day. Only in adverse conditions - that is, older birds exploring yards under trees in winter - soil intake reached the extreme value of nearly 5 g. Broilers on yards under trees ingested significantly more soil than on grass-covered yards with least

  6. Beverage caffeine intakes in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Diane C; Knight, Carol A; Hockenberry, Jon; Teplansky, Robyn; Hartman, Terryl J

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine is one of the most researched food components, with the vast majority of dietary contributions coming from beverage consumption; however, there is little population-level data on caffeine intakes in the U.S. This study estimated the caffeine intakes of the U.S. population using a comprehensive beverage survey, the Kantar Worldpanel Beverage Consumption Panel. A nationally representative sample of 37,602 consumers (aged ≥ 2 years) of caffeinated beverages completed 7-day diaries which facilitated the development of a detailed database of caffeine values to assess intakes. Results showed that 85% of the U.S. population consumes at least one caffeinated beverage per day. The mean (±SE) daily caffeine intake from all beverages was 165±1 mg for all ages combined. Caffeine intake was highest in consumers aged 50-64 years (226±2 mg/day). The 90th percentile intake was 380 mg/day for all ages combined. Coffee was the primary contributor to caffeine intakes in all age groups. Carbonated soft drinks and tea provided a greater percentage of caffeine in the younger (<18 years) age groups. The percentage of energy drink consumers across all age groups was low (≤10%). These data provide a current perspective on caffeinated beverage consumption patterns and caffeine intakes in the U.S. population.

  7. Usual coffee intake in Brazil: results from the National Dietary Survey 2008-9.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Alessandra Gaspar; da Costa, Teresa Helena Macedo

    2015-05-28

    Coffee is central to the economy of many developing countries, as well as to the world economy. However, despite the widespread consumption of coffee, there are very few available data showing the usual intake of this beverage. Surveying usual coffee intake is a way of monitoring one aspect of a population's usual dietary intake. Thus, the present study aimed to characterise the usual daily coffee intake in the Brazilian population. We used data from the National Dietary Survey collected in 2008-9 from a probabilistic sample of 34,003 Brazilians aged 10 years and older. The National Cancer Institute method was applied to obtain the usual intake based on two nonconsecutive food diaries, and descriptive statistical analyses were performed by age and sex for Brazil and its regions. The estimated average usual daily coffee intake of the Brazilian population was 163 (SE 2.8) ml. The comparison by sex showed that males had a 12% greater usual coffee intake than females. In addition, the highest intake was recorded among older males. Among the five regions surveyed, the North-East had the highest usual coffee intake (175 ml). The most common method of brewing coffee was filtered/instant coffee (71%), and the main method of sweetening beverages was with sugar (87%). In Brazil, the mean usual coffee intake corresponds to 163 ml, or 1.5 cups/d. Differences in usual coffee intake according to sex and age differed among the five Brazilian regions.

  8. Usual coffee intake in Brazil: results from the National Dietary Survey 2008-9.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Alessandra Gaspar; da Costa, Teresa Helena Macedo

    2015-05-28

    Coffee is central to the economy of many developing countries, as well as to the world economy. However, despite the widespread consumption of coffee, there are very few available data showing the usual intake of this beverage. Surveying usual coffee intake is a way of monitoring one aspect of a population's usual dietary intake. Thus, the present study aimed to characterise the usual daily coffee intake in the Brazilian population. We used data from the National Dietary Survey collected in 2008-9 from a probabilistic sample of 34,003 Brazilians aged 10 years and older. The National Cancer Institute method was applied to obtain the usual intake based on two nonconsecutive food diaries, and descriptive statistical analyses were performed by age and sex for Brazil and its regions. The estimated average usual daily coffee intake of the Brazilian population was 163 (SE 2.8) ml. The comparison by sex showed that males had a 12% greater usual coffee intake than females. In addition, the highest intake was recorded among older males. Among the five regions surveyed, the North-East had the highest usual coffee intake (175 ml). The most common method of brewing coffee was filtered/instant coffee (71%), and the main method of sweetening beverages was with sugar (87%). In Brazil, the mean usual coffee intake corresponds to 163 ml, or 1.5 cups/d. Differences in usual coffee intake according to sex and age differed among the five Brazilian regions. PMID:25851731

  9. The Beverage Intake Questionnaire: Initial Validity and Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Brenda M.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of energy-containing beverages may lead to weight gain, yet research investigating this issue is limited. An easily-administered beverage intake assessment tool could facilitate research on this topic. The purpose of this cross-sectional investigation was to determine the validity and reliability of a self-administered beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ), which estimates mean daily intake of beverages consumed (g, kcals) across 19 beverage categories. Participants (n=105; aged 39±2 yrs) underwent assessments of height, weight, body mass index, and dietary intake using 4-day food intake records (FIR) from June, 2008-June, 2009. The BEVQ was completed at two additional visits (BEVQ1, BEVQ2). Urine samples were collected to objectively determine total fluid intake and encourage accurate self-reporting. Validity was assessed by comparing BEVQ1 with FIR results; reliability was assessed by comparing BEVQ1 and BEVQ2. Analyses included descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, paired samples t-tests, and independent samples t-tests. Self-reported water and total beverage intake (g) were not different between the BEVQ1 and FIR (mean difference: 129±77g [P=0.096] and 61±106g [P=0.567], respectively). Total beverage and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) energy intake were significantly different, although mean differences were small (63 and 44 kcal, respectively). Daily consumption (g) of water (r=0.53), total beverages (r=0.46), and SSB (r=0.49) determined by the BEVQ1 were correlated with reported intake determined by the FIR, as was energy from total beverages (r=0.61) and SSB (r=0.59) (all P<0.001). Reliability was demonstrated, with correlations (P<0.001) detected between BEVQ1 and BEVQ2 results. The BEVQ is a valid, reliable, and rapid self-administered dietary assessment tool. PMID:20656099

  10. Modelling milk production from feed intake in dairy cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.L.

    1985-05-01

    Predictive models were developed for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Since Holsteins comprised eighty-five percent of the data, the predictive models developed for Holsteins were used for the development of a user-friendly computer model. Predictive models included: milk production (squared multiple correlation .73), natural log (ln) of milk production (.73), four percent fat-corrected milk (.67), ln four percent fat-corrected milk (.68), fat-free milk (.73), ln fat-free milk (.73), dry matter intake (.61), ln dry matter intake (.60), milk fat (.52), and ln milk fat (.56). The predictive models for ln milk production, ln fat-free milk and ln dry matter intake were incorporated into a computer model. The model was written in standard Fortran for use on mainframe or micro-computers. Daily milk production, fat-free milk production, and dry matter intake were predicted on a daily basis with the previous day's dry matter intake serving as an independent variable in the prediction of the daily milk and fat-free milk production. 21 refs.

  11. [Bone and Nutrition. Vitamin D intake and bone].

    PubMed

    Tsugawa, Naoko

    2015-07-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is one of the risk factors of osteoporosis. To know the vitamin D intake for the prevention of bone loss and fracture, it is necessary to evaluate the appropriate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-D) concentration for bone health, and the vitamin D intake to maintain its concentration. Although vitamin D intake 15 and 20 μg/d have been set as RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance) in USA/Canada DRIs (Dietary reference intakes), 5.5 μg/d has been set as AI (adequate intake) in Japanese DRIs (2015). While reference values in Japan and USA/Canada were quite different, both DRIs are common in that it aim to maintain the serum 25-D concentration to more than 50 nmol/L. In the present review, vitamin D intakes and bone health, vitamin D status in Japanese people, DRIs for vitamin D and improvement of vitamin D insufficiency are reviewed. PMID:26119309

  12. Contribution of tap water to chlorate and perchlorate intake: a market basket study.

    PubMed

    Asami, Mari; Yoshida, Nobue; Kosaka, Koji; Ohno, Koichi; Matsui, Yoshihiko

    2013-10-01

    The contributions of water to total levels of chlorate and perchlorate intake were determined using food and water samples from a market basket study from 10 locations in Japan between 2008 and 2009. Foods were categorized into 13 groups and analyzed along with tap water. The average total chlorate intake was 333 (min. 193-max. 486) μg/day for samples cooked with tap water. The contribution of tap water to total chlorate intake was as high as 47%-58%, although total chlorate intake was less than 32% of the tolerable daily intake, 1500 μg/day for body weight of 50 kg. For perchlorate, daily intake from water was 0.7 (0.1-4.4) μg/day, which is not high compared to the average total intake of 14 (2.5-84) μg/day, while the reference dose (RfD) is 35 μg/day and the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) is 500 μg/day for body weight of 50 kg. The highest intake of perchlorate was 84 μg/day, where concentrations in foods were high, but not in water. The contribution of water to total perchlorate intake ranged from 0.5% to 22%, while the ratio of highest daily intake to RfD was 240% and that to PMTDI was 17%. Eight baby formulas were also tested--total chlorate and perchlorate intakes were 147 (42-332) μg/day and 1.11 (0.05-4.5) μg/day, respectively, for an ingestion volume of 1 L/day if prepared with tap water.

  13. Analysis of food intake profile among women from the oasis of southeastern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bidi, Amina; El Bouhali, Bachir; Nasri, Issad; Eddouks, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional status is the best indicator of the global well-being of women and food intake is known to reflect a healthy diet. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of socioeconomic status on the food intake in women living in the southeastern oasis of Morocco by exploring their nutritional intake through 24-h dietary recall (n=387). Analysis of the relationship between food intake and the socioeconomic characteristics in women showed a positive correlation between daily vegetable, cereals, red and white meat intake and region of residence (p<0.001, p=0.005, p=0.001 and p=0.04 respectively). The number of persons living at home showed a positive significant correlation with the daily intake of vegetables (p=0.01) and beverage (p=0.004). For fish and cereals, a positive significant correlation with the occupation variable has been shown (p=0.04 and p<0.001 respectively). In addition, a positive correlation has been noticed between the daily intake of vegetables, cereals, white meat, and dairy product and family status in housing (p=0.03, p=0.02, p=0.03 and p=0.04 respectively). In conclusion, the level of education, family size and occupation influence the daily intake of food in this region. PMID:26246164

  14. Pharmacologically relevant intake during chronic, free-choice drinking rhythms in selectively bred high alcohol-preferring mice.

    PubMed

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2013-11-01

    Multiple lines of high alcohol-preferring (HAP) mice were selectively bred for their intake of 10% ethanol (v/v) during 24-hour daily access over a 4-week period, with the highest drinking lines exhibiting intakes in excess of 20 g/kg/day. We observed circadian drinking patterns and resulting blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) in the HAP lines. We also compared the drinking rhythms and corresponding BECs of the highest drinking HAP lines to those of the C57BL/6J (B6) inbred strain. Adult male and female crossed HAP (cHAP), HAP replicate lines 1, 2, 3 and B6 mice had free-choice access to 10% ethanol and water for 3 weeks prior to bi-hourly assessments of intake throughout the dark portion of the light-dark cycle. All HAP lines reached and maintained a rate of alcohol intake above the rate at which HAP1 mice metabolize alcohol, and BECs were consistent with this finding. Further, cHAP and HAP1 mice maintained an excessive level of intake throughout the dark portion of the cycle, accumulating mean BEC levels of 261.5 ± 18.09 and 217.9 ± 25.02 mg/dl, respectively. B6 mice drank comparatively modestly, and did not accumulate high BEC levels (53.63 + 8.15 mg/dl). Free-choice drinking demonstrated by the HAP1 and cHAP lines may provide a unique opportunity for modeling the excessive intake that often occurs in alcohol-dependent individuals, and allow for exploration of predisposing factors for excessive consumption, as well as the development of physiological, behavioral and toxicological outcomes following alcohol exposure.

  15. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Takahashi, Yoshinari; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-12-09

    Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols' health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years) completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%). The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183-4854 mg/day), also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2%) and green tea (26.6%) were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake.

  16. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Takahashi, Yoshinari; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-12-01

    Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols' health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years) completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%). The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183-4854 mg/day), also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2%) and green tea (26.6%) were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake. PMID:26690212

  17. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Takahashi, Yoshinari; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols’ health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years) completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%). The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183–4854 mg/day), also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2%) and green tea (26.6%) were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake. PMID:26690212

  18. Inadequate Dietary Calcium and Vitamin D Intake in Patients with Osteoporotic Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Dong Sik; Lee, Young-Kyun; Ha, Yong-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background Inadequate calcium and vitamin D intake is a possible risk factor of osteoporosis. Our purposes were to estimate calcium and vitamin D intake in women with osteoporotic fractures, to determine associated factors for low calcium and vitamin D intake, and to evaluate the effects of calcium and vitamin D intake on bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This is a multicenter, hospital-based, and cross-sectional study involving 277 women with osteoporotic fractures. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intake were evaluated using the Korean Calcium Assessment Tool (KCAT) self-reported questionnaire. BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Results Average daily calcium and vitamin D intake was 503.7±274.7 mg and 7.5±12.6 µg, respectively. Patients with low calcium intake had less family history of osteoporosis and were older. There was a negative correlation between age and calcium intake (r=-0.14; P=0.019). In multivariate analysis, calcium intake showed a positive correlation with BMD of femoral neck (β=0.0005, P=0.021). Conclusions About 80% of patients with osteoporotic fracture had calcium and vitamin D intake below the recommended dietary intake. Low calcium intake was associated with no family history of osteoporosis and older age. Dietary calcium intake showed positive effect on BMD. PMID:27294077

  19. Estimated nutrient intakes from food generally do not meet dietary reference intakes among adult members of Pacific Northwest tribal nations.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie K; McCrory, Megan A; Roberts, Sparkle M; Tracy, J Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M; Boushey, Carol J

    2010-05-01

    Diet is influential in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations including Native Americans. The objective of this report is to present the first comprehensive dietary survey, to our knowledge, of a representative sample of nonpregnant adults from Pacific Northwest tribal nations participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Only participants who completed 1-4 d of dietary records and had weights and heights measured in the laboratory were eligible for this analysis (n = 418). Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by gender for the total sample, those with plausibly reported energy intakes (rEI), and those with implausibly rEI. Estimates of nutrient intakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Nutrient estimates from NHANES 2001-2002 were used as a reference. Among both men and women, total fat contributed 34-37% of energy intake and saturated fat contributed 11-12% of energy intake. Daily cholesterol intakes ranged from 262 to 442 mg. A majority of men and women were not meeting recommendations for vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, and sodium. For a majority of the nutrients examined, plausibility resulted in higher mean estimates. The CoASTAL cohort nutrient profile is similar to NHANES 2001-2002, with a majority of DRI recommendations not being met. Adequate dietary intake information may be more important for this population, because Native Americans experience a disproportionate burden for diseases.

  20. Estimated nutrient intakes from food generally do not meet dietary reference intakes among adult members of Pacific Northwest tribal nations.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie K; McCrory, Megan A; Roberts, Sparkle M; Tracy, J Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M; Boushey, Carol J

    2010-05-01

    Diet is influential in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations including Native Americans. The objective of this report is to present the first comprehensive dietary survey, to our knowledge, of a representative sample of nonpregnant adults from Pacific Northwest tribal nations participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Only participants who completed 1-4 d of dietary records and had weights and heights measured in the laboratory were eligible for this analysis (n = 418). Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by gender for the total sample, those with plausibly reported energy intakes (rEI), and those with implausibly rEI. Estimates of nutrient intakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Nutrient estimates from NHANES 2001-2002 were used as a reference. Among both men and women, total fat contributed 34-37% of energy intake and saturated fat contributed 11-12% of energy intake. Daily cholesterol intakes ranged from 262 to 442 mg. A majority of men and women were not meeting recommendations for vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, and sodium. For a majority of the nutrients examined, plausibility resulted in higher mean estimates. The CoASTAL cohort nutrient profile is similar to NHANES 2001-2002, with a majority of DRI recommendations not being met. Adequate dietary intake information may be more important for this population, because Native Americans experience a disproportionate burden for diseases. PMID:20237069

  1. The Tangle of Student Allowances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Norman J.

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of the distribution of student financial aid in Australia focuses on these issues: direct vs. indirect payment to students; inequality in living allowances given to secondary and postsecondary students; and distribution of expense allowances by state government and living allowances by the Commonwealth. (MSE)

  2. Caffeine Intake Among Adolescents in Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Gera, Mridul; Kalra, Swati; Gupta, Piyush

    2016-01-01

    Background: Availability and advertising of caffeinated drinks is on the rise in Indian market. Excess caffeine intake may have deleterious effects on health. Objective: To estimate the daily consumption of caffeine among urban school-going adolescents from Delhi. Materials and Methods: A school-based survey was conducted to determine the amount and pattern of caffeine consumption among students of classes 9-12, using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Of 300 participants (median age 15 year, 174 boys), 291 (97%) were consuming caffeine [mean (SD): 121.0 (98.2) mg/day]. Nineteen (6%) students were consuming more than 300 mg of caffeine per day. Tea/coffee contributed to more than 50% of the caffeine intake. The rest was derived from cola beverages, chocolates, and energy drinks. Conclusion: Average caffeine consumption among school-going adolescents from Delhi is high. The findings of this preliminary survey need to be confirmed in larger data sets. PMID:27051091

  3. Collection and analysis of intake data from the integrated survey.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P

    2003-02-01

    Intake data from the combined CSFII/NHANES survey will be used for many different purposes, each with specific data requirements and appropriate analytic methods. For monitoring and surveillance, the availability of Dietary Reference Intakes will allow estimates of the prevalence of inadequate intakes and the prevalence of intakes with a risk of adverse effects. The accuracy of the nutrient intake estimates will be enhanced by the 5-pass dietary recall methodology, availability of quantified dietary supplement intake data and expanded food and supplement composition data. Food-level dietary monitoring will be improved by using new databases to calculate servings of food groups from the Food Guide Pyramid and intakes of food commodities. Another major strength of the survey is the ability to relate intake data to health measures for individuals. Inferences will continue to be limited by a lack of usual intake for each individual, but the attenuation will be less with 2 d of data than with only 1 d, as in the past. Better data collection and analysis will also lead to more informed nutrition policies and programs. Innovative methods of analyzing the data should be investigated to minimize the effects of underreporting, provide better estimates of usual intake at both the group and individual levels and accurately combine nutrient intakes from foods and supplements. Future modifications to the intake collection methods might be considered to allow larger sample sizes for certain subgroups, more detailed information on supplement use, an expanded food frequency questionnaire, a different number of recall days and incorporation of diet and health knowledge questions. PMID:12566508

  4. Cultural and environmental barriers to adequate iron intake among northern Kenyan schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Shell-Duncan, Bettina; McDade, Thomas

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the context of iron deficiency and feeding patterns of iron-rich foods among northern Kenyan school-aged children. A nutrition survey was conducted among 300 subjects in two Rendille communities, Korr and Karare. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency as it relates to parasitic infection, dietary intake, and sociodemographic factors, as well as cultural food proscriptions influencing child feeding. Sociodemographic and qualitative data on food beliefs and child-feeding practices were obtained from the primary caretaker of each subject. From pediatric subjects, 24-hour dietary recall data were obtained with the help of the primary caretaker, and capillary blood from a fingerstick was used to detect iron deficiency based on measures of hemoglobin, the zinc protoporphyrin-to-heme ratio, C-reactive protein, and transferrin receptor. With an overall prevalence of 31.2%, iron deficiency was found to be associated with dietary iron intakes constrained by diverse economic, cultural, and environmental factors among Rendille children. In Karare, where children's iron intake approached recommended levels, iron deficiency was found to be attributable to low bioavailability of iron (only 4.3% of total iron intake), rather than low dietary intake per se. By contrast, in Korr the average daily iron intake was estimated at only 65% of recommended allowances, indicating that iron deficiency was the outcome not merely of low bioavailability, but rather of overall inadequate iron intake. Sociodemographic analysis showed a significant interaction between sex and economic status, revealing that girls in economically sufficient households were 2.4 times as likely to have iron deficiency as boys. This difference in risk parallels culturally defined gender-based proscriptions for child feeding: girls are believed to benefit from "soft foods," including rice, maize porridge, and tea, whereas boys benefitfrom "hard foods

  5. Calcium intake and its relationship with risk of overweight and obesity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; da Silva, Carla Cristiane; Peres, Luciana Natal Lopes; Berbel, Marina Nogueira; Heigasi, Máircia Braz; Ribeiro, Josy Maria Cabral; Suzuki, Karina; Josué, Liene Mílcia Aparecida; Dalmas, José Carlos

    2009-03-01

    Adolescents' eating habits are determined by social, psychological, economic, political, and educational influences. They tend to prefer foods with inadequate nutritional value and high fat and carbohydrate content which leads to excessive weight gain and for many, calcium intake is restricted. According to some authors, low calcium intake is linked to increased adiposity. The objective was to evaluate adolescent calcium intake and investigate a possible relationship between calcium intake and nutritional state. As part of their first consultation at Botucatu Adolescent Outpatient Clinic-UNESP, 107 adolescents were nutritionally classified by BMI, according to age, gender, and bands proposed by CDC and AAP. Diet was evaluated by a 3 day 24h food recall, adopting 1300 mg/day calcium intake as recommended by Dietary Reference Intakes. Median calcium intake for the whole sample was 546.6 mg/day, with 91.30% female and 86.84% male presenting lower than adequate daily recommended ingestion levels (DRI). There was significant difference between calcium densities (Ca mg/1000 kcal) in eutrophic and overweight/obesity in males. Male adolescents showed an inverse relationship between calcium intake and adiposity (r = -0.488 and p = 0.0173), which corroborates the hypothesis that low calcium intake is linked to fatty tissue gain. Only 8.70% of female and 13.16% of male adolescents reached their daily recommended calcium intake levels. It must therefore be stressed that nutritional education is an important protection factor for children and adolescents in later life.

  6. Peptides and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  7. Peptides and food intake.

    PubMed

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  8. Energy intake, growth rate and body composition of young Labrador Retrievers and Miniature Schnauzers fed different dietary levels of vitamin A.

    PubMed

    Brenten, Thomas; Morris, Penelope J; Salt, Carina; Raila, Jens; Kohn, Barbara; Brunnberg, Leo; Schweigert, Florian J; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-06-28

    Research in rodents has shown that dietary vitamin A reduces body fat by enhancing fat mobilisation and energy utilisation; however, their effects in growing dogs remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the development of body weight and body composition and compared observed energy intake with predicted energy intake in forty-nine puppies from two breeds (twenty-four Labrador Retriever (LAB) and twenty-five Miniature Schnauzer (MS)). A total of four different diets with increasing vitamin A content between 5·24 and 104·80 μmol retinol (5000-100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) metabolisable energy were fed from the age of 8 weeks up to 52 (MS) and 78 weeks (LAB). The daily energy intake was recorded throughout the experimental period. The body condition score was evaluated weekly using a seven-category system, and food allowances were adjusted to maintain optimal body condition. Body composition was assessed at the age of 26 and 52 weeks for both breeds and at the age of 78 weeks for the LAB breed only using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The growth curves of the dogs followed a breed-specific pattern. However, data on energy intake showed considerable variability between the two breeds as well as when compared with predicted energy intake. In conclusion, the data show that energy intakes of puppies particularly during early growth are highly variable; however, the growth pattern and body composition of the LAB and MS breeds are not affected by the intake of vitamin A at levels up to 104·80 μmol retinol (100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal). PMID:24666690

  9. Assessment of caffeine intake in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ho Soo; Hwang, Ju Young; Choi, Jae Chon; Kim, Meehye

    2015-01-01

    An improved method for the analysis of caffeine in foods by HPLC was validated by measuring several analytical parameters. The caffeine contents of 1202 products available from Korean markets were analysed. A consumption study was conducted by using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2010-12, to estimate the caffeine intakes of the Korean population. The mean intakes of caffeine from all sources in the general population and consumers were 67.8 and 102.6 mg day(-1) for all age groups, respectively. The 95th percentile intakes of the general population and consumers were 250.7 and 313.7 mg day(-1), respectively. In those aged 30-49 years, the caffeine intakes of the general population and consumers were highest at 25.5% (101.8 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and 36.6% (0.9 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), respectively, compared with the maximum recommended daily intake (400 mg day(-1)) for adults. In the general population, the main contributors to the total caffeine intake were carbonated beverage for the younger age groups and coffee for the adults. These data provide a current perspective on caffeine intake in the Korean population.

  10. A review of the dietary intakes of chemical contaminants*

    PubMed Central

    Gorchev, H. Galal; Jelinek, Charles F.

    1985-01-01

    Data on the dietary intakes of certain contaminants have been received from eleven collaborating centres participating in the Joint FAO/WHO Food Contamination Monitoring Programme. The data cover the period from 1971 to 1983 and include information on the intakes of a series of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, cadmium, lead, and aflatoxins. When compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) or provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of the pesticides/contaminants in question, the data indicate that, in some countries, the exposure to certain organochlorine pesticides may constitute a significant portion ofthe ADI. Because of the concentration of these compounds in the fatty portions of food, a high animal fat intake will increase the dietary exposure to organochlorine compounds Dietary intakes of cadmium and lead constitute an appreciable percentage oft he PTWI for these two contaminants. As the intakes of cadmium and lead per kilogram of body weight are highest for infants and children, every effort should be made to reduce the levels of these two contaminants in the food supply. PMID:3879207

  11. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right...

  12. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right...

  13. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right...

  14. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right...

  15. 76 FR 70883 - Clothing Allowance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... published in the Federal Register on February 2, 2011 (76 FR 5733-5734), VA proposed to amend its... appliances affecting different articles of clothing. 76 FR 5733; Sursely, 551 F.3d at 1356. VA will make the... allowances. The amendment provides for an annual clothing allowance for each qualifying prosthetic...

  16. Quantification of Daily Physical Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

    1994-01-01

    The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

  17. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal. PMID:20167099

  18. Seasonal Variation in the Voluntary Food Intake of Domesticated Cats (Felis Catus)

    PubMed Central

    Serisier, Samuel; Feugier, Alexandre; Delmotte, Sébastien; Biourge, Vincent; German, Alexander James

    2014-01-01

    There are numerous reports about seasonal cycles on food intake in animals but information is limited in dogs and cats. A 4-year prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted to assess differences in food intake in 38 ad-libitum-fed adult colony cats, of various breeds, ages and genders. Individual food intake was recorded on a daily basis, and the mean daily intake for each calendar month was calculated. These data were compared with climatic data (temperature and daylight length) for the region in the South of France where the study was performed. Data were analysed using both conventional statistical methods and by modelling using artificial neural networks (ANN). Irrespective of year, an effect of month was evident on food intake (P<0.001), with three periods of broadly differing intake. Food intake was least in the summer months (e.g. June, to August), and greatest during the months of late autumn and winter (e.g. October to February), with intermediate intake in the spring (e.g. March to May) and early autumn (e.g. September). A seasonal effect on bodyweight was not recorded. Periods of peak and trough food intake coincided with peaks and troughs in both temperature and daylight length. In conclusion, average food intake in summer is approximately 15% less than food intake during the winter months, and is likely to be due to the effects of outside temperatures and differences in daylight length. This seasonal effect in food intake should be properly considered when estimating daily maintenance energy requirements in cats. PMID:24759851

  19. Gender, Emotion Work, and Relationship Quality: A Daily Diary Study

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Melissa A.; McDaniel, Brandon T.; Pollitt, Amanda M.; Totenhagen, Casey J.

    2015-01-01

    We use the gender relations perspective from feminist theorizing to investigate how gender and daily emotion work predict daily relationship quality in 74 couples (148 individuals in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships) primarily from the southwest U.S. Emotion work is characterized by activities that enhance others’ emotional well-being. We examined emotion work two ways: trait (individuals’ average levels) and state (individuals’ daily fluctuations). We examined actor and partner effects of emotion work and tested for gender differences. As outcome variables, we included six types of daily relationship quality: love, commitment, satisfaction, closeness, ambivalence, and conflict. This approach allowed us to predict three aspects of relationship quality: average levels, daily fluctuations, and volatility (overall daily variability across a week). Three patterns emerged. First, emotion work predicted relationship quality in this diverse set of couples. Second, gender differences were minimal for fixed effects: Trait and state emotion work predicted higher average scores on, and positive daily increases in, individuals’ own positive relationship quality and lower average ambivalence. Third, gender differences were more robust for volatility: For partner effects, having a partner who reported higher average emotion work predicted lower volatility in love, satisfaction, and closeness for women versus greater volatility in love and commitment for men. Neither gender nor emotion work predicted average levels, daily fluctuations, or volatility in conflict. We discuss implications and future directions pertaining to the unique role of gender in understanding the associations between daily emotion work and volatility in daily relationship quality for relational partners. PMID:26508808

  20. An overview of the contribution of dairy and cheese intakes to nutrient intakes in the Irish diet: results from the National Adult Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Emma L; Nugent, Anne P; Mc Nulty, Breige; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Eileen R

    2016-02-28

    Dairy products are important contributors to nutrient intakes. However, dairy intakes are reportedly declining in developed populations, potentially due to concerns regarding Na and SFA in dairy foods, particularly cheese. This could impact other nutrient intakes. The present study used data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) to (1) examine dairy intakes, with a specific focus on cheese, and (2) to examine the contribution of cheese to population nutrient intakes. The NANS captured detailed dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample (n 1500) between 2008 and 2010 using 4-d semi-weighed food diaries; 99·9% of the population reported dairy intake. Mean daily population dairy intake was 290·0 (SD 202·1) g. Dairy products provided 8·7% of the population intake of reported dietary Na, 19·8% SFA, 39% Ca, 34·5% vitamin B12 and 10·5% Mg. Cheese alone provided 3·9% Na intake, 9·1% Ca, 12·6% retinol, 8·3% SFA, 3·7% protein, 3·4% vitamin B12 and 3·2% riboflavin. High dairy consumers had greater Ca and Mg intakes per 10 MJ, greater total energy intake, greater percentage of energy from carbohydrate and SFA and lower Na intakes compared with low dairy consumers. Similar trends were observed for high consumers of cheese for most nutrients except Na. These results demonstrate that dairy and cheese are important contributors to nutrient intakes of public health interest, such as Ca and B12. Our analysis also demonstrated that food-based dietary guidelines recommending lower-fat versions of dairy products are warranted.

  1. An overview of the contribution of dairy and cheese intakes to nutrient intakes in the Irish diet: results from the National Adult Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Emma L; Nugent, Anne P; Mc Nulty, Breige; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Eileen R

    2016-02-28

    Dairy products are important contributors to nutrient intakes. However, dairy intakes are reportedly declining in developed populations, potentially due to concerns regarding Na and SFA in dairy foods, particularly cheese. This could impact other nutrient intakes. The present study used data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) to (1) examine dairy intakes, with a specific focus on cheese, and (2) to examine the contribution of cheese to population nutrient intakes. The NANS captured detailed dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample (n 1500) between 2008 and 2010 using 4-d semi-weighed food diaries; 99·9% of the population reported dairy intake. Mean daily population dairy intake was 290·0 (SD 202·1) g. Dairy products provided 8·7% of the population intake of reported dietary Na, 19·8% SFA, 39% Ca, 34·5% vitamin B12 and 10·5% Mg. Cheese alone provided 3·9% Na intake, 9·1% Ca, 12·6% retinol, 8·3% SFA, 3·7% protein, 3·4% vitamin B12 and 3·2% riboflavin. High dairy consumers had greater Ca and Mg intakes per 10 MJ, greater total energy intake, greater percentage of energy from carbohydrate and SFA and lower Na intakes compared with low dairy consumers. Similar trends were observed for high consumers of cheese for most nutrients except Na. These results demonstrate that dairy and cheese are important contributors to nutrient intakes of public health interest, such as Ca and B12. Our analysis also demonstrated that food-based dietary guidelines recommending lower-fat versions of dairy products are warranted. PMID:26675882

  2. A computerized procedure for estimating nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Williamson, M; Azen, C; Acosta, P

    1976-11-01

    A procedure was devised for computing intake in terms of calories, total protein, phenylalanine, carbohydrate, and fat. The procedure used a magnetic tape containing 3,122 numbered food items. The nutrient composition of each food was reported for 100 g of the edible portion of the food. In addition, diet diaries were prepared in which the foods eaten during the preceding 24-hr period, the code for each food corresponding to the number for the same item on the magnetic tape, and the number of units of each food eaten were recorded. A computer program then was written that calculated the amounts of intake per day for each nutrient. Application of the procedure for 42 consecutive days on the daily diet records of 43 adult carriers of the phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme formed the data base used to determine if aspartame significantly increased levels of phenylalanine in the blood. Adaptations of the procedure permit calculations of intake for periods from 1 to 30 days and analyses of additional nutrients including calcium, phosphorous, iron, vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and ascorbic acid.

  3. Soda consumption during ad libitum food intake predicts weight change.

    PubMed

    Bundrick, Sarah C; Thearle, Marie S; Venti, Colleen A; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2014-03-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20% of calories from fat) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=-0.27, P=0.0001) and choosing low-fat foods (r=-0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain.

  4. Quality and Adequacy of Dietary Intake in a Southern Urban Heart Failure Population

    PubMed Central

    Frediani, Jennifer K.; Reilly, Carolyn M.; Higgins, Melinda; Clark, Patricia C.; Gary, Rebecca A.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the quality and adequacy of dietary intake in patients attempting to limit sodium. Objective The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the dietary intake of persons with heart failure (HF) in the Southern United States who have been advised to limit their sodium intake. Methods Three-day food diaries were completed by 114 New York Heart Association class II and III persons with HF enrolled in a family partnership intervention study, which were reviewed by a dietitian and analyzed using validated nutritional software. The Harris-Benedict equation for sedentary adults was used to determine macronutrient intake adequacy. Demographic information and clinical data were obtained through patient report and medical record review. Results Dietary sodium ingestion ranged from 522 to 9251 mg/d (mean [SD], 2671 [1432] mg/d), with 38 (33.3%) individuals consuming the recommended 2000 mg/d or less in this sample (age, 28–78 years; 64.0% men; 57.0% African American). Mean (SD) caloric intake for the total sample was 1674 (636) kcal/d, with participants eating 99% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of protein, 63% of the RDA of carbohydrates, and 89% of the RDA of fat. Participants eating 2000 mg or less of sodium consumed significantly less calories (P < .001), protein (P < .001), carbohydrates (P = .008), and fat (P < .001), but not fiber (P = .103), compared with those consuming more than 2000 mg of sodium after adjusting for body mass index. When analyzed by amount of sodium consumption, persons ingesting 2000 mg or less of sodium per day ate significantly less grains (P = .001) and meat and beans (P = .004) and had less intake of the micronutrients calcium (P < .001), zinc (P = .002), and thiamine (P = .05). Conclusion Only one-third of participants with HF who have been instructed on a low-sodium diet reported consuming the RDA of 2000 mg or less, indicating the need for further dietary instruction with a

  5. Comparison of children’s food and beverage intakes with national recommendations in New York City child-care centres

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, L Beth; Breck, Andrew; Khan, Laura Kettel

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study compared foods and beverages provided to and consumed by children at child-care centres in New York City (NYC) with national nutrition recommendations. Design The study used survey, observational and centre record data collected from child-care centres. Food and beverage intakes from two days of observation and amounts of energy and nutrients were estimated using the US National Cancer Institute’s Automated Self-Administered 24 h Recall system. Setting Meal and snack time at 108 child-care centres in low-income communities in NYC. Subjects Children aged 3–4 years old in classrooms selected by the directors of the participating child-care centres. Results Foods and beverages provided to and consumed by children (n 630) met >50% of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) for most nutrients. Intakes of fibre and vitamins D and E were <30% of the DRI. Foods and beverages provided >50% of the recommended average daily intake amounts for total grains, fruits and fruit juices, and dairy, but <50% of the recommended amounts for whole grains, protein foods and vegetables. Intake of oils was below the allowance for energy levels, but foods and beverages with solid fats and added sugars exceeded the limits by 68%. Conclusions Providing more whole grains, vegetables and low-fat dairy and fewer foods with solid fats and added sugars may improve children’s diet quality when at child-care centres. Centre staff may need training, resources and strategies in order to meet the nutrition recommendations. PMID:27280552

  6. Estimation of Apple Intake for the Exposure Assessment of Residual Chemicals Using Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Database

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop strategies and algorithms of calculating food commodity intake suitable for exposure assessment of residual chemicals by using the food intake database of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). In this study, apples and their processed food products were chosen as a model food for accurate calculation of food commodity intakes uthrough the recently developed Korea food commodity intake calculation (KFCIC) software. The average daily intakes of total apples in Korea Health Statistics were 29.60 g in 2008, 32.40 g in 2009, 34.30 g in 2010, 28.10 g in 2011, and 24.60 g in 2012. The average daily intakes of apples by KFCIC software was 2.65 g higher than that by Korea Health Statistics. The food intake data in Korea Health Statistics might have less reflected the intake of apples from mixed and processed foods than KFCIC software has. These results can affect outcome of risk assessment for residual chemicals in foods. Therefore, the accurate estimation of the average daily intake of food commodities is very important, and more data for food intakes and recipes have to be applied to improve the quality of data. Nevertheless, this study can contribute to the predictive estimation of exposure to possible residual chemicals and subsequent analysis for their potential risks. PMID:27152299

  7. Estimation of Apple Intake for the Exposure Assessment of Residual Chemicals Using Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Database.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bumsik; Baek, Min-Seok; Lee, Yongmin; Paik, Jean Kyung; Chang, Moon-Ik; Rhee, Gyu-Seek; Ko, Sanghoon

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study were to develop strategies and algorithms of calculating food commodity intake suitable for exposure assessment of residual chemicals by using the food intake database of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). In this study, apples and their processed food products were chosen as a model food for accurate calculation of food commodity intakes uthrough the recently developed Korea food commodity intake calculation (KFCIC) software. The average daily intakes of total apples in Korea Health Statistics were 29.60 g in 2008, 32.40 g in 2009, 34.30 g in 2010, 28.10 g in 2011, and 24.60 g in 2012. The average daily intakes of apples by KFCIC software was 2.65 g higher than that by Korea Health Statistics. The food intake data in Korea Health Statistics might have less reflected the intake of apples from mixed and processed foods than KFCIC software has. These results can affect outcome of risk assessment for residual chemicals in foods. Therefore, the accurate estimation of the average daily intake of food commodities is very important, and more data for food intakes and recipes have to be applied to improve the quality of data. Nevertheless, this study can contribute to the predictive estimation of exposure to possible residual chemicals and subsequent analysis for their potential risks. PMID:27152299

  8. Estimation of Apple Intake for the Exposure Assessment of Residual Chemicals Using Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Database.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bumsik; Baek, Min-Seok; Lee, Yongmin; Paik, Jean Kyung; Chang, Moon-Ik; Rhee, Gyu-Seek; Ko, Sanghoon

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study were to develop strategies and algorithms of calculating food commodity intake suitable for exposure assessment of residual chemicals by using the food intake database of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). In this study, apples and their processed food products were chosen as a model food for accurate calculation of food commodity intakes uthrough the recently developed Korea food commodity intake calculation (KFCIC) software. The average daily intakes of total apples in Korea Health Statistics were 29.60 g in 2008, 32.40 g in 2009, 34.30 g in 2010, 28.10 g in 2011, and 24.60 g in 2012. The average daily intakes of apples by KFCIC software was 2.65 g higher than that by Korea Health Statistics. The food intake data in Korea Health Statistics might have less reflected the intake of apples from mixed and processed foods than KFCIC software has. These results can affect outcome of risk assessment for residual chemicals in foods. Therefore, the accurate estimation of the average daily intake of food commodities is very important, and more data for food intakes and recipes have to be applied to improve the quality of data. Nevertheless, this study can contribute to the predictive estimation of exposure to possible residual chemicals and subsequent analysis for their potential risks.

  9. Estimate of intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, S; Temme, E; Andjelkovic, M; De Wil, M; Vinkx, C; Goeyens, L; Van Loco, J

    2010-08-01

    An exposure assessment was performed to estimate the usual daily intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population. Food consumption data were retrieved from the national food consumption survey. In a first step, individual food consumption data were multiplied with the maximum permitted use levels for sulfites, expressed as sulphur dioxide, per food group (Tier 2). In a second step, on the basis of a literature review of the occurrence of sulfites in different foods, the results of the Tier 2 exposure assessment and available occurrence data from the control programme of the competent authority, a refined list of foods was drafted for the quantification of sulphite. Quantification of sulphite was performed by a high-performance ion chromatography method with eluent conductivity detector in beers and potato products. Individual food consumption data were then multiplied with the actual average concentrations of sulfite per food group, or the maximum permitted levels in case actual levels were not available (partial Tier 3). Usual intakes were calculated using the Nusser method. The mean intake of sulfites was 0.34 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) (Tier 2), corresponding to 49% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and 0.19 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), corresponding to 27% of the ADI (partial Tier 3). The food group contributing most to the intake of sulfites was wines. The results showed that the intake of sulfites is likely to be below the ADI in Belgium. However, there are indications that high consumers of wine have an intake around the ADI.

  10. Frequency of Fish Intake and Diabetes among Adult Indians

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sutapa; Millett, Christopher; Subramanian, S. V.; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Recent studies have shown that the choice of foods plays a role in diabetes prevention. However, little empirical evidence on this association exists in developing countries. We aimed to examine the association between frequency of fish intake and self-reported diabetes status among adult men and women in India. Methods: Analysis of cross-sectional data from participants in India's third National Family Health Survey conducted during 2005–2006 was performed. Associations between fish intake, determined by frequency of consumption (daily, weekly, occasionally, and never), and self-reported diabetes were estimated using multivariable-adjusted models in 99,574 women, 56,742 men, and 39,257 couples aged 20–49 years after adjusting for frequency of consumption of other food items, body mass index (BMI) status, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, watching television, age, education, living standard of the household, and place of residence. Results: After adjustment for other dietary, lifestyle, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, odds of diabetes were 2 times higher (odds ratio [OR]: 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59–2.57; p < 0.0001) among those who reported consuming fish daily compared to those who never consumed fish. Weekly fish intake was also associated with a higher odds of having diabetes (OR: 1.55; 95% CI, 1.25–1.93; p < 0.0001). The adjusted effect of daily fish intake on diabetes was greater among men (OR: 2.46; 95% CI, 1.66–3.65) than among women (OR: 1.72; 95% CI, 1.26–2.33). In cross-spousal sensitivity analysis, the odds of a husband having diabetes was also associated with wife's daily/weekly consumption of fish (OR: 1.36; 95% CI, 0.92–2.01) and the odds of a wife having diabetes was also associated with husband's daily/weekly consumption of fish (OR: 1.21; 95% CI, 0.87–1.68). Conclusions: In a large nationally representative sample of adult men and women in India, daily or weekly fish intake was

  11. Litter processing and population food intake of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus in a high intertidal forest in northern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordhaus, Inga; Wolff, Matthias; Diele, Karen

    2006-03-01

    This study provides the first quantification of the population food intake of the litter-consuming mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Ocypodidae, L. 1763) in a New World mangrove forest. Diet, feeding periodicity, gastric evacuation rates and size-dependent consumption were determined for this intensively exploited semi-terrestrial crab in different types of mangrove forest. Unlike many other crabs Ucides cordatus is a continuous feeder, as shown by gastrointestinal contents over a day's cycle. Starvation experiments revealed that most gastric evacuation occurs during the first 12 h after feeding, following an exponential decay function. Evacuation rates (0.35 h -1 and 0.31 h -1) for small (carapace width CW 2.5-3.5 cm) and large (CW 6.5-7.5 cm) crabs, respectively, and the mean daily gastrointestinal contents were used to calculate the daily food intake (DFI) of U. cordatus for both sexes and different size classes. DFI was strongly correlated to body size and ranged from 19.8 to 6.0% of body dry weight in small and large crabs, respectively. The daily energy intake of U. cordatus (37.6 kJ for a 65 g wet weight specimen) was high when compared to other leaf-eating crabs. Litter fall and propagule production were calculated as 16.38 t ha -1 y -1, corresponding to a daily mean of 4.49 g m -2 in a high intertidal Rhizophora mangle forest stand. The estimated population food intake of Ucides cordatus (4.1 g dw m -2 d -1) corresponds to 81.3% of this production. This high litter removal rate, a low litter quantity in burrows and high consumption rates during field experiments suggest that the local crab population is food-limited in many parts of the study area. The very efficient coupling of forest litter production and crab litter consumption is possible due to the high crab density and the low inundation frequency of the mangrove forests, allowing for prolonged foraging periods. By processing the major part of the litter, U. cordatus helps to retain nutrients and energy

  12. Water intake: validity of population assessment and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Gandy, Joan

    2015-06-01

    Good hydration is vital for good health and well-being. Until recently, there was little interest in collecting data on water and drink and beverage intake. However, there is increasing evidence that a low water intake or mild dehydration may be linked with the risk of chronic diseases. Accurate estimates of intake in populations are essential to explore these relationships. This will enable the identification of specific populations at the risk of low water intake and allow exposure assessment of potential contaminates and specific nutrients present in drinks and beverages. In addition, data from these population studies are used as the basis of national and international recommendations on water intake and to set and evaluate national health policies. For example, EFSA based their recommendations on data from population studies from 13 European countries. The range of intakes varied from 720 to 2621 mL/day; this diversity cannot be explained by environmental differences alone. However, this variability may, at least partially, be explained by the inconsistency in methodologies used as none of surveys used a dietary assessment tool validated for total water intake or beverage and drink intake. It is reasonable to suggest that this may result in incomplete data collection and it raises questions on the validity of the recommendations. The relationship between water consumption and health warrants further investigation, and robust methodologies are essential to ensure that these data are accurate and useful for setting public health priorities and policies.

  13. Manifold intake arrangement for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, K.E.

    1988-09-27

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine, comprising: a combustion chamber having a piston disposed therein; a pressure chamber; a first intake valve means for providing selective communication between the pressure chamber and the combustion chamber; a second valve means for providing selective communication between the pressure chamber and a fuel and air mixture supply; exhaust valve means for providing selective communication between the combustion chamber and the atmosphere, the exhaust valve means opening during the exhaust stroke of the piston and allowing spent gases to be expelled therethrough and closing at the end of the exhaust stroke; an intake control means connected to the first valve means for opening the first valve means during the intake stroke of the piston after the exhaust valve means is closed and maintaining the first valve open during an initial portion of the compression stroke for pressurizing the pressure chamber during the initial portion of the compression stroke and for closing the first valve means during the remaining portion of the compression stroke; wherein the second valve means opens during the intake stroke of the piston a period of time after the opening of the first valve means and closes during the compression stroke of the piston.

  14. Unravelling daily human mobility motifs.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Christian M; Belik, Vitaly; Couronné, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; González, Marta C

    2013-07-01

    Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the daily scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for the daily mobility patterns by analysing the temporal and spatial trajectories of thousands of persons as individual networks. Using the concept of motifs from network theory, we find only 17 unique networks are present in daily mobility and they follow simple rules. These networks, called here motifs, are sufficient to capture up to 90 per cent of the population in surveys and mobile phone datasets for different countries. Each individual exhibits a characteristic motif, which seems to be stable over several months. Consequently, daily human mobility can be reproduced by an analytically tractable framework for Markov chains by modelling periods of high-frequency trips followed by periods of lower activity as the key ingredient.

  15. Comparison of the dietary cobalt intake in three different Australian diets.

    PubMed

    Hokin, Bevan; Adams, Michelle; Ashton, John; Louie, Honway

    2004-01-01

    Differences in the dietary intake of cobalt were assessed for vegans, lacto-ovo-vegetarian and non-vegetarian Australians using food intake logs, and daily or average trend recall over three months. A significant decrease in cobalt intake was observed for the lacto-ovo-vegetarian population compared with the intake in vegans and omnivores. There is no RDI for cobalt, however, the cobalt intake of Australians was similar to that reported in other countries. Microflora above the terminal ileum have been shown to produce significant amounts of biologically available vitamin B12. This study was unable to demonstrate a correlation between elemental cobalt intake and serum vitamin B12 concentrations in humans, as has been shown in vitro.

  16. Associations Between School Meals Offered Through the National School Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program and Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among Ethnically Diverse, Low-Income Children

    PubMed Central

    Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Burgess-Champoux, Teri; Haines, Jess; Hannan, Peter J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite evidence in support of the health benefits associated with fruit and vegetable (FV) intake, national data indicate that FV consumption among school-aged children is below recommended levels, particularly among low-income children. School meals offered through the School Breakfast Program and National School Lunch Program can provide an important contribution to child FV intake. This study examines the proportion of fruits and vegetables consumed from school meals programs among ethnically diverse, low socioeconomic status children. METHODS Participants (n = 103) included fourth to sixth grade boys and girls from 4 urban elementary schools in St. Paul, Minnesota serving primarily low-income populations. Research staff interviewed children during school hours and recorded dietary intake via 24-hour recall. Analysis included descriptive statistics using cross tabulations and means. RESULTS Average reported mean (SD) daily FV intake was 3.6 (2.5) servings, with 80% of children consuming fewer than 5 daily servings of FV. On average, children consumed over half of their daily FV intake within school. Children with low FV intake (<5 FV servings daily) consumed a higher proportion of their daily intake at school than children with higher FV intake (≥5 FV servings daily) (39% vs 59%; p = .002). CONCLUSIONS Child FV intake is below recommended levels. School meals provide an important contribution to the daily FV intake among ethnically diverse, low socioeconomic status children, particularly among those with the lowest FV intake. School meals programs promoting FV intake within the school environment may provide an opportunity to encourage increased FV consumption. PMID:20840658

  17. Sodium intake and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-03-13

    Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake <1.5 g/d, and form the evidentiary basis for current population-wide guidelines recommending low sodium intake. Although low sodium intake (<2.0 g/d) has been achieved in short-term feeding clinical trials, sustained low sodium intake has not been achieved by any of the longer term clinical trials (>6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension.

  18. Scheduled daily mating induces circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Landry, Glenn J; Opiol, Hanna; Marchant, Elliott G; Pavlovski, Ilya; Mear, Rhiannon J; Hamson, Dwayne K; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2012-01-01

    Daily schedules of limited access to food, palatable high calorie snacks, water and salt can induce circadian rhythms of anticipatory locomotor activity in rats and mice. All of these stimuli are rewarding, but whether anticipation can be induced by neural correlates of reward independent of metabolic perturbations associated with manipulations of food and hydration is unclear. Three experiments were conducted to determine whether mating, a non-ingestive behavior that is potently rewarding, can induce circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in male rats provided scheduled daily access to steroid-primed estrous female rats. In Experiment 1, rats anticipated access to estrous females in the mid-light period, but also exhibited post-coital eating and running. In Experiment 2, post-coital eating and running were prevented and only a minority of rats exhibited anticipation. Rats allowed to see and smell estrous females showed no anticipation. In both experiments, all rats exhibited sustained behavioral arousal and multiple mounts and intromissions during every session, but ejaculated only every 2-3 days. In Experiment 3, the rats were given more time with individual females, late at night for 28 days, and then in the midday for 28 days. Ejaculation rates increased and anticipation was robust to night sessions and significant although weaker to day sessions. The anticipation rhythm persisted during 3 days of constant dark without mating. During anticipation of nocturnal mating, the rats exhibited a significant preference for a tube to the mating cage over a tube to a locked cage with mating cage litter. This apparent place preference was absent during anticipation of midday mating, which may reflect a daily rhythm of sexual reward. The results establish mating as a reward stimulus capable of inducing circadian rhythms of anticipatory behavior in the male rat, and reveal a critical role for ejaculation, a modulatory role for time of day, and a potential confound role for

  19. Scheduled daily mating induces circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Landry, Glenn J; Opiol, Hanna; Marchant, Elliott G; Pavlovski, Ilya; Mear, Rhiannon J; Hamson, Dwayne K; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2012-01-01

    Daily schedules of limited access to food, palatable high calorie snacks, water and salt can induce circadian rhythms of anticipatory locomotor activity in rats and mice. All of these stimuli are rewarding, but whether anticipation can be induced by neural correlates of reward independent of metabolic perturbations associated with manipulations of food and hydration is unclear. Three experiments were conducted to determine whether mating, a non-ingestive behavior that is potently rewarding, can induce circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in male rats provided scheduled daily access to steroid-primed estrous female rats. In Experiment 1, rats anticipated access to estrous females in the mid-light period, but also exhibited post-coital eating and running. In Experiment 2, post-coital eating and running were prevented and only a minority of rats exhibited anticipation. Rats allowed to see and smell estrous females showed no anticipation. In both experiments, all rats exhibited sustained behavioral arousal and multiple mounts and intromissions during every session, but ejaculated only every 2-3 days. In Experiment 3, the rats were given more time with individual females, late at night for 28 days, and then in the midday for 28 days. Ejaculation rates increased and anticipation was robust to night sessions and significant although weaker to day sessions. The anticipation rhythm persisted during 3 days of constant dark without mating. During anticipation of nocturnal mating, the rats exhibited a significant preference for a tube to the mating cage over a tube to a locked cage with mating cage litter. This apparent place preference was absent during anticipation of midday mating, which may reflect a daily rhythm of sexual reward. The results establish mating as a reward stimulus capable of inducing circadian rhythms of anticipatory behavior in the male rat, and reveal a critical role for ejaculation, a modulatory role for time of day, and a potential confound role for

  20. Energy and nutrient intakes of young children in the UK: findings from the Gemini twin cohort.

    PubMed

    Syrad, H; Llewellyn, C H; van Jaarsveld, C H M; Johnson, L; Jebb, S A; Wardle, J

    2016-05-28

    Data on the diets of young children in the UK are limited, despite growing evidence of the importance of early diet for long-term health. We used the largest contemporary dietary data set to describe the intake of 21-month-old children in the UK. Parents of 2336 children aged 21 months from the UK Gemini twin cohort completed 3-d diet diaries in 2008/2009. Family background information was obtained from questionnaires completed 8 months after birth. Mean total daily intakes of energy, macronutrients (g and %E) and micronutrients from food and beverages, including and excluding supplements, were derived. Comparisons with UK dietary reference values (DRV) were made using t tests and general linear regression models, respectively. Daily energy intake (kJ), protein (g) and most micronutrients exceeded DRV, except for vitamin D and Fe, where 96 or 84 % and 70 or 6 % of children did not achieve the reference nutrient intake or lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI), respectively, even with supplementation. These findings reflect similar observations in the smaller sample of children aged 18-36 months in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. At a population level, young children in the UK are exceeding recommended daily intakes of energy and protein, potentially increasing their risk of obesity. The majority of children are not meeting the LRNI for vitamin D, largely reflecting inadequate use of the supplements recommended at this age. Parents may need more guidance on how to achieve healthy energy and nutrient intakes for young children.

  1. Food intake and circadian rhythms in shift workers with a high workload.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Maria Alice Altenburg; Kupek, Emil; Nahas, Markus Vinícius; Bellisle, France

    2003-04-01

    Shift work is associated with nutritional and health problems. In the present study, the food intake of garbage collectors of the city of Florianopolis (Brazil) was investigated using a dietary survey method based on meal recording during 24 h and adapted for the Brazilian food context. Three different shifts (morning, afternoon, and night) were compared (n=22 per shift). Age, body weight and body mass index (BMI) were similar for all groups. Daily energy expenditure was high in all three shifts, especially in morning shift workers. No difference in daily energy intake was found, in spite of differences in food choices and circadian ingestion rhythms. Energy intake was high and close to levels previously reported in athletes. Several factors not associated with shifts had significant impact on ingestion: hour of the day, time since the last meal, age, and BMI. Ingested foods were analyzed in groups based on nutrient content. Shifts significantly influenced intake of starches, alcoholic drinks, and sweets. In different periods of the day, food and nutrient intake were considerably affected by shifts. The analysis of circadian distribution of food choices and nutrient intake is important in shift workers, because total daily intake may not reveal shift-associated differences.

  2. Energy and nutrient intakes of young children in the UK: findings from the Gemini twin cohort.

    PubMed

    Syrad, H; Llewellyn, C H; van Jaarsveld, C H M; Johnson, L; Jebb, S A; Wardle, J

    2016-05-28

    Data on the diets of young children in the UK are limited, despite growing evidence of the importance of early diet for long-term health. We used the largest contemporary dietary data set to describe the intake of 21-month-old children in the UK. Parents of 2336 children aged 21 months from the UK Gemini twin cohort completed 3-d diet diaries in 2008/2009. Family background information was obtained from questionnaires completed 8 months after birth. Mean total daily intakes of energy, macronutrients (g and %E) and micronutrients from food and beverages, including and excluding supplements, were derived. Comparisons with UK dietary reference values (DRV) were made using t tests and general linear regression models, respectively. Daily energy intake (kJ), protein (g) and most micronutrients exceeded DRV, except for vitamin D and Fe, where 96 or 84 % and 70 or 6 % of children did not achieve the reference nutrient intake or lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI), respectively, even with supplementation. These findings reflect similar observations in the smaller sample of children aged 18-36 months in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. At a population level, young children in the UK are exceeding recommended daily intakes of energy and protein, potentially increasing their risk of obesity. The majority of children are not meeting the LRNI for vitamin D, largely reflecting inadequate use of the supplements recommended at this age. Parents may need more guidance on how to achieve healthy energy and nutrient intakes for young children. PMID:27093345

  3. Opioidergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic manipulations and rats' intake of a sweetened alcoholic beverage.

    PubMed

    Hubbell, C L; Marglin, S H; Spitalnic, S J; Abelson, M L; Wild, K D; Reid, L D

    1991-01-01

    Groups of rats were maintained on a daily regimen of 22 h of water deprivation followed by a 2-h opportunity to take either water or a sweetened ethanol solution (ES). In one experiment, it was shown that previous morphine (M) dependence had no effect on initial daily intakes of fluids. After stable ES intakes were achieved, a variety of pharmacological manipulations were assessed for their effects on intake of the ES. Nalmefene, an opioid antagonist, dose-relatedly decreased intakes of ES, and was effective across days of injections. Fluoxetine (FX), a serotonergic reuptake inhibitor, also reduced ES intakes dose relatedly, and across days of injections, but the reduction was not as great as that seen with opioid antagonists. A small dose of M increased ES intakes when given in combination with an ineffective dose of FX, just as it does by itself. However, M had no effect on ES intakes in combination with an effective dose of FX. Pimozide (PIM), a dopaminergic antagonist, dose-relatedly decreased intakes of ES and water, and responding for positively reinforcing intracranial stimulation (ICS). When given in combination, M blunted PIM's reduction of ES intake, but had no effect on PIM's ability to decrease either intake of water or responding for ICS. Amphetamine did not reliably affect rats' intakes of ES across a range of doses. The data, in addition to previous work, lead to the idea that endogenous opioid systems are more salient, with respect to intake of alcoholic beverages, than the other tested neurotransmitter systems. Furthermore, the collective data suggest that a long-lasting opioid antagonist may be an effective pharmacological adjunct to other treatments for alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

  4. Adolescent eating in the absence of hunger and relation to discretionary calorie allowance.

    PubMed

    Kral, Tanja V E; Moore, Reneé H; Stunkard, Albert J; Berkowitz, Robert I; Stettler, Nicolas; Stallings, Virginia A; Tanaka, Leeann M; Kabay, April C; Faith, Myles S

    2010-12-01

    Eating in the absence of hunger is a risk factor for overeating during childhood. The objective of this study was to examine eating in the absence of hunger in adolescents based on their familial predisposition to obesity and current weight status. Thirty-one subjects (16 male, 15 female), who were 13 years of age and born at low risk or high risk for obesity, consumed lunch to fullness. After lunch, subjects had access to different snacks for 15 minutes. Eating in the absence of hunger referred to energy intake from the snacks. Low-risk females consumed two and a half times more calories from snacks than high-risk females and twice as many calories as low-risk and high-risk males when expressed as an individualized percentage of daily allowance for discretionary calories. Normal-weight females consumed two and a half times more calories from snacks than obese females and normal-weight males. The association between eating in the absence of hunger and weight and obesity risk status depended on adolescents' sex and could reflect emerging developmental differences, such as dieting or social desirability. PMID:21111097

  5. Dietary Calcium Intake and Calcium Supplementation in Hungarian Patients with Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Szamosujvári, Pál; Dombai, Péter; Csóré, Katalin; Mikófalvi, Kinga; Steindl, Tímea; Streicher, Ildikó; Tarsoly, Júlia; Zajzon, Gergely; Somogyi, Péter; Szamosújvári, Pál; Lakatos, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Adequate calcium intake is the basis of osteoporosis therapy—when this proves insufficient, even specific antiosteoporotic agents cannot exert their actions properly. Methods. Our representative survey analyzed the dietary intake and supplementation of calcium in 8033 Hungarian female and male (mean age: 68 years) (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) patients with osteoporosis. Results. Mean intake from dietary sources was 665 ± 7.9 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) daily. A significant positive relationship could be detected between total dietary calcium intake and lumbar spine BMD (P = 0.045), whereas such correlation could not be demonstrated with femoral T-score. Milk consumption positively correlated with femur (P = 0.041), but not with lumbar BMD. The ingestion of one liter of milk daily increased the T-score by 0.133. Average intake from supplementation was 558 ± 6.2 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) daily. The cumulative dose of calcium—from both dietary intake and supplementation—was significantly associated with lumbar (r = 0.024, P = 0.049), but not with femur BMD (r = 0.021, P = 0.107). The currently recommended 1000–1500 mg total daily calcium intake was achieved in 34.5% of patients only. It was lower than recommended in 47.8% of the cases and substantially higher in 17.7% of subjects. Conclusions. We conclude that calcium intake in Hungarian osteoporotic patients is much lower than the current recommendation, while routinely applied calcium supplementation will result in inappropriately high calcium intake in numerous patients. PMID:23737777

  6. Ecological momentary assessment of environmental and personal factors and snack food intake in African American women

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and betweenperson variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for one's usual level was associated with higher snack food intake. Being near outlets that predominately sell snacks (e.g., convenience stores), while accounting for one's usual proximity to them, was associated with higher snack food intake. Accounting for one's usual daily hassle level, we found that on days with more frequent daily hassles snack food intake was higher. The positive association between within-person daily hassles frequency and snack food intake was stronger when foods were easily available. Public and private policies to curb ubiquitous food availability and mobile health interventions that take into account timevarying influences on food choices and provide real-time assistance in dealing with easy food availability and coping with stressors may be beneficial in improving African American women's day to day food choices. PMID:25239402

  7. Ecological momentary assessment of environmental and personal factors and snack food intake in African American women.

    PubMed

    Zenk, Shannon N; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and between-person variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for one's usual level was associated with higher snack food intake. Being near outlets that predominately sell snacks (e.g., convenience stores), while accounting for one's usual proximity to them, was associated with higher snack food intake. Accounting for one's usual daily hassle level, we found that on days with more frequent daily hassles snack food intake was higher. The positive association between within-person daily hassles frequency and snack food intake was stronger when foods were easily available. Public and private policies to curb ubiquitous food availability and mobile health interventions that take into account time-varying influences on food choices and provide real-time assistance in dealing with easy food availability and coping with stressors may be beneficial in improving African American women's day to day food choices.

  8. High alcohol intake in female Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Loi, Barbara; Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola; Carai, Mauro A M; Franconi, Flavia; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2014-06-01

    Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats have been selectively bred for high alcohol preference and consumption. When exposed to the standard, home cage 2-bottle "alcohol (10%, v/v) vs. water" choice regimen with continuous access, male sP rats consume daily approximately 6 g/kg alcohol. Conversely, when exposed to the intermittent (once every other day) access to 2 bottles containing alcohol (20%, v/v) and water, respectively, male sP rats display marked increases in daily alcohol intake and signs of alcohol intoxication and "behavioral" dependence. The present study was designed to assess alcohol intake in female sP rats exposed, under the 2-bottle choice regimen, to (a) 10% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA10%), (b) 10% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA10%), (c) 20% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA20%), and (d) 20% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA20%). Male sP rats (exposed to CA10% and IA20% conditions) were included for comparison. Over 20 daily drinking sessions, daily alcohol intake in female CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 7.0 and 9.6 g/kg, respectively. The rank of alcohol intake was IA20% > IA10% = CA20% > CA10%. Conversely, daily alcohol intake in male CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 6.0 and 8.2 g/kg, respectively. Comparison of female and male rats yielded the following rank of alcohol intake: female IA20% > male IA20% > female CA10% ≥ male CA10%. An additional experiment found that alcohol drinking during the first hour of the drinking session produced mean blood alcohol levels of 35-40 mg% and 85-100 mg% in the CA10% and IA20% rats, respectively. These results (a) extend to female sP rats previous data demonstrating the capacity of the IA20% condition to markedly escalate alcohol drinking, and (b) demonstrate that female sP rats consume more alcohol than male sP rats. This sex difference is more evident under the IA20% condition, suggesting that female sP rats are highly sensitive to the promoting effect

  9. Sugar-dependent rats show enhanced intake of unsweetened ethanol.

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M; Carrillo, Carmen A; Needham, Lance; Leibowitz, Sarah F; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2004-01-01

    Rats show signs of dependence on sugar when it is available intermittently, including bingeing, withdrawal, and cross-sensitization with amphetamine. In the current study, we sought to determine whether sugar-dependent rats would show increased intake of unsweetened ethanol and, conversely, whether intermittent access to ethanol would augment sugar consumption. In Experiment 1, with intermittent versus ad libitum access to ethanol, Sprague-Dawley rats were given escalating concentrations of ethanol (1%, 2%, 4%, 7%, and 9%) over the course of 20 days. Rats in the intermittent ethanol access group, with 12-h daily access, consumed more 4%, 7%, and 9% ethanol during the first hour of access, and more 9% ethanol daily, than did rats in the ad libitum ethanol access group. In Experiment 2, with ethanol as a gateway to sugar intake, the rats from Experiment 1 were switched to 10% sucrose with 12-h daily access for 1 week. Rats in the intermittent ethanol access group consumed significantly more sugar than was consumed by rats in a control group with no prior ethanol experience. In Experiment 3, with sugar as a gateway to ethanol to determine whether sugar dependence leads to increased ethanol intake, four groups were maintained for 21 days according to the following designations: intermittent access to sugar and chow, ad libitum access to sugar and chow, intermittent access to chow, or ad libitum access to chow. Four days later, all groups were switched to intermittent ethanol access, as described in Experiment 1. The group with intermittent access to sugar and chow consumed the most 9% ethanol, supporting the suggestion that sugar dependence alters a rat's proclivity to drink ethanol. These results may relate to the co-morbidity between binge-eating disorders and alcohol intake and the tendency of people abstaining from alcohol to consume excessive amounts of sugar. In conclusion, bingeing on either ethanol or sugar fosters intake of the other.

  10. Intake of volatile nitrosamines from consumption of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Walker, E A; Castegnaro, M; Garren, L; Toussaint, G; Kowalski, B

    1979-10-01

    Volatile nitrosamines were determined in alcoholic drinks during epidemiologic studies on the relationship between esophageal cancer incidence and alcohol consumption in Normandy, France. Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was found commonly in most alcoholic drinks tested, with the exception of wine. The average level, about 2 micrograms/liter in beers, was higher than that for other drinks; the range was 0.2--8.6 micrograms/liter. Traces of nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were also detected in spirits and ciders. No significant increases in levels were found after nitrosation. Calculation of daily intake in the study region showed that the main intake of volatile nitrosamine is from NDMA in beer. The intake of NDEA through consumption of cider is about one-third that of NDMA from all sources. PMID:480387

  11. Voluntary sodium intake during effort in hot environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohar, E.; Adar, R.; Hershco, A.

    1982-01-01

    The factors that influence the amount of salt that a person adds to his food at mealtime, and the part played by the general requirement for salt in the daily diet stemming from the coluntary input of salt are studied. Careful measurements of salt intake and outflow were performed on ten marchers in a high temperature environment who were given individual salt shakers that were weighed before and after each meal. Some marchers were told to add salt to their meals on specific days. No parallelity was found between the voluntary sodium intake and the general sodium intake, the excretion of sodium in the urine or the environmental heat stress. Individual food habit was found to be the most important factor.

  12. Sources and intake of resistant starch in the Chinese diet.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liyong; Liu, Ruiping; Qin, Chengyong; Meng, Yan; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Yun; Xu, Guifa

    2010-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) escapes digestion in the small intestine and may ferment in the large intestine. The purpose of this study was to determine the resistant starch content in typical starchy foods and to estimate the daily resistant starch intake and identify key sources of dietary resistant starch in the Chinese diets. The resistant starch contents of 121 foods were determined using a method that mimicked gastrointestinal conditions. Tubers and legumes had high resistant starch contents. Rough food processing retained large amounts of resistant starch. In general, the content of RS decreased when foods were cooked. Deep fried and roasted foods had higher levels of resistant starch than braised foods. The average resistant starch intake in the Chinese population was estimated to be 14.9 g per day based on a dietary survey. The main resistant starch sources in the Chinese diet were cereal and tuber products. Based on dietary habits, however, the resistant starch intake varies considerably among individuals.

  13. The relationship between daytime and nighttime food intake in an obese night-eater.

    PubMed

    Aronoff, N J; Geliebter, A; Hashim, S A; Zammit, G K

    1994-03-01

    Some obese individuals consume food during awakenings from nighttime sleep. Three studies were conducted on a 28-year-old morbidly obese male with chronic sleeping complaints and insignificant weight loss, despite self-reported daily caloric restriction: I. For 3 mo, the subject recorded food intake for 24-h periods. Mean daytime intake was 1286 kcal +/- 386 (SD), and mean nighttime intake was 1036 kcal +/- 487 (SD). Caloric values of daytime and nighttime intake were negatively correlated, r = -0.22, df= 82, p < .05. II. Seven consecutive 24-h food intake recordings were obtained with an automated formula dispenser when the subject was an inpatient on a metabolic ward and received ad libitum formula as his sole food source. Mean daytime intake was 1245 +/- 662 (SD), and mean nighttime intake was 231 +/- 236 (SD). There was a non-significant negative correlation between daytime and nighttime intake, r = -0.32, df = 5, NS. III. The subject underwent polysomnographic studies on 2 non-consecutive nights, following the administration of either a low (600 kcal) or high (1800 kcal) daytime caloric condition. The subject, upon awakening from nighttime sleep, could eat from a platter of sandwich quarters placed at his bedside. The addition of 1200 kcal to daytime intake decreased nighttime intake by 654 kcal, or by 55% of the additional calories delivered during the day. The three studies (I, II, and III) show that daytime food intake can be negatively correlated with nighttime intake, and that daytime intake can influence nighttime intake in a documented obese night-eater.

  14. Maternal intake of vitamin E and birth defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2005

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Lee, Kyung A.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Traven, Flavia K.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Correa, Adolfo; Boyle, Coleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In a recent study, high maternal periconceptional intake of vitamin E was found to be associated with risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). To explore this association further, we investigated the association between total daily vitamin E intake and selected birth defects. Methods We analyzed data from 4,525 controls and 8,665 cases from the 1997–2005 National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We categorized estimated periconceptional energy-adjusted total daily vitamin E intake from diet and supplements into quartiles (referent, lowest quartile). Associations between quartiles of energy-adjusted vitamin E intake and selected birth defects were adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and nutritional factors. Results We observed a statistically significant association with the third quartile of vitamin E intake (OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.01 – 1.35) and all CHDs combined. Among CHD sub-types, we observed associations with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction defects, and its sub-type, coarctation of the aorta and the third quartile of vitamin E intake. Among defects other than CHDs, we observed associations between anorectal atresia and the third quartile of vitamin E intake (OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.01 – 2.72) and hypospadias and the fourth quartile of vitamin E intake (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.09 – 1.87). Conclusions Selected quartiles of energy-adjusted estimated total daily vitamin E intake were associated with selected birth defects. However, because these few associations did not exhibit exposure-response patterns consistent with increasing risk associated with increasing intake of vitamin E, further studies are warranted to corroborate our findings. PMID:24740457

  15. The calcium and phosphorus intakes of rural Gambian women during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Prentice, A; Laskey, M A; Shaw, J; Hudson, G J; Day, K C; Jarjou, L M; Dibba, B; Paul, A A

    1993-05-01

    The Ca and P intakes of 148 pregnant and lactating women in a rural village in The Gambia, West Africa, have been estimated by direct weighing of food on a total of 4188 d. The Ca and P contents of local foods were determined by analysis of raw ingredients, snack foods and prepared dishes. Information about the contribution of mineral-rich seasonings was obtained. Efforts were made to discover unusual sources of Ca that might not be perceived as food by subject or observer. The main contributors to daily Ca intake were shown to be leaves, fish, cereals, groundnuts and local salt. Cow's milk accounted for only 5% of Ca intake. Unusual sources of Ca were discovered, namely baobab (Adansonia digitata) fruit and selected earths, but these were consumed infrequently and their contributions to Ca intakes were small. Cereals and groundnuts were the main sources of P. Ca and P intakes (mg/d) were shown to average 404 (SD 110) and 887 (SD 219) respectively. Seasonal changes in the availability of leaves, cereals and groundnuts resulted in variations in Ca and P intakes. The rainy season was associated with increased Ca intakes (by 16%) but decreased P consumption (by 15%). No difference was observed in Ca intake between pregnant and lactating women but P intake in lactation was 11% higher than that in pregnancy during the post-harvest season. The implications of these low Ca intakes require investigation. PMID:8329362

  16. Intake of multivitamin supplements and incident asthma in Norwegian adults: the HUNT study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lin; Brumpton, Ben; Langhammer, Arnulf; Chen, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Although intake of multivitamin supplements is becoming increasingly popular, the relationship between intake of multivitamin supplements and incident asthma remains unclear. Prospective studies in adults with long-term follow-up are especially scarce. Our objective was to investigate the association between intake of multivitamin supplements and asthma development in Norwegian adults. We followed 16 952 adult subjects from the second survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (1995–1997) up to 2006–2008, who, at baseline, were free of asthma and provided information on their intake of multivitamin supplements and cod liver oil. Regular intake of multivitamin supplements or cod liver oil was defined as daily intake for ≥3 months during the year prior to baseline. Incident asthma was defined as reported new-onset asthma after the 11-year follow-up. Intake of multivitamin supplements only was associated with an increased odds ratio for incident asthma (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.12–2.13) after adjustment for a number of common confounding factors (model I). Similar odds ratios were found for intake of cod liver oil only and for intake of both supplements (1.59 and 1.73, respectively). Regular intake of multivitamin supplements was associated with an increased odds ratio for incident asthma in Norwegian adults. PMID:27730154

  17. Hibernation and daily torpor minimize mammalian extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiser, Fritz; Turbill, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    Small mammals appear to be less vulnerable to extinction than large species, but the underlying reasons are poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that almost all (93.5%) of 61 recently extinct mammal species were homeothermic, maintaining a constant high body temperature and thus energy expenditure, which demands a high intake of food, long foraging times, and thus exposure to predators. In contrast, only 6.5% of extinct mammals were likely heterothermic and employed multi-day torpor (hibernation) or daily torpor, even though torpor is widespread within more than half of all mammalian orders. Torpor is characterized by substantial reductions of body temperature and energy expenditure and enhances survival during adverse conditions by minimizing food and water requirements, and consequently reduces foraging requirements and exposure to predators. Moreover, because life span is generally longer in heterothermic mammals than in related homeotherms, heterotherms can employ a ‘sit-and-wait’ strategy to withstand adverse periods and then repopulate when circumstances improve. Thus, torpor is a crucial but hitherto unappreciated attribute of small mammals for avoiding extinction. Many opportunistic heterothermic species, because of their plastic energetic requirements, may also stand a better chance of future survival than homeothermic species in the face of greater climatic extremes and changes in environmental conditions caused by global warming.

  18. Estimation of dietary folic acid intake in three generations of females in Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, C; Mariscal-Arcas, M; Palacin, A; Lopez, M; Lorenzo, M L; Olea-Serrano, F

    2013-08-01

    An adequate folic acid intake has been related to female fertility. The recommended intake of this vitamin was recently increased to 400μg/day, with an additional 200μg/day during pregnancy. The Mediterranean Diet includes sources of folate such as pulses, green-leaf vegetables, fruit, cereals, and dried fruits; other foods of interest are liver and blue fish. The objectives were to determine the foods that contribute most to folate intake and analyze the factors that influence their consumption by three generations in a female population (n=898; age, 10-75yrs) from Southern Spain: 230 adolescents (10-16yrs), 296 healthy pregnant women (19-45yrs), and 372 menopausal women (>45yrs). Participants completed a previously validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Over 90% of their folate intake was supplied by cereals, fruit, natural juice, pulses, and cooked and raw vegetables. The mean (SD) daily intake of folate was 288.27(63.64) μg. A higher Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was significantly related to a greater folate intake. The daily folate intake was not significantly influenced by educational level, number of children, or place of residence (rural vs. urban). In logistic regression analysis, the factors related to an adequate folate intake (>2/3 of recommendations) were higher age, higher MDS, and lower BMI.

  19. Zinc: dietary intake and impact of supplementation on immune function in elderly.

    PubMed

    Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Romeo, Javier; Malavolta, Marco; Costarelli, Laura; Giacconi, Robertina; Diaz, Ligia-Esperanza; Marcos, Ascension

    2013-06-01

    The diet in the elderly does not provide a sufficient level of nutrients needed to maintain an adequate healthy status leading to micronutrient deficiencies and impaired immune response with subsequent development of degenerative diseases. Nutrient "zinc" is a relevant micronutrient involved in maintaining a good integrity of many body homeostatic mechanisms, including immune efficiency, owing to its requirement for the biological activity of many enzymes, proteins and for cellular proliferation and genomic stability. Old people aged 60-65 years and older have zinc intakes below 50% of the recommended daily allowance on a given day. Many causes can be involved: among them, altered intestinal absorption, inadequate mastication, psychosocial factors, drugs interactions, altered subcellular processes (zinc transporters (Zip and ZnT family), metallothioneins, divalent metal transporter-1). Zinc supplementation may remodel the immune alterations in elderly leading to healthy ageing. Several zinc trials have been carried out with contradictory data, perhaps due to incorrect choice of an effective zinc supplementation in old subjects showing subsequent zinc toxic effects on immunity. Old subjects with specific IL-6 polymorphism (GG allele carriers; named C-) are more prone for zinc supplementation than the entire old population, in whom correct dietary habits with foods containing zinc (Mediterranean diet) may be sufficient in restoring zinc deficiency and impaired immune response. We summarise the main causes of low zinc dietary intake in elderly reporting an update on the impact of zinc supplementation upon the immune response also on the basis of individual IL-6 polymorphism. PMID:22222917

  20. Effects of space allowance on the behavior and physiology of cattle temporarily managed on rubber mats.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Karin E; Huddart, Frances J; Sutherland, Mhairi A; Stewart, Mairi; Cox, Neil R

    2015-09-01

    Dairy cattle managed in some pasture-based systems, such as in New Zealand, are predominantly kept outdoors all year around but are taken off pasture for periods, especially in wet weather to avoid soil damage. The use of rubber matting for such stand-off practices is becoming more common to improve animal welfare, and our objective was to investigate the effects of different space allowances on cow behavior and physiology when managed temporarily on rubber mats during a weather-induced stand-off period. Thirty pregnant, nonlactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were divided into 6 groups of 5 and exposed to 6 treatments following a Williams designed 6×6 Latin square. The treatments consisted of 6 space allowances on a 24-mm rubber surface during a simulated weather-induced stand-off period: 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, 9.0, and 10.5 m(2)/cow. The stand-off period consisted of 18 h in the treatment pens followed by 6 h at pasture to allow for their daily feed intake (no feed was available during stand-off, following normal farm practice), for 3 consecutive days, with 6 d of recovery on pasture between treatments. When cows had more space available during the stand-off period, they spent more time lying on the rubber mats and less time lying on pasture during their daily 6-h feed break. Mean lying times (24 h, pasture and rubber mats combined) for the different space allowances were for 3.0 m(2)=7.5 h, 4.5 m(2)=10.2 h, 6.0 m(2)=11.9 h, 7.5 m(2)=12.4 h, and 10.5 m(2)=13.8 h. At 6.0 m(2) of space allowance per cow, the animals spent similar times lying per 24 h as when the cows were on recovery on pasture in between treatments (11.9 and 11.2 h, respectively). Aggressive interactions and nonaggressive lying disturbances were more frequent at lower space allowances (aggressive interactions decreased by 35% from 3.0 to 4.5 m(2)/cow, with a slower decline thereafter). Cows were dirtier after the stand-off period, particularly at lower space allowances. All cows had higher gait

  1. Dietary intake and the metabolic syndrome in overweight Latino children.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Emily E; Davis, Jaimie N; Alexander, Katharine E; Shaibi, Gabriel Q; Lee, Won; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Toledo-Corral, Claudia M; Lane, Christianne J; Kelly, Louise A; Weigensberg, Marc J; Goran, Michael I

    2008-08-01

    Little is known about the relationship between diet and metabolic health in Latino children, a population at increased risk for diabetes. The present study evaluates diet composition and the metabolic syndrome in a cross-sectional sample of 109 overweight Latino children aged 10 to 17 years with a family history of type 2 diabetes. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24-hour recalls. Associations between nutrients and features of the metabolic syndrome were examined using multiple linear regression and analysis of covariance. Log cholesterol intake was positively associated with log systolic blood pressure (beta=0.034, P=0.017) and log soluble dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with log waist circumference (beta=-0.069, P=0.036). Log soluble fiber intake was significantly higher in participants with 0 features compared to those with 3+ features of the metabolic syndrome (P=0.046), which translates to 5.2 g vs 4.1 g soluble fiber daily. No other significant associations were found between dietary variables and either the individual features of the metabolic syndrome or the clustering of metabolic syndrome components. Increases in soluble fiber through the daily consumption of fruits, vegetables, and beans may improve metabolic health in Latino children.

  2. Design of landfill daily cells.

    PubMed

    Panagiotakopoulos, D; Dokas, I

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the behaviour of the landfill soil-to-refuse (S/R) ratio when size, geometry and operating parameters of the daily cell vary over realistic ranges. A simple procedure is presented (1) for calculating the cell parameters values which minimise the S/R ratio and (2) for studying the sensitivity of this minimum S/R ratio to variations in cell size, final refuse density, working face length, lift height and cover thickness. In countries where daily soil cover is required, savings in landfill space could be realised following this procedure. The sensitivity of minimum S/R to variations in cell dimensions decreases with cell size. Working face length and lift height affect the S/R ratio significantly. This procedure also offers the engineer an additional tool for comparing one large daily cell with two or more smaller ones, at two different working faces within the same landfill.

  3. [Estimation of the daily nutrients distribution in the Spanish standard diet].

    PubMed

    Moreno Rojas, Rafael; Fernández Torres, Angela; García Pereda, Javier; Cámara Martos, Fernando; Amaro López, Manuel A; Ros Berruezo, Gaspar; Martínez de Victoria Muñoz, Emilio; Martínez de Victoria Carazo, Ignacio

    2015-06-01

    Based on the raw data from the Spanish intake, have made the necessary changes and groupings to establish nutritional content per serving as percentages, regarding the total daily intake of each individual surveyed (n = 3000). Also, it was found the effect of the rating factors (sex, age and location) on the distribution of these percentages. The result indicates that individuals below 25 year should be considered as different groups, front those above that age; and locality effect (treated as random factor rather than fixed) causes differences in the distribution of nutrients between food daily intakes. However, the sex was was not relevant to the anecdotal footage found in statistically significant differences. Percentage distribution of individual nutrients between different food outlets is proposed.

  4. Effectiveness and safety of a long-acting, once-daily, two-phase release formulation of methylphenidate (Ritalin ® LA) in school children under daily practice conditions.

    PubMed

    Haertling, Fabian; Mueller, Beate; Bilke-Hentsch, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Long-acting (LA) preparations of methylphenidate allow for once-daily dosing; however, pharmacokinetics may vary and depend on food intake. The objective was to evaluate effectiveness of a two-phase release formulation (Ritalin(®) LA) under daily practice conditions. This was a prospective, multicenter, observational study in Germany. Eligibility and dosing were determined by the physician based on the drug label. Outcomes included changes over 3 months of treatment in assessments of effect duration, clinical global impression (CGI), and quality of life (ILK). In 101 sites, 262 patients (197 boys, 63 girls, and two unknown) with a mean age of 10.9 years were enrolled; 50 were treated for the first time; 212 switched medication to Ritalin(®) LA. After 3 months, CGI improved in 59.4 % of patients, and well-being overall was rated as good by 61.0 % of parents and 63.7 % of children. Based on parents' assessment, the proportion of children suffering from strong disease burden decreased from 40.7 to 15.1 %. In 123 insufficient responders to previous ADHD medications, benefit from Ritalin(®) LA was above average and effect duration was significantly prolonged as compared to pretreatment. Overall, 28 patients (10.7 %) had treatment-related adverse events with one case being serious; 23 patients (8.8 %) discontinued therapy, 7 (2.7 %) due to poor treatment response; and 212 patients (81 %) continued treatment beyond the study. In line with clinical trial data, Ritalin(®) LA provides significant benefit also under routine practice conditions.

  5. The nutritional status and energy and protein intakes of MOW clients and the need for further targeted strategies to enhance intakes.

    PubMed

    Walton, Karen; Charlton, Karen E; Manning, Fiona; McMahon, Anne T; Galea, Sarah; Evans, Kaitlyn

    2015-12-01

    There is a paucity of literature about the nutritional status and energy and protein intakes of Meals on Wheels (MOW) clients. The current study aimed to determine the nutritional status and the adequacy of energy and protein intakes of MOW clients. Forty-two clients were recruited from two MOW services in the Illawarra region of Australia for assessment of their nutritional status, using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA(®)). Estimated energy and protein intakes for a MOW day were compared to a non-MOW day and average daily energy and protein intakes were assessed against estimated daily requirements. A single dietitian performed all assessments and home based interviews to explore the client's perception of the service. Mean daily energy intake (7593 (±2012) kJ) was not significantly different to estimated requirements (7720 (±975) kJ) (P = 0.480), while mean daily protein intake was higher (78.7 (±23.4) g) than calculated requirements (68.4 (±10.8) g; P = 0.009). However 16 clients were identified as at risk of malnutrition and 2 were malnourished; consuming 2072 kJ (P = 0.000) less energy and 20.4 g less protein (P = 0.004) per day compared to well-nourished clients. MOW clients are at risk of being poorly nourished and meals delivered by the service provide an important contribution to overall intakes. These findings support the need for regular nutrition screening and dietary monitoring in this high risk group, to identify those for whom additional strategies may be indicated.

  6. Nutrient intake and health status of lactovegetarians: chemical analyses of diets using the duplicate portion sampling technique.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, M; Aly, K O; Andersson, I; Asp, N G; Birkhed, D; Denker, I; Johansson, C G; Jägerstad, M; Kolar, K; Nair, B M

    1984-08-01

    Six middle-aged lactovegetarians (three men and three women) collected copies of four 24-h diets using the duplicate portion sampling technique. By chemical analyses, the nutrient composition of the lactovegetarian diet was determined in detail and compared with that of a mixed Swedish diet (normal) and a vegan diet (vegan) studied previously. The nutrient composition of the lactovegetarian diet expressed per 1000 kcal represented an average between normal and vegan diets. It was in closer agreement with Swedish recommended dietary allowances than the normal Swedish diet. Thus, the lactovegetarian diet contained 35% of the energy as fat and was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic acid, which resulted in a polyunsaturated/saturated fat ratio of 0.6. The lactovegetarian diet had a cholesterol concentration only half of that of a normal diet. Protein content and amino acid composition were well above recommendations. The lactovegetarian diets contained less sucrose than normal and vegan diets, but the sum of the intake of low molecular weight carbohydrates was comparable to normal and vegan diets. Dietary fiber was three times higher than in a normal diet. Essential minerals and trace elements, ie, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, satisfied current requirements. The intake of vitamin B12 by the lactovegetarians was around 1.4 micrograms daily, which is below the recommendations. The intake of folates was high, 300 to 400 micrograms daily. The clinical and biochemical investigation of the subjects revealed no signs of nutritional deficiency. Their plasma lipoproteins and the blood pressures were low for their age, in agreement with observations made earlier in a group of vegans.

  7. Food intake and blood glucose in normal and diabetic cats fed ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Martin, G J; Rand, J S

    1999-12-01

    Ten diabetic cats were studied at intervals for up to 12 months with twice-daily insulin injections. Ten clinically healthy cats were also studied. Diets fed were based on the individual cat's performance, using mainly commercial dry or canned cat foods and fresh meat. In most cases more than one food was offered. Food was given fresh twice daily, and the cats allowed to eat ad libitum. The food intake and blood glucose were measured every 2 h in diabetic cats after insulin injection and in diabetic and normal cats without insulin injections. Food was quantified by the energy consumed (kJ ME), crude protein (g), crude fat (g), and carbohydrate (g). The blood glucose in 10 diabetic cats was measured for 2 h following a 20-min meal. Both diabetic cats and normal cats showed similar patterns of eating, with a higher food intake in the 2 h after fresh food was placed. Both groups of cats ate multiple small meals spread through the day and night. There was little or no correlation between the blood glucose and the amount of food consumed over the previous 2-h period, in insulin- or non-insulin-treated diabetic cats, or in normal cats. An overnight fast did not significantly alter morning blood glucose in diabetic cats. No demonstrable appetite stimulation occurred following an occurrence of low blood glucose; however, recorded incidences were few. No post-prandial hyperglycaemia was seen in the 10 diabetic cats during a 2-h period following the ingestion of typical cat foods.

  8. Anthelmintics residues in raw milk. Assessing intake by a children population.

    PubMed

    Tsiboukis, D; Sazakli, E; Jelastopulu, E; Leotsinidis, M

    2013-01-01

    Anthelmintics, such as benzimidazoles and probenzimidazoles, are veterinary drugs used against endoparasites in food producing animals. A number of these drugs are considered responsible for embryotoxicity and teratogenicity. The residue levels of Albendazole, Febantel, Fenbendazole, Mebendazole and some of their metabolites (Albendazole sulphoxide, Albendazole sulphone, Fenbendazole sulfone) were assessed in 123 (42 goat, 69 sheep, 12 bovine) raw milk samples collected from all farms throughout Southern Greece. Sample analysis was performed by HPLC with Diode Array Detector. A high percentage (27.6%) of the samples examined was found to be positive for the investigated compounds. In 14 samples (11.4%), the residues' concentration exceeded the established Maximum Residue Limits. Estimated Daily Intakes were calculated for a population of 723 children aged 10-12 years. Data on milk consumption were obtained by personal interview through a 7-day food frequency questionnaire. The maximum Estimated Daily Intakes for the anthelmintic residues, concerning raw milk, did not exceed the current Acceptable Daily Intake.

  9. The effects of social contact on cocaine intake under extended-access conditions in male rats.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrea M; Lacy, Ryan T; Strickland, Justin C; Magee, Charlotte P; Smith, Mark A

    2016-08-01

    Social learning theories of drug use propose that drug use is influenced by the behavior of peers. We previously reported that cocaine self-administration under limited-access conditions can be either facilitated or inhibited by social contact, depending on the behavior of a peer. The purpose of this study was to determine whether social contact influences cocaine self-administration under conditions that are more representative of problematic patterns of drug use. Male rats were assigned to either isolated or pair-housed conditions in which a social partner either had access to cocaine or did not have access to cocaine. Pair-housed rats were tested in custom-built operant conditioning chambers that allowed both rats to be tested simultaneously in the same chamber. In Experiment 1, rats were tested for 14 consecutive days during daily 6-hr test sessions. In Experiment 2, different doses of cocaine were tested in 23-hr test sessions conducted every 3 days. All groups of rats escalated their cocaine intake in Experiment 1; however, pair-housed rats with a partner without access to cocaine had lower levels of intake throughout the 14 days of testing. In Experiment 2, pair-housed rats with a partner without access to cocaine had lower levels of cocaine intake than did rats with a partner with access to cocaine, and this effect was observed at all doses of cocaine tested. These data indicate that the behavior of a social partner (i.e., whether or not that partner is also self-administering cocaine) influences cocaine self-administration under conditions that model problematic patterns of drug use. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454676

  10. Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been hypothesized that insufficient intake of vitamin K may increase soft tissue calcification due to impaired gamma-carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (MGP). The evidence to support this putative role of vitamin K intake in atherosclerosis is ...

  11. Tractor Operation and Daily Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fore, J. M.; And Others

    Written for the tractor operator, the manual describes, with the aid of colored illustrations and diagrams, the tasks involved in the proper operation and daily maintenance of tractors. It offers explanations for the desirability of the various servicing and adjustment operations, as well as guidelines for tractor operation and safety. The…

  12. Digital Daily Cycles of Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Lehmann, Sune; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-10-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level daily rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive daily pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature daily patterns, from personal traits (morningness/eveningness) to variation in activity level and external constraints, and outline possibilities for future research.

  13. Children's intake of fruit and selected energy-dense nutrient-poor foods is associated with fathers' intake.

    PubMed

    Hall, Laura; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Burrows, Tracy L; Lubans, David R; Callister, Robin

    2011-07-01

    Parental dietary intake, lifestyle behavior, and parenting style influence a child's weight status. Few studies have examined associations between parent-child dietary intake, or specific father-child associations. This cross-sectional study examined associations between father-child dietary intakes of fruit, vegetables, and selected energy-dense nutrient-poor foods. The study population consisted of overweight fathers with 50 father-child dyads included in the analysis; median (interquartile range) age of fathers was 39±8.0 years; body mass index was 32.7±5.3; and their primary school-aged children (n=50) (54% boys aged 8.5±3.0 years, body mass index z score 0.6±1.6) who had been targeted to participate in the Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids pilot trial in the Hunter region, New South Wales, Australia in 2008. Dietary intakes of fathers and children were assessed using validated food frequency questionnaires, with mothers reporting their child's food intake. Descriptive statistics were reported and Spearman's rank order correlations used to test the strength of associations between father-child intakes. Fathers' median (interquartile range) daily fruit and vegetable intakes were 0.9 (1.5) and 2.2 (1.3) servings/day, respectively, whereas children consumed 2.1 (2.4) fruit and 2.9 (2.1) vegetable servings/day. Moderately-strong positive correlations were found between father-child fruit intakes (r=0.40, P<0.01), cookies (r=0.54, P<0.001), and potato chips (r=0.33, P<0.05). There were no associations between intakes of vegetables, ice cream, chocolate, or french fries (P>0.05). Children's intakes of fruit and some energy-dense nutrient-poor foods but not vegetables were related to their father's intakes. The targeting of fathers should be tested in experimental studies as a potential strategy to improve child and family eating habits.

  14. Does television viewing predict dietary intake five years later in high school students and young adults?

    PubMed Central

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Larson, Nicole I; Nelson, Melissa C; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Background Prior research has found that television viewing is associated with poor diet quality, though little is known about its long-term impact on diet, particularly during adolescence. This study examined the associations between television viewing behavior with dietary intake five years later. Methods Survey data, which included television viewing time and food frequency questionnaires, were analyzed for 564 middle school students (younger cohort) and 1366 high school students (older cohort) who had complete data available at Time 1 (1998–1999) and five years later at Time 2 (mean age at Time 2, 17.2 ± 0.6 and 20.5 ± 0.8 years, respectively). Regression models examined longitudinal associations between Time 1 television viewing behavior and Time 2 dietary intake adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, Time 1 dietary intake, and Time 2 total daily energy intake. Results Respondents were categorized as limited television users (<2 hours/daily), moderately high television viewers (2–5 hours/daily), and heavy television viewers (≥5 hours/daily). Among the younger cohort, Time 1 heavy television viewers reported lower fruit intake and higher sugar-sweetened beverage consumption than the other two groups. Among the older cohort, watching five or more hours of television per day at Time 1, predicted lower intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grain and calcium-rich foods, and higher intakes of trans fat, fried foods, fast food menu items, snack products, and sugar-sweetened beverages (products commonly advertised on television) five years later. Conclusion Television viewing in middle and high school predicted poorer dietary intake five years later. Adolescents are primary targets of advertising for fast food restaurants, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages, which may influence their food choices. Television viewing, especially during high school, may have long-term effects on eating choices and contribute to poor eating habits in young

  15. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark, 2005.

    PubMed

    Leth, T; Jensen, U; Fagt, S; Andersen, R

    2008-06-01

    In 2005, 76 out of 177 analysed samples of non-alcoholic beverages were found to contain the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin. The content of cyclamate did not exceed the now permitted maximum level in the European Union of 250 mg l(-1) in soft drinks. The estimated intake of the sweeteners was calculated using the Danish Dietary Survey based on 3098 persons aged 1-80 years. The estimated intake with 90th percentiles of 0.7, 0.8 and 0.2 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin, respectively, was much lower than the acceptable daily intake values of 15, 40, 7, and 2.5 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin, respectively, and on the same level as in the similar investigation from 1999. In contrast to the 1999 investigation, the 90th percentile of the estimated cyclamate intake in 1-3 year olds with 3.7 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) was in 2005 lower than the acceptable daily intake of 7 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1). However, the 99th percentile for 1-3 year olds with 7.4 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) still exceeded the acceptable daily intake slightly. The 90th percentile for the whole population with 0.9 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) was halved compared with 1999. The reduction in the European Union of the maximum permitted level for cyclamate from 400 to 250 mg l(-1) has brought the intake of cyclamate in small children down to well below the acceptable daily intake value.

  16. Dietary Intake of Trans Fatty Acids in Children Aged 4–5 in Spain: The INMA Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Alexander; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manuela; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina; Santa Marina, Loreto; Irazabal, Amaia; Romaguera, Dora; Guxens, Mònica; Julvez, Jordi; Llop, Sabrina; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Vioque, Jesus

    2016-01-01

    Trans fatty acid (TFA) intake has been identified as a health hazard in adults, but data on preschool children are scarce. We analyzed the data from the Spanish INMA Project to determine the intake of total, industrial and natural TFA, their main sources and the associated socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in children aged 4–5 (n = 1793). TFA intake was estimated using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire, and multiple linear regression was used to explore associated factors. The mean daily intakes of total, industrial and natural TFA were 1.36, 0.60, and 0.71 g/day, respectively. Ten percent of the children obtained >1% of their energy intake from TFA. The main sources of industrial TFA were fast food, white bread and processed baked goods. Milk, red and processed meat and processed baked goods were the main sources of natural TFA. Having parents from countries other than Spain was significantly associated with higher natural TFA (in mg/day) intake (β 45.5) and television viewing was significantly associated with higher industrial TFA intake (β 18.3). Higher fruits and vegetables intake was significantly associated with lower intakes of all TFAs, whereas higher sweetened beverages intake was significantly associated with lower total and natural TFA intake. Thus, total and industrial TFA intake was associated with less healthy food patterns and lifestyles in Spanish preschool children. PMID:27735864

  17. Vegetable and fruit intake and its relevance with serum osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Myung-Hee; Bae, Yun-Jung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the daily vegetable and fruit intake status of Korean adults and to examine the relationship of vegetable and fruit intake with bone metabolism. The vegetable and fruit intake of 542 healthy male and female adults was analyzed. Then, by selecting 51 targets from the subjects, the relation of vegetable and fruit intake with serum calcium, osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) excretion in urine was examined. The total vegetable intake per day was 397.7 g and 333.5 g by men and women respectively for the age group of 20-29, 366.9 g and 309.2 g respectively for the age group of 30-49, 378.4 g and 325.9 g respectively for the age group of 50-64. Of vegetable varieties, leafy and stem vegetables displayed the highest intake. The order of major intake items of vegetables and fruits was found to be Chinese cabbage kimchi, onion, radish, cucumber, and welsh onion for the age group of 20-29, watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, peach, potato, and onion for the age group of 30-49 and watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, tomato, potato, and peach for the age group of 50-64. Of 51 targets, β-carotene intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with serum osteocalcin. While caloric intake as well as protein, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorous, zinc and total food intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with DPD excretion in urine, tuber vegetable intake displayed a significantly positive correlation with DPD excretion in urine. In the future, a study will be necessary to accurately explain the relevance of vegetable and fruit intake with bone mineral density and bone metabolism. Also, efforts will be required to increase vegetable and fruit intake. PMID:21103089

  18. Estimation of total usual calcium and vitamin D intakes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regan L; Dodd, Kevin W; Goldman, Joseph A; Gahche, Jaime J; Dwyer, Johanna T; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Sempos, Christopher T; Picciano, Mary Frances

    2010-04-01

    Our objective in this study was to estimate calcium intakes from food, water, dietary supplements, and antacids for U.S. citizens aged >or=1 y using NHANES 2003-2006 data and the Dietary Reference Intake panel age groupings. Similar estimates were calculated for vitamin D intake from food and dietary supplements using NHANES 2005-2006. Diet was assessed with 2 24-h recalls; dietary supplement and antacid use were determined by questionnaire. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate usual nutrient intake from dietary sources. The mean daily nutrient intake from supplemental sources was added to the adjusted dietary intake estimates to produce total usual nutrient intakes for calcium and vitamin D. A total of 53% of the U.S. population reported using any dietary supplement (2003-2006), 43% used calcium (2003-2006), and 37% used vitamin D (2005-2006). For users, dietary supplements provided the adequate intake (AI) recommendation for calcium intake for approximately 12% of those >or=71 y. Males and females aged 1-3 y had the highest prevalence of meeting the AI from dietary and total calcium intakes. For total vitamin D intake, males and females >or=71, and females 14-18 y had the lowest prevalence of meeting the AI. Dietary supplement use is associated with higher prevalence of groups meeting the AI for calcium and vitamin D. Monitoring usual total nutrient intake is necessary to adequately characterize and evaluate the population's nutritional status and adherence to recommendations for nutrient intake. PMID:20181782

  19. Power plant intake entrainment analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Edinger, J.E.; Kolluru, V.S.

    2000-04-01

    Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes.

  20. Race-, gender- and age-specific differences in dietary micronutrient intakes of US children.

    PubMed

    Ganji, Vijay; Hampl, Jeffrey S; Betts, Nancy M

    2003-11-01

    Race-, gender- and age-specific differences in dietary micronutrient intakes of 1- to 10-year-old US children were evaluated. Three-day, dietary intakes from the US Department of Agriculture's Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals were evaluated. Data from 1895 children (967 males, 928 females; 1,540 Whites, 355 Blacks) who resided in the 48 conterminous states were analyzed. Micronutrient intakes, intakes as percent of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and percent of children who consumed < or =67% of the RDA were computed. Black males compared with White males, Black females compared with White females and White females compared with White males had significantly lower dietary intakes for several micronutrients. More Black males than White males had intakes < or =67% of the RDA for vitamin E, calcium and zinc. Blacks and female children were at a greater risk for vitamin A, vitamin E, calcium, iron and zinc deficiency. PMID:14522694

  1. Dietary intake of nutrients with adequate intake values in the dietary reference intakes for Japanese.

    PubMed

    Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Takizawa, Asuka; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Nakade, Makiko; Imai, Eri; Kondo, Akiko; Yoshida, Kazue; Okuda, Nagako; Nishi, Nobuo; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2013-01-01

    The Adequate Intake (AI) values in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (DRIs-J) 2010 were mainly determined based on the median intakes from 2 y of pooled data (2005-2006) from the National Health and Nutrition Survey-Japan (NHNS-J). However, it remains unclear whether 2 y of pooled data from the NHNS-J are appropriate for evaluating the intake of the population. To clarify the differences in nutrient intakes determined from 2 and 7 y of pooled data, we analyzed selected nutrient intake levels by sex and age groups using NHNS-J data. Intake data were obtained from 64,624 individuals (age: ≥1 y; 47.4% men) who completed a semi-weighed 1-d household dietary record that was part of the NHNS-J conducted annually in Japan from 2003 to 2009. There were no large differences between the median intakes calculated from 2 or 7 y of pooled data for n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin D, pantothenic acid, potassium, or phosphorus. When the AI values and median intakes were compared, there was no large difference in the values for n-6 or n-3 PUFAs, pantothenic acid, or phosphorus. Conversely, the AI values for vitamin D and potassium differed from the median intakes of these nutrients for specific sex and age groups, because values were not based on NHNS-J data. Our results indicate that 2 y of pooled data from the NHNS-J adequately reflect the population's intake, and that the current system for determination of AI values will be applicable for future revisions.

  2. A novel approach for food intake detection using electroglottography

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Muhammad; Fontana, Juan M; Sazonov, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Many methods for monitoring diet and food intake rely on subjects self-reporting their daily intake. These methods are subjective, potentially inaccurate and need to be replaced by more accurate and objective methods. This paper presents a novel approach that uses an Electroglottograph (EGG) device for an objective and automatic detection of food intake. Thirty subjects participated in a 4-visit experiment involving the consumption of meals with self-selected content. Variations in the electrical impedance across the larynx caused by the passage of food during swallowing were captured by the EGG device. To compare performance of the proposed method with a well-established acoustical method, a throat microphone was used for monitoring swallowing sounds. Both signals were segmented into non-overlapping epochs of 30 s and processed to extract wavelet features. Subject-independent classifiers were trained using Artificial Neural Networks, to identify periods of food intake from the wavelet features. Results from leave-one-out cross-validation showed an average per-epoch classification accuracy of 90.1% for the EGG-based method and 83.1% for the acoustic-based method, demonstrating the feasibility of using an EGG for food intake detection. PMID:24671094

  3. Estimating salivary flow and ruminal water balance of intake, diet, feeding pattern, and slaframine.

    PubMed

    Jacques, K; Harmon, D L; Croom, W J; Hagler, W M

    1989-02-01

    Three experiments with ruminally fistulated cattle fed 12 times daily were conducted to study the role of saliva secretion in ruminal water balance when intake, diet, and feeding pattern were altered. Water balance data were determined from continuously infused Co-EDTA and pulse-dosed Cr-EDTA with saliva flow estimated by difference between water intake and ruminal outflow. Any net transruminal water flux would be included in the estimate of salivary flow. When the concentration of bluestem hay in the diet was increased from 50 to 90%, ruminal fluid volume, saliva secretion, water intake, dilution rate, and total ruminal outflow increased. At equal intake, the higher forage diet increased ruminal liquid volume, outflow, and saliva secretion but had no effect on dilution rate. Intake, but not forage concentration, affected ruminal pH when 50 and 90% hay diets were fed. Increasing feeding frequency of forage in a 65% bluestem hay diet from 4 to 12 times daily (the grain portion was fed 12 times daily) increased dilution and ruminal outflow; however, the latter was only significant with data from Cr-EDTA. Ruminal volatile fatty acids were not altered by feeding frequency of forage. Nycterohemeral patterns were seen in water intake, ruminal dilution rate, outflow, and salivary flow in both studies. Slaframine increased saliva flow by 29% and was accompanied by increased ruminal liquid volume, dilution rate, and outflow.

  4. Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Del Bianco Benedeti, Pedro; Paulino, Pedro Veiga Rodrigues; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Maciel, Ivan França Smith; da Silva, Matheus Custódio; Faciola, Antonio Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo) were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis) of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimate initial empty body weight, which allowed for carcass gain calculation. Bulls were weighed at the beginning, at two-thirds, and at the end of the experiment for performance calculations. Carcass measurements were obtained by ultrasound. Fecal output was estimated using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Intake of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with crude glycerol inclusion. However, crude glycerol levels did not affect (P > 0.05) intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients increased quadratically (P < 0.05) with the inclusion of crude glycerol in the diet. Crude glycerol inclusion did not change the intake of digestible dry matter, average daily gain, final body weight, carcass gain, carcass dressing, gain-to-feed ratio, Longissimus thoracis muscle area, and back and rump fat thicknesses (P > 0.05). These results suggest that crude glycerol may be included in finishing beef diets at levels up to 15% without impairing performance and carcass characteristics. PMID:26820725

  5. Vitamin D levels in children of asylum seekers in The Netherlands in relation to season and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Stellinga-Boelen, Annette A M; Wiegersma, P Auke; Storm, Huub; Bijleveld, Charles M A; Verkade, Henkjan J

    2007-03-01

    Low dietary intake and limited sun exposure during Dutch winters, in particular when combined with highly pigmented skin, could compromise the vitamin D status of asylum seekers' children in The Netherlands. We determined the vitamin D status of children living in The Netherlands, but originating from Africa, Central Asia, or Eastern Europe. In a subgroup, we reassessed the vitamin D status after the summer, during which the children had been assigned at random to remain unsupplemented or to receive vitamin D supplementation. In total 112 children (median age 7.1 yr, range 2-12 yr) were assessed for serum concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], intact parathyroid hormone (I-PTH) and plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and hypovitaminosis D were defined as 25(OH)D below 30 or 50 nmol/L, respectively. Dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium was estimated using a 24 h recall interview. In mid-spring, 13% of the children had VDD, and 42% had hypovitaminosis D. I-PTH and ALP levels were significantly higher in children with VDD. The dietary intake of vitamin D was below 80% of the recommended daily allowances (RDA) in 94% of the children, but the dietary calcium intake was not significantly related to the s-25(OH)D levels found. After the summer, median s-25(OH)D increased with +35 nmol/L (+85%) and +19 nmol/L (+42%) in children with or without supplementation, respectively. The effect of supplementation was most prominent among African children. VDD and hypovitaminosis D are highly prevalent in mid-spring among asylum seekers' children in The Netherlands. Although 25(OH)D levels increase in African children during Dutch summer months, this does not completely correct the compromised vitamin D status. Our data indicate that children from African origin would benefit from vitamin D supplementation.

  6. Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Del Bianco Benedeti, Pedro; Paulino, Pedro Veiga Rodrigues; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Maciel, Ivan França Smith; da Silva, Matheus Custódio; Faciola, Antonio Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo) were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis) of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimate initial empty body weight, which allowed for carcass gain calculation. Bulls were weighed at the beginning, at two-thirds, and at the end of the experiment for performance calculations. Carcass measurements were obtained by ultrasound. Fecal output was estimated using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Intake of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with crude glycerol inclusion. However, crude glycerol levels did not affect (P > 0.05) intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients increased quadratically (P < 0.05) with the inclusion of crude glycerol in the diet. Crude glycerol inclusion did not change the intake of digestible dry matter, average daily gain, final body weight, carcass gain, carcass dressing, gain-to-feed ratio, Longissimus thoracis muscle area, and back and rump fat thicknesses (P > 0.05). These results suggest that crude glycerol may be included in finishing beef diets at levels up to 15% without impairing performance and carcass characteristics. PMID:26820725

  7. Effects of excessive intakes of iodine upon growth and thyroid function of growing Holstein heifers.

    PubMed

    Fish, R E; Swanson, E W

    1982-04-01

    Thirty Holstein heifer calves averaging 120 days of age and 102 kg of body weight were allocated to one control and four treatment groups of six each. Iodine, as ethylenediamine dihydriodide, was mixed 1:9 with dextrose and administered once daily atop feed at .625, 1.25, 2.5, or 5.0 mg iodine per kilogram body weight. Calves were housed individually in unheated, well-ventilated barns and fed complete mixed feeds containing less than 1 ppm iodine. Feed intakes were recorded daily and body weights weekly. Jugular venous blood was collected from iodine treated calves at 0, 4, 8, and 12 wk of the experiment and analyzed for iodine, thyroxine, and triiodothyronine of plasma. Feed intake per unit body weight and per unit gain were not significantly different between treated and control calves. However, daily feed intake and average daily gain decreased slightly at the highest iodine intake. Thyroxine and triiodothyronine were not different among treatments. Thyroxine declined in all calves from 0 to 12 wk. Thyroxine of calves fed 5.0 mg of iodine per kilogram body weight decreased more than of calves fed less iodine. Iodine intake as high as 5.0 mg/kg body weight was tolerated without morbidity, although a minor effect on performance and thyroid activity was indicated.

  8. Calcium and vitamin D intake by postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in Spain: an observational calcium and vitamin D intake (CaVIT) study

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Tao; Nocea, Gonzalo; Modi, Ankita; Stokes, Leah; Sen, Shuvayu S

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoporotic fractures are important causes of morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. However, the risk of osteoporotic fractures can be decreased, with clinical studies supporting the use of calcium and vitamin D supplements to promote bone health. Vitamin D insufficiency is widespread, particularly among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, and this indicates that dietary intake is suboptimal, even though vitamin D supplements are widely available. Methods We conducted an observational study, using telephone surveys, to estimate vitamin D and calcium intake and the use of prescription osteoporosis medications in Spanish women aged ≥ 50 years with osteoporosis. Results Among the study participants, mean dietary calcium intake was 1239 mg/day and generally appeared sufficient in terms of the recommended daily intake guidance documents. Participants aged ≥ 75 years had a significantly lower mean dietary calcium intake (988 mg/day), thus one-half were below the level advised by the World Health Organization. Daily calcium intake was also lower in participants who were not taking prescription medications for bone health. Dietary vitamin D intake was 167 IU/day, which is well below both the established target dose (400 IU/day) and the more recent, higher guideline recommended for postmenopausal women (800–1300 IU/day). Dietary vitamin D intake was even lower for participants aged ≥ 75 years (120 IU/day) and was not related to the use of bone health prescription medications. Conclusion These results support the need for greater promotion of the benefits of higher vitamin D intake in Spanish women with osteoporosis. PMID:23818767

  9. Intakes of total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in Irish children, teenagers and adults.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Triona; Wallace, Alison J; McCarthy, Sinead N; Gibney, Michael J

    2009-02-01

    Recommendations limiting the intake of total fat, SFA, MUFA and PUFA have been established in several countries with the aim of reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as CVD. Studies have shown that intakes of total fat and SFA are above desired recommended intake levels across a wide range of age and sex groups. In addition, intakes of PUFA and MUFA are often reported to be less than the desired recommended intake levels. The aims of the present paper are to provide the first data on estimates of current intakes and main food sources of SFA, MUFA and PUFA in Irish children (aged 5-12 years), teenagers (aged 13-17 years) and adults (aged 18-64 years) and to analyse compliance with current dietary recommendations. Data for this analysis were based on the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey (n 1379, 18-64 years), the National Children's Food Survey (n 594, 5-12 years) and the National Teen Food Survey (n 441, 13-17 years). Results showed that SFA intakes in Irish children, teenagers and adults are high, with only 6 % of children, 11 % of teenagers and 21 % of adults in compliance with the recommended daily intake. The main food groups that contributed to SFA intakes were whole milk; fresh meat; meat products; biscuits, cakes, buns and pastries; and sugars, confectionery and preserves.

  10. Caffeine levels in beverages from Argentina's market: application to caffeine dietary intake assessment.

    PubMed

    Olmos, V; Bardoni, N; Ridolfi, A S; Villaamil Lepori, E C

    2009-03-01

    The caffeine content of different beverages from Argentina's market was measured. Several brands of coffees, teas, mates, chocolate milks, soft and energy drinks were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. The highest concentration level was found in short coffee (1.38 mg ml(-1)) and the highest amount per serving was found in instant coffee (95 mg per serving). A consumption study was also carried out among 471 people from 2 to 93 years of age to evaluate caffeine total dietary intake by age and to identify the sources of caffeine intake. The mean caffeine intake among adults was 288 mg day(-1) and mate was the main contributor to that intake. The mean caffeine intake among children of 10 years of age and under was 35 mg day(-1) and soft drinks were the major contributors to that intake. Children between 11 and 15 years old and teenagers (between 16 and 20 years) had caffeine mean intakes of 120 and 240 mg day(-1), respectively, and mate was the major contributor to those intakes. Drinking mate is a deep-rooted habit among Argentine people and it might be the reason for their elevated caffeine mean daily intake.

  11. A critical assessment of the upper intake levels for infants and children.

    PubMed

    Zlotkin, Stanley

    2006-02-01

    The dietary reference intake (DRI) committees of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine were charged with establishing DRIs for all of the essential nutrients, including fat and energy. These reference values are quantitative estimates of the nutrient intakes to be used to plan and assess the diets of healthy people. The reference values include both recommended intakes and tolerable upper intake levels (ULs). The ULs are defined as "the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population." As intake increases above the UL, the risk of adverse effects increases. The term "tolerable intake" was chosen to avoid the implication of a possible beneficial effect. Instead, the term is intended to connote a level of intake that can, with a high probability, be tolerated biologically. Yet, with intakes above the ULs, the risk of adverse health effects increases. Thus, there is no obvious benefit for healthy individuals to consume quantities of nutrients above the UL.

  12. Magnesium, calcium and phosphorus contents in daily food rations in primary school children: questionnaire and analytic studies.

    PubMed

    Szajkowski, Z

    1996-12-01

    Aims of the performed studies included working out a technique of determining representative rations on the basis of questionnaire studies on school children in Wielkopolska west region of Poland. The reconstructed representative daily food rations provided grounds for analytic studies. The studies were performed in the four seasons of the year. The studied food rations failed to cover the recommended daily intake of Mg and Ca. On the other hand, the daily intake of P transgressed the food norms. The inadequate Ca to Mg and Ca to P ratios were interpreted as deserving special concern when confronted with the market situation in Poland and as creating particular health hazards for the studied school children. The employed statistical analysis demonstrated that the suggested technique of determining representative rations may be employed in evaluation of Mg, Ca and P intake.

  13. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  14. Observability of market daily volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  15. Proposed nomenclature for salt intake and for reductions in dietary salt.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Norm R C; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Webster, Jacqui; Lackland, Daniel T; Neal, Bruce; MacGregor, Graham A

    2015-04-01

    There is considerable confusion about what ranges of dietary salt(a) could be considered low, normal, or high and also what ranges of reduction in dietary salt are small or large. The World Hypertension League with other organizations involved in dietary salt reduction have proposed a standardized nomenclature based on normal ancestral levels of salt intake and also on ranges of reduction in salt intake in clinical and population interventions. Low daily salt (sodium) intake where harm due to deficiency would be expected to occur is recommended to remain undefined because of inadequate research but likely <0.25 g (100 mg), normal (physiological) intake <2.5 g (1000 mg), recommended intake <5.0 g (2000 mg), high ≥5.0 g (2000 mg), very high >10 to 15 g (4000-6000 mg), and extremely high >15 g (6000 mg). Reductions in daily salt (sodium) intake are recommended to be called small if <2.5 g (1000 mg), moderate if 2.5 to 5.0 g (1000-2000 mg) and large if >5.0 g (2000 mg). Use of this nomenclature is likely to result in less confusion about salt intake and interventions to reduce dietary sodium.

  16. [Evaluation of nitrites and nitrates food intake in the students' group].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Pankowska, Iwona

    2010-01-01

    The aim of study was to determine the intake of nitrites and nitrates in daily food rations of the students' group in 2008 using 3-day dietary food records method and literature mean values of nitrates and nitrites in food products. Intakes of these compounds were calculated and compared to acceptable daily intake (ADI). The average intake of nitrites was 1.7 mg NaNO2/per person/day (28.0% of ADI), nitrates 77.3 mg NaNO3/per person/day that means 25.4% of ADI. The largest nitrites food intake was noticed for meat products supplied 56.5% of nitrites and cereals (20%). Whereas vegetables and their products supplied 76.1% of nitrates: potatoes 17.1%, cabbage 15.5%, beetroots 13.7%. Calculated nitrites intake for men was 2.4 higher than for women. There were no significant differences of nitrates intake between men and women groups.

  17. Effects of Life-long Fluoride Intake on Bone Measures of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Levy, S.M.; Warren, J.J.; Phipps, K.; Letuchy, E.; Broffitt, B.; Eichenberger-Gilmore, J.; Burns, T.L.; Kavand, G.; Janz, K.F.; Torner, J.C.; Pauley, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Controversy persists concerning the impact of community water fluoridation on bone health in adults, and few studies have assessed relationships with bone at younger ages. Ecological studies of fluoride’s effects showed some increase in bone mineral density of adolescents and young adults in areas with fluoridated water compared with non-fluoridated areas. However, none had individual fluoride exposure measures. To avoid ecological fallacy and reduce bias, we assessed associations of average daily fluoride intake from birth to age 15 yr for Iowa Bone Development Study cohort members with age 15 yr dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone outcomes (whole body, lumbar spine, and hip), controlling for known determinants (including daily calcium intake, average daily time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, and physical maturity). Mean (SD) daily fluoride intake was 0.66 mg (0.24) for females and 0.78 mg (0.30) for males. We found no significant relationships between daily fluoride intake and adolescents’ bone measures in adjusted models (for 183 females, all p values ≥ .10 and all partial R2 ≤ 0.02; for 175 males, all p values ≥ .34 and all partial R2 ≤ 0.01). The findings suggest that fluoride exposures at the typical levels for most US adolescents in fluoridated areas do not have significant effects on bone mineral measures. PMID:24470542

  18. Awareness of Daily Life Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, Georgios; Metin, Barbaros; Schneider, Jutta; Markopoulos, Panos; De Ruyter, Boris

    The well-publicized aging of Western societies has prompted a growing interest into technologies that support awareness in cross-generational families. The idea of supporting continual and partly automated flow of information between seniors living alone and their social intimates has been gaining ground among researchers but even among industries. It is anticipated that such an information flow can help bridge geographical distance, discrepant lifestyles, and daily routines, potentially providing peace of mind to both parties and feelings of being connected.

  19. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    Following the comprehensive systematic review of domestic and overseas scientific evidence, the "Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese, 2005 (DRI-J)" was published in April, 2005. The DRIs-J were prepared for health individuals and groups and designed to present a reference for intake values of energy and 34 nutrients to maintain and promote health and to prevent lifestyle-related diseases and illness due to excessive consumption of either energy or nutrients. The DRI-J also includes a special chapter for basic knowledge of DRIs. The energy recommendation is provided as an estimated energy requirement (EER), while five indices were used for nutrients: Estimated average requirement (EAR), recommended dietary allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI), tolerable upper intake level (UL), and tentative dietary goal for preventing lifestyle-related [chronic non-communicable] diseases (DG). Whilst the first four indices are same as the ones used in other countries, DG is unique index in Japan, which was set as a reference value for preventing non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular (including hypertension), major types of cancer and osteoporosis. This report (DRI-J) is the first dietary guidance in Japan, which applied evidence-based approach utilizing a systematic review process. Only a few articles from within Japan and other Asian countries could be used for its establishment. The project to establish the DRI-J revealed a severe lack of researchers and publications focused upon establishing DRIs for Japanese. Further review is therefore required in preparation for the next revision scheduled in 2010.

  20. Daily lsa-saf evapotranspiration product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arboleda Rodallega, Alirio; Ghilain, Nicolas; Meulenberghs, Francoise

    2010-05-01

    In the framework of the EUMETSAT's Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LSA-SAF), some models have been implemented in view to characterize continental surfaces by using information obtained from MSG and EPS satellites. In this context a method has been developed in order to monitor the flux of water (Evapotranspiration) between the land surface and the atmosphere. The method is based on a physical approach in which radiative data derived from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites together with land-cover information are used to constrain a physical model of energy exchange between the soil-vegetation system and the atmosphere. The implemented algorithm provides instantaneous ET estimates over four regions defined in the MSG FOV (the defined regions cover Europe, Africa and the west of south America), with MSG spatial resolution (3km at sub satellite point) and a temporal time step of 30 minutes. The scope of the method is limited to evaporation from terrestrial surfaces rather than from lakes or oceans. The instantaneous product has been validated over different vegetation cover and climatic conditions, providing evidence that the algorithm is able to reproduce ET estimates with accuracy equivalent to the accuracy of ET obtained from observations. In 2009 the instantaneous ET product has been declared pre-operational by EUMETSAT, allowing the product to be disseminated to a larger community of users (http://landsaf.meteo.pt). In some areas like agriculture, hydrology, water management, ecology and climate studies the main concern is not instantaneous but accumulated values over days, months or longer periods. To encompass the need for these community of users, a daily ET product in which daily evapotranspiration is obtained as temporal integration of instantaneous values has been developed. In this contribution we will present the methodology used to obtain instantaneous ET estimates and the procedure applied to derive daily

  1. Olfactory Dysfunction Is Associated with the Intake of Macronutrients in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Il Gyu; Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Jin-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background Olfactory function can impact food selection. However, few large population-based studies have investigated this effect across different age groups. The objective of this study was to assess the association between subjective olfactory dysfunction (anosmia or hyposmia) and macronutrient intake. Methods A total of 24,990 participants aged 20 to 98 years were evaluated based on data collected through the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 through 2012. Olfactory dysfunction was surveyed using a self-reported questionnaire, and the nutritional status was assessed through a validated 24-hour recall method. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses with complex sampling were performed to evaluate the relationships between olfactory dysfunction and protein intake (daily protein intake/recommended protein intake [%]), carbohydrate intake (daily carbohydrate intake/total calories [%]), and fat intake (daily fat intake/total calories [%]) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, income, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and stress level. Results Olfactory dysfunction was reported by 5.4% of Korean adults and was found to be associated with decreased fat consumption (estimated value [EV] of fat intake [%] = -0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.13 to -0.13, P = 0.045). A subgroup analysis according to age and sex revealed that among young females, olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced fat consumption (EV = -2.30, 95% CI = -4.16 to -0.43, P = 0.016) and increased carbohydrate intake (EV = 2.80, 95% CI = 0.55 to 5.05, P = 0.015), and that among middle-aged females, olfactory dysfunction was also associated with reduced fat intake (EV = -1.26, 95% CI = -2.37 to -0.16, P = 0.025). In contrast, among young males, olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced protein intake (EV = -26.41 95% CI = -45.14 to -7.69, P = 0.006). Conclusion Olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced fat intake. Moreover

  2. How does the suppression of energy supplementation affect herbage intake, performance and parasitism in lactating saddle mares?

    PubMed

    Collas, C; Fleurance, G; Cabaret, J; Martin-Rosset, W; Wimel, L; Cortet, J; Dumont, B

    2014-08-01

    Agroecology opens up new perspectives for the design of sustainable farming systems by using the stimulation of natural processes to reduce the inputs needed for production. In horse farming systems, the challenge is to maximize the proportion of forages in the diet, and to develop alternatives to synthetic chemical drugs for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes. Lactating saddle mares, with high nutritional requirements, are commonly supplemented with concentrates at pasture, although the influence of energy supplementation on voluntary intake, performance and immune response against parasites has not yet been quantified. In a 4-month study, 16 lactating mares experimentally infected with cyathostome larvae either received a daily supplement of barley (60% of energy requirements for lactation) or were non-supplemented. The mares were rotationally grazed on permanent pastures over three vegetation cycles. All the mares met their energy requirements and maintained their body condition score higher than 3. In both treatments, they produced foals with a satisfying growth rate (cycle 1: 1293 g/day; cycle 2: 1029 g/day; cycle 3: 559 g/day) and conformation (according to measurements of height at withers and cannon bone width at 11 months). Parasite egg excretion by mares increased in both groups during the grazing season (from 150 to 2011 epg), independently of whether they were supplemented or not. This suggests that energy supplementation did not improve mare ability to regulate parasite burden. Under unlimited herbage conditions, grass dry matter intake by supplemented mares remained stable around 22.6 g DM/kg LW per day (i.e. 13.5 kg DM/al per day), whereas non-supplemented mares increased voluntary intake from 22.6 to 28.0 g DM/kg LW per day (13.5 to 17.2 kg DM/al per day) between mid-June and the end of August. Hence total digestible dry matter intake and net energy intake did not significantly differ between supplemented and non-supplemented mares during the

  3. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake < 75% RI, n = 159). Each group was then further divided into three subgroups based on daily average coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level. PMID:27482522

  4. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake < 75% RI, n = 159). Each group was then further divided into three subgroups based on daily average coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level. PMID:27482522

  5. Daily Feeding of Fructooligosaccharide or Glucomannan Delays Onset of Senescence in SAMP8 Mice.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Sadako; Kondo, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshitake; Hashiguchi, Michiru; Tanabe, Kenichi; Ushiroda, Chihiro; Kawahashi-Tokuhisa, Miho; Yui, Katsuyuki; Miyakoda, Mana; Oku, Tsuneyuki

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that daily intake of nondigestible saccharides delays senescence onset through the improvement of intestinal microflora. Here, we raised senescence accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8) on the AIN93 diet (CONT), with sucrose being substituted for 5% of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) or 5% of glucomannan (GM), 15 mice per group. Ten SAMR1 were raised as reference of normal aging with control diet. Grading of senescence was conducted using the method developed by Hosokawa, and body weight, dietary intake, and drinking water intake were measured on alternate days. Following 38 weeks of these diets we evaluated learning and memory abilities using a passive avoidance apparatus and investigated effects on the intestinal microflora, measured oxidative stress markers, and inflammatory cytokines. Continuous intake of FOS and GM significantly enhanced learning and memory ability and decelerated senescence development when compared with the CONT group. Bifidobacterium levels were significantly increased in FOS and GM-fed mice. Urinary 8OHdG, 15-isoprostane, serum TNF- α , and IL-6 were also lower in FOS-fed mice, while IL-10 in FOS and GM groups was higher than in CONT group. These findings suggest that daily intake of nondigestible saccharides delays the onset of senescence via improvement of intestinal microflora. PMID:24987410

  6. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  7. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  8. Protein, amino acids and the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Tome, Daniel

    2004-08-01

    The influence of protein and amino acid on the control of food intake and the specific control of protein and amino acid intakes remains incompletely understood. The most commonly accepted conclusions are: (1) the existence of an aversive response to diets deficient in or devoid of protein or deficient in at least one essential amino acid; (2) the existence of a mechanism that enables attainment of the minimum requirement for N and essential amino acids by increasing intake of a low-protein diet; (3) a decrease in the intake of a high-protein diet is associated with different processes, including the high satiating effect of protein. Ingested proteins are believed to generate pre- and post-absorptive signals that contribute to the control of gastric kinetics, pancreatic secretion and food intake. At the brain level, two major afferent pathways are involved in protein and amino acid monitoring: the indirect neuro-mediated (mainly vagus-mediated) pathway and the direct blood pathway. The neuro-mediated pathway transfers pre-absorptive and visceral information. This information is for the main part transferred through the vagus nerve that innervates part of the oro-sensory zone: the stomach, the duodenum and the liver. Other information is directly monitored in the blood. It is likely that the system responds precisely when protein and essential amino acid intake is inadequate, but in contrast allows a large range of adaptive capacities through amino acid degradation and substrate interconversion.

  9. Thermoluminescence sensitivity of daily-use materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correcher, V.; Garcia-Guinea, J.; Rivera, T.

    The thermoluminescence (TL) response of silicon-rich daily-use materials, namely charoite (silicate gemstone), Spanish dental crown, phone chip and Spanish glass has been investigated. All the samples previously characterised by means of X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy associated with energy-dispersion and wavelength-dispersive spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence exhibit a reasonable sensitivity to ionising radiation. The preliminary results, based on their TL properties, allow us to speculate that these materials could be potentially of interest in situations where conventional dosimetric systems are not available. The dose dependence of the 400 nm TL emission of the studied samples displays a very good linearity in the range of 0.1-10 Gy.

  10. Nurses' daily life: gender relations from the time spent in hospital1

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Audrey Vidal

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the everyday life of nurses through the sexual work division as well as through interdependence relations and the time in hospital. Method: quanti-qualitative study, based on the Time Use Survey and in Norbert Elias's Configuration Theory of Interdependencies. Daily shifts distribution record, directed by 42 participants - with self-confrontation - by interviews which drew dialogues on subjective aspects of the everyday experiences related to use of time, based on a job at a university hospital. The theoretical intake that founded data analysis was based on concepts of conflicts of interest, power struggles, sexual work division and polychronic-monochronic concepts - whether the work environment demands multitasking nurses or not. Results: time records allowed to observe differences between the groups studied, useful to identify conflicts, tensions, power struggles and gender inequalities in interviewees' everyday affairs that do not only affect physical and mental health, but also their way of life. Conclusion: the analytical path pointed out the need for public policies that promote equity in gender relations, keeping at sight the exercise of plural discourses and tolerant stances capable to respect differences between individual and collective time. PMID:26487146

  11. Protein leverage and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Gosby, A K; Conigrave, A D; Raubenheimer, D; Simpson, S J

    2014-03-01

    Increased energy intakes are contributing to overweight and obesity. Growing evidence supports the role of protein appetite in driving excess intake when dietary protein is diluted (the protein leverage hypothesis). Understanding the interactions between dietary macronutrient balance and nutrient-specific appetite systems will be required for designing dietary interventions that work with, rather than against, basic regulatory physiology. Data were collected from 38 published experimental trials measuring ad libitum intake in subjects confined to menus differing in macronutrient composition. Collectively, these trials encompassed considerable variation in percent protein (spanning 8-54% of total energy), carbohydrate (1.6-72%) and fat (11-66%). The data provide an opportunity to describe the individual and interactive effects of dietary protein, carbohydrate and fat on the control of total energy intake. Percent dietary protein was negatively associated with total energy intake (F = 6.9, P < 0.0001) irrespective of whether carbohydrate (F = 0, P = 0.7) or fat (F = 0, P = 0.5) were the diluents of protein. The analysis strongly supports a role for protein leverage in lean, overweight and obese humans. A better appreciation of the targets and regulatory priorities for protein, carbohydrate and fat intake will inform the design of effective and health-promoting weight loss diets, food labelling policies, food production systems and regulatory frameworks.

  12. Exploring breeding opportunities for reduced thermal sensitivity of feed intake in the lactating sow.

    PubMed

    Bergsma, R; Hermesch, S

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were, first, to evaluate the effects of climatic variables on daily feed intake of lactating sows and, second, to establish whether the response of sows to variation in temperature on feed intake during lactation was heritable. A total of 82,614 records for daily feed intake during lactation were available for 848 sows with 3,369 litters farrowing from January 2000 to December 2007. Climatic parameters available from the nearest weather station were maximum 24 h outside temperature, day length changes, and humidity. Although ambient room temperature was modified at the animal level in the farrowing shed, these climatic variables still had a significant effect on feed intake during lactation. Regression coefficients temperature and humidity were 0.01385 ± 0.00300 (temperature) - 0.00031 ± 0.00009 (temperature(2)) and 0.01443 ± 0.00620 (humidity) - 0.00009 ± 0.00004 (humidity(2)). There was an interaction between temperature and humidity, partly due to the climate control in the farrowing shed. At low temperature, feed intake increased considerably with greater humidity, in contrast to a small reduction in feed intake with greater humidity at high temperature. Day length change was modeled with a cosine function. At the start of autumn (September 21), sows ate 0.36 ± 0.056 kg/d less feed than at the start of spring (March 21). Daily feed intake during lactation was described as a function of days in lactation and as a function of both days in lactation and temperature using random regression models. The average heritability and repeatability summarized over the day in lactation at the mean temperature were 0.21 and 0.69, respectively. Genetic variance of temperature response on feed intake was less than 20% of the day effect. The permanent environmental variance was 2-fold (day) and 4-fold (temperature) greater than the corresponding additive genetic variance. Heritabilities of daily feed intake were greater during the first week of

  13. The food and nutrient intakes of the Tarahumara Indians of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, M T; Fry, M M; Connor, W E

    1979-04-01

    A nutritional survey of 372 semiacculturated Tarahumara Indians in the Sierra Madre Occidental Mountains of Mexico was carried out to determine the composition of their diet and its nutritional adequacy. Dietary histories from 174 adults and 198 children were obtained by interviews and field observations during 1973 and 1974. The histories for the children were calculated in part from the menus of six boarding church schools. Nutrient calculations of daily intake were based upon food composition tables and some actual analyses of Tarahumara foods. The protein intake was ample, at 87 g, and generously met the FAO/WHO recommendations for daily intake of essential amino acids. Fat contributed only 12% of total calories, its composition being 2% saturated and 5% polyunsaturated with a P/S ratio of 2. The mean dietary cholesterol intake was very low, less than 100 mg/day, and the plant sterol intake was high, over 400 mg/day. Carbohydrate comprised 75 to 80% of total calories, mostly from starch. Only 6% of total calories were derived from simple sugars. The crude fiber intake was high, 18 to 21 g/day. Salt consumption was moderately low, 5 to 8 g/day. The daily intakes of calcium, iron, vitamin A, ascorbic acid, thiamin niacin, riboflavin, and vitamin B6 exceeded or approximated the FAO/WHO recommendations. Thus, the simple diet of the Tarahumara Indians, composed primarily of beans and corn, provided a high intake of complex carbohydrate and was low in fat and cholesterol. Their diet was found to be generally of high nutritional quality and would, by all criteria, be considered antiatherogenic.

  14. Effects of deoxynivalenol in naturally contaminated wheat on feed intake and health status of horses.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Anna-Katharina; Kersten, Susanne; Dänicke, Sven; Coenen, Manfred; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined the short-term effects of deoxynivalenol (DON), administered at two different concentrations via a feed preparation using naturally contaminated wheat, on feed intake, liver and kidney metabolism and immunomodulatory properties in horses. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 21 days. DON was provided via naturally contaminated wheat (14.6 ± 6.5 mg DON/kg dry matter). The daily feed intake was adjusted to 4 kg of wheat and 1.7 kg of silage per 100 kg of body weight (BW). Horses were fed one of the following diets: control wheat with 0% contaminated wheat (CON), wheat mixture containing 53 ± 2% of DON-contaminated wheat [low DON intake (LDI)] or wheat mixture containing 78 ± 4% of DON-contaminated wheat [high DON intake (HDI)]. CON, LDI and HDI corresponded to a targeted daily DON intake via the complete ration of <5, 50 and 75 μg/kg BW, respectively. None of the horses demonstrated any clinical signs commonly associated with the intake of DON such as colic or depression. HDI was associated with lower daily wheat intake on day 21. Serum DON concentrations increased with higher DON intake. The non-toxic DON metabolite, deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) was only detected on day 21 of the DON feeding period. No changes in haematological and serum parameters or serum globulins or in the ex vivo proliferation response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were observed. These results suggest that horses are less sensitive to DON exposure than other domestic species, for example, swine. Therefore, the European Commission guidance value for critical DON concentrations in swine feed (complete diet) of 0.9 mg/kg could be safely applied for rations intended for feeding adult horses as well.

  15. [Assessment of selected vitamins content in daily food rations of obese patients].

    PubMed

    Czapska, Danuta; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Stefańska, Ewa; Karczewski, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the content of chosen vitamins soluble in fats (A, E) and in water (B1, B2 B6, B12, C, niacin, folic acid) in daily food rations of obese subjects, who are not on a reducing diet (201 obese women - BMI = 32.9 +/- 6.2 kg/ m2 and 60 men - BMI = 33.4 +/- 5.3 kg/m2). The mean age was 45.8 +/- 12.2 years for women and 48 +/- 13.5 years for men. Dietary habits were assessed using the 24 h dietary recall method. Computer program DIETA2 was used to evaluate the vitamin content in daily food rations. Vitamin intake was compared with safe levels for subjects with low physical activity. Low intake were observed in the consumption of vitamin B1 in women and B2 in men. Daily food rations of patients with excessive body mass (both women and men) met safe level daily requirements for vitamin E, niacin, folic acid, riboflavin (women), vitamin B6 (men). High intakes of vitamin A, B12, and C were noted both among obese women and men.

  16. Stimulation of food intake and growth of chickens by cyproheptadine: lack of interaction with the effects of pinealectomy and melatonin.

    PubMed

    Injidi, M H; Forbes, J M

    1987-03-01

    Cyproheptadine stimulates food intake and growth in some species of mammal; its effects are reported here in chickens. Growing cockerels of an egg-laying strain were given 0.32 mg/d by mouth, which resulted in significant increases in weight gain and food intake, including feeding during the night. Increasing daily doses of up to 1.6 mg/kg body weight stimulated intake in a dose-related manner, while 1.92 mg/kg had the same effect as 0.96 mg/kg. Neither pinealectomy, which is known to stimulate food intake, nor treatment with melatonin, which depresses intake, interacted with the effects of cyproheptadine on food intake, showing that its effect is not mediated by the pineal gland.

  17. A method for assessing dietary intakes of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids in an Irish adult population.

    PubMed

    Leite, J Costa; Hearty, A P; Nugent, A P; Gibney, M J

    2010-09-01

    The present study aimed to quantify dietary intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and trans fatty acids (trans FA) in Irish adults using the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey (NSIFCS). To update the NSIFCS database, specific approaches were necessary to select accurate data. Published references were the main data source used to update for EPA and DHA (21.7%), while the UK Nutrient Databank was most frequently used to update for trans FA (46.7%). Total EPA and DHA mean daily intake was 275 mg/day whilst trans FA mean daily intake was 0.72% food energy. Younger adults had significantly lower intakes of EPA and DHA than older adults. The present study shows that dietary EPA and DHA intakes in the Irish adult population are below recommendations, especially among the younger population. Conversely, trans FA intakes are within the recommended value of < 2% food energy.

  18. Early ethanol and water intake: choice mechanism and total fluid regulation operate in parallel in male alcohol preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol/water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol/water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol/water choice.

  19. Daily cycles in coastal dunes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, R.E.; Richmond, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Daily cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. Daily cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.

  20. WAPA Daily Energy Accounting Activities

    1990-10-01

    ISA (Interchange, Scheduling, & Accounting) is the interchange scheduling system used by the DOE Western Area Power Administration to perform energy accounting functions associated with the daily activities of the Watertown Operations Office (WOO). The system's primary role is to provide accounting functions for scheduled energy which is exchanged with other power companies and power operating organizations. The system has a secondary role of providing a historical record of all scheduled interchange transactions. The followingmore » major functions are performed by ISA: scheduled energy accounting for received and delivered energy; generation scheduling accounting for both fossil and hydro-electric power plants; metered energy accounting for received and delivered totals; energy accounting for Direct Current (D.C.) Ties; regulation accounting; automatic generation control set calculations; accounting summaries for Basin, Heartland Consumers Power District, and the Missouri Basin Municipal Power Agency; calculation of estimated generation for the Laramie River Station plant; daily and monthly reports; and dual control areas.« less

  1. Daily physical activity patterns of children with delayed eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Annette R; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Lundgren, Jennifer D; Allison, Kelly; Tremblay, Angelo; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Drapeau, Vicky

    2013-10-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) is a delayed pattern of energy intake. It is unknown if symptoms associated with this syndrome are accompanied by a delayed pattern of physical activity. This study examines the relationship between physical activity patterns and delayed eating behaviors in children. Children from the QUALITY cohort (n = 269, 45% female, aged 8-11 y) completed the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ), which measures NES symptoms on a continuous scale and identifies single NES symptoms. Daily accelerometer data were transformed into mean counts per wear-time minute for each hour of the day. Children with high NEQ scores had higher levels of daily (p < 0.001) and evening physical activity (p = 0.05) and reached 75% of their total daily physical activity 20 minutes later than children with low NEQ scores (p < 0.05). Excessive evening snacking and a strong urge to eat in the evening or at night were the symptoms most related to these physical activity patterns. Children with delayed eating behaviors had higher levels of physical activity in the late morning and evening and a delayed physical activity pattern compared to children with no or fewer symptoms. Future research is needed to determine if physical activity plays a role in the onset or maintenance of night eating.

  2. Daily lifestyles in the fog and haze weather

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Dong-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background China is being plagued by a large-scaled lasting fog and haze, under which people have to work and live. Therefore, it matters to do what we can to minimize the adverse impact of the fog and haze on individual health on a daily basis. Methods Relative literatures on the fog and haze have been searched and reviewed. Particular attention has been paid to the literatures on the adverse impact of the fog and haze on the people’s health and on the ways minimizing this impact. Results Coming across the weather of fog and haze, appropriate measures taken can minimize its adverse impact on individuals on a daily basis. The measures included vitamin intake, water drinking, air cleaning indoors, stay-at-home, and mask wearing outdoors. These measures are simple and proven effective. Conclusions Simple and effective measures seem to be sufficient to minimizing the adverse impact of the fog and haze on the individual’s health on a daily basis. Lifestyle changes, awareness of environment protection, energy conservation, and new and clean energy use are ultimate ways to curb the air pollution and reduce the occurrence of the fog and haze. PMID:26904256

  3. Leptin modulates the daily rhythmicity of blood glucose.

    PubMed

    Grosbellet, Edith; Dumont, Stephanie; Schuster-Klein, Carole; Guardiola-Lemaitre, Beatrice; Pevet, Paul; Criscuolo, François; Challet, Etienne

    2015-06-01

    Leptin may affect central and/or peripheral timing, in addition to its well-known regulatory effects on metabolism. Here, we investigated whether leptin can impact rhythmicity of blood glucose and lipids. For that purpose, daily variations of blood glucose and lipids were compared between mice lacking functional leptin receptor (db/db) or deficient for leptin (ob/ob) and controls (db/+ and ob/+, respectively). Next, we investigated whether timed treatment with exogenous leptin in ob/ob mice could modulate blood glucose rhythm. Mice with defective leptin signaling (db/db and ob/ob) have the same phase-opposed timing in glycemia (11 and 9 h shift, respectively) compared to respective controls. By contrast, the phase of plasma lipids rhythms (e.g. triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acid - NEFA, high density lipoprotein - HDL, low density lipoprotein - LDL) remained essentially unchanged, whatever the genotype. Daily injections of leptin (1 mg/kg) in ob/ob mice during nighttime or daytime led to 1-2 h phase-advances of blood glucose rhythm and glucose arrhythmicity, respectively. These injections induced additional phase-dependent shifts of feeding rhythm (ranging from 2.6 h phase-delays to 2.6 h advances). The present study reveals a chronomodulatory role of leptin, and highlights that rhythmic leptin can be a determinant of daily variations of blood glucose and food intake, though not for lipids. PMID:26035479

  4. Intake of selected bioactive compounds from plant food supplements containing fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) among Finnish consumers.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Liisa; Salmenhaara, Maija; Isoniemi, Merja; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Finglas, Paul; Plumb, Jenny; Tuominen, Pirkko; Savela, Kirsti

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the intake of selected bioactive compounds from fennel-containing plant food supplements (PFS) among Finnish consumers. The estimated average intake of estragole was 0.20mg/d, of trans-anethole 1.15mg/d, of rosmarinic acid 0.09mg/d, of p-coumaric acid 0.0068mg/d, of kaempferol 0.0034mg/d, of luteolin 0.0525μg/d, of quercetin 0.0246mg/d, of matairesinol 0.0066μg/d and of lignans 0.0412μg/d. The intakes of kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin, matairesinol and lignans from PFS were low in comparison with their dietary supply. The intake of estragole was usually moderate, but a heavy consumption of PFS may lead to a high intake of estragole. The intake of trans-anethole did not exceed the acceptable daily intake, but PFS should be taken into account when assessing the total exposure. To our knowledge, this study provided the first intake estimates of trans-anethole, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid in human populations.

  5. Nutrient Intakes and Vegetable and White Potato Consumption by Children Aged 1 to 3 Years.

    PubMed

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    In 2020, for the first time, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans will include recommendations for children from birth to age 24 mo. We examined average nutrient intakes as well as total vegetable and white potato (WP) consumption among children aged 1-3 y using day 1 dietary data from the NHANES 2009-2012 and the Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2009-2012. Appropriate survey weights were used to calculate average daily consumption of total vegetables and WPs, which included French-fried potatoes and chips, for boys and girls aged 1-3 y. We calculated mean intakes of selected nutrients of concern, including vitamin D, potassium, dietary fiber (DF), and calcium. We also examined intakes of selected nutrients by major food group. Average intakes of most nutrients, including calcium, by children aged 1-3 y exceeded Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). However, average intakes of potassium, DF, and vitamin D were 67%, 55%, and 49% of DRIs, respectively. Mean total vegetable intake was less than the recommendation of 1 cup/d. Boys and girls aged 1-3 y consumed an average of 0.58 cup equivalents of total vegetables on the day of the survey, which included 0.16 cups of WPs. Average vegetable consumption and mean intakes of potassium, DF, and vitamin D were far below recommendations. The consumption of all vegetables, particularly those that are excellent sources of potassium and DF, such as potatoes, should be encouraged.

  6. Limits to sustained energy intake. XVI. Body temperature and physical activity of female mice during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gamo, Yuko; Bernard, Amelie; Mitchell, Sharon E; Hambly, Catherine; Al Jothery, Aqeel; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Król, Elzbieta; Speakman, John R

    2013-06-15

    Lactation is the most energy-demanding phase of mammalian reproduction, and lactation performance may be affected by events during pregnancy. For example, food intake may be limited in late pregnancy by competition for space in the abdomen between the alimentary tract and fetuses. Hence, females may need to compensate their energy budgets during pregnancy by reducing activity and lowering body temperature. We explored the relationships between energy intake, body mass, body temperature and physical activity throughout pregnancy in the MF1 mouse. Food intake and body mass of 26 females were recorded daily throughout pregnancy. Body temperature and physical activity were monitored every minute for 23 h a day by implanted transmitters. Body temperature and physical activity declined as pregnancy advanced, while energy intake and body mass increased. Compared with a pre-mating baseline period, mice increased energy intake by 56% in late pregnancy. Although body temperature declined as pregnancy progressed, this served mostly to reverse an increase between baseline and early pregnancy. Reduced physical activity may compensate the energy budget of pregnant mice but body temperature changes do not. Over the last 3 days of pregnancy, food intake declined. Individual variation in energy intake in the last phase of pregnancy was positively related to litter size at birth. As there was no association between the increase in body mass and the decline in intake, we suggest the decline was not caused by competition for abdominal space. These data suggest overall reproductive performance is probably not constrained by events during pregnancy. PMID:23720802

  7. Limits to sustained energy intake. XVI. Body temperature and physical activity of female mice during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gamo, Yuko; Bernard, Amelie; Mitchell, Sharon E; Hambly, Catherine; Al Jothery, Aqeel; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Król, Elzbieta; Speakman, John R

    2013-06-15

    Lactation is the most energy-demanding phase of mammalian reproduction, and lactation performance may be affected by events during pregnancy. For example, food intake may be limited in late pregnancy by competition for space in the abdomen between the alimentary tract and fetuses. Hence, females may need to compensate their energy budgets during pregnancy by reducing activity and lowering body temperature. We explored the relationships between energy intake, body mass, body temperature and physical activity throughout pregnancy in the MF1 mouse. Food intake and body mass of 26 females were recorded daily throughout pregnancy. Body temperature and physical activity were monitored every minute for 23 h a day by implanted transmitters. Body temperature and physical activity declined as pregnancy advanced, while energy intake and body mass increased. Compared with a pre-mating baseline period, mice increased energy intake by 56% in late pregnancy. Although body temperature declined as pregnancy progressed, this served mostly to reverse an increase between baseline and early pregnancy. Reduced physical activity may compensate the energy budget of pregnant mice but body temperature changes do not. Over the last 3 days of pregnancy, food intake declined. Individual variation in energy intake in the last phase of pregnancy was positively related to litter size at birth. As there was no association between the increase in body mass and the decline in intake, we suggest the decline was not caused by competition for abdominal space. These data suggest overall reproductive performance is probably not constrained by events during pregnancy.

  8. Intake of selected bioactive compounds from plant food supplements containing fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) among Finnish consumers.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Liisa; Salmenhaara, Maija; Isoniemi, Merja; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Finglas, Paul; Plumb, Jenny; Tuominen, Pirkko; Savela, Kirsti

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the intake of selected bioactive compounds from fennel-containing plant food supplements (PFS) among Finnish consumers. The estimated average intake of estragole was 0.20mg/d, of trans-anethole 1.15mg/d, of rosmarinic acid 0.09mg/d, of p-coumaric acid 0.0068mg/d, of kaempferol 0.0034mg/d, of luteolin 0.0525μg/d, of quercetin 0.0246mg/d, of matairesinol 0.0066μg/d and of lignans 0.0412μg/d. The intakes of kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin, matairesinol and lignans from PFS were low in comparison with their dietary supply. The intake of estragole was usually moderate, but a heavy consumption of PFS may lead to a high intake of estragole. The intake of trans-anethole did not exceed the acceptable daily intake, but PFS should be taken into account when assessing the total exposure. To our knowledge, this study provided the first intake estimates of trans-anethole, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid in human populations. PMID:26471600

  9. Nutrient Intakes and Vegetable and White Potato Consumption by Children Aged 1 to 3 Years.

    PubMed

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    In 2020, for the first time, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans will include recommendations for children from birth to age 24 mo. We examined average nutrient intakes as well as total vegetable and white potato (WP) consumption among children aged 1-3 y using day 1 dietary data from the NHANES 2009-2012 and the Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2009-2012. Appropriate survey weights were used to calculate average daily consumption of total vegetables and WPs, which included French-fried potatoes and chips, for boys and girls aged 1-3 y. We calculated mean intakes of selected nutrients of concern, including vitamin D, potassium, dietary fiber (DF), and calcium. We also examined intakes of selected nutrients by major food group. Average intakes of most nutrients, including calcium, by children aged 1-3 y exceeded Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). However, average intakes of potassium, DF, and vitamin D were 67%, 55%, and 49% of DRIs, respectively. Mean total vegetable intake was less than the recommendation of 1 cup/d. Boys and girls aged 1-3 y consumed an average of 0.58 cup equivalents of total vegetables on the day of the survey, which included 0.16 cups of WPs. Average vegetable consumption and mean intakes of potassium, DF, and vitamin D were far below recommendations. The consumption of all vegetables, particularly those that are excellent sources of potassium and DF, such as potatoes, should be encouraged. PMID:26773032

  10. DAILY INTAKE ESTIMATES OF PBDES ASSOCIATED WITH CONSUMPTION OF CATFISH IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in a wide variety of consumer products. Concerns surrounding these compounds are primarily due do their ubiquitous presence in the environment as well as in human tissue, such as milk, coupled with evidence indi...

  11. [Nutritional status in university students: its relation to the number of daily intakes and macronutrients consumption].

    PubMed

    Pi, Romina Antonella; Vidal, Paula Daniela; Brassesco, Bárbara Romina; Viola, Lorena; Aballay, Laura Rosana

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: existe una creciente evidencia científica de que la nutrición ejerce una influencia tanto positiva como negativa en la salud a lo largo de la vida. Diversos autores han destacado que la población universitaria es un grupo especialmente vulnerable desde el punto de vista nutricional ya que se caracteriza por omitir comidas con frecuencia y realizar pequeñas ingestas repetidas veces entre las comidas principales. Objetivo General: establecer la relación existente entre el número de ingestas alimentarias diarias (NIAD), el consumo de macronutrientes y el estado nutricional (EN) en estudiantes de 23-33 años de la Universidad Tecnológica Nacional (UTN), de la ciudad de Córdoba, en el año 2013. Métodos: se utilizó un diseño prospectivo de tipo descriptivo simple correlacional de corte transversal. Se realizó análisis descriptivo e inferencial mediante modelos de regresión logística múltiple. Resultados: de la muestra analizada casi un 50% presentó sobrepeso (SP) y un 40% grasa corporal (GC) elevada. En relación al número de ingestas, los estudiantes que realizaron menos de 4 y más de 6 ingestas tuvieron 2 veces más chance de presentar exceso de peso y de GC. A medida que aumenta la edad también lo hacen los depósitos de GC, y cuando disminuyen los niveles de actividad física (AF) aumenta la chance de presentar un índice de masa corporal (IMC) y GC elevada. Por otro lado, el consumo excesivo de glúcidos aumenta la chance de presentar GC elevada y SP, y el de proteínas y lípidos, el riesgo de GC elevada. Conclusión: Se reconoce al NIAD inferior o superior al recomendado, el bajo nivel de AF, el elevado consumo de carbohidratos, y la edad superior a 29 años como variables relacionados con el SP y la GC elevada.

  12. Daily dietary selenium intake and hair selenium content in a high selenium area of Enshi, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenium is essential to humans and is widely distributed within the human body. Its content in blood, urine, hair and nails are important indicators to evaluate Se level in the human body. In China (Shadi, Enschi city), human selenosis of residents is reported to occur in high numbers. In this stud...

  13. Health risk assessment of trace elements via dietary intake of 'non-piscine protein source' foodstuffs (meat, milk and egg) in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Nazma; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Islam, Md Saiful; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Tukun, Avonti Basak; Islam, Saiful; M A Rahim, Abu Torab

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of six trace elements [chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As)] were assessed in 'non-piscine protein source' foodstuffs (meat, milk and eggs) to evaluate contamination level and human health risks in Bangladesh. The range of Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb and As in the investigated foodstuffs was 1.24-2.17, 1.29-2.56, 0.92-2.31, 0.12-0.44, 0.15-0.48 and 0.14-0.57 mg kg fresh weight(-1), respectively. The estimated mean levels of most of the elements were higher than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) for dietary foods. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of Cr and Cd were higher than the maximum tolerable daily intake (MTDI) for children, indicating that they are more susceptible to toxic elements through food consumption. The target hazard quotients (THQs) and target carcinogenic risk (TCR) of As (THQ > 1 and TCR > 10(-4)) for both the adults and children suggest that the consumers of non-piscine foodstuffs (especially cow milk and chicken meat) are exposed chronically to metal pollution with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health consequences. PMID:26755177

  14. Health risk assessment of trace elements via dietary intake of 'non-piscine protein source' foodstuffs (meat, milk and egg) in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Nazma; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Islam, Md Saiful; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Tukun, Avonti Basak; Islam, Saiful; M A Rahim, Abu Torab

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of six trace elements [chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As)] were assessed in 'non-piscine protein source' foodstuffs (meat, milk and eggs) to evaluate contamination level and human health risks in Bangladesh. The range of Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb and As in the investigated foodstuffs was 1.24-2.17, 1.29-2.56, 0.92-2.31, 0.12-0.44, 0.15-0.48 and 0.14-0.57 mg kg fresh weight(-1), respectively. The estimated mean levels of most of the elements were higher than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) for dietary foods. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of Cr and Cd were higher than the maximum tolerable daily intake (MTDI) for children, indicating that they are more susceptible to toxic elements through food consumption. The target hazard quotients (THQs) and target carcinogenic risk (TCR) of As (THQ > 1 and TCR > 10(-4)) for both the adults and children suggest that the consumers of non-piscine foodstuffs (especially cow milk and chicken meat) are exposed chronically to metal pollution with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health consequences.

  15. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  16. Influence of crambe meal as a protein source on intake, site of digestion, ruminal fermentation, and microbial efficiency in beef steers fed grass hay.

    PubMed

    Caton, J S; Burke, V I; Anderson, V L; Burgwald, L A; Norton, P L; Olson, K C

    1994-12-01

    Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated beef steers (558 +/- 37 kg) were arranged in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate the influence of crambe meal as a protein source on intake, digestion, and microbial efficiency. Steers were offered chopped (10.2 cm) brome hay (6.2% CP) for ad libitum consumption and one of four supplements. Protein sources used were soybean and crambe meals (CM). Protein sources were blended to provide four levels of supplemental CM protein (0, 33, 67, and 100%). Protein supplements were fed to provide similar amounts of protein and energy. Amounts of supplements fed were 831, 885, 950, and 996 g of DM/steer daily for 0, 33, 67, and 100% CM treatments, respectively. Crambe meal represented 0, 2.00, 3.83, and 5.88% of the DM intake for respective treatments. Steers were allowed a 21-d adaptation to diets before each collection period. Supplements were offered at 0800 and forage at 0830. Crambe meal had no influence (P > .10) on forage and total DM intake (grams/kilogram of BW). Apparent total tract, ruminal, and postruminal digestion of OM, NDF, ADF, and N were unaffected (P > .10) by CM supplementation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Salt craving: The psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Michael J.; Na, Elisa S.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-01-01

    Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate – an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors. PMID:18514747

  18. Dietary intake and nutritional status in Italian elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Inelmen, E M; Gimenez, G F; Gatto, M R; Miotto, F; Sergi, G; Marccari, T; Gonzalez, A M; Maggi, S; Peruzza, S; Pisent, C; Enzi, G

    2000-01-01

    Dietary intake and nutritional status was assessed in a random sample of 190 Italians (70-75 years of age) participating in the Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly (EURONUT-SENECA). The daily energy intake as assessed by a Modified Dietary History, was 2208+/-562 Kcalories in men and 1742+/-527 Kcalories in women. The alcohol intake was significantly higher in men than in women (35. 9+/-32.5 g/day vs 14.7+/-15.4 g/day; p<0.0001). As for calcium, there was a high percentage of men (77%) and women (86%) with a lower intake than the recommended values. The subjects underweight (BMI<20) were only 4.1% men and 9.7% women, while the great part was normal (BMI= 20-24.9) and overweight (BMI=25-29.9). The body composition parameters showed a significant difference between two genders. Men had a Total Body Water (56.5+/-4.5% vs 51.3+/-5.4%; p<0. 001) and Fat-Free Mass (80.4+/-5.2% vs 70.9+/-6.8%; p<0.001) higher than women. Few subjects were at high risk of deficiency with regard to plasma levels of vitamins, haemoglobin and albumin. If we analyse the composition of the diet consumed, we can remark the characteristics of a typical Mediterranean diet. We conclude that the general nutritional status of our sample was fairly good.

  19. Beverage Consumption Patterns and Micronutrient and Caloric Intake from Beverages in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Venci, Brittany; Hodac, Nicole; Lee, Seung-Yeon; Shidler, Marcelle; Krikorian, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine total water intake and patterns of beverage consumption, and its contribution to total daily micronutrients and calories in older adults with mild memory decline. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was used with 60 independent community-dwelling older adults (71.7 ± 5.4 years) with mild cognitive impairment, who were mostly female, well-educated, and white. Three-day food records were analyzed using the Nutrition Data Systems for Research. Descriptive statistics were conducted for a summary of demographics, the average intakes of beverages, and the contribution of beverages to total calorie and micronutrient intakes. Total daily water intake was 53.6 ± 26.7 fl oz and milk, plain water, and tea/coffee were beverages consumed most frequently. Beverage consumption contributed substantially to the intake of vitamin D (29.4%), calcium (26.4%), riboflavin (22.0%), magnesium (18.9%), and vitamin C (18.1%), but constituted only ∼12.5% of total energy. These findings suggest that nutrient-dense beverages play a fundamental role in overall micronutrient intake, despite comprising a small component of daily caloric intake. Incorporating adequate amounts of such beverages in meals and snacks may help older adults meet their nutrient recommendations.

  20. Beverage Consumption Patterns and Micronutrient and Caloric Intake from Beverages in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Venci, Brittany; Hodac, Nicole; Lee, Seung-Yeon; Shidler, Marcelle; Krikorian, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine total water intake and patterns of beverage consumption, and its contribution to total daily micronutrients and calories in older adults with mild memory decline. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was used with 60 independent community-dwelling older adults (71.7 ± 5.4 years) with mild cognitive impairment, who were mostly female, well-educated, and white. Three-day food records were analyzed using the Nutrition Data Systems for Research. Descriptive statistics were conducted for a summary of demographics, the average intakes of beverages, and the contribution of beverages to total calorie and micronutrient intakes. Total daily water intake was 53.6 ± 26.7 fl oz and milk, plain water, and tea/coffee were beverages consumed most frequently. Beverage consumption contributed substantially to the intake of vitamin D (29.4%), calcium (26.4%), riboflavin (22.0%), magnesium (18.9%), and vitamin C (18.1%), but constituted only ∼12.5% of total energy. These findings suggest that nutrient-dense beverages play a fundamental role in overall micronutrient intake, despite comprising a small component of daily caloric intake. Incorporating adequate amounts of such beverages in meals and snacks may help older adults meet their nutrient recommendations. PMID:26571357

  1. Total Water Intakes of Community-Living Middle-Old and Oldest-Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Kathy Jo; Wernette, Catherine M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Literature reporting total daily water intake of community-dwelling older adults is limited. We evaluated differences in total water intake, water sources, water from meal and snack beverages, timing of beverage consumption, and beverage selection for three older age groups (young-old, 65–74 years; middle-old, 75–84 years; and oldest-old, ≥85 years). Methods Data for 2,054 older adults from the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Su