Science.gov

Sample records for allowable pumping rates

  1. Basic program analyzes fluid rheology to determine pump rates

    SciTech Connect

    Moftah, K.R. )

    1994-05-09

    The use of statistical methods can improve the selection of a rheological model and the subsequent calculations for critical pump rate and pressure drop for cementing operations. The accompanying interactive Basic computer program allows the user to analyze fluid rheology to help determine the best data for use in predicting cementing pump rates. An accurate critical pump rate and pressure drop can then be calculated based on the correctly calculated rheological parameters. For cementing operations, the important methods of calculating the critical pump rate are the Hedstrom analysis, based on the Bingham plastic rheological model, and the Metzner and Reed analysis, based on the power law rheological model.

  2. An environmental rating for heat pump equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The major federal and state regulatory trends that may affect heat pump markets are reviewed. Then the confluence of federal and state regulation, and what that may mean for heat pump markets, is discussed. The conclusion reached, and therefore the assumption for the rest of the paper, is that state regulators will increasingly be managing the environmental impacts associated with alternative heating, cooling, and water heating methods within the framework of Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The input needs of IRP are reviewed, and some shortcomings of existing rating procedures for providing the IRP inputs are identified. Finally, the paper concludes with a brief suggestion on course of action.

  3. An environmental rating for heat pump equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.J.

    1992-12-31

    The major federal and state regulatory trends that may affect heat pump markets are reviewed. Then the confluence of federal and state regulation, and what that may mean for heat pump markets, is discussed. The conclusion reached, and therefore the assumption for the rest of the paper, is that state regulators will increasingly be managing the environmental impacts associated with alternative heating, cooling, and water heating methods within the framework of Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The input needs of IRP are reviewed, and some shortcomings of existing rating procedures for providing the IRP inputs are identified. Finally, the paper concludes with a brief suggestion on course of action.

  4. 38 CFR 17.128 - Allowable rates and fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable rates and fees. 17.128 Section 17.128 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Payment and Reimbursement of the Expenses of Medical Services Not Previously Authorized § 17.128 Allowable rates and fees. When it has...

  5. 5 CFR 591.307 - Payment of allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nature of assigned work. (g) When a remote duty post is determined by the Office of Personnel Management... ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Allowance Based on Duty at Remote Worksites § 591.307 Payment of allowance rate... approved work schedule of the employee precludes use of the transportation services that may be...

  6. Recycle Rate in a Pulsed, Optically Pumped Rubidium Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Wooddy S.; Sulham, Clifford V.; Holtgrave, Jeremy C.; Perram, Glen P.

    2010-10-08

    A pulsed, optically pumped rubidium laser operating in analogy to the diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) system at pump intensities as high as 750 kW/cm{sup 2} has been demonstrated with output energies of up to 13 {mu}J/pulse. Output energy is dramatically limited by spin-orbit relaxation rates under these high intensity pump conditions. More than 250 photons are available for every rubidium atom in the pumped volume, requiring a high number of cycles per atom during the 2-8 ns duration of the pump pulse. At 550 Torr of ethane, the spin-orbit relaxation rate is too slow to effectively utilize all the incident pump photons. Indeed, a linear dependence of output energy on pump pulse duration for fixed pump energy is demonstrated.

  7. Analysis of Student Loan Special Rate Allowances and Servicing Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Management, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    This document addresses two separate, though related aspects of the operation of the Guaranteed Student Loan Program (GSLP): (1) the mechanism for setting the special rate allowance (SRA); and (2) the effect of the operating requirements of the program on lender servicing costs. The study develops recommendations for improving both aspects of the…

  8. Pump down rate for SRF cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchnir, M.; Knobloch, J.

    1992-02-01

    This note is about calculations aimed at quantifying adequate pumping speeds of evacuation of normally humid clean-room air from typical Superconducting Radiofrequency (SRF) cavities. The subject is of high relevance to the semiconductor industry, where the yield of VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) chip production is affected by micron size particles which may cause fatal defects to their micron and sub-micron features. The recent availability of particle counters capable of operating in vacuum has stimulated measurements at reduced pressures in this subject.

  9. Readout of relaxation rates by nonadiabatic pumping spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riwar, Roman-Pascal; Roche, Benoît; Jehl, Xavier; Splettstoesser, Janine

    2016-06-01

    We put forward nonadiabatic charge pumping as a method for accessing the different charge relaxation rates as well as the relaxation rates of excited orbital states in double-quantum-dot setups, based on extremely size-limited quantum dots and dopant systems. The rates are obtained in a well-separated manner from plateaus, occurring when comparing the steady-state current for reversed driving cycles. This yields a reliable readout independent of any fitting parameters. Importantly, the nonadiabatic pumping spectroscopy essentially exploits the same driving scheme that the operation of these devices generally employs. We provide a detailed analysis of the working principle of the readout scheme as well as of possible errors, thereby demonstrating its broad applicability. The precise knowledge of relaxation rates is highly relevant for the implementation of time-dependently operated devices, such as electron pumps for metrology or qubits in quantum information.

  10. High Repetition Rate Grazing Incidence Pumped X-ray Laser operating at 18.9 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, R; Dunn, J; Patel, P K; Price, D F; Smith, R F; Shlyaptsev, V N

    2004-05-11

    We have demonstrated a 10 Hz Ni-like Mo X-ray laser operating at 18.9 nm with 150 mJ total pump energy by employing a novel pumping scheme. The grazing incidence scheme is described, where a picosecond pulse is incident at a grazing angle to a Mo plasma column produced by a slab target irradiated by a 200 ps laser pulse. This scheme uses refraction of the short pulse at a pre-determined electron density to increase absorption to pump a specific gain region. The high efficiency inherent to this scheme allows a reduction in the pump energy where 70 mJ long pulse energy and 80 mJ short pulse energy are sufficient to produce lasing at a 10 Hz repetition rate. Under these conditions and by optimizing the delay between the pulses, we achieve strong amplification and saturation for 4 mm long targets.

  11. 40 CFR 74.23 - 1985 Allowable SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1985 Allowable SO2 emissions rate. 74... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.23 1985 Allowable SO2... data: (i) Allowable SO2 emissions rate of the combustion source expressed in lbs/mmBtu as defined...

  12. 40 CFR 74.24 - Current allowable SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Current allowable SO2 emissions rate... allowable SO2 emissions rate. The designated representative shall submit the following data: (a) Current allowable SO2 emissions rate of the combustion source, expressed in lbs/mmBtu, which shall be the...

  13. 40 CFR 74.24 - Current allowable SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Current allowable SO2 emissions rate... allowable SO2 emissions rate. The designated representative shall submit the following data: (a) Current allowable SO2 emissions rate of the combustion source, expressed in lbs/mmBtu, which shall be the...

  14. 40 CFR 74.24 - Current allowable SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Current allowable SO2 emissions rate... allowable SO2 emissions rate. The designated representative shall submit the following data: (a) Current allowable SO2 emissions rate of the combustion source, expressed in lbs/mmBtu, which shall be the...

  15. 40 CFR 74.24 - Current allowable SO 2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Current allowable SO 2 emissions rate... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.24 Current allowable SO 2 emissions rate. The designated representative shall submit the following data: (a)...

  16. 40 CFR 74.24 - Current allowable SO 2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Current allowable SO 2 emissions rate... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.24 Current allowable SO 2 emissions rate. The designated representative shall submit the following data: (a)...

  17. 40 CFR 74.23 - 1985 Allowable SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.23 1985 Allowable SO2 emissions rate. (a) Data requirements. (1) The designated representative of the combustion source shall... data: (i) Allowable SO2 emissions rate of the combustion source expressed in lbs/mmBtu as defined...

  18. 40 CFR 74.23 - 1985 Allowable SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.23 1985 Allowable SO2 emissions rate. (a) Data requirements. (1) The designated representative of the combustion source shall... data: (i) Allowable SO2 emissions rate of the combustion source expressed in lbs/mmBtu as defined...

  19. 78 FR 77670 - Zero Rate Reactive Power Rate Schedules; Notice Allowing Post-Workshop Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Comments On December 11, 2013, a Commission staff-led workshop explored the mechanics of filing reactive... written comments focused on the mechanics of filing reactive power rate schedules for which there is...

  20. 78 FR 75483 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances; Commuted Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ...] RIN 3090-AJ40 Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances; Commuted Rate AGENCY: Office of..., OGP, is providing a workable commuted rate to be used by agencies in determining a benchmark for... treated by Federal agencies as the commuted rate; that is, when a Federal employee moved his/her...

  1. 41 CFR 301-10.304 - What expenses are allowable in addition to the POV mileage rate allowances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Privately Owned Vehicle (POV) § 301-10.304 What expenses are... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What expenses...

  2. Do associated microbial abundances impact marine demosponge pumping rates and tissue densities?

    PubMed

    Weisz, Jeremy B; Lindquist, Niels; Martens, Christopher S

    2008-03-01

    The evolution of marine demosponges has led to two basic life strategies: one involving close associations with large and diverse communities of microorganisms, termed high microbial abundance (HMA) species, and one that is essentially devoid of associated microorganisms, termed low microbial abundance (LMA) species. This dichotomy has previously been suggested to correlate with morphological differences, with HMA species having a denser mesohyl and a more complex aquiferous systems composed of longer and narrower water canals that should necessitate slower seawater filtration rates. We measured mesohyl density for a variety of HMA and LMA sponges in the Florida Keys, and seawater pumping rates for a select group of these sponges using an in situ dye technique. HMA sponges were substantially denser than LMA species, and had per unit volume pumping rates 52-94% slower than the LMA sponges. These density and pumping rate differences suggest that evolutionary differences between HMA and LMA species may have resulted in profound morphological and physiological differences between the two groups. The LMA sponge body plan moves large quantities of water through their porous tissues allowing them to rapidly acquire the small particulate organic matter (POM) that supplies the majority of their nutritional needs. In contrast, the HMA sponge body plan is suited to host large and tightly packed communities of microorganisms and has an aquiferous system that increases contact time between seawater and the sponge/microbial consortium that feeds on POM, dissolved organic matter and the raw inorganic materials for chemolithotrophic sponge symbionts. The two evolutionary patterns represent different, but equally successful patterns and illustrate how associated microorganisms can potentially have substantial effects on host evolution.

  3. 76 FR 48863 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-Standard Mileage Rate for Moving Purposes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances--Standard Mileage Rate for Moving Purposes AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of a... at which agencies will reimburse an employee for using a privately owned vehicle for relocation on...

  4. Pumping Rate Study of a Left Ventricular Assist Device in a Mock Circulatory System.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xiaoqi; Yang, Ming; Xu, Liang; Ou, Wenchu; Xu, Zihao; Meng, Fan; Huang, Huan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the hemodynamic influence of the change of pump rate on the cardiovascular system with consideration of heart rate and the resonant characteristics of the arterial system when a reliable synchronous triggering source is unavailable. Hemodynamic waveforms are recorded at baseline conditions and with the pump rate of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) at 55, 60, 66, and 70 beats per minute for four test conditions in a mock circulatory system. The total input work (TIW) and energy equivalent pressure (EEP) are calculated as metrics for evaluating the hemodynamic performance within different test conditions. Experimental results show that TIW and EEP achieve their maximum values, where the pump rate is equal to the heart rate. In addition, it demonstrates that TIW and EEP are significantly affected by changing pump rate of LVAD, especially when the pump rate is closing to the natural frequency of the arterial system. When a reliable synchronous triggering source is not available for LVAD, it is suggested that selecting a pump rate equal to the resonant frequency of the arterial system could achieve better supporting effects.

  5. P. falciparum In Vitro Killing Rates Allow to Discriminate between Different Antimalarial Mode-of-Action

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, Laura M.; Crespo, Benigno; De-Cózar, Cristina; Ding, Xavier C.; Llergo, Jose L.; Burrows, Jeremy N.; García-Bustos, Jose F.; Gamo, Francisco-Javier

    2012-01-01

    Chemotherapy is still the cornerstone for malaria control. Developing drugs against Plasmodium parasites and monitoring their efficacy requires methods to accurately determine the parasite killing rate in response to treatment. Commonly used techniques essentially measure metabolic activity as a proxy for parasite viability. However, these approaches are susceptible to artefacts, as viability and metabolism are two parameters that are coupled during the parasite life cycle but can be differentially affected in response to drug actions. Moreover, traditional techniques do not allow to measure the speed-of-action of compounds on parasite viability, which is an essential efficacy determinant. We present here a comprehensive methodology to measure in vitro the direct effect of antimalarial compounds over the parasite viability, which is based on limiting serial dilution of treated parasites and re-growth monitoring. This methodology allows to precisely determine the killing rate of antimalarial compounds, which can be quantified by the parasite reduction ratio and parasite clearance time, which are key mode-of-action parameters. Importantly, we demonstrate that this technique readily permits to determine compound killing activities that might be otherwise missed by traditional, metabolism-based techniques. The analysis of a large set of antimalarial drugs reveals that this viability-based assay allows to discriminate compounds based on their antimalarial mode-of-action. This approach has been adapted to perform medium throughput screening, facilitating the identification of fast-acting antimalarial compounds, which are crucially needed for the control and possibly the eradication of malaria. PMID:22383983

  6. Computer simulator of coiled tubing wellbore cleanouts in deviated wells recommends optimum pump rate and fluid viscosity

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, I.C.

    1995-12-31

    Key factors in the efficient removal of sand fill from deviated wells are the proper selection of a fluid and the pump rates. The operation should be designed to (1) reduce or eliminate the formation of beds of particles in the annulus between the casing and tubing, (2) maintain the particles in suspension and (3) transport the fill to the surface. A new design tool for coiled tubing (CT) cleanouts in deviated wells has been developed. Based on a mechanistic model of particle transport in deviated wells, it predicts the conditions under which a particle bed is formed, calculates the depth of the bed and determines whether the bed slides upward, remains stationary or slides back down the well. Moreover, it calculates the minimum pump rate required to achieve complete suspension of the fill for different fluid viscosities, sand pick-up rates and deviation angles, thereby allowing a simple assessment of the optimum design parameters.

  7. Determining optimum pumping rates for creation of hydraulic barriers to ground-water pollutant migration

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, J.M.

    1984-04-01

    In certain ground-water flow regimes control of the migration of pollutants can be achieved by hydraulic barriers created by ground-water withdrawal and/or injection. However, for complicated flow domains and situations where multiple wells may be installed, the determination of pumping rates to achieve a pollution control objective can be difficult. A nonlinear programming (NLP) algorithm is coupled to a two-dimensional, steady-state, ground-water flow model and an advective transport model for determination of optimum pumping rates for creation of hydraulic barriers. This technique is a screening tool for the selection of pumping rates to be subsequently confirmed with more detailed simulation. Two example applications of this technique are presented. The first example shows how NLP can be used to determine pumping rates required to develop a stagnation point. Optimum pumping rates for eight wells arranged in a circular configuration are determined so as to reduce the ground-water velocity to near zero over a precise region within a nonhomogeneous aquifer. The second example involves the determination of optimum steady-state pumping rates for six wells in a nonhomogeneous flow domain where the objective is the control (i.e., steering) of the trajectory of a contaminant plume. 17 references, 10 figures, 5 tables.

  8. PUMPS

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, J.D.

    1959-03-24

    A pump is described for conveving liquids, particure it is not advisable he apparatus. The to be submerged in the liquid to be pumped, a conduit extending from the high-velocity nozzle of the injector,and means for applying a pulsating prcesure to the surface of the liquid in the conduit, whereby the surface oscillates between positions in the conduit. During the positive half- cycle of an applied pulse liquid is forced through the high velocity nozzle or jet of the injector and operates in the manner of the well known water injector and pumps liquid from the main intake to the outlet of the injector. During the negative half-cycle of the pulse liquid flows in reverse through the jet but no reverse pumping action takes place.

  9. Relative Contributions of Geothermal Pumping and Long-Term Earthquake Rate to Seismicity at California Geothermal Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiser, D. A.; Jackson, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    In a tectonically active area, a definitive discrimination between geothermally-induced and tectonic earthquakes is difficult to achieve. We focus our study on California's 11 major geothermal fields: Amedee, Brawley, Casa Diablo, Coso, East Mesa, The Geysers, Heber, Litchfield, Salton Sea, Susanville, and Wendel. The Geysers geothermal field is the world's largest geothermal energy producer. California's Department of Oil Gas and Geothermal Resources provides field-wide monthly injection and production volumes for each of these sites, which allows us to study the relationship between geothermal pumping activities and seismicity. Since many of the geothermal fields began injecting and producing before nearby seismic stations were installed, we use smoothed seismicity since 1932 from the ANSS catalog as a proxy for tectonic earthquake rate. We examine both geothermal pumping and long-term earthquake rate as factors that may control earthquake rate. Rather than focusing only on the largest earthquake, which is essentially a random occurrence in time, we examine how M≥4 earthquake rate density (probability per unit area, time, and magnitude) varies for each field. We estimate relative contributions to the observed earthquake rate of M≥4 from both a long-term earthquake rate (Kagan and Jackson, 2010) and pumping activity. For each geothermal field, respective earthquake catalogs (NCEDC and SCSN) are complete above at least M3 during the test period (which we tailor to each site). We test the hypothesis that the observed earthquake rate at a geothermal site during the test period is a linear combination of the long-term seismicity and pumping rates. We use a grid search to determine the confidence interval of the weighting parameters.

  10. Effects of sodium chloride, phosphate type and concentration, and pump rate on beef biceps femoris quality and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Baublits, R T; Pohlman, F W; Brown, A H; Johnson, Z B

    2005-06-01

    Beef biceps femoris muscles (n=45) were used to evaluate the effect of enhancement with solutions comprising 2.0% sodium chloride and either sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), or tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) at either 0.2% or 0.4% of product weight. All solutions were injected into muscle samples at either 112% (12% pump) or 118% (18% pump) of raw product weight. Muscles treated with all three phosphate types had decreased (P<0.05) free water compared to untreated muscles (CNT), and while TSPP-treated muscles were able to bind greater (P<0.05) additional water than CNT, STPP- and SHMP-treated muscles did not differ (P>0.05) from CNT. Disregarding phosphate type, steaks with 0.4% phosphate inclusion bound more (P<0.05) water than those with 0.2% phosphate inclusion. Steaks treated with STPP or TSPP had decreased (P<0.05) cooking losses than CNT, while SHMP-treated steaks did not differ (P>0.05) from CNT. Steaks injected at 18% pump had greater (P<0.05) percent moisture, and did not differ (P>0.05) in free water, water binding, or cooking losses from steaks injected at 12% pump. Although there were no differences (P>0.05) in Warner-Bratzler shear force in this study, steaks with SHMP, STPP, and TSPP all were rated more tender, and juicier (P<0.05) by sensory panelists than CNT steaks or steaks enhanced only with sodium chloride. Regardless of phosphate type, steaks enhanced with 0.4% phosphate and those steaks at 18% pump received improved (P<0.05) sensory tenderness ratings compared to 0.2% phosphate and 12% pump, respectively. These results suggest that enhancing biceps femoris muscles with STPP or TSPP can improve water retention, yield, and palatability characteristics. Additionally, enhancement with a phosphate/salt solution at an 18% pump rate, compared to a 12% pump rate, can allow for improved sensory tenderness perceptions without decreasing product yields.

  11. Study of application rates of aerosol and pump hair sprays. Final report, July 1986-November 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Boggs, R.R.; Belmont, B.

    1988-03-11

    Application rates of three hair spray dispensing systems, aerosol, pump, and Exxel packaging were determined through a six-week user panel of approximately 300 people. In addition, photochemically reactive organic compounds (PROC) application rates were determined through chemical analysis of the products. The user panel was stratified on the basis of sex, dispenser (pump/aerosol), and age (adult/teen). Weighted-application rates and weighted PROC application rates are included. A Mann-Whitney evaluation was made to evaluate differences between data sets. Product-usage data for both male and female adult groups support the conclusion that increased use of either pumps or Exxel packaging for hair spray would reduce PROC emissions in California. Data from adult groups also indicate that use of Exxel packaging in place of pumps would not reduce PROC. Consumer preference was also sampled. Adult pump users were not very willing to switch to aerosols, but on the order of half of aerosol users were willing to switch to pumps.

  12. Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Z. N.; Wu, P.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

    2013-12-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m3/h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result.

  13. Enhancement with varying phosphate types, concentrations, and pump rates, without sodium chloride on beef biceps femoris quality and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Baublits, R T; Pohlman, F W; Brown, A H; Johnson, Z B

    2006-03-01

    Beef biceps femoris muscles (n=45) were used to evaluate the effect of enhancement with solutions containing sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), or tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) at either 0.2% or 0.4% of product weight, without sodium chloride. All solutions were injected into muscle samples at either 112% (12% pump) or 118% (18% pump) of raw product weight. Muscles enhanced with STPP or TSPP had a higher (P<0.05) pH than SHMP or untreated muscles (CNT), whereas there was no difference (P>0.05) in pH between SHMP and CNT. Muscles enhanced with STPP had less (P<0.05) free water than CNT, whereas SHMP and TSPP did not differ from CNT. However, direct comparison of phosphate types revealed no difference (P>0.05) in free water. Steaks enhanced with SHMP had greater (P<0.05) cooking losses than CNT, whereas steaks treated with STPP or TSPP did not differ (P>0.05) from CNT. Phosphate inclusion at 0.2% allowed for greater (P<0.05) cooking losses than CNT, whereas 0.4% phosphate inclusion exhibited similar (P>0.05) cooking losses as CNT. Although there were no differences (P>0.05) in cooking loss between pump rates, steaks enhanced at an 18% pump rate had greater (P<0.05) cooking losses than CNT, whereas those enhanced at 12% had similar (P>0.05) cooking losses as CNT. Enhancement with any of the three phosphate types or either concentration did not improve (P>0.05) sensory tenderness or juiciness characteristics compared to CNT, but enhancement at an 18% pump rate allowed for improved (P<0.05) overall tenderness, compared to a 12% pump rate. These results suggest that while phosphate enhancement independent of sodium chloride generally did not improve water retention, cooked yields and palatability compared to untreated samples, utilizing higher phosphate concentrations or utilizing STPP or TSPP effectively retained the additional water associated with solution enhancement, allowing for similar free water and cook yields as untreated

  14. Estimation of Distributed Groundwater Pumping Rates in Yolo County,CA—Intercomparison of Two Modeling Frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maples, S.; Fogg, G. E.; Harter, T.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate estimation of groundwater (GW) budgets and effective management of agricultural GW pumping remains a challenge in much of California's Central Valley (CV) due to a lack of irrigation well metering. CVHM and C2VSim are two regional-scale integrated hydrologic models that provide estimates of historical and current CV distributed pumping rates. However, both models estimate GW pumping using conceptually different agricultural water models with uncertainties that have not been adequately investigated. Here, we evaluate differences in distributed agricultural GW pumping and recharge estimates related to important differences in the conceptual framework and model assumptions used to simulate surface water (SW) and GW interaction across the root zone. Differences in the magnitude and timing of GW pumping and recharge were evaluated for a subregion (~1000 mi2) coincident with Yolo County, CA, to provide similar initial and boundary conditions for both models. Synthetic, multi-year datasets of land-use, precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET), and SW deliveries were prescribed for each model to provide realistic end-member scenarios for GW-pumping demand and recharge. Results show differences in the magnitude and timing of GW-pumping demand, deep percolation, and recharge. Discrepancies are related, in large part, to model differences in the estimation of ET requirements and representation of soil-moisture conditions. CVHM partitions ET demand, while C2VSim uses a bulk ET rate, resulting in differences in both crop-water and GW-pumping demand. Additionally, CVHM assumes steady-state soil-moisture conditions, and simulates deep percolation as a function of irrigation inefficiencies, while C2VSim simulates deep percolation as a function of transient soil-moisture storage conditions. These findings show that estimates of GW-pumping demand are sensitive to these important conceptual differences, which can impact conjunctive-use water management decisions in the CV.

  15. Characterizing shallow secondary clarifier performance where conventional flux theory over-estimates allowable solids loading rate.

    PubMed

    Daigger, Glen T; Siczka, John S; Smith, Thomas F; Frank, David A; McCorquodale, J A

    2016-01-01

    The performance characteristics of relatively shallow (3.3 and 3.7 m sidewater depth in 30.5 m diameter) activated sludge secondary clarifiers were extensively evaluated during a 2-year testing program at the City of Akron Water Reclamation Facility (WRF), Ohio, USA. Testing included hydraulic and solids loading stress tests, and measurement of sludge characteristics (zone settling velocity (ZSV), dispersed and flocculated total suspended solids), and the results were used to calibrate computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models of the various clarifiers tested. The results demonstrated that good performance could be sustained at surface overflow rates in excess of 3 m/h, as long as the clarifier influent mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration was controlled to below critical values. The limiting solids loading rate (SLR) was significantly lower than the value predicted by conventional solids flux analysis based on the measured ZSV/MLSS relationship. CFD analysis suggested that this resulted because mixed liquor entering the clarifier was being directed into the settled sludge blanket, diluting it and also creating a 'thin' concentration sludge blanket that overlays the thicker concentration sludge blanket typically expected. These results indicate the need to determine the allowable SLR for shallow clarifiers using approaches other than traditional solids flux analysis. A combination of actual testing and CFD analyses are demonstrated here to be effective in doing so.

  16. Characterizing shallow secondary clarifier performance where conventional flux theory over-estimates allowable solids loading rate.

    PubMed

    Daigger, Glen T; Siczka, John S; Smith, Thomas F; Frank, David A; McCorquodale, J A

    2016-01-01

    The performance characteristics of relatively shallow (3.3 and 3.7 m sidewater depth in 30.5 m diameter) activated sludge secondary clarifiers were extensively evaluated during a 2-year testing program at the City of Akron Water Reclamation Facility (WRF), Ohio, USA. Testing included hydraulic and solids loading stress tests, and measurement of sludge characteristics (zone settling velocity (ZSV), dispersed and flocculated total suspended solids), and the results were used to calibrate computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models of the various clarifiers tested. The results demonstrated that good performance could be sustained at surface overflow rates in excess of 3 m/h, as long as the clarifier influent mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration was controlled to below critical values. The limiting solids loading rate (SLR) was significantly lower than the value predicted by conventional solids flux analysis based on the measured ZSV/MLSS relationship. CFD analysis suggested that this resulted because mixed liquor entering the clarifier was being directed into the settled sludge blanket, diluting it and also creating a 'thin' concentration sludge blanket that overlays the thicker concentration sludge blanket typically expected. These results indicate the need to determine the allowable SLR for shallow clarifiers using approaches other than traditional solids flux analysis. A combination of actual testing and CFD analyses are demonstrated here to be effective in doing so. PMID:27438236

  17. Rate equations model and optical external efficiency of optically pumped electrically driven terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamadou, A.; Thobel, J.-L.; Lamari, S.

    2016-10-01

    A four level rate equations model for a terahertz optically pumped electrically driven quantum cascade laser is here introduced and used to model the system both analytically and numerically. In the steady state, both in the presence and absence of the terahertz optical field, we solve the resulting nonlinear system of equations and obtain closed form expressions for the levels occupation, population inversion as well as the mid-infrared pump threshold intensity in terms of the device parameters. We also derive, for the first time for this system, an analytical formula for the optical external efficiency and analyze the simultaneous effects of the cavity length and pump intensity on it. At moderate to high pump intensities, we find that the optical external efficiency scales roughly as the reciprocal of the cavity length.

  18. Minimally allowed beta beata 0_nu rates from approximate flavor symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, James

    2008-01-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay ({beta}{beta}0{nu}) is the only realistic probe of Majorana neutrinos. In the standard scenario, dominated by light neutrino exchange, the process amplitude is proportional to m{sub ee} , the e - e element of the Majorana mass matrix. This is expected to hold true for small {beta}{beta}{nu} rates ({Gamma}{sub {beta}{beta}0{nu}}), even in the presence of new physics. Naively, current data allows for vanishing m{sub ee} , but this should be protected by an appropriate flavor symmetry. All such symmetries lead to mass matrices inconsistent with oscillation phenomenology. Hence, Majorana neutrinos imply nonzero {Gamma}{sub {beta}{beta}0{nu}}. I perform a spurion analysis to break all possible abelian symmetries that guarantee {Gamma}{sub {beta}{beta}0{nu}} = 0 and search for minimally allowed m{sub ee} values. Specifically, I survey 259 broken structures to yield m{sub ee} values and current phenomenological constraints under a variety of scenarios. This analysis also extracts predictions for both neutrino oscillation parameters and kinematic quantities. Assuming reasonable tuning levels, I find that m{sub ee} > 4 x 10{sup -6} eV at 99% confidence. Bounds below this value would indicate the Dirac neutrino nature or the existence of new light (eV-MeV scale) degrees of freedom that can potentially be probed elsewhere. This limit can be raised by improvements in neutrino parameter measurements, particularly of the reactor mixing angle, depending on the best fit parameter values. Such improvements will also significantly constrain the available model space and aid in future constructions.

  19. A theoretical relationship between NPSH and erosion rate for a centrifugal pump

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, R.D.; Sreedhar, B.K.

    1994-12-31

    Cavitation in turbomachines adversely affects not only the performance of the machine but is also detrimental to equipment life. The practice of ensuring NPSH{sub av} > NPSH{sub 3%} does not eliminate cavitation erosion as cavitation inception is found to occur at much higher values of the available NPSH. This paper attempts to develop a theoretical relationship between the erosion rate and NPSH for a centrifugal pump as this can be of immense value in correlating the maximum erosion rate NPSH with NPSH{sub 3%}. This is pertinent for liquid metal fast breeder reactor pumping systems.

  20. Allowance for antibody bivalence in the determination of association rate constants by kinetic exclusion assay.

    PubMed

    Winzor, Donald J

    2013-10-15

    This investigation completes the amendment of theoretical expressions for the characterization of antigen-antibody interactions by kinetic exclusion assay-an endeavor that has been marred by inadequate allowance for the consequences of antibody bivalence in its uptake by the affinity matrix (immobilized antigen) that is used to ascertain the fraction of free antibody sites in a solution with defined total concentrations of antigen and antibody. A simple illustration of reacted site probability considerations in action confirms that the square root of the fluorescence response ratio, R(Ag)/R₀, needs to be taken in order to determine the fraction of unoccupied antibody sites, which is the parameter employed to describe the kinetics of antigen uptake in the mixture of antigen and antibody with defined initial composition. The approximately 2-fold underestimation of the association rate constant (k(a)) that emanates from the usual practice of omitting the square root factor gives rise to a corresponding overestimate of the equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d))--a situation that is also encountered in the thermodynamic characterization of antigen-antibody interactions by kinetic exclusion assay. PMID:23851342

  1. High repetition rate collisional soft x-ray lasers based on grazing incidence pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Luther, B M; Wang, Y; Larotonda, M A; Alessi, D; Berrill, M; Rocca, J J; Dunn, J; Keenan, R; Shlyaptsev, V N

    2005-11-18

    We discuss the demonstration of gain-saturated high repetition rate table-top soft x-ray lasers producing microwatt average powers at wavelengths ranging from 13.9 to 33 nm. The results were obtained heating a pre-created plasma with a picosecond optical laser pulse impinging at grazing incidence onto a pre-created plasma. This pumping geometry increases the energy deposition efficiency of the pump beam into the gain region, making it possible to saturate soft x-ray lasers in this wavelength range with a short pulse pump energy of only 1 J at 800 nm wavelength. Results corresponding to 5 Hz repetition rate operation of gain-saturated 14.7 nm Ni-like Pd and 32.6 nm line Ne-like Ti lasers pumped by a table-top Ti:sapphire laser are reported. We also discuss results obtained using a 1 {omega} 1054 nm pre-pulse and 2{omega} 527 nm short pulse from a Nd:glass pump laser. This work demonstrates the feasibility of producing compact high average power soft x-ray lasers for applications.

  2. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria allow reduced application rates of chemical fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Adesemoye, A O; Torbert, H A; Kloepper, J W

    2009-11-01

    The search for microorganisms that improve soil fertility and enhance plant nutrition has continued to attract attention due to the increasing cost of fertilizers and some of their negative environmental impacts. The objectives of this greenhouse study with tomato were to determine (1) if reduced rates of inorganic fertilizer coupled with microbial inoculants will produce plant growth, yield, and nutrient uptake levels equivalent to those with full rates of the fertilizer and (2) the minimum level to which fertilizer could be reduced when inoculants were used. The microbial inoculants used in the study were a mixture of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains Bacillus amyloliquefaciens IN937a and Bacillus pumilus T4, a formulated PGPR product, and the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF), Glomus intraradices. Results showed that supplementing 75% of the recommended fertilizer rate with inoculants produced plant growth, yield, and nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) uptake that were statistically equivalent to the full fertilizer rate without inoculants. When inoculants were used with rates of fertilizer below 75% of the recommended rate, the beneficial effects were usually not consistent; however, inoculation with the mixture of PGPR and AMF at 70% fertility consistently produced the same yield as the full fertility rate without inoculants. Without inoculants, use of fertilizer rates lower than the recommended resulted in significantly less plant growth, yield, and nutrient uptake or inconsistent impacts. The results suggest that PGPR-based inoculants can be used and should be further evaluated as components of integrated nutrient management strategies. PMID:19466478

  3. Computation of transient flow rates in passive pumping micro-fluidic systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Jane; Eckstein, Eugene C; Lindner, Erno

    2009-01-01

    Motion in micro-channels of passive flow micro-fluidic systems can be controlled by proper design and estimated by careful modeling. We report on methods to describe the flow rate as function of time in a passive pump driven micro-fluidic system. The model considers the surface energy present in small droplets, which prompts their shrinkage and induces flow. The droplet geometries are controlled by the micro-fluidic system geometry and hydrophilicity of the droplet channel contact area so that the chord of the droplet's cross section is restrained as the fluid is pumped. The model uses interfacial thermodynamics and the Hagen-Poiseuille equation for calculating the flow rate in micro-channels. Existing analyses consider the theoretical relationships among sample volume and induced flow rate, surface energy of the drops at the entrance and exit ports, and the resistance to flow. This model provides more specific information on the influence of the experimental conditions in computations of the flow rate. The model was validated in four sets of experiments. Passive pumps with 1.8 mm diameter, hydrophobic or hydrophilic entry ports, 5.0 or 10.0 mm channel length, and 2.5 or 3.3 mm diameter reservoir ports provided initial flow rates between 85 nL s(-1) and 196 nL s(-1).

  4. Study of the optimal duty cycle and pumping rate for square-wave amplitude-modulated Bell–Bloom magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei-Ling, Wang; Meng-Bing, Wang; Gui-Ying, Zhang; Kai-Feng, Zhao

    2016-06-01

    We theoretically and experimentally study the optimal duty cycle and pumping rate for square-wave amplitude-modulated Bell–Bloom magnetometers. The theoretical and the experimental results are in good agreement for duty cycles and corresponding pumping rates ranging over 2 orders of magnitude. Our study gives the maximum field response as a function of duty cycle and pumping rate. Especially, for a fixed duty cycle, the maximum field response is obtained when the time averaged pumping rate, which is the product of pumping rate and duty cycle, is equal to the transverse relaxation rate in the dark. By using a combination of small duty cycle and large pumping rate, one can increase the maximum field response by up to a factor of 2 or π/2, relative to that of the sinusoidal modulation or the 50% duty cycle square-wave modulation respectively. We further show that the same pumping condition is also practically optimal for the sensitivity due to the fact that the signal at resonance is insensitive to the fluctuations of pumping rate and duty cycle. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11074050).

  5. On the probability of exceeding allowable leak rates through degraded steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Cizelj, L.; Sorsek, I.; Riesch-Oppermann, H.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses some possible ways of predicting the behavior of the total leak rate through the damaged steam generator tubes. This failure mode is of special concern in cases where most through-wall defects may remain In operation. A particular example is the application of alternate (bobbin coil voltage) plugging criterion to Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking at the tube support plate intersections. It is the authors aim to discuss some possible modeling options that could be applied to solve the problem formulated as: Estimate the probability that the sum of all individual leak rates through degraded tubes exceeds the predefined acceptable value. The probabilistic approach is of course aiming at reliable and computationaly bearable estimate of the failure probability. A closed form solution is given for a special case of exponentially distributed individual leak rates. Also, some possibilities for the use of computationaly efficient First and Second Order Reliability Methods (FORM and SORM) are discussed. The first numerical example compares the results of approximate methods with closed form results. SORM in particular shows acceptable agreement. The second numerical example considers a realistic case of NPP in Krsko, Slovenia.

  6. Drawdown changes affected by flow rate and location of pumping wells near a river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. N.; Shu, L. C.

    2016-08-01

    Riverside groundwater exploitation is one of the main means of utilizing groundwater resources. This paper describes the impact of drawdown conditions with changes in the river flow and pumping well locations, and analyzes the interaction between the groundwater and surface water. Based on long-term hydrological gauging data, abundant hydrogeological test data, and the numerical simulation results for a typical well field of the Qinbei Power Plant, this paper presents three different cases of pumping well locations and four different cases of river flow rates. Finally, the abovementioned cases are integrated into 12 extraction groups and the drawdown conditions are calculated for each group. The results show that, for a given set of flow rate conditions, a location set in a recharge zone exhibited the maximum drawdown, while a location in a transition zone had the second-largest drawdown, and a location in a discharge zone had the minimum drawdown. In addition, assuming the same locations for the pumping wells, the drawdown change from small to large corresponded to 100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% of the original flow. This paper provides a foundation for future study of the calculation of riverside groundwater exploration with changes in the flow rate and well locations.

  7. Electromagnetically-actuated reciprocating pump for high-flow-rate microfluidic applications.

    PubMed

    Ke, Ming-Tsun; Zhong, Jian-Hao; Lee, Chia-Yen

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an electromagnetically-actuated reciprocating pump for high-flow-rate microfluidic applications. The pump comprises four major components, namely a lower glass plate containing a copper microcoil, a middle PMMA plate incorporating a PDMS diaphragm with a surface-mounted magnet, upper PMMA channel plates, and a ball-type check valve located at the channel inlet. When an AC current is passed through the microcoil, an alternating electromagnetic force is established between the coil and the magnet. The resulting bi-directional deflection of the PDMS diaphragm causes the check-valve to open and close; thereby creating a pumping effect. The experimental results show that a coil input current of 0.4 A generates an electromagnetic force of 47 mN and a diaphragm deflection of 108 μm. Given an actuating voltage of 3 V and a driving frequency of 15 Hz, the flow rate is found to be 13.2 mL/min under zero head pressure conditions. PMID:23201986

  8. Electromagnetically-actuated reciprocating pump for high-flow-rate microfluidic applications.

    PubMed

    Ke, Ming-Tsun; Zhong, Jian-Hao; Lee, Chia-Yen

    2012-09-26

    This study presents an electromagnetically-actuated reciprocating pump for high-flow-rate microfluidic applications. The pump comprises four major components, namely a lower glass plate containing a copper microcoil, a middle PMMA plate incorporating a PDMS diaphragm with a surface-mounted magnet, upper PMMA channel plates, and a ball-type check valve located at the channel inlet. When an AC current is passed through the microcoil, an alternating electromagnetic force is established between the coil and the magnet. The resulting bi-directional deflection of the PDMS diaphragm causes the check-valve to open and close; thereby creating a pumping effect. The experimental results show that a coil input current of 0.4 A generates an electromagnetic force of 47 mN and a diaphragm deflection of 108 μm. Given an actuating voltage of 3 V and a driving frequency of 15 Hz, the flow rate is found to be 13.2 mL/min under zero head pressure conditions.

  9. 38 CFR 21.3131 - Rates-educational assistance allowance-38 U.S.C. chapter 35.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... assistance allowance-38 U.S.C. chapter 35. 21.3131 Section 21.3131 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief...' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 35 Payments § 21.3131 Rates—educational assistance allowance—38 U.S.C. chapter 35. (a) Rates. Except as provided in § 21.3132, educational assistance...

  10. System analysis for sucker-rod pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Z.; Doty, D.R.

    1989-05-01

    Pumping free gas in an oil well can significantly decrease the efficiency of a sucker-rod-pumping installation. Pump placement depth and use of a downhole gas/liquid separator (gas anchor) were found to be significant variables in improving the overall efficiency. A procedure is presented that shows when and to what degree the use of a gas anchor improves the efficiency of a sucker-rod pumping system. It was found that at lower pump intake pressures, the gas anchor usually improves efficiency, but at higher pump intake pressures, use of a gas anchor produces no positive effect. Also, elevating the pump to the highest position that still allows proper pump loading was found to reduce the operating costs of a sucker-rod-pumping installation significantly. Finally, a procedure is presented to calculate directly the pump volumetric efficiency and required volumetric pump displacement rate.

  11. System analysis for sucker rod pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Z.; Doty, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Pumping free gas in an oil well can significantly decrease the efficiency of a sucker rod pumping installation. Pump placement depth and the use of a down hole gas-liquid separator (gas anchor) found to be significant variables in improving the overall efficiency. A procedure is presented which shows when and by how much the use of a gas anchor improves the efficiency of a sucker rod pumping system. It was found that at lower pump intake pressures the gas anchor usually improves efficiency, while at higher pump intake pressures the use of a gas anchor will produce no positive effect. Also, it was found at elevating the pump to the highest position which still allows for proper pump loading can significantly reduce the operating costs for a sucker rod pumping installation. Finally, a procedure is presented for directly calculating pump volumetric efficiency as well as the required volumetric pump displacement rate.

  12. Fluid Dynamics in Sucker Rod Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, R.P.; Mansure, A.J.

    1999-01-14

    Sucker rod pumps are installed in approximately 90% of all oil wells in the U.S. Although they have been widely used for decades, there are many issues regarding the fluid dynamics of the pump that have not been fully investigated. A project was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories to develop unimproved understanding of the fluid dynamics inside a sucker rod pump. A mathematical flow model was developed to predict pressures in any pump component or an entire pump under single-phase fluid and pumping conditions. Laboratory flow tests were conducted on instrumented individual pump components and on a complete pump to verify and refine the model. The mathematical model was then converted to a Visual Basic program to allow easy input of fluid, geometry and pump parameters and to generate output plots. Examples of issues affecting pump performance investigated with the model include the effects of viscosity, surface roughness, valve design details, plunger and valve pressure differentials, and pumping rate.

  13. Estimation of Leak Rate from the Emergency Pump Well in L-Area Complex Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, A

    2005-12-19

    This report provides an estimate of the leak rate from the emergency pump well in L-basin that is to be expected during an off-normal event. This estimate is based on expected shrinkage of the engineered grout (i.e., controlled low strength material) used to fill the emergency pump well and the header pipes that provide the dominant leak path from the basin to the lower levels of the L-Area Complex. The estimate will be used to provide input into the operating safety basis to ensure that the water level in the basin will remain above a certain minimum level. The minimum basin water level is specified to ensure adequate shielding for personnel and maintain the ''as low as reasonably achievable'' concept of radiological exposure. The need for the leak rate estimation is the existence of a gap between the fill material and the header pipes, which penetrate the basin wall and would be the primary leak path in the event of a breach in those pipes. The gap between the pipe and fill material was estimated based on a full scale demonstration pour that was performed and examined. Leak tests were performed on full scale pipes as a part of this examination. Leak rates were measured to be on the order of 0.01 gallons/minute for completely filled pipe (vertically positioned) and 0.25 gallons/minute for partially filled pipe (horizontally positioned). This measurement was for water at 16 feet head pressure and with minimal corrosion or biofilm present. The effect of the grout fill on the inside surface biofilm of the pipes is the subject of a previous memorandum.

  14. High-power high-repetition-rate copper-vapor-pumped dye laser

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.; Dasgupta, K.; Kumar, S.; Manohar, K.G.; Nair, L.G.; Chatterjee, U.K. . Laser and Plasma Technology Div.)

    1994-06-01

    The design and development of an efficient high average power dye laser oscillator-amplifier system developed at the Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, is reported. The dye laser is pumped by a 6.5-kHz repetition rate copper vapor laser. The signal beam to the dye amplifier is obtained from an efficient narrow-band grazing incidence grating (GIG) dye laser oscillator incorporating a multiple prism beam expander. Amplifier extraction efficiency up to 40% was obtained in a single amplifier stage, using rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) in ethanol. The authors have also demonstrated simultaneous amplification of two laser beams at different wavelengths in the same dye amplifier cell.

  15. High repetition rate tunable femtosecond pulses and broadband amplification from fiber laser pumped parametric amplifier.

    PubMed

    Andersen, T V; Schmidt, O; Bruchmann, C; Limpert, J; Aguergaray, C; Cormier, E; Tünnermann, A

    2006-05-29

    We report on the generation of high energy femtosecond pulses at 1 MHz repetition rate from a fiber laser pumped optical parametric amplifier (OPA). Nonlinear bandwidth enhancement in fibers provides the intrinsically synchronized signal for the parametric amplifier. We demonstrate large tunability extending from 700 nm to 1500 nm of femtosecond pulses with pulse energies as high as 1.2 muJ when the OPA is seeded by a supercontinuum generated in a photonic crystal fiber. Broadband amplification over more than 85 nm is achieved at a fixed wavelength. Subsequent compression in a prism sequence resulted in 46 fs pulses. With an average power of 0.5 W these pulses have a peak-power above 10 MW. In particular, the average power and pulse energy scalability of both involved concepts, the fiber laser and the parametric amplifier, will enable easy up-scaling to higher powers.

  16. ELECTROMAGNETIC PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Pulley, O.O.

    1954-08-17

    This patent reiates to electromagnetic pumps for electricity-conducting fluids and, in particular, describes several modifications for a linear conduction type electromagnetic interaction pump. The invention resides in passing the return conductor for the current traversing the fiuid in the duct back through the gap in the iron circuit of the pump. Both the maximum allowable pressure and the efficiency of a linear conduction electromagnetic pump are increased by incorporation of the present invention.

  17. Computer Simulator for OTEC System Design : Pump Control of Flow Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masatoshi; Ikegami, Yasuyuki; Uehara, Haruo

    The purpose of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is to extract power from temperature differences existing in the oceans. The OTEC system design mainly comprises an OTEC plant design and an OTEC control design. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of a computer simulator for the OTEC system design. The computer simulator, constructed by a computer with A/D and D/A converters, produces analogue input and output signals which are equivalent to those of an actual OTEC plant. By using the computer simulator of an OTEC plant, we can estimate properties of any OTEC plant easily, economically and safely. The computer simulator also plays an important role in detecting difficulties in designing the OTEC controller. We furthermore described the procedure for designing the OTEC controller as follows: (i) statement of the control objective, (ii) modeling of the controlled object, (iii) application of control theory to the model, (iv) characterization of the detector and the input signal part, and (v) construction of the controller. We constructed the computer simulator and the controller for pump flow rate as part of the OTEC plant. We then obtained satisfactory control performance for flow rate control of experiments.

  18. A high-repetition rate scheme for synchrotron-based picosecond laser pump/x-ray probe experiments on chemical and biological systems in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, Frederico A.; Milne, Christopher J.; Amarasinghe, Dimali C. V.; Rittmann-Frank, Mercedes Hannelore; Veen, Renske M. van der; Reinhard, Marco; Pham, Van-Thai; Karlsson, Susanne; Mourik, Frank van; Chergui, Majed; Johnson, Steven L.; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia; Huthwelker, Thomas; Janousch, Markus; Abela, Rafael

    2011-06-15

    We present the extension of time-resolved optical pump/x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) probe experiments towards data collection at MHz repetition rates. The use of a high-power picosecond laser operating at an integer fraction of the repetition rate of the storage ring allows exploitation of up to two orders of magnitude more x-ray photons than in previous schemes based on the use of kHz lasers. Consequently, we demonstrate an order of magnitude increase in the signal-to-noise of time-resolved XAS of molecular systems in solution. This makes it possible to investigate highly dilute samples at concentrations approaching physiological conditions for biological systems. The simplicity and compactness of the scheme allows for straightforward implementation at any synchrotron beamline and for a wide range of x-ray probe techniques, such as time-resolved diffraction or x-ray emission studies.

  19. Efficient intracavity frequency doubling of a high-repetition-rate diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Hanson, F; Poirier, P

    1994-10-01

    Efficient operation of a pulsed, high-repetition-rate diode-pumped and intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser is reported. A 3-mm-diameter laser rod was side-pumped with a 5-bar stack of high-duty-cycle 1-cm diodearrays. The average Q-switched power at 1.06microum was 3.8 W at 1.33 kH(z), and more than 4 W at 0.532 ,microm wasobtained through intracavity frequency doubling with LiB(3)O(5).

  20. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II of... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II of Part 63 Protection of...—Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density EC01MY92.046...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II to... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II to Part 63 Protection of...—Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density EC01MY92.046...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II to... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II to Part 63 Protection of...—Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density EC01MY92.046...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II of... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II of Part 63 Protection of...—Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density EC01MY92.046...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II to... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II to Part 63 Protection of...—Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density EC01MY92.046...

  5. Low-pump-power, low-phase-noise, and microwave to millimeter-wave repetition rate operation in microcombs.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang; Lee, Hansuek; Chen, Tong; Vahala, Kerry J

    2012-12-01

    Microresonator-based frequency combs (microcombs or Kerr combs) can potentially miniaturize the numerous applications of conventional frequency combs. A priority is the realization of broadband (ideally octave spanning) spectra at detectable repetition rates for comb self-referencing. However, access to these rates involves pumping larger mode volumes and hence higher threshold powers. Moreover, threshold power sets both the scale for power per comb tooth and also the optical pump. Along these lines, it is shown that a class of resonators having surface-loss-limited Q factors can operate over a wide range of repetition rates with minimal variation in threshold power. A new, surface-loss-limited resonator illustrates the idea. Comb generation on mode spacings ranging from 2.6 to 220 GHz with overall low threshold power (as low as 1 mW) is demonstrated. A record number of comb lines for a microcomb (around 1900) is also observed with pump power of 200 mW. The ability to engineer a wide range of repetition rates with these devices is also used to investigate a recently observed mechanism in microcombs associated with dispersion of subcomb offset frequencies. We observe high-coherence phase locking in cases where these offset frequencies are small enough so as to be tuned into coincidence. In these cases, a record-low microcomb phase noise is reported at a level comparable to an open-loop, high-performance microwave oscillator.

  6. Global warming mitigation by sulphur loading in the stratosphere: dependence of required emissions on allowable residual warming rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, Alexey V.; Chernokulsky, Alexandr V.; Karpenko, Andrey A.; Mokhov, Igor I.

    2010-07-01

    An approach to mitigate global warming via sulphur loading in the stratosphere (geoengineering) is studied, employing a large ensemble of numerical experiments with the climate model of intermediate complexity IAP RAS CM. The model is forced by the historical+SRES A1B anthropogenic greenhouse gases+tropospheric sulphates scenario for 1860-2100 with additional sulphur emissions in the stratosphere in the twenty-first century. Different ensemble members are constructed by varying values of the parameters governing mass, horizontal distribution and radiative forcing of the stratospheric sulphates. It is obtained that, given a global loading of the sulphates in the stratosphere, among those studied in this paper latitudinal distributions of geoengineering aerosols, the most efficient one at the global basis is that peaked between 50° N and 70° N and with a somewhat smaller burden in the tropics. Uniform latitudinal distribution of stratospheric sulphates is a little less efficient. Sulphur emissions in the stratosphere required to stop the global temperature at the level corresponding to the mean value for 2000-2010 amount to more than 10 TgS/year in the year 2100. These emissions may be reduced if some warming is allowed to occur in the twenty-first century. For instance, if the global temperature trend S g in every decade of this century is limited not to exceed 0.10 K/decade (0.15 K/decade), geoengineering emissions of 4-14 TgS/year (2-7 TgS/year) would be sufficient. Even if the global warming is stopped, temperature changes in different regions still occur with a magnitude up to 1 K. Their horizontal pattern depends on implied latitudinal distribution of stratospheric sulphates. In addition, for the stabilised global mean surface air temperature, global precipitation decreases by about 10%. If geoengineering emissions are stopped after several decades of implementation, their climatic effect is removed within a few decades. In this period, surface air

  7. Application of indirect flow rate measurement using motor driving signals to a centrifugal blood pump with an integrated motor.

    PubMed

    Tsukiya, T; Taenaka, Y; Nishinaka, T; Oshikawa, M; Ohnishi, H; Tatsumi, E; Takano, H; Konishi, Y; Ito, K; Shimada, M

    2001-09-01

    The method of measuring the flow rate of a centrifugal blood pump from the input electric power, which will be indispensable for the long-term use of such devices, was developed and was applied to the direct-driven centrifugal blood pump that has been developed by our research group. The accuracy was evaluated in a chronic animal experiment using an adult goat. The results demonstrated that this method carries the sufficient potential of the instantaneous monitoring method, but errors due to electromagnetic and mechanical losses were not determined always precisely. The detection of adverse phenomena such as the obstruction of the inlet cannula was also possible from the estimated value of the flow rate and its waveform pattern.

  8. Changes in ruminal volatile fatty acid production and absorption rate during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance.

    PubMed

    Dieho, K; Dijkstra, J; Schonewille, J T; Bannink, A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to study changes in volatile fatty acid (VFA) production using an isotope dilution technique, and changes in VFA fractional absorption rate (kaVFA) using a buffer incubation technique (BIT) during the dry period and early lactation, as affected by the postpartum (pp) rate of increase of concentrate allowance. The current results are complementary to previously reported changes on rumen papillae morphology from the same experiment. From 50 d antepartum to 80 d pp, VFA production rate was measured 5 times and kaVFA was measured 10 times in 12 rumen-cannulated Holstein Friesian cows. Cows had free access to a mixed ration, consisting of grass and corn silage, soybean meal, and (dry period only) chopped straw. Treatment consisted of either a rapid (RAP; 1.0 kg of DM/d; n=6) or gradual (GRAD; 0.25 kg of DM/d; n=6) increase of concentrate allowance (up to 10.9 kg of DM/d), starting at 4 d pp, aimed at creating a contrast in rumen-fermentable organic matter intake. For the BIT, rumen contents were evacuated, the rumen washed, and a standardized buffer fluid introduced [120 mM VFA, 60% acetic (Ac), 25% propionic (Pr), and 15% butyric (Bu) acid; pH 5.9 and Co-EDTA as fluid passage marker]. For the isotope dilution technique, a pulse-dose of (13)C-labeled Ac, Pr, and Bu and Co-EDTA as fluid passage marker was infused. The rate of total VFA production was similar between treatments and was 2 times higher during the lactation (114 mol/d) than the dry period (53 mol/d). Although papillae surface area at 16, 30, and 44 d pp was greater in RAP than GRAD, Bu and Ac production at these days did not differ between RAP and GRAD, whereas at 16 d pp RAP produced more Pr than GRAD. These results provide little support for the particular proliferative effects of Bu on papillae surface area. Similar to developments in papillae surface area in the dry period and early lactation, the kaVFA (per hour), measured using the BIT, decreased from 0.45 (Ac), 0

  9. Nectar intake rate is modulated by changes in sucking pump activity according to colony starvation in carpenter ants.

    PubMed

    Falibene, Agustina; Josens, Roxana

    2008-05-01

    Dynamics of fluid feeding has been deeply studied in insects. However, the ability to vary the nectar-intake rate depending only on the carbohydrate deprivation has been clearly demonstrated only in Camponotus mus ants. When insect morphometry and fluid properties remain constant, changes in intake rate could only be attributed to variations in sucking pump activity. Previous records of the electrical activity generated during feeding in C. mus have revealed two different signal patterns: the regular (RP, frequencies: 2-5 Hz) and the irregular (IP, frequencies: 7-12 Hz). This work studies the mechanism underlying food intake-rate modulation in ants by analysing whether these patterns are involved. Behaviour and electrical activity generated by ants at different starvation levels were analysed during feeding on sucrose solutions. Ants were able to modulate the intake rate for a variety of sucrose concentrations (10, 40 and 60%w/w). The IP only occurred for 60% of solutions and its presence did not affect the intake rate. However, during the RP generated under the starved state, we found frequencies up to 7.5 Hz. RP frequencies positively correlated with the intake-rate for all sucrose concentrations. Hence, intake-rate modulation according to sugar deprivation is mainly achieved by the ant's ability to vary the pumping frequency. PMID:18320196

  10. Nectar intake rate is modulated by changes in sucking pump activity according to colony starvation in carpenter ants.

    PubMed

    Falibene, Agustina; Josens, Roxana

    2008-05-01

    Dynamics of fluid feeding has been deeply studied in insects. However, the ability to vary the nectar-intake rate depending only on the carbohydrate deprivation has been clearly demonstrated only in Camponotus mus ants. When insect morphometry and fluid properties remain constant, changes in intake rate could only be attributed to variations in sucking pump activity. Previous records of the electrical activity generated during feeding in C. mus have revealed two different signal patterns: the regular (RP, frequencies: 2-5 Hz) and the irregular (IP, frequencies: 7-12 Hz). This work studies the mechanism underlying food intake-rate modulation in ants by analysing whether these patterns are involved. Behaviour and electrical activity generated by ants at different starvation levels were analysed during feeding on sucrose solutions. Ants were able to modulate the intake rate for a variety of sucrose concentrations (10, 40 and 60%w/w). The IP only occurred for 60% of solutions and its presence did not affect the intake rate. However, during the RP generated under the starved state, we found frequencies up to 7.5 Hz. RP frequencies positively correlated with the intake-rate for all sucrose concentrations. Hence, intake-rate modulation according to sugar deprivation is mainly achieved by the ant's ability to vary the pumping frequency.

  11. High-peak-power, high-repetition-rate LD end-pumped Nd:YVO4 burst mode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Hu; Yan, Renpeng; Fa, Xin; Yu, Xin; Ma, Yufei; Fan, Rongwei; Li, Xudong; Chen, Deying; Zhou, Zhongxiang

    2016-06-01

    A compact high-peak-power, high-repetition-rate burst mode laser is achieved by an acousto-optical Q-switched Nd:YVO4 1064 nm laser directly pumped at 878.6 nm. Pulse trains with 10-100 pulses are obtained using acousto-optical Q-switch at repetition rates of 10-100 kHz under a pulsed pumping with a 1 ms duration. At the maximum pump energy of 108.5 mJ, the pulse energy of 10 kHz burst mode laser reaches 44 mJ corresponding to a single pulse energy of 4.4 mJ and an optical-to-optical efficiency of 40.5 %.The maximum peak power of ~468.1 kW at 10 kHz is obtained with a pulse width of 9.4 ns. The beam quality factor is measured to be M 2 ~1.5 and the pulse jitter is estimated to be less than 1 % in both amplitude and time region.

  12. What is the role of wind pumping on heat and mass transfer rates at the air-snow interface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helgason, W.; Pomeroy, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate prediction of the turbulent exchange of sensible heat and water vapour between the atmosphere and snowpack remains a challenging task under all but the most ideal conditions. Heat and mass transfer coefficients that recognize the unique properties of the snow surface are warranted. A particular area requiring improvement concerns the role of the porous nature of snow which provides a large surface area for heat and mass exchange with the atmosphere. Wind-pumping has long been considered as a viable mechanism for incorporating aerosols into snowpacks; however these processes are not considered in parameterization schemes for heat and mass transfer near the surface. This study attempts to determine the degree to which wind pumping can increase the rates of heat and mass transfer to snow, and to ascertain which structural properties of the snowpack are needed for inclusion in heat and mass transfer coefficients that reflect wind pumping processes. Based upon a review of recent geophysical and engineering literature where porous surfaces are exploited for their ability to augment heat and mass transfer rates, a technical analysis was conducted. Numerous conceptual mechanisms of wind pumping were considered: topographically-induced flow; barometric pressure changes; high frequency pressure fluctuations at the surface; and steady flow in the interfacial region. A sensitivity analysis was performed, subjecting each conceptual model to varying thermal and hydraulic conditions at the air-snow interface, as well as variable micro-structural properties of snow. It is shown that the rate of heat and mass exchange is most sensitive to the interfacial thermal conditions and factors controlling the energy balance of the uppermost snow grains. The effect upon the thermal regime of the snowpack was found to be most significant for mechanisms of wind pumping that result in shorter flow paths near the surface, rather than those caused by low frequency pressure changes. In

  13. Optimization of pumping rate and recharge through numerical modeling with special reference to small coral island aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Pallavi; Singh, V. S.

    The groundwater is the only source of availability of fresh water in tiny coral islands. In the past decades, there has been growing demand for fresh water to meet the need of domestic besides other purposes. The aquifer system on these islands is fragile besides being subjected to various stresses like high subsurface discharge, increased abstraction, improper disposal of waste water and tidal waves of ocean all of which subject the aquifer prone to sea water intrusion and thus reduction and deterioration the water quality. Therefore, understanding the aquifer’s behavior and then work out a sustainable option for fresh water is essential. The paper concerns optimizing of pumping and artificial recharge paces to reduce the effects of various stresses over tiny and fragile lens-shaped coral island aquifer system. The density driven ground water flow was simulated using SEAWAT (MODFLOW and MT3D based computer program) model. Detailed hydrogeological investigations were carried out to determine the quantity of freshwater that could be pumped to avoid the seawater intrusion into the aquifer through modeling. Initial heads, physical parameters and boundary conditions of the study area have been defined in the model based on field data, geophysical measurements and interpretations and hydrogeological studies. The model was calibrated by obtaining a match of computed and observed values of the water table, as hydraulic head is much more sensitive to pumping rates than any other stress. A few sentences about: flow model were utilized to derive optimal pumping rate; the effect of artificial recharge through the model, has also proved that the salt-water intrusion could be stopped by raising the water level through temporarily storing the artificially recharged water post construction of subsurface dam near the coast.

  14. 41 CFR Appendix B to Chapter 301 - Allocation of M&IE Rates To Be Used in Making Deductions From the M&IE Allowance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of M&IE Rates To Be Used in Making Deductions From the M&IE Allowance B Appendix B to Chapter 301 Public Contracts.... 301, App. B Appendix B to Chapter 301—Allocation of M&IE Rates To Be Used in Making Deductions...

  15. Calculation of the Rate of Combustion of a Metallized Composite Solid Propellant with Allowance for the Size Distribution of Agglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poryazov, V. A.; Krainov, A. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    A physicomathematical model of combustion of a metallized composite solid propellant based on ammonium perchlorate has been presented. The model takes account of the thermal effect of decomposition of a condensed phase (c phase), convection, diffusion, the exothermal chemical reaction in a gas phase, the heating and combustion of aluminum particles in the gas flow, and the velocity lag of the particles behind the gas. The influence of the granulometric composition of aluminum particles escaping from the combustion surface on the linear rate of combustion has been investigated. It has been shown that information not only on the kinetics of chemical reactions in the gas phase, but also on the granulometric composition of aluminum particles escaping from the surface of the c phase into the gas, is of importance for determination of the linear rate of combustion.

  16. Second generation high data-rate inter-orbit link based on diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sontag, H.; Johann, U.; Pribil, K.

    1991-05-01

    The SILEX experimental program is concerned with demonstrating the technologies of an optical communications link between two satellites; in order to expand system capabilities to the high data rates required for future LEO-GEO interorbit links, a detailed design study has been conducted for a system predicated on diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser technology. Even with telescopes whose apertures are less than 10 cm on the LEO satellite, and transmitter powers of less than 1 W, system transmission performance is greater than 1 Gbit/sec.

  17. Liquid metal pump

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

  18. Ferroelectric Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A ferroelectric pump has one or more variable volume pumping chambers internal to a housing. Each chamber has at least one wall comprising a dome shaped internally prestressed ferroelectric actuator having a curvature and a dome height that varies with an electric voltage applied between an inside and outside surface of the actuator. A pumped medium flows into and out of each pumping chamber in response to displacement of the ferroelectric actuator. The ferroelectric actuator is mounted within each wall and isolates each ferroelectric actuator from the pumped medium, supplies a path for voltage to be applied to each ferroelectric actuator, and provides for positive containment of each ferroelectric actuator while allowing displacement of the entirety of each ferroelectric actuator in response to the applied voltage.

  19. Smog O3 Production Rate in California Air: Marker Compounds Allow Checks on Source Attribution to Fire and Other Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatfield, R. B.; Esswein, R. F.; Cai, C.; Kaduwela, A.; Kulkarni, S.; Blake, D. R.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Fried, A.; Huey, L. G.

    2012-12-01

    We are able to attribute sources of both radical reactivity and NO that determined the smog-chemical production rate of ozone, P(O3), for NASA's wide-ranging sampling of California air in June, 2008, part of the ARCTAS intensive. We relate formaldehyde, HCHO, and reactive nitrogen oxides, NOx, to a variety of distinct "marker" species that identify origins. We have labeled the sources and markers as (i) Fire emissions (CH3CN), (ii) Biogenic emissions (Isoprene), (iii) Urban/business emissions (CHCl3), (iv) Transport-related fuel consumption, (SO2), and (v) Refining/Port emissions ("residual" toluene). We use multiple linear regression with some appropriate restrictions. We achieve R-squared or explained variance of 88% for HCHO (VOC's) and 60% for NOx. HCHO and NOx are slowly evolving measures of potential ozone generation. The two related but radiation-influenced measures j (HCHO->H+HCO) x [HCHO] and [NO] quantitatively, but non-linearly, relate to instantaneous ozone production in California air, with R-squared of 86-93%, just as in New York City (Chatfield et al., Atmos. Environ., 2010). Maps of attribution for 650 samples from the Port of San Diego to the Northern Sierra foothills, and offshore -— all show huge variability in source attributions for VOCs and NOx. They indicate a widespread fire-emission influence on VOCs as they produce peroxy radicals, but show no positive influence on NOx, in fact consuming NOx from other sources. Comparisons with simulations help to refine our attribution classes and also to check balances of VOC emissions in available inventories. The use of the P(O3) measures is directly translatable to a method for estimate smog-ozone production rate from space, as data from another intensive, DISCOVER-AQ, show. (Left) A rare example where all sources contribute significantly, with markers and tentative attributions marked. (Right) Three different situations describing the control of smog ozone production, all from the same geographic

  20. Submersible pump

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, D. B.

    1985-08-27

    A method and apparatus for using a submersible pump to lift reservoir fluids in a well while having the tubing/casing annulus isolated from the produced fluids. The apparatus allows the submersible pump to be positioned above the annular packoff device. The apparatus comprises an outer shield that encloses the pump and can be attached to the production tubing. The lower end of the shield attaches to a short tubing section that seals with the annular packoff device or a receptacle above the annular packoff device.

  1. Water Pump Development for the EVA PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuller, Michael; Kurwitz, Cable; Goldman, Jeff; Morris, Kim; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the effort by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and Honeywell for NASA to design, fabricate, and test a preflight prototype pump for use in the Extravehicular activity (EVA) portable life support subsystem (PLSS). Major design decisions were driven by the need to reduce the pump s mass, power, and volume compared to the existing PLSS pump. In addition, the pump will accommodate a much wider range of abnormal conditions than the existing pump, including vapor/gas bubbles and increased pressure drop when employed to cool two suits simultaneously. A positive displacement, external gear type pump was selected because it offers the most compact and highest efficiency solution over the required range of flow rates and pressure drops. An additional benefit of selecting a gear pump design is that it is self priming and capable of ingesting noncondensable gas without becoming "air locked." The chosen pump design consists of a 28 V DC, brushless, sealless, permanent magnet motor driven, external gear pump that utilizes a Honeywell development that eliminates the need for magnetic coupling. Although the planned flight unit will use a sensorless motor with custom designed controller, the preflight prototype to be provided for this project incorporates Hall effect sensors, allowing an interface with a readily available commercial motor controller. This design approach reduced the cost of this project and gives NASA more flexibility in future PLSS laboratory testing. The pump design was based on existing Honeywell designs, but incorporated features specifically for the PLSS application, including all of the key features of the flight pump. Testing at TEES will simulate the vacuum environment in which the flight pump will operate. Testing will verify that the pump meets design requirements for range of flow rates, pressure rise, power consumption, working fluid temperature, operating time, and restart capability. Pump testing is currently

  2. Concrete volute pumps: technology review and improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prunières, R.; Longatte, F.; Catelan, F. X.; Philippot, J. M.

    2012-11-01

    When pumps need to deliver large water flow rates (typically more than 5 m3.s-1), concrete volute pumps (CVP) offer an interesting alternative to standard vertical wet-pit pumps. One of the major advantages of CVP is its simplicity in terms of design, manufacturability and maintainability. In addition, CVP geometrical arrangement allows to reach high performances in terms of hydraulic and mechanical behaviour. These advantages can be specifically appreciated when such pumps are used in the energy field for Power Plants which need high flow rate and reliability, and can lead to important financial savings over the Plant lifetime compared to vertical wet-pit pumps. Finally, as CVP was for a long time limited to total head rise lower than 30 mWC, it was established through CFD analysis that the addition of guide vanes between the impeller and the volute allows to achieve higher head rise without risk.

  3. Fluid Dynamics in Sucker Rod Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, Robert P.; Mansure, Arthur J.

    1999-06-01

    Sucker rod pumps are installed in approximately 90% of all oil wells in the U.S. Although they have been widely used for decades, there are many issues regarding the fluid dynamics of the pump that have not been filly investigated. A project was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories to develop an improved understanding of the fluid dynamics inside a sucker rod pump. A mathematical flow model was developed to predict pressures in any pump component or an entire pump under single-phase fluid and pumping conditions. Laboratory flow tests were conducted on instrumented individual pump components and on a complete pump to verifi and refine the model. The mathematical model was then converted to a Visual Basic program to allow easy input of fluid, geometry and pump parameters and to generate output plots. Examples of issues affecting pump performance investigated with the model include the effects of viscosity, surface roughness, valve design details, plunger and valve pressure differentials, and pumping rate.

  4. Diode-pumped passively Q-switched high-repetition-rate Yb microchip laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kisel', V E; Yasukevich, A S; Kondratyuk, N V; Kuleshov, N V

    2009-11-30

    The system of balance equations is modified for quasi-three-level passively Q-switched lasers with a slow saturable absorber. Optimal parameters of a Yb{sup 3+}:YAG microchip laser with a passive Cr{sup 4+}:YAG Q switch are calculated at a pulse repetition rate of {approx}100 kHz. The single-mode operation of the Yb:YAG-Cr:YAG laser with a pulse repetition rate above 100 kHz, the average output power 0.45 W and peak power 1.5 kW is experimentally demonstrated. In the multimode lasing regime, pulses with a peak power of 4.2 kW are obtained at an average output power of 0.8 W and a pulse repetition rate of 10 kHz. (lasers)

  5. Insulin Pump Therapy Is Associated with Lower Rates of Retinopathy and Peripheral Nerve Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Zabeen, Bedowra; Craig, Maria E.; Virk, Sohaib A.; Pryke, Alison; Chan, Albert K. F.; Cho, Yoon Hi; Benitez-Aguirre, Paul Z.; Hing, Stephen; Donaghue, Kim C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare rates of microvascular complications in adolescents with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) versus multiple daily injections (MDI). Research Design and Methods Prospective cohort of 989 patients (aged 12–20 years; diabetes duration >5 years) treated with CSII or MDI for >12 months. Microvascular complications were assessed from 2000–14: early retinopathy (seven-field fundal photography), peripheral nerve function (thermal and vibration threshold testing), autonomic nerve abnormality (heart rate variability analysis of electrocardiogram recordings) and albuminuria (albumin creatinine ratio/timed overnight albumin excretion). Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to examine the relationship between treatment and complications rates, adjusting for socio-economic status (SES) and known risk factors including HbA1c and diabetes duration. Results Comparing CSII with MDI: HbA1C was 8.6% [70mmol/mol] vs. 8.7% [72 mmol/mol]) (p = 0.7), retinopathy 17% vs. 22% (p = 0.06); microalbuminuria 1% vs. 4% (p = 0.07), peripheral nerve abnormality 27% vs. 33% (p = 0.108) and autonomic nerve abnormality 24% vs. 28% (p = 0.401). In multivariable GEE, CSII use was associated with lower rates of retinopathy (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45–0.95, p = 0.029) and peripheral nerve abnormality (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.95, p = 0.026), but not albuminuria (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.10–2.17, p = 0.33). SES was not associated with any of the complication outcomes. Conclusions In adolescents, CSII use is associated with lower rates of retinopathy and peripheral nerve abnormality, suggesting an apparent benefit of CSII over MDI independent of glycemic control or SES. PMID:27050468

  6. Origin of dc voltage in type II superconducting flux pumps: field, field rate of change, and current density dependence of resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, J.; Matsuda, K.; Fu, L.; Fagnard, J.-F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Shen, B.; Dong, Q.; Baghdadi, M.; Coombs, T. A.

    2016-03-01

    Superconducting flux pumps are the kind of devices which can generate direct current into superconducting circuit using external magnetic field. The key point is how to induce a dc voltage across the superconducting load by ac fields. Giaever (1966 IEEE Spectr. 3 117) pointed out flux motion in superconductors will induce a dc voltage, and demonstrated a rectifier model which depended on breaking superconductivity. van de Klundert et al (1981 Cryogenics 21 195, 267) in their review(s) described various configurations for flux pumps all of which relied on inducing the normal state in at least part of the superconductor. In this letter, following their work, we reveal that a variation in the resistivity of type II superconductors is sufficient to induce a dc voltage in flux pumps and it is not necessary to break superconductivity. This variation in resistivity is due to the fact that flux flow is influenced by current density, field intensity, and field rate of change. We propose a general circuit analogy for travelling wave flux pumps, and provide a mathematical analysis to explain the dc voltage. Several existing superconducting flux pumps which rely on the use of a travelling magnetic wave can be explained using the analysis enclosed. This work can also throw light on the design and optimization of flux pumps.

  7. Oil well pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Whatley, D. L.; Chaviers, W. M.

    1985-07-23

    The present system and apparatus for pumping an oil well damps out the stretch and over travel in sucker rod over travel particularly when the rod string approaches its point of reversal of direction either up or down. This is accomplished by decelerating the rate of travel of the rod string and at its end of travel pausing for a time period sufficient to allow rod string oscillations to damp out prior to reversal of rod string direction which due to the long length of the rod string, its weight and the weight of the trapped oil avoids breaking the rod string and the time loss occasioned thereby in both loss of well production and costly replacement of equipment and the time loss resulting therefrom. The present invention also achieves substantial recovery of hi-viscosity oil not recoverable at present by standard recovery procedures. This is accomplished with a sensor positioned to be actuated by the ram of the hydraulic drive. When the sensor is actuated, it energizes a time delay relay which holds the sucker rod string in the upper most raised position allowing the suction to be maintained on the bottom hole pump with the standing valve open. This allows the hi-viscus oil to enter the bottom hole pump barrel. When the time delay relay is released, the sucker rod string starts its downward movement closing the bottom hole standing valve. This traps the hi-viscus oil in the pump barrel which is then displaced by the downward-movement of the plunger in the bottom hole pump.

  8. Enhancing the heralded single-photon rate from a silicon nanowire by time and wavelength division multiplexing pump pulses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Jizan, I; He, J; Clark, A S; Choi, D-Y; Chae, C J; Eggleton, B J; Xiong, C

    2015-06-01

    Heralded single photons produced on a silicon chip represent an integrated photon source solution for scalable photonic quantum technologies. The key limitation of such sources is their non-deterministic nature introduced by the stochastic spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) process. Active spatial and temporal multiplexing can improve this by enhancing the single-photon rate without degrading the quantum signal-to-noise ratio. Here, taking advantage of the broad bandwidth of SFWM in a silicon nanowire, we experimentally demonstrate heralded single-photon generation from a silicon nanowire pumped by time and wavelength division multiplexed pulses. We show a 90±5% enhancement on the heralded photon rate at the cost of only 14±2% reduction to the signal-to-noise ratio, close to the performance found using only time division multiplexed pulses. As single-photon events are distributed to multiple wavelength channels, this new scheme overcomes the saturation limit of avalanche single-photon detectors and will improve the ultimate performance of such photon sources. PMID:26030539

  9. Laser-diode pumped self-mode-locked praseodymium visible lasers with multi-gigahertz repetition rate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuxia; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Di Lieto, Alberto; Tonelli, Mauro; Wang, Jiyang

    2016-06-15

    We demonstrate efficient laser-diode pumped multi-gigahertz (GHz) self-mode-locked praseodymium (Pr3+) visible lasers with broadband spectra from green to deep red for the first time to our knowledge. With a Pr3+-doped GdLiF4 crystal, stable self-mode-locked visible pulsed lasers at the wavelengths of 522 nm, 607 nm, 639 nm, and 720 nm have been obtained with the repetition rates of 2.8 GHz, 3.1 GHz, 3.1 GHz, and 3.0 GHz, respectively. The maximum output power was 612 mW with the slope efficiency of 46.9% at 639 nm. The mode-locking mechanism was theoretically analyzed. The stable second-harmonic mode-locking with doubled repetition frequency was also realized based on the Fabry-Perot effect formed in the laser cavity. In addition, we find that the polarization directions were turned with lasing wavelengths. This work may provide a new way for generating efficient ultrafast pulses with high- and changeable-repetition rates in the visible range.

  10. Laser-diode pumped self-mode-locked praseodymium visible lasers with multi-gigahertz repetition rate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuxia; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Di Lieto, Alberto; Tonelli, Mauro; Wang, Jiyang

    2016-06-15

    We demonstrate efficient laser-diode pumped multi-gigahertz (GHz) self-mode-locked praseodymium (Pr3+) visible lasers with broadband spectra from green to deep red for the first time to our knowledge. With a Pr3+-doped GdLiF4 crystal, stable self-mode-locked visible pulsed lasers at the wavelengths of 522 nm, 607 nm, 639 nm, and 720 nm have been obtained with the repetition rates of 2.8 GHz, 3.1 GHz, 3.1 GHz, and 3.0 GHz, respectively. The maximum output power was 612 mW with the slope efficiency of 46.9% at 639 nm. The mode-locking mechanism was theoretically analyzed. The stable second-harmonic mode-locking with doubled repetition frequency was also realized based on the Fabry-Perot effect formed in the laser cavity. In addition, we find that the polarization directions were turned with lasing wavelengths. This work may provide a new way for generating efficient ultrafast pulses with high- and changeable-repetition rates in the visible range. PMID:27304265

  11. development of a medium repetition rate (10 Hz - 500 Hz) diode pumped laser transmitter for airborne scanning altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, D. Barry; Lindauer, Steven J., II; Kay, Richard B.

    1998-01-01

    Since the late 1980's, NASA has developed several small, all-solid state lasers of low repetition rates for use as transmitters in prototype LIDAR and raster scanned altimetry retrieval systems. Our early laser transmitters were developed for high resolution airborne altimetry which employed cavity dumping techniques to produce a pulse shape with a 1 ns rise time. The first such laser was the SUMR (Sub-millimeter resolution) transmitter which used a side pumped, D-shaped half-rod of Nd:YAG for the oscillator active media and produced approximately 3 ns pulses of 100 micro-J energy at a 40 Hz repetition rate. (Coyle and Blair, 1993; Coyle et al., 1995) After several upgrades to improve rep rate and pulse energy, the final version produced 1.2 mJ pulses at 120 Hz with a 3.7 ns pulse width. The laser has become known as SPLT (Sharp Pulsed Laser Transmitter), and has flown successfully on a variety of airborne altimetry missions. (Coyle and Blair, 1995; Blair et al., 1994) From building these systems, we have accrued valuable experience in delivering field-deployable lasers and have become aware of the advantages and disadvantages of employing new technologies. For example, even though the laser's main operating environment is in a "cold" aircraft during flight, the laser must still operate in very warm temperatures. This is important if the mission is based in the desert or a tropical climate since ground calibration data from stationary targets must be gathered before and after each data flight. Because conductive cooling is much more convenient than closed loop water flow, achieving the highest possible laser efficiency is becoming a high priority when designing a flight laser. This is especially true for lasers with higher pulse energies and repetition rates which are needed for high altitude scanning altimeters and LIDARs.

  12. High-repetition-rate quasi-CW side-pumped mJ eye-safe laser with a monolithic KTP crystal for intracavity optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Cho, C Y; Chen, Y C; Huang, Y P; Huang, Y J; Su, K W; Chen, Y F

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate a high-repetition-rate millijoule passively Q-switched eye-safe Nd:YVO(4) laser pumped by a quasi-CW diode stack. A theoretical analysis has been explored for the design criteria of generating TEM(n,0) mode in the diode-stack directly side-pumping configuration. We successfully generate TEM(n,0) modes at 1064 nm by adjusting the gain medium with respected to the laser axis. We further observe the spatial cleaning ability for generating an nearly TEM(0,0) mode output at 1573 nm with a monolithic OPO cavity. At the repetition rate up to 200 Hz, the output pulse energy reaches 1.21 mJ with the threshold pump energy of 17.9 mJ.

  13. Increase in family allowances.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    In July 1989 the family allowance structure in Australia was changed from a 4-rate to a 2-rate structure. The new rates were increased to $A9 a week for the 1st 3 children and $A12 for each additional child. The Family Allowance Supplment rate for children 13-15 years old was raised from $A31 to $A34.10/week. PMID:12344544

  14. Tag return models allowing for harvest and catch and release: Evidence of environmental and management impacts on striped bass fishing and natural mortality rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, H.; Pollock, K.H.; Brownie, C.; Hoenig, J.M.; Latour, R.J.; Wells, B.K.; Hightower, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Catch-and-release fisheries have become very important in the management of overexploited recreational fish stocks. Tag return studies, where the tag is removed regardless of fish disposition, have been used to assess the effectiveness of restoration efforts for these fisheries. We extend the instantaneous rate formulation of tag return models to allow for catch and release as well as harvest. The key point of our methods is that, given an estimate of the tag reporting rate, the fishing mortality rate (F) is separated into two components: the mortality on harvested fish and the "mortality" on tags (because the lags are removed) of fish released alive. The total fishing mortality rate for untagged fish is the sum of the Fs due to harvest and hooking mortality suffered by fish released alive. Natural mortality rates can also be estimated. Both age-independent models and age-dependent models are constructed, and the age-dependent models are illustrated by application to data from a study of striped bass Morone saxatilis in Chesapeake Bay from 1991 to 2003 by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources. By fitting models of the natural mortality rate with limited age and year dependence, we demonstrate an overall decrease in natural mortality rates as fish age and provide evidence of an increase in natural mortality beginning in the late 1990s, when an outbreak of the disease mycobacteriosis is thought to have begun. Our results indicate that fishing mortality is age dependent; selectivity increases up to age 6, when fish appear to be fully recruited to the fishery. There is also evidence of an increase in fishing mortality since 1995, when regulations were relaxed. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  15. Spin-scattering rates in metallic thin films measured by ferromagnetic resonance damping enhanced by spin-pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, C. T.; Shaw, J. M.; Nembach, H. T.; Silva, T. J.

    2015-06-14

    We determined the spin-transport properties of Pd and Pt thin films by measuring the increase in ferromagnetic resonance damping due to spin-pumping in ferromagnetic (FM)-nonferromagnetic metal (NM) multilayers with varying NM thicknesses. The increase in damping with NM thickness depends strongly on both the spin- and charge-transport properties of the NM, as modeled by diffusion equations that include both momentum- and spin-scattering parameters. We use the analytical solution to the spin-diffusion equations to obtain spin-diffusion lengths for Pt and Pd. By measuring the dependence of conductivity on NM thickness, we correlate the charge- and spin-transport parameters, and validate the applicability of various models for momentum-scattering and spin-scattering rates in these systems: constant, inverse-proportional (Dyakanov-Perel), and linear-proportional (Elliot-Yafet). We confirm previous reports that the spin-scattering time appears to be shorter than the momentum scattering time in Pt, and the Dyakanov-Perel-like model is the best fit to the data.

  16. High repetition rate passive Q-switching of diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser at 912 nm with V3+:YAG as the saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H. W.; Huang, H. T.; He, J. L.; Liu, S. D.; Liu, F. Q.; Yang, X. Q.; Xu, J. L.; Yang, J. F.; Zhang, B. T.

    2011-01-01

    The character of a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4/V3+:YAG 912 nm laser was demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge. With an absorbed pump power of 7.4 W, an average output power of 360 mW with a Q-switched pulse width of 328 ns at a pulse repetition rate of 163 kHz was obtained. The Q-switching efficiency was found to be 32.7%. Our work further indicated V3+:YAG could be an effective fast passive Q-switch for 0.9 μm radiation.

  17. Development and numerical/experimental characterization of a lab-scale flat flame reactor allowing the analysis of pulverized solid fuel devolatilization and oxidation at high heating rates.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, R; Menanteau, S

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the thorough characterization of a new experimental test bench designed to study the devolatilization and oxidation of pulverized fuel particles in a wide range of operating conditions. This lab-scale facility is composed of a fuel feeding system, the functioning of which has been optimized by computational fluid dynamics. It allows delivering a constant and time-independent mass flow rate of fuel particles which are pneumatically transported to the central injector of a hybrid McKenna burner using a carrier gas stream that can be inert or oxidant depending on the targeted application. A premixed propane/air laminar flat flame stabilized on the porous part of the burner is used to generate the hot gases insuring the heating of the central coal/carrier-gas jet with a thermal gradient similar to those found in industrial combustors (>10(5) K/s). In the present work, results issued from numerical simulations performed a priori to characterize the velocity and temperature fields in the reaction chamber have been analyzed and confronted with experimental measurements carried out by coupling particle image velocimetry, thermocouple and two-color pyrometry measurements so as to validate the order of magnitude of the heating rate delivered by such a new test bench. Finally, the main features of the flat flame reactor we developed have been discussed with respect to those of another laboratory-scale system designed to study coal devolatilization at a high heating rate. PMID:26827350

  18. Development and numerical/experimental characterization of a lab-scale flat flame reactor allowing the analysis of pulverized solid fuel devolatilization and oxidation at high heating rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, R.; Menanteau, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the thorough characterization of a new experimental test bench designed to study the devolatilization and oxidation of pulverized fuel particles in a wide range of operating conditions. This lab-scale facility is composed of a fuel feeding system, the functioning of which has been optimized by computational fluid dynamics. It allows delivering a constant and time-independent mass flow rate of fuel particles which are pneumatically transported to the central injector of a hybrid McKenna burner using a carrier gas stream that can be inert or oxidant depending on the targeted application. A premixed propane/air laminar flat flame stabilized on the porous part of the burner is used to generate the hot gases insuring the heating of the central coal/carrier-gas jet with a thermal gradient similar to those found in industrial combustors (>105 K/s). In the present work, results issued from numerical simulations performed a priori to characterize the velocity and temperature fields in the reaction chamber have been analyzed and confronted with experimental measurements carried out by coupling particle image velocimetry, thermocouple and two-color pyrometry measurements so as to validate the order of magnitude of the heating rate delivered by such a new test bench. Finally, the main features of the flat flame reactor we developed have been discussed with respect to those of another laboratory-scale system designed to study coal devolatilization at a high heating rate.

  19. Surface micromachined electrostatically actuated micro peristaltic pump.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun; Shih, Jason; Lin, Qiao; Yang, Bozhi; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2004-10-01

    An electrostatically actuated micro peristaltic pump is reported. The micro pump is entirely surface micromachined using a multilayer parylene technology. Taking advantage of the multilayer technology, the micro pump design enables the pumped fluid to be isolated from the electric field. Electrostatic actuation of the parylene membrane using both DC and AC voltages was demonstrated and applied to fluid pumping based on a 3-phase peristaltic sequence. A maximum flow rate of 1.7 nL min(-1) and an estimated pumping pressure of 1.6 kPa were achieved at 20 Hz phase frequency. A dynamic analysis was also performed with a lumped-parameter model for the peristaltic pump. The analysis results allow a quantitative understanding of the peristaltic pumping operation, and correctly predict the trends exhibited by the experimental data. The small footprint of the micro pump is well suited for large-scale integration of microfluidics. Moreover, because the same platform technology has also been used to fabricate other devices (e.g. valves, electrospray ionization nozzles, filters and flow sensors), the integration of these different devices can potentially lead to versatile and functional micro total analysis systems (microTAS).

  20. Pumping test evaluation of stream depletion parameters.

    PubMed

    Lough, Hilary K; Hunt, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions are given of a pumping test and a corresponding analysis that permit calculation of all five hydrogeological parameters appearing in the Hunt (2003) solution for stream depletion caused by ground water abstraction from a well beside a stream. This solution assumes that flow in the pumped aquifer is horizontal, flow in the overlying aquitard or system of aquitards is vertical, and the free surface in the top aquitard is allowed to draw down. The definition of an aquitard in this paper is any layer with a vertical hydraulic conductivity much lower than the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the pumped aquifer. These "aquitards" may be reasonably permeable layers but are distinguished from the pumped aquifer by their hydraulic conductivity contrast. The pumping test requires a complete set of drawdown measurements from at least one observation well. This well must be deep enough to penetrate the pumped aquifer, and pumping must continue for a sufficient time to ensure that depleted streamflow becomes a significant portion of the well abstraction rate. Furthermore, two of the five parameters characterize an aquitard that overlies the pumped aquifer, and values for these parameters are seen to be dependent upon the initial water table elevation in the aquitard. The field test analyzed herein used a total of eight observation wells screened in the pumped aquifer, and measurements from these wells gave eight sets of parameters that are used in a sensitivity analysis to determine the relative importance of each parameter in the stream depletion calculations. PMID:16857031

  1. High levels of isotope elimination improve precision and allow individual-based measurements of metabolic rates in animals using the doubly labeled water method

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Masaki; Niizuma, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Maki; Oda, Emiko; Ebine, Naoyuki; Oka, Nariko; Yoda, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Doubly labeled water (DLW) can be used to measure energy expenditure in free-ranging animals, but questions have been raised about its accuracy in different species or contexts. We investigated whether differences in the extent of isotope elimination affects the precision and accuracy of the DLW method, which can vary according to the experimental design or metabolic rate of the species. Estimated total energy expenditure by the DLW method (TEEdlw) was compared with actual total energy expenditure simultaneously measured via respirometry (TEEresp) in streaked shearwaters Calonectris leucomelas, a pelagic seabird. Subjects were divided into three groups with different experimental conditions: at rest on the ground for 24 h (Group A) or for 48 h (Group B), and at rest on the water for 24 h (Group C). TEEdlw in Group A matched TEEresp, whereas there was an overestimation of TEEdlw in both Groups B and C compared with TEEresp. However, compared with Group A, TEEdlw in Groups B and C had reduced the isotopic analytical variability and thus higher precision. The best regression model (TEEdlw = 1.37 TEEresp − 14.12) showed a high correlation (R2 = 0.82) between TEEdlw and TEEresp and allows a correction factor for field metabolic rates in streaked shearwaters. Our results demonstrate that the commonly made assumption that the DLW method is not appropriate for individual-based estimates may be incorrect in certain circumstances. Although a correction factor may be necessary when using the DLW method to estimate metabolic rate, greater levels of isotope eliminations provides DLW estimates with high precision, which can adequately represent relative individual estimates. Nevertheless, the DLW method, should be used with caution when characterizing interspecies difference of energy expenditures. PMID:26611463

  2. High levels of isotope elimination improve precision and allow individual-based measurements of metabolic rates in animals using the doubly labeled water method.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Masaki; Niizuma, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Maki; Oda, Emiko; Ebine, Naoyuki; Oka, Nariko; Yoda, Ken

    2015-11-01

    Doubly labeled water (DLW) can be used to measure energy expenditure in free-ranging animals, but questions have been raised about its accuracy in different species or contexts. We investigated whether differences in the extent of isotope elimination affects the precision and accuracy of the DLW method, which can vary according to the experimental design or metabolic rate of the species. Estimated total energy expenditure by the DLW method (TEEdlw) was compared with actual total energy expenditure simultaneously measured via respirometry (TEEresp) in streaked shearwaters Calonectris leucomelas, a pelagic seabird. Subjects were divided into three groups with different experimental conditions: at rest on the ground for 24 h (Group A) or for 48 h (Group B), and at rest on the water for 24 h (Group C). TEEdlw in Group A matched TEEresp, whereas there was an overestimation of TEEdlw in both Groups B and C compared with TEEresp. However, compared with Group A, TEEdlw in Groups B and C had reduced the isotopic analytical variability and thus higher precision. The best regression model (TEEdlw = 1.37 TEEresp - 14.12) showed a high correlation (R(2) = 0.82) between TEEdlw and TEEresp and allows a correction factor for field metabolic rates in streaked shearwaters. Our results demonstrate that the commonly made assumption that the DLW method is not appropriate for individual-based estimates may be incorrect in certain circumstances. Although a correction factor may be necessary when using the DLW method to estimate metabolic rate, greater levels of isotope eliminations provides DLW estimates with high precision, which can adequately represent relative individual estimates. Nevertheless, the DLW method, should be used with caution when characterizing interspecies difference of energy expenditures.

  3. Morphological adaptation of rumen papillae during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance.

    PubMed

    Dieho, K; Bannink, A; Geurts, I A L; Schonewille, J T; Gort, G; Dijkstra, J

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of the morphological adaptation of rumen papilla, which plays an important role in volatile fatty acid absorption, in dry and early lactation dairy cattle is limited. Therefore, macro- and microscopic changes in papilla morphology during the dry period and lactation and the effect of rate of increase of concentrate allowance were studied. Samples were collected from 12 rumen-cannulated Holstein Friesian dairy cows during a pretreatment period, 50, 30, and 10 d antepartum (the dry period) and 3 d postpartum (pp), and a treatment period, 9, 16, 30, 44, 60, and 80 d pp. Cows had free access to either a dry period ration [27% grass silage, 27% corn silage, 35% wheat straw, and 11% soybean meal on a dry matter (DM) basis] or a basal lactation ration (42% grass silage, 41% corn silage, and 17% soybean meal on a DM basis, and 0.9 kg of DM/d concentrate). Treatment consisted of either a rapid (1.0 kg of DM/d; RAP; n=6) or gradual (0.25 kg of DM/d; GRAD; n=6) increase of concentrate allowance (up to 10.9 kg of DM/d), starting at d 4 pp, aimed at creating a contrast in rumen-fermentable organic matter (FOM) intake. Papillae were collected from the ventral, ventral blind, and dorsal blind rumen sacs and measured digitally. Intake of DM (11.9 kg/d) and FOM (5.7 kg/d) did not change during the pretreatment period, but increased during the treatment period to 24.5 and 15.0 kg/d at 80 d pp, respectively. Concentrate treatment and sampling day interacted for FOM intake, which was 22% greater in RAP at 16 d pp compared with GRAD. Papilla surface area decreased during the pretreatment period by 19% to 28.0mm(2) at 3 d pp, thereafter increasing to 63.0mm(2) at 80 d pp. Concentrate treatment and sampling day interacted for surface area, which was greater in RAP compared with GRAD at 16 (46.0 vs. 33.2mm(2)), 30 (55.4 vs. 41.2mm(2)), and 44 (60.5 vs. 49.7 mm(2)) days pp, showing that papillae can respond to a rapid rate of increase of FOM intake by increasing growth rate

  4. Optimum bleeding rate of open loop ground source heat pump systems determined by hydrogeological modeling in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, W. H.; Kim, N.; Lee, J. Y.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the influence of open loop ground source heat pump systems operation on hydrological conditions of aquifer. Test bed is located in Chuncheon, Korea. The step drawdown test was conducted in five stages for 300 minutes. The variation of groundwater levels by open loop ground source heat pump systems operation was estimated using Visual MODFLOW. Transmissivity ranged from 2.02×10-4 to 9.36×10-4, and storage coefficient ranged from 0.00067 to 0.021. The amount of optimum bleeding was calculated to be 240 m3/day. When bleeding will be 50, 90, 240 and 450 m3/day for 5 years, groundwater levels may decrease 1.84, 3.31, 8.89 and 17.0 m, respectively. If the amount of bleeding is 50 m3/day, the influence of bleeding will not reach the boundary regions of the Soyang River after 5 years. Regarding the open loop ground source heat pump system installed at the test bed, the amount of optimum bleeding in accordance with the stand are proposed by the government is 90 m3/day, which is 20% of the 450 m3/day circulation quantity of the system. However, if continuous bleeding of more than 90 m3/day occurs, then the radius of influence is expected to reach the boundary regions of the Soyang River after 5 years. These results indicate that amount of optimum bleeding differ in each open loop ground soured heat pump system. Therefore, the debate for the amount of optimum bleeding in open loop ground source heat pump systems is demanded. This work is supported by the Energy Efficiency and Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No.20123040110010).

  5. Numerical rate equation modelling of a 1.61 μm pumped ~2 μm Tm 3+-doped tellurite fibre laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Billy D. O.; Evans, Craig A.; Ikonić, Zoran; Harrison, Paul; Tsang, Yuen H.; Binks, David J.; Lousteau, Joris; Jha, Animesh

    2008-04-01

    Near- and mid-infrared fibre lasers find many applications in areas such as remote and chemical sensing, lidar and medicine, and tellurite fibres offer advantages over other common fibre glasses such a lower phonon energy and higher rare-earth ion solubility than silicate glasses, and greater chemical and environmental stability than fluoride glasses. Rate equation modelling is a very useful tool for the characterisation and performance prediction of new rare earth transitions in these novel fibre materials. We present the numerical rate equation modelling results for a ~2 μm Tm 3+-doped tellurite fibre laser when pumped with a 1.6 μm Er 3+/Yb 3+-doped double-clad silica fibre laser. A maximum slope efficiency of 76% with respect to launched pump power was achieved in the experimental fibre laser set up with a 32 cm long fibre. The high slope efficiency is very close to the Stokes efficiency limit of ~82% which is due to the in-band pumping scheme employed and the lack of pump excited state absorption. The two-level rate equations involving absorption and emission between the Tm 3+: 3H 6 and 3F 4 levels have been solved iteratively using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm and the results compared with the experimental results. For the 32 cm fibre with output coupler reflectivities of 12%, 50%, 70% and 90%, the respective theoretical slope efficiencies of 73%, 64%, 53% and 29% are in very good agreement with the experimentally measured values of 76%, 60%, 48% and 33%.

  6. Enzymatic creatinine assays allow estimation of glomerular filtration rate in stages 1 and 2 chronic kidney disease using CKD-EPI equation.

    PubMed

    Kuster, Nils; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Cavalier, Etienne; Bargnoux, Anne-Sophie; Halimi, Jean-Michel; Froissart, Marc; Piéroni, Laurence; Delanaye, Pierre

    2014-01-20

    The National Kidney Disease Education Program group demonstrated that MDRD equation is sensitive to creatinine measurement error, particularly at higher glomerular filtration rates. Thus, MDRD-based eGFR above 60 mL/min/1.73 m² should not be reported numerically. However, little is known about the impact of analytical error on CKD-EPI-based estimates. This study aimed at assessing the impact of analytical characteristics (bias and imprecision) of 12 enzymatic and 4 compensated Jaffe previously characterized creatinine assays on MDRD and CKD-EPI eGFR. In a simulation study, the impact of analytical error was assessed on a hospital population of 24084 patients. Ability using each assay to correctly classify patients according to chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages was evaluated. For eGFR between 60 and 90 mL/min/1.73 m², both equations were sensitive to analytical error. Compensated Jaffe assays displayed high bias in this range and led to poorer sensitivity/specificity for classification according to CKD stages than enzymatic assays. As compared to MDRD equation, CKD-EPI equation decreases impact of analytical error in creatinine measurement above 90 mL/min/1.73 m². Compensated Jaffe creatinine assays lead to important errors in eGFR and should be avoided. Accurate enzymatic assays allow estimation of eGFR until 90 mL/min/1.73 m² with MDRD and 120 mL/min/1.73 m² with CKD-EPI equation.

  7. Diode-pumped short pulse passively Q-switched 912 nm Nd:GdVO4/Cr:YAG laser at high repetition rate operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, F.; Yu, X.; Wang, C.; Yan, R. P.; Li, X. D.; Gao, J.; Zhang, Z. H.; Yu, J. H.

    2010-06-01

    A diode-end-pumped passively Q-switched 912 nm Nd:GdVO4/Cr:YAG laser is demonstrated for the first time. In a concave-piano cavity, pulsed 912 nm laser performance is investigated using two kinds of Cr:YAG crystal with different unsaturated transmission ( T U) of 95% and 90% at 912 nm as the saturable absorbers. When the T U = 90% Cr:YAG is used, as much as 2.6 W average output power for short pulsed 912 nm laser is achieved at an absorbed pump power of 34.0 W, corresponding to an optical efficiency of 7.6% and a slope efficiency of 20.3%. Moreover, 10.5 ns duration pulses and up to 2.3 kW peak power is obtained at the repetition rate around 81.6 kHz.

  8. Electrokinetic pumps and actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip M. Paul

    2000-03-01

    Flow and ionic transport in porous media are central to electrokinetic pumping as well as to a host of other microfluidic devices. Electrokinetic pumping provides the ability to create high pressures (to over 10,000 psi) and high flow rates (over 1 mL/min) with a device having no moving parts and all liquid seals. The electrokinetic pump (EKP) is ideally suited for applications ranging from a high pressure integrated pump for chip-scale HPLC to a high flow rate integrated pump for forced liquid convection cooling of high-power electronics. Relations for flow rate and current fluxes in porous media are derived that provide a basis for analysis of complex microfluidic systems as well as for optimization of electrokinetic pumps.

  9. Substitution rate and milk yield response to corn silage supplementation of late-lactation dairy cows grazing low-mass pastures at 2 daily allowances in autumn.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Prieto, L A; Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R

    2011-07-01

    Feed costs in dairy production systems may be decreased by extending the grazing season to periods such as autumn when grazing low-mass pastures is highly probable. The aim of this autumn study was to determine the effect of corn silage supplementation [0 vs. 8 kg of dry matter (DM) of a mixture 7:1 of corn silage and soybean meal] on pasture intake (PI), milk production, and grazing behavior of dairy cows grazing low-mass ryegrass pastures at 2 daily pasture allowances (PA; low PA=18 vs. high PA=30 kg of DM/cow above 2.5 cm). Twelve multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Pre-grazing pasture mass and pre-grazing plate meter pasture height averaged 1.8 t of DM/ha (above 2.5 cm) and 6.3 cm, respectively. The quality of the offered pasture (above 2.5 cm) was low because of dry conditions before and during the experiment (crude protein=11.5% of DM; net energy for lactation=5.15 MJ/kg of DM; organic matter digestibility=61.9%). The interaction between PA and supplementation level was significant for PI but not for milk production. Supplementation decreased PI from 11.6 to 7.6 kg of DM/d at low PA and from 13.1 to 7.3 kg of DM/d at high PA. The substitution rate was, therefore, lower at low than at high PA (0.51 vs. 0.75). Pasture intake increased with increasing PA in unsupplemented treatments, and was not affected by PA in supplemented treatments. Milk production averaged 13.5 kg/d and was greater at high than at low PA (+1.4 kg/d) and in supplemented than unsupplemented treatments (+5.2 kg/d). Milk fat concentration averaged 4.39% and was similar between treatments. Milk protein concentration increased from 3.37 to 3.51% from unsupplemented to supplemented treatments, and did not vary according to PA. Grazing behavior parameters were only affected by supplementation. On average, daily grazing time decreased (539 vs. 436 min) and daily ruminating time increased (388 vs. 486 min) from 0 to 8 kg of supplement DM. The PI

  10. Pump tank divider plate for sump suction sodium pumps

    DOEpatents

    George, John A.; Nixon, Donald R.

    1977-01-01

    A circular plate extends across the diameter of "sump suction" pump, with a close clearance between the edge of the plate and the wall of the pump tank. The plate is located above the pump impeller, inlet and outlet flow nozzles but below the sodium free surface and effectively divides the pump tank into two separate chambers. On change of pump speed, the close fitting flow restriction plate limits the rate of flow into or out of the upper chamber, thereby minimizing the rate of level change in the tank and permitting time for the pump cover gas pressure to be varied to maintain an essentially constant level.

  11. Hydrodynamic performance and heat generation by centrifugal pumps.

    PubMed

    Ganushchak, Y; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W; van der Nagel, T; de Jong, D S

    2006-11-01

    For over a century, centrifugal pumps (CP) have been used in various applications, from large industrial pumps to flow pumps for aquariums. However, the use of CP as blood pumps has a rather short history. Consequently, the hydraulic performance data for a blood CP are limited. The aim of our investigation was to study the hydraulic performance and the heat generation of three commercially available CP: Bio-Medicus Bio-Pump BP80 (Medtronic), Rotaflow (Jostra Medizintechnik), and DeltaStream DP2 (MEDOS Medizintechnik AQ). The study was performed using a circuit primed with a water-glycerin mixture with a dynamic viscosity of 0.00272 pa/s. Pressure-flow curves were obtained by a stepwise stagnation of the pump outlet or inlet. The temperature changes were observed using ThermaCAM SC2000 (Flir Systems). The pumps' performance in close to clinical conditions ('operating region') was analysed in this report. The 'operating region' in the case of the BP80 is positioned around the pressure-flow curve at a pump speed of 3000 rpm. In the case of the Rotaflow, the 'operating region' was between the pump pressure-flow curves at a speed of 3000 and 4000 rpm, and the DP2 was found between 7000 and 8000 rpm. The standard deviation of mean pressure through the pump was used to characterise the stability of the pump. In experiments with outlet stagnation, the BP80 demonstrated high negative association between flow and pressure variability (r = -0.68, p < 0.001). In experiments with the DP2, this association was positive (r = 0.68, p < 0.001). All pumps demonstrated significantly higher variability of pressure in experiments with inlet stagnation in comparison to the experiments with outlet stagnation. The rise of relative temperature in the inlet of a pump was closely related to the flow rate. The heating of fluid was more pronounced in the 'zero-flow' mode, especially in experiments with inlet stagnation. In summary, (1) the 'zero-flow' regime, which is described in the manuals

  12. On-line PWR RHR pump performance testing following motor and impeller replacement

    SciTech Connect

    DiMarzo, J.T.

    1996-12-01

    On-line maintenance and replacement of safety-related pumps requires the performance of an inservice test to determine and confirm the operational readiness of the pumps. In 1995, major maintenance was performed on two Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Residual Heat Removal (RHR) Pumps. A refurbished spare motor was overhauled with a new mechanical seal, new motor bearings and equipped with pump`s `B` impeller. The spare was installed into the `B` train. The motor had never been run in the system before. A pump performance test was developed to verify it`s operational readiness and determine the in-situ pump performance curve. Since the unit was operating, emphasis was placed on conducting a highly accurate pump performance test that would ensure that it satisfied the NSSS vendors accident analysis minimum acceptance curve. The design of the RHR System allowed testing of one train while the other was aligned for normal operation. A test flow path was established from the Refueling Water Storage Tank (RWST) through the pump (under test) and back to the RWST. This allowed staff to conduct a full flow range pump performance test. Each train was analyzed and an expression developed that included an error vector term for the TDH (ft), pressure (psig), and flow rate (gpm) using the variance error vector methodology. This method allowed the engineers to select a test instrumentation system that would yield accurate readings and minimal measurement errors, for data taken in the measurement of TDH (P,Q) versus Pump Flow Rate (Q). Test results for the `B` Train showed performance well in excess of the minimum required. The motor that was originally in the `B` train was similarly overhauled and equipped with `A` pump`s original impeller, re-installed in the `A` train, and tested. Analysis of the `A` train results indicate that the RHR pump`s performance was also well in excess of the vendors requirements.

  13. Double-effect absorption heat pump, phase 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, F. B.; Cremean, S. P.; Jatana, S. C.; Johnson, R. A.; Malcosky, N. D.

    1987-06-01

    The RD&D program has resulted in design, development and testing of a packaged prototype double-effect generator cycle absorption gas heat pump for the residential and small commercial markets. The 3RT heat pump prototype has demonstrated a COPc of 0.82 and a COPh of 1.65 at ARI rating conditions. The heat pump prototype includes a solid state control system with built-in diagnostics. The absorbent/refrigerant solution thermophysical properties were completely characterized. Commercially available materials of construction were identified for all heat pump components. A corrosion inhibitor was identified and tested in both static and dynamic environments. The safety of the heat pump was analyzed by using two analytical approaches. Pioneer Engineering estimated the factory standard cost to produce the 3RT heat pump at $1,700 at a quantity of 50,000 units/year. One United States patent was allowed covering the heat pump technology, and two divisional applications and three Continuation-in-Park Applications were filed with the U.S.P.T.O. Corresponding patent coverage was applied for in Canada, the EEC, Australia, and Japan. Testing of the prototype heat pump is continuing, as are life tests of multiple pump concepts amd long-term dynamic corrosion tests. Continued development and commercialization of gas absorption heat pumps based on the technology are recommended.

  14. PUMP CONSTRUCTION

    DOEpatents

    Strickland, G.; Horn, F.L.; White, H.T.

    1960-09-27

    A pump which utilizes the fluid being pumped through it as its lubricating fluid is described. This is achieved by means of an improved bearing construction in a pump of the enclosed or canned rotor type. At the outlet end of the pump, adjacent to an impeller mechanism, there is a bypass which conveys some of the pumped fluid to a chamber at the inlet end of the pump. After this chamber becomes full, the pumped fluid passes through fixed orifices in the top of the chamber and exerts a thrust on the inlet end of the pump rotor. Lubrication of the rotor shaft is accomplished by passing the pumped fluid through a bypass at the outlet end of the rotor shaft. This bypass conveys Pumped fluid to a cooling means and then to grooves on the surface of the rotor shait, thus lubricating the shaft.

  15. Grout pump selection process for the Transportable Grout Facility

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, D.; Treat, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Selected low-level radioactive liquid wastes at Hanford will be disposed by grouting. Grout is formed by mixing the liquid wastes with solid materials, including Portland cement, fly ash, and clay. The mixed grouts will be pumped to disposal sites (e.g., trenches and buried structures) where the grout will be allowed to harden and, thereby, immobilize the wastes. A Transportable Grout Facility (TGF) will be constructed and operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations to perform the grouting function. A critical component of the TGF is the grout pump. A preliminary review of pumping requirements identified reciprocating pumps and progressive cavity pumps as the two classes of pumps best suited for the application. The advantages and disadvantages of specific types of pumps within these two classes were subsequently investigated. As a result of this study, the single-screw, rotary positive displacement pump was identified as the best choice for the TGF application. This pump has a simple design, is easy to operate, is rugged, and is suitable for a radioactive environment. It produces a steady, uniform flow that simplifies suction and discharge piping requirements. This pump will likely require less maintenance than reciprocating pumps and can be disassembled rapidly and decontaminated easily. If the TGF should eventually require discharge pressures in excess of 500 psi, a double-acting duplex piston pump is recommended because it can operate at low speed, with only moderate flow rate fluctuations. However, the check valves, stuffing box, piston, suction, and discharge piping must be designed carefully to allow trouble-free operations.

  16. Factors affecting initial disability allowance rates for the Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income programs: the role of the demographic and diagnostic composition of applicants and local labor market conditions.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Kalman

    2012-01-01

    Various factors outside the control of decision makers may affect the rate at which disability applications are allowed or denied during the initial step of eligibility determination in the Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs. In this article, using individual-level data on applications, I estimate the role of three important factors--the demographic characteristics of applicants, the diagnostic mix of applicants, and the local unemployment rate--in affecting the probability of an initial allowance and state allowance rates. I use a random sample of initial determinations from 1993 through 2008 and a fixed-effects multiple regression framework. The empirical results show that the demographic and diagnostic characteristics of applicants and the local unemployment rate substantially affect the initial allowance rate. An increase in the local unemployment rate tends to be associated with a decrease in the initial allowance rate. This negative relationship holds for adult DI and SSI applicants and for SSI childhood applicants. PMID:23397743

  17. DIRECT CURRENT ELECTROMAGNETIC PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, A.H.

    1957-11-01

    An improved d-c electromagnetic pump is presented in which the poles, and consequently the magetic gap at the poles, are tapered to be wider at the upstream end. In addition, the cross section of the tube carryiQ the liquid metal is tapered so that the velocity of the pumped liquid increases in the downstream direction at a rate such that the counter-induced voltage in the liquid metal remains constant as it traverses the region between the poles. This configuration compensates for the distortion of the magnetic field caused by the induced voltage that would otherwise result in the lowering of the pumping capacity. This improved electromagnetic pump as practical application in the pumping of liquid metal coolants for nuclear reactors where conventional positive displacement pumps have proved unsatisfactory due to the high temperatures and the corrosive properties of the liquid metals involved.

  18. Fuel Pumping System And Method

    DOEpatents

    Shafer, Scott F.; Wang, Lifeng

    2005-12-13

    A fuel pumping system that includes a pump drive is provided. A first pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a first flow of pressurized fuel. A second pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a second flow of pressurized fuel. A first solenoid is operatively connected to the first pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the first flow of pressurized fuel. A second solenoid is operatively connected to the second pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the second flow of pressurized fuel.

  19. Fuel pumping system and method

    DOEpatents

    Shafer, Scott F.; Wang, Lifeng ,

    2006-12-19

    A fuel pumping system that includes a pump drive is provided. A first pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a first flow of pressurized fuel. A second pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a second flow of pressurized fuel. A first solenoid is operatively connected to the first pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the first flow of pressurized fuel. A second solenoid is operatively connected to the second pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the second flow of pressurized fuel.

  20. Rod pumping and proppant flowback at the Lost Hills Field

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, I.G.

    1995-12-31

    Proppant flowback from hydraulically fractured wells can lead to sand wear on the pump barrel and plunger and increased pulling costs on rod pumped wells. Two approaches for lengthening run times of the pumps were tried. One approach was to install pumps that will allow production of a sand laden fluid. Pressure actuated plunger (PAP) pumps were field tested and showed an average increase of 81.6% in run time. These split ring wiper pumps clean the barrel of sand prior to the passing of the plunger. The other approach was to keep the sand and from entering the pumps. When down hole filters were utilized, run life of the pumps with the filters increases 135%. Well pulling cost savings of $11.91 per well-day and $9.24 per well-day are documented for the PAP pumps and filters, respectively. Application guidelines based on the sand loading rate and gross liquid production of the wells are presented, as well as some operational experiences.

  1. Detection of pump degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Casada, D.

    1995-04-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous special vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Pump head and flow rate are also monitored, per code requirements. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition; advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed.

  2. Design and development of a high-power LED-pumped Ce:Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Villars, Brenden; Steven Hill, E; Durfee, Charles G

    2015-07-01

    By studying quasi-continuous wave (QCW) operation of a Ce:Nd:YAG solid-state laser directly pumped by LED arrays, we demonstrate the feasibility of direct-LED pumping as an alternative to direct-diode or flashlamp pumping. LEDs emitting either at 460 or 810 nm were used to pump an uncooled Ce:Nd:YAG laser rod (at 30-Hz repetition rate for tens of seconds). Pumping at 460 nm was made possible by the Ce(3+) co-dopant that enables transfer of excitations near to Nd(3+) ions in the YAG lattice. Comparison of these two pumping schemes has allowed for a thorough analysis of the performance and efficiency of this laser system. QCW output energies as high as 18 mJ/pulse are reported, which to the best of our knowledge is the highest output pulse energy achieved by an LED-pumped solid-state laser to date. PMID:26125364

  3. Variability of Basal Rate Profiles in Insulin Pump Therapy and Association with Complications in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Laimer, Markus; Melmer, Andreas; Mader, Julia K.; Schütz-Fuhrmann, Ingrid; Engels, Heide-Rose; Götz, Gabriele; Pfeifer, Martin; Hermann, Julia M.; Stettler, Christoph; Holl, Reinhard W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Traditionally, basal rate profiles in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy are individually adapted to cover expected insulin requirements. However, whether this approach is indeed superior to a more constant BR profile has not been assessed so far. This study analysed the associations between variability of BR profiles and acute and chronic complications in adult type 1 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods BR profiles of 3118 female and 2427 male patients from the “Diabetes-Patienten-Verlaufsdokumentation” registry from Germany and Austria were analysed. Acute and chronic complications were recorded 6 months prior and after the most recently documented basal rate. The “variability index” was calculated as variation of basal rate intervals in percent and describes the excursions of the basal rate intervals from the median basal rate. Results The variability Index correlated positively with severe hypoglycemia (r = .06; p<0.001), hypoglycemic coma (r = .05; p = 0.002), and microalbuminuria (r = 0.05; p = 0.006). In addition, a higher variability index was associated with higher frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (r = .04; p = 0.029) in male adult patients. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, duration of disease and total basal insulin confirmed significant correlations of the variability index with severe hypoglycemia (β = 0.013; p<0.001) and diabetic ketoacidosis (β = 0.012; p = 0.017). Conclusions Basal rate profiles with higher variability are associated with an increased frequency of acute complications in adults with type 1 diabetes. PMID:26938444

  4. Magnetocaloric pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.

    1973-01-01

    Very cold liquids and gases such as helium, neon, and nitrogen can be pumped by using magnetocaloric effect. Adiabatic magnetization and demagnetization are used to alternately heat and cool slug of pumped fluid contained in closed chamber.

  5. Casing pump

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, H.E.; Bass, R.E.

    1987-09-29

    A natural gas operated pump is described for use in the casing of an oil well, comprising: a tubular pump body having an open lower end for admitting well fluids to the interior of the pump body and an open upper end, wherein a downwardly facing seating surface is formed on the inner periphery of the pump body adjacent the upper end thereof; means for forming a seal between the pump body and the casing of the well; a rod extending longitudinally through the seating surface formed in the pump body and protruding from the upper end of the pump body; a valve member mounted on the rod below the seating surface and shaped to mate with the seating surface; and means for vertically positioning the rod in proportion to fluid pressure within the pump body.

  6. Role of self-caught fish in total fish consumption rates for recreational fishermen: Average consumption for some species exceeds allowable intake.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fish consumption focus on recreational or subsistence fishing, on awareness and adherence to advisories, consumption patterns, and contaminants in fish. Yet the general public obtains their fish from commercial sources. In this paper I examine fish consumption patterns of recreational fishermen in New Jersey to determine: 1) consumption rates for self-caught fish and for other fish, 2) meals consumed per year, 3) average meal size, and average daily intake of mercury, and 4) variations in these parameters for commonly-consumed fish, and different methods of computing intake. Over 300 people were interviewed at fishing sites and fishing clubs along the New Jersey shore. Consumption patterns of anglers varied by species of fish. From 2 to 90 % of the anglers ate the different fish species, and between 9 and 75 % gave fish away to family or friends. Self-caught fish made up 7 to 92 % of fish diets. On average, self-caught fish were eaten for only 2 to 6 months of the year, whereas other fish (commercial or restaurant) were eaten up to 10 months a year. Anglers consumed from 5 to 36 meals of different fish a year, which resulted in intake of mercury ranging from 0.01 to 0.22 ug/kg/day. Average intake of Mako shark, swordfish, and tuna (sushi, canned tuna, self-caught tuna) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's oral, chronic reference dose for mercury of 0.1 ug/kg/day. However, computing intake using consumption for the highest month results in average mercury intake exceeding the reference dose for striped bass and bluefish as well. These data, and the variability in consumption patterns, have implications for risk assessors, risk managers, and health professionals. PMID:23914136

  7. Role of self-caught fish in total fish consumption rates for recreational fishermen: Average consumption for some species exceeds allowable intake

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fish consumption focus on recreational or subsistence fishing, on awareness and adherence to advisories, consumption patterns, and contaminants in fish. Yet the general public obtains their fish from commercial sources. In this paper I examine fish consumption patterns of recreational fishermen in New Jersey to determine: 1) consumption rates for self-caught fish and for other fish, 2) meals consumed per year, 3) average meal size, and average daily intake of mercury, and 4) variations in these parameters for commonly-consumed fish, and different methods of computing intake. Over 300 people were interviewed at fishing sites and fishing clubs along the New Jersey shore. Consumption patterns of anglers varied by species of fish. From 2 to 90 % of the anglers ate the different fish species, and between 9 and 75 % gave fish away to family or friends. Self-caught fish made up 7 to 92 % of fish diets. On average, self-caught fish were eaten for only 2 to 6 months of the year, whereas other fish (commercial or restaurant) were eaten up to 10 months a year. Anglers consumed from 5 to 36 meals of different fish a year, which resulted in intake of mercury ranging from 0.01 to 0.22 ug/kg/day. Average intake of Mako shark, swordfish, and tuna (sushi, canned tuna, self-caught tuna) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s oral, chronic reference dose for mercury of 0.1 ug/kg/day. However, computing intake using consumption for the highest month results in average mercury intake exceeding the reference dose for striped bass and bluefish as well. These data, and the variability in consumption patterns, have implications for risk assessors, risk managers, and health professionals. PMID:23914136

  8. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Iiyama, A.; Nishimura, T.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump comprising: (a) engageable first and second cam members, the first cam member reciprocating axially as the first cam member moves angularly relative to the second cam member when the first and second cam members are in engagement; (b) means for urging the first cam member toward the second cam member to engage the first and second cam members; (c) a plunger connected to the first cam member for reciprocation with the first cam member, the plunger defining at least a part of a pumping chamber, the pumping chamber contracting and expanding as the plunger reciprocates; (d) means for allowing fuel to move into the pumping chamber as the pumping chamber expands in a fuel intake stroke; (e) means for allowing the fuel to move out of the pumping chamber as the pumping chamber contracts in a fuel compression stroke; and (f) means for resisting movement of the plunger in at least part of the fuel compression stroke and relieving resistance to the movement of the plunger in the fuel intake stroke wherein the resisting means comprises a piston slidably mounted on the plunger, a spring urging the piston to seat the piston on a shoulder on the plunger so that the piston reciprocates as the plunger reciprocates, wherein the piston is seated on the shoulder in the fuel compression stroke and separates from the shoulder against the force of the spring in the fuel intake stroke, a second fluid chamber at least partially defined by the piston.

  9. OSCILLATORY PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, N.

    1958-09-23

    This patent relates to a pump suitable fur pumping highly corrosive gases wherein no lubricant is needed in the pumping chamber thus eliminating possible contamination sources. The chamber contains a gas inlet and outlet in each side, with a paddle like piston suspended by a sylphon seal between these pcrts. An external arrangement causes the paddle to oscillate rapidly between the ports, alternately compressing and exhausting the gas trapped on each side of the paddle. Since the paddle does nnt touch the chamber sides at any point, no lubricant is required. This pump is useful for pumping large quantities of uranium hexafluorine.

  10. Intrinsic characteristics of the proton pump in the luminal membrane of a tight urinary epithelium. The relation between transport rate and delta mu H

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    A number of tight urinary epithelia, as exemplified by the turtle bladder, acidify the luminal solution by active transport of H+ across the luminal cell membrane. The rate of active H+ transport (JH) decreases as the electrochemical potential difference for H+ [delta mu H = mu H(lumen) - mu H(serosa)] across the epithelium is increased. The luminal cell membrane has a low permeability for H+ equivalents and a high electrical resistance compared with the basolateral cell membrane. Changes in JH thus reflect changes in active H+ transport across the luminal membrane. To examine the control of JH by delta mu H in the turtle bladder, transepithelial electrical potential differences (delta psi) were imposed at constant acid-base conditions or the luminal pH was varied at delta psi = 0 and constant serosal PCO2 and pH. When the luminal compartment was acidified from pH 7 to 4 or was made electrically positive, JH decreased as a linear function of delta mu H as previously described. When the luminal compartment was made alkaline from pH 7 to 9 or was made electrically negative, JH reached a maximal value, which was the same whether the delta mu H was imposed as a delta pH or a delta psi. The nonlinear JH vs. delta mu H relation does not result from changes in the number of pumps in the luminal membrane or from changes in the intracellular pH, but is a characteristic of the H+ pumps themselves. We propose a general scheme, which, because of its structural features, can account for the nonlinearity of the JH vs. delta mu H relations and, more specifically, for the kinetic equivalence of the effects of the chemical and electrical components of delta mu H. According to this model, the pump complex consists of two components: a catalytic unit at the cytoplasmic side of the luminal membrane, which mediates the ATP-driven H+ translocation, and a transmembrane channel, which mediates the transfer of H+ from the catalytic unit to the luminal solution. These two components may be

  11. Avoid self-priming centrifugal pump

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    The self-priming horizontal centrifugal pump becomes known to its operator either as a good pump or a bad pump. The latter is usually replaced by another type of pump, even though a properly specified self-priming centrifugal pump might have been a good choice. Use of the guidelines described in this article are intended to help in the purchase and installation of a good pump. Self-priming centrifugal pumps are used for removing liquids from below grade sumps or pits that may also contain solids, fibers and/or muck. Alternate pumps for this service include submersible pumps, vertical turbine pumps and positive displacement pumps. These alternate pumps do not pass solid particles as large as self-priming pumps do without damage. Positive displacement pumps are not normally cost-effective when pumping liquid at rates in excess of 500 gallons per minute in low-head applications. Vertical and submersible pumps must be removed when cleaning of the pump is required. Self-priming pumps are easily cleaned by opening the access plates without moving the pump; and they cost less than the other types.

  12. 5 CFR 591.305 - Allowance rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... associated with commuting to the remote duty post taking into account such factors as travel time, road... compensate for hardship or inconvenience may not be considered unless the travel time normally exceeds one... departure time with respect to those duty posts meeting the criteria in § 591.304(a)(2). (b)...

  13. Program optimizes sucker-rod pumping mode

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, G. )

    1990-10-01

    Direct energy costs for sucker-rod pumping can be optimized by selecting the right pump size, stroke length, and pumping speed for the required liquid production rate. Calculation procedures for a computer program are developed for optimizing the design of conventional pumping units.

  14. SHINE Vacuum Pump Test Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Gregg A; Peters, Brent

    2013-09-30

    Normetex pumps used world-wide for tritium service are no longer available. DOE and other researchers worldwide have spent significant funds characterizing this pump. Identification of alternate pumps is required for performance and compatibility with tritium gas. Many of the pumps that could be used to meet the functional performance requirements (e.g. pressure and flow conditions) of the Normetex pump have features that include the use of polymers or oils and greases that are not directly compatible with tritium service. This study assembles a test system to determine the flow characteristics for candidate alternate pumps. These tests are critical to the movement of tritium through the SHINE Tritium Purification System (TPS). The purpose of the pump testing is two-fold: (1) obtain baseline vacuum pump characteristics for an alternate (i.e. ''Normetex replacement'') pump intended for use in tritium service; and (2) verify that low pressure hydrogen gas can be transported over distances up to 300 feet by the candidate pumps. Flow rates and nominal system pressures have been identified for the SHINE Mo-99 production process Tritium Purification System (TPS). To minimize the line sizes for the transfer of low pressure tritium from the Neutron Driver Accelerator System (NDAS) to the primary processing systems in the TPS, a ''booster'' pump has been located near the accelerator in the design. A series of pump tests were performed at various configurations using hydrogen gas (no tritium) to ensure that this concept is practical and maintains adequate flow rates and required pressures. This report summarizes the results of the tests that have been performed using various pump configurations. The current design of the Tritium Purification System requires the ''booster'' pump to discharge to or to be backed by another vacuum pump. Since Normetex pumps are no longer manufactured, a commercially available Edwards scroll pump will be used to back the booster pump. In this

  15. A 1 kHz A-scan rate pump-probe laser-ultrasound system for robust inspection of composites.

    PubMed

    Pelivanov, Ivan; Shtokolov, Alex; Wei, Chen-Wei; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    We recently built a fiber-optic laser-ultrasound (LU) scanner for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aircraft composites and demonstrated its greatly improved sensitivity and stability compared with current noncontact systems. It is also very attractive in terms of cost, stability to environmental noise and surface roughness, simplicity in adjustment, footprint, and flexibility. A new type of a balanced fiber-optic Sagnac interferometer is a key component of this all-optical LU pump-probe system. Very high A-scan rates can be achieved because no reference arm or stabilization feedback are needed. Here, we demonstrate LU system performance at 1000 A-scans/s combined with a fast 2-D translator operating at a scanning speed of 100 mm/s with a peak acceleration of 10 m/s(2) in both lateral directions to produce parallel B-scans at high rates. The fast scanning strategy is described in detail. The sensitivity of this system, in terms of noise equivalent pressure, was further improved to be only 8.3 dB above the Nyquist thermal noise limit. To our knowledge, this is the best reported sensitivity for a noncontact ultrasonic detector of this dimension used to inspect aircraft composites. PMID:26415130

  16. A 1 kHz A-scan rate pump-probe laser-ultrasound system for robust inspection of composites.

    PubMed

    Pelivanov, Ivan; Shtokolov, Alex; Wei, Chen-Wei; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    We recently built a fiber-optic laser-ultrasound (LU) scanner for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aircraft composites and demonstrated its greatly improved sensitivity and stability compared with current noncontact systems. It is also very attractive in terms of cost, stability to environmental noise and surface roughness, simplicity in adjustment, footprint, and flexibility. A new type of a balanced fiber-optic Sagnac interferometer is a key component of this all-optical LU pump-probe system. Very high A-scan rates can be achieved because no reference arm or stabilization feedback are needed. Here, we demonstrate LU system performance at 1000 A-scans/s combined with a fast 2-D translator operating at a scanning speed of 100 mm/s with a peak acceleration of 10 m/s(2) in both lateral directions to produce parallel B-scans at high rates. The fast scanning strategy is described in detail. The sensitivity of this system, in terms of noise equivalent pressure, was further improved to be only 8.3 dB above the Nyquist thermal noise limit. To our knowledge, this is the best reported sensitivity for a noncontact ultrasonic detector of this dimension used to inspect aircraft composites.

  17. Insulin pumps.

    PubMed

    Pickup, J

    2010-02-01

    Insulin pump therapy is now more than 30 years old, and is an established part of the routine care of selected people with type 1 diabetes. Nevertheless, there are still significant areas of concern, particularly how pumps compare with modern injection therapy, whether the increasingly sophisticated pump technologies like onboard calculators and facility for computer download offer any real benefit, and whether we have a consensus on the clinical indications. The following papers offer some insight into these and other current questions.

  18. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  19. Performance of mosquito's pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji

    2005-11-01

    The flow of human blood in Mosquito's proboscis on Hagen-Poiseuille flow is investigated by using micro PIV system to apply mosquito's sucking system for micro-TAS devises. We want to know how high the power of Mosquito's pump is and how small the resistance in a proboscis is, a structure of Mosquito's sucking pump, and its characteristics as mechanical pump. We made the mosquito suck blood of our arm to obtain the average value, made many slices of a mosquito with 2μm thickness after fixed by wax. We anatomized the mosquito's head and picked up the sucking pump under the microscope to know its volume. Mosquito's pump shows high performance compared with the artificial pumps. The surfaces of proboscis were taken by using SEM, AFM because it is important factor for interaction between flow and its wall. Visualization of the blood flows near the tip of and inside proboscis are taken by micro PIV system to know the flow rate. We estimate the power of pump and the friction drag of proboscis by using these data.

  20. FeCo2O4 submicron-tube arrays grown on Ni foam as high rate-capability and cycling-stability electrodes allowing superior energy and power densities with symmetric supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Baogang; Tang, Shaochun; Vongehr, Sascha; Xie, Hao; Zhu, Jian; Meng, Xiangkang

    2016-02-11

    Template-free chemical growth on Ni foam and thermal treatment results in homogeneous FeCo2O4 submicron-tube arrays which serve as binder-free electrodes with high capacitance, rate-capability and cycling-stability owing to FeCo2O4 conductivity, high porosity, and strong bonding between tubes and Ni foam, all allowing even symmetric devices to have superior energy density.

  1. Analysis of electric-submersible-pumping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nolen, K.B.; Gibbs, S.G.

    1989-05-01

    This paper presents a field-proven analytical method of evaluating electric-submersible-pumping equipment and well performance jointly. A computerized mathematical model that considers the effects of free gas, pump speed (variable-frequency drives), and pump tapering is described. The method allows accurate calculations of important downhole parameters, including pump intake pressure, pump intake volume (including free gas), pump pressure, and fluid density profile. Lifting cost parameters - such as pump and motor power requirements, monthly power consumption, pump and motor performance, and overall system efficiency - are also determined. Once operating conditions are known, decisions can be made on ways to increase production (if additional potential exists) or to reduce operating costs. Thus, the same basic goals that often justify frequent analysis of rod pumping systems can be applied to submersible pumping.

  2. High-power LD side-pump Nd: YAG regenerative amplifier at 1 kHz repetition rate with volume Bragg gratings (VBG) for broadening and compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Ming-Liang; Chen, Li-Yuan; Chen, Meng; Li, Gang

    2016-05-01

    Pulse width of 8.7 ps was broadened to 102.2, 198 ps with single and double pass the VBG respectively. When the 102.2 ps pulse was injected into 1 kHz repetition rate of LD side-pump Nd: YAG regenerative amplifier (RA), pulse width of 87.5 ps at 1 kHz was obtained with the pulse energy of 9.4 mJ, the beam quality of M^2 factor was 1.2. The pulse width was compressed to 32.7 ps with a single pass VBG and the pulse energy reduced to 8.8 mJ, and the power density was up to 15.2 GW/cm2, the stability for pulse to pulse rms is about 0.6 %, beam pointing was about 35 μrad. In addition, when 198 ps pulse was injected into RA, pulse width of 156 ps was obtained which energy was 9.6 mJ, the pulse width was compressed to 38 ps by double passing the VBG, the pulse energy decreased to 8.5 mJ. Chirped VBG is a new way to obtain high-intensity picosecond pulse laser system simple and smaller.

  3. Axial Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George Arthur (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Paul A. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A rotary blood pump includes a pump housing for receiving a flow straightener, a rotor mounted on rotor bearings and having an inducer portion and an impeller portion, and a diffuser. The entrance angle, outlet angle, axial and radial clearances of blades associated with the flow straightener, inducer portion, impeller portion and diffuser are optimized to minimize hemolysis while maintaining pump efficiency. The rotor bearing includes a bearing chamber that is filled with cross-linked blood or other bio-compatible material. A back emf integrated circuit regulates rotor operation and a microcomputer may be used to control one or more back emf integrated circuits. A plurality of magnets are disposed in each of a plurality of impeller blades with a small air gap. A stator may be axially adjusted on the pump housing to absorb bearing load and maximize pump efficiency.

  4. Satellite Propellant Pump Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Veres, Joseph P.; Hah, Chunill; Nerone, Anthony L.; Cunningham, Cameron C.; Kraft, Thomas G.; Tavernelli, Paul F.; Fraser, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    NASA Glenn initiated a satellite propellant pump technology demonstration program. The goal was to demonstrate the technologies for a 60 percent efficient pump at 1 gpm flow rate and 500 psia pressure rise. The pump design and analysis used the in-house developed computer codes named PUMPA and HPUMP3D. The requirements lead to a 4-stage impeller type pump design with a tip diameter of 0.54 inches and a rotational speed of 57,000 rpm. Analyses indicated that flow cavitation was not a problem in the design. Since the flow was incompressible, the stages were identical. Only the 2-stage pump was designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested for demonstration. Water was selected as the surrogate fluid for hydrazine in this program. Complete mechanical design including stress and dynamic analyses were conducted. The pump was driven by an electric motor directly coupled to the impellers. Runs up to 57,000 rpm were conducted, where a pressure rise of 200 psia at a flow rate of 0.8 gpm was measured to validate the design effort.

  5. 40 CFR 63.176 - Quality improvement program for pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... prepare an engineering evaluation documenting the physical, chemical, or engineering basis for the... mechanical seals or equivalent, or pump replacement. (i) Pumps or pump seals shall be replaced at the rate...

  6. Additive and subtractive coherence peaks in pump and probe experiments with high repetition rate fs laser pulses in a flowing malachite green solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watermann, V.; Waltinger, T.; Eichler, H. J.

    1995-02-01

    Pump and probe absorption bleaching experiments with femtosecond laser pulses in a flowing dye solution lead to a coherence peak or coherence dip at zero time delay. The size and sign of this peak are strongly affected by the flow velocity of the solution. Experimental results are in good agreement with a two-wave mixing theory, which takes pump and probe coupling by an absorption and a temperature grating into account.

  7. 42. (Credit JTL) No. 3 low service pumping engine built ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. (Credit JTL) No. 3 low service pumping engine built in 1920 by Worthington Pump and Machinery Corp. (No. 2 low service pump is submerged in 1911-1912 pump pit on Cross Bayou). This engine was built with 9", 15" and 24"x24" cylinders and could pump 5 mgd; grating covers pump pit opening. Elevator in cage at extreme left descends to pit bottom allowing easier access than spiral stairway. Electric low service pump motor to left also; pump located in bottom of pit. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  8. Viability study of oscillatory flow pumps using bimorph piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatanabe, Sandro L.; Pires, Rogério F.; Choi, Andres; Nakasone, Paulo H.; Silva, Emílio C. N.

    2007-04-01

    Precision flow pumps have been widely studied over the last three decades. They have been applied in the areas of Biology, Pharmacy and Medicine in applications usually related to the dosage of medicine and chemical reagents. In addition, thermal management solutions for electronic devices have also been recently developed using these kinds of pumps offering better performance with low noise and low power consumption. In a previous work, the working principle of a pump based on the use of a bimorph piezoelectric actuator inserted in a fluid channel to generate flow was presented. In this work, a novel configuration of this piezoelectric flow pump that consists of a flow pump using two bimorph piezoelectric actuators in parallel configuration has been studied and it is presented. This configuration was inspired on fish swimming modes. The complete cycle of pump development was conducted, consisting in designing, manufacturing, and experimental characterization steps. Load-loss and flow rate characterization experimental tests were conducted, generating data that allows us to analyze the influence of geometric parameters in the pump performance. Comparisons among numerical and experimental results were made to validate the computational results and improve the accuracy of the implemented models.

  9. ATP Consumption by SR Ca2+ Pumps Accounts for 50% of Resting Metabolic Rate in Mouse Fast and Slow Twitch Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Sarah Michelle; Bombardier, Eric; Smith, Ian Curtis; Vigna, Chris; Tupling, Allan Russell

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to directly quantify the relative contribution of Ca2+ cycling to resting metabolic rate in mouse fast (extensor digitorum longus, EDL) and slow (soleus, SOL) twitch skeletal muscle. Resting oxygen consumption of isolated muscles (VO2, μL/g wet weight/s) measured polarographically at 30°C was ~25% higher in SOL (0.61 ± .03) than EDL (0.46 ± .03). In order to quantify the specific contribution of Ca2+ cycling to resting metabolic rate, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), a highly specific inhibitor of sarco(endo)plasmic Ca2+ ATPases (SERCAs), was added to the bath at different concentrations (1, 5, 10 and 15 μM). There was a concentration-dependent effect of CPA on oxygen consumption with increasing CPA concentrations up to 10 μM resulting in progressively greater reductions in muscle VO2. There were no differences between 10 and 15 μM CPA indicating that 10 μM CPA induces maximal inhibition of SERCAs in isolated muscle preparations. The relative (%) reduction in muscle VO2 in response to CPA was nearly identical in EDL (1 μM, 10.6 ± 3.0; 5 μM, 33.2 ± 3.4; 10 μM, 49.2 ± 2.9; 15 μM, 50.9 ± 2.1) and SOL (1 μM, 11.2 ± 1.5; 5 μM, 37.7 ± 2.4; 10 μM, 50.0 ± 1.3; 15 μM, 49.9 ± 1.6). The results indicate that ATP consumption by SERCAs is responsible for ~50% of resting metabolic rate in both mouse fast- and slow-twitch muscles at 30°C. Thus, SERCA pumps in skeletal muscle could represent an important control point for energy balance regulation and a potential target for metabolic alterations to oppose obesity. PMID:20018953

  10. 46 CFR 154.1135 - Pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Pumps. (a) Water to the water spray system must be supplied by: (1) A pump that is only for the use of...) Operation of a water spray system must not interfere with simultaneous operation of the fire main system at... allowed under paragraph (d) of this section, each pump for each water spray system must have the...

  11. 46 CFR 154.1135 - Pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Pumps. (a) Water to the water spray system must be supplied by: (1) A pump that is only for the use of...) Operation of a water spray system must not interfere with simultaneous operation of the fire main system at... allowed under paragraph (d) of this section, each pump for each water spray system must have the...

  12. ION PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1961-01-01

    An ion pump and pumping method are given for low vacuum pressures in which gases introduced into a pumping cavity are ionized and thereafter directed and accelerated into a quantity of liquid gettering metal where they are absorbed. In the preferred embodiment the metal is disposed as a liquid pool upon one electrode of a Phillips ion gauge type pump. Means are provided for continuously and remotely withdrawing and degassing the gettering metal. The liquid gettering metal may be heated if desired, although various combinations of gallium, indium, tin, bismuth, and lead, the preferred metals, have very low melting points. A background pressure of evaporated gettering metal may be provided by means of a resistance heated refractory metal wick protruding from the surface of the pcol of gettering metal.

  13. Electrokinetic pump

    DOEpatents

    Patel, Kamlesh D.

    2007-11-20

    A method for altering the surface properties of a particle bed. In application, the method pertains particularly to an electrokinetic pump configuration where nanoparticles are bonded to the surface of the stationary phase to alter the surface properties of the stationary phase including the surface area and/or the zeta potential and thus improve the efficiency and operating range of these pumps. By functionalizing the nanoparticles to change the zeta potential the electrokinetic pump is rendered capable of operating with working fluids having pH values that can range from 2-10 generally and acidic working fluids in particular. For applications in which the pump is intended to handle highly acidic solutions latex nanoparticles that are quaternary amine functionalized can be used.

  14. Smart'' pump and treat

    SciTech Connect

    Isherwood, W.; Rice, D. Jr.; Ziagos, J. ); Nichols, E. )

    1991-09-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is approaching the final phase of the Superfund decision-making process for site restoration and will soon initiate full scale cleanup. Despite some well-publicized failings of the pump and treat approach, we have concluded that intelligent application of this strategy if the best choice for ground water restoration at LLNL. Our proposed approach differs sufficiently from the pump and treat methods implemented at other sites that we call it smart'' pump and treat. Smart pump and treat consists of four distinct, but interrelated, elements: three preremediation strategies and one modification to pump and treat itself. Together, these techniques are an integrated program that utilizes an understanding of crucial aspects of contaminant flow and transport to speed up the remediation of contaminated aquifers. The four elements are: (1) a spatially detailed site characterization, linked with regional hydrogeologic models; (2) directed extraction, where the extraction and recharge locations are controlled by field-determined hydrogeologic parameters; (3) field-validated modeling that the matches the complexity of the collected data; and (4) adaptive pumping, whose pattern varies with time. Together, these techniques minimize the cost and the time to reach regulatory directed cleanup goals and maximize the rate of contaminant removal. 8 refs.

  15. Supercritical waste oxidation pump investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, G.; Garcia, K.

    1993-02-01

    This report investigates the pumping techniques and pumping equipment that would be appropriate for a 5,000 gallon per day supercritical water oxidation waste disposal facility. The pumps must boost water, waste, and additives from atmospheric pressure to approximately 27.6 MPa (4,000 psia). The required flow ranges from 10 gpm to less than 0.1 gpm. For the higher flows, many commercial piston pumps are available. These pumps have packing and check-valves that will require periodic maintenance; probably at 2 to 6 month intervals. Several commercial diaphragm pumps were also discovered that could pump the higher flow rates. Diaphragm pumps have the advantage of not requiring dynamic seals. For the lower flows associated with the waste and additive materials, commercial diaphragm pumps. are available. Difficult to pump materials that are sticky, radioactive, or contain solids, could be injected with an accumulator using an inert gas as the driving mechanism. The information presented in this report serves as a spring board for trade studies and the development of equipment specifications.

  16. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  17. Report on New Pumping System Software on Pumping Instrumentation and Control Skids

    SciTech Connect

    HORNER, T.M.

    2001-04-19

    This report documents the details of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and the Data Table Access Module (DTAM) logic developed for the new pumping system employed for saltwell pumping. The new system is planned first for pumping A-101 where Pumping Instrumentation and Control (PIC) skid ''F'' is located. The new pump requires a bump start under certain conditions that will be controlled by the PLC. The bump start is to ensure sufficient water to the pump bearing cavities. The PLC logic is required to control the shutdown of the injection pump that supplies the water to the saltwell pump bearing cavities. Allowance to start and stop the injection pump will be controlled by the PLC at the PIC skid. This report is written for PIC skid ''P'', but will apply to other PIC skids where the new pumping system is deployed. The logic will remain the same, but the ladder rung-numbers may change from skid to skid.

  18. Heat driven pulse pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, Steve M (Inventor); Martins, Mario S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A heat driven pulse pump includes a chamber having an inlet port, an outlet port, two check valves, a wick, and a heater. The chamber may include a plurality of grooves inside wall of the chamber. When heated within the chamber, a liquid to be pumped vaporizes and creates pressure head that expels the liquid through the outlet port. As liquid separating means, the wick, disposed within the chamber, is to allow, when saturated with the liquid, the passage of only liquid being forced by the pressure head in the chamber, preventing the vapor from exiting from the chamber through the outlet port. A plurality of grooves along the inside surface wall of the chamber can sustain the liquid, which is amount enough to produce vapor for the pressure head in the chamber. With only two simple moving parts, two check valves, the heat driven pulse pump can effectively function over the long lifetimes without maintenance or replacement. For continuous flow of the liquid to be pumped a plurality of pumps may be connected in parallel.

  19. Method for pumping a liquid from a well and apparatus for use therein

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, G.E.

    1984-06-26

    A pumping method, principally for oil, allows the sucker rod to fall under gravity for the first part of the downward stroke, then decelerates the sucker rod to a slow rate of descent, so creating a pause in the sucker rod's motion. Shock-absorbing means are provided to eliminate the impulsive loadings imposed upon the sucker rod at either extremity of its motion in conventional pumping methods. Hydraulically and mechanically-driven apparatus is disclosed for carrying out the method.

  20. Method for pumping a liquid from a well and apparatus for use therein

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, G.E.

    1983-09-27

    A pumping method, principally for oil, allows the sucker rod to fall under gravity for the first part of the downward stroke, then decelerates the sucker rod to a slow rate of descent, so creating a pause in the sucker rod's motion. Shock-absorbing means are provided to eliminate the impulsive loadings imposed upon the sucker rod at either extremity of its motion in conventional pumping methods. Hydraulically and mechanically-driven apparatus is disclosed for carrying out the method.

  1. Method for pumping a liquid from a well and apparatus for use

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, G. E.

    1985-07-02

    A pumping method, principally for oil, allows the sucker rod to fall under gravity for the first part of the downward stroke, then decelerates the sucker rod to a slow rate of descent, so creating a pause in the sucker rod's motion. Shock-absorbing means are provided to eliminate the impulsive loadings imposed upon the sucker rod at either extremity of its motion in conventional pumping methods. Hydraulically and mechanically-driven apparatus is disclosed for carrying out the method.

  2. Custom Unit Pump Design and Testing for the EVA PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuller, Michael; Kurwitz, Cable; Goldman, Jeff; Morris, Kim; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the effort by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and Honeywell for NASA to design and test a pre-flight prototype pump for use in the Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) portable life support subsystem (PLSS). Major design decisions were driven by the need to reduce the pump s mass, power, and volume compared to the existing PLSS pump. In addition, the pump must accommodate a much wider range of abnormal conditions than the existing pump, including vapor/gas bubbles and increased pressure drop when employed to cool two suits simultaneously. A positive displacement, external gear type pump was selected because it offers the most compact and highest efficiency solution over the required range of flow rates and pressure drops. An additional benefit of selecting a gear pump design is that it is self priming and capable of ingesting non-condensable gas without becoming air locked. The chosen pump design consists of a 28 V DC, brushless, sealless, permanent magnet motor driven, external gear pump that utilizes a Honeywell development that eliminates the need for magnetic coupling. Although the planned flight unit will use a sensorless motor with custom designed controller, the pre-flight prototype to be provided for this project incorporates Hall effect sensors, allowing an interface with a readily available commercial motor controller. This design approach reduced the cost of this project and gives NASA more flexibility in future PLSS laboratory testing. The pump design was based on existing Honeywell designs, but incorporated features specifically for the PLSS application, including all of the key features of the flight pump. Testing at TEES verified that the pump meets the design requirements for range of flow rates, pressure drop, power consumption, working fluid temperature, operating time, gas ingestion , and restart capability under both ambient and vacuum conditions. The pump operated between 40 and 240 lbm/hr flowrate, 35 to 100 F

  3. DIFFUSION PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Levenson, L.

    1963-09-01

    A high-vacuum diffusion pump is described, featuring a novel housing geometry for enhancing pumping speed. An upright, cylindrical lower housing portion is surmounted by a concentric, upright, cylindrical upper housing portion of substantially larger diameter; an uppermost nozzle, disposed concentrically within the upper portion, is adapted to eject downwardly a conical sheet of liquid outwardly to impinge upon the uppermost extremity of the interior wall of the lower portion. Preferably this nozzle is mounted upon a pedestal rising coaxially from within the lower portion and projecting up into said upper portion. (AEC)

  4. Electrokinetic pump

    DOEpatents

    Hencken, Kenneth R.; Sartor, George B.

    2004-08-03

    An electrokinetic pump in which the porous dielectric medium of conventional electrokinetic pumps is replaced by a patterned microstructure. The patterned microstructure is fabricated by lithographic patterning and etching of a substrate and is formed by features arranged so as to create an array of microchannels. The microchannels have dimensions on the order of the pore spacing in a conventional porous dielectric medium. Embedded unitary electrodes are vapor deposited on either end of the channel structure to provide the electric field necessary for electroosmotic flow.

  5. Evaluation of Failed Crane Chempumps Used During Salt Well Pumping

    SciTech Connect

    ELSEN, J.J.

    2000-09-18

    The Interim Stabilization Project is responsible for removing pumpable interstitial liquid from remaining single shelled tanks and transferring the waste to safer double-shelled tanks. This waste transfer is conducted by installing a saltwell pumping system within the designated single shell tank, and transferring the waste to double shelled tank using approved transfer lines. The saltwell pumping system is placed within a saltwell screen installed into the tank waste, the screen is designed to allow gravity flow of liquid into the screen and prevent solids from entering the pumping system. A foot valve consisting of a venturi jet and nozzle creates a suction, picking up waste at an equal rate as the out flow transfer rate of the saltwell system. A centrifugal pump is used to create the motive force across the eductor and drive the waste through the associated system piping and transfer lines leading to the double shelled tanks. The centrifugal pump that has typically been used in the saltwell pumping system installations is the Crane Chempump, model GA-1 1/2 K with 4 3/4 inch impeller. The following evaluation is not intended to be an all inclusive analysis of the operation of a saltwell system and associated pump. This evaluation will detail some of the noted failures in specific saltwell systems and document those findings. Due to the large number of saltwell systems installed over the duration of the Stabilization Project, only those saltwell systems installed over the last two years within S, SX, U, A and AX tank farms, shall be included in this evaluation. After identification of the pump failures mechanism, recommendations shall be identified to address potential means of improving overall operational efficiency and reducing overall equipment failures.

  6. Pump efficiency in solar-energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Study investigates characteristics of typical off-the-shelf pumping systems that might be used in solar systems. Report includes discussion of difficulties in predicting pump efficiency from manufacturers' data. Sample calculations are given. Peak efficiencies, flow-rate control, and noise levels are investigated. Review or theory of pumps types and operating characteristics is presented.

  7. Operation of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers pumped with frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Farries, M.C. Ltd., Towcester, Northants, NN 12 8EQ ); Morkel, P.R.; Laming, R.I.; Birks, T.A.; Payne, D.N. ); Tarbox, E.J. )

    1989-10-01

    An optical amplifier consisting of an erbium-doped germanosilicate fiber optically pumped at 532 nm is described. Negligible excited-state absorption at 532 nm allows efficient pumping, enabling a gain of 34 dB at 1536 nm to be obtained for only 25 mW of pump power. The pulsed pump source produces negligible noise on the small signal if the pump repetition rate is above 10 kHz. Pulsed laser operation is achieved by pumping a Fabry-Perot erbium doped fiber laser with a frequency doubled Q-switch Nd-YAG laser. Pulses of 0.9-W peak power and 280-ns duration at 1.538{mu}m were obtained.

  8. Livestock water pumping with wind and solar power

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent developments in pumping technologies have allowed for efficient use of renewable energies like wind and solar to power new pumps for remote water pumping. A helical type, positive displacement pump was developed a few years ago and recently modified to accept input from a variable power sourc...

  9. Pump jack

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, G. E.

    1985-02-26

    A pump jack of the type comprising a rocker arm pivotably mounted intermediate its ends on a support member, said rocker arm being divided by said pivot mounting into a sucker-rod limb and a drive limb wherein the improvement comprises a pneumatic motor pivotably attached to the drive support member and further pivotably attached to the mounting base of the pump jack to provide the power to reciprocate the pump jack. The working fluid of said pneumatic motor being natural gas which is available from the well casing of the well without any interference with the flow of the oil in the oil tube of the well thereby making use of an energy source available at any oil well without having to provide gasoline to drive a rotating type gasoline engine or electricity to drive an electric motor usually of the rotating variety. Also the stroke of a pneumatic cylinder inherently smooths out and eliminates the shock loading at the extremes of motion at the piston mounted to the sucker rods of such pump jack at the bottom of the well.

  10. Engineering Aspects in Blood Pump Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golding, Leonard; Veres, Joseph P.

    1997-01-01

    NASA turbomachinery computer codes assisted in the design of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation's centrifugal bladed blood pump. The codes were originally developed for the aerospace industry, but are applicable to the blood pump because of a high degree of synergy with this application. Traditional turbomachinery design criteria were used in the design of the blood pump centrifugal impeller and volute casing. The fluid dynamic performance of the blood pump is meeting the engineering design goals of flow rate and pressure rise.

  11. Multi-path peristaltic pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Joseph A. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    The instant invention is directed to a peristaltic pump for critical laboratory or hospital applications requiring precise flow rates over an extended period of time. Within the cylindrical barrel pump housing is a single-piece, molded, elastometric, cylindrical liner with a multiplicity of flattened helical channels created therein from one end of the liner to the other. Three cylindrical rollers rotate about the center axis of the pump around the inside surface of the liner selectively compressing the liner, and hence the helical channels between the rollers and the barrel housing, creating a pumping action by forcing trapped fluid in the helical channels axially from one end of the liner to the opposite end. The novelty of the invention appears to lie in the provision of the special liner with multiple helical channels as the pumping chamber, rather than the standard single elastomeric tubing which is squeezed repeatedly by rollers to move the liquid through a typical peristaltic pump. Large, repeated deflections on the standard tubing causes a permanent set in the tubing, thus either changing the flow rate, or requiring a new section of tubing to be positioned in the pump head. Further, this configuration minimizes the amount of outflow pulsation which is characteristic of a typical single tubing peristaltic pump.

  12. Representing pump-capacity relations in groundwater simulati on models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, L.F.

    2010-01-01

    The yield (or discharge) of constant-speed pumps varies with the total dynamic head (or lift) against which the pump is discharging. The variation in yield over the operating range of the pump may be substantial. In groundwater simulations that are used for management evaluations or other purposes, where predictive accuracy depends on the reliability of future discharge estimates, model reliability may be enhanced by including the effects of head-capacity (or pump-capacity) relations on the discharge from the well. A relatively simple algorithm has been incorporated into the widely used MODFLOW groundwater flow model that allows a model user to specify head-capacity curves. The algorithm causes the model to automatically adjust the pumping rate each time step to account for the effect of drawdown in the cell and changing lift, and will shut the pump off if lift exceeds a critical value. The algorithm is available as part of a new multinode well package (MNW2) for MODFLOW. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  13. Representing pump-capacity relations in groundwater simulation models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, Leonard F.

    2010-01-01

    The yield (or discharge) of constant-speed pumps varies with the total dynamic head (or lift) against which the pump is discharging. The variation in yield over the operating range of the pump may be substantial. In groundwater simulations that are used for management evaluations or other purposes, where predictive accuracy depends on the reliability of future discharge estimates, model reliability may be enhanced by including the effects of head-capacity (or pump-capacity) relations on the discharge from the well. A relatively simple algorithm has been incorporated into the widely used MODFLOW groundwater flow model that allows a model user to specify head-capacity curves. The algorithm causes the model to automatically adjust the pumping rate each time step to account for the effect of drawdown in the cell and changing lift, and will shut the pump off if lift exceeds a critical value. The algorithm is available as part of a new multinode well package (MNW2) for MODFLOW.

  14. Accuracy and consistency of modern elastomeric pumps.

    PubMed

    Weisman, Robyn S; Missair, Andres; Pham, Phung; Gutierrez, Juan F; Gebhard, Ralf E

    2014-01-01

    Continuous peripheral nerve blockade has become a popular method of achieving postoperative analgesia for many surgical procedures. The safety and reliability of infusion pumps are dependent on their flow rate accuracy and consistency. Knowledge of pump rate profiles can help physicians determine which infusion pump is best suited for their clinical applications and specific patient population. Several studies have investigated the accuracy of portable infusion pumps. Using methodology similar to that used by Ilfeld et al, we investigated the accuracy and consistency of several current elastomeric pumps. PMID:25140510

  15. Estimation of salt water upconing using a steady-state solution for partial completion of a pumped well.

    PubMed

    Garabedian, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    A new steady-state analytical solution to the two-dimensional radial-flow equation was developed for drawdown (head) conditions in an aquifer with constant transmissivity, no-flow conditions at the top and bottom, constant head conditions at a known radial distance, and a partially completed pumping well. The solution was evaluated for accuracy by comparison to numerical simulations using MODFLOW. The solution was then used to estimate the rise of the salt water-fresh water interface (upconing) that occurs under a pumping well, and to calculate the critical pumping rate at which the interface becomes unstable, allowing salt water to enter the pumping well. The analysis of salt water-fresh water interface rise assumed no significant effect on upconing by recharge; this assumption was tested and supported using results from a new steady-state analytical solution developed for recharge under two-dimensional radial-flow conditions. The upconing analysis results were evaluated for accuracy by comparison to those from numerical simulations using SEAWAT for salt water-fresh water interface positions under mild pumping conditions. The results from the equation were also compared with those of a published numerical sharp-interface model applied to a case on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. This comparison indicates that estimating the interface rise and maximum allowable pumping rate using the analytical method will likely be less conservative than the maximum allowable pumping rate and maximum stable interface rise from a numerical sharp-interface model.

  16. 18. Electrically driven pumps in Armory Street Pump House. Pumps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Electrically driven pumps in Armory Street Pump House. Pumps in background formerly drew water from the clear well. They went out of service when use of the beds was discontinued. Pumps in the foreground provide high pressure water to Hamden. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  17. Generation of 6.05J nanosecond pulses at a 1Hz repetition rate from a cryogenic cooled diode-pumped Yb:YAG MOPA system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiaojin; Wang, Jianlei; Yang, Zhongguo; Liu, Jin; Li, Lei; Shi, Xiangchun; Huang, Wenfa; Wang, Jiangfeng; Chen, Weibiao

    2015-02-01

    Diode-pumped solid state laser system based on cryogenic Yb:YAG active-mirror scheme are presented with recent energy output. With improved optical design, 6.05J/1Hz pulse energy is achieved and a conceptual design with 30J output energy is theoretical simulated. The doubling efficiency of YCa4O (BO3)(YCOB) crystal is also discussed in this paper.

  18. Miniature Lightweight Ion Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P.

    2010-01-01

    sputtered away. For stable pumping of inert gases, one side of the cathode is made of Ta. Impaction on Ta produces energetic, neutral atoms that pump the inert gases on the anode structure at the peripheral areas of the cathodes (between anode rings). For inert gases stability, a post design has been implemented. Here, posts of cathode material (Ti) are mounted on the cathode. These protrude into the initial part of the anode elements. Materials sputtered from the posts condense on the anode assembly and on the cathode plane at higher rates than in the normal diodes due to enhanced sputtering at glancing angles from geometrical considerations. This increases pumping by burial. This post design has enhanced pumping rates for both active and inert gases, compared with conventional designs.

  19. Stochastic thermodynamics of hidden pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Massimiliano; Parrondo, Juan M. R.

    2015-05-01

    We show that a reversible pumping mechanism operating between two states of a kinetic network can give rise to Poisson transitions between these two states. An external observer, for whom the pumping mechanism is not accessible, will observe a Markov chain satisfying local detailed balance with an emerging effective force induced by the hidden pump. Due to the reversibility of the pump, the actual entropy production turns out to be lower than the coarse-grained entropy production estimated from the flows and affinities of the resulting Markov chain. Moreover, in presence of a large time scale separation between the fast-pumping dynamics and the slow-network dynamics, a finite current with zero dissipation may be produced. We make use of these general results to build a synthetase-like kinetic scheme able to reversibly produce high free-energy molecules at a finite rate and a rotatory motor achieving 100% efficiency at finite speed.

  20. Stochastic thermodynamics of hidden pumps.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Massimiliano; Parrondo, Juan M R

    2015-05-01

    We show that a reversible pumping mechanism operating between two states of a kinetic network can give rise to Poisson transitions between these two states. An external observer, for whom the pumping mechanism is not accessible, will observe a Markov chain satisfying local detailed balance with an emerging effective force induced by the hidden pump. Due to the reversibility of the pump, the actual entropy production turns out to be lower than the coarse-grained entropy production estimated from the flows and affinities of the resulting Markov chain. Moreover, in presence of a large time scale separation between the fast-pumping dynamics and the slow-network dynamics, a finite current with zero dissipation may be produced. We make use of these general results to build a synthetase-like kinetic scheme able to reversibly produce high free-energy molecules at a finite rate and a rotatory motor achieving 100% efficiency at finite speed. PMID:26066126

  1. High-pressure open-channel on-chip electroosmotic pump for nanoflow high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Gu, Congying; Lynch, Kyle B; Lu, Joann J; Zhang, Zhengyu; Pu, Qiaosheng; Liu, Shaorong

    2014-02-18

    Here, we construct an open-channel on-chip electroosmotic pump capable of generating pressures up to ∼170 bar and flow rates up to ∼500 nL/min, adequate for high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separations. A great feature of this pump is that a number of its basic pump units can be connected in series to enhance its pumping power; the output pressure is directly proportional to the number of pump units connected. This additive nature is excellent and useful, and no other pumps can work in this fashion. We demonstrate the feasibility of using this pump to perform nanoflow HPLC separations; tryptic digests of bovine serum albumin (BSA), transferrin factor (TF), and human immunoglobulins (IgG) are utilized as exemplary samples. We also compare the performance of our electroosmotic (EO)-driven HPLC with Agilent 1200 HPLC; comparable efficiencies, resolutions, and peak capacities are obtained. Since the pump is based on electroosmosis, it has no moving parts. The common material and process also allow this pump to be integrated with other microfabricated functional components. Development of this high-pressure on-chip pump will have a profound impact on the advancement of lab-on-a-chip devices.

  2. High-pressure open-channel on-chip electroosmotic pump for nanoflow high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Gu, Congying; Lynch, Kyle B; Lu, Joann J; Zhang, Zhengyu; Pu, Qiaosheng; Liu, Shaorong

    2014-02-18

    Here, we construct an open-channel on-chip electroosmotic pump capable of generating pressures up to ∼170 bar and flow rates up to ∼500 nL/min, adequate for high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separations. A great feature of this pump is that a number of its basic pump units can be connected in series to enhance its pumping power; the output pressure is directly proportional to the number of pump units connected. This additive nature is excellent and useful, and no other pumps can work in this fashion. We demonstrate the feasibility of using this pump to perform nanoflow HPLC separations; tryptic digests of bovine serum albumin (BSA), transferrin factor (TF), and human immunoglobulins (IgG) are utilized as exemplary samples. We also compare the performance of our electroosmotic (EO)-driven HPLC with Agilent 1200 HPLC; comparable efficiencies, resolutions, and peak capacities are obtained. Since the pump is based on electroosmosis, it has no moving parts. The common material and process also allow this pump to be integrated with other microfabricated functional components. Development of this high-pressure on-chip pump will have a profound impact on the advancement of lab-on-a-chip devices. PMID:24495233

  3. Sucking pump activity in feeding behaviour regulation in carpenter ants.

    PubMed

    Falibene, Agustina; Gontijo, Alberto de Figueiredo; Josens, Roxana

    2009-06-01

    Modulation of liquid feeding-rate would allow insects to ingest more food in the same time when this was required. Ants can vary nectar intake rate by increasing sucking pump frequency according to colony requirements. We analysed electrical signals generated by sucking pump activity of ants during drinking solutions of different sucrose concentrations and under different carbohydrate-deprivation levels. Our aim was to define parameters that characterize the recordings and analyse their relationship with feeding behaviour. Signals showed that the initial and final frequencies of sucking pump activity, as well as the difference between them were higher in sugar-deprived ants. However, these parameters were not influenced by sucrose solution concentration, which affected the number of pump contractions and the volume per contraction. Unexpectedly, we found two different responses in feeding behaviour of starved and non-starved ants depending on concentration. Starved ants drank dilute solutions for the same length of time as non-starved ants but ingested higher volumes. While drinking the concentrated solutions, starved ants drank the same volume, but did so in a shorter time than the non-starved ones. Despite these differences, for each analysed concentration the total number of pump contractions remained constant independently of sugar-deprivation level. These results are discussed in the frame of feeding regulation and decision making in ant foraging behaviour. PMID:19217950

  4. Sucking pump activity in feeding behaviour regulation in carpenter ants.

    PubMed

    Falibene, Agustina; Gontijo, Alberto de Figueiredo; Josens, Roxana

    2009-06-01

    Modulation of liquid feeding-rate would allow insects to ingest more food in the same time when this was required. Ants can vary nectar intake rate by increasing sucking pump frequency according to colony requirements. We analysed electrical signals generated by sucking pump activity of ants during drinking solutions of different sucrose concentrations and under different carbohydrate-deprivation levels. Our aim was to define parameters that characterize the recordings and analyse their relationship with feeding behaviour. Signals showed that the initial and final frequencies of sucking pump activity, as well as the difference between them were higher in sugar-deprived ants. However, these parameters were not influenced by sucrose solution concentration, which affected the number of pump contractions and the volume per contraction. Unexpectedly, we found two different responses in feeding behaviour of starved and non-starved ants depending on concentration. Starved ants drank dilute solutions for the same length of time as non-starved ants but ingested higher volumes. While drinking the concentrated solutions, starved ants drank the same volume, but did so in a shorter time than the non-starved ones. Despite these differences, for each analysed concentration the total number of pump contractions remained constant independently of sugar-deprivation level. These results are discussed in the frame of feeding regulation and decision making in ant foraging behaviour.

  5. Continuous-wave and high repetition rate Q-switched operation of Ho:YLF laser in-band pumped by a linearly polarized Tm:fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Zendzian, Waldemar; Jabczynski, Jan Karol; Swiderski, Jacek

    2014-11-01

    A study of Ho:YLF laser in continuous-wave (CW) and Q-switched operation, single-pass end-pumped by a Tm:fiber laser is presented. The research was made for two crystals of the same length and with different Ho dopant concentrations (0.5 at%, 3×3×30 mm3 and 1.0 at%, 5×5×30 mm3). The lasers operated on π-polarization. The lasers based on both crystals were examined under the same experimental circumstances. At room temperature, for an output coupling transmission of 40%, the maximum CW output powers of 11.5 W (0.5 at%) and 14.5 W (1.0 at%) were achieved, corresponding to slope efficiencies of 40.9% and 53.4% and optical-to-optical efficiencies of 35.4% and 44.6% with respect to the incident pump power, respectively. For a Q-switched operation, in a CW pumping regime, the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) was changed from 1 to 10 kHz. For this case, the maximum average output power of 14.2 W at the PRF of 10 kHz was obtained for a higher holmium-doping concentration crystal. For 1 kHz PRF, pulse energies of 5.7 mJ with a 11 ns FWHM pulse width corresponding to almost 520 kW peak power were recorded. The laser operated at the wavelength of 2050.08 nm with the FWHM line width of 0.86 nm delivering a near-diffraction-limited beam with M2 values of 1.05 and 1.09 in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively.

  6. Blood Pump Bearing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for a blood pump bearing system within a pump housing to support long-term highspeed rotation of a rotor with an impeller blade having a plurality of individual magnets disposed thereon to provide a small radial air gap between the magnets and a stator of less than 0.025 inches. The bearing system may be mounted within a flow straightener, diffuser, or other pump element to support the shaft of a pump rotor. The bearing system includes a zirconia shaft having a radiused end. The radiused end has a first radius selected to be about three times greater than the radius of the zirconia shaft. The radiused end of the zirconia shaft engages a flat sapphire endstone. Due to the relative hardness of these materials a flat is quickly produced during break-in on the zirconia radiused end of precisely the size necessary to support thrust loads whereupon wear substantially ceases. Due to the selection of the first radius, the change in shaft end-play during pump break-in is limited to a total desired end-play of less than about 0.010 inches. Radial loads are supported by an olive hole ring jewel that makes near line contact around the circumference of the Ir shaft to support big speed rotation with little friction. The width of olive hole ring jewel is small to allow heat to conduct through to thereby prevent heat build-up in the bearing. A void defined by the bearing elements may fill with blood that then coagulates within the void. The coagulated blood is then conformed to the shape of the bearing surfaces.

  7. Blood Pump Bearing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a blood pump bearing system within a pump housing to support long-term high-speed rotation of a rotor with an impeller blade having a plurality of individual magnets disposed thereon to provide a small radial air gap between the magnets and a stator of less than 0.025 inches. The bearing system may be mounted within a flow straightener, diffuser, or other pump element to support the shaft of a pump rotor. The bearing system includes a zirconia shaft having a radiused end. The radiused end has a first radius selected to be about three times greater than the radius of the zirconia shaft. The radiused end of the zirconia shaft engages a flat sapphire endstone. Due to the relative hardness of these materials a flat is quickly produced during break-in on the zirconia radiused end of precisely the size necessary to support thrust loads whereupon wear substantially ceases. Due to the selection of the first radius, the change in shaft end-play during pump break-in is limited to a total desired end-play of less than about 0.010 inches. Radial loads are supported by an olive hole ring jewel that makes near line contact around the circumference of the shaft to support high speed rotation with little friction. The width of olive hole ring jewel is small to allow heat to conduct through to thereby prevent heat build-up in the bearing. A void defined by the bearing elements may fill with blood that then coagulates within the void. The coagulated blood is then conformed to the shape of the bearing surfaces.

  8. Oil well pump driving unit

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbertson, T.A.

    1984-02-21

    An oil well pump driving unit with a horizontally disposed hydraulic cylinder having a cylinder rod coupled to a drive rope extending into a pumping tee-stuffing box arrangement for driving the sucker rod string leading to a conventional oil well reciprocating pump. The drive rope extends over a first rotating sheave mounted near the wellhead and passes over a second rotating sheave mounted on a carriage which traverses a carriage channel in a draw works on which the hydraulic cylinder is mounted. A hydraulic drive/control system utilizing limit switches on the draw works provides control over the stroke position, the stroke length, and the stroke rate.

  9. Vacuum pump aids ejectors

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.E.

    1982-12-01

    The steam ejector/vacuum pump hybrid system has been operating satisfactorily since the summer of 1981. This system has essentially been as troublefree as the all-ejector system and, of course, has provided a substantial cost savings. Construction is currently under way to convert the vacuum system of another crude still which is equipped with steam ejectors and barometric condensers to the hybrid system of steam ejectors, surface condensers, and vacuum pumps. This current project is even more financially attractive because it allows a dirty water cooling tower which serves the barometric condensers to be shut down. Providing a vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers with this hybrid system is by no means the only application of this technique. Any vacuum system consisting of all steam ejectors would be a candidate for this hybrid system and the resulting savings in energy.

  10. Well pump

    DOEpatents

    Ames, Kenneth R.; Doesburg, James M.

    1987-01-01

    A well pump includes a piston and an inlet and/or outlet valve assembly of special structure. Each is formed of a body of organic polymer, preferably PTFE. Each includes a cavity in its upper portion and at least one passage leading from the cavity to the bottom of the block. A screen covers each cavity and a valve disk covers each screen. Flexible sealing flanges extend upwardly and downwardly from the periphery of the piston block. The outlet valve block has a sliding block and sealing fit with the piston rod.

  11. Well pump

    SciTech Connect

    Page, J.S.

    1983-03-08

    Well fluid pumping apparatus comprises: (A) body structure defining an upright plunger bore, (B) a plunger reciprocable in that bore, (C) the body structure also defining a chamber sidewardly offset from an axis defined by the plunger bore and communicating with the bore, and (D) valving carried by the body structure to pass intake fluid via the chamber into the plunger bore in response to stroking of the plunger in one direction in the bore, and to pass discharge fluid from the plunger bore into and from the chamber in response to stroking of the plunger in the opposite direction in the bore.

  12. Systematic Method for Evaluating Extraction and Injection Flow Rates for 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit Pump-and-Treat Interim Actions for Hydraulic Containment

    SciTech Connect

    Spiliotopoulos, Alexandros A.

    2013-03-20

    This document describes a systematic method to develop flow rate recommendations for Pump-and-Treat (P&T) extraction and injection wells in 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Units (OU) of the Hanford Site. Flow rate recommendations are developed as part of ongoing performance monitoring and remedy optimization of the P&T interim actions to develop hydraulic contairnnent of the dissolved chromium plume in groundwater and protect the Columbia River from further discharges of groundwater from inland. This document details the methodology and data required to infer the influence of individual wells near the shoreline on hydraulic containment and river protection and develop flow rate recommendations to improve system performance and mitigate potential shortcomings of the system configuration in place.

  13. The microbial carbon pump concept: Potential biogeochemical significance in the globally changing ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legendre, Louis; Rivkin, Richard B.; Weinbauer, Markus G.; Guidi, Lionel; Uitz, Julia

    2015-05-01

    Three vertical ocean carbon pumps have been known for almost three decades to sequester atmospheric carbon in the deep-water and sediment reservoirs, i.e. the solubility pump, the carbonate pump, and the soft-tissue (also known as organic, or biological) carbon pump (BCP). These three pumps maintain the vertical gradient in total dissolved inorganic carbon between the surface and deep waters. The more recently proposed microbial carbon pump (MCP) would maintain a gradient between short- and long-lived dissolved organic carbon (DOC; average lifetimes of <100 and >100 years, respectively). Long-lived DOC is an additional proposed reservoir of sequestered carbon in the ocean. This review: examines critically aspects of the vertical ocean carbon pumps and the MCP, in particular their physical dimensions and their potential roles in carbon sequestration; normalises the dimensions of the MCP to allow direct comparisons with the three vertical ocean carbon pumps; compares the MCP and vertical ocean carbon pumps; organises in a coherent framework the information available in the literature on refractory DOC; explores the potential effects of the globally changing ocean on the MCP; and identifies the assumptions that generally underlie the MCP studies, as bases for future research. The study: proposes definitions of terms, expressions and concepts related to the four ocean carbon pumps (i.e. three vertical pumps and MCP); defines the magnitude for the MCP as the rate of production of DOC with an average lifetime of >100 years and provides its first estimate for the World Ocean, i.e. 0.2 Pg C year-1; and introduces an operational "first-time-sequestration" criterion that prevents organic carbon fluxes from being assigned to both the BCP and the MCP. In our review of the potential effects of predicted climate-related changes in the ocean environment on the MCP, we found that three of the seven predicted changes could potentially enhance carbon sequestration by the MCP, and

  14. Chirped-Pulse Amplification with flashlamp-pumped Ti:Sapphire amplifiers. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bonlie, J.D.; White, W.E.; Price, D.F.; Reitze, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Ti:Sapphire (Ti:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) amplifier stages are typically pumped with Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers doubled to 532 nm because of good spectral overlap, short temporal width, high repetition rate (i.e., 10 Hz to > 5 kHz) and the problems associated with flashlamp pumping a material with a relatively short upper state lifetime. Limitations to this pumping method arise due to the 1 to 1.5 joule/pulse ceiling found in most commercial high rep rate Nd:YAG lasers. The availability of high quality, large aperture Ti:Sapphire rods has made the flashlamp-pumping scheme an attractive option. The excellent thermal properties of Ti:Sapphire also allows an amplifier to be operated at high repetition rates. The front end of our laser relies on Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA) in laser pumped Ti:Sapphire to generate 55 mJ, 90 fsec pulses at a 10 Hz rate. We report the use of a flashlamp pumped Ti:Sapphire head to further amplify the output of our system, producing 90 fsec, 250 mJ pulses at 5 Hz. The excellent output spatial profile yields a near diffraction-limited 5 {mu}m spot size and peak irradiance in excess of 5 {times} 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}.

  15. Chirped-Pulse Amplification with flashlamp-pumped Ti:Sapphire amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Bonlie, J.D.; White, W.E.; Price, D.F.; Reitze, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Ti:Sapphire (Ti:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) amplifier stages are typically pumped with Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers doubled to 532 nm because of good spectral overlap, short temporal width, high repetition rate (i.e., 10 Hz to > 5 kHz) and the problems associated with flashlamp pumping a material with a relatively short upper state lifetime. Limitations to this pumping method arise due to the 1 to 1.5 joule/pulse ceiling found in most commercial high rep rate Nd:YAG lasers. The availability of high quality, large aperture Ti:Sapphire rods has made the flashlamp-pumping scheme an attractive option. The excellent thermal properties of Ti:Sapphire also allows an amplifier to be operated at high repetition rates. The front end of our laser relies on Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA) in laser pumped Ti:Sapphire to generate 55 NJ, 90 fsec pulses at a 10 Hz rate. We report the use of a flashlamp pumped Ti:Sapphire head to further amplify the output of our system, producing 90 fsec, 250 NJ pulses at 5 Hz. The excellent output spatial profile yields a near diffraction-limited 5 {mu}m spot size and peak irradiance in excess of 5 {times} 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}.

  16. Pump apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kime, J.A.

    1987-02-17

    This patent describes a gas-oil well production system for pumping formation fluid wherein a down hole pump is provided having a barrel including a barrel fluid inlet, a barrel fluid outlet, a barrel chamber, and a plunger mounted in the barrel chamber having a plunger chamber. The plunger is reciprocally driven between an upper terminal position at the end of the plunger upstroke and a lower terminal position at the end of the plunger downstroke. The method for removing developed gaseous fluids in the formation fluid from the barrel chamber comprises: drawing formation fluid into the barrel chamber during the plunger upstroke; providing gas port means in the barrel; expelling the developed gaseous fluids from the barrel chamber through the gas port means during the occurrence of that portion of the plunger downstroke from the upper terminal position of the gas port means; and substantially blocking the gas port means and moving formation fluid into the plunger chamber during the occurrence of that portion of the plunger downstroke from below the gas port means to the lower terminal position.

  17. Absorption heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhtinen, M.; Heikkilae, M.; Andersson, R.

    1987-03-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of absorption heat pumps in Finland. The work was done as a case study: the technical and economic analyses have been carried out for six different cases, where in each the suitable size and type of the heat pump plant and the auxiliary components and connections were specified. The study also detailed the costs concerning the procurement, installation and test runs of the machinery, as well as the savings in energy costs incurred by the introduction of the plant. Conclusions were drawn of the economic viability of the applications studied. The following cases were analyzed: heat recovery from flue gases and productin of district heat in plants using peat, natural gas, and municipal wastes as a fuel. Heat recovery in the pulp and paper industry for the upgrading of pressure of secondary steam and for the heating of white liquor and combustion and drying the air. Heat recovery in a peat-fulled heat and power plant from flue gases that have been used for the drying of peat. According to the study, the absorption heat pump suits best to the production of district heat, when the heat source is the primary energy is steam produced by the boiler. Included in the flue as condensing is the purification of flue gases. Accordingly, benefit is gained on two levels in thick applications. In heat and power plants the use of absorption heat pumps is less economical, due to the fact that the steam used by the pump reduces the production of electricity, which is rated clearly higher than heat.

  18. Hydraulic gas pump: A discussion of its power usage

    SciTech Connect

    Amani, M.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a study that compares the theoretically calculated power consumption of a Hydraulic Gas Pump, rod pumps, and electric submersible pumps. The results indicate that, depending on the flowing bottomhole pressure of a well, a Hydraulic Gas Pump can have lower power costs than a rod pump or a submersible pump. The author presents a method for calculating the power cost of a Hydraulic Gas Pump and discusses the relationship of the power cost of this pump to the flowing bottomhole pressure. Several graphs compare the calculated power consumption of a rod pump, submersible pump, and Hydraulic Gas Pump for well depths ranging between 6,000 and 10,000 feet; flowing bottomhole pressure ranging between 500 and 2,000 psi; and production rates of 300 and 500 BLPD.

  19. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part... the same trip in the same vehicle. (2) Lodging and meals. The cost allowable for lodging and meals for... prevailing per diem allowance rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part...

  20. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part... the same trip in the same vehicle. (2) Lodging and meals. The cost allowable for lodging and meals for... prevailing per diem allowance rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part...

  1. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part... prevailing per diem allowance rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section...

  2. Experimental studies on pump limiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mioduszewski, P.

    1982-12-01

    Pump limiters are mechanical devices for He-ash removal, fuel particle control, and possibly impurity control. Different designs have been suggested by various authors over the past decade. However, the magnetic divertor concepts seemed to be more promising, mainly because of their remote plasma-material interactions. All of the characteristics of magnetic divertors have been proven experimentally, but the overall performance and complexity cause concern about their application to tokamak reactors. Consequently, it is now time to explore the potential of mechanical particle control devices, i.e. pump limiters. Because of the high recycling at the limiter, it is sufficient to exhaust only a small fraction, about 1-10%, of the limiter particle flux to remove e.g. He at its rate of production. Pump limiter experiments have been conducted so far on Alcator, PDX, Macrotor, and ISX. Depending on the experimental design, a pressure build-up of between 1 mTorr and 50 mTorr has been reported. The closed configuration pump limiters provide high collection efficiencies, but have to accomodate high power fluxes at the leading edge. An open configuration, on the other hand, avoids leading edges but provides only fairly low collection efficiencies. The pump limiter development program now calls for a full pump limiter to be implemented in a major tokamak device. Presently, full-size pump limiter experiments on PDX, ISX, and TEXTOR are in preparation.

  3. Pump and probe spectroscopy with continuous wave quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkbride, James M. R.; Causier, Sarah K.; Dalton, Andrew R.; Ritchie, Grant A. D.; Weidmann, Damien

    2014-02-07

    This paper details infra-red pump and probe studies on nitric oxide conducted with two continuous wave quantum cascade lasers both operating around 5 μm. The pump laser prepares a velocity selected population in a chosen rotational quantum state of the v = 1 level which is subsequently probed using a second laser tuned to a rotational transition within the v = 2 ← v = 1 hot band. The rapid frequency scan of the probe (with respect to the molecular collision rate) in combination with the velocity selective pumping allows observation of marked rapid passage signatures in the transient absorption profiles from the polarized vibrationally excited sample. These coherent transient signals are influenced by the underlying hyperfine structure of the pump and probe transitions, the sample pressure, and the coherent properties of the lasers. Pulsed pump and probe studies show that the transient absorption signals decay within 1 μs at 50 mTorr total pressure, reflecting both the polarization and population dephasing times of the vibrationally excited sample. The experimental observations are supported by simulation based upon solving the optical Bloch equations for a two level system.

  4. Electrothermal pumping with interdigitated electrodes and resistive heaters.

    PubMed

    Williams, Stuart J; Green, Nicolas G

    2015-08-01

    Interdigitated electrodes are used in electrokinetic lab-on-a-chip devices for dielectrophoretic trapping and characterization of suspended particles, as well as the production of field-induced fluid flow via AC electroosomosis and electrothermal mechanisms. However, the optimum design for dielectrophoresis, that if symmetrical electrodes, cannot induce bulk electrohydrodynamic pumping. In addition, the mechanism of intrinsic electrothermal pumping is affected by the properties of the fluid, with thermal fields being generated by Joule Heating. This work demonstrates the incorporation of an underlying thin film heater, electrically isolated from the interdigitated electrodes by an insulator layer, to enhance bulk electrothermal pumping. The use of integrated heaters allows the thermal field generation to be controlled independently of the electric field. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the importance of geometrical arrangement of the heater with respect to the interdigitated electrodes, as well as electrode size, spacing, and arrangement. The optimization of such a system is a careful balance between electrokinetics, heat transfer, and fluid dynamics. The heater location and electrode spacing influence the rate of electrothermal pumping significantly more than electrode width and insulator layer thickness. This demonstration will aid in the development of microfluidic electrokinetic systems that want to utilize the advantages associated with electrothermal pumping while simultaneously applying other lab-on-a-chip electrokinetics like dielectrophoresis.

  5. Pump and probe spectroscopy with continuous wave quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Kirkbride, James M R; Causier, Sarah K; Dalton, Andrew R; Weidmann, Damien; Ritchie, Grant A D

    2014-02-01

    This paper details infra-red pump and probe studies on nitric oxide conducted with two continuous wave quantum cascade lasers both operating around 5 μm. The pump laser prepares a velocity selected population in a chosen rotational quantum state of the v = 1 level which is subsequently probed using a second laser tuned to a rotational transition within the v = 2 ← v = 1 hot band. The rapid frequency scan of the probe (with respect to the molecular collision rate) in combination with the velocity selective pumping allows observation of marked rapid passage signatures in the transient absorption profiles from the polarized vibrationally excited sample. These coherent transient signals are influenced by the underlying hyperfine structure of the pump and probe transitions, the sample pressure, and the coherent properties of the lasers. Pulsed pump and probe studies show that the transient absorption signals decay within 1 μs at 50 mTorr total pressure, reflecting both the polarization and population dephasing times of the vibrationally excited sample. The experimental observations are supported by simulation based upon solving the optical Bloch equations for a two level system.

  6. Depth constraint of electric submersible pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, M.L.

    1994-05-01

    This paper summarizes the various factors that limit electric submersible pump (ESP) operation at increasing depth. It explores in detail two parametrically related constraints, pump-shaft horsepower capacity and thrust-bearing load capacity. The former limits the product of head and rate; the latter limits head. Optimum shaft diameter for standard-configuration pumps is shown to be a compromise between these two factors. Head and rate limits resulting from these constraints are mathematically defined and graphically displayed, and means for expanding deep pumping capabilities are discussed. This paper also analyzes the effect of increased pumping depth on motor cooling. It shows that the temperature increase of fluid traversing a motor is proportional to head, independent of rate, and very sensitive to pump and motor efficiencies. This work also demonstrates the effect of elevated fluid temperatures associated with increasing depth on motor heat transfer coefficients. The purpose of this paper is to help resolve a perceived dilemma. Pump manufacturers do not develop pumps with ultradeep capability because there is no market for them. Oil producers might abandon ultradeep discovery wells with low reservoir pressure because there is no way to pump them. This paper is intended to promote the interest of both groups in potential deep pumping capabilities.

  7. High-rate artificial lift

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, J.D.

    1988-03-01

    This paper summarizes the major considerations in the selection, design, installation, operation, or repair of high-rate artificial-lift systems. The major types of artificial lift - sucker-rod pumps, gas-lift systems, electrical submersible pumps, hydraulic pumps and jets, and hydraulic turbine-driven pumps - will be discussed. An extensive bibliography of artificial-lift papers is included.

  8. Design of multilamp nonimaging laser pump cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Kuppenheimer, J.D. Jr.

    1989-12-01

    A technique has been developed to design single laser rod, multiple flash lamp pump cavities that allow all of the energy generated by the lamp to pass through the laser rod before entering another lamp cavity. The effective lamp and rod perimeters are matched, guaranteeing maximal concentration and uniformity of pumping.

  9. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  10. Novel limiter pump topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of limiter pumps as the principle plasma exhaust system of a magnetic confinement fusion device promises significant simplification, when compared to previously investigating divertor based systems. Further simplifications, such as the integration of the exhaust system with a radio frequency heating system and with the main reactor shield and structure are investigated below. The integrity of limiters in a reactor environment is threatened by many mechanisms, the most severe of which may be erosion by sputtering. Two novel topolgies are suggested which allow high erosion without limiter failure.

  11. Effects of enhancement with varying phosphate types and concentrations, at two different pump rates on beef biceps femoris instrumental color characteristics.

    PubMed

    Baublits, R T; Pohlman, F W; Brown, A H; Johnson, Z B

    2005-10-01

    The effect of enhancing beef biceps femoris muscles (n=45) with solutions comprising 2.0% sodium chloride and either sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), or tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) at either 0.2% or 0.4% of product weight on instrumental color during simulated retail display was investigated. All solutions were injected into muscle samples at either 112% (12% pump) or 118% (18% pump) of raw product weight. Muscles treated with all three phosphate types had lower (P<0.05) L* and b* values compared to untreated muscles (CNT). Steaks enhanced with STPP had similar (P>0.05) a* values as CNT, whereas SHMP- and TSPP-treated steaks generally had lower a* values than CNT. Across phosphate type, excluding day 3 of display, steaks treated with phosphate at 0.4% had similar (P>0.05) a* values as CNT, whereas those with 0.2% phosphate addition had lower (P<0.05) a* values than CNT. Across five days of display, STPP maintained higher (P<0.05) a* values than steaks treated only with sodium chloride, whereas SHMP did not differ (P>0.05) from sodium chloride-treated steaks. While STPP maintained a similar (P>0.05) saturation index as CNT, SHMP and TSPP generally had decreased (P<0.05) vividness during display. Additionally, excluding day 3 of display, phosphate concentration at 0.4% maintained similar vividness as CNT, whereas 0.2% phosphate concentration caused decreased (P<0.05) vividness, compared to CNT. The 630/580nm ratio results indicated that SHMP had less (P<0.05) oxymyoglobin than CNT throughout display. Disregarding day 3 of display, both STPP and TSPP had similar (P>0.05) oxymyoglobin proportions as CNT. These results indicate that STPP was the most effective phosphate type for maintaining color. Additionally, 0.4% phosphate concentrations can maintain color better than 0.2% phosphate concentrations. However, none of the phosphate/salt combinations produced superior color, compared to untreated steaks.

  12. Effects of enhancement with differing phosphate types, concentrations, and pump rates, without sodium chloride, on beef biceps femoris instrumental color characteristics.

    PubMed

    Baublits, R T; Pohlman, F W; Brown, A H; Johnson, Z B

    2006-03-01

    Enhancement of beef biceps femoris muscles (n=45) with solutions comprising sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), or tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) at either 0.2% or 0.4% of product weight, with the exclusion of sodium chloride, was performed to observe the independent phosphate effects on instrumental color during simulated retail display. All solutions were injected into muscle samples at either 112% (12% pump) or 118% (18% pump) of raw product weight. All three phosphate types maintained higher (P<0.05) L* values than untreated steaks (CNT) through 5 days-of-display, and SHMP had higher (P<0.05) L* values than STPP and TSPP through 7 days-of-display. Additionally, steaks with 0.2% phosphate inclusion were lighter (L*; P<0.05) than CNT throughout display, and were lighter (P<0.05) than steaks enhanced with 0.4% phosphates through 7 days of display. Steaks enhanced with TSPP had higher (P<0.05) a* values than CNT on days 5 and 7 of display, whereas SHMP- or STPP-enhanced steaks generally had similar (P>0.05) a* values as CNT after 3d of display. Direct comparison of phosphate concentrations revealed no differences (P>0.05) in a* values. Only steaks enhanced with TSPP were more vivid (P<0.05) and had higher (P<0.05) proportions of oxymyoglobin than CNT on days 5 and 7 of display. However, direct comparison of phosphate types indicated that TSPP- and STPP-enhanced steaks had similar (P>0.05) oxymyoglobin proportions during display. Phosphate inclusion at 0.4% maintained higher (P<0.05) oxymyoglobin proportions than 0.2% phosphate inclusion through 5 days-of-display. These results indicate that while 0.2% phosphate concentrations maintain lighter color, 0.4% concentrations can more effectively retain oxymyoglobin during display. Additionally, only steaks enhanced with TSPP were redder, more vivid, and had higher oxymyoglobin proportions than untreated steaks during the latter stages of display.

  13. Pioneering Heat Pump Project

    SciTech Connect

    Aschliman, Dave; Lubbehusen, Mike

    2015-06-30

    This project was initiated at a time when ground coupled heat pump systems in this region were limited in size and quantity. There were economic pressures with costs for natural gas and electric utilities that had many organizations considering ground coupled heat pumps; The research has added to the understanding of how ground temperatures fluctuate seasonally and how this affects the performance and operation of the heat pumps. This was done by using a series of temperature sensors buried within the middle of one of the vertical bore fields with sensors located at various depths below grade. Trending of the data showed that there is a lag in ground temperature with respect to air temperatures in the shoulder months, however as full cooling and heating season arrives, the heat rejection and heat extraction from the ground has a significant effect on the ground temps; Additionally it is better understood that while a large community geothermal bore field serving multiple buildings does provide a convenient central plant to use, it introduces complexity of not being able to easily model and predict how each building will contribute to the loads in real time. Additional controllers and programming were added to provide more insight into this real time load profile and allow for intelligent shedding of load via a dry cooler during cool nights in lieu of rejecting to the ground loop. This serves as a means to ‘condition’ the ground loop and mitigate thermal creep of the field, as is typically observed; and It has been observed when compared to traditional heating and cooling equipment, there is still a cost premium to use ground source heat pumps that is driven mostly by the cost for vertical bore holes. Horizontal loop systems are less costly to install, but do not perform as well in this climate zone for heating mode

  14. LMFBR with booster pump in pumping loop

    DOEpatents

    Rubinstein, H.J.

    1975-10-14

    A loop coolant circulation system is described for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) utilizing a low head, high specific speed booster pump in the hot leg of the coolant loop with the main pump located in the cold leg of the loop, thereby providing the advantages of operating the main pump in the hot leg with the reliability of cold leg pump operation.

  15. Winding for linear pump

    DOEpatents

    Kliman, Gerald B.; Brynsvold, Glen V.; Jahns, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    A winding and method of winding for a submersible linear pump for pumping liquid sodium is disclosed. The pump includes a stator having a central cylindrical duct preferably vertically aligned. The central vertical duct is surrounded by a system of coils in slots. These slots are interleaved with magnetic flux conducting elements, these magnetic flux conducting elements forming a continuous magnetic field conduction path along the stator. The central duct has placed therein a cylindrical magnetic conducting core, this core having a cylindrical diameter less than the diameter of the cylindrical duct. The core once placed to the duct defines a cylindrical interstitial pumping volume of the pump. This cylindrical interstitial pumping volume preferably defines an inlet at the bottom of the pump, and an outlet at the top of the pump. Pump operation occurs by static windings in the outer stator sequentially conveying toroidal fields from the pump inlet at the bottom of the pump to the pump outlet at the top of the pump. The winding apparatus and method of winding disclosed uses multiple slots per pole per phase with parallel winding legs on each phase equal to or less than the number of slots per pole per phase. The slot sequence per pole per phase is chosen to equalize the variations in flux density of the pump sodium as it passes into the pump at the pump inlet with little or no flux and acquires magnetic flux in passage through the pump to the pump outlet.

  16. Winding for linear pump

    DOEpatents

    Kliman, G.B.; Brynsvold, G.V.; Jahns, T.M.

    1989-08-22

    A winding and method of winding for a submersible linear pump for pumping liquid sodium are disclosed. The pump includes a stator having a central cylindrical duct preferably vertically aligned. The central vertical duct is surrounded by a system of coils in slots. These slots are interleaved with magnetic flux conducting elements, these magnetic flux conducting elements forming a continuous magnetic field conduction path along the stator. The central duct has placed therein a cylindrical magnetic conducting core, this core having a cylindrical diameter less than the diameter of the cylindrical duct. The core once placed to the duct defines a cylindrical interstitial pumping volume of the pump. This cylindrical interstitial pumping volume preferably defines an inlet at the bottom of the pump, and an outlet at the top of the pump. Pump operation occurs by static windings in the outer stator sequentially conveying toroidal fields from the pump inlet at the bottom of the pump to the pump outlet at the top of the pump. The winding apparatus and method of winding disclosed uses multiple slots per pole per phase with parallel winding legs on each phase equal to or less than the number of slots per pole per phase. The slot sequence per pole per phase is chosen to equalize the variations in flux density of the pump sodium as it passes into the pump at the pump inlet with little or no flux and acquires magnetic flux in passage through the pump to the pump outlet. 4 figs.

  17. Implementation of time-resolved step-scan fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy using a kHz repetition rate pump laser.

    PubMed

    Magana, Donny; Parul, Dzmitry; Dyer, R Brian; Shreve, Andrew P

    2011-05-01

    Time-resolved step-scan Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has been shown to be invaluable for studying excited-state structures and dynamics in both biological and inorganic systems. Despite the established utility of this method, technical challenges continue to limit the data quality and more wide ranging applications. A critical problem has been the low laser repetition rate and interferometer stepping rate (both are typically 10 Hz) used for data acquisition. Here we demonstrate significant improvement in the quality of time-resolved spectra through the use of a kHz repetition rate laser to achieve kHz excitation and data collection rates while stepping the spectrometer at 200 Hz. We have studied the metal-to-ligand charge transfer excited state of Ru(bipyridine)(3)Cl(2) in deuterated acetonitrile to test and optimize high repetition rate data collection. Comparison of different interferometer stepping rates reveals an optimum rate of 200 Hz due to minimization of long-term baseline drift. With the improved collection efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio, better assignments of the MLCT excited-state bands can be made. Using optimized parameters, carbonmonoxy myoglobin in deuterated buffer is also studied by observing the infrared signatures of carbon monoxide photolysis upon excitation of the heme. We conclude from these studies that a substantial increase in performance of ss-FT-IR instrumentation is achieved by coupling commercial infrared benches with kHz repetition rate lasers.

  18. The Lunar Thermal Ice Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonson, O.; Schorghofer, N.

    2013-12-01

    Theoretical considerations and recent observations indicate the lunar polar regions harbor deposits of water ice in extremely cold regions. The geographic distribution of H-bearing regolith shows only a partial match to permanently shadowed areas, thus suggesting that ice is not simply trapped by low temperature but another mechanism plays a role in concentrating H2O. Under suitable conditions, water molecules can be pumped down into the regolith by day-night temperature cycles, leading to an enrichment of H2O in excess of the surface concentration. Ideal conditions for pumping are estimated to be mean surface temperatures below 105 K and peak surface temperatures higher than 130 K. These conditions complement those of the classical cold traps, roughly defined by peak temperatures <120 K. Temperatures were obtained by analyzing the LRO Diviner measurements and geographic regions of positive pumping differential are identified. These extend the ice distribution beyond traditional cold traps. At latitudes poleward of 85 degrees equator-facing slopes have a positive pumping differential because at this latitude their aspect allows larger temperature oscillations while remaining on average cold. At lower polar latitudes, down to about 70 degrees, pole-facing slopes have positive pumping differential, because here the slope aspect allows the surface to remain cooler than average.

  19. Insulin Pumps and Remote Software Updates

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Noel E.; Parks, Linda J.; Verhoef, Erik T.; Morgan, Corey A.; Stal, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the future direction of insulin pump technology and its relationship to the software update process. A user needs analysis revealed that respondents wanted an insulin pump software update process to function much in the same way as smartphone updates. Users of insulin pumps have the same expectations as with other ubiquitous technology such as smartphones, tablets, and laptops. The development of a software update system within a regulated environment that meets the needs of insulin pump users by allowing optional software updates that provide access to pump improvements, feature additions, or access to algorithms that provide therapy-changing technologies is a new way forward for the management of a complicated disease that affects more than 450,000 people using insulin pumps in the United States. PMID:26385400

  20. Hydraulic pump

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, P.R.; Jantzen, D.E.

    1984-05-15

    This invention relates to an improved pump jack characterized by a hollow piston rod which telescopes down over the sucker rod to which it is clamped for reciprocating motion. The cylinder, in turn, is fastened in fixed position directly to the upper exposed end of the well casing. As fluid is introduced into the lower end of the cylinder it raises the piston into engagement with a pushrod housed in the upper cylinder head that lifts switch-actuating means associated therewith into a position operative to actuate a switch located adjacent thereto thereby causing the latter to change state and actuate a multi-function solenoid valve so as to cut off fluid flow to the cylinder. As gravity lowers the sucker rod and piston exhausting the hydraulic fluid therebeneath, an adjustable stop engages the pushrod from above so as to return it together with the switch-actuating means associated therewith to their original positions thereby resetting the switch to complete the operating cycle.

  1. Performance Testing of a Prototypic Annular Linear Induction Pump for Fission Surface Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, K. A.; Pearson, J. B.; Schoenfeld, M. P.; Webster, K.; Houts, M. G.; Godfroy, T. J.; Bossard, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Results of performance testing of an annular linear induction pump are presented. The pump electromagnetically pumps liquid metal (NaK) through a circuit specially designed to allow for quantification of the performance. Testing was conducted over a range of conditions, including frequencies of 33, 36, 39, and 60 Hz, liquid metal temperatures from 25 to 525 C, and input voltages from 5 to 120 V. Pump performance spanned a range of flow rates from roughly 0.16 to 5.7 L/s (2.5 to 90 gpm), and pressure head <1 to 90 kPa (<0.145 to 13 psi). The maximum efficiency measured during testing was slightly greater than 6%. The efficiency was fairly insensitive to input frequency from 33 to 39 Hz, and was markedly lower at 60 Hz. In addition, the efficiency decreased as the NaK temperature was raised. While the pump was powered, the fluid responded immediately to changes in the input power level, but when power was removed altogether, there was a brief slow-down period before the fluid would come to rest. The performance of the pump operating on a variable frequency drive providing 60 Hz power compared favorably with the same pump operating on 60 Hz power drawn directly from the electrical grid.

  2. Molecular water pumps.

    PubMed

    Zeuthen, T

    2000-01-01

    specific sequence of allosteric conformations in a membrane bound enzyme would give rise to vectorial transport of water across the membrane. In addition to their recognized functions, cotransporters have the additional property of water channels. Compared to aquaporins, the unitary water permeability is about two orders of magnitude lower. It is suggested that the water permeability is determined from chemical associations between the water molecule and sites within the pore, probably in the form of hydrogen-bonds. The existence of a passive water permeability suggests an alternative model for the molecular water pump: The water flux couples to the flux of non-aqueous substrates in a hyperosmolar compartment within the protein. Molecular water pumps allow cellular water homeostasis to be viewed as a balance between pumps and leaks. This enables cells to maintain their intracellular osmolarity despite external variations. Molecular water pumps could be relevant for a wide range of physiological functions, from volume regulation in contractile vacuoles in amoeba to phloem transport in plants (Zeuthen 1992, 1996). They could be important building blocks in a general model for vectorial water transport across epithelia. A simplified model of a leaky epithelium incorporating K+/Cl-/H2O and Na+/glucose/H2O cotransport in combination with channels and primary active transport gives good quantitative predictions of several properties. In particular of how epithelial cell layers can transport water uphill. PMID:10916424

  3. Development of a novel centrifugal pump: magnetic rotary pump.

    PubMed

    Naganuma, S; Yambe, T; Sonobe, T; Kobayashi, S; Nitta, S

    1997-07-01

    The rotational axis of the centrifugal pump has some associated problems such as blood destruction and sealing between the axis and pump housing. To improve upon these deficits we have developed a new type of blood pump, the magnetic rotary pump (MRP). The MRP has an original design with no rotational axis and no impellers. We made a prototype MRP and examined its hemodynamics in mock circulation. The prototype MRP flow rate is only 1.0 L/min with an afterload of 30 mm Hg, and we have made some modifications in the size and drive mechanisms from these results. The modified MRP can achieve high flow rates and rotational speeds (6.0 L/min with an afterload of 100 mm Hg, 2,000 rpm) in a mock circuit, and the modified MRP was used for left heart assistance in an acute animal experiment. The MRP could maintain the hemodynamics of an anesthetized adult goat. These results suggest that the MRP needs to be improved in several areas, but the MRP may be useful as a blood pump. PMID:9212950

  4. Multiple pump housing

    DOEpatents

    Donoho, II, Michael R.; Elliott; Christopher M.

    2010-03-23

    A fluid delivery system includes a first pump having a first drive assembly, a second pump having a second drive assembly, and a pump housing. At least a portion of each of the first and second pumps are located in the housing.

  5. A straight path centrifugal blood pump concept in the Capiox centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Kijima, T; Oshiyama, H; Horiuchi, K; Nogawa, A; Hamasaki, H; Amano, N; Nojiri, C; Fukasawa, H; Akutsu, T

    1993-07-01

    This article describes comparative studies of a newly developed "straight path" centrifugal pump (Capiox centrifugal pump) targeted for open-heart surgery and circulatory support. A unique straight path design of the rotor was very effective in reducing the pump's rotational speed and prime volume. This pump was evaluated for hydraulics, hemolysis, depriming characteristics, cavitation, and heat generation. Two commercially available centrifugal pumps, the Biomedicus cone-type pump and the Sarns 3M impeller-type pump, were used as controls. The new pump required the lowest pump speed to produce the same flow rates under the same pressure loads and demonstrated the lowest hemolysis and the lowest temperature rise with the outlet clamped. The air volume required to deprime the new pump was one-third to one-half that for the other pumps, and no sign of cavitation was observed even if a small amount of air was introduced to the pump inlet under a negative pressure of 200 mm Hg.

  6. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... advance of allowance. (a) Allowance. Step 2+3 and Step 3 grant agreements will include an allowance for facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... would receive under paragraph (a) of this section. (5) In the event a Step 2+3, Step 3 or Step 7...

  7. Evaluation of Dry, Rough Vacuum Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This document provides information on the testing and evaluation of thirteen dry rough vacuum pumps of various designs and from various manufacturers. Several types of rough vacuum pumps were evaluated, including scroll, roots, and diaphragm pumps. Tests included long term testing, speed curve generation, voltage variance, vibrations emissions and susceptibility, electromagnetic interference emissions and susceptibility, static leak rate, exhaust restriction, response/recovery time tests, and a contamination analysis for scroll pumps. Parameters were found for operation with helium, which often is not provided from the manufacturer

  8. Peristaltic pump made of dielectric elastomer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotz, Peter; Matysek, Marc; Schlaak, Helmut F.

    2009-03-01

    The functional principle of peristaltic motion is inspired by the pattern in which hollow organs move. The technology of dielectric elastomer actuators provides the possibility to design a very compact peristaltic pump. The geometries of the whole pump and the actuator elements have been determined by numerical simulations of the mechanical behaviour and the fluid dynamics. With eight independent actuators the pumping channel is self-sealing and there is no need for any valves. The first generation of this pump is able to generate flow rates up to 0.36 μl/min.

  9. 21 CFR 880.5725 - Infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fluids into a patient in a controlled manner. The device may use a piston pump, a roller pump, or a... force to propel the fluid through a narrow tube which determines the flow rate. The device may include... alarm. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  10. 21 CFR 880.5725 - Infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fluids into a patient in a controlled manner. The device may use a piston pump, a roller pump, or a... force to propel the fluid through a narrow tube which determines the flow rate. The device may include... alarm. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  11. Absorption heat pump for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tuan; Simon, William E.; Warrier, Gopinath R.; Woramontri, Woranun

    1993-01-01

    In the first part, the performance of the Absorption Heat Pump (AHP) with water-sulfuric acid and water-magnesium chloride as two new refrigerant-absorbent fluid pairs was investigated. A model was proposed for the analysis of the new working pairs in a heat pump system, subject to different temperature lifts. Computer codes were developed to calculate the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the system with the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids obtained from the literature. The study shows the potential of water-sulfuric acid as a satisfactory replacement for water-lithium bromide in the targeted temperature range. The performance of the AHP using water-magnesium chloride as refrigerant-absorbent pair does not compare well with those obtained using water-lithium bromide. The second part concentrated on the design and testing of a simple ElectroHydrodynamic (EHD) Pump. A theoretical design model based on continuum electromechanics was analyzed to predict the performance characteristics of the EHD pump to circulate the fluid in the absorption heat pump. A numerical method of solving the governing equations was established to predict the velocity profile, pressure - flow rate relationship and efficiency of the pump. The predicted operational characteristics of the EHD pump is comparable to that of turbomachinery hardware; however, the overall efficiency of the electromagnetic pump is much lower. An experimental investigation to verify the numerical results was conducted. The pressure - flow rate performance characteristics and overall efficiency of the pump obtained experimentally agree well with the theoretical model.

  12. Optical pumping and xenon NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Raftery, M.D.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of xenon has become an important tool for investigating a wide variety of materials, especially those with high surface area. The sensitivity of its chemical shift to environment, and its chemical inertness and adsorption properties make xenon a particularly useful NMR probe. This work discusses the application of optical pumping to enhance the sensitivity of xenon NMR experiments, thereby allowing them to be used in the study of systems with lower surface area. A novel method of optically-pumping [sup 129]Xe in low magnetic field below an NMR spectrometer and subsequent transfer of the gas to high magnetic field is described. NMR studies of the highly polarized gas adsorbed onto powdered samples with low to moderate surface areas are now possible. For instance, NMR studies of optically-pumped xenon adsorbed onto polyacrylic acid show that xenon has a large interaction with the surface. By modeling the low temperature data in terms of a sticking probability and the gas phase xenon-xenon interaction, the diffusion coefficient for xenon at the surface of the polymer is determined. The sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping also allows the NMR observation of xenon thin films frozen onto the inner surfaces of different sample cells. The geometry of the thin films results in interesting line shapes that are due to the bulk magnetic susceptibility of xenon. Experiments are also described that combine optical pumping with optical detection for high sensitivity in low magnetic field to observe the quadrupoler evolution of 131 Xe spins at the surface of the pumping cells. In cells with macroscopic asymmetry, a residual quadrupolar interaction causes a splitting in the [sup 131]Xe NMR frequencies in bare Pyrex glass cells and cells with added hydrogen.

  13. Optical pumping and xenon NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Raftery, M.D.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of xenon has become an important tool for investigating a wide variety of materials, especially those with high surface area. The sensitivity of its chemical shift to environment, and its chemical inertness and adsorption properties make xenon a particularly useful NMR probe. This work discusses the application of optical pumping to enhance the sensitivity of xenon NMR experiments, thereby allowing them to be used in the study of systems with lower surface area. A novel method of optically-pumping {sup 129}Xe in low magnetic field below an NMR spectrometer and subsequent transfer of the gas to high magnetic field is described. NMR studies of the highly polarized gas adsorbed onto powdered samples with low to moderate surface areas are now possible. For instance, NMR studies of optically-pumped xenon adsorbed onto polyacrylic acid show that xenon has a large interaction with the surface. By modeling the low temperature data in terms of a sticking probability and the gas phase xenon-xenon interaction, the diffusion coefficient for xenon at the surface of the polymer is determined. The sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping also allows the NMR observation of xenon thin films frozen onto the inner surfaces of different sample cells. The geometry of the thin films results in interesting line shapes that are due to the bulk magnetic susceptibility of xenon. Experiments are also described that combine optical pumping with optical detection for high sensitivity in low magnetic field to observe the quadrupoler evolution of 131 Xe spins at the surface of the pumping cells. In cells with macroscopic asymmetry, a residual quadrupolar interaction causes a splitting in the {sup 131}Xe NMR frequencies in bare Pyrex glass cells and cells with added hydrogen.

  14. H{sub 2}(v = 0,1) + C{sup +}({sup 2} P) {yields} H+CH{sup +} STATE-TO-STATE RATE CONSTANTS FOR CHEMICAL PUMPING MODELS IN ASTROPHYSICAL MEDIA

    SciTech Connect

    Zanchet, Alexandre; Bulut, Niyazi; Roncero, Octavio; Godard, B.; Cernicharo, Jose; Halvick, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    State-to-state rate constants for the title reaction are calculated using the electronic ground state potential energy surface and an accurate quantum wave-packet method. The calculations are performed for H{sub 2} in different rovibrational states, v = 0, 1 and J = 0 and 1. The simulated reaction cross section for v = 0 shows a rather good agreement with the experimental results of Gerlich et al., both with a threshold of 0.36 eV and within the experimental error of 20%. The total reaction rate coefficients simulated for v = 1 are two times smaller than those estimated by Hierl et al. from cross sections measured at different temperatures and neglecting the contribution from v > 1 with an uncertainty factor of two. Thus, part of the disagreement is attributed to the contributions of v > 1. The computed state-to-state rate coefficients are used in our radiative transfer model code applied to the conditions of the Orion Bar photodissociation region, and leads to an increase of the line fluxes of high-J lines of CH{sup +}. This result partially explains the discrepancies previously found with measurements and demonstrates that CH{sup +} excitation is mostly driven by chemical pumping.

  15. Continuously pumping and reactivating gas pump

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, Thomas H.; Call, Wayne R.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for continuous pumping using cycling cyropumping panels. A plurality of liquid helium cooled panels are surrounded by movable nitrogen cooled panels the alternatively expose or shield the helium cooled panels from the space being pumped. Gases condense on exposed helium cooled panels until the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to isolate the helium cooled panels. The helium cooled panels are incrementally warmed, causing captured gases to accumulate at the base of the panels, where an independent pump removes the gases. After the helium cooled panels are substantially cleaned of condensate, the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to expose the helium cooled panels to the space being pumped.

  16. Continuously pumping and reactivating gas pump

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    Apparatus for continuous pumping using cycling cryopumping panels. A plurality of liquid helium cooled panels are surrounded by movable nitrogen cooled panels that alternatively expose or shield the helium cooled panels from the space being pumped. Gases condense on exposed helium cooled panels until the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to isolate the helium cooled panels. The helium cooled panels are incrementally warmed, causing captured gases to accumulate at the base of the panels, where an independant pump removes the gases. After the helium cooled panels are substantially cleaned of condensate, the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to expose the helium cooled panels to the space being pumped.

  17. Alternative backing up pump for turbomolecular pumps

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2003-04-22

    As an alternative to the use of a mechanical backing pump in the application of wide range turbomolecular pumps in ultra-high and extra high vacuum applications, palladium oxide is used to convert hydrogen present in the evacuation stream and related volumes to water with the water then being cryo-pumped to a low pressure of below about 1.e.sup.-3 Torr at 150.degree. K. Cryo-pumping is achieved using a low cost Kleemenco cycle cryocooler, a somewhat more expensive thermoelectric cooler, a Venturi cooler or a similar device to achieve the required minimization of hydrogen partial pressure.

  18. Plan for Using Solar-Powered Jack Pumps to Sample Groundwater at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    David Hudson, Charles Lohrstorfer, Bruce Hurley

    2007-05-03

    Groundwater is sampled from 39 monitoring wells on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as part of the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program. Many of these wells were not designed or constructed for long-term groundwater monitoring. Some have extensive completion zones and others have obstructions such as pumps and tubing. The high-volume submersible pumps in some wells are unsuitable for long-term monitoring and result in large volumes of water that may have to be contained and characterized before subsequent disposition. The configuration of most wells requires sampling stagnant well water with a wireline bailer. Although bailer sampling allows for the collection of depth-discrete samples, the collected samples may not be representative of local groundwater because no well purging is done. Low-maintenance, solar-powered jack pumps will be deployed in nine of these onsite monitoring wells to improve sample quality. These pumps provide the lift capacity to produce groundwater from the deep aquifers encountered in the arid environment of the NTS. The water depths in these wells range from 700 to 2,340 ft below ground surface. The considerable labor and electrical power requirements of electric submersible pumps are eliminated once these pumps are installed. Access tubing will be installed concurrent with the installation of the pump string to provide downhole access for water-level measurements or other wireline instruments. Micro-purge techniques with low pump rates will be used to minimize purge volumes and reduce hydraulic gradients. The set depths of the pumps will be determined by the borehole characteristics and screened interval.

  19. Optimized spatial overlap in optical pump-X-ray probe experiments with high repetition rate using laser-induced surface distortions.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Matthias; Koc, Azize; Leitenberger, Wolfram; Gaal, Peter; Bargheer, Matias

    2016-03-01

    Ultrafast X-ray diffraction experiments require careful adjustment of the spatial overlap between the optical excitation and the X-ray probe pulse. This is especially challenging at high laser repetition rates. Sample distortions caused by the large heat load on the sample and the relatively low optical energy per pulse lead to only tiny signal changes. In consequence, this results in small footprints of the optical excitation on the sample, which turns the adjustment of the overlap difficult. Here a method for reliable overlap adjustment based on reciprocal space mapping of a laser excited thin film is presented. PMID:26917135

  20. Optimized spatial overlap in optical pump-X-ray probe experiments with high repetition rate using laser-induced surface distortions.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Matthias; Koc, Azize; Leitenberger, Wolfram; Gaal, Peter; Bargheer, Matias

    2016-03-01

    Ultrafast X-ray diffraction experiments require careful adjustment of the spatial overlap between the optical excitation and the X-ray probe pulse. This is especially challenging at high laser repetition rates. Sample distortions caused by the large heat load on the sample and the relatively low optical energy per pulse lead to only tiny signal changes. In consequence, this results in small footprints of the optical excitation on the sample, which turns the adjustment of the overlap difficult. Here a method for reliable overlap adjustment based on reciprocal space mapping of a laser excited thin film is presented.

  1. Scroll Compressor Oil Pump Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branch, S.

    2015-08-01

    Scroll compressors utilize three journal bearings to absorb gas, friction and inertial loads exerted on the crankshaft. To function properly, these bearings must be lubricated with a certain amount of oil. The focus of this paper will be to discuss how computational fluid dynamics can be used to predict oil flow out of a single-stage oil pump. The effects of speed and lubricant viscosity on pump output will also be presented. The comparisons will look at mass flow rates, differences in pressure, and torque at various speeds and dynamic viscosities. The computational fluid dynamic analysis results will be compared with actual lab testing where a crankshaft bench tester was built.

  2. Synchronously pumped nuclear magnetic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korver, Anna; Thrasher, Daniel; Bulatowicz, Michael; Walker, Thad

    2015-05-01

    We present progress towards a synchronously pumped nuclear magnetic oscillator. Alkali frequency shifts and quadrupole shifts are the dominant systematic effects in dual Xe isotope co-magnetometers. By synchronously pumping the Xe nuclei using spin-exchange with an oscillating Rb polarization, the Rb and Xe spins precess transverse to the longitudinal bias field. This configuration is predicted to be insensitive to first order quadrupole interactions and alkali spin-exchange frequency shifts. A key feature that allows co-precession of the Rb and Xe spins, despite a ~ 1000 fold ratio of their gyromagnetic ratios, is to apply the bias field in the form of a sequence of Rb 2 π pulses whose repetition frequency is equal to the Rb Larmor frequency. The 2 π pulses result in an effective Rb magnetic moment of zero, while the Xe precession depends only on the time average of the pulsed field amplitude. Polarization modulation of the pumping light at the Xe NMR frequency allows co-precession of the Rb and Xe spins. We will present our preliminary experimental studies of this new approach to NMR of spin-exchange pumped Xe. Support by the NSF and Northrop Grumman Co.

  3. Tritium gas transfer pump development

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    Non-lubricated, hermetically sealed pumps for tritium service have been selected to replace Sprengel pumps in the existing Tritium Facility. These pumps will be the primary gas-transfer pumps in the planned Replacement Tritium Facility. The selected pumps are Metal Bellows Corporation's bellows pumps and Normetex scroll pumps. Pumping range for a Normetex/Metal Bellows system is from 0.01 torr suction to 2300 torr discharge. Performance characteristics of both pumps are presented. 10 figs.

  4. Numerical solution to the Boltzmann equation for use in calculating pumping rates in a CO sub 2 discharge laser. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Honey, D.A.

    1989-12-01

    The collisional Boltzmann equation was solved numerically to obtain excitation rates for use in a CO{sub 2} laser design program. The program was written in Microsoft QuickBasic for use on the IBM Personal Computer or equivalent. Program validation involved comparisons of computed transport coefficients with experimental data and previous theoretical work. Four different numerical algorithms were evaluated in terms of accuracy and efficiency. L-U decomposition was identified as the preferred approach. The calculated transport coefficients were found to agree with empirical data within one to five percent. The program was integrated into a CO{sub 2} laser design program. Studies were then performed to evaluate the effects on predicted laser output power and energy density as parameters affecting electron kinetics were changed. Plotting routines were written for both programs.

  5. Hydraulic oil well pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    McDuffie, T.F.

    1983-09-27

    The preferred embodiment is directed to an oil well pumping apparatus incorporating a walking beam having a horsehead at one end which connects to the sucker rods in the oil well. The opposite end of the walking beam is supported on a fixed pivot. A hydraulic and pneumatic combination unit connects from a supporting platform to a central point on the beam to raise and lower the beam. The improved apparatus utilizes air pressure to balance the static load on the apparatus and dynamically strokes the sucker rod string by imparting a reciprocating motion through hydraulic power applied at a specified rate to raise and lower the walking beam. A pump and motor system for a closed hydraulic loop is included. Alternate preferred embodiments are disclosed. In one form, a lubricating system is incorporated. First and second alternate forms of pickoff apparatus which powers the pneumatically balanced pumping apparatus is also included.

  6. Variable delivery, fixed displacement pump

    DOEpatents

    Sommars, Mark F.

    2001-01-01

    A variable delivery, fixed displacement pump comprises a plurality of pistons reciprocated within corresponding cylinders in a cylinder block. The pistons are reciprocated by rotation of a fixed angle swash plate connected to the pistons. The pistons and cylinders cooperate to define a plurality of fluid compression chambers each have a delivery outlet. A vent port is provided from each fluid compression chamber to vent fluid therefrom during at least a portion of the reciprocal stroke of the piston. Each piston and cylinder combination cooperates to close the associated vent port during another portion of the reciprocal stroke so that fluid is then pumped through the associated delivery outlet. The delivery rate of the pump is varied by adjusting the axial position of the swash plate relative to the cylinder block, which varies the duration of the piston stroke during which the vent port is closed.

  7. Chemical heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Leonard

    1980-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  8. Electric fluid pump

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  9. Earth-coupled heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, J. A.

    1981-08-01

    The object of the research work was to demonstrate that a water source heat pump could be used with an earth-coupled heat exchanger which was buried in an absorption field of a domestic sewage disposal system to provide the heating and cooling requirements for residential use in an energy efficient fashion. The system consists of a 3 ton heat pump (nominal rating of 34,000 Btu/hr), a closed-loop heat exchanger which was fabricated from 200 feet of 2 inch diameter cast iron soil pipe, and a calorimeter house which had heat transmission characteristics similar to a 100 sq ft house. The earth-coupled heat exchanger was connected to the water side heat exchanger of the heat pump. Water was circulated through the heat exchanger coil in the earth and through the water side heat exchanger of the heat pump. The earth served as the energy source (for heating) or sink (for cooling) for the heat pump.

  10. An experimental study on pump clogging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isono, M.; Nohmi, M.; Uchida, H.; Kawai, M.; Kudo, H.; Kawahara, T.; Miyagawa, K.; Saito, S.

    2014-03-01

    For sewage pump that various foreign substance is flowed into, anti-clogging performance is a factor as important as pump efficiency in order to avoid clogging trouble by foreign substance. Many investigations about pump inner flow and pump efficiency estimation have been carried out conventionally in order to realize coexistence with anti-clogging performance and pump performance. And these results have been reflected in construction of the running water section design method. As a index of anti-clogging performance, "impeller passage diameter" which is diameter of spherical solid that can pass through the pump is used widely. And there are various type of the sewage pump which have large impeller passage diameter. However real cause of clog is not a solid, and it is fibrous material such as towel and clothes, vinyl and paper diaper. In most case these material accumulate in the pump, so that clog is occurred. In this study, for the purpose of quantification of anti-clogging performance against fibrous materials, the factor that affect to clogging of pump was investigated by pump model test using a string. The test is done based on Taguchi method. In this test, type of the pump model, diameter of the string, material of the string, length of the string and flow rate are selected for the factor, and the effect that they have on the clogging of the pump was investigated. As a result of this test, it was made clear that length of the string has a strong influence on the clogging of the pump. And from the result of this test, evaluation method of anti-clogging performance of the pump against fibrous material by using string was considered. According to the result of above test based on Taguchi method, it was assumed that quantification of anti-clogging performance against fibrous materials is possible by flowing plural strings into the pump and calculating the probability of passing. Plurality sewage pumps of different types were evaluated based on this assumption

  11. Determination of the rate constants of molecular processes regulating the level of induced absorption in a laser based on an aqueous-micellar solution of rhodamine 6G with lamp pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, M.B.; Snegov, M.I.; Cherkasov, A.S.

    1987-03-01

    A method of determining the average lifetime tau of the products responsible for inverse induced absorption in aqueous--micellar solutions of rhodamine 6G (R6G) on lamp pumping based on a comparison of threshold intensities of excitation (W/sub th/) in the resonators of a laser with a different Q is proposed. Using the value of tau found (0.2 ..mu..sec) and experimental data on the change in W/sub th/ with the concentration of cyclooctatetraene (COT) added to the solution the rate constant of quenching of the absorbing products by COT molecules (K/sub q/ = 2.6 x 10/sup 7/ M/sup -1/sec/sup -1/) was determined. In the assumption that the absorbing products are triplet dye molecules, the value of the rate constant of interconversion (K/sub 32/) of R6G into an aqueous--micellar solution (K/sub 32/ = 1.3 x 10/sup 7/ sec/sup -1/) was determined. A comparison was made of the values of the constants found with the corresponding values known from the literature.

  12. An overview of multiphase helicoaxial pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Falcimaigne, J.

    1996-02-01

    The helicoaxial concept developed by the Inst. Francais du Petrole (IFP) is one of two types of multiphase pumps extensively tested on fields and now used commercially. Helicoaxial pumps are rotodynamic turbomachines that are, in fact, hybrids between pumps and axial compressors. Helicoaxial pumps are based on special patented hydraulics designed to limit the phase separation that occurs in two-phase flow with conventional centrifugal pumps that produce a tremendous head loss. Developers have carried out extensive research and testing on actual production sites to develop helicoaxial pumping. The favorable results obtained so far confirm the soundness and versatility of the technology over a wide range of operating conditions. Helicoaxial pumps cover a larger domain of application than anticipated some years ago. They can be used with high gas volume fraction (94 to 95%) and/or low suction pressures. The pumps` inherent low weight should make them particularly attractive for large flow rates and offshore operations. Helicoaxial pumps are reliable products, technically and commercially read for field deployment.

  13. The Tangle of Student Allowances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Norman J.

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of the distribution of student financial aid in Australia focuses on these issues: direct vs. indirect payment to students; inequality in living allowances given to secondary and postsecondary students; and distribution of expense allowances by state government and living allowances by the Commonwealth. (MSE)

  14. Gas pump with movable gas pumping panels

    DOEpatents

    Osher, J.L.

    Apparatus for pumping gas continuously a plurality of articulated panels of getter material, each of which absorbs gases on one side while another of its sides is simultaneously reactivated in a zone isolated by the panels themselves from a working space being pumped.

  15. Proton pump inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are medicines that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by ... Proton pump inhibitors are used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This ...

  16. Insulin pump (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The catheter at the end of the insulin pump is inserted through a needle into the abdominal ... with diabetes. Dosage instructions are entered into the pump's small computer and the appropriate amount of insulin ...

  17. Casing pumps can curb costs, increase output in certain wells

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrel, R.; Cornett, T.

    1987-04-13

    Casing pumps can increase production while cutting costs in wells producing up to 40-b/d fluid and 350-Mcfd gas. Picking the oil and gas well suitable for this application is the key to obtaining such benefits. This article describes the method for making that decision. Casing pumps eliminate gas-locking. The costs of maintaining and operating a casing pump are less than that for the conventional sucker rod pumping system. Like plunger lifts, casing pumps are self-contained pumps that use the well's pressurized gas as the energy source, in turn allowing all of this energy to be sold. Yet, while plunger lifts normally require several hundred pounds of shut-in pressure, casing pumps typically require only 100 lb of shut-in pressure to operate. Casing pumps require no tubing, sucker rods, timers, or outside sources of energy.

  18. Experience with Dry Running Vacuum Pumps in Helium Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arztmann, R.

    2008-03-01

    A process vacuum system for helium using dry running vacuum pumps only was shop tested and installed in a refrigeration plant to serve cavities operating at 2K for a cryogenic storage ring. The paper explains the joint development steps of Busch AG and Linde Kryotechnik AG to use dry running vacuum pumps for helium service at ambient temperature. A roots type booster pump followed by a non lube rotary screw pump provides very good performance in a helium vacuum pump system. Variable frequency drives on both pumps allow to adjust the pump characteristics to a wide range of operating parameters. Operation without friction of sealing elements in the compression space also of the screw pump promises extended maintenance intervals and virtually no wear on the rotors. The current plant operation at Max Plank Institute in Heidelberg, Germany Laboratory will provide additional experience for further applications.

  19. Through tubing progressing cavity pump

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, A.E.

    1986-06-03

    A method is described of installing a progressing cavity pump assembly within a well, the pump assembly being of the type having a stator, a helical rotor located in the stator and rotated by a string of sucker rods extending through tubing to the surface. The method consists of: securing a tubular seating member to a lower end of the tubing and lowering the tubing into the well; mounting a seating member on a lower end of the pump assembly; mounting a rotor nipple to the upper end of the stator and a drive rod to the upper end of the rotor, and providing the rotor nipple and drive rod with engaging means that allows a selected amount of vertical movement of the rotor with respect to the stator; connecting the upper end of the drive rod to the sucker rods; lowering the pump assembly into the tubing on the sucker rods until the seating member on the pump assembly contacts the tubular seating member; continuing to lower the sucker rods without rotation, moving the rotor downward with respect to the stator and forcing the seating members together with the weight of the sucker rods applied to the stator through the engaging means; then moving the sucker rods and the rotor a selected distance upward while the stator remains stationary to position the top of the rotor above the stator a selected distance; then connecting the sucker rods at the surface to a rotary power source and rotating the sucker rods to cause the pump to operate.

  20. A review of thermal response test analysis using pumping test concepts.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Jasmin; Therrien, René; Gosselin, Louis; Lefebvre, René

    2011-01-01

    The design of ground-coupled heat pump systems requires knowledge of the thermal properties of the subsurface and boreholes. These properties can be measured with in situ thermal response tests (TRT), where a heat transfer fluid flowing in a ground heat exchanger is heated with an electric element and the resulting temperature perturbation is monitored. These tests are analogous to standard pumping tests conducted in hydrogeology, because a system that is initially assumed at equilibrium is perturbed and the response is monitored in time, to assess the system's properties with inverse modeling. Although pumping test analysis is a mature topic in hydrogeology, the current analysis of temperature measurements in the context of TRTs is comparatively a new topic and it could benefit from the application of concepts related to pumping tests. The purpose of this work is to review the methodology of TRTs and improve their analysis using pumping test concepts, such as the well function, the superposition principle, and the radius of influence. The improvements are demonstrated with three TRTs. The first test was conducted in unsaturated waste rock at an active mine and the other two tests aimed at evaluating the performance of thermally enhanced pipe installed in a fully saturated sedimentary rock formation. The concepts borrowed from pumping tests allowed the planning of the duration of the TRTs and the analysis of variable heat injection rate tests accounting for external heat transfer and temperature recovery, which reduces the uncertainty in the estimation of thermal properties. PMID:21306358

  1. Performance of an Annular Linear Induction Pump with Applications to Space Nuclear Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Schoenfeld, Michael; Pearson, J. Boise; Webster, Kenneth; Godfroy, Thomas; Adkins, Harold E., Jr.; Werner, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Results of performance testing of an annular linear induction pump are presented. The pump electromagnetically pumps liquid metal through a circuit specially designed to allow for quantification of the performance. Testing was conducted over a range of conditions, including frequencies of 33, 36, 39, and 60 Hz, liquid metal temperatures from 125 to 525 C, and input voltages from 5 to 120 V. Pump performance spanned a range of flow rates from roughly 0.16 to 5.7 L/s (2.5 to 90 gpm), and pressure head less than 1 to 90 kPa (less than 0.145 to 13 psi). The maximum efficiency measured during testing was slightly greater than 6%. The efficiency was fairly insensitive to input frequency from 33 to 39 Hz, and was markedly lower at 60 Hz. In addition, the efficiency decreased as the NaK temperature was raised. The performance of the pump operating on a variable frequency drive providing 60 Hz power compared favorably with the same pump operating on 60 Hz power drawn directly from the electrical grid.

  2. Photovoltaic pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klockgether, J.; Kiessling, K. P.

    1983-09-01

    Solar pump systems for the irrigation of fields and for water supply in regions with much sunshine are discussed. For surface water and sources with a hoisting depth of 12 m, a system with immersion pumps is used. For deep sources with larger hoisting depths, an underwater motor pump was developed. Both types of pump system meet the requirements of simple installation and manipulation, safe operation, maintenance free, and high efficiency reducing the number of solar cells needed.

  3. Specialized pumping techniques applied to a very low-gravity, sand-laden crude-cat Canyon Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Vonde, T.R.

    1982-09-01

    With the application of specially designed pumping and treating equipment, we are producing crude oil as low as 4/sup 0/ API (1.044 g/cm/sup 3/) containing up to 70 vol% of sand. An important part of this system is the bottomhole pumping equipment that has allowed primary production rates in excess of 150 B/D (24 m/sup 3//d) oil from wells that were restricted to less than 10 B/D (1.5 m/sup 3//d) oil when produced with conventional rod pumps and sand control completion methods. These pumps are available commercially. Techniques developed may be extended to other areas where production is limited by problems inherent with highly viscous crude oils and excessive sand entry.

  4. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon; Stock, Larry V.

    1989-01-01

    This semiannual progress report covers the period from September 1, 1988 to February 28, 1989 under NASA grant NAG-1-441 entitled, Direct Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser Amplifier. During this period, the research effort was concentrated on the solar pumped master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system using n-C3F7I. In the experimental work, the amplification measurement was conducted to identify the optimum conditions for amplification of the center's Vortek solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier. A modeling effort was also pursued to explain the experimental results in the theoretical work. The amplification measurement of the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier is the first amplification experiment on the continuously pumped amplifier. The small signal amplification of 5 was achieved for the triple pass geometry of the 15 cm long solar simulator pumped amplifier at the n-C3F7I pressure of 20 torr, at the flow velocity of 6 m/sec and at the pumping intensity of 1500 solar constants. The XeCl laser pumped iodine laser oscillator, which was developed in the previous research, was employed as the master oscillator for the amplification measurement. In the theoretical work, the rate equations of the amplifier was established and the small signal amplification was calculated for the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier. The amplification calculated from the kinetic equations with the previously measured rate coefficients reveals very large disagreement with experimental measurement. Moreover, the optimum condition predicted by the kinetic equation is quite discrepant with that measured by experiment. This fact indicates the necessity of study in the measurement of rate coefficients of the continuously pumped iodine laser system.

  5. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Kirol, Lance D.

    1988-01-01

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  6. Multiwell pumping device

    SciTech Connect

    Dysarz, E.D.

    1987-06-30

    This patent describes a balanced pumping apparatus for pumping two laterally spaced wells comprising: a left conductor on a left well; a right conductor on a right the well; a left pump casing inside the well conductor; a right pump casing inside the right well conductor; a left sucker rod inside the left pump casing; a right sucker rod inside the right pump casing; flexible linkage means for attachment to the top ends of the right sucker rod and left sucker rod; a drive motor with a rotating shaft; a drive sprocket rotatably engaging the flexible linkage means; a separate pump casing flange attached to the upper section of each well conductors; a separate upper flange attached to the upper section of each pump casing and positioned at an axial location above the point attached to the pump casing; a separate transition piece attached to the top of each pump casing flange; a separate pump support attached to the top of each transition piece; a plate-like structural support means placed in a vertical plane above the well conductors and supporting the drive motor, the drive sprocket, the flexible linkage means, and the sucker rods; a structural load transfer means connecting the plate-like structural support means to the well conductors; a motor control unit for supporting itself and controlling the drive motor; and a separate shaft extending across each pump support.

  7. Types of Breast Pumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... uses batteries or a cord plugged into an electrical outlet to power a small motorized pump that creates suction to ... pumping. Because these breast pumps rely on a power source, women who use ... situations when electricity or extra batteries may not be available. If ...

  8. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  9. Pump for Saturated Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    Boiling liquids pumped by device based on proven components. Expanding saturated liquid in nozzle and diverting its phases along separate paths in liquid/vapor separator raises pressure of liquid. Liquid cooled in process. Pump makes it unnecessary to pressurize cryogenic liquids in order to pump them. Problems of introducing noncondensable pressurizing gas avoided.

  10. Green pumped Alexandrite lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuper, Jerry W.; Brown, David C.

    2005-04-01

    Initial experiments with pulsed and CW pumping an alexandrite laser rod at 532 nm are presented. This pumping architecture holds promise for the production of scalable diode-pumped, tunable alexandrite laser systems operating in the near infrared (750 nm), and the ultraviolet (375 and 250 nm) spectral regions.

  11. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Beach, Raymond J.; Dawson, Jay W.; Krupke, William F.

    2007-10-23

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  12. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Beach, Raymond J.; Dawson, Jay W.; Krupke, William F.

    2006-07-26

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  13. Custom Unit Pump Development for the EVA PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuller, Michael; Kurwitz, Cable; Little, Frank; Oinuma, Ryoji; Larsen, Ben; Goldman, Jeff; Reinis, Filip; Trevino, Luis

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effort by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and Honeywell for NASA to design and test a pre-flight prototype pump for use in the Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) portable life support subsystem (PLSS). Major design decisions were driven by the need to reduce the pump s mass, power, and volume compared to the existing PLSS pump. In addition, the pump must accommodate a much wider range of abnormal conditions than the existing pump, including vapor/gas bubbles and increased pressure drop when employed to cool two suits simultaneously. A positive displacement, external gear type pump was selected because it offers the most compact and highest efficiency solution over the required range of flow rates and pressure drops. An additional benefit of selecting a gear pump design is that it is self priming and capable of ingesting non-condensable gas without becoming air locked. The chosen pump design consists of a 28 V DC, brushless, seal-less, permanent magnet motor driven, external gear pump that utilizes a Honeywell development that eliminates the need for magnetic coupling. The pump design was based on existing Honeywell designs, but incorporated features specifically for the PLSS application, including all of the key features of the flight pump. Testing at TEES verified that the pump meets the design requirements for range of flow rates, pressure drop, power consumption, working fluid temperature, operating time, gas ingestion, and restart capability under both ambient and vacuum conditions. The pump operated at 40 to 240 lbm/hr flow rate, 35 to 100 oF pump temperature, and 5 to 10 psid pressure rise. Power consumption of the pump controller at the nominal operating point in both ambient and vacuum conditions was 9.5 W, which was less than the 12 W predicted. Gas ingestion capabilities were tested by injecting 100 cc of air into the fluid line; the pump operated normally throughout this test.

  14. CFD study on flow characteristics of pump sump and performance analysis of the mixed flow pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y. X.; Kim, C. G.; Lee, Y. H.

    2013-12-01

    Head-capacity curves provided by the pump manufacturer are obtained on the condition of no vortices flowing into the pump intake. The efficiency and performance of pumping stations depend not only on the performance of the selected pumps but also on the proper design of the intake sumps. A faulty design of pump sump can lead to the occurrence of swirl and vortices, which reduce the pump performance. Therefore, sump model test is necessary in order to check the flow condition around intake structure. Numerical simulation is a good facility for reducing the time and cost involved throughout the design process. In this study, the commercial software ANSYS CFX-13.0 has been used for the CFD analysis of the pump sump. The effect of an anti-vortex device (AVD) for the submerged vortex has been examined. Hydraulic performances for the head rise, shaft power, pump efficiencies versus flow rate are studied by the performance curves. In addition, numerical simulation of cavitation phenomenon in a mixed flow pump has been performed by calculating the full cavitation model with k-ε turbulence model. According to the result, the efficacy of the AVD to ensure the uniform flow conditions around the pump intake is confirmed. From the numerical analysis, the inception of cavitation is observed on the suction surface where the leading edges meet the tip, and then the cavitation zone expands.

  15. Investigation of the pump wavelength influence on pulsed laser pumped Alexandrite lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvy, H.; Withford, M. J.; Mildren, R. P.; Piper, J. A.

    2005-09-01

    Recent theoretical modelling and experimental results have shown that excess lattice phonon energy created dur ing the non-radiative energy transfer from the 4T2 pump manifold to the 2E storage level in Alexandrite when pumped with wavelengths shorter than ˜645 nm causes chaotic lasing output. Shorter pump wavelengths have also been associated with increased non-radiative energy decay and reduced laser efficiency. We report studies of fluorescence emission spectra of Alexandrite illuminated at a range of wavelengths from green to red, which demonstrate reduced fluorescence yield for shorter pump wavelengths at elevated crystal temperatures. Investigations of pulsed laser pumping of Alexandrite over the same spectral range demonstrated reduced pump threshold energy for longer pump wavelengths. High repetition rate pulsed pumping of Alexandrite at 532, 578 and 671 nm showed stable and efficient laser performance was only achieved for red pumping at 671 nm. These results support the theoretical model and demonstrate the potential for scalable, red laser pumped, all-solid-state Alexandrite lasers.

  16. F-AREA PUMP TANK 1 MIXING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Tamburello, D; Richard Dimenna, R; Si Lee, S

    2008-11-05

    The F-area pump tanks are used to transfer supernate, sludge, and other materials. In any transfer, the solution must stay well mixed without allowing particulate matter to settle out of the liquid and, thus, accumulate in the bottom of the pump tank. Recently, the pulse jet mixing in F-area Pump Tank 1 (FPT1) has been decommissioned. An analysis of the liquid transfer through FPT1 has been performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to assess whether or not the velocities throughout the tank will remain high enough to keep all particulate suspended using only transfer and recirculation pumps. The following paragraph is an abbreviated synopsis of the transfer procedure for FPT1 [1, 2]. Prior to a transfer, FPT1 begins to be filled with inhibited water through the inlet transfer line (TI). When the tank liquid level reaches 52.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom, the recirculation pump (RI and RO) is activated. At a tank liquid level of 72.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom, the outlet transfer line (TO) is activated to reduce the liquid level in FPT1 and transfer inhibited water to H-area Pump Tank 7 (HPT7). The liquid level is reduced down to 39.5 inches, with an allowable range from 37.5 to 41.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom. HPT7 goes through a similar procedure as FPT1 until both have tank liquid levels of approximately 39.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom. The transfer of inhibited water continues until a steady-state has been reached in both pump tanks. At this point, the supernate/sludge transfer begins with a minimum flow rate of 70 gpm and an average flow rate of 150 gpm. After the transfer is complete, the pump tanks (both FPT1 and HPT7) are pumped down to between 20.5 and 22.5 inches (above absolute bottom) and then flushed with 25,000 gallons of inhibited water to remove any possible sludge heal. After the flushing, the pump tanks are emptied. Note that the tank liquid level is measured using diptubes. Figure 2

  17. Contributions of electrogenic pumps to resting membrane potentials: the theory of electrogenic potentials.

    PubMed

    Sjodin, R A

    1984-01-01

    Pumped and transported components of ionic flux have been added to passive electrodiffusive components. This permits the derivation of equations for the resting membrane potential that take account of electrogenic mechanisms in which the transport mechanism or pump itself produces a net ionic current. Such equations are general in that they apply to non-steady-state conditions in which intracellular ionic concentrations are changing. The equations developed allow calculation of resting membrane potentials in terms of ionic concentrations, membrane permeability to ions, and kinetic relations for pumped ionic fluxes. When applied to skeletal muscle fibers, the equations predict a buffering effect of the Na/K pump on the membrane potential over a wide range in the values [K]i and [Na]i such that a fairly constant membrane potential occurs under conditions in which the passive ionic fluxes themselves would produce increasing degrees of depolarization. A plot of the membrane potential versus log [K]o with an electrogenic Na pump present gives a curve with slopes both greater than and less than 58 mV per 10-fold concentration change. Over a middle range of [K]o values, the slope is 58 mV. The slope of Em versus log [K]o curves is, therefore, not a very sensitive test for the presence of an electrogenic pump. For the same internal ionic concentrations, less electrogenic increment in membrane potential is observed the higher the value of [K]o, and the more depolarized the membrane. This is due to a rectification present in the pump current-voltage curve, which requires that more pump current be present to produce a given membrane hyperpolarization at depolarized values of the potential than at hyperpolarized values of the potential. A gain in Na and a loss of K by the fibers affects the rectification curve in such a way that less pump current is required to produce the same degree of hyperpolarization. This mechanism ensures that adequate internal negativity will be

  18. Ammoniated salt heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, W. R.; Jaeger, F. J.; Giordano, T. J.

    A thermochemical heat pump/energy storage system using liquid ammoniate salts is described. The system, which can be used for space heating or cooling, provides energy storage for both functions. The bulk of the energy is stored as chemical energy and thus can be stored indefinitely. The system is well suited to use with a solar energy source or industrial waste heat. Several liquid ammoniates are identified and the critical properties of three of the most promising are presented. Results of small scale (5000 Btu) system tests are discussed and a design concept for a prototype system is given. This system represents a significant improvement over the system using solid ammoniates investigated previously because of the increase in heat transfer rates (5 to 60 Btu/hr sq ft F) and the resulting reduction in heat exchanger size. As a result the concept shows promise of being cost competitive with conventional systems.

  19. Jet pump assisted artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  20. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1992-01-01

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

  1. Ultra-high speed vacuum pump system with first stage turbofan and second stage turbomolecular pump

    DOEpatents

    Jostlein, Hans

    2006-04-04

    An ultra-high speed vacuum pump evacuation system includes a first stage ultra-high speed turbofan and a second stage conventional turbomolecular pump. The turbofan is either connected in series to a chamber to be evacuated, or is optionally disposed entirely within the chamber. The turbofan employs large diameter rotor blades operating at high linear blade velocity to impart an ultra-high pumping speed to a fluid. The second stage turbomolecular pump is fluidly connected downstream from the first stage turbofan. In operation, the first stage turbofan operates in a pre-existing vacuum, with the fluid asserting only small axial forces upon the rotor blades. The turbofan imparts a velocity to fluid particles towards an outlet at a high volume rate, but moderate compression ratio. The second stage conventional turbomolecular pump then compresses the fluid to pressures for evacuation by a roughing pump.

  2. Electroosmotic pump performance is affected by concentration polarizations of both electrodes and pump

    PubMed Central

    Suss, Matthew E.; Mani, Ali; Zangle, Thomas A.; Santiago, Juan G.

    2010-01-01

    Current methods of optimizing electroosmotic (EO) pump performance include reducing pore diameter and reducing ionic strength of the pumped electrolyte. However, these approaches each increase the fraction of total ionic current carried by diffuse electric double layer (EDL) counterions. When this fraction becomes significant, concentration polarization (CP) effects become important, and traditional EO pump models are no longer valid. We here report on the first simultaneous concentration field measurements, pH visualizations, flow rate, and voltage measurements on such systems. Together, these measurements elucidate key parameters affecting EO pump performance in the CP dominated regime. Concentration field visualizations show propagating CP enrichment and depletion fronts sourced by our pump substrate and traveling at order mm/min velocities through millimeter-scale channels connected serially to our pump. The observed propagation in millimeter-scale channels is not explained by current propagating CP models. Additionally, visualizations show that CP fronts are sourced by and propagate from the electrodes of our system, and then interact with the EO pump-generated CP zones. With pH visualizations, we directly detect that electrolyte properties vary sharply across the anode enrichment front interface. Our observations lead us to hypothesize possible mechanisms for the propagation of both pump- and electrode-sourced CP zones. Lastly, our experiments show the dynamics associated with the interaction of electrode and membrane CP fronts, and we describe the effect of these phenomena on EO pump flow rates and applied voltages under galvanostatic conditions. PMID:21516230

  3. Pulsed pumping process optimization using a potential flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenney, C. M.; Lastoskie, C. M.

    2007-08-01

    A computational model is applied to the optimization of pulsed pumping systems for efficient in situ remediation of groundwater contaminants. In the pulsed pumping mode of operation, periodic rather than continuous pumping is used. During the pump-off or trapping phase, natural gradient flow transports contaminated groundwater into a treatment zone surrounding a line of injection and extraction wells that transect the contaminant plume. Prior to breakthrough of the contaminated water from the treatment zone, the wells are activated and the pump-on or treatment phase ensues, wherein extracted water is augmented to stimulate pollutant degradation and recirculated for a sufficient period of time to achieve mandated levels of contaminant removal. An important design consideration in pulsed pumping groundwater remediation systems is the pumping schedule adopted to best minimize operational costs for the well grid while still satisfying treatment requirements. Using an analytic two-dimensional potential flow model, optimal pumping frequencies and pumping event durations have been investigated for a set of model aquifer-well systems with different well spacings and well-line lengths, and varying aquifer physical properties. The results for homogeneous systems with greater than five wells and moderate to high pumping rates are reduced to a single, dimensionless correlation. Results for heterogeneous systems are presented graphically in terms of dimensionless parameters to serve as an efficient tool for initial design and selection of the pumping regimen best suited for pulsed pumping operation for a particular well configuration and extraction rate. In the absence of significant retardation or degradation during the pump-off phase, average pumping rates for pulsed operation were found to be greater than the continuous pumping rate required to prevent contaminant breakthrough.

  4. Pulsed pumping process optimization using a potential flow model.

    PubMed

    Tenney, C M; Lastoskie, C M

    2007-08-15

    A computational model is applied to the optimization of pulsed pumping systems for efficient in situ remediation of groundwater contaminants. In the pulsed pumping mode of operation, periodic rather than continuous pumping is used. During the pump-off or trapping phase, natural gradient flow transports contaminated groundwater into a treatment zone surrounding a line of injection and extraction wells that transect the contaminant plume. Prior to breakthrough of the contaminated water from the treatment zone, the wells are activated and the pump-on or treatment phase ensues, wherein extracted water is augmented to stimulate pollutant degradation and recirculated for a sufficient period of time to achieve mandated levels of contaminant removal. An important design consideration in pulsed pumping groundwater remediation systems is the pumping schedule adopted to best minimize operational costs for the well grid while still satisfying treatment requirements. Using an analytic two-dimensional potential flow model, optimal pumping frequencies and pumping event durations have been investigated for a set of model aquifer-well systems with different well spacings and well-line lengths, and varying aquifer physical properties. The results for homogeneous systems with greater than five wells and moderate to high pumping rates are reduced to a single, dimensionless correlation. Results for heterogeneous systems are presented graphically in terms of dimensionless parameters to serve as an efficient tool for initial design and selection of the pumping regimen best suited for pulsed pumping operation for a particular well configuration and extraction rate. In the absence of significant retardation or degradation during the pump-off phase, average pumping rates for pulsed operation were found to be greater than the continuous pumping rate required to prevent contaminant breakthrough.

  5. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right...

  6. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right...

  7. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right...

  8. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right...

  9. 76 FR 70883 - Clothing Allowance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... published in the Federal Register on February 2, 2011 (76 FR 5733-5734), VA proposed to amend its... appliances affecting different articles of clothing. 76 FR 5733; Sursely, 551 F.3d at 1356. VA will make the... allowances. The amendment provides for an annual clothing allowance for each qualifying prosthetic...

  10. Hydraulic pump with in-ground filtration and monitoring capability

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, Charles D.; Livingston, Ronald R.; Toole, Jr., William R.

    1996-01-01

    A hydraulically operated pump for in-ground filtering and monitoring of ws or other fluid sources, including a hollow cylindrical pump housing with an inlet and an outlet, filtering devices positioned in the inlet and the outlet, a piston that fits slidably within the pump housing, and an optical cell in fluid communication with the pump housing. A conduit within the piston allows fluid communication between the exterior and one end of the piston. A pair of o-rings form a seal between the inside of the pump housing and the exterior of the piston. A flow valve positioned within the piston inside the conduit allows fluid to flow in a single direction. In operation, fluid enters the pump housing through the inlet, flows through the conduit and towards an end of the pump housing. The piston then makes a downward stroke closing the valve, thus forcing the fluid out from the pump housing into the optical cell, which then takes spectrophotometric measurements of the fluid. A spring helps return the piston back to its starting position, so that a new supply of fluid may enter the pump housing and the downward stroke can begin again. The pump may be used independently of the optical cell, as a sample pump to transport a sample fluid from a source to a container for later analysis.

  11. Hydraulic pump with in-ground filtration and monitoring capability

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, C.D.; Livingston, R.R.; Toole, W.R. Jr.

    1996-10-29

    A hydraulically operated pump is described for in-ground filtering and monitoring of waters or other fluid sources, includes a hollow cylindrical pump housing with an inlet and an outlet, filtering devices positioned in the inlet and the outlet, a piston that fits slidably within the pump housing, and an optical cell in fluid communication with the pump housing. A conduit within the piston allows fluid communication between the exterior and one end of the piston. A pair of o-rings form a seal between the inside of the pump housing and the exterior of the piston. A flow valve positioned within the piston inside the conduit allows fluid to flow in a single direction. In operation, fluid enters the pump housing through the inlet, flows through the conduit and towards an end of the pump housing. The piston then makes a downward stroke closing the valve, thus forcing the fluid out from the pump housing into the optical cell, which then takes spectrophotometric measurements of the fluid. A spring helps return the piston back to its starting position, so that a new supply of fluid may enter the pump housing and the downward stroke can begin again. The pump may be used independently of the optical cell, as a sample pump to transport a sample fluid from a source to a container for later analysis. 5 figs.

  12. Hydraulic pump with in-ground filtration and monitoring capability

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, C.D.; Livingston, R.R.; Toole, W.R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    A hydraulically operated pump is described for in-ground filtering and monitoring of wells or other fluid sources, including a hollow cylindrical pump housing with an inlet and an outlet, filtering devices positioned in the inlet and the outlet, a piston that fits slidably within the pump housing, and an optical cell in fluid communication with the pump housing. A conduit within the piston allows fluid communication between the exterior and one end of the piston. A pair of O-rings form a seal between the inside of the pump housing and the exterior of the piston. A flow valve positioned within the piston inside the conduit allows fluid to flow in a single direction. In operation, fluid enters the pump housing through the inlet, flows through the conduit and towards an end of the pump housing. The piston then makes a downward stroke closing the valve, thus forcing the fluid out from the pump housing into the optical cell, which then takes spectrophotometric measurements of the fluid. A spring helps return the piston back to its starting position, so that a new supply of fluid may enter the pump housing and the downward stroke can begin again. The pump may be used independently of the optical cell, as a sample pump to transport a sample fluid from a source to a container for later analysis.

  13. Enhanced notification of infusion pump programming errors.

    PubMed

    Evans, R Scott; Carlson, Rick; Johnson, Kyle V; Palmer, Brent K; Lloyd, James F

    2010-01-01

    Hospitalized patients receive countless doses of medications through manually programmed infusion pumps. Many medication errors are the result of programming incorrect pump settings. When used appropriately, smart pumps have the potential to detect some programming errors. However, based on the current use of smart pumps, there are conflicting reports on their ability to prevent patient harm without additional capabilities and interfaces to electronic medical records (EMR). We developed a smart system that is connected to the EMR including medication charting that can detect and alert on potential pump programming errors. Acceptable programming limits of dose rate increases in addition to initial drug doses for 23 high-risk medications are monitored. During 22.5 months in a 24 bed ICU, 970 alerts (4% of 25,040 doses, 1.4 alerts per day) were generated for pump settings programmed outside acceptable limits of which 137 (14%) were found to have prevented potential harm. Monitoring pump programming at the system level rather than the pump provides access to additional patient data in the EMR including previous dosage levels, other concurrent medications and caloric intake, age, gender, vitals and laboratory results.

  14. Two-stage aquifer pumping subject to slow desorption and persistent sources.

    PubMed

    Saez, Jose A; Harmon, Thomas C

    2006-01-01

    This work focuses on improving pump-and-treat remediation by optimizing a two-stage operational scheme to reduce volumes extracted when confronted with nonequilibrium desorption, low-permeability units, and continuous contaminant sources such as non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL). Q1 and Q2 are the initial short-term high pumping rate and later long-term low pumping rate, respectively. A two-dimensional ground water flow and transport management model was used to test the proposed strategy for plumes developed from finite (NAPL-free) and continuous (NAPL-driven) contaminant sources in homogeneous and nonhomogeneous (zoned) aquifers. Remediation scenarios were simulated over durations of 2000, 6000, and 15,000 d to determine (1) the optimal time to switch from a preset Q1 to Q2 and (2) the value of Q2. The problem was constrained by mass removal requirements, maximum allowable downgradient concentrations, and practical bounds on Q2. Q1 was fixed at preset values 50% to 200% higher than the single-stage pumping rates (i.e., steady pumping rates during entire remediation period) necessary to achieve a desired cleanup level and capture the plume. Results for the NAPL-free homogeneous case under nonequilibrium desorption conditions achieved the same level of cleanup as single-stage pumping, while reducing extracted volumes by up to 36%. Comparable savings were obtained with NAPL-driven sources only when the source concentration was reduced by at least 2 orders of magnitude. For the zoned aquifer, the proposed strategy provided volume savings of up to 24% under NAPL-free and reduced source conditions.

  15. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Experimental Characterization of the Pediatric Pump-Lung

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhongjun J; Gellman, Barry; Zhang, Tao; Taskin, M Ertan; Dasse, Kurt A.; Griffith, Bartley P.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric pump-lung (PediPL) is a miniaturized integrated pediatric pump-oxygenator specifically designed for cardiac or cardiopulmonary support for patients weighing 5-20 kg to allow mobility and extended use for 30 days. The PediPL incorporates a magnetically levitated impeller with uniquely configured hollow fiber membranes into a single unit capable of performing both pumping and gas exchange. A combined computational and experimental study was conducted to characterize the functional and hemocompatibility performances of this newly developed device. The three-dimensional flow features of the PediPL and its hemolytic characteristics were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics based modeling. The oxygen exchange was modeled based on a convection-diffusion-reaction process. The hollow fiber membranes were modeled as a porous medium which incorporates the flow resistance in the bundle by an added momentum sink term. The pumping function was evaluated for the required range of operating conditions (0.5-2.5 L/min and 1000-3000 rpm). The blood damage potentials were further analyzed in terms of flow and shear stress fields, and the calculations of hemolysis index. In parallel, the hydraulic pump performance, oxygen transfer and hemolysis level were quantified experimentally. Based on the computational and experimental results, the PediPL device is found to be functional to provide necessary oxygen transfer and blood pumping requirements for the pediatric patients. Smooth blood flow characteristics and low blood damage potential were observed in the entire device. The in-vitro tests further confirmed that the PediPL can provide adequate blood pumping and oxygen transfer over the range of intended operating conditions with acceptable hemolytic performance. The rated flow rate for oxygenation is 2.5 L/min. The normalized index of hemolysis is 0.065 g/100L at 1.0 L/min and 3000 rpm. PMID:24839468

  16. High efficiency advanced absorption heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, E. A., Jr.

    1982-03-01

    A high efficiency absorption heat pump for the residential market is investigated. The performance targets established for this high efficiency absorption heat pump are a heating coefficient of performance of 1.5 and a cooling coefficient of performance of 0.8 at rating conditions, including parasitic electric power consumption. The resulting heat pump would have a space heating capacity of 68,000 BTU/hour, and a space cooling capacity of 36,000 BTU/hour at rating conditions. A very simplified schematic block diagram of the high efficiency absorption heat pump cycle is shown. High temperature, high pressure, refrigerant vapor is produced in the refrigerant generator and heat exchange system, is condensed to a liquid in the condenser, expanded to a low pressure vapor in the evaporator, and mixed with and reabsorbed into the weakened solution returned from the refrigerant generator and heat exchange system in the absorber.

  17. The stress analysis of a heavy liquid metal pump impeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X. D.; Li, X. L.; Zhu, Z. Q.; Li, C. J.; Gao, S.

    2016-05-01

    Lead-based coolant reactor is a promising Generation-IV reactor. In the lead-based coolant reactor, the coolant is liquid lead or lead-bismuth eutectic. The main pump in the reactor is a very important device. It supplies force for the coolant circulation. The liquid metal has a very large density which is about ten times of the water. Also, the viscosity of the coolant is small which is about one sixth of the water. When the pump transports heavy liquid, the blade loading is heavy. The large force can cause the failure of the blade when the fatigue stress exceeds the allowable stress. The impeller fraction is a very serious accident which is strictly prohibited in the nuclear reactor. In this paper, the numerical method is used to simulate the flow field of a heavy liquid metal pump. The SST k-w turbulent model is used in the calculation to get a more precise flow structure. The hydraulic force is obtained with the one way fluid solid coupling. The maximum stress in the impeller is analyzed. The stress in the liquid metal pump is compared with that in the water pump. The calculation results show that the maximum stress of the impeller blade increases with increase of flow rate. In the design of the impeller blade thickness, the impeller strength in large operating condition should be considered. The maximum stress of the impeller blade located in the middle and near the hub of the leading edge. In this position, the blade is easy to fracture. The maximum deformation of the impeller firstly increase with increase of flow rate and then decrease with increase of flow rate. The maximum deformation exists in the middle of the leading edge when in small flow rate and in the out radius of the impeller when in large flow rate. Comparing the stress of the impeller when transporting water and LBE, the maximum stress is almost one-tenth of that in the LBE impeller which is the same ratio of the density. The static stress in different medium is proportional to the pressure

  18. Pump isolation valve

    DOEpatents

    Kinney, Calvin L.; Wetherill, Todd M.

    1983-08-02

    The pump isolation valve provides a means by which the pump may be selectively isolated from the remainder of the coolant system while being compatible with the internal hydraulic arrangement of the pump during normal operation of the pump. The valve comprises a valve cylinder disposed around the pump and adjacent to the last pump diffuser with a turning vane attached to the lower end of the valve cylinder in a manner so as to hydraulically match with the discharge diffuser. The valve cylinder is connected to a drive means for sliding the valve cylinder relative to the diffuser support cylinder so as to block flow in either direction through the discharge diffuser when the valve is in the closed position and to aid in the flow of the coolant from the discharge diffuser by means of the turning vane when the valve is in the open position.

  19. Rotary blood pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Greg S. (Inventor); Vandamm, George A. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Paul A. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A rotary blood pump is presented. The pump includes a pump housing for receiving a flow straightener, a rotor mounted on rotor bearings and having an inducer portion and an impeller portion, and a diffuser. The entrance angle, outlet angle, axial, and radial clearances of the blades associated with the flow straightener, inducer portion, impeller portion, and diffuser are optimized to minimize hemolysis while maintaining pump efficiency. The rotor bearing includes a bearing chamber that is filled with crosslinked blood or other bio-compatible material. A back emf integrated circuit regulates rotor operation and a microcomputer may be used to control one or more back emf integrated circuits. A plurality of magnets are disposed in each of a plurality of impeller blades with a small air gap. A stator may be axially adjusted on the pump housing to absorb bearing load and maximize pump efficiency.

  20. Experimental investigation of cavitation in pump inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, Roman; Bureček, Adam; Hružík, Lumír; Vašina, Martin

    2015-05-01

    The article deals with experimental research of cavitation development in inlet tube of hydraulic pump. The pressures in inlet and outlet tube of the pump and flow rate were measured. Mineral oil was used as working fluid. The cavitation was visually evaluated in transparent inlet tube. The inlet tube underpressure was achieved by throttle valve. The relationship between the generation of bubbles and the inlet pressure is evaluated.

  1. Detection of pump degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W.

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

  2. Clinical results and pump analysis of the Gyro pump for long-term extracorporeal life support.

    PubMed

    Terasaki, Takamitsu; Takano, Tamaki; Michinaga, Yuuki; Yokokawa, Michihiro; Wada, Yuko; Seto, Tatsuichirou; Fukui, Daisuke; Amano, Jun

    2013-09-01

    Rescuing patients in severe cardiac failure with extracorporeal support remains challenging. The Gyro pump is a centrifugal blood pump and was now used for cardiopulmonary bypass, although it was originally developed for long-term cardiac assist. Little is known about clinical experiences using this pump. Here, we report on the clinical results of long-term extracorporeal life support for over 4 days using the Gyro pump with Excelung, a hollow fiber oxygenator coated with silicone and heparin. Seven patients underwent extracorporeal life support with 15 pump and oxygenator combinations. Gyro and Excelung were used for venoarterial extracorporeal support in six patients and for right ventricular support in one patient. Patient characteristics, pump driving conditions, and blood chemistry were obtained retrospectively. All pumps were subsequently disassembled and examined macroscopically, with 6 of 15 pumps also examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The patient mortality rate was 57.1%. Mean duration of support was 10.5 ± 7.2 days per pump and oxygenator combination. Lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase were generally maintained below 1000 and 100 IU/L, respectively, after the first 4 days of pump driving. Thrombi were found in two pumps, one used without anticoagulation and the other driven at a very slow rotational speed. SEM revealed no wear in the male bearings and very low wear and deformation (0.02 ± 0.03 mm) in the female bearings. The combination of Gyro and Excelung may be applicable for long-term biventricular and right ventricular support, although proper anticoagulation should be administrated to avoid thrombus formation inside the pump.

  3. Diamagnetic pumping in a rotating convection zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchatinov, L. L.; Nepomnyashchikh, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    Solar dynamo models require some mechanism for magnetic field concentration near the base of the convection zone in order to generate super-kilogauss toroidal fields with sufficiently large (∼ 1024 Mx) magnetic flux. We consider the downward diamagnetic pumping near the base of the convection zone as a possible concentration mechanism and derive the pumping velocities with allowance for the effect of rotation. Transport velocities for poloidal and toroidal fields differ in rotating fluid. The toroidal field is transported downward along the radius only but the pumping velocity for the poloidal field has an equatorward meridional component also. Previous results for cases of slow and rapid rotation are reproduced and the diamagnetic pumping expressions adapted for use in dynamo models are presented.

  4. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  5. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Lopez, John T.; Olich, Eugene E.; West, Calvin W.

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates.

  6. Champagne Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2004-01-01

    The term champagne heat pump denotes a developmental heat pump that exploits a cycle of absorption and desorption of carbon dioxide in an alcohol or other organic liquid. Whereas most heat pumps in common use in the United States are energized by mechanical compression, the champagne heat pump is energized by heating. The concept of heat pumps based on other absorption cycles energized by heat has been understood for years, but some of these heat pumps are outlawed in many areas because of the potential hazards posed by leakage of working fluids. For example, in the case of the water/ammonia cycle, there are potential hazards of toxicity and flammability. The organic-liquid/carbon dioxide absorption/desorption cycle of the champagne heat pump is similar to the water/ammonia cycle, but carbon dioxide is nontoxic and environmentally benign, and one can choose an alcohol or other organic liquid that is also relatively nontoxic and environmentally benign. Two candidate nonalcohol organic liquids are isobutyl acetate and amyl acetate. Although alcohols and many other organic liquids are flammable, they present little or no flammability hazard in the champagne heat pump because only the nonflammable carbon dioxide component of the refrigerant mixture is circulated to the evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, which are the only components of the heat pump in direct contact with air in habitable spaces.

  7. Wind pumping: A handbook

    SciTech Connect

    van Meel, J.; Smulders, P.

    1989-01-01

    The handbook is meant to provide energy and water-supply professionals and economists as well as field officers with an easily accessible source of information on wind pumping. It consolidates information acquired by institutions, professionals, and research centers in an easily extractable form. An overview of the characteristics of the technology is provided. The techniques for sizing of wind pumps and the sizing of alternative small pumps is discussed. Guidelines for financial and economic assessment of wind pumping are given. Particulars on installation, maintenance, and other logistical matters are also given. Several annexes provide supporting details and examples.

  8. New design for a pumping artificial lung.

    PubMed

    Makarewicz, A J; Mockros, L F; Mavroudis, C

    1996-01-01

    A new prototype of a pumping artificial lung (PAL) has been designed and tested. The device performs the functions of both the pump and oxygenator components of an extracorporeal perfusion circuit. Previous prototypes that the authors developed (Type A) had gas exchanging microporous fibers formed into propeller-like vanes that, upon rotation, pump the blood. The design of the new PAL prototypes (Type B) uses the rotation of an annular bank of fibers to drive flow. The fiber bank, including sealed gas manifolds, lies within the housing of a modified Bio-Medicus BMP-50 pump head (Bio-Medicus, Eden Prairie, MN). Rotation of the fiber bank is driven through a magnetic coupling. Inlet and outlet gas lines enter the pump head through a sealed bearing. The Type A PAL suffered from insufficient pumping rates and gas exchange, necessitating redesign. The authors have constructed two PAL-B prototypes with a priming volume of only 140 ml and gas exchange surface areas of 0.16 and 0.60 m2. During in vitro saline testing, these prototypes showed significant pump performance, pumping 7.0 L/min against zero head at 3,500 rpm. The larger prototype had exchange rates in saline of up to 71 ml O2/min and 75 ml CO2/min. Gas exchange fluxes (O2 = 119 ml/[min.m2] and CO2 = 125 ml/[min.m2]) for the PAL-B are significantly higher than that of commercially available oxygenators in saline. Future prototypes will have increased surface area and fibers smaller than the 0.038 cm outside diameter fibers used in the present prototypes. A primary concern in using microporous fibers to push the blood was the durability of the fibers at high pump speeds. High speeds exhibited no negative effects on gas exchange abilities or fiber durability. PMID:8944954

  9. Microfluidic system with integrated electroosmotic pumps, concentration gradient generator and fish cell line (RTgill-W1)--towards water toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Glawdel, Tomasz; Elbuken, Caglar; Lee, Lucy E J; Ren, Carolyn L

    2009-11-21

    This study presents a microfluidic system that incorporates electroosmotic pumps, a concentration gradient generator and a fish cell line (rainbow trout gill) to perform toxicity testing on fish cells seeded in the system. The system consists of three mechanical components: (1) a toxicity testing chip containing a microfluidic gradient generator which creates a linear concentration distribution of toxicant in a cell test chamber, (2) an electroosmotic (EO) pump chip that controls the flow rate and operation of the toxicity chip, and (3) indirect reservoirs that connect the two chips allowing for the toxicant solution to be pumped separately from the electroosmotic pump solution. The flow rate and stability of the EO pumps was measured and tested by monitoring the gradient generator using fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, a lethality test was performed with this system setup using a rainbow trout gill cell line (RTgill-W1) as the test cells and sodium dodecyl sulfate as a model toxicant. A gradient of sodium dodecyl sulfate, from 0 to 50 microg mL(-1), was applied for 1 hr to the attached cells, and the results were quantified using a Live/Dead cell assay. This work is a preliminary study on the application of EO pumps in a living cell assay, with the potential to use the pumps in portable water quality testing devices with RTgill-W1 cells as the biosensors. PMID:19865731

  10. Centrifugal Force Based Magnetic Micro-Pump Driven by Rotating Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Hashi, S.; Ishiyama, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a centrifugal force based magnetic micro-pump for the pumping of blood. Most blood pumps are driven by an electrical motor with wired control. To develop a wireless and battery-free blood pump, the proposed pump is controlled by external rotating magnetic fields with a synchronized impeller. Synchronization occurs because the rotor is divided into multi-stage impeller parts and NdFeB permanent magnet. Finally, liquid is discharged by the centrifugal force of multi-stage impeller. The proposed pump length is 30 mm long and19 mm in diameter which much smaller than currently pumps; however, its pumping ability satisfies the requirement for a blood pump. The maximum pressure is 120 mmHg and the maximum flow rate is 5000ml/min at 100 Hz. The advantage of the proposed pump is that the general mechanical problems of a normal blood pump are eliminated by the proposed driving mechanism.

  11. Bubble pump: scalable strategy for in-plane liquid routing.

    PubMed

    Oskooei, Ali; Günther, Axel

    2015-07-01

    We present an on-chip liquid routing technique intended for application in well-based microfluidic systems that require long-term active pumping at low to medium flowrates. Our technique requires only one fluidic feature layer, one pneumatic control line and does not rely on flexible membranes and mechanical or moving parts. The presented bubble pump is therefore compatible with both elastomeric and rigid substrate materials and the associated scalable manufacturing processes. Directed liquid flow was achieved in a microchannel by an in-series configuration of two previously described "bubble gates", i.e., by gas-bubble enabled miniature gate valves. Only one time-dependent pressure signal is required and initiates at the upstream (active) bubble gate a reciprocating bubble motion. Applied at the downstream (passive) gate a time-constant gas pressure level is applied. In its rest state, the passive gate remains closed and only temporarily opens while the liquid pressure rises due to the active gate's reciprocating bubble motion. We have designed, fabricated and consistently operated our bubble pump with a variety of working liquids for >72 hours. Flow rates of 0-5.5 μl min(-1), were obtained and depended on the selected geometric dimensions, working fluids and actuation frequencies. The maximum operational pressure was 2.9 kPa-9.1 kPa and depended on the interfacial tension of the working fluids. Attainable flow rates compared favorably with those of available micropumps. We achieved flow rate enhancements of 30-100% by operating two bubble pumps in tandem and demonstrated scalability of the concept in a multi-well format with 12 individually and uniformly perfused microchannels (variation in flow rate <7%). We envision the demonstrated concept to allow for the consistent on-chip delivery of a wide range of different liquids that may even include highly reactive or moisture sensitive solutions. The presented bubble pump may provide active flow control for

  12. Liquid pump for astronaut cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo portable life support system water-recirculation pump used for astronaut cooling is described. The problems associated with an early centrifugal pump and how these problems were overcome by the use of a new diaphragm pump are discussed. Performance comparisons of the two pump designs are given. Developmental problems and flight results with the diaphragm pump are discussed.

  13. Well-pump alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1998-01-01

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping.

  14. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - pump; G-tube - pump; Gastrostomy button - pump; Bard Button - pump; MIC-KEY - pump ... Your child has a gastrostomy tube (G-tube). This is a soft, plastic tube placed into your child's stomach. It delivers nutrition (food) and medicines until your ...

  15. Design and development of a split-evaporator heat-pump system

    SciTech Connect

    Somerville, M.H.; Penoncello, S.G.

    1981-12-01

    The designs and experimental results of three types of multiple source heat pumps are presented. The three designs are the parallel evaporator, the series evaporator, and the parallel evaporator with active subcooling, with the parallel evaporator with the active subcooling showing the most promise for solving the problem of defrosting of air evaporators. Three design procedures for multiple source heat pumps were developed. One of these is a hand calculational procedure, the others are computer based. The models are based upon the refrigerant flow rate, rather than the refrigeration effect of the evaporator. The technical results of a detailed analytical and experimental model of the heat transfer rates on a flat plate ice maker are presented. It is shown, both analytically and experimentally, that the temperature of the air surrounding the flat plate ice maker can play a dominant role in the rate of ice formation. A detailed weather analysis for forty cities located throughout the nation was completed. These data were processed to allow easy computation of thermal storage requirements for full, partial, or minimum ACES systems, or upon other design requirements, such as off-peak air conditioning. The results of an innovative ice storage system that is thermally coupled to the earth are described. This system has the potential for meeting both the off-peak air conditioning needs and the thermal storage requirements for the heating cycle. An economic and energy comparison of multiple source heat pumps with ACES, and air-to-air heat pump systems is presented.

  16. Pipe flow of pumping wet shotcrete based on lubrication layer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lianjun; Liu, Guoming; Cheng, Weimin; Pan, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Wet shotcrete can reduce dust and improve supporting strength, however, safe and efficient pipage is a key technical part of wet shotcrete process. The paper studied the pipe flow law of wet shotcrete based on lubrication layer by build the experimental pumping circuit of wet shotcrete that can carry out a number of full-scale pumping tests. The experimental results show there was a linear relationship between pressure loss and flow rate. Combined with the Buckingham rheological equation, the computing equations of the yield shear stress and plastic viscosity were deduced through linear regression. A simple analytical method allowing for a rough estimation of the pumping pressure was proposed and used when considering the lubrication layer of wet shotcrete in pipes. In addition, two kinds of particulate distributive models were established along the time axial to analyze the formation of lubrication layer which is related with particles migration. By computational fluid dynamics simulation, the lubrication layer thickness of different mix proportions was estimated. A new method for measuring the thickness of lubrication layer was proposed to verify it by binarization processing. Finally, according to the comparative analysis of experiments, simulation and computed value, it can be seen that the lubrication layer plays a key role in the process of wet shotcrete flow and with the increase of lubrication layer thickness pipe pressure declines gradually.

  17. Pipe flow of pumping wet shotcrete based on lubrication layer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lianjun; Liu, Guoming; Cheng, Weimin; Pan, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Wet shotcrete can reduce dust and improve supporting strength, however, safe and efficient pipage is a key technical part of wet shotcrete process. The paper studied the pipe flow law of wet shotcrete based on lubrication layer by build the experimental pumping circuit of wet shotcrete that can carry out a number of full-scale pumping tests. The experimental results show there was a linear relationship between pressure loss and flow rate. Combined with the Buckingham rheological equation, the computing equations of the yield shear stress and plastic viscosity were deduced through linear regression. A simple analytical method allowing for a rough estimation of the pumping pressure was proposed and used when considering the lubrication layer of wet shotcrete in pipes. In addition, two kinds of particulate distributive models were established along the time axial to analyze the formation of lubrication layer which is related with particles migration. By computational fluid dynamics simulation, the lubrication layer thickness of different mix proportions was estimated. A new method for measuring the thickness of lubrication layer was proposed to verify it by binarization processing. Finally, according to the comparative analysis of experiments, simulation and computed value, it can be seen that the lubrication layer plays a key role in the process of wet shotcrete flow and with the increase of lubrication layer thickness pipe pressure declines gradually. PMID:27386389

  18. 33. PLAN OF DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION SHOWING EXISTING PUMPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. PLAN OF DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION SHOWING EXISTING PUMPING PLAN AND LOCATION OF PROPOSED ADDITIONS, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE WORKS, JULY 1908. Aperture card 6417. - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  19. 32. PLAN OF DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION SHOWING EXISTING PUMPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. PLAN OF DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION SHOWING EXISTING PUMPING PLANT AND LOCATION OF PROPOSED ADDITIONS, JULY 1898 SHEET NO. 1. Aperture card 4966-1 - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  20. Looking south at boiler feedwater pumps (steam turbine pump on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking south at boiler feedwater pumps (steam turbine pump on left, electric motor pump on right). - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  1. Clinical experience with the Sarns centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Curtis, J J; Walls, J T; Demmy, T L; Boley, T M; Schmaltz, R A; Goss, C F; Wagner-Mann, C C

    1993-07-01

    Since October 1986, we have had experience with 96 Sarns centrifugal pumps in 72 patients (pts). Heparinless left atrial to femoral artery or aorta bypass was used in 14 pts undergoing surgery on the thoracic aorta with 13 survivors (93%). No paraplegia or device-related complications were observed. In 57 patients, the Sarns centrifugal pump was used as a univentricular (27 pts) or biventricular (30 pts) cardiac assist device for postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock. In these patients, cardiac assist duration ranged from 2 to 434 h with a hospital survival rate of 29% in those requiring left ventricular assist and 13% in those requiring biventricular assist. Although complications were ubiquitous in this mortally ill patient population, in 5,235 pump-hours, no pump thrombosis was observed. Hospital survivors followed for 4 months to 6 years have enjoyed an improved functional class. We conclude that the Sarns centrifugal pump is an effective cardiac assist device when used to salvage patients otherwise unweanable from cardiopulmonary bypass. Partial left ventricular bypass using a centrifugal pump has become our procedure of choice for unloading the left ventricle and for maintenance of distal aortic perfusion pressure when performing surgery on the thoracic aorta. This clinical experience with the Sarns centrifugal pump appears to be similar to that reported with other centrifugal assist devices.

  2. 38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...; Educational Assistance Allowance § 21.4145 Work-study allowance. (a) Eligibility. (1) A veteran or reservist... rate of three-quarter time or full time is eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An...

  3. 38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...; Educational Assistance Allowance § 21.4145 Work-study allowance. (a) Eligibility. (1) A veteran or reservist... rate of three-quarter time or full time is eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An...

  4. 38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...; Educational Assistance Allowance § 21.4145 Work-study allowance. (a) Eligibility. (1) A veteran or reservist... rate of three-quarter time or full time is eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An...

  5. 38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...; Educational Assistance Allowance § 21.4145 Work-study allowance. (a) Eligibility. (1) A veteran or reservist... rate of three-quarter time or full time is eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An...

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Cobb, W.G.

    1959-06-01

    A reactor fuel pump is described which offers long life, low susceptibility to radiation damage, and gaseous fission product removal. An inert-gas lubricated bearing supports a journal on one end of the drive shsft. The other end has an impeller and expansion chamber which effect pumping and gas- liquid separation. (T.R.H.)

  7. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    SciTech Connect

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  8. Cryogenic Vacuum Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zachman, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    System provides high pumping capacity even for noble gases. First stage, removes water and CO2 from input gas. Second stage, removes noble gases except helium and some lighter gases not trapped by first stage. Third stage, traps all remaining gases. All three stages mounted inside liquid-nitrogen Dewar that cools first stage. Pump small enough for general laboratory use.

  9. Water Treatment Technology - Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on pumps provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pumps in plant and distribution systems, pump…

  10. Micromachined peristaltic pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Micromachined pumps including a channel formed between a first membrane and a substrate or between first and second flexible membranes. A series of electrically conductive strips is applied to a surface of the substrate or one of the membranes. Application of a sequential voltage to the series of strips causes a region of closure to progress down the channel to achieve a pumping action.

  11. A Shocking New Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Hydro Dynamics, Inc. received a technical helping hand from NASA that made their Hydrosonic Pump (HPump) a reality. Marshall engineers resolved a bearing problem in the rotor of the pump and recommended new bearings, housings and mounting hardware as a solution. The resulting HPump is able to heat liquids with greater energy efficiency using shock waves to generate heat.

  12. Magnetic heat pump design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirol, L. D.; Dacus, M. W.

    1988-03-01

    Heat pumps utilizing the magnetocaloric effect offer a potentially attractive alternative to conventional heat pumps and refrigerators. Many physical configurations of magnetic heat pumps are possible. Major classes include those requiring electrical energy input and those with mechanical energy input. Mechanical energy is used to move magnets, working material, or magnetic shielding. Each type of mechanical magnetic heat pump can be built in a rotary (recuperative) or reciprocal (regenerative) configuration. Machines with electrical energy input utilize modulation of the magnetic field to cause working material to execute the desired thermodynamic cycle, and can also be recuperative or regenerative. Recuperative rotary heat pumps in which working material is moved past stationary magnets is the preferred configuration. Regenerative devices suffer performance degradation from temperature change of regenerator material and mixing and conduction in the regenerator. Field modulated cycles are not practical due to ac losses in superconducting magnets. Development of methods for recuperator fluid pumping is the major challenge in design of rotary recuperative devices. Several pumping options are presented, and the design of a bench scale heat pump described.

  13. Detection of pump degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Casada, D.

    1994-12-31

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous spectral vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition: advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed.

  14. [Study on the performance of piezoelectric micro pump for insulin injection].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhijing; Wang, Wei; Chen, Xinyuan

    2015-01-01

    In terms of performance of piezoelectric micro pump, this paper explores the piezoelectric ceramic plate in different wave driven micro pump flow rate. The conclusion is that the square wave voltage gets the biggest micro pump velocity. The velocity and pressure of the micro pump is almost linear relationship, and having nothing to do with the different inner diameter pipes. The piezoelectric micro pump's stability is not good and exists attenuation.

  15. METHOD FOR PUMPING GASES AT LOW VACUUM PRESSURES

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1962-06-01

    A method is given for pumping overpressure "pulses" or "bursts" of gases without a significant rise in base pressure within a "gettering-type" vacuum pump having surfaces within the pumping cavity coated with or comprising clean gettering metal, e.g., Mo or Ta. The cavity is first pumped down by any convenient means to an equilibrium base pressure in the range desired, generally below 10/sup -6/ mm Hg. At this pressure, the metal immediately adsorbs overpressures or "bursts" of gases striking same with thermal motion without raising the base pressure significantiy. Desorption takes place at an equilibrium rate which, of course, is dependent upon the equilibrium pressure, and such desorbed gases are continuously removed by diffuaion pump or other pumping, whereby said overpressures or "bursts" of gases are removed without a rise in the equilibrium pressure and/or back diffusion of the gaseous pulse from the pumping cavity. (AEC)

  16. How improper pump selection influences ESP cable failure

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.

    1984-10-01

    ESP cable failures can sometimes seem to result from high-temperature damage even though the well temperature is far below the temperature rating of the cable. Recent studies show that the problem is one of low well productivity, either from a pumped-off or a gas-locked condition, and that the excessive heat is generated in the pump. In both cases, the problem is caused by misapplied equipment. In the pumped-off condition the pump is oversized. In the gas-locked condition, a proper gas separator should be used. The importance of proper pump selection is emphasized. Both conditions cause excessive heat buildup in the pump. When flow decreases as in either of these conditions, energy continues to be added to the fluid, but pump efficiency decreases and flow decreases. The losses or inefficiencies of the system are transferred to a lesser weight of fluid, so the fluid temperature rises even more.

  17. A reactor model for pulsed pumping groundwater remediation.

    PubMed

    Tenney, C M; Lastoskie, C M; Dybas, M J

    2004-11-01

    A hybrid in situ bioremediation/pulsed pumping strategy has been developed to cost effectively remediate a carbon tetrachloride plume in Schoolcraft, Michigan. The pulsed pumping system uses a line of alternating injection and extraction wells perpendicular to the direction of natural groundwater flow. The wells pump periodically to clean the recirculation zone between adjacent wells. During the pump-off phase, natural groundwater flow brings new contaminant into the recirculation zone. The wells are pumped again prior to breakthrough of contaminant from the recirculation zone. A computationally efficient reactor model has been developed, which conceptually divides the aquifer into injection, extraction, and recirculation zones, which are represented by a network of chemical reactors. Solute concentration histories from three-dimensional finite difference simulations and from field data confirm the reactor model predictions. The reactor model is used to investigate the optimal well configuration, pumping rate, and pumping schedule for achieving maximum pollutant degradation.

  18. Normetex Pump Alternatives Study

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2013-04-25

    A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying

  19. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    DOEpatents

    Guardiani, Richard F.; Pollick, Richard D.; Nyilas, Charles P.; Denmeade, Timothy J.

    1997-01-01

    A transfer pump used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass therethrough, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank.

  20. Saturation and beaming in astrophysical masers. III - Asymmetrically pumped masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcock, C.; Ross, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    There is reason to believe that the physical conditions in many astrophysical masers are far from homogeneous. In particular, if the maser pump involves the absorption of infrared photons, the pump rate may vary rapidly (perhaps exponentially) across the cloud. The consequences of such variation of the pump rate for the maser radiation are calculated, and it is shown that there are substantial asymmetries in the output of the maser. A general result is that the maser radiation is preferentially emitted back toward the source of pump radiation. The implication of this result for the interpretation of the circumstellar 1612 MHz OH masers is briefly discussed.

  1. Deep well solar pump

    SciTech Connect

    Vanek, J.

    1990-02-06

    This patent describes, in a pump having a source of gas under pressure, and a gas operated pump, a mechanism periodically injecting gas from the source of gas into the gas operated pump. It comprises: a long period pendulum turning towards a first position by gravity, an injection valve connected between the source of gas under pressure and the gas operated pump, a linkage between the pendulum and the injection valve. The linkage opening the injection valve when the pendulum is in the first position, an impulse tube connected between the injection valve and the gas operated pump, a member having a surface adjacent to the first position of the pendulum, and an elastic impulse bladder connected to the impulse tube adjacent to the surface so that inflation of the impulse bladder on the opening of the injection valve forces the impulse bladder against the pendulum urging the pendulum against the force of gravity toward a second position.

  2. Rotary Blood Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George A. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Paul A. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A rotary blood pump includes a pump housing for receiving a flow straightener, a rotor mounted on rotor bearings and having an inducer portion and an impeller portion, and a diffuser. The entrance angle, outlet angle, axial and radial clearances of blades associated with the flow straightener, inducer portion, impeller portion and diffuser are optimized to minimize hemolysis while maintaining pump efficiency. The rotor bearing includes a bearing chamber that is filled with cross-linked blood or other bio-compatible material. A back emf integrated circuit regulates rotor operation and a microcomputer may be used to control one or more back emf integrated circuits. A plurality of magnets are disposed in each of a plurality of impeller blades with a small air gap. A stator may be axially adjusted on the pump housing to absorb bearing load and maximize pump efficiency.

  3. CO.sub.2 optically pumped distributed feedback diode laser

    DOEpatents

    Rockwood, Stephen D.

    1980-01-01

    A diode laser optically pumped by a CO.sub.2 coherent source. Interference fringes generated by feeding the optical pumping beam against a second beam, periodically alter the reflectivity of the diode medium allowing frequency variation of the output signal by varying the impingent angle of the CO.sub.2 laser beams.

  4. System design factors for solar panel assisted mechanical heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of energy management of heat pumps with auxiliary energy storage devices is discussed in this paper. By using a solar collector which doubles as a radiator allows the heat pump system to provide both heating and cooling. Qualitative design factors for this kind of system is discussed with the philosophy of the concept.

  5. Polarization of fast particle beams by collisional pumping

    DOEpatents

    Stearns, J. Warren; Kaplan, Selig N.; Pyle, Robert V.; Anderson, L. Wilmer; Ruby, Lawrence; Schlachter, Alfred S.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus for highly polarizing a fast beam of particles by collisional pumping, including generating a fast beam of particles, and also generating a thick electron-spin-polarized medium positioned as a target for the beam. The target is made sufficiently thick to allow the beam to interact with the medium to produce collisional pumping whereby the beam becomes highly polarized.

  6. Absorption-heat-pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  7. Pulsed optically pumped frequency standard

    SciTech Connect

    Godone, Aldo; Micalizio, Salvatore; Levi, Filippo

    2004-08-01

    We reconsider the idea of a pulsed optically pumped frequency standard conceived in the early 1960s to eliminate the light-shift effect. The development of semiconductor lasers and of pulsed electronic techniques for atomic fountains and new theoretical findings allow an implementation of this idea which may lead to a frequency standard whose frequency stability is limited only by the thermal noise in the short term and by the temperature drift in the long term. We shall also show both theoretically and experimentally the possibility of doubling the atomic quality factor with respect to the classical Ramsey technique approach.

  8. Apparatus for Pumping a Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boeyen, Robert Van; Reeh, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    A fluid pump has been developed for mechanically pumped fluid loops for spacecraft thermal control. Lynntech's technology utilizes a proprietary electrochemically driven pumping mechanism. Conventional rotodynamic and displacement pumps typically do not meet the stringent power and operational reliability requirements of space applications. Lynntech's developmental pump is a highly efficient solid-state pump with essentially no rotating or moving components (apart from metal bellows).

  9. Terahertz dielectric response of photoexcited carriers in Si revealed via single-shot optical-pump and terahertz-probe spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Minami, Yasuo; Horiuchi, Kohei; Masuda, Kaisei; Takeda, Jun; Katayama, Ikufumi

    2015-10-26

    We have demonstrated accurate observations of terahertz (THz) dielectric response due to photoexcited carriers in a Si plate via single-shot optical-pump and THz-probe spectroscopy. In contrast to conventional THz time-domain spectroscopy, this spectroscopic technique allows single-shot detection of the THz response of materials at a given delay time between the pump and THz pulses, thereby sufficiently extending the time interval between the pump pulses. As a result, we can accurately measure the dielectric properties of materials, while avoiding artifacts in the response caused by the accumulation of long-lived photoexcited carriers. Using our single-shot scheme, the transmittance of a Si plate was measured in the range of 0.5–2.5 THz with different pump fluences. Based on a Drude model analysis, the optically induced complex dielectric constant, plasma frequency, and damping rate in the THz region were quantitatively evaluated.

  10. Vertical pump with free floating check valve

    DOEpatents

    Lindsay, Malcolm

    1980-01-01

    A vertical pump with a bottom discharge having a free floating check valve isposed in the outlet plenum thereof. The free floating check valve comprises a spherical member with a hemispherical cage-like member attached thereto which is capable of allowing forward or reverse flow under appropriate conditions while preventing reverse flow under inappropriate conditions.

  11. Multilayer impedance pump: a bio-inspired valveless pump with medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loumes, Laurence

    This thesis introduces the concept of multilayer impedance pump, a novel pumping mechanism inspired from the embryonic heart structure.The multilayer impedance pump is a composite two-layer fluid-filled elastic tube featuring a thick, gelatin-like internal layer similar in nature to the embryonic cardiac jelly, and that is used to amplify longitudinal elastic waves. Pumping is based on the impedance pumping mechanism. Elastic waves are generated upon small external periodic compressions of the elastic tube. They propagate along the tube's walls, reflect at the tube's extremities and drive the flow in a preferential direction. This fully coupled fluid-structure interaction problem is solved for the flow and the structure using the finite element method over a relevant range of frequencies of excitation. Results show that the two-layer configuration can be an efficient wave propagation combination, and that it allows the pump to produce significant flow for small excitations. The multilayer impedance pump is a complex system in which flow and structure exhibit a resonant behavior. At resonance, a constructive elastic wave interaction coupled with a most efficient energy transmission between the elastic walls and the fluid is responsible for the maximum exit flow. The pump efficiency reaches its highest at resonance, highlighting furthermore the concept of resonance pumping.Using the proposed multilayer impedance pump model, we are able to bring an additional proof on the impedance nature of the embryonic heart by comparing a peristaltic and an impedance multilayer pump both excited in similar fashion to the one observed in the embryonic heart.The gelatin layer that models the embryonic cardiac jelly occupies most of the tube walls and is essential to the propagation of elastic waves. A comparison between the exact same impedance pump with and without the additional gelatin layer sheds light on the dynamic role of the cardiac jelly in the embryonic heart and on nature

  12. Pressure charged airlift pump

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Gene K.

    1983-01-01

    A pumping system is described for pumping fluids, such as water with entrained mud and small rocks, out of underground cavities such as drilled wells, which can effectively remove fluids down to a level very close to the bottom of the cavity and which can operate solely by compressed air pumped down through the cavity. The system utilizes a subassembly having a pair of parallel conduit sections (44, 46) adapted to be connected onto the bottom of a drill string utilized for drilling the cavity, the drill string also having a pair of coaxially extending conduits. The subassembly includes an upper portion which has means for connection onto the drill string and terminates the first conduit of the drill string in a plenum (55). A compressed air-driven pump (62) is suspended from the upper portion. The pump sucks fluids from the bottom of the cavity and discharges them into the second conduit. Compressed air pumped down through the first conduit (46) to the plenum powers the compressed air-driven pump and aerates the fluid in the second conduit to lift it to the earth's surface.

  13. Deep well pump

    SciTech Connect

    Downen, J.L.; Sutliff, W.N.

    1981-06-16

    A pump barrel open at its lower end is coupled at its upper end by a tubular adapter assembly to the lower end of a pump tubing string. This assembly presents an internal bevelled sealing latching annulus, an axially bored pump head being radially expansively spring latched in a fixed axial sealed relation with the annulus to seal the upper end of the pump barrel from the adapter assembly to form a pump compression chamber surrounding a hollow polish rod extending upwardly from a plunger mounted on the lower end of the polish rod for reciprocation in the pump barrel. The plunger carries tandem travelling valves close beneath its connection with the polish rod. The lower valve opening to receive oil through the barrel and plunger on the down stroke and concurrently delivering such oil into the compression chamber. The upper valve closes on the down stroke and opening on the up stroke during which the lower valve closes to expel oil trapped in the compression chamber upward through the upper valve into the lower end of the hollow polish rod which oil is discharged at the upper end thereof into the pump tubing string through the fitting adapting the polish rod to the lower end of the sucker rod.

  14. [Insulin pump therapy in children, adolescents and adults].

    PubMed

    Stadler, Marietta; Zlamal-Fortunat, Sandra; Schütz-Fuhrmann, Ingrid; Rami-Merhar, Birgit; Fröhlich-Reiterer, Elke; Hofer, Sabine; Mader, Julia; Resl, Michael; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Weitgasser, Raimund; Prager, Rudolf; Bischof, Martin

    2016-04-01

    This position statement is based on the current evidence available on the safety and benefits of continuous subcutaneous insulin pump therapy (CSII) in diabetes with an emphasis on the effects of CSII on glycemic control, hypoglycaemia rates, occurrence of ketoacidosis, quality of life and the use of insulin pump therapy in pregnancy. The current article represents the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association for the clinical praxis of insulin pump treatment in children, adolescents and adults. PMID:27052245

  15. Experimental studies on pump limiters

    SciTech Connect

    Mioduszewski, P.

    1982-01-01

    Pump limiters are mechanical devices for He-ash removal, fuel particle control, and possibly impurity control. Different designs have been suggested by various authors over the past decade. However, the magnetic divertor concepts seemed to be more promising, mainly because of their remote plasma-material interactions. All of the characteristics of magnetic divertors have been proven experimentally, but the overall performance and complexity cause concern about their application to tokamak reactors. Consequently, it is time now to explore the potential of mechanical particle control devices, i.e. pump limiters. Because of the high recycling at the limiter, it is sufficient to exhaust only a small fraction, about 1 to 10%, of the limiter particle flux to remove e.g. He at its rate of production. Pump limiter experiments have been conducted so far on Alcator, PDX, Macrotor, and ISX. Depending on the experimental design, a pressure build-up of between 1 mTorr and 50 mTorr has been reported.

  16. RENEWABLE LIQUID GETTERING PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.

    1962-08-21

    A method and structure were developed for pumping gases by simple absorption into a liquid gettering material. The invention comprises means ror continuously pumping a liquid getterrng material from a reservoir to the top of a generally vertical surface disposed in a vacuum pumping chamber to receive gaseous and other particles in the liquid gettering material which continuously flows downward over the vertical suiface. Means are provided for continuous removal, degassing, and return of a portion of the liquid gettering material from the reservoir connected with collectrng means at the base of the generally vertical plate. (AEC)

  17. Liquid jet pumped by rising gas bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussain, N. A.; Siegel, R.

    1975-01-01

    A two-phase mathematical model is proposed for calculating the induced turbulent vertical liquid flow. Bubbles provide a large buoyancy force and the associated drag on the liquid moves the liquid upward. The liquid pumped upward consists of the bubble wakes and the liquid brought into the jet region by turbulent entrainment. The expansion of the gas bubbles as they rise through the liquid is taken into account. The continuity and momentum equations are solved numerically for an axisymmetric air jet submerged in water. Water pumping rates are obtained as a function of air flow rate and depth of submergence. Comparisons are made with limited experimental information in the literature.

  18. Insulin Pumps and Remote Software Updates: A New Way Forward.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Noel E; Parks, Linda J; Verhoef, Erik T; Morgan, Corey A; Stal, Mikhail

    2015-09-18

    This article discusses the future direction of insulin pump technology and its relationship to the software update process. A user needs analysis revealed that respondents wanted an insulin pump software update process to function much in the same way as smartphone updates. Users of insulin pumps have the same expectations as with other ubiquitous technology such as smartphones, tablets, and laptops. The development of a software update system within a regulated environment that meets the needs of insulin pump users by allowing optional software updates that provide access to pump improvements, feature additions, or access to algorithms that provide therapy-changing technologies is a new way forward for the management of a complicated disease that affects more than 450,000 people using insulin pumps in the United States.

  19. Home Healthcare Medical Devices: Infusion Therapy - Getting the Most Out of Your Pump

    MedlinePlus

    ... pump's accuracy. Change tubing according to instructions. Wrong programming Check pump screen to be sure programmed rates ... Administration (TSA) Consumer Response Center toll-free at 1-866-289-9673 or go to http://www. ...

  20. A 10 Hz Grazing Incidence pumped Ni-like Mo laser at 18.9 nm with 150 mJ pump energy

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, R; Dunn, J; Patel, P K; Price, D F; Smith, R F; Shlyaptsev, V N

    2004-09-30

    The first demonstration of the grazing incidence pumping (GRIP) scheme for laser-driven x-ray lasers (XRLs) is described utilizing 2-pulse pumping. A long pulse is incident normal to the target to produce a plasma with a particular density profile. Then a short pulse is incident at a grazing angle, chosen to optimally couple the short pulse laser energy into the specific density region where the inversion process will occur. The short pulse is simultaneously absorbed and refracted at a maximum electron density specified by the chosen pump angle then turns back into the gain region. The increased path length gives improved absorption allowing a reduction in the drive energy required for lasing. A Ni-like Mo XRL at 18.9 nm has been demonstrated with only 150 mJ total pump energy and a repetition rate of 10 Hz. We report high gains of 60 cm{sup -1} and the achievement of gain saturation for targets of 4 mm length.

  1. 26 CFR 48.6427-10 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (blocked pumps). 48.6427-10 Section 48.6427-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps). (a) Overview. This section provides rules under... allowed by section 6427(l)(5)(B)(i). These claims relate to kerosene sold from a blocked pump....

  2. 26 CFR 48.6427-10 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (blocked pumps). 48.6427-10 Section 48.6427-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps). (a) Overview. This section provides rules under... allowed by section 6427(l)(5)(B)(i). These claims relate to kerosene sold from a blocked pump....

  3. 26 CFR 48.6427-10 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (blocked pumps). 48.6427-10 Section 48.6427-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps). (a) Overview. This section provides rules under... allowed by section 6427(l)(5)(B)(i). These claims relate to kerosene sold from a blocked pump....

  4. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  5. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  6. Keeping Hearts Pumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A collaboration between NASA, Dr. Michael DeBakey, Dr. George Noon, and MicroMed Technology, Inc., resulted in a life-saving heart pump for patients awaiting heart transplants. The MicroMed DeBakey VAD functions as a "bridge to heart transplant" by pumping blood throughout the body to keep critically ill patients alive until a donor heart is available. Weighing less than 4 ounces and measuring 1 inch by 3 inches, the pump is approximately one-tenth the size of other currently marketed pulsatile VADs. This makes it less invasive and ideal for smaller adults and children. Because of the pump's small size, less than 5 percent of the patients implanted developed device-related infections. It can operate up to 8 hours on batteries, giving patients the mobility to do normal, everyday activities.The MicroMed DeBakey VAD is a registered trademark of MicroMed Technology, Inc.

  7. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  8. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  9. GAS METERING PUMP

    DOEpatents

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  10. Direct nuclear pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Miley, George H.; Wells, William E.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    1978-01-01

    There is provided a direct nuclear pumped gas laser in which the lasing mechanism is collisional radiated recombination of ions. The gas laser active medium is a mixture of the gases, with one example being neon and nitrogen.

  11. Pneumatically Actuated Miniature Peristaltic Vacuum Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Sabrina; Feldman, Jason; Svehla, Danielle

    2003-01-01

    Pneumatically actuated miniature peristaltic vacuum pumps have been proposed for incorporation into advanced miniature versions of scientific instruments that depend on vacuum for proper operation. These pumps are expected to be capable of reaching vacuum-side pressures in the torr to millitorr range (from .133 down to .0.13 Pa). Vacuum pumps that operate in this range are often denoted roughing pumps. In comparison with previously available roughing pumps, these pumps are expected to be an order of magnitude less massive and less power-hungry. In addition, they would be extremely robust, and would operate with little or no maintenance and without need for oil or other lubricants. Portable mass spectrometers are typical examples of instruments that could incorporate the proposed pumps. In addition, the proposed pumps could be used as roughing pumps in general laboratory applications in which low pumping rates could be tolerated. The proposed pumps could be designed and fabricated in conventionally machined and micromachined versions. A typical micromachined version (see figure) would include a rigid glass, metal, or plastic substrate and two layers of silicone rubber. The bottom silicone layer would contain shallow pump channels covered by silicone arches that could be pushed down pneumatically to block the channels. The bottom silicone layer would be covered with a thin layer of material with very low gas permeability, and would be bonded to the substrate everywhere except in the channel areas. The top silicone layer would be attached to the bottom silicone layer and would contain pneumatic- actuation channels that would lie crosswise to the pump channels. This version is said to be micromachined because the two silicone layers containing the channels would be fabricated by casting silicone rubber on micromachined silicon molds. The pneumatic-actuation channels would be alternately connected to a compressed gas and (depending on pump design) either to atmospheric

  12. PUMP FOR GASEOUS WORKING FLUIDS

    DOEpatents

    Lipscomb, R.

    1948-12-14

    A gas pump having a substantially constant rate of flow and a relatively efficient punnping action is described. A number of flexible plates disposed longitudinally in and in contact with a duct are caused to oscillate transversly so as to produce wave-llke deformations of the plates. These deformations are mechanically produced by pushrods and an eccentric gearing arrangement, and are so synchronized that the waves travel from the inlet to the outlet of the duct, and, in so doing, move the gas by positive displacement.

  13. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  14. Optimized Biasing of Pump Laser Diodes in a Highly Reliable Metrology Source for Long-Duration Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Chang, Daniel; Erlig, Hernan

    2011-01-01

    Non Planar Ring Oscillator (NPRO) lasers are highly attractive for metrology applications. NPRO reliability for prolonged space missions is limited by reliability of 808 nm pump diodes. Combined laser farm aging parameter allows comparing different bias approaches. Monte-Carlo software developed to calculate the reliability of laser pump architecture, perform parameter sensitivity studies To meet stringent Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) Lite lifetime reliability / output power requirements, we developed a single-mode Laser Pump Module architecture that: (1) provides 2 W of power at 808 nm with >99.7% reliability for 5.5 years (2) consists of 37 de-rated diode lasers operating at -5C, with outputs combined in a very low loss 37x1 all-fiber coupler

  15. Lunar base heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Jeffrey H.; Tetreault, R.; Fischbach, D.; Walker, D.

    1994-01-01

    A heat pump is a device which elevates the temperature of a heat flow by a means of an energy input. By doing this, the heat pump can cause heat to transfer faster from a warm region to a cool region, or it can cause heat to flow from a cool region to a warmer region. The second case is the one which finds vast commercial applications such as air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration. Aerospace applications of heat pumps include both cases. The NASA Johnson Space Center is currently developing a Life Support Systems Integration Facility (LSSIF, previously SIRF) to provide system-level integration, operational test experience, and performance data that will enable NASA to develop flight-certified hardware for future planetary missions. A high lift heat pump is a significant part of the TCS hardware development associated with the LSSIF. The high lift heat pump program discussed here is being performed in three phases. In Phase 1, the objective is to develop heat pump concepts for a lunar base, a lunar lander, and for a ground development unit for the SIRF. In Phase 2, the design of the SIRF ground test unit is being performed, including identification and evaluation of safety and reliability issues. In Phase 3, the SIRF unit will be manufactured, tested, and delivered to the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  16. Hydraulic well pump

    SciTech Connect

    Dollison, W.W.

    1987-09-08

    This patent describes a system for operating a sucker rod string connected with a well pump comprising: a double-acting fluid cylinder having opposing power ends; means for connecting the cylinder with the sucker rod string for raising and lowering the string to operate the pump; hydraulic pump means for supplying pressurized fluid alternately to the cylinder ends including a direction control movable between extend and retract conditions to extend and retract the cylinder; drive means for shifting the direction control; control means for operating the drive means responsive to the extend and retract movements of the cylinder; and means for applying a fluid counterbalancing force into the cylinder for offsetting the combined weights of the sucker rod string. A production fluid column in a well bore above the pump, and movable surface equipment supported on the cylinder include an accumulator connected with the hydraulic pump means and the direction control for supercharging the intake of the pump during the extend movement of the cylinder and for applying an opposing hydraulic force to the cylinder during the retract movement.

  17. Rotary blood pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor); Kiris, Cetin (Inventor); Kwak, Dochan (Inventor); Rosenbaum, Bernard J. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); DeBakey, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A blood pump that comprises a pump housing having a blood flow path therethrough, a blood inlet, and a blood outlet; a stator mounted to the pump housing, the stator having a stator field winding for producing a stator magnetic field; a flow straightener located within the pump housing, and comprising a flow straightener hub and at least one flow straightener blade attached to the flow straightener hub; a rotor mounted within the pump housing for rotation in response to the stator magnetic field, the rotor comprising an inducer and an impeller; the inducer being located downstream of the flow straightener, and comprising an inducer hub and at least one inducer blade attached to the inducer hub; the impeller being located downstream of the inducer, and comprising an impeller hub and at least one impeller blade attached to the impeller hub; and preferably also comprising a diffuser downstream of the impeller, the diffuser comprising a diffuser hub and at least one diffuser blade. Blood flow stagnation and clot formation within the pump are minimized by, among other things, providing the inducer hub with a diameter greater than the diameter of the flow straightener hub; by optimizing the axial spacing between the flow straightener hub and the inducer hub, and between the impeller hub and the diffuser hub; by optimizing the inlet angle of the diffuser blades; and by providing fillets or curved transitions between the upstream end of the inducer hub and the shaft mounted therein, and between the impeller hub and the shaft mounted therein.

  18. Auxiliary lubrication pump apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Glesmann, H.C.; Thomas, R.G.

    1987-02-10

    This patent describes an auxiliary lubrication pump apparatus for use with a towing vehicle having an engine switch, a battery, and an interior compartment, and a towed vehicle having an automatic transmission which requires forced lubrication while being towed. The apparatus comprises: (a) a lubrication pump; (b) a transmission to pump hose connected between the automatic transmission and the lubrication pump; (c) a valve having at least one signal output and two inputs: (d) a hose means for connecting an output of the lubrication pump to one of the inputs of the valve; (e) a first outflow hose for connecting the automatic transmission to another input of the valve; (f) a second output hose for connecting the output of the valve to the automatic transmission; (g) pressure sensing means positioned to sense pressure as regards the second outflow hose; and (h) control means responsive to the pressure sensing means and having switch means for providing electricity to the lubrication pump and to provide an alarm whenever the control means detects through the pressure sensing means that inadequate pressure exists.

  19. The Evolution of Ion Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Peter C.; Wilson, T. Hastings

    1985-01-01

    Constructs an evolutionary sequence to account for the diversity of ion pumps found today. Explanations include primary ion pumps in bacteria, features and distribution of ATP-driven pumps, preference for cation transport, and proton pump reversal. The integrated evolutionary hypothesis should encourage new experimental approaches. (DH)

  20. Mathematical model development and simulation of heat pump fruit dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Achariyaviriya, S.; Soponronnarit, S.; Terdyothin, A.

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical model of a heat pump fruit dryer was developed to study the performance of heat pump dryers. Using the moisture content of papaya glace drying, the refrigerant temperature at the evaporator and condenser and the performance, was verified. It was found that the simulated results using closed loop heat pump dryer were close to the experimental results. The criteria for evaluating the performance were specific moisture extraction rate and drying rate. The results showed that ambient conditions affected significantly on the performance of the open loop dryer and the partially closed loop dryer. Also, the fraction of evaporator bypass air affected markedly the performance of all heat pump dryers. In addition, it was found that specific air flow rate and drying air temperature affected significantly the performance of all heat pump dryers.

  1. Pumping Optimization Model for Pump and Treat Systems - 15091

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.; Ivarson, Kristine A.; Karanovic, M.; Miller, Charles W.; Tonkin, M.

    2015-01-15

    Pump and Treat systems are being utilized to remediate contaminated groundwater in the Hanford 100 Areas adjacent to the Columbia River in Eastern Washington. Design of the systems was supported by a three-dimensional (3D) fate and transport model. This model provided sophisticated simulation capabilities but requires many hours to calculate results for each simulation considered. Many simulations are required to optimize system performance, so a two-dimensional (2D) model was created to reduce run time. The 2D model was developed as a equivalent-property version of the 3D model that derives boundary conditions and aquifer properties from the 3D model. It produces predictions that are very close to the 3D model predictions, allowing it to be used for comparative remedy analyses. Any potential system modifications identified by using the 2D version are verified for use by running the 3D model to confirm performance. The 2D model was incorporated into a comprehensive analysis system (the Pumping Optimization Model, POM) to simplify analysis of multiple simulations. It allows rapid turnaround by utilizing a graphical user interface that: 1 allows operators to create hypothetical scenarios for system operation, 2 feeds the input to the 2D fate and transport model, and 3 displays the scenario results to evaluate performance improvement. All of the above is accomplished within the user interface. Complex analyses can be completed within a few hours and multiple simulations can be compared side-by-side. The POM utilizes standard office computing equipment and established groundwater modeling software.

  2. Turbomolecular pumps and their limitations for hydrocarbon-free systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, J.; Freeman, J.

    1988-09-01

    Starting from the operating principle of turbomolecular pumps (TMP's),, some theoretical considerations concerning their volume flow rate (pumping speed) and compression are given. The impact of speed and compression on the ultimate pressure and the cleanlines of the vacuum is explained. The level of hydrocarbons in the vacuum system depends on many factors, including the cleanliness of the vacuum system, the backing pump, the turbomolecular pump, and the type of vacuum seals (metal, viton O-rings, etc.). In addition, the procedure of stopping and venting the TMP plays a very important role in the cleanliness of the vacuum, and some simple operating rules must be observed.

  3. Wave optics simulation of diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Masamori; Nagaoka, Ryuji; Nagaoka, Hiroki; Nagai, Toru; Wani, Fumio

    2016-03-01

    A numerical simulation code for a diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) was developed. The code employs the Fresnel- Kirchhoff diffraction integral for both laser mode and pump light propagations. A three-dimensional rate equation set was developed to determine the local gain. The spectral divergence of the pump beam was represented by a series of monochromatic beams with different wavelengths. The calculated results showed an excellent agreements with relevant experimental results. It was found that the main channel of the pump power drain is the spontaneous emission from the upper level of the lasing transition.

  4. Heat pumps and manufactured homes: Making the marriage work

    SciTech Connect

    Conlin, F.; Neal, C.L.

    1996-11-01

    Manufactured homes make up over 7% of the US housing stock, including over 15% of the homes in North Carolina. As more of these homes are being equipped with heat pumps, it becomes important to figure out how to make these systems efficient. This article describes a number of ways of increasing the efficiency. The following topics are included: heat pump actual and rated capacity; heat pump sizing; air flow to the coil; indoor thermostat placement; outdoor thermostat; condensate; leaky ducts; pressure boundary breaches; pressure problems; what you should look for in heat pumps; manufactured housing - an evolutionary home.

  5. Quantum mechanical features of optically pumped CW FIR lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seligson, D.; Leite, J. R. R.; Sanchez, A.; Feld, M. S.; Ducloy, M.

    1977-01-01

    Quantum mechanical predictions for the gain of an optically pumped CW FIR laser are presented for cases in which one or both of the pump and FIR transitions are pressure or Doppler broadened. The results are compared to those based on the rate equation model. Some of the quantum mechanical predictions are verified in CH3OH.

  6. 41 CFR 101-27.503 - Allowable credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Allowable credit. 101-27...-Return of GSA Stock Items § 101-27.503 Allowable credit. Allowable credit for activities returning... condition of the material received. (a) Credit will be granted at the rate of 80 percent of the current...

  7. 41 CFR 101-27.503 - Allowable credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable credit. 101-27...-Return of GSA Stock Items § 101-27.503 Allowable credit. Allowable credit for activities returning... condition of the material received. (a) Credit will be granted at the rate of 80 percent of the current...

  8. 41 CFR 101-27.503 - Allowable credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Allowable credit. 101-27...-Return of GSA Stock Items § 101-27.503 Allowable credit. Allowable credit for activities returning... condition of the material received. (a) Credit will be granted at the rate of 80 percent of the current...

  9. 41 CFR 101-27.503 - Allowable credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Allowable credit. 101-27...-Return of GSA Stock Items § 101-27.503 Allowable credit. Allowable credit for activities returning... condition of the material received. (a) Credit will be granted at the rate of 80 percent of the current...

  10. Tokamak pump limiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn, Robert W.

    1984-12-01

    Experiments with pump limiters on several operating tokamaks have established them as efficient collectors of particles. The gas pressure rise within the chamber behind the limiters has been as high as 50 mTorr when there is no internal chamber pumping. Observations of the plasma power distribution over the front face of these limiter modules yield estimates for the scale length of radial power decay consistent with predictions of relatively simple theory. Interaction of the in-flowing plasma with recycling neutral gas near the limiter deflector plate is predicted to become important when the effective ionization mean free path is comparable to or less than the neutral atom mean path length within the throat structure of the limiter. Recent experiments with a scoop limiter without active internal pumping have been carried out in the PDX tokamak with up to 6 MW of auxiliary neutral beam heating. Experiments have also been performed with a rotating head pump limiter in the PLT tokamak in conjunction with RF plasma heating. Extensive experiments have been done in the ISX-B tokamak and first experiments have been completed with the ALT-I limiter in TEXTOR. The pump limiter modules in these latter two machines have internal getter pumping. Experiments in ISX-B are with ohmic and auxiliary neutral beam heating. The results in ISX-B and TEXTOR show that active density control and particle removal is achieved with pump limiters. In ISX-B, the boundary layer (or scape-off layer) plasma partially screens the core plasma from gas injection. In both ISX-B and TEXTOR, the pressure internal to the module scales linearly with plasma density but in ISX-B, with neutral beam injection, a nonlinear increase is observed at the highest densities studied. Plasma plugging is the suspected cause. Results from PDX suggest that a regime may exist in which core plasma energy confinement improves using a pump limiter during neutral beam injection. Asymmetric radial profiles and an increased

  11. Well-pump alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1998-10-20

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump are disclosed, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping. 6 figs.

  12. Natural Thermoelectric Heat Pump in Social Wasps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishay, Jacob S.; Pertsis, Vitaly; Rave, Eran; Goren, Alon; Bergman, David J.

    2003-05-01

    Photographs of wasps or hornets, taken with different temperature sensitive infrared cameras, reveal body temperatures that are sometimes significantly lower than the ambient temperature. This suggests that the hornets possess an intrinsic biological heat pump mechanism which can be used to achieve such cooling. Evidence is presented to substantiate this novel suggestion and to argue that the heat pump is most likely implemented by exploiting a thermoelectric effect in the hornet cuticle. Such a natural heat pump can conceivably also serve to cool the active hornet, engaged in daytime activities outside the nest at ambient temperatures exceeding 40 °C, to a body temperature that is low enough to allow its survival in extreme thermal conditions. It might also function as a means of raising the body temperature up to a level that enables the hornet to remain active even when the ambient temperature is as low as 10 °C.

  13. Solar pumped continuous wave carbon dioxide laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yesil, O.; Christiansen, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    In an effort to demonstrate the feasibility of a solar pumped laser concept, gain has been measured in a CO2-He laser medium optically pumped by blackbody radiation. Various gas mixtures of CO2 and He have been pumped by blackbody radiation emitted from an electrically heated oven. Using a CO2 laser as a probe, an optical gain coefficient of 1.8 x 10 to the -3rd/cm has been measured at 10.6 microns for a 9:1 CO2-He mixture at an oven temperature of about 1500 K, a gas temperature of about 400 K and a pressure of about 1 torr. This corresponds to a small signal gain coefficient when allowance is made for saturation effects due to the probe beam, in reasonable agreement with a theoretical value.

  14. 885-nm Pumped Ceramic Nd:YAG Master Oscillator Power Amplifier Laser System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a traditional diode pumped solid-state laser that is typically pumped with 808-nm laser diode array (LDA) and crystalline Nd:YAG was improved by using 885-nm LDAs and ceramic Nd:YAG. The advantage is lower quantum defect, which will improve the thermal loading on laser gain medium, resulting in a higher-performance laser. The use of ceramic Nd:YAG allows a higher Nd dopant level that will make up the lower absorption at the 885-nm wavelength on Nd:YAG. When compared to traditional 808-nm pump, 885-nm diodes will have 30% less thermal load (or wasted heat) and will thus see a similar percentage improvement in the overall laser efficiency. In order to provide a more efficient laser system for future flight missions that require the use of low-repetition- rate (pumping the Nd:YAG laser crystal. This pumping scheme has many potential advantages for improved reliability, efficiency, thermal management, contamination control, and mechanical flexibility. The advantages of using 885-nm pump diodes in Nd:YAG laser systems are numerous. The epitaxial structures of these 885-nm diodes are aluminum-free. There is a significant reduction in the thermal load generated from the Stokes shift or quantum defects. A Stokes shift is the energetic difference between the pump and laser photons. Pumping at a wavelength band closer to the lasing wavelength can reduce the thermal load by .30% compared to traditional pumping at 808 nm, and increase the optical- to-optical efficiency by the same factor. The slope efficiency is expected to increase with a reduction in the thermal load. The typical crystalline Nd:YAG can be difficult to produce with doping level >1% Nd. To make certain that the absorption at 885 nm is on the same par as the 808-nm diode, the Nd:YAG material needs to be doped with higher concentration of Nd. Ceramic Nd:YAG is the only material that can be tailored

  15. Diaphragm Pump With Resonant Piezoelectric Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Kline-Schoder, Robert J.; Shimko, Martin A.

    2007-01-01

    A diaphragm pump driven by a piezoelectric actuator is undergoing development. This pump is intended to be a prototype of lightweight, highly reliable pumps for circulating cooling liquids in protective garments and high-power electronic circuits, and perhaps for some medical applications. The pump would be highly reliable because it would contain no sliding seals or bearings that could wear, the only parts subject to wear would be two check valves, and the diaphragm and other flexing parts could be designed, by use of proven methods, for extremely long life. Because the pump would be capable of a large volumetric flow rate and would have only a small dead volume, its operation would not be disrupted by ingestion of gas, and it could be started reliably under all conditions. The prior art includes a number piezoelectrically actuated diaphragm pumps. Because of the smallness of the motions of piezoelectric actuators (typical maximum strains only about 0.001), the volumetric flow rates of those pumps are much too small for typical cooling applications. In the pump now undergoing development, mechanical resonance would be utilized to amplify the motion generated by the piezoelectric actuator and thereby multiply the volumetric flow rate. The prime mover in this pump would be a stack of piezoelectric ceramic actuators, one end of which would be connected to a spring that would be part of a spring-and-mass resonator structure. The mass part of the resonator structure would include the pump diaphragm (see Figure 1). Contraction of the spring would draw the diaphragm to the left, causing the volume of the fluid chamber to increase and thereby causing fluid to flow into the chamber. Subsequent expansion of the spring would push the diaphragm to the right, causing the volume of the fluid chamber to decrease, and thereby expelling fluid from the chamber. The fluid would enter and leave the chamber through check valves. The piezoelectric stack would be driven electrically to

  16. Modified host cells with efflux pumps

    DOEpatents

    Dunlop, Mary J.; Keasling, Jay D.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2016-08-30

    The present invention provides for a modified host cell comprising a heterologous expression of an efflux pump capable of transporting an organic molecule out of the host cell wherein the organic molecule at a sufficiently high concentration reduces the growth rate of or is lethal to the host cell.

  17. Not ''just'' pump and treat

    SciTech Connect

    Angleberger, K; Bainer, R W

    2000-12-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been consistently improving the site cleanup methods by adopting new philosophies, strategies and technologies to address constrained or declining budgets, lack of useable space due to a highly industrialized site, and significant technical challenges. As identified in the ROD, the preferred remedy at the LLNL Livermore Site is pump and treat, although LLNL has improved this strategy to bring the remediation of the ground water to closure as soon as possible. LLNL took the logical progression from a pump and treat system to the philosophy of ''Smart Pump and Treat'' coupled with the concepts of ''Hydrostratigraphic Unit Analysis,'' ''Engineered Plume Collapse,'' and ''Phased Source Remediation,'' which led to the development of new, more cost-effective technologies which have accelerated the attainment of cleanup goals significantly. Modeling is also incorporated to constantly develop new, cost-effective methodologies to accelerate cleanup and communicate the progress of cleanup to stakeholders. In addition, LLNL improved on the efficiency and flexibility of ground water treatment facilities. Ground water cleanup has traditionally relied on costly and obtrusive fixed treatment facilities. LLNL has designed and implemented various portable ground water treatment units to replace the fixed facilities; the application of each type of facility is determined by the amount of ground water flow and contaminant concentrations. These treatment units have allowed for aggressive ground water cleanup, increased cleanup flexibility, and reduced capital and electrical costs. After a treatment unit has completed ground water cleanup at one location, it can easily be moved to another location for additional ground water cleanup.

  18. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    DOEpatents

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.; Nyilas, C.P.; Denmeade, T.J.

    1997-08-19

    A transfer pump is described which is used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank. 17 figs.

  19. Characterization of a new class of surface micromachined pumps.

    SciTech Connect

    Galambos, Paul C.

    2004-12-01

    This is the latest in a series of LDRD's that we have been conducting with Florida State University/Florida A&M University (FSU/FAMU) under the campus executive program. This research builds on the earlier projects; ''Development of Highly Integrated Magnetically and Electrostatically Actuated Micropumps'' (SAND2003-4674) and ''Development of Magnetically and Electrostatically Driven Surface Micromachined Pumps'' (SAND2002-0704P). In this year's LDRD we designed 2nd generation of surface micromachined (SMM) gear and viscous pumps. Two SUMMiT{trademark} modules full of design variations of these pumps were fabricated and one SwIFT{trademark} module is still in fabrication. The SwIFT{trademark} fabrication process results in a transparent pump housing cover that will enable visualization inside the pumps. Since the SwIFT{trademark} pumps have not been tested as they are still in fabrication, this report will focus on the 2nd generation SUMMiT{trademark} designs. Pump testing (pressure vs. flow) was conducted on several of the SUMMiT{trademark} designs resulting in the first pump curve for this class of SMM pumps. A pump curve was generated for the higher torque 2nd generation gear pump designed by Jason Hendrix of FSU. The pump maximum flow rate at zero head was 6.5 nl/s for a 30V, 30 Hz square wave signal. This level of flow rate would be more than adequate for our typical SMM SUMMiT{trademark} or SwIFT{trademark} channels which have typical volumes on the order of 50 pl.

  20. Groundwater pumping by heterogeneous users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saak, Alexander E.; Peterson, Jeffrey M.

    2012-08-01

    Farm size is a significant determinant of both groundwater-irrigated farm acreage and groundwater-irrigation-application rates per unit land area. This paper analyzes the patterns of groundwater exploitation when resource users in the area overlying a common aquifer are heterogeneous. In the presence of user heterogeneity, the common resource problem consists of inefficient dynamic and spatial allocation of groundwater because it impacts income distribution not only across periods but also across farmers. Under competitive allocation, smaller farmers pump groundwater faster if farmers have a constant marginal periodic utility of income. However, it is possible that larger farmers pump faster if the Arrow-Pratt coefficient of relative risk-aversion is sufficiently decreasing in income. A greater farm-size inequality may either moderate or amplify income inequality among farmers. Its effect on welfare depends on the curvature properties of the agricultural output function and the farmer utility of income. Also, it is shown that a flat-rate quota policy that limits the quantity of groundwater extraction per unit land area may have unintended consequences for the income distribution among farmers.

  1. 241-SY-101 mixer pump lifetime expectancy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, C.P.

    1995-12-08

    The purpose of WHC-SD-WM-TI-726, Rev. 0 241-SY-101 Mixer Pump Lifetime Expectancy is to determine a best estimate of the mean lifetime of non-repairable (located in the waste) essential features of the hydrogen mitigation mixer pump presently installed in 101-SY. The estimated mean lifetime is 9.1 years. This report does not demonstrate operation of the entire pump assembly within the Tank Farm ``safety envelope``. It was recognized by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) this test pump was not specifically designed for long term service in tank 101-SY. In June 95 the DNFSB visited Hanford and ask the question, ``how long will this test pump last and how will the essential features fail?`` During the 2 day meeting with the DNFSB it was discussed and defined within the meeting just exactly what essential features of the pump must operate. These essential features would allow the pump to operate for the purpose of extending the window for replacement. Operating with only essential features would definitely be outside the operating safety envelope and would require a waiver. There are three essential features: 1. The pump itself (i.e. the impeller and motor) must operate 2. Nozzles and discharges leg must remain unplugged 3. The pump can be re-aimed, new waste targeted, even if manually.

  2. 20. Station Unwatering Pumps and Sump Pump, view to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Station Unwatering Pumps and Sump Pump, view to the north. The station unwatering pumps are the two large units in the center and right foreground of photograph and are marked with the numbers 1 and 2. The sump pump is the smaller unit in left foreground of photograph. These pumps are used for unwatering the draft chests for maintenance. Note the draft tube unwatering valve visible in background between the two unwatering pumps. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  3. Pumping of helium and hydrogen by sputter-ion pumps. II. Hydrogen pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, K.M.; Pate, D.J.; Todd, R.J. )

    1994-05-01

    The pumping of helium by various forms of sputter-ion pumps (i.e., SIPs) is given in part I [K. M. Welch, D. J. Pate, and R. J. Todd, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A [bold 11], 1607 (1993)]. The pumping of hydrogen in diode and triode SIPs is herein discussed. The type of cathode material used in these pumps is shown to have a significant impact on the effectiveness with which hydrogen is pumped. Examples of this include data for pumps with aluminum, titanium, and titanium-alloy cathodes. Diode pumps with aluminum cathodes are shown to be no more effective in the pumping of hydrogen than in the pumping of helium. The use of titanium anodes and titanium [ital shielding] of a pump body is also shown to impact measurably the speed of a pump at very low pressures. This stems from the fact that hydrogen is [times]10[sup 6] more soluble in titanium than in stainless steel. Hydrogen becomes resident in the anodes because of fast neutral burial. Ions and fast neutrals of hydrogen are also buried in the walls of pump bodies. Outgassing of this hydrogen from the anodes and pump bodies results in a gradual increase in pump base pressure and consequential decrease in hydrogen pump speed at very low base pressures.

  4. Research on energy conversion mechanism of rotodynamic pump and design of non-overload centrifugal pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. L.; Hu, S. B.; Shen, Z. Z.; Wu, S. P.; Li, K.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made for the calculation of an expression for the intrinsic law of input power which has not yet been given by current theory of Rotodynamic pump. By adequate recognition of the characteristics of non-inertial system within the rotating impeller, it is concluded that the input power consists of two power components, the first power component, whose magnitude increases with the increase of the flow rate, corresponds to radial velocity component, and the second power component, whose magnitude decreases with the increase of the flow rate, corresponds to tangential velocity component, therefore, the law of rise, basic levelness and drop of input power curves of centrifugal pump, mixed-flow pump and axial-flow pump can be explained reasonably. Through further analysis, the main ways for realizing non-overload of centrifugal pump are obtained, and its equivalent design factor is found out, the factor correlates with the outlet angle of leading face and back face of the blade, wrap angle, number of blades, outlet width, area ratio, and the ratio of operating flow rate to specified flow rate and so on. These are verified with actual example.

  5. The pumping lid: investigating multi-material 3D printing for equipment-free, programmable generation of positive and negative pressures for microfluidic applications.

    PubMed

    Begolo, Stefano; Zhukov, Dmitriy V; Selck, David A; Li, Liang; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2014-12-21

    Equipment-free pumping is a challenging problem and an active area of research in microfluidics, with applications for both laboratory and limited-resource settings. This paper describes the pumping lid method, a strategy to achieve equipment-free pumping by controlled generation of pressure. Pressure was generated using portable, lightweight, and disposable parts that can be integrated with existing microfluidic devices to simplify workflow and eliminate the need for pumping equipment. The development of this method was enabled by multi-material 3D printing, which allows fast prototyping, including composite parts that combine materials with different mechanical properties (e.g. both rigid and elastic materials in the same part). The first type of pumping lid we describe was used to produce predictable positive or negative pressures via controlled compression or expansion of gases. A model was developed to describe the pressures and flow rates generated with this approach and it was validated experimentally. Pressures were pre-programmed by the geometry of the parts and could be tuned further even while the experiment was in progress. Using multiple lids or a composite lid with different inlets enabled several solutions to be pumped independently in a single device. The second type of pumping lid, which relied on vapor-liquid equilibrium to generate pressure, was designed, modeled, and experimentally characterized. The pumping lid method was validated by controlling flow in different types of microfluidic applications, including the production of droplets, control of laminar flow profiles, and loading of SlipChip devices. We believe that applying the pumping lid methodology to existing microfluidic devices will enhance their use as portable diagnostic tools in limited resource settings as well as accelerate adoption of microfluidics in laboratories. PMID:25231706

  6. Heber geothermal binary demonstration project: Unavailability distributions for principal pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Mulvihill, Robert J.; Cleveland, Edward B.

    1982-04-01

    The purpose of this study has been to review data sources relevant to the failure rate and mean time to repair for the principal pumps of the Heber geothermal project. Based upon that review the distributions of failure rates, repair times and pump unavailability were established. A total of 16 pumps are represented in this study. The method used to develop data distributions has been to first review as many sources of pump data as are currently available. This review was followed by a study of the features of the pumps specified for the Heber installation and the effects of operation and the environment on those features as they relate to anticipated failure rates and repair times. From this, determinations were made for mean failure rate and repair time values appropriate to specific Heber pumps. Range factors are then selected and used to establish the expected variability of the data. Failure rates and repair times were then combined to obtain the unavailability distribution of each type of pump.

  7. Modelling contaminant transport for pumping wells in riverbank filtration systems.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Shaymaa; Bahar, Arifah; Aziz, Zainal Abdul; Suratman, Saim

    2016-01-01

    Analytical study of the influence of both the pumping well discharge rate and pumping time on contaminant transport and attenuation is significant for hydrological and environmental science applications. This article provides an analytical solution for investigating the influence of both pumping time and travelling time together for one-dimensional contaminant transport in riverbank filtration systems by using the Green's function approach. The basic aim of the model is to understand how the pumping time and pumping rate, which control the travelling time, can affect the contaminant concentration in riverbank filtration systems. Results of analytical solutions are compared with the results obtained using a MODFLOW numerical model. Graphically, it is found that both analytical and numerical solutions have almost the same behaviour. Additionally, the graphs indicate that any increase in the pumping rate or simulation pumping time should increase the contamination in groundwater. The results from the proposed analytical model are well matched with the data collected from a riverbank filtration site in France. After this validation, the model is then applied to the first pilot project of a riverbank filtration system conducted in Malaysia. Sensitivity analysis results highlight the importance of degradation rates of contaminants on groundwater quality, for which higher utilization rates lead to the faster consumption of pollutants.

  8. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Hishinuma, O.; Masuda, A.; Ohmori, T.; Miyaki, M.; Takemoto, E.

    1987-06-09

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine comprising: a housing having a cylindrical inner surface; a shaft having a portion disposed in rotatably sliding engagement with the cylindrical inner surface and having a first axial bore and a second radial bore therein; at least one pumping plunger slidably disposed in the second radial bore to cooperate therewith to define a compression chamber; a pumping plunger is adapted to be moved in the second radial bore to vary the volume of the compression chamber; an injection plunger slidably disposed in the first axial, bore to cooperate in defining the first and second pressure chambers separated from each other by the injection plunger.

  9. Fluid pumping apparatus

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2006-01-17

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  10. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation spanning 1.8 octaves using step-index indium fluoride fiber pumped by a femtosecond fiber laser near 2 µm.

    PubMed

    Salem, Reza; Jiang, Zack; Liu, Dongfeng; Pafchek, Robert; Gardner, David; Foy, Paul; Saad, Mohammed; Jenkins, Doug; Cable, Alex; Fendel, Peter

    2015-11-30

    A nearly two-octave wide coherent mid-infrared supercontinuum is demonstrated in a dispersion-engineered step-index indium fluoride fiber pumped near 2 µm. The pump source is an all-fiber femtosecond laser with 100 fs pulse width, 570 mW average power and 50 MHz repetition rate. The supercontinuum spectrum spans from 1.25 µm to 4.6 µm. Numerical modelling of the supercontinuum spectra show good agreement with the measurements. The coherence of the supercontinuum is calculated using a numerical model and shows a high degree of coherence across the generated bandwidth allowing it to be used for frequency comb applications. PMID:26698692

  11. New system analyzes pumping well performance

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, J.N. ); Podio, A.L. )

    1990-11-01

    A SYSTEM has been developed that allows real-time analysis and visualization of the performance of the pumping well, including the pumping unit (beam or submersible), wellbore and reservoir. At a time when maximum efficiency is a prerequisite to profitable operations, this system has the potential to improve drastically the manner in which pumping wells are managed and operated. Micro computers have already had a major impact on petroleum engineering. And today one is unlikely to see an engineer's desk without some sort of PC or terminal to a local network, even in remote district offices. The development of extremely powerful and portable lap-top computers is causing the PC revolution to move to the field in the form of an intelligent data acquisition and diagnostic system. This one system combines all necessary elements to obtain data for annular liquid level surveys, dynamometer analysis, pressure transient analysis and other measurements required to analyze pumping well performance properly. Moreover, the system includes a database management component that allows maintaining and retrieving accurate records from past analyses.

  12. A microfluidic two-pump system inspired by liquid feeding in mosquitoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Andrew; Goad, Angela; Stremler, Mark; Socha, John; Jung, Sunghwan

    Mosquitoes feed on nectar and blood using a two-pump system in the head-a smaller cibarial pump in line with a larger a pharyngeal pump, with a valve in between. To suck, mosquitoes transport the liquid (which may be a multi-component viscous fluid, blood) through a long micro-channel, the proboscis. In the engineering realm, microfluidic devices in biomedical applications, such as lab-on-a-chip technology, necessitate implementing a robust pump design to handle clogging and increase flow control compared to a single-pump system. In this talk, we introduce a microfluidic pump design inspired by the mosquito's two-pump system. The pumping performance (flow rate) in presence of impurities (air bubbles, soft clogs) is quantified as a function of phase difference and volume expansion of the pumps, and the elasticity of the valve.

  13. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon; Kim, Khong Hon; Stock, Larry V.

    1988-01-01

    A XeCl laser pumped iodine laser oscillator was developed which will be incorporated into the Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) system. The developed XeCl laser produces output energy of about 60 mJ per pulse. The pulse duration was about 10 nsec. The kinetic model for the solar-pumped laser was refined and the algorithm for the calculation of a set of rate equations was improved to increase the accuracy and the efficiency of the calculation. The improved algorithm was applied to explain the existing experimental data taken from a flashlamp pumped iodine laser for three kinds of lasants, i-C3F7I, n-C4F9I, and t-C4F9I. Various solid laser materials were evaluated for solar-pumping. The materials studied were Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF, and Cr:Nd:GSGG crystals. The slope efficiency of 0.17 percent was measured for the Nd:YLF near the threshold pump intensity which was 211 solar constants (29W/sq cm). The threshold pump intensity of the Nd:YAG was measured to be 236 solar constants (32W/sq cm) and the near-threshold slope efficiency was 0.12 percent. True CW laser operation of Cr:Nd:GSGG was possible only at pump intensities less than or equal to 1,500 solar constants (203 W/sq cm). This fact was attributed to the high thermal focusing effect of the Cr:Nd:GSGG rod.

  14. Air-Operated Sump Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolt, Gary D.

    1988-01-01

    Pump removes liquid seepage from small, restricted area and against large pressure head. Developed for moving small amounts of water and oil from sump pit 85 ft (25.91 m) deep. Fits in space only 6 1/2 in. (16.5 cm) in diameter and 18 in. (45.7 cm) long. In discharge part of pumping cycle, air forces liquid out of pump chamber through pipe. During filling part of pumping cycle, water enters pump chamber from sump pit. Float in chamber next to pump chamber controls pressurization through timer and solenoid valve.

  15. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium.

  16. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  17. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, P.A.

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  18. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, Palmer A.

    1984-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  19. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, Palmer A.

    1982-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  20. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam.

  1. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium. 2 figs.

  2. High pressure reciprocating pump

    SciTech Connect

    Besic, D.

    1990-05-01

    This patent describes an improvement in a reciprocating pump having a plunger and a pumping chamber. It comprises: the plunger having a bore communicating with an intersection opening and wherein the plunger incudes a central axis; a suction valve and a discharge valve, each having an axis of actuation parallel to a central axis of the plunger; the suction valve comprising a cylindrical core having a central passageway, and the core is slidably received by a seating member and resiliently biased to the seating member.

  3. Measuring axial pump thrust

    DOEpatents

    Suchoza, B.P.; Becse, I.

    1988-11-08

    An apparatus for measuring the hydraulic axial thrust of a pump under operation conditions is disclosed. The axial thrust is determined by forcing the rotating impeller off of an associated thrust bearing by use of an elongate rod extending coaxially with the pump shaft. The elongate rod contacts an impeller retainer bolt where a bearing is provided. Suitable measuring devices measure when the rod moves to force the impeller off of the associated thrust bearing and the axial force exerted on the rod at that time. The elongate rod is preferably provided in a housing with a heat dissipation mechanism whereby the hot fluid does not affect the measuring devices. 1 fig.

  4. Reactor coolant pump flywheel

    SciTech Connect

    Finegan, John Raymond; Kreke, Francis Joseph; Casamassa, John Joseph

    2013-11-26

    A flywheel for a pump, and in particular a flywheel having a number of high density segments for use in a nuclear reactor coolant pump. The flywheel includes an inner member and an outer member. A number of high density segments are provided between the inner and outer members. The high density segments may be formed from a tungsten based alloy. A preselected gap is provided between each of the number of high density segments. The gap accommodates thermal expansion of each of the number of segments and resists the hoop stress effect/keystoning of the segments.

  5. Measuring axial pump thrust

    DOEpatents

    Suchoza, Bernard P.; Becse, Imre

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the hydraulic axial thrust of a pump under operation conditions is disclosed. The axial thrust is determined by forcing the rotating impeller off of an associated thrust bearing by use of an elongate rod extending coaxially with the pump shaft. The elongate rod contacts an impeller retainer bolt where a bearing is provided. Suitable measuring devices measure when the rod moves to force the impeller off of the associated thrust bearing and the axial force exerted on the rod at that time. The elongate rod is preferably provided in a housing with a heat dissipation mechanism whereby the hot fluid does not affect the measuring devices.

  6. The spiral groove bearing as a mechanism for enhancing the secondary flow in a centrifugal rotary blood pump.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Felipe; Gross-Hardt, Sascha; Timms, Daniel; Egger, Christina; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    The rapid evolution of rotary blood pump (RBP) technology in the last few decades was shaped by devices with increased durability, frequently employing magnetic or hydrodynamic suspension techniques. However, the potential for low flow in small gaps between the rotor and pump casing is still a problem for hemocompatibility. In this study, a spiral groove hydrodynamic bearing (SGB) is applied with two distinct objectives: first, as a mechanism to enhance the washout in the secondary flow path of a centrifugal RBP, lowering the exposure to high shear stresses and avoiding thrombus formation; and second, as a way to allow smaller gaps without compromising the washout, enhancing the overall pump efficiency. Computational fluid dynamics was applied and verified via bench-top experiments. An optimization of selected geometric parameters (groove angle, width and depth) focusing on the washout in the gap rather than generating suspension force was conducted. An optimized SGB geometry reduced the residence time of the cells in the gap from 31 to 27 ms, an improvement of 14% compared with the baseline geometry of 200 μm without grooves. When optimizing for pump performance, a 15% smaller gap yielded a slightly better rate of fluid exchange compared with the baseline, followed by a 22% reduction in the volumetric loss from the primary pathway. Finally, an improved washout can be achieved in a pulsatile environment due to the SGB ability to pump inwardly, even in the absence of a pressure head.

  7. 12. Sewage Ejector Pumps, view to the southwest. These pumps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Sewage Ejector Pumps, view to the southwest. These pumps are connected to sewage treatment tanks. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  8. An investigational study of minimum rotational pump speed to avoid retrograde flow in three centrifugal blood pumps in a pediatric extracorporeal life support model.

    PubMed

    Clark, Joseph B; Guan, Yulong; McCoach, Robert; Kunselman, Allen R; Myers, John L; Undar, Akif

    2011-05-01

    During extracorporeal life support with centrifugal blood pumps, retrograde pump flow may occur when the pump revolutions decrease below a critical value determined by the circuit resistance and the characteristics of the pump. We created a laboratory model to evaluate the occurrence of retrograde flow in each of three centrifugal blood pumps: the Rotaflow, the CentriMag, and the Bio-Medicus BP-50. At simulated patient pressures of 60, 80, and 100 mmHg, each pump was evaluated at speeds from 1000 to 2200 rpm and flow rates were measured. Retrograde flow occurred at low revolution speeds in all three centrifugal pumps. The Bio-Medicus pump was the least likely to demonstrate retrograde flow at low speeds, followed by the Rotaflow pump. The CentriMag pump showed the earliest transition to retrograde flow, as well as the highest degree of retrograde flow. At every pump speed evaluated, the Bio-Medicus pump delivered the highest antegrade flow and the CentriMag pump delivered the least.

  9. DNA detection by THz pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Chernev, A. L.; Bagraev, N. T.; Klyachkin, L. E.; Emelyanov, A. K.; Dubina, M. V.

    2015-07-15

    DNA semiconductor detection and sequencing is considered to be the most promising approach for future discoveries in genome and proteome research which is dramatically dependent on the challenges faced by semiconductor nanotechnologies. DNA pH-sensing with ion-sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) is well-known to be a successfully applied electronic platform for genetic research. However this method lacks fundamentally in chemical specificity. Here we develop the first ever silicon nanosandwich pump device, which provides both the excitation of DNA fragments’ self-resonant modes and the feedback for current-voltage measurements at room temperature. This device allows direct detection of singlestranded label-free oligonucleotides by measuring their THz frequency response in aqueous solution. These results provide a new insight into the nanobioelectronics for the future real-time technologies of direct gene observations.

  10. High efficiency pump for space helium transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenbein, Robert; Izenson, Michael G.; Swift, Walter L.; Sixsmith, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    A centrifugal pump was developed for the efficient and reliable transfer of liquid helium in space. The pump can be used to refill cryostats on orbiting satellites which use liquid helium for refrigeration at extremely low temperatures. The pump meets the head and flow requirements of on-orbit helium transfer: a flow rate of 800 L/hr at a head of 128 J/kg. The overall pump efficiency at the design point is 0.45. The design head and flow requirements are met with zero net positive suction head, which is the condition in an orbiting helium supply Dewar. The mass transfer efficiency calculated for a space transfer operation is 0.99. Steel ball bearings are used with gas fiber-reinforced teflon retainers to provide solid lubrication. These bearings have demonstrated the longest life in liquid helium endurance tests under simulated pumping conditions. Technology developed in the project also has application for liquid helium circulation in terrestrial facilities and for transfer of cryogenic rocket propellants in space.

  11. An Experimental Evaluation of Oil Pumping Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eusepi, M. W.; Walowit, J.; Cohen, M.

    1981-01-01

    The design and construction of a reciprocating test vehicle to be used in evaluating hydrodynamic oil pumping rings are discussed. In addition, experimental test data are presented for three pumping ring designs that were constructed from Tin-Based Babbitt (SAE 11), Bearing Bronze (SAE 660), and Mechanical Carbon Graphite (Union Carbide Grade CNF-J). Data of pumped flow rate versus delivered pressure, as well as friction loss, are reported for the following conditions: frequencies of 10, 35 and 45 Hz; strokes of 25.4 mm (1.00 in.), 38.1 mm (1.50 in.) and 50.8 mm (2.00 in.) oil inlet temperature of 49 degrees (120 degrees); and pumping ring close-in pressures of 10.3 MPa (1500 lb/square inch. A 20W40 automotive oil was used for all tests. The maximum delivered pressure was 11 MPa (1600 lb/square inch. An analysis of hydrodynamic oil pumping rings was performed and the results of the analysis were compared to measured test data.

  12. Portable engine-pump assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, H.A.

    1987-02-17

    This patent describes a portable engine-pump assembly that is compact and light in weight comprising: an internal combustion engine mounted with its crankshaft extending vertically, a centrifugal pump having an impeller mounted for rotation on a pump shaft within a volute chamber, means mounting the pump on and immediately beneath the engine with the pump shaft extending vertically in accurate alignment and concentricity with the engine crankshaft, means coupling the engine crankshaft and the pump shaft together so that the engine crankshaft drives the pump shaft, the pump comprising a pump body defining the volute chamber and providing a pump inlet passage and a pump discharge passage oriented in generally horizontal directions, the pump body defining an inlet chamber providing passages for the flow of liquid from the pump inlet passage into the impeller from both above and below same and including an upper body portion and a lower body portion, and an exhaust system for the engine including an exhaust passage contained in the upper body portion, a muffler having an inlet, and means providing flow communication between the exhaust passage and the inlet of the muffler.

  13. 13. The River Pump House pump room, in this case ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. The River Pump House pump room, in this case in the 100-F Area in January 1945. In the 100 Area, the pumps supplied water to the 100 Area and to the export water system that ran to D and F reactors and the 200 areas. D-8248 - B Reactor, Richland, Benton County, WA

  14. Overview of Pump Room, showing pumps at right and power ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of Pump Room, showing pumps at right and power distribution cabinets for valve motors along north wall at left. View to east - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  15. PUMP SETS NO. 5 AND NO. 4. Each pump set ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PUMP SETS NO. 5 AND NO. 4. Each pump set consists of a Worthington Pump and a General Electric motor - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. 24. Pump Room interiordewatering pump motor on upper level. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Pump Room interior-dewatering pump motor on upper level. Note the removable roof hatch (steel frame) directly above motor. Dewatering pumps motor control center at left - Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 4, East terminus of Palou Avenue, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. 29. WORTHINGTON FIRE PUMP WITH TURBINE HIDDEN BEHIND. PUMP HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. WORTHINGTON FIRE PUMP WITH TURBINE HIDDEN BEHIND. PUMP HOUSE IS LOCATED AT HEAD OF OLD TRASH GATES. PUMP ENTERS WATER ON EXTERIOR OF WALL IN FAR SIDE OF PHOTO. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  18. 39. THREECYLINDER HYDRAULIC OIL PUMP (MANUFACTURED BY WORTHINGTON: PUMP AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. THREE-CYLINDER HYDRAULIC OIL PUMP (MANUFACTURED BY WORTHINGTON: PUMP AND MACHINERY COMPANY, HOLYOKE MASSACHUSETTS) IN MACHINERY CHAMBER FOR SLUICE GATE WORKS ON GALLERY 1. NOTE OIL TANK ABOVE PUMP MOTOR. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  19. Magnetic-flux pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Elleman, D. D.; Whitmore, F. C. (Inventor)

    1966-01-01

    A magnetic flux pump is described for increasing the intensity of a magnetic field by transferring flux from one location to the magnetic field. The device includes a pair of communicating cavities formed in a block of superconducting material, and a piston for displacing the trapped magnetic flux into the secondary cavity producing a field having an intense flux density.

  20. Pump Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Ingersoll-Rand Research, Inc.'s use of COSMIC's computer program MERIDL permits designers to evaluate performance and efficiency characteristics to be expected from the pump's impeller. It also provides information that enables a trained hydraulic engineer to make design improvements. Company was able to avoid the cost of developing new software and to improve some product design features.

  1. Well pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, E.D.

    1981-12-15

    A pumping apparatus that may be used with a well in which a sucker rod is connected with the well so as to remain in axial alignment with the same during shifting of the well and the sucker rod is supported clear of the well and the structure for operating the same.

  2. Hydraulic well pump

    SciTech Connect

    Dollison, W.W.

    1986-02-25

    This patent describes a system for operating a sucker rod string connected with a well pump. This pump consists of: a double-acting fluid cylinder having opposing power ends; means for connecting the cylinder with the sucker rod string for raising and lowering the string to operate the pump; means for supplying pressurized fluid alternately to the cylinder ends including a direction control movable between extend and retract conditions to extend and retract the cylinder; drive means for shifting the direction control; control means for operating the drive means responsive to the extend and retract movements of the cylinder; including limit valves positioned to simulate the hydraulic cylinder extend and retract stroke end locations, the limit valves being movably mounted for changing the location of each limit valve and the distance between the limit valves for selectively adjusting the length of the strokes of the hydraulic cylinder and the end limit of the extend and retract strokes of the cylinder. A cam operator is for opening and closing each of the limit valves at the end locations and means connecting the cam operator means with the hydraulic cylinder. Cable is reeved over the movable and fixed sheave means and secured along the second end thereof at a fixed location; and means for applying a fluid counterbalancing force into the cylinder for offsetting the combined weights of the sucker rods string, a production fluid column in a well core above the pump, and movable surface equipment supported on the cylinder.

  3. Heat pumps for industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-09-01

    Research activities, both in the laboratory and in the field, confirm that heat pumps can improve energy efficiency and productivity for a multitude of process types. By using heat pumps, process industries can save significant amounts of energy and money and successfully control emissions. Those industries with special needs, such as recovering solvents, can meet them more energy efficiently and cost effectively with heat pumps. Through the years, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) has helped industry solve its energy problems by joining in cooperative agreements with companies willing to do the research. The companies involved in these agreements share the costs of the research and benefit directly from the technology developed. OIT then has information from demonstration projects that it can pass on to others within industry. All the projects described in this brochure were joint ventures between DOE and industry participants. OIT will assist in accelerating the use of heat pumps in the industrial marketplace by continuing to work with industry on research and demonstration projects and to transfer research results and project performance information to the rest of industry. Successfully transferring this technology could conserve as much as 1.5 quads of energy annually at a savings of more than $4 billion at today's prices.

  4. Linear induction pump

    DOEpatents

    Meisner, John W.; Moore, Robert M.; Bienvenue, Louis L.

    1985-03-19

    Electromagnetic linear induction pump for liquid metal which includes a unitary pump duct. The duct comprises two substantially flat parallel spaced-apart wall members, one being located above the other and two parallel opposing side members interconnecting the wall members. Located within the duct are a plurality of web members interconnecting the wall members and extending parallel to the side members whereby the wall members, side members and web members define a plurality of fluid passageways, each of the fluid passageways having substantially the same cross-sectional flow area. Attached to an outer surface of each side member is an electrically conductive end bar for the passage of an induced current therethrough. A multi-phase, electrical stator is located adjacent each of the wall members. The duct, stators, and end bars are enclosed in a housing which is provided with an inlet and outlet in fluid communication with opposite ends of the fluid passageways in the pump duct. In accordance with a preferred embodiment, the inlet and outlet includes a transition means which provides for a transition from a round cross-sectional flow path to a substantially rectangular cross-sectional flow path defined by the pump duct.

  5. An Improved Archimedes Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akoglu, Resat

    2002-12-01

    In this note we propose a slightly improved version of the Archimedes pump which was advertised as a toy model in The Physics Teacher. It consists of a hose wound densely around a tube (or pipe made of metallic or plastic material) which can be rotated mechanically (a hand driven one is the most primitive case as shown in the Picture 1) or electrically.

  6. Explosively pumped laser light

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.; Michelotti, Roy A.

    1991-01-01

    A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

  7. Progressive cavity pump

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.W.

    1989-04-04

    A progressive cavity pump is described, comprising: a first housing portion defining an inlet; a second housing portion attachable to the first housing portion and defining an outlet; a substantially elastomeric stator comprising an outer portion removably attached to the first and second housing portions, having a first end and a second end spaced from the first end, an inner portion defining a pumping chamber and spaced an annular end portion interconnecting the first ends of the outer and inner portions; a rotor disposed in the inner portion of the stator and extending through the pumping chamber for pumping fluid from the inlet to the outlet in response to rotation of the rotor; and an elongated member disposed in the housing portions and generally annularly between the inner and outer portions of the stator and longitudinally between the annular end portion of the stator and a portion of the second housing portion, the member being removable from the housing portions and separable from the stator.

  8. Downhold hydraulic actuated pump

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, G.K.

    1987-05-12

    This patent describes a downhole pump of the type having a main housing within which there is formed an engine chamber and a production chamber. A piston is reciprocatingly received within the engine chamber, a plunger reciprocatingly received within the production chamber, a connecting rod by which the piston and plunger are connected together; the combination with the main housing, piston, plunger.

  9. Downhole hydraulic actuated pump

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, G.K.

    1988-09-06

    This patent describes a downhole hydraulically actuated pump assembly of the type having a main housing within which an engine and pump is enclosed; a connecting rod, an engine piston, a pump plunger, means by which the engine and connecting rod reciprocate the pump plunger and thereby produces fluid; the main housing has a lower end having a formation fluid inlet; and upper end having a power fluid inlet; and, a produced fluid outlet; the plunger divides one marginal end of the housing into upper and lower production chambers; the lower end of the connecting rod is hollow and extends through the plunger into fluid communication with the formation fluid inlet to provide a source of formation fluid for the upper and lower production chambers; a traveling value assembly contained within the plunger and arranged to transfer formation fluid from the hollow rod, through the plunger, and into the upper and lower production chambers, respectively, as the plunger upstrokes and downstrokes; produced fluid valve means by which fluid flows from the upper and lower production chambers and through the produced fluid outlet.

  10. Piezohydraulic Pump Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, Christopher S.

    2005-01-01

    Reciprocating piston piezohydraulic pumps were developed originally under the Smart Wing Phase II program (Lynch) and later under the CHAP program (CSA, Kinetic Ceramics). These pumps focused on 10 cm scale stack actuators operating below resonance and, more recently, at resonance. A survey of commercially available linear actuators indicates that obtaining power density and specific power greater than electromagnetic linear actuators requires driving the stacks at frequencies greater than 1 KHz at high fields. In the case of 10 cm scale actuators the power supply signal conditioning becomes large and heavy and the soft PZT stack actuators generate a lot of heat due to internal losses. Reciprocation frequencies can be increased and material losses significantly decreased through use of millimeter scale single crystal stack actuators. We are presently targeting the design of pumps that utilize stacks at the 1-10 mm length scale and run at reciprocating frequencies of 20kHz or greater. This offers significant advantages over current approaches including eliminating audible noise and significantly increasing the power density and specific power of the system (including electronics). The pump currently under development will comprise an LC resonant drive of a resonant crystal and head mass operating against a resonant fluid column. Each of these resonant systems are high Q and together should produce a single high Q second order system.

  11. Shrouded inducer pump

    DOEpatents

    Meng, Sen Y.

    1989-01-01

    An improvement in a pump including a shrouded inducer, the improvement comprising first and second sealing means 32,36 which cooperate with a first vortex cell 38 and a series of secondary vortex cells 40 to remove any tangential velocity components from the recirculation flow.

  12. RSES heat pump technician certification

    SciTech Connect

    Zeiner, J.

    1996-06-01

    In 1987 the National Heat Pump certification test was developed by the Refrigeration Service Engineers Society (RSES), and in 1994, the program was more specifically named Heat Pump Service Technician Certification. This report describes the benefits of certification.

  13. Irrigation pumping using geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The potential of using geothermal energy in an isobutane binary system to drive directly a cluster of irrigation pumps was evaluated. This three well geothermal system, based at 150{sup 0}C (302{sup 0}F) resource at 2000 m (6560 ft), would cost an estimated $7,800,000 in capital investment to provide 6000 gpm of irrigation water from 12 water wells. It would serve approximately 4.5 square miles of irrigated agricultural land, with the delivered water costing $106.76 per acre-foot. This compares with an estimated cost of $60.78 per acre-foot for a conventional irrigation system driven by natural gas at the current price (1980 dollars) of $2.72/mm Btu. It is obvious that if natural gas prices continue to rise, or if geothermal resources can be found at depths less than 2000 meters, then the geothermal irrigation pumping system would be attractive economically. The importance of water to the economy and growth of Arizona was summarized. Total water consumption in Arizona is about 7,600,000 acre-feet annually of which about 87% is used for agriculture. Total supply from the Colorado River and water runoff is only 2,600,000 acre-feet per year, resulting in a net potable groundwater depletion of about 4,000,000 acre-feet per year assuming a recharge rate of about 1,000,000 acre-feet per year.

  14. Ultrafast laser pump/x-ray probe experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, J.; Judd, E.; Schuck, P.J.

    1997-04-01

    In an ongoing project aimed at probing solids using x-rays obtained at the ALS synchrotron with a sub-picosecond time resolution following interactions with a 100 fs laser pulse, the authors have successfully performed pump-probe experiments limited by the temporal duration of ALS-pulse. They observe a drop in the diffraction efficiency following laser heating. They can attribute this to a disordering of the crystal. Studies with higher temporal resolution are required to determine the mechanism. The authors have also incorporated a low-jitter streakcamera as a diagnostic for observing time-dependant x-ray diffraction. The streakcamera triggered by a photoconductive switch was operated at kHz repetition rates. Using UV-pulses, the authors obtain a temporal response of 2 ps when averaging 5000 laser pulses. They demonstrate the ability to detect monochromatized x-ray radiation from a bend-magnet with the streak camera by measuring the pulse duration of a x-ray pulse to 70 ps. In conclusion, the authors show a rapid disordering of an InSb crystal. The resolution was determined by the duration of the ALS pulse. They also demonstrate that they can detect x-ray radiation from a synchrotron source with a temporal resolution of 2ps, by using an ultrafast x-ray streak camera. Their set-up will allow them to pursue laser pump/x-ray probe experiments to monitor structural changes in materials with ultrafast time resolution.

  15. Shoring pumping station excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, J.B.; Reardon, D.J. )

    1991-11-01

    The city of San Mateo, Calif., operates three 12- to 50-year old wastewater pumping stations on a 24-m (80-ft) wide lot located in a residential area near San Francisco Bay. Because the aging stations have difficulty pumping peak 2.19-m{sup 3}/s (50-mgd) wet-weather flows and have structural and maintenance problems, a new 2.62-m{sup 3}/s (60-mgd) station was proposed - the Dale Avenue Pumping Station - to replace the existing ones. To prevent potential damage to adjacent homes, the new station was originally conceived as a circular caisson type; however, a geotechnical investigation recommended against this type of structure because the stiff soils could make sinking the structure difficult. This prompted an investigation of possible shoring methods for the proposed structure. Several shoring systems were investigated, including steel sheeting, soldier beams and lagging, tieback systems, open excavation, and others; however, each had disadvantages that prevented its use. Because these conventional techniques were unacceptable, attention was turned to using deep soil mixing (DSM) to create a diaphragm wall around the area to be excavated before constructing the pumping station. Although this method has been used extensively in Japan since 1983, the Dale Avenue Pumping Station would be the technology's first US application. The technology's anticipated advantages were its impermeability, its fast and efficient installation that did not require tiebacks under existing homes, its adaptability to subsurface conditions ranging from soft ground to stiff clay to gravels, and its lack of pile-driving requirements that would cause high vibration levels during installation.

  16. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was <3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be rate to 0.5 x rmax may be a useful metric for ascertaining the applicability of specific requirements of the National Environmental Protection Act.

  17. Prediction of pump cavitation performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    A method for predicting pump cavitation performance with various liquids, liquid temperatures, and rotative speeds is presented. Use of the method requires that two sets of test data be available for the pump of interest. Good agreement between predicted and experimental results of cavitation performance was obtained for several pumps operated in liquids which exhibit a wide range of properties. Two cavitation parameters which qualitatively evaluate pump cavitation performance are also presented.

  18. Institutional Diversity in Collective Action: Investigating Successful Village Level Maintenance of Hand Pumps in Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joubert, Brian Anthony

    Providing clean water to rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa remains a challenge. Unsanitary and distant water sources cause a host of health and humanitarian problems. A common means of remedying this situation has been the donation of improved water sources, fitted with low-cost hand pumps. Due donor capacity and/ or policy most hand pumps are donated under the guise of Village Level Operation and Maintenance (VLOM). This premises the notion that recipient communities will take ownership of the new pump and as such will ensure its maintenance. To assist with this many donors carry out programs of technical repair training and the structuring of in-village leadership and management groups. The reality is that a high proportion of these pumps break down after donation and cease to work thereafter. Measures to redress technical elements of these failures through increased training or adequate distribution of spares has seen some success but failure rates remains high. This has led to a call for more attention to demand side issues, focusing on the communal aspects that may influence a village to act collectively in the maintenance of its hand pump. This thesis researched five Malawian villages where the community had maintained their hand pumps for a period of 10 or more years. These hand pumps were treated as shared resources and the literature on common-pool resources and social institutions was used as a theoretical framework. Applying these theories proved to be appropriate for analyzing the norms, conventions and forms of cooperative conduct. This allowed the research to gain insights into institutional diversity and the relationship between 'formal institutions', most often exogenous in nature, and informal' or customary collective action institutions embedded within the communities. Findings showed the emergence of three predominant themes within these successful case studies: 1) the role of leadership at varying levels and how it is embodied

  19. Front-discharge fluid end for reciprocating pump

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.K.; Wells, J.R.

    1991-12-17

    This paper describes a pump fluid end for a plunger pump used for pumping two-phase slurries, the pump fluid end. It comprises: housing means for forming a cylinder having a plunger bore therein and defining an outlet valve pocket at an end of the cylinder and also defining an inlet valve pocket, the housing means further defining an original outlet valve pocket transverse to the plunger bore; plunger means for reciprocating within the cylinder; inlet valve means disposed in the inlet valve pocket for allowing a portion of the slurry to enter the cylinder; outlet valve means disposed in the first mentioned outlet valve pocket and generally facing an end of the plunger means for allowing the portion of the slurry to be discharged from the cylinder in response to movement of the plunger means; and plug means for closing the original outlet valve pocket.

  20. 5. Station Unwatering Pumps and Sump Pump for Units 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Station Unwatering Pumps and Sump Pump for Units 1 and 2, view to the west. The unwatering pumps are the two larger items toward the right side of the photograph (one in foreground and one in background. The smaller item toward the left of the photograph is the sump pump. These pumps are used for draining water from the draft chest for maintenance. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  1. Guide to Geothermal Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-01

    Geothermal heat pumps, also known as ground source heat pumps, geoexchange, water-source, earth-coupled, and earth energy heat pumps, take advantage of this resource and represent one of the most efficient and durable options on the market to heat and cool your home.

  2. Increasing pumping efficiency in a micro throttle pump by enhancing displacement amplification in an elastomeric substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, T.; Johnston, I. D.; Tracey, M. C.; Tan, C. K. L.

    2010-06-01

    Fluid transport is accomplished in a micro throttle pump (MTP) by alternating deformation of a micro channel cast into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomeric substrate. The active deformation is achieved using a bimorph PZT piezoelectric disc actuator bonded to a glass diaphragm. The bimorph PZT deflects the diaphragm as well as alternately pushing and pulling the elastomer layer providing displacement amplification in the PDMS directly surrounding the micro channel. In order to improve pumping rates we have embedded a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) ring into the PMDS substrate which increases the magnitude of the displacement amplification achieved. FEM simulation of the elastomeric substrate deformation predicts that the inclusion of the PMMA ring should increase the channel deformation. We experimentally demonstrate that inclusion of a PMMA ring, having a diameter equal to that of the circular node of the PZT/glass/PDMS composite, increases in the throttle resistance ratio by 40% and the maximum pumping rate by 90% compared to an MTP with no ring.

  3. Rotating magnetic poles used to pump mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebihara, B. T.; Lowdermilk, W. H.; Vary, A.

    1966-01-01

    Rotating magnetic pump with redesigned pump cell is used for pumping mercury. The modified pump has better electrical continuity, more efficient heat removal, and good wetting characteristics in the mercury flow channel.

  4. Advanced high-temperature electromagnetic pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahan, J. W.; Powell, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Three phase helical, electromagnetic induction pump for use as boiler feed pump in potassium Rankine-cycle power system is described. Techniques for fabricating components of pump are discussed. Specifications of pump are analyzed.

  5. Control of Brillouin short-pulse seed amplification by chirping the pump pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, G.; Spatschek, K. H.

    2015-04-15

    Seed amplification via Brillouin backscattering of a long pump pulse is considered. Similar to Raman amplification, several obstructive effects may occur during short-pulse Brillouin amplification. One is the spontaneous Raman backscattering of the pump before interacting with the seed. Preforming the plasma and/or chirping the pump will reduce unwanted pump backscattering. Optimized regions for low-loss pump propagation were proposed already in conjunction with Raman seed amplification. Hence, the influence of the chirp of the pump during Brillouin interaction with the seed becomes important and will be considered here. Both, the linear as well as the nonlinear evolution phases of the seed caused by Brillouin amplification under the action of a chirped pump are investigated. The amplification rate as well as the seed profiles are presented as function of the chirping rate. Also the dependence of superradiant scaling rates on the chirp parameter is discussed.

  6. Deep sucker rod pumping for gas well unloading

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, L.J.

    1984-09-01

    Exxon Company, U.S.A.'s Pyote Gas Unit 14-1 in the Block 16 (Ellenburger) field became the world's deepest rod pumped well on October 7, 1983. The rod pump was installed at 16,850 ft. in an attempt to extend the productive life of the well. The artificial lift system was designed to lift wellbore fluid that was restricting the flow of gas, thus allowing the gas to be produced up the tubing-casing annulus. Implementation of the project was possible because of the recent improvements in predictive techniques, materials available for rod pumping, and industry's experience in artificial lift.

  7. Pump energy and flow balance analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, G.F.

    1982-10-01

    The purpose is to illustrate simple circuit flow analysis techniques that will enable design engineers to identify and provide protection against short circuiting (flow unbalance) for new design. Removal of short circuit fears should help reduce the tendency to oversize HVAC pumps. Presented analysis techniques will establish methods for flow balance in existing buildings and will permit a considerable reduction in pump power requirements. Explains the relationship between pump power draw and operating cost. Shows how, for any given total system flow rate, the actual flow rate entering each riser and, consequently, each terminal unit can be determined. Generalizes that if the driving differential head across the subcircuit remains constant, then if the subcircuit head loss (exclusive of the valve) at design flow is very low, flow change in the subcircuit caused by a change in balance valve setting will be of high order and will follow balance valve characteristics; and if the subcircuit head loss is high, adjustment of the balance valve will only cause a minor order flow change. These simplified techniques should provide protection against flow unbalance and oversizing of HVAC pumps.

  8. BASG thermomechanical pump helium 2 transfer tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, G. L.; Newell, D. A.; Urbach, A. R.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the effort described was to perform experiments and calculations related to using a thermomechanical pump in the space-based resupply of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) with Helium 2. Thermomechanical (fountain effect) pumps have long been suggested as a means for pumping large quantities of Helium 2. The unique properties of Helium 2 have made it useful for cooling space instruments. Several space science missions, including SIRTF, are now being planned which would benefit greatly from on-orbit resupply of Helium 2. A series of experiments were performed to demonstrate that large volumes of Helium 2 can be transferred with a thermomechanical pump at high flow rates and at high efficiency from one dewar to another through valves and lines that are similar to the plumbing arrangement that would be necessary to accomplish such a transfer on-orbit. In addition, temperature, pressure, and flow rate data taken during the tests were used to verify and refine a computer model which was developed.

  9. Polarization of fast particle beams by collisional pumping

    DOEpatents

    Stearns, J.W.; Kaplan, S.N.; Pyle, R.V.; Anderson, L.W.; Schlachter, A.S.; Ruby, L.

    1984-10-19

    The invention relates to method and apparatus for polarizing a fast beam of particles by collisional pumping, including generating a fast beam of particles, and generating a thick electron-spin-polarized medium positioned as a target for said beam, said medium being sufficiently thick to allow said beam to interact with said medium to produce collisional pumping whereby said particle beam becomes highly polarized.

  10. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, Jon

    2012-03-02

    This presentation describes a new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps, which allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted “behind-the-scenes” without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  11. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01

    A new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted 'behind-the-scenes' without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  12. Microsecond fiber laser pumped, single-frequency optical parametric oscillator for trace gas detection.

    PubMed

    Barria, Jessica Barrientos; Roux, Sophie; Dherbecourt, Jean-Baptiste; Raybaut, Myriam; Melkonian, Jean-Michel; Godard, Antoine; Lefebvre, Michel

    2013-07-01

    We report on the first microsecond doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO). It is based on a nested cavity OPO architecture allowing single longitudinal mode operation and low oscillation threshold (few microjoule). The combination with a master oscillator-power amplifier fiber pump laser provides a versatile optical source widely tunable in the 3.3-3.5 μm range with an adjustable pulse repetition rate (from 40 to 100 kHz), high duty cycle (~10(-2)) and mean power (up to 25 mW in the idler beam). The potential for trace gas sensing applications is demonstrated through photoacoustic detection of atmospheric methane. PMID:23811865

  13. Evaluation of HL-20 roller pump and Rotaflow centrifugal pump on perfusion quality and gaseous microemboli delivery.

    PubMed

    Yee, Stella; Qiu, Feng; Su, Xiaowei; Rider, Alan; Kunselman, Allen R; Guan, Yulong; Undar, Akif

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the HL-20 roller pump (Jostra USA, Austin, TX, USA) and Rotaflow centrifugal pump (Jostra USA) on hemodynamic energy production and gaseous microemboli (GME) delivery in a simulated neonatal cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit under nonpulsatile perfusion. This study employed a simulated model of the pediatric CPB including a Jostra HL-20 heart-lung machine (or a Rotaflow centrifugal pump), a Capiox BabyRX05 oxygenator (Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), a Capiox pediatric arterial filter (Terumo Corporation), and ¼-inch tubing. The total volume of the experimental system was 700mL (500mL for the circuit and 200mL for the pseudo neonatal patient). The hematocrit was maintained at 30% using human blood. At the beginning of each trial, a 5mL bolus of air was injected into the venous line. Both GME data and pressure values were recorded at postpump and postoxygenator sites. All the experiments were conducted under nonpulsatile perfusion at three flow rates (500, 750, and 1000mL/min) and three blood temperatures (35, 30, and 25°C). As n=6 for each setup, a total of 108 trials were done. The total number of GME increased as temperature decreased from 35°C to 25°C in the trials using the HL-20 roller pump while the opposite effect occurred when using the Rotaflow centrifugal pump. At a given temperature, total GME counts increased with increasing flow rates for both pumps. Results indicated the Rotaflow centrifugal pump delivered significantly fewer microemboli compared to the HL-20 roller pump, especially under high flow rates. Less than 10% of total microemboli were larger than 40µm in size and the majority of GME were in the 0-20µm class in all trials. Postpump total hemodynamic energy (THE) increased with increasing flow rates and decreasing temperatures in both circuits using these two pumps. The HL-20 roller pump delivered more THE than the Rotaflow centrifugal pump at all tested flow rates and temperature conditions

  14. Effects of high source flow and high pumping speed on gas source molecular beam epitaxy / chemical beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollum, M. J.; Jackson, S. L.; Szafranek, I.; Stillman, G. E.

    1990-10-01

    We report the growth of GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), gas source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE), and chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) in an epitaxial III-V reactor which features high pumping speed. The system is comprised of a modified Perkin-Elmer 430P molecular beam epitaxy system and a custom gas source panel from Emcore. The growth chamber is pumped with a 7000 1/s (He) diffusion pump (Varian VHS-10 with Monsanto Santovac 5 oil). The gas source panel includes pressure based flow controllers (MKS 1150) allowing triethylaluminum (TEA), triethylgallium (TEG), and trimethylindium (TMI) to be supplied without the use of hydrogen. All source lines, including arsine and phosphine, are maintained below atmospheric pressure. The high pumping speed allows total system flow rates as high as 100 SCCM and V/III ratios as high as 100. The purity of GaAs grown by MBE in this system increases with pumping speed. GaAs layers grown by GSMBE with arsine flows of 10 and 20 SCCM have electron concentrations of 1 × 10 15 cm -3 (μ 77=48,000 cm 2/V·) and 2 × 10 14 cm -3 (μ 77=78,000 cm 2/V·s) respectively. El ectron concentration varies with hydride injector temperature such that the minimum in electron concentration occurs for less than complete cracking. The effect of V/III ratio and the use of a metal eutectic bubbler on residual carrier concentration in GaAs grown by CBE is presented. Intentional Si and Be doping of CBE grown GaAs is demonstrated at a high growth rate of 5.4 μm/h.

  15. 32 CFR 584.7 - Basic allowance for quarters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Basic allowance for quarters. 584.7 Section 584..., CHILD CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.7 Basic allowance for quarters. (a) Eligibility. (1) Soldiers entitled to basic pay, who have family members, are entitled to BAQ at the rates prescribed for...

  16. 32 CFR 584.7 - Basic allowance for quarters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Basic allowance for quarters. 584.7 Section 584.7... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.7 Basic allowance for quarters. (a) Eligibility. (1) Soldiers entitled to basic pay, who have family members, are entitled to BAQ at the rates prescribed for soldiers...

  17. 38 CFR 21.9670 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Payments-Educational Assistance § 21.9670 Work... rate of pursuit of at least 75 percent may receive a work-study allowance in accordance with...

  18. 38 CFR 21.9670 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Payments-Educational Assistance § 21.9670 Work... rate of pursuit of at least 75 percent may receive a work-study allowance in accordance with...

  19. 38 CFR 21.9670 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Payments-Educational Assistance § 21.9670 Work... rate of pursuit of at least 75 percent may receive a work-study allowance in accordance with...

  20. Federal Aid to Postsecondary Students: Tax Allowances and Alternative Subsidies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Congressional Budget Office.

    Various aspects of tax allowances for the expenses of higher education, and alternative subsidies are analyzed. A tax allowance for education is presented as one way to give more financial relief to middle-income families. The current distribution of student aid among income groups is discussed and data on college enrollment rates, family incomes,…

  1. Bearing for liquid metal pump

    DOEpatents

    Dickinson, Robert J.; Wasko, John; Pennell, William E.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid metal pump bearing support comprises a series of tangentially oriented spokes that connect the bearing cylinder to the pump internals structure. The spokes may be arranged in a plurality of planes extending from the bearing cylinder to the pump internals with the spokes in one plane being arranged alternately with those in the next plane. The bearing support structure provides the pump with sufficient lateral support for the bearing structure together with the capability of accommodating differential thermal expansion without adversely affecting pump performance.

  2. 21 CFR 880.5725 - Infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Infusion pump. 880.5725 Section 880.5725 Food and... Infusion pump. (a) Identification. An infusion pump is a device used in a health care facility to pump fluids into a patient in a controlled manner. The device may use a piston pump, a roller pump, or...

  3. 21 CFR 880.5725 - Infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Infusion pump. 880.5725 Section 880.5725 Food and... Infusion pump. (a) Identification. An infusion pump is a device used in a health care facility to pump fluids into a patient in a controlled manner. The device may use a piston pump, a roller pump, or...

  4. 21 CFR 880.5725 - Infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Infusion pump. 880.5725 Section 880.5725 Food and... Infusion pump. (a) Identification. An infusion pump is a device used in a health care facility to pump fluids into a patient in a controlled manner. The device may use a piston pump, a roller pump, or...

  5. [The design of bionic left ventricular auxiliary pump].

    PubMed

    Jin, Henglin; Hu, Xiaobing; Du, Lei

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a novel design of bionic left ventricular auxiliary pump, and the characteristic is that elastic diaphragm of pump driven by hydraulic, having smooth, reliable blood supply, can prevent blood clots, can use the flow sensor, pressure sensor detection showing the blood pressure and blood volume at the inlet and outlet of the pump. The pump can go with heart rate synchronization or asynchronous auxiliary by the R wave of human body's ECG. The design goal is realization of bionic throb. Through the animal experiment, the blood pressure waveforms are close to expectations, stable flow can stroke according to the set value, which prove that the pump can meet the requirement for heart disease patients for bionic left ventricular assistant.

  6. Magnetic pumping of the solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egedal, Jan; Lichko, Emily; Daughton, William

    2015-11-01

    The transport of matter and radiation in the solar wind and terrestrial magnetosphere is a complicated problem involving competing processes of charged particles interacting with electric and magnetic fields. Given the rapid expansion of the solar wind, it would be expected that superthermal electrons originating in the corona would cool rapidly as a function of distance to the Sun. However, this is not observed, and various models have been proposed as candidates for heating the solar wind. In the compressional pumping mechanism explored by Fisk and Gloeckler particles are accelerated by random compressions by the interplanetary wave turbulence. This theory explores diffusion due to spatial non-uniformities and provides a mechanism for redistributing particle. For investigation of a related but different heating mechanism, magnetic pumping, in our work we include diffusion of anisotropic features that develops in velocity space. The mechanism allows energy to be transferred to the particles directly from the turbulence. Guided by kinetic simulations a theory is derived for magnetic pumping. At the heart of this work is a generalization of the Parker Equation to capture the role of the pressure anisotropy during the pumping process. Supported by NASA grant NNX15AJ73G.

  7. Water cooling system using a piezoelectrically actuated flow pump for a medical headlight system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Rogério F.; Vatanabe, Sandro L.; de Oliveira, Amaury R.; Nakasone, Paulo H.; Silva, Emílio C.

    2007-04-01

    The microchips inside modern electronic equipment generate heat and demand, each day, the use of more advanced cooling techniques as water cooling systems, for instance. These systems combined with piezoelectric flow pumps present some advantages such as higher thermal capacity, lower noise generation and miniaturization potential. The present work aims at the development of a water cooling system based on a piezoelectric flow pump for a head light system based on LEDs. The cooling system development consists in design, manufacturing and experimental characterization steps. In the design step, computational models of the pump, as well as the heat exchanger were built to perform sensitivity studies using ANSYS finite element software. This allowed us to achieve desired flow and heat exchange rates by varying the frequency and amplitude of the applied voltage. Other activities included the design of the heat exchanger and the dissipation module. The experimental tests of the cooling system consisted in measuring the temperature difference between the heat exchanger inlet and outlet to evaluate its thermal cooling capacity for different values of the flow rate. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results were also made.

  8. Temporal and spatial evolution of nuclear polarization in optically pumped InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. B.; Klug, C. A.; Sauer, K. L.; Yesinowski, J. P.

    2015-06-01

    The electron-nuclear interaction in optically pumped NMR of semiconductors manifests itself through changes in spectral features (resonance shifts, linewidths, signal amplitudes) and through the magnitude of the nuclear-spin polarization. We show that these spectral features can provide a measure of the parameters that govern the optical pumping process: electron-nuclear cross-relaxation rate, Bohr radius and fractional occupancy of the optically relevant defect (ORD), and electron polarization at the ORD. Applying a model of the spatial and temporal evolution of the nuclear spins under optical pumping to 31 P in semi-insulating InP we find an ORD Bohr radius of 6 nm, independent of the electron polarization used to fit the data, confirming the ORD is a shallow donor. For an electron polarization of -0.15 , the ORD fractional occupancy is 0.02, leading to an electron-nuclear cross-relaxation time of 0.20 s and a hyperfine frequency shift of 8.1 kHz for super-bandgap irradiation. Allowing the electron polarization to vary in the model constrained to the hyperfine shift data, we find the fractional occupancy and electron-nuclear cross-relaxation rate to be approximately inversely proportional to the electron polarization. From the long-time evolution of the nuclear polarization we calculate an ORD density of 5 ×1015cm-3 .

  9. NASA Redox cell stack shunt current, pumping power, and cell performance tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, N.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA Redox energy storage system is under active technology development. The hardware undergoing laboratory testing is either 310 sq. cm. or 929 sq. cm. (0.33 sq. ft. or 1.0 sq. ft. per cell active area with up to 40 individual cells connected to make up a modular cell stack. This size of hardware allows rather accurate projections to be made of the shunt power/pump power tradeoffs. The modeling studies that were completed on the system concept are reviewed along with the approach of mapping the performance of Redox cells over a wide range of flow rates and depths of discharge of the Redox solutions. Methods are outlined for estimating the pumping and shunt current losses for any type of cell and stack combination. These methods are applicable to a variety of pumping options that are present with Redox systems. The results show that a fully developed Redox system has acceptable parasitic losses when using a fixed flow rate adequate to meet the worst conditions of current density and depth of discharge. These losses are reduced by about 65 percent if variable flow schedules are used. The exact value of the overall parasitics will depend on the specific system requirements of current density, voltage limits, charge, discharge time, etc.

  10. Multiple source heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  11. Solar-powered pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsten, C. C. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A solar powered pump particularly suited for intermittently delivering a stream of water is reported. The pump is characterized by a housing adapted to be seated in a source of water having a water discharge port disposed above the water line of the source, a sump including a valved inlet port through which water is introduced to the sump, disposed beneath the water line, a displacer supported for vertical reciprocation in said housing, an air passageway extended between the vertically spaced faces of the displacer, and a tipple disposed adjacent to the water discharge port adapted to be filled in response to a discharge of water from the housing. Air above a displacer is expanded in response to solar energy impinging on the housing and transferred into pressurizing relation with the sump for forcing water from the sump.

  12. Oil well pump

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.L.

    1980-10-21

    An oil well subsurface pump comprising a housing having one end thereof adapted to be secured to the lowermost end of a sucker rod, or the like, and the opposite end thereof in open communication with the fluid reservoir in a well bore, a ball check valve carried by the housing, a ball stop member disposed within the housing for limiting the movement of the ball member in one direction and having ports therein for passage of fluid upwardly through the housing, resilient sealing assembly interposed between the outer periphery of the housing and the inner periphery of the barrel and slidable with respect to the barrel during a pumping operation, and discharge ports provided in the housing in spaced relation to the sealing assembly for directing well fluid from the interior of the housing to the annulus between the housing and the working barrel for transportation of the fluid to the surface of the well bore.

  13. Sucker rod pump

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, J.R.

    1992-04-14

    This patent describes a subsurface well pump, it comprises: a working barrel; a plunger which reciprocates along the vertical axis within the working barrel between an upper and lower position; a rod connected to the plunger and extending to a means for providing reciprocating force; a well string extending from the top of the working barrel to the surface; an outlet check valve which permits flow to exit the working barrel into the well string and does not permit flow to exit the well string into the working barrel; and an inlet check valve which permits flow into the working barrel from outside of the subsurface pump, the inlet check valve being above the top position of the plunger, the inlet check valve having a cross sectional flow area about equal to or greater than the horizontal cross sectional area of the working barrel, and the inlet check valve being a hinged flapper valve.

  14. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, D.L.

    1987-09-04

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam. 10 figs.

  15. Fuel injection pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Rouse, J.A.; Mowbray, D.F.

    1987-10-13

    A liquid fuel injection pumping apparatus is described comprising a rotary and axially movable fuel distributor member housed within a body, a reciprocable pumping plunger housed within a bore formed in the distributor member, cam means mounted in the body for effecting inward movement of the plunger as the distributor member rotates, passage means in the body and distributor member and stop means for limiting the extent of outward movement of the plunger. The extent of outward movement depends on the axial setting of the distributor member in the body, resilient means biasing the distributor member in one axial direction, a chamber defined in the body, means for controlling the fluid pressure in the chamber to control the axial setting of the distributor member.

  16. Micromachined peristaltic pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A micromachined pump including a channel formed in a semiconductor substrate by conventional processes such as chemical etching. A number of insulating barriers are established in the substrate parallel to one another and transverse to the channel. The barriers separate a series of electrically conductive strips. An overlying flexible conductive membrane is applied over the channel and conductive strips with an insulating layer separating the conductive strips from the conductive membrane. Application of a sequential voltage to the series of strips pulls the membrane into the channel portion of each successive strip to achieve a pumping action. A particularly desirable arrangement employs a micromachined push-pull dual channel cavity employing two substrates with a single membrane sandwiched between them.

  17. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  18. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, Marshall G.

    1985-01-01

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  19. 49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 266.11 Section 266.11... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.11 Allowable costs. Allowable costs include only the following costs which are properly allocable to the work performed: Planning and program operation costs which are allowed under...

  20. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...