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Sample records for allowable residual concentrations

  1. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Airborne Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2008-01-01

    The enclosed table lists official spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs), which are guideline values set by the NASA/JSC Toxicology Group in cooperation with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRCCOT). These values should not be used for situations other than human space flight without careful consideration of the criteria used to set each value. The SMACs take into account a number of unique factors such as the effect of space-flight stress on human physiology, the uniform good health of the astronauts, and the absence of pregnant or very young individuals. Documentation of the values is given in a 5 volume series of books entitled "Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants" published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. These books can be viewed electronically at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9786&page=3. Short-term (1 and 24 hour) SMACs are set to manage accidental releases aboard a spacecraft and permit risk of minor, reversible effects such as mild mucosal irritation. In contrast, the long-term SMACs are set to fully protect healthy crewmembers from adverse effects resulting from continuous exposure to specific air pollutants for up to 1000 days. Crewmembers with allergies or unusual sensitivity to trace pollutants may not be afforded complete protection, even when long-term SMACs are not exceeded. Crewmember exposures involve a mixture of contaminants, each at a specific concentration (C(sub n)). These contaminants could interact to elicit symptoms of toxicity even though individual contaminants do not exceed their respective SMACs. The air quality is considered acceptable when the toxicity index (T(sub grp)) for each toxicological group of compounds is less than 1, where T(sub grp), is calculated as follows: T(sub grp) = C(sub 1)/SMAC(sub 1) + C(sub 2/SMAC(sub 2) + ...+C(sub n)/SMAC(sub n).

  2. Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for selected airborne contaminants, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMAC's) for contaminants, and to review SMAC's for various spacecraft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to NASA's request, the NRC organized the Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants within the Committee on Toxicology (COT). In the first phase of its work, the subcommittee developed the criteria and methods for preparing SMAC's for spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee's report, entitled Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants, was published in 1992. The executive summary of that report is reprinted as Appendix A of this volume. In the second phase of the study, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations reviewed reports prepared by NASA scientists and contractors recommending SMAC's for 35 spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee sought to determine whether the SMAC reports were consistent with the 1992 guidelines. Appendix B of this volume contains the first 11 SMAC reports that have been reviewed for their application of the guidelines developed in the first phase of this activity and approved by the subcommittee.

  3. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is aware of the potential toxicological hazards to humans that might be associated with prolonged spacecraft missions. Despite major engineering advances in controlling the atmosphere within spacecraft, some contamination of the air appears inevitable. NASA has measured numerous airborne contaminants during space missions. As the missions increase in duration and complexity, ensuring the health and well-being of astronauts traveling and working in this unique environment becomes increasingly difficult. As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for contaminants, and to review SMACs for various space-craft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to NASA's request, the NRC organized the Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants within the Committee On Toxicology (COT). In the first phase of its work, the subcommittee developed the criteria and methods for preparing SMACs for spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee's report, entitled Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants, was published in 1992. The executive summary of that report is reprinted as Appendix A of this volume. In the second phase of the study, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations reviewed reports prepared by NASA scientists and contractors recommending SMACs for approximately 35 spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee sought to determine whether the SMAC reports were consistent with the 1992 guidelines. Appendix B of this volume contains the SMAC reports for 12 chemical contaminants that have been reviewed for

  4. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    To protect space crews from air contaminants, NASA requested that the National Research Council (NRC) provide guidance for developing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) and review NASA's development of exposure guidelines for specific chemicals. The NRC convened the Committee on Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines to address this task. The committee published Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants (NRC 1992). The reason for the review of chemicals in Volume 5 is that many of them have not been examined for more than 10 years, and new research necessitates examining the documents to ensure that they reflect current knowledge. New knowledge can be in the form of toxicologic data or in the application of new approaches for analysis of available data. In addition, because NASA anticipates longer space missions beyond low Earth orbit, SMACs for 1,000-d exposures have also been developed.

  5. Forecasting residual herbicide concentrations in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Gavan; Scanlan, Craig; van Zwieten, Lukas; Rose, Mick; Rose, Terry

    2016-04-01

    High concentrations of herbicides remaining in soil at the time of planting can adversely impact agricultural production and lead to off-site impacts in streams and groundwater. Being able to forecast the likelihood of residual concentrations at specific times in the future offers the potential to improve environmental and economic outcomes. Here we develop a solution for the full transient probability density function for herbicide concentrations in soil as a function of rainfall variability. Quasi-analytical solutions that account for rainfall seasonality are also demonstrated. In addition, new rapid and relatively cost-effective bioassays to quantify herbicide concentrations in near real-time, offers opportunities for data assimilation approaches to improve forecast risks.

  6. 30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL... test samples collected at each drill operator's position, and the difference shall be designated as the... samples. (b) Under each prescribed test condition, the net concentration of airborne dust at each...

  7. 30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL... test samples collected at each drill operator's position, and the difference shall be designated as the... samples. (b) Under each prescribed test condition, the net concentration of airborne dust at each...

  8. 30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL... test samples collected at each drill operator's position, and the difference shall be designated as the... samples. (b) Under each prescribed test condition, the net concentration of airborne dust at each...

  9. 30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL... test samples collected at each drill operator's position, and the difference shall be designated as the... samples. (b) Under each prescribed test condition, the net concentration of airborne dust at each...

  10. 30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL... test samples collected at each drill operator's position, and the difference shall be designated as the... samples. (b) Under each prescribed test condition, the net concentration of airborne dust at each...

  11. Allowable Residual Contamination Levels in soil for decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station site

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1983-09-01

    As part of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, a fundamental concern is the determination of Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for radionuclides in the soil at the site. The ARCL method described in this report is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for unrestricted use of the land after decommissioning. In addition to naturally occurring radionuclides and fallout from weapons testing, soil contamination could potentially come from five other sources. These include operation of the Shippingport Station as a pressurized water reactor, operations of the Shippingport Station as a light-water breeder, operation of the nearby Beaver Valley reactors, releases during decommissioning, and operation of other nearby industries, including the Bruce-Mansfield coal-fired power plants. ARCL values are presented for 29 individual radionculides and a worksheet is provided so that ARCL values can be determined for any mixture of the individual radionuclides for any annual dose limit selected. In addition, a worksheet is provided for calculating present time soil concentration value that will decay to the ARCL values after any selected period of time, such as would occur during a period of restricted access. The ARCL results are presented for both unconfined (surface) and confined (subsurface) soil contamination. The ARCL method and results described in this report provide a flexible means of determining unrestricted-use site release conditions after decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station.

  12. Rapid Test for Infliximab Drug Concentration Allows Immediate Dose Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Van Stappen, Thomas; Bollen, Lize; Vande Casteele, Niels; Papamichael, Konstantinos; Van Assche, Gert; Ferrante, Marc; Vermeire, Séverine; Gils, Ann

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Therapeutic drug monitoring of infliximab improves treatment outcomes, but available assays to monitor infliximab lack speed to implement treatment algorithms immediately. Our aim is to validate a rapid, lateral flow-based assay (LFA) for quantitative determination of infliximab and to assess thresholds associated with mucosal healing in patients with ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Samples (n=190) from 29 anti-tumor necrosis factor naive patients with ulcerative colitis starting infliximab induction therapy between June 2010 and February 2012 were prospectively collected. All patients had a Mayo endoscopic sub-score ≥2 at baseline. Mucosal healing (MH), defined as a Mayo endoscopic sub-score ≤1, was evaluated at week 10–14. Infliximab trough concentrations (TC) were determined with a novel LFA, which was benchmarked with the RIDASCREEN infliximab Monitoring (ELISA). RESULTS: The LFA showed an excellent agreement with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantification of infliximab, as observed from Pearson and intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.95 and 0.95 during induction and 0.93 and 0.87 during maintenance therapy, respectively. In total, 45% of patients achieved MH. Using the LFA, week 14 TC ≥2.1 μg/ml (AUROC: 0.819, P=0.008) were associated with MH. After 2 years follow-up, 77% of patients with MH were still receiving infliximab therapy vs. 25% of patients without MH. CONCLUSIONS: We validated a LFA for quantification of infliximab and identified TC associated with MH. With a time-to-result of 20 min, individual sample analysis and user-friendliness, the LFA outplays ELISA as a rapid, accurate tool to monitor infliximab concentrations. PMID:27929524

  13. Allowable residual-contamination levels for decommissioning facilities in the 100 areas of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by UNC Nuclear Industries to determine Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for five generic categories of facilities in the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to provide ARCL data useful to UNC engineers in conducting safety and cost comparisons for decommissioning alternatives. The ARCL results are based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for three specific modes of future use of the land and facilities. These modes of use are restricted, controlled, and unrestricted. The information on ARCL values for restricted and controlled use provided by this report is intended to permit a full consideration of decommissioning alternatives. ARCL results are presented both for surface contamination remaining in facilities (in dpm/100 cm/sup 2/), and for unconfined surface and confined subsurface soil conditions (in pCi/g). Two confined soil conditions are considered: contamination at depths between 1 and 4 m, and contamination at depths greater than or equal to 5 m. A set of worksheets are presented in an appendix for modifying the ARCL values to accommodate changes in the radionuclide mixture or concentrations, to consider the impacts of radioactive decay, and to predict instrument responses. Finally, a comparison is made between the unrestricted release ARCL values for the 100 Area facilities and existing decommissioning and land disposal regulations. For surface contamination, the comparison shows good agreement. For soil contamination, the comparison shows good agreement if reasonable modification factors are applied to account for the differences in modeling soil contamination and licensed low-level waste.

  14. A comparative study of allowable pesticide residue levels on produce in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The U.S. imports a substantial and increasing portion of its fruits and vegetables. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration currently inspects less than one percent of import shipments. While countries exporting to the U.S. are expected to comply with U.S. tolerances, including allowable pesticide residue levels, there is a low rate of import inspections and few other incentives for compliance. Methods This analysis estimates the quantity of excess pesticide residue that could enter the U.S. if exporters followed originating country requirements but not U.S. pesticide tolerances, for the top 20 imported produce items based on quantities imported and U.S. consumption levels. Pesticide health effects data are also shown. Results The model estimates that for the identified items, 120 439 kg of pesticides in excess of U.S. tolerances could potentially be imported to the U.S., in cases where U.S. regulations are more protective than those of originating countries. This figure is in addition to residues allowed on domestic produce. In the modeling, the top produce item, market, and pesticide of concern were oranges, Chile, and Zeta-Cypermethrin. Pesticides in this review are associated with health effects on 13 body systems, and some are associated with carcinogenic effects. Conclusions There is a critical information gap regarding pesticide residues on produce imported to the U.S. Without a more thorough sampling program, it is not possible accurately to characterize risks introduced by produce importation. The scenario presented herein relies on assumptions, and should be considered illustrative. The analysis highlights the need for additional investigation and resources for monitoring, enforcement, and other interventions, to improve import food safety and reduce pesticide exposures in originating countries. PMID:22293037

  15. Allowable residual contamination levels for decommissioning. Part 1. A description of the method

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    This paper contains a description of the methods used in a study sponsored by UNC Nuclear Industries to determine Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for decommissioning facilities in the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site. The ARCL method is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for three specific modes of future use of the land and facilities. Thes modes of use are restricted, controlled, and unrestricted. The information on ARCL values for restricted and controlled use is intended to permit a full consideration of decommissioning alternatives. The analysis results in site-specific ARCL values that can be used for determining compliance with any annual dose limit selected. This flexibility permits proper consideration of field situations involving the radionuclide mixtures and physical conditions encountered. In addition, this method permits a full determination of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) conditions.

  16. Block-restraining of residual dipolar couplings to allow fluctuating relative alignments of molecular subdomains.

    PubMed

    Wirz, Lukas N; Allison, Jane R

    2017-02-20

    Residual dipolar couplings (RDCs), unlike most other types of NMR observables, provide orientational information, reporting on the alignment of inter-spin vectors (ISVs) relative to the magnetic field. A great challenge in using experimental RDCs to restrain molecular dynamics (MD) simulations is how to represent this alignment. An alignment tensor is often used to parameterise the contribution of molecular alignment to the angular dependence of RDCs. All ISVs that share the same tensor have fixed relative alignment, i.e. if just one tensor is used, the molecule is internally rigid. Here we propose and illustrate a method for subdividing molecules into individually aligned blocks during MD simulations restrained to fit RDCs. This allows the relative orientation of each block to vary during the simulation, which in turn ensures that the internal structure of each block is more realistically reproduced.

  17. Observation of residues in tissues of chickens exposed to low dietary concentrations of chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Rejtharová, Martina; Rejthar, Libor; Čačková, Katarína; Bureš, Jiří; Vernerová, Eva; Hera, Alfred

    2017-04-01

    To investigate potential residues in tissues arising from naturally occurring low levels of chloramphenicol in plant material, feeding studies were conducted with chickens. A common chicken feed was prepared containing 0, 10, 50 and 200 μg kg(-1) chloramphenicol and levels were confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Four separate groups of broiler chickens, eight animals in each group, were fed all their 35-day life with this contaminated feed. They were allowed ad libitum access to this feed and fresh water. After slaughtering the chickens, the residues in muscle and liver tissues were determined using GC/MS-NCI method. No residues were detected in tissues of animals from groups fed with feed containing 0, 10 or 50 µg kg(-1). Low chloramphenicol residual concentrations were observed in a few of the muscle samples obtained from the group of chickens fed with feed containing chloramphenicol in added concentration 200 µg kg(-1). No residues were detected in the remaining samples of this group. These results indicate that when residues of chloramphenicol are detected it is in all probability through illegal use.

  18. Effect of Reagents Concentration on Biocementation of Tropical Residual Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiet, K. T. P.; Kassim, K. A.; Chen, K. B.; Martula, U.; Yah, C. S.; Arefnia, A.

    2016-07-01

    This study explores the feasibility of Bacillus subtilis and optimum reagents concentration used in Microbial-Induced Calcite Precipitation (MICP) treatment of tropical residual soil. Experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of cementation reagents concentration toward MICP treatment. The performance of MICP treatment was assessed by measurement of the soil shear strength and calcite content. Based on the experimental results, it is discovered that the cementation reagent concentration has significantly affected on the performance of MICP treatment. The results suggested that the most preferable MICP treatment reagents concentration is 0.25M with the presence of Bacillus subtilis; using these treatment parameters, both UCS value and calcite content of treated soil had increased about 38% and 65.6% respectively. However, the reduction in UCS value was manifested for those samples treated at higher reagents concentration (0.35M); this phenomenon is attributed to the salinity of reagents where high salinity is not favourable to the bacteria growth and microbial activity; subsequently, this resulted in a consequential decrease in shear strength of the treated soil.

  19. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8 Aliphatic Saturated Aldehydes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langford, Shannon D.

    2007-01-01

    Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8, straight-chain, aliphatic aldehydes have been previously assessed and have been documented in volume 4 of Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants (James, 2000). These aldehydes as well as associated physical properties are shown in Table 1. The C3 to C8 aliphatic aldehydes can enter the habitable compartments and contaminate breathing air of spacecraft by several routes including incomplete oxidation of alcohols in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) air revitalization subsystem, as a byproduct of human metabolism, through materials off-gassing, or during food preparation. These aldehydes have been detected in the atmosphere of manned space vehicles in the past. Analysis performed by NASA of crew cabin air samples from the Russian Mir Space Station revealed the presence of C3 to C8 aldehydes at concentrations peaking at approximately 0.1 mg/cu m.

  20. Guidelines for developing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for Space Station contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is preparing to launch a manned space station by the year 1996. Because of concerns about the health, safety, and functioning abilities of the crews, NASA has requested that the National Research Council (NRC) through the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology (BEST) provide advice on toxicological matters for the space-station program. The Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants was established by the Committee on Toxicology (COT) to address NASA's concerns. Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMAC's) are defined as the maximum concentrations of airborne substances (such as gas, vapor, or aerosol) that will not cause adverse health effects, significant discomfort, or degradation in crew performance.

  1. Classification of polychlorinated biphenyl residues: isomers vs. homologue concentrations in modeling aroclors and polychlorinated biphenyl residues

    SciTech Connect

    Stalling, D.L.; Schwartz, T.R.; Dunn, W.J. III; Wold, S.

    1987-07-15

    SIMCA (soft independent modeling by class analogy), a principal components chemometric modeling program, was used to examine complex mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyl residues (PCBs) in fish and turtles. Individual PCB isomers were measured by electron capture capillary gas chromatography. The authors calculated PCB (Cl/sub 1-10/) congener concentrations by summing 105 isomer concentrations into homologue subgroups. Information theory was used to estimate the maximum information content of the two data sets. The authors compared the results from principal components modeling of samples and Aroclors by using both isomer and Cl/sub 1-10/ homologue concentrations. Modeling of normalized data from Aroclors or their mixtures gave similar sample score plots for both data sets. However, modeling environmental sample congener concentrations gave erroneous classification results when compared to results from modeling isomer data. Although the Cl/sub 1-10/ sums accurately reflect the concentration of PCBs in the sample, calculations to determine PCB profiles as Aroclor mixtures should be made by using individual PCB isomers.

  2. A Residual Chlorine Removal Method to Allow Drinking Water Monitoring by Biological Early Warning Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-18

    Aquatic Biomonitor Diagram Page 6 Figure 3. Dechlorinator System Page 9 Figure 4. Sodium Bisulfite Response Data Page 12 Table 1. Size of Fish Used in... sodium bisulfite into chlorinated water containing 1.5 to 2.0 mg/L TRC was effective in removing TRC-related toxicity during a nine month evaluation of...Fredericksburg, VA. Because of 2.3 Dechlorinator Testing the low toxicity of sodium bisulfite and This section describes the procedures the high concentrations

  3. Allowable residual contamination levels of radionuclides in soil from pathway analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nyquist, J.E.; Baes, C.F. III

    1987-01-01

    The uncertainty regarding radionuclide distributions among Remedial Action Program (RAP) sites and long-term decommissioning and closure options for these sites requires a flexible approach capable of handling different levels of contamination, dose limits, and closure scenarios. We identified a commercially available pathway analysis model, DECOM, which had been used previously in support of remedial activities involving contaminated soil at the Savannah River Plant. The DECOM computer code, which estimates concentrations of radionuclides uniformly distributed in soil that correspond to an annual effective dose equivalent, is written in BASIC and runs on an IBM PC or compatible microcomputer. We obtained the latest version of DECOM and modified it to make it more user friendly and applicable to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) RAP. Some modifications involved changes in default parameters or changes in models based on approaches used by the EPA in regulating remedial actions for hazardous substances. We created a version of DECOM as a LOTUS spreadsheet, using the same models as the BASIC version of DECOM. We discuss the specific modeling approaches taken, the regulatory framework that guided our efforts, the strengths and limitations of each approach, and areas for improvement. We also demonstrate how the LOTUS version of DECOM can be applied to specific problems that may be encountered during ORNL RAP activities. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Setting Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for 1 hour or 24 hour contingency exposures to airborne chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Hector D.; Limero, Thomas F.; James, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Since the early years of the manned space program, NASA has developed and used exposure limits called Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) to help protect astronauts from airborne toxicants. Most of these SMACS are based on an exposure duration of 7 days, since this is the duration of a 'typical' mission. A set of 'contingency SMACs' is also being developed for scenarios involving brief (1-hour or 24- hour) exposures to relatively high levels of airborne toxicants from event-related 'contingency' releases of contaminants. The emergency nature of contingency exposures dictates the use of different criteria for setting exposure limits. The NASA JSC Toxicology Group recently began a program to document the rationales used to set new SMACs and plans to review the older, 7-day SMACs. In cooperation with the National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology, a standard procedure has been developed for researching, setting, and documenting SMAC values.

  5. Toxicological approach to setting spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, K. L.; Limero, T. F.; James, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    The Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are exposure limits for airborne chemicals used by NASA in spacecraft. The aim of these SMACs is to protect the spacecrew against adverse health effects and performance decrements that would interfere with mission objectives. Because of the 1 and 24 hr SMACs are set for contingencies, minor reversible toxic effects that do not affect mission objectives are acceptable. The 7, 30, or 180 day SMACs are aimed at nominal operations, so they are established at levels that would not cause noncarcinogenic toxic effects and more than one case of tumor per 1000 exposed individuals over the background. The process used to set the SMACs for carbon monoxide (CO) is described to illustrate the approach used by NASA. After the toxicological literature on CO was reviewed, the data were summarized and separated into acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity data. CO's toxicity depends on the formation of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in the blood, reducing the blood's oxygen carrying capacity. The initial task was to estimate the COHb levels that would not produce toxic effects in the brain and heart.

  6. Total allowable concentrations of monomeric inorganic aluminum and hydrated aluminum silicates in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Willhite, Calvin C; Ball, Gwendolyn L; McLellan, Clifton J

    2012-05-01

    Maximum contaminant levels are used to control potential health hazards posed by chemicals in drinking water, but no primary national or international limits for aluminum (Al) have been adopted. Given the differences in toxicological profiles, the present evaluation derives total allowable concentrations for certain water-soluble inorganic Al compounds (including chloride, hydroxide, oxide, phosphate and sulfate) and for the hydrated Al silicates (including attapulgite, bentonite/montmorillonite, illite, kaolinite) in drinking water. The chemistry, toxicology and clinical experience with Al materials are extensive and depend upon the particular physical and chemical form. In general, the water solubility of the monomeric Al materials depends on pH and their water solubility and gastrointestinal bioavailability are much greater than that of the hydrated Al silicates. Other than Al-containing antacids and buffered aspirin, food is the primary source of Al exposure for most healthy people. Systemic uptake of Al after ingestion of the monomeric salts is somewhat greater from drinking water (0.28%) than from food (0.1%). Once absorbed, Al accumulates in bone, brain, liver and kidney, with bone as the major site for Al deposition in humans. Oral Al hydroxide is used routinely to bind phosphate salts in the gut to control hyperphosphatemia in people with compromised renal function. Signs of chronic Al toxicity in the musculoskeletal system include a vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia (deranged membranous bone formation characterized by accumulation of the osteoid matrix and reduced mineralization, reduced numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, decreased lamellar and osteoid bands with elevated Al concentrations) presenting as bone pain and proximal myopathy. Aluminum-induced bone disease can progress to stress fractures of the ribs, femur, vertebrae, humerus and metatarsals. Serum Al ≥100 µg/L has a 75-88% positive predictive value for Al bone disease. Chronic Al

  7. Minimizing residual aluminum concentration in treated water by tailoring properties of polyaluminum coagulants.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Masaoki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Kenta; Ishikawa, Tairyo B; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2013-04-15

    Aluminum coagulants are widely used in water treatment plants to remove turbidity and dissolved substances. However, because high aluminum concentrations in treated water are associated with increased turbidity and because aluminum exerts undeniable human health effects, its concentration should be controlled in water treatment plants, especially in plants that use aluminum coagulants. In this study, the effect of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulant characteristics on dissolved residual aluminum concentrations after coagulation and filtration was investigated. The dissolved residual aluminum concentrations at a given coagulation pH differed among the PACls tested. Very-high-basicity PACl yielded low dissolved residual aluminum concentrations and higher natural organic matter (NOM) removal. The low residual aluminum concentrations were related to the low content of monomeric aluminum (Ala) in the PACl. Polymeric (Alb)/colloidal (Alc) ratio in PACl did not greatly influence residual aluminum concentration. The presence of sulfate in PACl contributed to lower residual aluminum concentration only when coagulation was performed at around pH 6.5 or lower. At a wide pH range (6.5-8.5), residual aluminum concentrations <0.02 mg/L were attained by tailoring PACl properties (Ala percentage ≤0.5%, basicity ≥85%). The dissolved residual aluminum concentrations did not increase with increasing the dosage of high-basicity PACl, but did increase with increasing the dosage of normal-basicity PACl. We inferred that increasing the basicity of PACl afforded lower dissolved residual aluminum concentrations partly because the high-basicity PACls could have a small percentage of Ala, which tends to form soluble aluminum-NOM complexes with molecular weights of 100 kDa-0.45 μm.

  8. Herbicide residues and nitrate concentration in tubers of table potatoes.

    PubMed

    Zarzecka, Krystyna; Gugała, Marek; Mystkowska, Iwona

    2010-01-01

    This study examined Wiking-cultivar table potato tubers in a field experiment conducted between 2002 and 2004 using a rye complex soil. The experimental factors included (a) two methods of tillage, including traditional and simplified, as well as (b) seven methods of cultivation with the use of herbicides as follows: 1, control without herbicides; 2, Plateen 41.5 WG; 3, Plateen 41.5 WG + Fusilade Forte 150 EC; 4, Plateen 41.5 WG + Fusilade Forte 150 EC + adjuvant Atpolan 80 EC; 5, Barox 460 SL; 6, Barox 460 SL + Fusilade Forte 150 EC; and 7, Barox 460 SL + Fusilade Forte 150 EC + adjuvant Atpolan 80 EC. Determination of residues was performed using high-performance liquid and gas chromatography. Only trace quantities of bentazone (Barox 460 SL) were found in potato tubers, amounts that fell below the maximum residue limit (MRL). The nitrate content of potato tubers was determined using a nitrate ion-selective electrode and silver chloride reference electrode. The nitrate content in fresh matter of unpeeled and peeled tubers depended significantly only on weather conditions in the years of study. In contrast, agrotechnical procedures such as methods of tillage and cultivation did not significantly affect potato tuber nitrate content.

  9. A manual for applying the allowable residual contamination level method for decommissioning facilities on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Piepel, G.F.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1988-08-01

    This report describes the modifications that have been made to enhance the original Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method to make it more applicable to site-specific analyses. This version considers the mixture of radionuclides present at the time of site characterization, the elapsed time after decommissioning when exposure to people could occur, and includes a calculation of the upper confidence limit of the potential dose based on sampling statistics that are developed during the site characterization efforts. The upper confidence limit of potential exposure can now be used for comparison against applicable radiation dose limits (i.e., 25 mrem/yr at Hanford). The level of confidence can be selected by the user. A wide range of exposure scenarios were evaluated; the rationale used to select the most limiting scenarios is explained. The radiation dose factors used for the inhalation and ingestion pathways were also updated to correspond with the radiation dosimetry methods utilized in the International Commission of Radiological Protection Publications 26 and 30 (ICRP 1977; 1979a,b, 1980, 1981, 1982a,b). This simplifies the calculations, since ''effective whole body'' doses are now calculated, and also brings the dosimetry methods used in the ARCL method in conformance with the rationale used by DOE in developing the 25 mrem/yr limit at Hanford. 46 refs., 21 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. In-situ determination of radionuclide levels in facilities to be decommissioned using the allowable residual contamination level method

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, R.J.; Haggard, D.L.

    1989-07-01

    This feasibility study resulted in verification of a direct and two alternate indirect techniques for making in-situ determinations of {sup 90}Sr and other radionuclide levels in a Hanford facility to be decommissioned that was evaluated using the Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method. The ARCL method is used to determine the extent of decontamination that will be required before a facility can be decommissioned. A sump in the 1608F Building was chosen for the feasibility study. Hanford decommissioning personnel had previously taken 79 concrete and surface scale samples from the building to be analyzed by radiochemical analysis. The results of the radiochemical analyses compare favorably with the values derived by the in-situ methods presented in this report. Results obtained using a portable spectrometer and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were both very close to the radiochemistry results. Surface {sup 90}Sr levels detected on the sump floor were 550 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the spectrometer system and 780 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the TLD data. This compares favorably with the levels determined by radiochemical analyses (i.e., 230 to 730 pCi/cm{sup 2}). Surface {sup 90}Sr levels detected on the sump wall ranged between 10 and 80 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the spectrometer system, compared with a conservative 200 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the TLD data. The radiochemical results ranged between 19 and 77 pCi/cm{sup 2} for the four samples taken from the wall at indeterminate locations. 17 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Bioremediation of a soil contaminated by hydrocarbon mixtures: the residual concentration problem.

    PubMed

    Nocentini, M; Pinelli, D; Fava, F

    2000-10-01

    The phenomenon of residual concentration was investigated in the aerobic biodegradation of three different petroleum commercial products (i.e., kerosene, diesel fuel and a lubricating mineral oil) in static microcosms. Two different soils exhibiting different physical-chemical characteristics were used (i.e., a biologically treated hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and a pristine soil). Residual concentrations were observed and a simple way to take this phenomenon into account was proposed.

  12. Final Report-- A Novel Storage Method for Concentrating Solar Power Plants Allowing Storage at High Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Jeffrey F.

    2014-09-29

    The main objective of the proposed work was the development and testing of a storage method that has the potential to fundamentally change the solar thermal industry. The development of a mathematical model that describes the phenomena involved in the heat storage and recovery was also a main objective of this work. Therefore, the goal was to prepare a design package allowing reliable scale-up and optimization of design.

  13. Threshold residual ion concentration on photomask surface to prevent haze defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Min; Lee, Jae-Chul; Kang, Dong-Shik; Lee, Dong-Heok; Shin, Chul; Choi, Moon-Hwan; Choi, Sang-Soo

    2007-05-01

    Haze generation has been serious issue on wafer lithography process, as illumination wavelength become shorter with 248nm and 193nm. Several published papers have been reported that ammonium and sulfate residual ion on mask surface is major source of haze generation. These ions are come from conventional photomask cleaning process. PKL have been studied new cleaning process to minimize haze generation and found cleaning process condition. Also, PKL found that residual ammonium ion is major source of haze generation than residual sulfate ion. New cleaning process improved residual ammonium ion concentration to less than 45 ppb from 900 ppb with conventional RCA cleaning. And illumination doses generating haze have been tested on five residual ammonium ion, 1500 ppb, 900 ppb, 160 ppb, 70 ppb, 45 ppb, respectively. In house designed Haze Acceleration Test Bench (HATB) was used to expose masks. Haze were not generated until from 25 kJ to 100 kJ, on 160 ppb to 45 ppb of ammonium ion concentration, respectively. And the residual of sulfate ion and its haze generation dose did not correspond. Residual ammonium ions need to be controlled tightly than sulfate ion. PKL concentrated on minimizing ammonium residual with new cleaning process and found the optimized cleaning process for preventing 100kJ of cumulative energy on ArF embedded attenuated PSM (EAPSM).

  14. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Allows for Cellular Quantification of Doxorubicin at Femtomolar Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    DeGregorio, M W; Dingley, K H; Wurz, G T; Ubick, E; Turteltaub, K W

    2005-04-12

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a highly sensitive analytical methodology used to quantify the content of radioisotopes, such as {sup 14}C, in a sample. The primary goals of this work were to demonstrate the utility of AMS in determining cellular [{sup 14}C]doxorubicin (DOX) concentrations and to develop a sensitive assay that is superior to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the quantification of DOX at the tumor level. In order to validate the superior sensitivity of AMS versus HPLC with fluorescence detection, we performed three studies comparing the cellular accumulation of DOX: one in vitro cell line study, and two in vivo xenograft mouse studies. Using AMS, we quantified cellular DOX content up to 4 hours following in vitro exposure at concentrations ranging from 0.2 pg/ml (345 fM) to 2 {micro}g/ml (3.45 {micro}M) [{sup 14}C]DOX. The results of this study show that, compared to standard fluorescence-based HPLC, the AMS method was over five orders of magnitude more sensitive. Two in vivo studies compared the sensitivity of AMS to HPLC using a nude mouse xenograft model in which breast cancer cells were implanted subcutaneously. After sufficiently large tumors formed, DOX was administered intravenously at two dose levels. Additionally, we tested the AMS method in a nude mouse xenograft model of multidrug resistance (MDR) in which each mouse was implanted with both wild type and MDR+ cells on opposite flanks. The results of the second and third studies showed that DOX concentrations were significantly higher in the wild type tumors compared to the MDR+ tumors, consistent with the MDR model. The extreme sensitivity of AMS should facilitate similar studies in humans to establish target site drug delivery and to potentially determine the optimal treatment dose and regimen.

  15. [Chrysotile asbestos: biological effects, the work environment highest allowable concentration and neoplasm risk].

    PubMed

    Woźniak, H; Wiecek, E

    2000-01-01

    The authors present the most essential data on physical and chemical properties of chrysotile, sources of its emission, the extent of occupational exposure, and biological effect, used in setting MAC values for chrysotile-containing dusts. Exploitable asbestos deposits do not exist in Poland, but admixtures of asbestos minerals have been found in some deposits of mineral raw materials located in the area of Lower Silesia (melafir, gabbro, dolomite. ore, nickel, magnesite, serpentinite). In the 1970s, about 100,000 tonnes of asbestos, containing 90% of chrysotile, were used annually in Poland. This figure decreased to 30,000 tonnes in 1991. In 1985 the use of crocidolite asbestos was stopped, and in 1999, the use of asbestos-containing products was banned by the virtue of the legal act. At present, the Minister of Economy in agreement with the Minister of Environmental Protection sets regularly the list of asbestos-containing products permitted for the production or in the customs area. Nowadays, the range of dust concentrations in plants which use asbestos products amounts to 0.1-0.6 mg/m3 for total dust and 0.002-0.07 f/cm3 for respirable mineral fibres; and during exploitation of rock raw material deposits 0.7-280 mg/m3, and 0.01-3.3 f/cm3, respectively. During the years 1976-96, 1520 cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases were diagnosed. This figure included 1314 cases of asbestosis, 154 cases of lung cancer and 52 cases of pleura mesothelioma. MAC values for chrysotile and chrysotile-containing dusts are: 0.2 f/cm3 and 1 mg/m3.

  16. A majority of m6A residues are in the last exons, allowing the potential for 3′ UTR regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Shengdong; Alemu, Endalkachew A.; Mertens, Claudia; Gantman, Emily Conn; Fak, John J.; Mele, Aldo; Haripal, Bhagwattie; Zucker-Scharff, Ilana; Moore, Michael J.; Park, Christopher Y.; Vågbø, Cathrine Broberg; Kusśnierczyk, Anna; Klungland, Arne; Darnell, James E.; Darnell, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    We adapted UV CLIP (cross-linking immunoprecipitation) to accurately locate tens of thousands of m6A residues in mammalian mRNA with single-nucleotide resolution. More than 70% of these residues are present in the 3′-most (last) exons, with a very sharp rise (sixfold) within 150–400 nucleotides of the start of the last exon. Two-thirds of last exon m6A and >40% of all m6A in mRNA are present in 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs); contrary to earlier suggestions, there is no preference for location of m6A sites around stop codons. Moreover, m6A is significantly higher in noncoding last exons than in next-to-last exons harboring stop codons. We found that m6A density peaks early in the 3′ UTR and that, among transcripts with alternative polyA (APA) usage in both the brain and the liver, brain transcripts preferentially use distal polyA sites, as reported, and also show higher proximal m6A density in the last exons. Furthermore, when we reduced m6A methylation by knocking down components of the methylase complex and then examined 661 transcripts with proximal m6A peaks in last exons, we identified a set of 111 transcripts with altered (approximately two-thirds increased proximal) APA use. Taken together, these observations suggest a role of m6A modification in regulating proximal alternative polyA choice. PMID:26404942

  17. Total concentrations and chemical speciation of heavy metals in liquefaction residues of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xingzhong; Huang, Huajun; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Hui; Wang, Jingyu; Zhou, Chunfei; Zhu, Huina; Pei, Xiaokai; Liu, Zhifeng; Liu, Zhantao

    2011-03-01

    The risk (including bioavailability and eco-toxicity) of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr and Ni) in liquefaction residues (LR) of sewage sludge (SS) was estimated, according to both the speciation of heavy metals and the local environmental characteristics. The amount of organic matters in LR was lower than that in SS, resulting in a smaller calorific value, while the total content of heavy metals in LR nearly doubled. High residual rates of heavy metals (about 80%) indicated that the heavy metals in SS were concentrated into LR after liquefaction. The comparisons of sequential extraction results between SS and LR showed that after liquefaction, the mobile and easily available heavy metal fractions (acid soluble/exchangeable and reducible fractions) were mainly transformed into the relatively stable heavy metal fractions (oxidizable and residual fractions). The bioavailability and eco-toxicity of heavy metals in LR were relieved, though the total concentrations of heavy metals increased.

  18. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN RESIDUES OF AHR AGONISTS IN FISH AND CONCENTRATIONS IN WATER AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Relationships between Residues of AhR Agonists in Fish and Concentrations in Water and Sediment. Cook, PM*, Burkhard, LP, Mount, DR, US-EPA, NHEERL, MED, Duluth, MN. The bioaccumulation visualization approach of Burkhard et al. (2002) can be effectively used to describe the bioa...

  19. Separation of thorium (IV) from lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue

    SciTech Connect

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Majid, Amran Ab.; Sarmani, Sukiman

    2014-09-03

    Thorium (IV) content in industrial residue produced from rare earth elements production industry is one of the challenges to Malaysian environment. Separation of thorium from the lanthanide concentrate (LC) and Water Leach Purification (WLP) residue from rare earth elements production plant is described. Both materials have been tested by sulphuric acid and alkaline digestions. Th concentrations in LC and WLP were determined to be 1289.7 ± 129 and 1952.9±17.6 ppm respectively. The results of separation show that the recovery of Th separation from rare earth in LC after concentrated sulphuric acid dissolution and reduction of acidity to precipitate Th was found 1.76-1.20% whereas Th recovery from WLP was less than 4% after concentrated acids and alkali digestion processes. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was used to determine Th concentrations in aqueous phase during separation stages. This study indicated that thorium maybe exists in refractory and insoluble form which is difficult to separate by these processes and stays in WLP residue as naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM)

  20. Estimation of the residual bromine concentration after disinfection of cooling water by statistical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Megalopoulos, Fivos A; Ochsenkuehn-Petropoulou, Maria T

    2015-01-01

    A statistical model based on multiple linear regression is developed, to estimate the bromine residual that can be expected after the bromination of cooling water. Make-up water sampled from a power plant in the Greek territory was used for the creation of the various cooling water matrices under investigation. The amount of bromine fed to the circuit, as well as other important operational parameters such as concentration at the cooling tower, temperature, organic load and contact time are taken as the independent variables. It is found that the highest contribution to the model's predictive ability comes from cooling water's organic load concentration, followed by the amount of bromine fed to the circuit, the water's mean temperature, the duration of the bromination period and finally its conductivity. Comparison of the model results with the experimental data confirms its ability to predict residual bromine given specific bromination conditions.

  1. Global warming mitigation by sulphur loading in the stratosphere: dependence of required emissions on allowable residual warming rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, Alexey V.; Chernokulsky, Alexandr V.; Karpenko, Andrey A.; Mokhov, Igor I.

    2010-07-01

    An approach to mitigate global warming via sulphur loading in the stratosphere (geoengineering) is studied, employing a large ensemble of numerical experiments with the climate model of intermediate complexity IAP RAS CM. The model is forced by the historical+SRES A1B anthropogenic greenhouse gases+tropospheric sulphates scenario for 1860-2100 with additional sulphur emissions in the stratosphere in the twenty-first century. Different ensemble members are constructed by varying values of the parameters governing mass, horizontal distribution and radiative forcing of the stratospheric sulphates. It is obtained that, given a global loading of the sulphates in the stratosphere, among those studied in this paper latitudinal distributions of geoengineering aerosols, the most efficient one at the global basis is that peaked between 50° N and 70° N and with a somewhat smaller burden in the tropics. Uniform latitudinal distribution of stratospheric sulphates is a little less efficient. Sulphur emissions in the stratosphere required to stop the global temperature at the level corresponding to the mean value for 2000-2010 amount to more than 10 TgS/year in the year 2100. These emissions may be reduced if some warming is allowed to occur in the twenty-first century. For instance, if the global temperature trend S g in every decade of this century is limited not to exceed 0.10 K/decade (0.15 K/decade), geoengineering emissions of 4-14 TgS/year (2-7 TgS/year) would be sufficient. Even if the global warming is stopped, temperature changes in different regions still occur with a magnitude up to 1 K. Their horizontal pattern depends on implied latitudinal distribution of stratospheric sulphates. In addition, for the stabilised global mean surface air temperature, global precipitation decreases by about 10%. If geoengineering emissions are stopped after several decades of implementation, their climatic effect is removed within a few decades. In this period, surface air

  2. Organochlorine residues in Baluchistan/Pakistan: Blood and fat concentrations in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Krawinkel, M.B.; Plehn, G.; Kruse, H.; Kasi, A.M. Bolan Medical College and Sandeman Provincial Hospital, Quetta )

    1989-12-01

    Organochlorine (OC)-residues are detected in measurable concentrations in various tissues of human beings because of the worldwide pollution of air, water, soil, and foods. The concentrations vary from region to region according to chemical, climatic, socio-economic, and geographic factors. Persisting pesticides used in agriculture are found in relevant concentrations in agriculture products, meat, and fish. As developing countries face economic pressure to increase their agricultural exports cheap pesticides are sometimes used without the precautions necessary to prevent contaminations of water and food. The authors conducted a small survey monitoring the OC-concentrations in human blood and fat tissue under the aim to detect more recent as well as elder expositions.

  3. Concentration and dissipation of chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam residues in maize straw, maize, and soil.

    PubMed

    He, Min; Song, Dan; Jia, Hong C; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-09-01

    To study the dissipation rates and final residual levels of chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam in maize straw, maize, and soil, two independent field trials were conducted during the 2014 cropping season in Beijing and Anhui Provinces of China. A 40% wettable powder (20% chlorantraniliprole + 20% thiamethoxam) was sprayed onto maize straw and soil at an application rate of 118 g of active ingredient per hectare (g a.i.ha(-1)). The residual concentrations were determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The chlorantraniliprole half-lives in maize straw and soil were 9.0-10.8 and 9.5-21.7 days, respectively. The thiamethoxam half-lives in maize straw and soil were 8.4-9.8 and 4.3-11.7 days, respectively. The final residues of chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam in maize straw, maize, and soil were measured after the pesticides had been sprayed two and three times with an interval of 7 days using 1 and 1.5 times the recommended rate (72 g a.i. ha(-1) and 108 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively). Representative maize straw, maize, and soil samples were collected after the last treatment at pre-harvest intervals of 7, 14, and 28 days. The chlorantraniliprole residue was below 0.01 mg kg(-1) in maize, between 0.01 and 0.31 mg kg(-1) in maize straw, and between 0.03 and 1.91 mg kg(-1) in soil. The thiamethoxam residue concentrations in maize, maize straw, and soil were <0.01, <0.01, and 0.01-0.03 mg kg(-1), respectively. The final pesticide residues on maize were lower than the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.02 mg kg(-1) after a 14-day pre-harvest interval. Therefore, a dosage of 72 g a.i. ha(-1) was recommended, as it can be considered safe to human beings and animals.

  4. Influence of bleaching on flavor of 34% whey protein concentrate and residual benzoic acid concentration in dried whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Listiyani, M A D; Campbell, R E; Miracle, R E; Dean, L O; Drake, M A

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations in dried whey products. No legal limit exists in the United States for BP use in whey, but international concerns exist. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of hydrogen peroxide (HP) or BP bleaching on the flavor of 34% WPC (WPC34) and to evaluate residual BA in commercial and experimental WPC bleached with and without BP. Cheddar whey was manufactured in duplicate. Pasteurized fat-separated whey was subjected to hot bleaching with either HP at 500 mg/kg, BP at 50 or 100 mg/kg, or no bleach. Whey was ultrafiltered and spray dried into WPC34. Color [L*(lightness), a* (red-green), and b* (yellow-blue)] measurements and norbixin extractions were conducted to compare bleaching efficacy. Descriptive sensory and instrumental volatile analyses were used to evaluate bleaching effects on flavor. Benzoic acid was extracted from experimental and commercial WPC34 and 80% WPC (WPC80) and quantified by HPLC. The b* value and norbixin concentration of BP-bleached WPC34 were lower than HP-bleached and control WPC34. Hydrogen peroxide-bleached WPC34 displayed higher cardboard flavor and had higher volatile lipid oxidation products than BP-bleached or control WPC34. Benzoyl peroxide-bleached WPC34 had higher BA concentrations than unbleached and HP-bleached WPC34 and BA concentrations were also higher in BP-bleached WPC80 compared with unbleached and HP-bleached WPC80, with smaller differences than those observed in WPC34. Benzoic acid extraction from permeate showed that WPC80 permeate contained more BA than did WPC34 permeate. Benzoyl peroxide is more effective in color removal of whey and results in fewer flavor side effects compared with HP and residual BA is

  5. A natural matrix (pureed tomato) candidate reference material containing residue concentrations of pesticide chemicals.

    PubMed

    Armishaw, P; Millar, R

    2001-06-01

    NARL (the Australian National Analytical Reference Laboratory) is preparing a pureed tomato reference material spiked with residue concentrations of a range of pesticide chemicals relevant to the Australian horticultural industry. Traceable certified pesticide concentration values will be established using both isotope dilution mass spectrometry primary methods (developed within NARL) and measurements carried out by a number of experienced laboratories. As far as we are aware, there is no other similar CRM available anywhere in the world. The need for such a material is evident from the results of interlaboratory proficiency studies conducted by NARL among Australian and Asia-Pacific residue testing laboratories. Many participants are experiencing difficulties with the analysis of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables at concentrations of regulatory significance. Chemicals such as methamidophos (an organophosphorus pesticide widely used on tomato crops) are causing particular problems. In a pilot study, a number of units of control (unspiked tomato) and the candidate reference material were prepared and packaged into lacquered steel cans which were sealed and sterilised by immersion in boiling water. Accelerated stability testing of the packaged material was conducted using isochronous measurement. All of the pesticides showed some degree of degradation after 4 weeks of storage at 50 degrees C, and after 168 days of storage at room temperature. However, all appeared to be stable after 168 days of freezer storage. Homogeneity testing involved duplicate test portions taken from every 50th unit of reference material. An experimental protocol was devised with the aim of minimising the analytical variability and assuring the quality of the data generated. There is some degree of inhomogeneity in the prepared material and a small fill trend is also indicated. Potential improvements to the spiking and preparation procedure have been identified and it is planned to

  6. [Residual pesticide concentrations after processing various types of tea and tea infusions].

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takahide; Watanabe, Ayaka; Shitara, Hiroshi; Kaburagi, Yasuo; Shibata, Masahisa; Kanda, Noriko; Kurokawa, Chieko; Inoue, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Motonobu; Togawa, Masayuki; Ozawa, Akihito; Uchiyama, Toru; Koizumi, Yutaka; Nakamura, Yoriyuki; Masuda, Shuichi; Maitani, Tamio

    2013-01-01

    The effects of processing to produce various types of tea or infusion on the levels of pesticide residues in tea were investigated for three insecticides (chlorfenapyr, pyrimiphos-methyl, and clothianidin). Tea plants were sprayed with one of the three pesticides and cultivated under cover. The levels of pesticide residues in tea decreased after processing according to the time and temperature of heating, as well as fermentation. Although significant differences were not observed among the three pesticides in the ratio of decreased of pesticide concentration after processing to green tea, clothianidin, which is a neonicotinoid insecticide and has a lower log Pow value, tended to be transferred more than the other two insecticides into infusions. However, no significant difference in the ratios of clothianidin transferred to infusions was observed among green tea with three different leaf sizes.

  7. Variability of residue concentrations of ciprofloxacin in honey from treated hives.

    PubMed

    Chan, Danny; Macarthur, Roy; Fussell, Richard J; Wilford, Jack; Budge, Giles

    2017-04-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were treated with a model veterinary drug compound (ciprofloxacin) in a 3-year study (2012-14) to investigate the variability of residue concentration in honey. Sucrose solution containing ciprofloxacin was administered to 45 hives (1 g of ciprofloxacin per hive) at the beginning of the honey flow in late May/mid-June 2012, 2013 and 2014. Buckfast honey bees (A. mellifera - hybrid) were used in years 2012 and 2013. Carniolan honey bees (A. mellifera carnica) were used instead of the Buckfast honey bees as a replacement due to unforeseen circumstances in the final year of the study (2014). Honey was collected over nine scheduled time points from May/June till late October each year. Up to five hives were removed and their honey analysed per time point. Honey samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to determine ciprofloxacin concentration. Statistical assessment of the data shows that the inter-hive variation of ciprofloxacin concentrations in 2012/13 is very different compared with that of 2014 with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 138% and 61%, respectively. The average ciprofloxacin concentration for 2014 at the last time point was more than 10 times the concentration compared with samples from 2012/13 at the same time point. The difference between the 2012/13 data compared with the 2014 data is likely due to the different type of honey bees used in this study (2012/13 Buckfast versus 2014 Carniolan). Uncertainty estimates for honey with high ciprofloxacin concentration (upper 95th percentile) across all hives for 55-day withdrawal samples gave residual standard errors (RSEs) of 22%, 20% and 11% for 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively. If the number of hives were to be reduced for future studies, RSEs were estimated to be 52% (2012), 54% (2013) and 26% (2014) for one hive per time point (nine total hives).

  8. High concentration of residual aluminum oxide on titanium surface inhibits extracellular matrix mineralization.

    PubMed

    Canabarro, A; Diniz, M G; Paciornik, S; Carvalho, L; Sampaio, E M; Beloti, M M; Rosa, A L; Fischer, R G

    2008-12-01

    In the present study we characterized titanium (Ti) surfaces submitted to different treatments and evaluated the response of osteoblasts derived from human alveolar bone to these surfaces. Five different surfaces were evaluated: ground (G), ground and chemical etched (G1-HF for 60 s), sand blasted (SB-Al(2)O(3) particles 65 mum), sand blasted and chemical etched (SLA1-HF for 60 s and SLA2-HF for 13 s). Surface morphology was evaluated under SEM and roughness parameters by contact scanning instrument. The presence of Al(2)O(3) was detected by EDS and the amount calculated by digital analyses. Osteoblasts were cultured on these surfaces and it was evaluated: cell adhesion, proliferation, and viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, total protein content, and matrix mineralization formation. Physical and chemical treatments produced very different surface morphologies. Al(2)O(3) residues were detected on SB and SLA2 surfaces. Only matrix mineralization formation was affected by different surface treatments, being increased on rough surface (SLA1) and reduced on surface with high amount of Al(2)O(3) residues (SB). On the basis of these findings, it is possible to conclude that high concentration of residual Al(2)O(3) negatively interfere with the process of matrix mineralization formation in contact with Ti implant surfaces.

  9. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues in foodstuffs collected from traditional markets in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Shoiful, Ahmad; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Isao; Honda, Katsuhisa

    2013-02-01

    A total 23 of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues were determined in five groups of foodstuffs, i.e.: vegetables (carrot, potato, cucumber, corn, and onion), rice, pulses (green bean and soybean), nuts (peanut), and fish (milkfish), which collected from traditional markets in three big cities of Indonesia; Jakarta, Bogor, and Yogyakarta. OCPs were only detected in fatty foodstuffs, such as soybean, peanut, and milkfish. The concentration of HCB (expressed as ng g(-1) on a whole basis), ΣDrins, ΣDDTs, ΣHeptachlors, and ΣHCHs were in the range of <0.3-0.74 ng g(-1), <0.03-0.42 ng g(-1), <0.02-0.41 ng g(-1), <0.03-0.14 ng g(-1), and <0.03-0.06 ng g(-1), respectively, which were far below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) as established by FAO/WHO. These very low concentrations of OCPs residues in foodstuffs indicated that OCPs were used only in past time and no recent input into the environment. Furthermore, the estimated daily intake (EDI) of HCB, ΣDDTs, ΣDrins, ΣHeptachlors, and ΣHCHs in five group foodstuffs, which were 60% of total daily diet of Indonesian, were 0.09 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1), 0.04 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1), 0.01 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1), 0.003 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1), and 0.002 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1), respectively. These results were far below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) as established by FAO/WHO, which indicated that consumption of foodstuffs from Indonesia were at little risk to human health in term of OCPs at present.

  10. Radiological Modeling for Determination of Derived Concentration Levels of an Area with Uranium Residual Material - 13533

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Sanchez, Danyl

    2013-07-01

    As a result of a pilot project developed at the old Spanish 'Junta de Energia Nuclear' to extract uranium from ores, tailings materials were generated. Most of these residual materials were sent back to different uranium mines, but a small amount of it was mixed with conventional building materials and deposited near the old plant until the surrounding ground was flattened. The affected land is included in an area under institutional control and used as recreational area. At the time of processing, uranium isotopes were separated but other radionuclides of the uranium decay series as Th-230, Ra-226 and daughters remain in the residue. Recently, the analyses of samples taken at different ground's depths confirmed their presence. This paper presents the methodology used to calculate the derived concentration level to ensure that the reference dose level of 0.1 mSv y-1 used as radiological criteria. In this study, a radiological impact assessment was performed modeling the area as recreational scenario. The modelization study was carried out with the code RESRAD considering as exposure pathways, external irradiation, inadvertent ingestion of soil, inhalation of resuspended particles, and inhalation of radon (Rn-222). As result was concluded that, if the concentration of Ra-226 in the first 15 cm of soil is lower than, 0.34 Bq g{sup -1}, the dose would not exceed the reference dose. Applying this value as a derived concentration level and comparing with the results of measurements on the ground, some areas with a concentration of activity slightly higher than latter were found. In these zones the remediation proposal has been to cover with a layer of 15 cm of clean material. This action represents a reduction of 85% of the dose and ensures compliance with the reference dose. (authors)

  11. Residual control and lethal concentrations of GF-120 (spinosad) for Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Flores, Salvador; Gomez, Luis E; Montoya, Pablo

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between residual time of GF-120 (spinosad) treatment and mortality in three species of Anastrepha Schiner. Concentrations of 96, 72, 48, and 24 ppm were aged on mango leaves under field conditions for 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 d after application. We found that Anastrepha ludens, A. obliqua, and A. serpentina were highly sensitive to spinosad. The effects of spinosad were not reduced over the 4 d after the initial application, even at a concentration of 24 ppm. Mortality at 14 d after the application of 72 and 96 ppm of spinosad was similar in each of the three fruit fly species. In addition, we found that 24 ppm of spinosad was consumed the most by each species even though no direct relationship between the rate of consumption per female and the dose of the product was observed, in this test, higher consumption of active ingredient was observed at a concentration of 72 ppm, for A. ludens, 48 ppm for A. obliqua, and 96 ppm for A. serpentina. Our results suggest that a spinosad concentration of 72 ppm may effectively control these pests for at least 10 d under field conditions.

  12. Development of low-concentration mercury adsorbents from biohydrogen-generation agricultural residues using sulfur impregnation.

    PubMed

    Hsi, Hsing-Chengi; Tsai, Cheng-Yen; Kuo, Tien-Ho; Chiang, Cheng-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Mercury adsorbents were derived from waste biohydrogen-generation barley husk and rice husk via carbonization, steam activation, and sulfur impregnation at 300-650°C. The samples derived from agricultural residues showed a greater Hg(0) adsorption than that of a coal-based activated carbon, confirming the feasibility of resource recovery of these agricultural residuals for low-concentration gaseous Hg adsorption. Sulfur impregnation reduced both the surface area and pore volume of the samples, with lower temperature causing a greater decrease. Elevating the impregnation temperature increased the organic sulfur contents, suggesting that in addition to elemental sulfur, organic sulfur may also act as active sites to improve Hg(0) adsorption. Oxygen and sulfur functional groups accompanying the microporous structures may account for the enhancing Hg(0) adsorption of the raw and sulfur-treated samples, respectively. The pseudo-second-order model can best describe the chemisorption characteristics, implying that Hg(0) adsorption on the samples was in a bimolecular reaction form.

  13. Rapid detection of chlorpyrifos pesticide residue concentration in agro-product using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Sagar; Peng, Yankun; Li, Yongyu; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Zhang, Leilei; Xu, Tianfeng

    2014-05-01

    Different chemicals are sprayed in fruits and vegetables before and after harvest for better yield and longer shelf-life of crops. Cases of pesticide poisoning to human health are regularly reported due to excessive application of such chemicals for greater economic benefit. Different analytical technologies exist to detect trace amount of pesticides in fruits and vegetables, but are expensive, sample destructive, and require longer processing time. This study explores the application of Raman spectroscopy for rapid and non-destructive detection of pesticide residue in agricultural products. Raman spectroscopy with laser module of 785 nm was used to collect Raman spectral information from the surface of Gala apples contaminated with different concentrations of commercially available organophosphorous (48% chlorpyrifos) pesticide. Apples within 15 days of harvest from same orchard were used in this study. The Raman spectral signal was processed by Savitzky-Golay (SG) filter for noise removal, Multiplicative Scatter Correction (MSC) for drift removal and finally polynomial fitting was used to eliminate the fluorescence background. The Raman spectral peak at 677 cm-1 was recognized as Raman fingerprint of chlorpyrifos. Presence of Raman peak at 677 cm-1 after fluorescence background removal was used to develop classification model (presence and absence of pesticide). The peak intensity was correlated with actual pesticide concentration obtained using Gas Chromatography and MLR prediction model was developed with correlation coefficient of calibration and validation of 0.86 and 0.81 respectively. Result shows that Raman spectroscopy is a promising tool for rapid, real-time and non-destructive detection of pesticide residue in agro-products.

  14. Determining the Volume of Additive Solution and Residual Plasma in Whole Blood Filtered and Buffy Coat Processed Red Cell Concentrates

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Andrew; Acker, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Residual plasma in transfused red cell concentrates (RCCs) has been associated with adverse transfusion outcomes. Despite this, there is no consensus on the standard procedure for measuring residual plasma volume. Methods The volumes of residual plasma and additive solution were measured in RCCs processed using two separation methods: whole blood filtration (WBF) and buffy coat (BC)/RCC filtration. The concentration of mannitol and albumin in RCC components was measured using colorimetric assays. Mannitol concentration was used to calculate additive solution volume. Residual plasma volume was calculated using two methods. Results Calculated RCC supernatant volumes were much lower in BC-processed components compared to WBF-processed components (BC = 97 ± 6 ml, WBF = 109 ± 4 ml; p < 0.05). Calculated additive solution volumes were greater in WBF- than in BC-processed components (BC = 81 ± 4 ml, WBF = 105 ± 2 ml; p < 0.05). Absolute residual plasma volume varied significantly based on the calculation method used. Conclusion Disparity between plasma volume calculation methods was observed. Efforts should be made to standardize residual plasma volume measurement methods in order to accurately assess the impact of residual plasma on transfusion outcomes. PMID:27330533

  15. Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Allows Purification and Concentration of Lauric Acid-/Albumin-Coated Particles for Improved Magnetic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zaloga, Jan; Stapf, Marcus; Nowak, Johannes; Pöttler, Marina; Friedrich, Ralf P.; Tietze, Rainer; Lyer, Stefan; Lee, Geoffrey; Odenbach, Stefan; Hilger, Ingrid; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are frequently used for drug targeting, hyperthermia and other biomedical purposes. Recently, we have reported the synthesis of lauric acid-/albumin-coated iron oxide nanoparticles SEONLA-BSA, which were synthesized using excess albumin. For optimization of magnetic treatment applications, SPION suspensions need to be purified of excess surfactant and concentrated. Conventional methods for the purification and concentration of such ferrofluids often involve high shear stress and low purification rates for macromolecules, like albumin. In this work, removal of albumin by low shear stress tangential ultrafiltration and its influence on SEONLA-BSA particles was studied. Hydrodynamic size, surface properties and, consequently, colloidal stability of the nanoparticles remained unchanged by filtration or concentration up to four-fold (v/v). Thereby, the saturation magnetization of the suspension can be increased from 446.5 A/m up to 1667.9 A/m. In vitro analysis revealed that cellular uptake of SEONLA-BSA changed only marginally. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was not greatly affected by concentration. In contrast, the maximum temperature Tmax in magnetic hyperthermia is greatly enhanced from 44.4 °C up to 64.9 °C by the concentration of the particles up to 16.9 mg/mL total iron. Taken together, tangential ultrafiltration is feasible for purifying and concentrating complex hybrid coated SPION suspensions without negatively influencing specific particle characteristics. This enhances their potential for magnetic treatment. PMID:26287178

  16. Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Allows Purification and Concentration of Lauric Acid-/Albumin-Coated Particles for Improved Magnetic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Zaloga, Jan; Stapf, Marcus; Nowak, Johannes; Pöttler, Marina; Friedrich, Ralf P; Tietze, Rainer; Lyer, Stefan; Lee, Geoffrey; Odenbach, Stefan; Hilger, Ingrid; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-08-14

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are frequently used for drug targeting, hyperthermia and other biomedical purposes. Recently, we have reported the synthesis of lauric acid-/albumin-coated iron oxide nanoparticles SEON(LA-BSA), which were synthesized using excess albumin. For optimization of magnetic treatment applications, SPION suspensions need to be purified of excess surfactant and concentrated. Conventional methods for the purification and concentration of such ferrofluids often involve high shear stress and low purification rates for macromolecules, like albumin. In this work, removal of albumin by low shear stress tangential ultrafiltration and its influence on SEON(LA-BSA) particles was studied. Hydrodynamic size, surface properties and, consequently, colloidal stability of the nanoparticles remained unchanged by filtration or concentration up to four-fold (v/v). Thereby, the saturation magnetization of the suspension can be increased from 446.5 A/m up to 1667.9 A/m. In vitro analysis revealed that cellular uptake of SEON(LA-BSA) changed only marginally. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was not greatly affected by concentration. In contrast, the maximum temperature Tmax in magnetic hyperthermia is greatly enhanced from 44.4 °C up to 64.9 °C by the concentration of the particles up to 16.9 mg/mL total iron. Taken together, tangential ultrafiltration is feasible for purifying and concentrating complex hybrid coated SPION suspensions without negatively influencing specific particle characteristics. This enhances their potential for magnetic treatment.

  17. Crop residue effects on Ca, Mg, K and Na concentrations and loads in runoff water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miras-Avalos, J. M.; Sande-Fouz, P.; Bertol, I.; Paz-Gonzalez, A.

    2009-04-01

    Soil organic matter constitutes and important source of macro and micronutrients for plants and microorganisms while improving some physical and chemical properties of the soil. In Galicia (NW Spain), cultivated soils developed on schists from the Ordenes series show a relatively high susceptibility to surface degradation, which tends to be increased when soil organic content decreases. Therefore, management systems providing a high protection to the soil and increasing its organic matter content should also improve its quality. However, tillage practices may reduce the organic matter content in soil surface horizons, causing crust formation. Degraded soil surface conditions favor surface runoff, thus enhancing nutrient losses. This study examined the effect of applying crop residues to the soil surface on main nutrient (Ca, Mg, K and Na) losses by runoff from a tilled soil with a relatively low organic matter content. Runoff and sediment yield were made over 1 m2 plots using a rainfall simulator with constant 65 mmh-1 intensity. Four successive rainfall applications were performed, the first three ones 25 mm each and the last one 65 mm. Added corn straw varied between 0 and 4 tha-1 in the five studied treatments. Total and dissolved concentrations of the studied elements showed a trend to decrease due to the effect of corn straw on soil losses. After 140 mm cumulative rainfall, total nutrient losses were as follows: Ca from 12.32 to 28.94 mg L-1, Mg from 20.81 to 148.90 mg L-1, K from 14.20 to 35.17 mg L-1 and Na from 14.99 to 23.41 mg L-1. The relative contribution of the dissolved fraction to the total nutrient content loss was highly variable, being up to 90% in the case of Na. The obtained results confirmed that corn residues applied to a degraded soil, with low structural stability, prevented macronutrient losses.

  18. The bioavailability of residues of the furazolidone metabolite 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone in porcine tissues and the effect of cooking upon residue concentrations.

    PubMed

    McCracken, R J; Kennedy, D G

    1997-07-01

    Residues of furazolidone in pig tissues have previously been shown to be bioavailable in the rat. However, no specific furazolidone metabolite has been identified in the tissues of a second species. Tissues were taken from pigs that had been treated therapeutically with furazolidone, lyophilized and then fed to female Sprague Dawley rats for 3 days. Protein-bound and solvent-extractable residues containing the side chain metabolite 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ) were detected in the liver, kidney and muscle of the rats using HPLC-thermospray mass spectrometry. Furazolidone-contaminated pig tissues which had undergone solvent extraction and thereby contained only bound residues, was fed to two rats. Bound and extractable AOZ was detected in liver, kidney and muscle. Since it is most likely that consumers would eat animal tissue which had been cooked, an experiment was carried out to determine the effects of cooking upon the concentrations of AOZ residues in pig tissues. Total AOZ concentrations were not significantly reduced in liver, kidney or muscle, following frying, grilling or microwaving.

  19. Relationship between residual feed intake and lymphocyte mitochondrial complex protein concentration and ratio in crossbred steers.

    PubMed

    Davis, M P; Brooks, M A; Kerley, M S

    2016-04-01

    Rate of oxygen uptake by muscle mitochondria and respiratory chain protein concentrations differed between high- and low-residual feed intake (RFI) animals. The hypothesis of this research was that complex I (CI), II (CII), and III (CIII) mitochondria protein concentrations in lymphocyte (blood) mitochondria were related to the RFI phenotype of beef steers. Daily feed intake (ADFI) was individually recorded for 92 Hereford-crossbreed steers over 63 d using GrowSafe individual feed intake system. Predicted ADFI was calculated as the regression of ADFI on ADG and midtest BW. Difference between ADFI and predicted ADFI was RFI. Lymphocytes were isolated from low-RFI (-1.32 ± 0.11 kg/d; = 10) and high-RFI (1.34 ± 0.18 kg/d; = 8) steers. Immunocapture of CI, CII, and CIII proteins from the lymphocyte was done using MitoProfile CI, CII, and CIII immunocapture kits (MitoSciences Inc., Eugene, OR). Protein concentrations of CI, CII, and CIII and total protein were quantified using bicinchoninic acid colorimetric procedures. Low-RFI steers consumed 30% less ( = 0.0004) feed and had a 40% improvement ( < 0.0001) in feed efficiency compared with high-RFI steers with similar growth ( = 0.78) and weight measurements ( > 0.65). High- and low-RFI steers did not differ in CI ( = 0.22), CII ( = 0.69), and CIII ( = 0.59) protein concentrations. The protein concentration ratios for CI to CII ( = 0.03) were 20% higher and the ratios of CI to CIII ( = 0.01) were 30% higher, but the ratios of CII to CIII ( = 0.89) did not differ when comparing low-RFI steers with high-RFI steers. The similar magnitude difference in feed intake, feed efficiency measurements, and CI-to-CIII ratio between RFI phenotypes provides a plausible explanation for differences between the phenotypes. We also concluded that mitochondria isolated from lymphocytes could be used to study respiratory chain differences among differing RFI phenotypes. Further research is needed to determine if lymphocyte mitochondrial

  20. Arsenic Species in Chicken Breast: Temporal Variations of Metabolites, Elimination Kinetics, and Residual Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingqing; Peng, Hanyong; Lu, Xiufen; Zuidhof, Martin J.; Li, Xing-Fang; Le, X. Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chicken meat has the highest per capita consumption among all meat types in North America. The practice of feeding 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone, Rox) to chickens lasted for more than 60 years. However, the fate of Rox and arsenic metabolites remaining in chicken are poorly understood. Objectives: We aimed to determine the elimination of Rox and metabolites from chickens and quantify the remaining arsenic species in chicken meat, providing necessary information for meaningful exposure assessment. Methods: We have conducted a 35-day feeding experiment involving 1,600 chickens, of which half were control and the other half were fed a Rox-supplemented diet for the first 28 days and then a Rox-free diet for the final 7 days. We quantified the concentrations of individual arsenic species in the breast meat of 229 chickens. Results: Rox, arsenobetaine, arsenite, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, and a new arsenic metabolite, were detected in breast meat from chickens fed Rox. The concentrations of arsenic species, except arsenobetaine, were significantly higher in the Rox-fed than in the control chickens. The half-lives of elimination of these arsenic species were 0.4–1 day. Seven days after termination of Rox feeding, the concentrations of arsenite (3.1 μg/kg), Rox (0.4 μg/kg), and a new arsenic metabolite (0.8 μg/kg) were significantly higher in the Rox-fed chickens than in the control. Conclusion: Feeding of Rox to chickens increased the concentrations of five arsenic species in breast meat. Although most arsenic species were excreted rapidly when the feeding of Rox stopped, arsenic species remaining in the Rox-fed chickens were higher than the background levels. Citation: Liu Q, Peng H, Lu X, Zuidhof MJ, Li XF, Le XC. 2016. Arsenic species in chicken breast: temporal variations of metabolites, elimination kinetics, and residual concentrations. Environ Health Perspect 124:1174–1181; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  1. Evolution of residual-Zn available concentrations of Zn-EDTA chelate in two different soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almendros, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Alvarez, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Zinc chelates, such as Zn-EDTA have been widely used to correct deficiencies in this micronutrient in different crops. Several authors have suggested applying complexed forms of Zn to soils in order to offer an effective source of Zn to plants. When inorganic Zn sources are added to soils, the availability of Zn to plants tends to decrease with time. This is due to the aging of the metal or the transformation of the Zn that is normally available to plants into various less available forms. Soil properties are believed to influence the fixation and/or precipitation of added Zn. The objective of this study was to determine the changes over time in the concentrations of available residual-Zn in two different soils to which the Zn-EDTA chelate was applied. An experiment was conducted under controlled laboratory conditions in two different soils: an acidic soil [Typic Haploxeralf; field capacity, 6.65 g H2O/100 g soil; pHw (1/2.5, w/v), 6.2; texture USDA, sandy loam, with illite as the predominant clay; oxidizable organic carbon 0.29%; extractable P, 19.9 mg/kg] and a calcareous soil [Typic Calcixerept; field capacity, 20.5 g H2O/100 g soil; pHw (1/2.5, w/v), 8.2; texture USDA, loamy sand, with smectite as the predominant clay; oxidizable organic carbon 0.75%; extractable P, 12.6 mg/kg]. These soils were treated with a synthetic chelate, Zn-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Zn-EDTA), at different rates of application [0 (nil-Zn), 5 and 10 mg Zn kg-1 soil]. The potential available Zn concentrations were estimated at four experimental times (0, 15, 45 and 75 d) by the Mehlich-3 and DTPA-AB extraction methods. The results obtained showed the evolution of available Zn over experimental time, for each treatment. The Zn concentrations in both soils showed significant differences over experimental time. Zn-EDTA applied at both Zn rates (5 and 10 mg Zn kg-1) was associated with high variations in available Zn concentrations. However, in both soils, the decreases in available Zn

  2. Prediction of Flunixin Tissue Residue Concentrations in Livers from Diseased Cattle.

    PubMed

    Wu, H; Baynes, R E; Tell, L A; Riviere, J E

    2013-10-25

    Flunixin, a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was a leading cause of violative residues in cattle. The objective of this analysis was to explore how the changes in pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters that may be associated with diseased animals affect the predicted liver residue of flunixin in cattle. Monte Carlo simulations for liver residues of flunixin were performed using the PK model structure and relevant PK parameter estimates from a previously published population PK model for flunixin in cattle. The magnitude of a change in the PK parameter value that resulted in a violative residue issue in more than one percent of a cattle population was compared. In this regard, elimination clearance and volume of distribution affected withdrawal times. Pathophysiological factors that can change these parameters may contribute to the occurrence of violative residues of flunixin.

  3. Prediction of flunixin tissue residue concentrations in livers from diseased cattle.

    PubMed

    Wu, H; Baynes, R E; Tell, L A; Riviere, J E

    2013-12-01

    Flunixin, a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was a leading cause of violative residues in cattle. The objective of this analysis was to explore how the changes in pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters that may be associated with diseased animals affect the predicted liver residue of flunixin in cattle. Monte Carlo simulations for liver residues of flunixin were performed using the PK model structure and relevant PK parameter estimates from a previously published population PK model for flunixin in cattle. The magnitude of a change in the PK parameter value that resulted in a violative residue issue in more than one percent of a cattle population was compared. In this regard, elimination clearance and volume of distribution affected withdrawal times. Pathophysiological factors that can change these parameters may contribute to the occurrence of violative residues of flunixin.

  4. Hybrid-renewable processes for biofuels production: concentrated solar pyrolysis of biomass residues

    SciTech Connect

    George, Anthe; Geier, Manfred; Dedrick, Daniel E.

    2014-10-01

    The viability of thermochemically-derived biofuels can be greatly enhanced by reducing the process parasitic energy loads. Integrating renewable power into biofuels production is one method by which these efficiency drains can be eliminated. There are a variety of such potentially viable "hybrid-renewable" approaches; one is to integrate concentrated solar power (CSP) to power biomass-to-liquid fuels (BTL) processes. Barriers to CSP integration into BTL processes are predominantly the lack of fundamental kinetic and mass transport data to enable appropriate systems analysis and reactor design. A novel design for the reactor has been created that can allow biomass particles to be suspended in a flow gas, and be irradiated with a simulated solar flux. Pyrolysis conditions were investigated and a comparison between solar and non-solar biomass pyrolysis was conducted in terms of product distributions and pyrolysis oil quality. A novel method was developed to analyse pyrolysis products, and investigate their stability.

  5. Allowable CO2 concentrations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a function of the climate sensitivity probability distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, L. D. Danny

    2007-03-01

    Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) calls for stabilization of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations at levels that prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference (DAI) in the climate system. Until recently, the consensus viewpoint was that the climate sensitivity (the global mean equilibrium warming for a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration) was 'likely' to fall between 1.5 and 4.5 K. However, a number of recent studies have generated probability distribution functions (pdfs) for climate sensitivity with the 95th percentile of the expected climate sensitivity as large as 10 K, while some studies suggest that the climate sensitivity is likely to fall in the lower half of the long-standing 1.5 4.5 K range. This paper examines the allowable CO2 concentration as a function of the 95th percentile of the climate sensitivity pdf (ranging from 2 to 8 K) and for the following additional assumptions: (i) the 50th percentile for the pdf of the minimum sustained global mean warming that causes unacceptable harm equal to 1.5 or 2.5 K and (ii) 1%, 5% or 10% allowable risks of unacceptable harm. For a 1% risk tolerance and the more stringent harm-threshold pdf, the allowable CO2 concentration ranges from 323 to 268 ppmv as the 95th percentile of the climate sensitivity pdf increases from 2 to 8 K, while for a 10% risk tolerance and the less stringent harm-threshold pdf, the allowable CO2 concentration ranges from 531 to 305 ppmv. In both cases it is assumed that non-CO2 GHG radiative forcing can be reduced to half of its present value, otherwise; the allowable CO2 concentration is even smaller. Accounting for the fact that the CO2 concentration will gradually fall if emissions are reduced to zero, and that peak realized warming will then be less than the peak equilibrium warming (related to peak radiative forcing) allows the CO2 concentration to peak at 10 40 ppmv higher than the limiting values given above for a climate sensitivity

  6. Optical properties of black liquor and refractometric methods for monitoring the solid residue concentration in sulfate cellulose production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, N. P.; Lapshov, S. N.; Mayorov, E. E.; Sherstobitova, A. S.; Yaskov, A. D.

    2012-07-01

    Measurements of the refractive index, its temperature dependence, and the optical transmission of black liquors produced during sulfate pulping are reported for soluble solid residue concentrations up to k ≅ 60 %. The design features of a commercial refractometer for monitoring the concentration of black liquor are examined briefly. A procedure is proposed for laboratory calibration of commercial sensors that employs black liquor solutions in highly refractive organic liquids as reference samples.

  7. Influence of bleaching on flavor of 34% whey protein concentrate and residual benzoic acid concentration in dried whey products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  8. Influence of Bleaching on Flavor of 34% Whey Protein Concentrate and Residual Benzoic Acid Concentration in Dried Whey Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  9. Tide-induced suspended sediment transport: depth-averaged concentrations and horizontal residual fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qian; Flemming, Burg

    2010-05-01

    Depth-averaged suspended sediment concentrations (DASSC) and horizontal residual fluxes (HRF) are derived analytically in order to distinguish the relative contributions of different forcing factors (and their interactions), including tidal currents, tidal heights, and horizontal DASSC gradients. On this basis the effect of horizontal advection and local resuspension and deposition processes can be clarified. The analytical solution of the temporal evolution of the DASSC is obtained based on three main assumptions: (1) the effect of vertical circulation on the suspended sediment transport is small, this being associated with the well-mixed nature of the water body; (2) sediment resuspension is proportional to the square of the depth-averaged velocity multiplied by a constant resuspension capacity, this being associated with an erosion constant, the drag coefficient and a critical shear stress, deposition resulting from the vertical sediment inventory multiplied by a constant deposition capacity, which is related to the sediment settling velocity and the ratio between the near-bed SSC and the sediment inventory; and (3) the DASSC gradient is constant over time. If the tidal current velocities and tidal heights are decomposed to non-periodic M2 and M4 compositions at the study site, and neglecting the high-order (>1) trivial terms, the analytical solution can be written as the sum of eight components. The eight components (E1 to E8) of the analytical solution indicate different processes affecting the DASSC. The non-periodic E1 component corresponds to the SSC averaged over depth and tidal cycle, being controlled by the suspension capacity and the combined effect of the DASSC gradient and the residual velocity. The E2, E3 and E4 components show the M2 variations. The E5 and E6 components represent the M4 variations, whereas the E7 and E8 components demonstrate the M6 variations of the DASSC. The E6 component is caused by the M2 velocity, and is considered to

  10. Compassionate Allowances

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to content Social Security Search Menu Languages Sign in / up Compassionate Allowances Featured Items Compassionate Allowances Conditions CAL conditions are selected using information received ...

  11. A dual validation approach to detect anthelmintic residues in bovine liver over an extended concentration range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes a method for the detection and quantification of 38 of the most widely used anthelmintics (including benzimidazoles, macrocyclic lactones and flukicides) in bovine liver at MRL and non-MRL level. A dual validation approach was adapted to reliably detect anthelmintic residues ov...

  12. Proximate Composition and Collagen Concentration of Processing Residue of Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Residues (including heads, skin, viscera, frames, and trimmings) from the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus processing industry have generally been made into catfish meal and catfish oil that are used in animal feeds. There may be more efficient uses for these materials, such as producing collagen...

  13. Interaction between carbohydrate residues of alpha1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid) and saturating concentrations of Calcofluor White. A fluorescence study.

    PubMed

    Albani, J R; Sillen, A; Plancke, Y D; Coddeville, B; Engelborghs, Y

    2000-07-24

    White and the carbohydrate residues of alpha1-acid glycoprotein are also performed at saturating concentrations of Calcofluor using the red-edge excitation spectra and steady-state anisotropy studies. The red-edge excitation spectra experiments show an important shift (13 nm) of the fluorescence emission maximum of the probe. This reveals that emission of Calcofluor occurs before relaxation of the surrounding carbohydrate residues occurs. Emission from a non-relaxed state means that the microenvironment of bound Calcofluor is rigid, inducing in this way the rigidity of the fluorophore itself, a result confirmed by anisotropy studies.

  14. High-Throughput Analytical Techniques for Determination of Residues of 653 Multiclass Pesticides and Chemical Pollutants in Tea, Part VI: Study of the Degradation of 271 Pesticide Residues in Aged Oolong Tea by Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Its Application in Predicting the Residue Concentrations of Target Pesticides.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qiao-Ying; Pang, Guo-Fang; Fan, Chun-Lin; Chen, Hui; Wang, Zhi-Bin

    2016-07-01

    The degradation rate of 271 pesticide residues in aged Oolong tea at two spray concentrations, named a and b (a < b), were monitored for 120 days using GC-tandem MS (GC-MS/MS). To research the degradation trends and establish regression equations, determination days were plotted as horizontal ordinates and the residue concentrations of pesticide were plotted as vertical ordinates. Here, we consider the degradation equations of 271 pesticides over 40 and 120 days, summarize the degradation rates in six aspects (A-F), and discuss the degradation trends of the 271 pesticides in aged Oolong tea in detail. The results indicate that >70% of the determined pesticides coincide with the degradation regularity of trends A, B, and E, i.e., the concentration of pesticide will decrease within 4 months. Next, 20 representative pesticides were selected for further study at higher spray concentrations, named c and d (d > c > b > a), in aged Oolong tea over another 90 days. The determination days were plotted on the x-axis, and the differences between each determined result and first-time-determined value of target pesticides were plotted on the y-axis. The logarithmic function was obtained by fitting the 90-day determination results, allowing the degradation value of a target pesticide on a specific day to be calculated. These logarithmic functions at d concentration were applied to predict the residue concentrations of pesticides at c concentration. Results revealed that 70% of the 20 pesticides had the lower deviation ratios of predicted and measured results.

  15. Changes in rumen microbiota composition and in situ degradation kinetics during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance.

    PubMed

    Dieho, K; van den Bogert, B; Henderson, G; Bannink, A; Ramiro-Garcia, J; Smidt, H; Dijkstra, J

    2017-04-01

    Changes in rumen microbiota and in situ degradation kinetics were studied in 12 rumen-cannulated Holstein Friesian dairy cows during the dry period and early lactation. The effect of a rapid (RAP) or gradual (GRAD) postpartum (pp) rate of increase of concentrate allowance was also investigated. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake and had free access to a mixed ration consisting of chopped wheat straw (dry period only), grass silage, corn silage, and soybean meal. Treatment consisted of either a rapid (1.0 kg of dry matter/d; n = 6) or gradual (0.25 kg of dry matter/d; n = 6) increase of concentrate allowance (up to 10.9 kg of dry matter/d), starting at 4 d pp. In whole rumen contents, bacterial community composition was assessed using samples from 50, 30, and 10 d antepartum (ap), and 3, 9, 16, 30, 44, 60, and 80 d pp, and protozoal and archaeal community composition using samples from 10 d ap, and 16 and 44 d pp. Intake of fermentable organic matter, starch, and sugar was temporarily greater in RAP than GRAD at 16 d pp. Bacterial community richness was higher during the dry period than during the lactation. A rapid increase in concentrate allowance decreased bacterial community richness at 9 and 16 d pp compared with a gradual increase in concentrate allowance, whereas from 30 d pp onward richness of RAP and GRAD was similar. In general, the relative abundances of Bacteroidales and Aeromonadales were greater, and those of Clostridiales, Fibrobacterales, and Spirochaetales were smaller, during the lactation compared with the dry period. An interaction between treatment and sampling day was observed for some bacterial community members, and most of the protozoal and archaeal community members. Transition to lactation increased the relative abundance of Epidinium and Entodinium, but reduced the relative abundance of Ostracodinium. Archaea from genus Methanobrevibacter dominated during both the dry period and lactation. However, during lactation the abundance of the

  16. Behavior of Multiclass Pesticide Residue Concentrations during the Transformation from Rose Petals to Rose Absolute.

    PubMed

    Tascone, Oriane; Fillâtre, Yoann; Roy, Céline; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2015-05-27

    This study investigates the concentrations of 54 multiclass pesticides during the transformation processes from rose petal to concrete and absolute using roses spiked with pesticides as a model. The concentrations of the pesticides were followed during the process of transforming the spiked rose flowers from an organic field into concrete and then into absolute. The rose flowers, the concrete, and the absolute, as well as their transformation intermediates, were analyzed for pesticide content using gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. We observed that all the pesticides were extracted and concentrated in the absolute, with the exception of three molecules: fenthion, fenamiphos, and phorate. Typical pesticides were found to be concentrated by a factor of 100-300 from the rose flowers to the rose absolute. The observed effect of pesticide enrichment was also studied in roses and their extracts from four classically phytosanitary treated fields. Seventeen pesticides were detected in at least one of the extracts. Like the case for the spiked samples in our model, the pesticides present in the rose flowers from Turkey were concentrated in the absolute. Two pesticides, methidathion and chlorpyrifos, were quantified in the rose flowers at approximately 0.01 and 0.01-0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively, depending on the treated field. The concentrations determined for the corresponding rose absolutes were 4.7 mg kg(-1) for methidathion and 0.65-27.25 mg kg(-1) for chlorpyrifos.

  17. Methylation of γ-carboxylated Glu (Gla) allows detection by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the identification of Gla residues in the γ-glutamyl carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Hallgren, K W; Zhang, D; Kinter, M; Willard, B; Berkner, K L

    2013-06-07

    γ-Carboxylated Glu (Gla) is a post-translational modification required for the activity of vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins that has been difficult to study by mass spectrometry due to the properties of this negatively charged residue. Gla is generated by a single enzyme, the γ-glutamyl carboxylase, which has broad biological impact because VKD proteins have diverse functions that include hemostasis, apoptosis, and growth control. The carboxylase also contains Glas, of unknown function, and is an integral membrane protein with poor sequence coverage. To locate these Glas, we first established methods that resulted in high coverage (92%) of uncarboxylated carboxylase. Subsequent analysis of carboxylated carboxylase identified a Gla peptide (729-758) and a missing region (625-647) that was detected in uncarboxylated carboxylase. We therefore developed an approach to methylate Gla, which efficiently neutralized Gla and improved mass spectrometric analysis. Methylation eliminated CO2 loss from Gla, increased the ionization of Gla-containing peptide, and appeared to facilitate trypsin digestion. Methylation of a carboxylated carboxylase tryptic digest identified Glas in the 625-647 peptide. These studies provide valuable information for testing the function of carboxylase carboxylation. The methylation approach for studying Gla by mass spectrometry is an important advance that will be broadly applicable to analyzing other VKD proteins.

  18. Methylation of gamma-carboxylated Glu (Gla) allows detection by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the identification of Gla residues in the gamma-glutamyl carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Hallgren, K. W.; Zhang, D.; Kinter, M.; Willard, B.; Berkner, K. L.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-carboxylated Glu (Gla) is a post-translational modification required for the activity of vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins that has been difficult to study by mass spectrometry due to the properties of this negatively-charged residue. Gla is generated by a single enzyme, the gamma-glutamyl carboxylase, which has broad biological impact because VKD proteins have diverse functions that include hemostasis, apoptosis, and growth control. The carboxylase also contains Glas, of unknown function, and is an integral membrane protein with poor sequence coverage. To locate these Glas, we first established methods that resulted in high coverage (92%) of uncarboxylated carboxylase. Subsequent analysis of carboxylated carboxylase identified a Gla-peptide (729-758) and a missing region (625-647) that was detected in uncarboxylated carboxylase. We therefore developed an approach to methylate Gla, which efficiently neutralized Gla and improved mass spectrometric analysis. Methylation eliminated CO2 loss from Gla, increased the ionization of Gla-containing peptide, and appeared to facilitate trypsin digestion. Methylation of a carboxylated carboxylase tryptic digest identified Glas in the 625-647 peptide. These studies provide valuable information for testing the function of carboxylase carboxylation. The methylation approach for studying Gla by mass spectrometry is an important advance that will be broadly applicable to analyzing other VKD proteins. PMID:22536908

  19. [Rapid determination of ethephon residues in concentrated pineapple juice by head-space gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Chu, X G; Yong, W; Cai, H X; Pan, J W

    2001-05-01

    The method developed is based on the special property that ethephon can be easily decomposed into ethene in alkaline solution by heating. Certain amount of concentrated KOH solution was added to the sample and heated at 70 degrees C. Then, 1 mL of the gas above the sample was injected into a gas chromatograph by head-space sampler for the determination of the target compound with external standard quantitation method. The detection limit was 0.025 mg/kg and the fortified recoveries of ethephon in concentrated pineapple juice (60 +/- 1) Brix at the range of 0.1 mg/kg-10 mg/kg were 92%-98% (n = 8, for each level). The relative standard deviations were 3.99%-7.94%.

  20. Alkali solution extraction of rice residue protein isolates: Influence of alkali concentration on protein functional, structural properties and lysinoalanine formation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Furong; Ding, Wenhui; Qu, Wenjuan; Oladejo, Ayobami Olayemi; Xiong, Feng; Zhang, Weiwei; He, Ronghai; Ma, Haile

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the nutrient property and safety of the rice residue protein isolates (RRPI) product (extracted by different alkali concentrations) by exploring the protein functional, structural properties and lysinoalanine (LAL) formation. The results showed that with the rising of alkali concentration from 0.03M to 0.15M, the solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties of RRPI increased at first and then descended. When the alkali concentration was greater than 0.03M, the RRPI surface hydrophobicity decreased and the content of thiol and disulfide bond, Lys and Cys significantly reduced. By the analysis of HPLC, the content of LAL rose up from 276.08 to 15,198.07mg/kg and decreased to 1340.98mg/kg crude protein when the alkali concentration increased from 0.03 to 0.09M and until to 0.15M. These results indicated that RRPI alkaline extraction concentration above 0.03M may cause severe nutrient or safety problems of protein.

  1. Zearalenone (ZEN) metabolism and residue concentrations in physiological specimens of dairy cows exposed long-term to ZEN-contaminated diets differing in concentrate feed proportions.

    PubMed

    Dänicke, Sven; Keese, Christina; Meyer, Ulrich; Starke, Alexander; Kinoshita, Asako; Rehage, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    A long-term feeding experiment with dairy cows was performed to investigate the effects of feeding a Fusarium toxin contaminated (FUS) and a background-contaminated control (CON) ration with a mean concentrate feed proportion of 50% during the first 11 weeks after parturition (Groups FUS-50, CON-50, Period 1), and with concentrate feed proportions of 30% or 60% during the remaining 17 weeks (Groups CON-30, CON-60, FUS-30 and FUS-60, Period 2), on zearalenone (ZEN) residue levels in blood serum, milk, urine and bile. ZEN, α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZEL), zearalanone (ZAL), α-zearalanol (α-ZAL) and β-zearalanol (β-ZAL) were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The ZEN concentrations of the rations fed to Groups CON-50, FUS-50 (Period 1), CON-30, CON-60, FUS-30 and FUS-60 (Period 2) amounted to 53.1, 112.7, 35.0, 24.4, 73.8 and 72.5 µg/kg dry matter, respectively. The concentrations of ZEN, α-ZEL, β-ZEL, ZAN, α-ZAL and β-ZAL in serum, urine and milk were lower than 1, 1, 4, 100, 50 and 200 ng/g, respectively, while ZEN, α-ZEL and β-ZEL were detected in bile. Their levels changed with oral ZEN exposure in the course of the experiment and in a similar direction with concentrate feed proportion (Period 2 only). Thus the proportions of the individual β-ZEL, α-ZEL and ZEN concentrations of their sum varied only in narrow ranges of 68-76%, 6-13% and 12-20%, respectively. Interestingly, the bile concentrations of β-ZEL, α-ZEL and ZEN of Groups CON-60 and FUS-60 amounted to only approximately 50%, 45% and 62%, respectively, of those of Groups CON-30 and FUS-30 despite a similar or even lower ZEN exposure. The results indicate that conversion of ZEN to its detectable metabolites was not changed by different dietary concentrate feed proportions while their absolute levels were decreased. These findings might suggest concentrate feed proportion-dependent and rumen fermentation-mediated alterations in ZEN/metabolite degradation, and

  2. An alum-based water treatment residual can reduce extractable phosphorus concentrations in three phosphorus-enriched coastal plain soils.

    PubMed

    Novak, J M; Watts, D W

    2005-01-01

    The accumulation of excess soil phosphorus (P) in watersheds under intensive animal production has been linked to increases in dissolved P concentrations in rivers and streams draining these watersheds. Reductions in water dissolved P concentrations through very strong P sorption reactions may be obtainable after land application of alum-based drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs). Our objectives were to (i) evaluate the ability of an alum-based WTR to reduce Mehlich-3 phosphorus (M3P) and water-soluble phosphorus (WSP) concentrations in three P-enriched Coastal Plain soils, (ii) estimate WTR application rates necessary to lower soil M3P levels to a target 150 mg kg(-1) soil M3P concentration threshold level, and (iii) determine the effects on soil pH and electrical conductivity (EC). Three soils containing elevated M3P (145-371 mg kg(-1)) and WSP (12.3-23.5 mg kg(-1)) concentrations were laboratory incubated with between 0 and 6% WTR (w w(-1)) for 84 d. Incorporation of WTR into the three soils caused a near linear and significant reduction in soil M3P and WSP concentrations. In two soils, 6% WTR application caused a soil M3P concentration decrease to below the soil P threshold level. An additional incubation on the third soil using higher WTR to soil treatments (10-15%) was required to reduce the mean soil M3P concentration to 178 mg kg(-1). After incubation, most treatments had less than a half pH unit decline and a slight increase in soil EC values suggesting a minimal impact on soil quality properties. The results showed that WTR incorporation into soils with high P concentrations caused larger relative reductions in extractable WSP than M3P concentrations. The larger relative reductions in the extractable WSP fraction suggest that WTR can be more effective at reducing potential runoff P losses than usage as an amendment to lower M3P concentrations.

  3. Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, A; Moon, T W; Kennedy, S W; Glen, G A

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10064546

  4. Morphological adaptation of rumen papillae during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance.

    PubMed

    Dieho, K; Bannink, A; Geurts, I A L; Schonewille, J T; Gort, G; Dijkstra, J

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of the morphological adaptation of rumen papilla, which plays an important role in volatile fatty acid absorption, in dry and early lactation dairy cattle is limited. Therefore, macro- and microscopic changes in papilla morphology during the dry period and lactation and the effect of rate of increase of concentrate allowance were studied. Samples were collected from 12 rumen-cannulated Holstein Friesian dairy cows during a pretreatment period, 50, 30, and 10 d antepartum (the dry period) and 3 d postpartum (pp), and a treatment period, 9, 16, 30, 44, 60, and 80 d pp. Cows had free access to either a dry period ration [27% grass silage, 27% corn silage, 35% wheat straw, and 11% soybean meal on a dry matter (DM) basis] or a basal lactation ration (42% grass silage, 41% corn silage, and 17% soybean meal on a DM basis, and 0.9 kg of DM/d concentrate). Treatment consisted of either a rapid (1.0 kg of DM/d; RAP; n=6) or gradual (0.25 kg of DM/d; GRAD; n=6) increase of concentrate allowance (up to 10.9 kg of DM/d), starting at d 4 pp, aimed at creating a contrast in rumen-fermentable organic matter (FOM) intake. Papillae were collected from the ventral, ventral blind, and dorsal blind rumen sacs and measured digitally. Intake of DM (11.9 kg/d) and FOM (5.7 kg/d) did not change during the pretreatment period, but increased during the treatment period to 24.5 and 15.0 kg/d at 80 d pp, respectively. Concentrate treatment and sampling day interacted for FOM intake, which was 22% greater in RAP at 16 d pp compared with GRAD. Papilla surface area decreased during the pretreatment period by 19% to 28.0mm(2) at 3 d pp, thereafter increasing to 63.0mm(2) at 80 d pp. Concentrate treatment and sampling day interacted for surface area, which was greater in RAP compared with GRAD at 16 (46.0 vs. 33.2mm(2)), 30 (55.4 vs. 41.2mm(2)), and 44 (60.5 vs. 49.7 mm(2)) days pp, showing that papillae can respond to a rapid rate of increase of FOM intake by increasing growth rate

  5. First report of the concentrations and implications of DDT residues in chicken eggs from a malaria-controlled area.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Bornman, Riana; van Dyk, Cobus; Barnhoorn, Irene

    2015-10-01

    In malaria-endemic areas, where DDT is still used for vector control by indoor residual spraying (IRS), the concentrations of DDT in human blood and breast milk are high, and there are indications of human health impacts. To identify the possible avenues of exposure reduction, we created the concept of a Total Homestead Environment Approach (THEA). THEA characterizes the interactions between DDT, humans, and the biota within and around homesteads. One dietary route of human exposure and uptake of DDT, namely, chicken egg consumption, has to our knowledge never been studied. The ΣDDT in eggs from a DDT-sprayed village ranged between 5200 and 48,000 ng/g wm (wet mass), with a median of 11,000 ng/g wm. On a lipid mass-basis (lm), the mean ΣDDT for eggs from the sprayed village was 100,000 ng/g lm. The maximum egg concentration observed was three orders of magnitude higher than the median. The acceptable daily intake (ADI) was not exceeded based on the consumption of three eggs per week for a 60 kg person. This equates to an intake of 0.089 g DDT per person per year. Chicken egg consumption is therefore a possible target for exposure reduction, probably best achieved by reducing the DDT concentrations in soils.

  6. Residual sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ concentration after Ca2+ release in skeletal myofibers from young adult and old mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong-Min; Tang, Shen; Messi, María Laura; Yang, Jenny J; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2012-04-01

    Contrasting information suggests either almost complete depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) or significant residual Ca(2+) concentration after prolonged depolarization of the skeletal muscle fiber. The primary obstacle to resolving this controversy is the lack of genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicators targeted to the SR that exhibit low-Ca(2+) affinity, a fast biosensor: Ca(2+) off-rate reaction, and can be expressed in myofibers from adult and older adult mammalian species. This work used the recently designed low-affinity Ca(2+) sensor (Kd = 1.66 mM in the myofiber) CatchER (calcium sensor for detecting high concentrations in the ER) targeted to the SR, to investigate whether prolonged skeletal muscle fiber depolarization significantly alters residual SR Ca(2+) with aging. We found CatchER a proper tool to investigate SR Ca(2+) depletion in young adult and older adult mice, consistently tracking SR luminal Ca(2+) release in response to brief and repetitive stimulation. We evoked SR Ca(2+) release in whole-cell voltage-clamped flexor digitorum brevis muscle fibers from young and old FVB mice and tested the maximal SR Ca(2+) release by directly activating the ryanodine receptor (RyR1) with 4-chloro-m-cresol in the same myofibers. Here, we report for the first time that the Ca(2+) remaining in the SR after prolonged depolarization (2 s) in myofibers from aging (~220 μM) was larger than young (~132 μM) mice. These experiments indicate that SR Ca(2+) is far from fully depleted under physiological conditions throughout life, and support the concept of excitation-contraction uncoupling in functional senescent myofibers.

  7. Analysing the effects of the aeration pattern and residual ammonium concentration in a partial nitritation-anammox process.

    PubMed

    Corbalá-Robles, Luis; Picioreanu, Cristian; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Pérez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    A mathematical model was used to evaluate the effect of the aeration pattern and ammonium concentration in a partial nitritation-anammox sequencing batch reactor with granular and flocculent sludge. In the tested conditions, model results indicate that most of the aerobic ammonium oxidation potential would occur in the bulk liquid, with 70% of the ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) biomass in suspension rather than in granules. The simulated granular sludge consisted predominantly of anammox bacteria with AOB present in the outer layer of the granule (50 μm AOB layer, accounting for 3% of the granule weight). Simulation results indicated that when granules do not contain any AOB, the amount of granular biomass required to achieve the same level of nitrogen removal would strongly increase (in the simulated conditions, by a factor of three) due to anammox inhibition by oxygen. This underlines the importance of a small fraction of AOB present in the granular anammox sludge. The aeration pattern had an important impact on the nitrogen removal: a better performance was suggested for continuous aeration (90% N-removal) than for intermittent aeration (68-84% N-removal). Anammox inhibition during the periods of high oxygen concentration was identified as the main reason for the lower nitrogen removal in the intermittently aerated system. With increasing oxygen concentration, a higher residual (effluent) ammonium concentration was needed to assure nitrite-oxidizing bacteria repression in the system. This study contributes to further understand the complexity of a reactor with both granular and flocculent sludge and the impact of operation conditions on reactor performance.

  8. Concentrations and dissipation of difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad residues in apples and soil, determined by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    He, Min; Jia, Chunhong; Zhao, Ercheng; Chen, Li; Yu, Pingzhong; Jing, Junjie; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-03-01

    A new combined difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad fungicide formulation, as an 11.7 % suspension concentrate (SC), has been introduced as part of a resistance management strategy. The dissipation of difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad applied to apples and the residues remaining in the apples were determined. The 11.7 % SC was sprayed onto apple trees and soil in Beijing, Shandong, and Anhui provinces, China, at an application rate of 118 g a.i. ha(-1), then the dissipation of difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad was monitored. The residual difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad concentrations were determined by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The difenoconazole half-lives in apples and soil were 6.2-9.5 and 21.0-27.7 days, respectively. The fluxapyroxad half-lives in apples and soil were 9.4-12.6 and 10.3-36.5 days, respectively. Difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad residues in apples and soil after the 11.7 % SC had been sprayed twice and three times, with 10 days between applications, at 78 and 118 g a.i. ha(-1) were measured. Representative apple and soil samples were collected after the last treatment, at preharvest intervals of 14, 21, and 28 days. The difenoconazole residue concentrations in apples and soil were 0.002-0.052 and 0.002-0.298 mg kg(-1), respectively. The fluxapyroxad residue concentrations in apples and soil were 0.002-0.093 and 0.008-1.219 mg kg(-1), respectively. The difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad residue concentrations in apples were lower than the maximum residue limits (0.5 and 0.8 mg kg(-1), respectively). An application rate of 78 g a.i. ha(-1) is therefore recommended to ensure that treated apples can be considered safe for humans to consume.

  9. Improvement of Ohmic contact to p-GaN by controlling the residual carbon concentration in p++-GaN layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Feng; Zhao, Degang; Jiang, Desheng; Liu, Zongshun; Zhu, Jianjun; Chen, Ping; Yang, Jing; Liu, Wei; Li, Xiang; Liu, Shuangtao; Xing, Yao; Zhang, Liqun; Yang, Hui; Long, Heng; Li, Mo

    2017-06-01

    Growth conditions are used to control the residual carbon impurity incorporation in p++-GaN layers. Specific contact resistance (ρc) with various residual carbon concentrations has been investigated through the circular transmission line model (CTLM) method and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis. A correlation between residual carbon and ρc indicates that incorporation of proper carbon impurity can be an advantage for Ohmic contact, although carbon can also act as a compensating donor to worsen the Ohmic contact at a very high concentration. Finally, ρc is improved to 6.80 × 10-5 Ω × cm2 with a carbon concentration of 8.3 × 1017 cm-3 in p++-GaN layer, when the growth temperature, pressure and flow rate of CP2Mg and TMGa are 940 °C, 100 Torr, 3 μmol/min and 28 μmol/min, respectively.

  10. Residual effect of single and repeated doses of midazolam and nitrazepam in relation to their plasma concentrations.

    PubMed

    Godtilbsen, O B; Jerkø, D; Gordeladze, J O; Bredesen, J E; Matheson, I

    1986-01-01

    Twelve healthy volunteers were given either midazolam 15 mg or nitrazepam 5 mg for 7 consecutive days in a randomized cross-over trial. Self-assessment of sleep, mood or condition on awakening and adverse effects was performed, and the volunteers underwent evaluation of psychomotor performance. Hypnotic effect, judged by the classical sleep variables, showed that the drugs were more or less equal and were superior to placebo. Nitrazepam consistently produced an impaired condition on awakening and also clearly displayed a spectrum of adverse motor effects. Motor tests revealed impairment induced by both drugs, but, in the midazolam group the effect subsided during the trial period. Both drugs had a significant effect on memory, midazolam appearing to perturb certain memory functions to a greater extent than did nitrazepam. The residual plasma concentration of midazolam 11 h after treatment correlated well with the scores obtained in several of the psychomotor tests, whereas plasma nitrazepam levels were not related to performance in any subtest. When discontinued neither drugs, induced any rebound phenomenon. However, the adverse effects of nitrazepam appeared to be carried over into the adjacent placebo period.

  11. Concentration and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticide residues in herons and their prey in wetlands of Thermaikos Gulf, Macedonia, Greece.

    PubMed

    Albanis, T A; Hela, D; Papakostas, G; Goutner, V

    1996-04-05

    Concentrations of the principal organochlorine insecticides were determined in eggs and freshly dead chicks of the Squacco heron (Ardeola ralloides), Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) and Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), as well as in frogs (Rana sp.), the main heron prey. Material was collected from the wetlands of the Thermaikos Gulf (Macedonia, northern Greece) in 1992 and 1993. Residues of the organochlorine pesticides alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, lindane, 4,4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE, heptachlor and dieldrin were found in the eggs, chicks and prey of the herons. alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, and lindane had highest concentration in the Night Heron and lowest in the Little Egret. In all samples examined, the bioconcentration factors (BCF) of these compounds had very high values. BCF of pollutants for the eggs of the Squacco Heron were at lower levels than those of its chicks. BCF for frogs were in almost all cases lower than those for the other samples. Biomagnification factor (BMF) for 4,4'-DDE and beta-BHC had the highest values of all other compounds (except in the Night Heron). BMF for the eggs of the Squacco Heron were greater than for its chicks. Variation in the pesticide contents in the different heron species is attributed to different feeding habits; the exception being the occurrence of dieldrin in eggs only and 4,4'-DDE as a remnant of past spraying. Amounts of pesticides detected in this study are too low to affect eggshell thickness in the Squacco Heron or have other effects on the wildlife of the area.

  12. Wheat germ cell-free expression: Two detergents with a low critical micelle concentration allow for production of soluble HCV membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Fogeron, Marie-Laure; Badillo, Aurélie; Jirasko, Vlastimil; Gouttenoire, Jérôme; Paul, David; Lancien, Loick; Moradpour, Darius; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Meier, Beat H; Penin, François; Böckmann, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins are notoriously difficult to express in a soluble form. Here, we use wheat germ cell-free expression in the presence of various detergents to produce the non-structural membrane proteins 2, 4B and 5A of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). We show that lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol (MNG-3) and dodecyl octaethylene glycol ether (C12E8) detergents can yield essentially soluble membrane proteins at detergent concentrations that do not inhibit the cell-free reaction. This finding can be explained by the low critical micelle concentration (CMC) of these detergents, which keeps the monomer concentrations low while at the same time providing the necessary excess of detergent concentration above CMC required for full target protein solubilization. We estimate that a tenfold excess of detergent micelles with respect to the protein concentration is sufficient for solubilization, a number that we propose as a guideline for detergent screening assays.

  13. Estimation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the water column based on tissue residues in mussels and salmon: An equilibrium partitioning approach

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, J.M.; Burns, W.A.

    1996-12-01

    Equilibrium partitioning was used to estimate concentrations of dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the water column from PAH residues in tissues of mussels and juvenile pink salmon collected from coastal marine waters affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Estimated concentrations were within factors of 2 to 5 for fish and 5 to 10 for mussels of average total dissolved and particulate PAHs measured in concurrent water samples. Temporal trends of estimated and measured water-column PAH concentrations were comparable. Water-column PAH concentrations estimated from residues in tissues of mussels (Mytilus trossulus) were higher than estimates based on residues in tissues of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). Possible reasons for this difference include seasonal variations in mussel lipid content, differences in PAH uptake and depuration rates between fish and mussels, differences in how fish and mussels interact with particulate oil, and possible short exposure times for juvenile pink salmon. All of these factors may play a role. In any event, estimates of dissolved PAHs in the water column, based on PAH residues in either fish or mussel tissue, confirm that PAH concentrations generally did not exceed water quality standards for protection of marine life.

  14. Thorium, uranium and rare earth elements content in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue of Lynas advanced materials plant (LAMP)

    SciTech Connect

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M. Majid, Amran Ab. Sarmani, Sukiman

    2014-02-12

    Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP) has been licensed to produce the rare earths elements since early 2013 in Malaysia. LAMP processes lanthanide concentrate (LC) to extract rare earth elements and subsequently produce large volumes of water leach purification (WLP) residue containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This residue has been rising up the environmental issue because it was suspected to accumulate thorium with significant activity concentration and has been classified as radioactive residue. The aim of this study is to determine Th-232, U-238 and rare earth elements in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue collected from LAMP and to evaluate the potential radiological impacts of the WLP residue on the environment. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and γ-spectrometry were used for determination of Th, U and rare earth elements concentrations. The results of this study found that the concentration of Th in LC was 1289.7 ± 129 ppm (5274.9 ± 527.6Bq/kg) whereas the Th and U concentrations in WLP were determined to be 1952.9±17.6 ppm (7987.4 ± 71.9 Bq/kg) and 17.2 ± 2.4 ppm respectively. The concentrations of Th and U in LC and WLP samples determined by γ- spectrometry were 1156 ppm (4728 ± 22 Bq/kg) and 18.8 ppm and 1763.2 ppm (7211.4 Bq/kg) and 29.97 ppm respectively. This study showed that thorium concentrations were higher in WLP compare to LC. This study also indicate that WLP residue has high radioactivity of {sup 232}Th compared to Malaysian soil natural background (63 - 110 Bq/kg) and come under preview of Act 304 and regulations. In LC, the Ce and Nd concentrations determined by INAA were 13.2 ± 0.6% and 4.7 ± 0.1% respectively whereas the concentrations of La, Ce, Nd and Sm in WLP were 0.36 ± 0.04%, 1.6%, 0.22% and 0.06% respectively. This result showed that some amount of rare earth had not been extracted and remained in the WLP and may be considered to be reextracted.

  15. Thorium, uranium and rare earth elements content in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue of Lynas advanced materials plant (LAMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Majid, Amran Ab.; Sarmani, Sukiman

    2014-02-01

    Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP) has been licensed to produce the rare earths elements since early 2013 in Malaysia. LAMP processes lanthanide concentrate (LC) to extract rare earth elements and subsequently produce large volumes of water leach purification (WLP) residue containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This residue has been rising up the environmental issue because it was suspected to accumulate thorium with significant activity concentration and has been classified as radioactive residue. The aim of this study is to determine Th-232, U-238 and rare earth elements in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue collected from LAMP and to evaluate the potential radiological impacts of the WLP residue on the environment. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and γ-spectrometry were used for determination of Th, U and rare earth elements concentrations. The results of this study found that the concentration of Th in LC was 1289.7 ± 129 ppm (5274.9 ± 527.6Bq/kg) whereas the Th and U concentrations in WLP were determined to be 1952.9±17.6 ppm (7987.4 ± 71.9 Bq/kg) and 17.2 ± 2.4 ppm respectively. The concentrations of Th and U in LC and WLP samples determined by γ- spectrometry were 1156 ppm (4728 ± 22 Bq/kg) & 18.8 ppm and 1763.2 ppm (7211.4 Bq/kg) &29.97 ppm respectively. This study showed that thorium concentrations were higher in WLP compare to LC. This study also indicate that WLP residue has high radioactivity of 232Th compared to Malaysian soil natural background (63 - 110 Bq/kg) and come under preview of Act 304 and regulations. In LC, the Ce and Nd concentrations determined by INAA were 13.2 ± 0.6% and 4.7 ± 0.1% respectively whereas the concentrations of La, Ce, Nd and Sm in WLP were 0.36 ± 0.04%, 1.6%, 0.22% and 0.06% respectively. This result showed that some amount of rare earth had not been extracted and remained in the WLP and may be considered to be reextracted.

  16. Concentration of Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cd, and Pb in soil, sugarcane leaf and juice: residual effect of sewage sludge and organic compost application.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Sarah Mello Leite; Bertoncini, Edna Ivani; Vitti, André César; Alleoni, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú; Abreu-Junior, Cassio Hamilton

    2016-03-01

    Many researchers have evaluated the effects of successive applications of sewage sludge (SS) on soil plant-systems, but most have not taken into account the residual effect of organic matter remaining from prior applications. Furthermore, few studies have been carried out to compare the effects of the agricultural use of SS and sewage sludge compost (SSC). Therefore, we evaluated the residual effect of SS and SSC on the heavy metal concentrations in soil and in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) leaves and juice. The field experiment was established after the second harvesting of unburned sugarcane, when the organic materials were applied. The SS and SSC rates were (t ha(-1), dry base): 0, 12.5, 25, and 50; and 0, 21, 42, and 84, respectively. All element concentrations in the soil were below the standards established by São Paulo State environmental legislation. SS promoted small increases in Zn concentrations in soil and Cu concentrations in leaves. However, all heavy metals concentrations in the leaves were lower than the limits established for toxic elements and were in accordance with the limits established for micronutrients. There were reductions in the concentrations of Ni and Cu in soil and the concentration of Pb in juice, with increasing rates of SSC. The heavy metal concentrations were very low in the juice. Under humid tropical conditions and with short-term use, SS and SSC containing low heavy metal concentrations did not have negative effects on plants and soil.

  17. 7 CFR 29.427 - Pesticide residue standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pesticide residue standards. 29.427 Section 29.427... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.427 Pesticide residue standards. The maximum concentration of residues of the following pesticides allowed in flue-cured or burley tobacco, expressed...

  18. 7 CFR 29.427 - Pesticide residue standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pesticide residue standards. 29.427 Section 29.427... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.427 Pesticide residue standards. The maximum concentration of residues of the following pesticides allowed in flue-cured or burley tobacco, expressed...

  19. 7 CFR 29.427 - Pesticide residue standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pesticide residue standards. 29.427 Section 29.427... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.427 Pesticide residue standards. The maximum concentration of residues of the following pesticides allowed in flue-cured or burley tobacco, expressed...

  20. 7 CFR 29.427 - Pesticide residue standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pesticide residue standards. 29.427 Section 29.427... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.427 Pesticide residue standards. The maximum concentration of residues of the following pesticides allowed in flue-cured or burley tobacco, expressed...

  1. 7 CFR 29.427 - Pesticide residue standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pesticide residue standards. 29.427 Section 29.427... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.427 Pesticide residue standards. The maximum concentration of residues of the following pesticides allowed in flue-cured or burley tobacco, expressed...

  2. Substitution of egg yolk by a cyclodextrin-cholesterol complex allows a reduction of the glycerol concentration into the freezing medium of equine sperm.

    PubMed

    Blommaert, Didier; Franck, Thierry; Donnay, Isabelle; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe; Detilleux, Johann; Serteyn, Didier

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to completely replace the egg yolk a classical diluent for freezing equine semen by a cyclodextrin-cholesterol complex. At the same time, the reduction in the glycerol content used for cryopreservation and the incubation time between sperm and the freezing media were evaluated. Horse ejaculates were frozen with four different freezing extenders: a frozen reference medium (IF) containing egg yolk and 2.5% glycerol and media without egg yolk but supplemented with 1.5 mg 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin cholesterol (HPβCD-C) complex and containing either 1% (G1), 2% (G2) or 3% glycerol (G3). Three incubation times (90, 120 and 180 min) at 4 °C between the fresh semen and the different media were tested before freezing. Viability and motility analyses were performed with computer assisted semen analysis (CASA). Results showed that the freezing media containing the HPβCD-C complex with 1%, 2% and 3% glycerol significantly improve the 3 in vitro parameters of post thawing semen quality (viability, progressive and total mobilities) compared to IF. The best improvement of the parameters was obtained with G1 medium and the longest contact time. The substitution of egg yolk by HPβCD-C complex allows the decrease of protein charge of the medium while favouring the cholesterol supply to membrane spermatozoa offering it a better resistance to osmotic imbalance and a better tolerance to the glycerol toxicity. Our results highlight that the egg yolk of an extender for the freezing of horse semen can be completely substituted by HPβCD-C complex.

  3. Residues of organochlorine chemicals and concentrations of heavy metals in ciconiiforme eggs in relation to diet and habitat

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, L.M.; Rico, M.C.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Montero, M.C.; Fernandez, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pollutants and heavy metals were determined in 50 aquatic organisms of five species, 31 eggs of four species of wading birds, water, and sediment collected at Donana National Park, (Spain) during the nesting season 1983 and 1984. Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn were detected in all samples. The levels of contaminants investigated are generally below the levels known to cause direct effects on survival or reproduction. Biomagnification of the organochlorine pollutants and Hg is clearly illustrated; there is no evidence of accumulation of Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn along a food chain.

  4. Higher antioxidant and lower cadmium concentrations and lower incidence of pesticide residues in organically grown crops: a systematic literature review and meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Barański, Marcin; Srednicka-Tober, Dominika; Volakakis, Nikolaos; Seal, Chris; Sanderson, Roy; Stewart, Gavin B; Benbrook, Charles; Biavati, Bruno; Markellou, Emilia; Giotis, Charilaos; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Tahvonen, Raija; Janovská, Dagmar; Niggli, Urs; Nicot, Philippe; Leifert, Carlo

    2014-09-14

    Demand for organic foods is partially driven by consumers' perceptions that they are more nutritious. However, scientific opinion is divided on whether there are significant nutritional differences between organic and non-organic foods, and two recent reviews have concluded that there are no differences. In the present study, we carried out meta-analyses based on 343 peer-reviewed publications that indicate statistically significant and meaningful differences in composition between organic and non-organic crops/crop-based foods. Most importantly, the concentrations of a range of antioxidants such as polyphenolics were found to be substantially higher in organic crops/crop-based foods, with those of phenolic acids, flavanones, stilbenes, flavones, flavonols and anthocyanins being an estimated 19 (95 % CI 5, 33) %, 69 (95 % CI 13, 125) %, 28 (95 % CI 12, 44) %, 26 (95 % CI 3, 48) %, 50 (95 % CI 28, 72) % and 51 (95 % CI 17, 86) % higher, respectively. Many of these compounds have previously been linked to a reduced risk of chronic diseases, including CVD and neurodegenerative diseases and certain cancers, in dietary intervention and epidemiological studies. Additionally, the frequency of occurrence of pesticide residues was found to be four times higher in conventional crops, which also contained significantly higher concentrations of the toxic metal Cd. Significant differences were also detected for some other (e.g. minerals and vitamins) compounds. There is evidence that higher antioxidant concentrations and lower Cd concentrations are linked to specific agronomic practices (e.g. non-use of mineral N and P fertilisers, respectively) prescribed in organic farming systems. In conclusion, organic crops, on average, have higher concentrations of antioxidants, lower concentrations of Cd and a lower incidence of pesticide residues than the non-organic comparators across regions and production seasons.

  5. Residual radionuclide concentrations and estimated radiation doses at the former French nuclear weapons test sites in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Danesi, P R; Moreno, J; Makarewicz, M; Louvat, D

    2008-11-01

    In order to assess the level of residual radioactivity and evaluate the radiological conditions at the former French nuclear testing sites of Reggane and Taourirt Tan Afella in the south of Algeria, the International Atomic Energy Agency, at the request of the government of Algeria, conducted a field mission to the sites in 1999. At these locations, France conducted a number of nuclear tests in the early 1960s. At the ground zero locality of the ''Gerboise Blanche'' atmospheric test (Reggane) and in the vicinity of a tunnel where radioactive lava was ejected during a poorly contained explosion (Taourirt Tan Afella), non-negligible levels of radioactive material could still be measured. Using the information collected and using realistic potential exposure scenarios, radiation doses to potential occupants and visitors to the sites were estimated.

  6. Determination of the Residual Anthracene Concentration in Cultures of Haloalkalitolerant Actinomycetes by Excitation Fluorescence, Emission Fluorescence, and Synchronous Fluorescence: Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Lara-Severino, Reyna Del Carmen; Camacho-López, Miguel Ángel; García-Macedo, Jessica Marlene; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo M; Sandoval-Trujillo, Ángel H; Isaac-Olive, Keila; Ramírez-Durán, Ninfa

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds that can be quantified by fluorescence due to their high quantum yield. Haloalkalitolerant bacteria tolerate wide concentration ranges of NaCl and pH. They are potentially useful in the PAHs bioremediation of saline environments. However, it is known that salinity of the sample affects fluorescence signal regardless of the method. The objective of this work was to carry out a comparative study based on the sensitivity, linearity, and detection limits of the excitation, emission, and synchronous fluorescence methods, during the quantification of the residual anthracene concentration from the following haloalkalitolerant actinomycetes cultures Kocuria rosea, Kocuria palustris, Microbacterium testaceum, and 4 strains of Nocardia farcinica, in order to establish the proper fluorescence method to study the PAHs biodegrading capacity of haloalkalitolerant actinobacteria. The study demonstrated statistical differences among the strains and among the fluorescence methods regarding the anthracene residual concentration. The results showed that excitation and emission fluorescence methods performed very similarly but sensitivity in excitation fluorescence is slightly higher. Synchronous fluorescence using Δλ = 150 nm is not the most convenient method. Therefore we propose the excitation fluorescence as the fluorescence method to be used in the study of the PAHs biodegrading capacity of haloalkalitolerant actinomycetes.

  7. Determination of the Residual Anthracene Concentration in Cultures of Haloalkalitolerant Actinomycetes by Excitation Fluorescence, Emission Fluorescence, and Synchronous Fluorescence: Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lara-Severino, Reyna del Carmen; Camacho-López, Miguel Ángel; García-Macedo, Jessica Marlene; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo M.; Sandoval-Trujillo, Ángel H.; Isaac-Olive, Keila; Ramírez-Durán, Ninfa

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds that can be quantified by fluorescence due to their high quantum yield. Haloalkalitolerant bacteria tolerate wide concentration ranges of NaCl and pH. They are potentially useful in the PAHs bioremediation of saline environments. However, it is known that salinity of the sample affects fluorescence signal regardless of the method. The objective of this work was to carry out a comparative study based on the sensitivity, linearity, and detection limits of the excitation, emission, and synchronous fluorescence methods, during the quantification of the residual anthracene concentration from the following haloalkalitolerant actinomycetes cultures Kocuria rosea, Kocuria palustris, Microbacterium testaceum, and 4 strains of Nocardia farcinica, in order to establish the proper fluorescence method to study the PAHs biodegrading capacity of haloalkalitolerant actinobacteria. The study demonstrated statistical differences among the strains and among the fluorescence methods regarding the anthracene residual concentration. The results showed that excitation and emission fluorescence methods performed very similarly but sensitivity in excitation fluorescence is slightly higher. Synchronous fluorescence using Δλ = 150 nm is not the most convenient method. Therefore we propose the excitation fluorescence as the fluorescence method to be used in the study of the PAHs biodegrading capacity of haloalkalitolerant actinomycetes. PMID:26925294

  8. Further studies on the use of enzyme profiles to monitor residue accumulation in wildlife: Plasma enzymes in starlings fed graded concentrations of morsodren, DDE, Aroclor 1254, and malathion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    Wild-trapped starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were fed concentrations of Morsodren (2, 4, and 8 ppm), DDE or Aroclor 1254 (5, 25, and 100 ppm), or malathion (8, 35, and 160 ppm) that were found to be sublethal in pen-reared Coturnix quail fed these amounts for 12 weeks. Plasma enzymes had to be measured earlier than planned in starlings fed Morsodren (at three weeks) or the organochlorine compounds (at seven weeks) because of unexpected, subsequent mortality. Variations in enzyme response were greater in wild than in pen-reared birds, but not enough to mask the toxicant-induced changes in enzyme activity. Cholinesterase activities decreased in birds fed Morsodren or malathion, and increased in those fed the organochlorine compounds. Lactate dehydrogenase activities increased two-fold in starlings fed Morsodren and two- to four-fold in those fed the organochlorine compounds, but only 50% in those fed malathion. Further examination of enzyme profiles showed that creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities increased two-to four-fold in birds fed Morsodren or the organochlorine compounds but not at all in those fed malathion. Thus the classes of environmental contaminants fed to starlings could be easily distinguished by these enzymatic parameters. Evaluation of enzymatic profiles appears to be a potentially valuable technique to monitor the presence of toxicants in wild populations, especially if used to complement standard chemical residue analyses. Here the residue analyses showed, after three weeks feeding, that mercury in the carcasses reflected the concentrations fed daily, whereas accumulation in the livers was two- to four-fold greater. After seven weeks feeding, liver residues of either organochlorine compound were about three-fold higher than the concentrations fed daily. However, four times as much DDE as Aroclor 1254 had accumulated in the carcasses.

  9. Evaluation of haemoglobin, haematocrit, haemolysis, residual protein content and leucocytes in 345 red blood cell concentrates used for the treatment of patients with β-thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Roberta; Marinelli, Leonardo; Mirante, Nadia; Gallo, Assunta; Matteocci, Antonella; Terlizzi, Filomena; Palange, Maria; Fioravanti, Daniela; Donnini, Lorella; Pierelli, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of red blood cell concentrates obtained from donated whole blood, selected for transfusion therapy of thalassaemic patients, by measuring the following parameters: haemoglobin, haematocrit, percentage haemolysis, residual leucocyte count and residual protein content. Materials and methods Overall 345 red cell concentrates were evaluated, of which 205 had been filtered in-line pre-storage and washed and 140 were buffy coat-depleted and used within 2 days of collection. Of the buffy coat-depleted concentrates, 62 were leucodepleted and 78 washed and leucodepleted post-storage all within 2 days of collection. The off-line filters used for the leucodepletion were gamma-irradiated polyester with a pore size of 200 μm. The washing procedure was automated (Haemonetics ACP 215, Braintree, MA, USA). The haematological parameters were evaluated by a blood cell counter (Coulter, Ramsey, IL, USA) and the white blood cell count by cytofluorimetry (FACScan). Results Ninety-five percent (194/205) of the red cell concentrates that had been filtered pre-storage and washed, 92% (57/62) of the red cell concentrates that had been leucodepleted post-storage and 94% (73/78) of the those subjected to both treatments had normal values of haemoglobin (>40 g/unit), haematocrit (between 50–70%), percentage haemolysis (<0.8/unit), white cell count (<1×106) and residual protein content (<0.5 g/L). Five percent (11/205) of the red cell concentrates that had been filtered pre-storage and washed, 8% (5/62) of those leucodepleted post-storage after 2 days and 6% (5/78) of those that underwent both procedures had a haemoglobin content <40 g/unit and a haematocrit <50%. Conclusions The preparation procedures had been carried out satisfactorily; nevertheless, transfusion therapy with some “low dose” normal units could be less effective and might, therefore, result in greater transfusion requirements in patients receiving such units

  10. Effect of leaching residual methyl methacrylate concentrations on in vitro cytotoxicity of heat polymerized denture base acrylic resin processed with different polymerization cycles

    PubMed Central

    BURAL, Canan; AKTAŞ, Esin; DENIZ, Günnur; ÜNLÜÇERÇI, Yeşim; BAYRAKTAR, Gülsen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Residual methyl methacrylate (MMA) may leach from the acrylic resin denture bases and have adverse effects on the oral mucosa. This in vitro study evaluated and correlated the effect of the leaching residual MMA concentrations ([MMA]r) on in vitro cytotoxicity of L-929 fibroblasts. Material and Methods A total of 144 heat-polymerized acrylic resin specimens were fabricated using 4 different polymerization cycles: (1) at 74ºC for 9 h, (2) at 74ºC for 9 h and terminal boiling (at 100ºC) for 30 min, (3) at 74ºC for 9 h and terminal boiling for 3 h, (4) at 74ºC for 30 min and terminal boiling for 30 min. Specimens were eluted in a complete cell culture medium at 37ºC for 1, 2, 5 and 7 days. [MMA]r in eluates was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro cytotoxicity of eluates on L-929 fibroblasts was evaluated by means of cell proliferation using a tetrazolium salt XTT (sodium 3´-[1-phenyl-aminocarbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro)benzenesulphonic acid) assay. Differences in [MMA]r of eluates and cell proliferation values between polymerization cycles were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Friedman and Dunn's multiple comparison tests. The correlation between [MMA]r of eluates and cell proliferation was analyzed by Pearson's correlation test (p<0.05). Results [MMA]r was significantly (p≤0.001) higher in eluates of specimens polymerized with cycle without terminal boiling after elution of 1 and 2 days. Cell proliferation values for all cycles were significantly (p<0.01) lower in eluates of 1 day than those of 2 days. The correlation between [MMA]r and cell proliferation values was negative after all elution periods, showing significance (p<0.05) for elution of 1 and 2 days. MMA continued to leach from acrylic resin throughout 7 days and leaching concentrations markedly reduced after elution of 1 and 2 days. Conclusion Due to reduction of leaching residual MMA concentrations, use of terminal boiling in the

  11. Construction of a predictive model for concentration of nickel and vanadium in vacuum residues of crude oils using artificial neural networks and LIBS.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, José L; Guerrero, Jáder; Cabanzo, Rafael; Mejía-Ospino, E

    2012-03-01

    A predictive model to determine the concentration of nickel and vanadium in vacuum residues of Colombian crude oils using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) with nodes distributed in multiple layers (multilayer perceptron) is presented. ANN inputs are intensity values in the vicinity of the emission lines 300.248, 301.200 and 305.081 nm of the Ni(I), and 309.310, 310.229, and 311.070 nm of the V(II). The effects of varying number of nodes and the initial weights and biases in the ANNs were systematically explored. Average relative error of calibration/prediction (REC/REP) and average relative standard deviation (RSD) metrics were used to evaluate the performance of the ANN in the prediction of concentrations of two elements studied here.

  12. Evaluation of the effect of the concentration of plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the quantity of residual monomer vinyl chloride in PVC chest drainage tubes.

    PubMed

    Kicheva, Y I; Richter, H; Popova, E

    2004-08-01

    The effect of amount of plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) amount on the amount of residual monomer vinyl chloride (VC) was determined in samples of plasticised polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with different concentration of plasticiser (22.32-33.05%), before and after sterilisation by a titrimetric method. The titrimetric method was used to determine the VC concentration in a KMnO4 solution where the samples were kept immersed under the same conditions for 2 h. The influence of PVC film extracts with different amounts of DEHP on mouse fibroblast cells L-929 in a culture medium was evaluated by using quantitative tests: the amount of cells (protein determination), viability (MTT test) and proliferation (incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrDU). The amount of vinyl chloride before and after heat sterilisation at 120 degrees C for 30 min was found to be almost the same for all samples and without any dependence on the concentration of DEHP. The extracts of the PVC films which were tested have no toxic effect on cells in a culture medium.

  13. Blackcurrant seed press residue increases tocopherol concentrations in serum and stool whilst biomarkers in stool and urine indicate increased oxidative stress in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Helbig, Dorit; Wagner, Andreas; Glei, Michael; Basu, Samar; Schubert, Rainer; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2009-08-01

    Berry seeds are a tocopherol-rich by-product of fruit processing without specific commercial value. In a human intervention study, the physiological impact of blackcurrant seed press residue (PR) was tested. Thirty-six women (aged 24 +/- 3 years; twenty non-smokers, sixteen smokers) consumed 250 g bread/d containing 8% PR for a period of 4 weeks (period 3). Comparatively, a control bread without PR (250 g/d) was tested (period 2) and baseline data were obtained (period 1). Blood, stool and 24 h urine were collected during a 5 d standardised diet within each period. Tocopherol and Fe intakes were calculated from food intake. In serum, tocopherol concentration and Fe parameters were determined. In urine, oxidative stress markers 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-iso-PGF2alpha and inflammatory response marker 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2alpha were analysed. Stool tocopherol concentration, genotoxicity of faecal water (comet assay) and antioxidant capacity of stool (aromatic hydroxylation of salicylic acid) were determined. Fe and total tocopherol intake, total tocopherol concentrations in serum and stool, and genotoxicity of faecal water increased with PR bread consumption (P < 0.05). The antioxidant capacity of stool decreased between baseline and intervention, expressed by increased formation of 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid in vitro (P < 0.05). In smokers, 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine increased with PR consumption (P < 0.05). Prostane concentrations were unaffected by PR bread consumption. In summary, the intake of bread containing blackcurrant PR for 4 weeks increased serum and stool total tocopherol concentrations. However, various biomarkers indicated increased oxidative stress, suggesting that consumption of ground berry seed may not be of advantage.

  14. Identification of amino acid residues responsible for the pyrimidine and purine nucleoside specificities of human concentrative Na(+) nucleoside cotransporters hCNT1 and hCNT2.

    PubMed

    Loewen, S K; Ng, A M; Yao, S Y; Cass, C E; Baldwin, S A; Young, J D

    1999-08-27

    hCNT1 and hCNT2 mediate concentrative (Na(+)-linked) cellular uptake of nucleosides and nucleoside drugs by human cells and tissues. The two proteins (650 and 658 residues, 71 kDa) are 72% identical in sequence and contain 13 putative transmembrane helices (TMs). When produced in Xenopus oocytes, recombinant hCNT1 is selective for pyrimidine nucleosides (system cit), whereas hCNT2 is selective for purine nucleosides (system cif). Both transport uridine. We have used (i) chimeric constructs between hCNT1 and hCNT2, (ii) sequence comparisons with a newly identified broad specificity concentrative nucleoside transporter (system cib) from Eptatretus stouti, the Pacific hagfish (hfCNT), and (iii) site-directed mutagenesis of hCNT1 to identify two sets of adjacent residues in TMs 7 and 8 of hCNT1 (Ser(319)/Gln(320) and Ser(353)/Leu(354)) that, when converted to the corresponding residues in hCNT2 (Gly(313)/Met(314) and Thr(347)/Val(348)), changed the specificity of the transporter from cit to cif. Mutation of Ser(319) in TM 7 of hCNT1 to Gly enabled transport of purine nucleosides, whereas concurrent mutation of Gln(320) to Met (which had no effect on its own) augmented this transport. The additional mutation of Ser(353) to Thr in TM 8 converted hCNT1/S319G/Q320M, from cib to cif, but with relatively low adenosine transport activity. Additional mutation of Leu(354) to Val (which had no effect on its own) increased the adenosine transport capability of hCNT1/S319G/Q320M/S353T, producing a full cif-type transporter phenotype. On its own, the S353T mutation converted hCNT1 into a transporter with novel uridine-selective transport properties. Helix modeling of hCNT1 placed Ser(319) (TM 7) and Ser(353) (TM 8) within the putative substrate translocation channel, whereas Gln(320) (TM 7) and Leu(354) (TM 8) may exert their effects through altered helix packing.

  15. Very high concentrations of DDE and toxaphene residues in crocodiles from the Ord River, Western Australia: an investigation into possible endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Yoshikane, Mitsuha; Kay, Winston R; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Inoue, Maki; Yanai, Tokuma; Kamata, Ryo; Edmonds, John S; Morita, Masatoshi

    2006-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticide concentrations, particularly those of the DDT family and of toxaphene, were measured by gas chromatography in samples of liver and body fat taken from Australian freshwater crocodiles Crocodylus johnstoni at three locations along the Ord River in Western Australia. The three sampling sites were the irrigation area, downstream of the irrigation area, and well upstream of the irrigation area; the last site serving as the control. DDT and toxaphene were applied in large and known quantities to cotton grown in the Ord Irrigation Area from 1964 to 1974. Thus the residues in the crocodile tissues are representative of the situation almost thirty years after the use of DDT and toxaphene ceased in the area. Very high concentrations of p,p'-DDE and toxaphene were found in the lipid-rich tissues that were examined. Livers and body fat from estuarine crocodiles Crocodylus porosus from the downstream site were also analysed. As p,p'-DDE and toxaphene are both known to be disruptive of endocrine systems, a range of blood parameters, including estradiol and testesterone concentrations, were also measured for all the animals studied. The ovaries and testes of the freshwater crocodiles were also examined histologically. There were no obvious effects on blood chemistry or gonad histology of the large burden of pesticides and their metabolites carried by exposed animals, although the limited number of samples and the variability of the breeding state of the animals examined may have masked possible effects. The isolation of the area, the accurately known applications of DDT and toxaphene, and the simplicity of the drainage system make the lower Ord River a unique natural laboratory for studying the long term breakdown and effects of pesticides applied in a tropical environment.

  16. Novel cross-linked polymers having pH-responsive amino acid residues for the removal of Cu2+ from aqueous solution at low concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shaikh A; Al Hamouz, Othman Charles S; Hassan, Nouri M

    2013-03-15

    Two novel cross-linked anionic polyelectrolytes (CAPE) I and II containing pH-responsive amino acid residues have been synthesized via cycloco- and ter-polymerization of a monomer having diallylammonioethanoate motif (90mol%) and a cross-linker 1,1,4,4-tetraallylpiperazinium dichloride (10mol%) in the absence and presence of SO2 (100mol%), respectively. The experimental data for the adsorption of Cu(2+) on the CAPES fitted Lagergren second-order kinetic model thereby indicating the chemical nature of the adsorption process. The fitness order of Freundlich>Langmuir>Temkin for the isotherm models for CAPE I showed the favorability of adsorption on a heterogeneous surface, whereas for CAPE II the fitness order of Langmuir>Freundlich>Temkin certified the favorability toward monolayer adsorption. The adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature with negative and positive values for ΔG and ΔH, respectively. For the sorbents CAPE I and CAPE II, the efficiency of Cu(2+) removal at an initial metal concentration of 200ppb was found to be 77.5 and 99.4%, respectively. Desorption efficiencies were found to be 88 and 93% for CAPE I and CAPE II, respectively. Treatment of real wastewater samples spiked with Cu(2+) ions showed the excellent ability of the resins to adsorb metal ions.

  17. Polychlorobenzenes and polychlorinated biphenyls in ash and soil from several industrial areas in North Vietnam: residue concentrations, profiles and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Hue; Nguyen, Thi Thu Thuy; Nguyen, Hoang Tung

    2016-04-01

    Polychlorinated benzenes (PCBzs) including penta- and hexachlorobenzene can be unintentionally formed from thermal processes in different industrial activities, and very little information is available on the contamination and emission characteristics of these new persistent organic pollutants from industries in Vietnam. In this study, contamination of PCBzs (including penta- and hexachlorobenzene, named PeCBz and HCB, respectively) and PCBs (including CB-28, 52, 101, 153, 138, 180) in fly ash, bottom ash and soil from combustion processes of waste incineration, metallurgy (steel making and zinc production) and cement production from several provinces in the Northern Vietnam, including Hai Duong, Hanoi, Bac Ninh, Hai Phong and Thai Nguyen, was preliminary investigated. The PCBzs concentrations in fly ash, bottom ash and soil ranged from 2.7 to 100 ng g(-1), from 2.7 to 159 ng g(-1) and from 0.28 to 33.9 ng g(-1), respectively. Relatively high residues of PeCBz in fly ash and bottom ash from municipal waste incinerators in some provinces from the Northern Vietnam were encountered. Total PCBs concentrations ranged from 18.0 to 8260 ng g(-1), from 1.0 to 10600 ng g(-1) and from 14.5 to 130 ng g(-1) for the fly ash, bottom ash and soil, respectively. Daily intakes of PeCBz, HCB and PCBs through soil ingestion and dermal exposure estimated for children ranged 0.33-9.93 (mean 3.14), 0.39-21.1 (mean 4.9) and 6.09-1530 ng/kg bw/day (mean 346), respectively; and these intakes were about 4.7-5.4 times higher than those estimated for adult. The intakes of PeCBz and HCB were relatively low, while those for PCBs exceeded WHO TDI for some samples.

  18. Genetic associations of residual feed intake with serum insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin concentrations, meat quality, and carcass cross sectional fat area ratios in Duroc pigs.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M A; Katoh, K; Suzuki, K

    2009-10-01

    Genetic relationships of measures of residual feed intake and daily feed intake with serum IGF-I concentrations at 8 wk of age and at 105 kg of BW, serum leptin concentration at 105 kg of BW, meat quality, and different fat accumulation traits on 834 Duroc pigs in 7 generations were estimated. Two measures of residual feed intake were estimated from the differences between actual and predicted feed intake: phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI(phe)) and nutritional residual feed intake (RFI(nut)). Meat quality traits included drip loss, cooking loss, pork color score, pork lightness (L*), and pH, whereas fat accumulation traits were subcutaneous fat, intermuscular fat, and total fat percent at 5-6th thoracic vertebra; subcutaneous fat, intermuscular fat, abdominal fat, and total fat percent at one-half body length and at last thoracic vertebra, and seam fat score. The IGF-I concentrations at 8 wk of age and 105 kg of BW had weak genetic correlations with measures of residual feed intake and daily feed intake (absolute values ranging from 0.14 to 0.24). The genetic correlations between measures of residual feed intake and serum leptin concentration were strong and positive (r(g) with RFI(phe) and RFI(nut) were 0.74 and 0.80, respectively). Residual feed intake was moderately but negatively correlated with cooking loss (r(g) with RFI(phe) and RFI(nut) were -0.42 and -0.49, respectively), whereas daily feed intake was moderately and positively correlated with drip loss and pH (0.33 and 0.36, respectively). Daily feed intake was also moderately correlated with subcutaneous fat accumulations at the 5-6th thoracic vertebra (0.31) and one-half body length (0.31) regions and was strongly correlated with accumulations at the last thoracic vertebra region (0.57). The genetic correlations between daily feed intake and intermuscular fat accumulations at all of the carcass sites were strong (0.60, 0.76, and 0.56 for intermuscular fat at 5-6th thoracic vertebra, one-half body

  19. A passive microfluidic system based on step emulsification allows the generation of libraries of nanoliter-sized droplets from microliter droplets of varying and known concentrations of a sample.

    PubMed

    Postek, W; Kaminski, T S; Garstecki, P

    2017-03-29

    We present a novel geometry of microfluidic channels that allows us to passively generate monodisperse emulsions of hundreds of droplets smaller than 1 nL from collections of larger (ca. 0.4 μL) mother droplets. We introduce a new microfluidic module for the generation of droplets via passive break-up at a step. The module alleviates a common problem in step emulsification with efficient removal of the droplets from the vicinity of the step. In our solution, the droplets are pushed away from the step by a continuous liquid that bypasses the mother droplets via specially engineered bypasses that lead to the step around the main channel. We show that the bypasses tighten the distribution of volume of daughter droplets and eliminate subpopulations of daughter droplets. Clearing away the just produced droplets from the vicinity of the step provides for similar conditions of break-up for every subsequent droplet and, consequently, leads to superior monodispersity of the generated emulsions. Importantly, this function is realized autonomously (passively) in a protocol in which only a sequence of large mother droplets is forced through the module. Our system features the advantage of step emulsification systems in that the volumes of the generated droplets depend very weakly on the rate of flow through the module - an increase in the flow rate by 300% causes only a slight increase of the average diameter of generated droplets by less than 5%. We combined our geometry with a simple T-junction and a simple trap-based microdroplet dilutor to produce a collection of libraries of droplets of gradually changing and known concentrations of a sample. The microfluidic system can be operated with only two syringe pumps set at constant rates of flow during the experiment.

  20. Acetylation and glycation of fibrinogen in vitro occur at specific lysine residues in a concentration dependent manner: A mass spectrometric and isotope labeling study

    SciTech Connect

    Svensson, Jan; Bergman, Ann-Charlotte; Adamson, Ulf; Blombaeck, Margareta; Wallen, Hakan; Joerneskog, Gun

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fibrinogen was incubated in vitro with glucose or aspirin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylations and glycations were found at twelve lysine sites by mass spectrometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The labeling by aspirin and glucose occurred dose-dependently. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No competition between glucose and aspirin for binding to fibrinogen was found. -- Abstract: Aspirin may exert part of its antithrombotic effects through platelet-independent mechanisms. Diabetes is a condition in which the beneficial effects of aspirin are less prominent or absent - a phenomenon called 'aspirin resistance'. We investigated whether acetylation and glycation occur at specific sites in fibrinogen and if competition between glucose and aspirin in binding to fibrinogen occurs. Our hypothesis was that such competition might be one explanation to 'aspirin resistance' in diabetes. After incubation of fibrinogen in vitro with aspirin (0.8 mM, 24 h) or glucose (100 mM, 5-10 days), we found 12 modified sites with mass spectrometric techniques. Acetylations in the {alpha}-chain: {alpha}K191, {alpha}K208, {alpha}K224, {alpha}K429, {alpha}K457, {alpha}K539, {alpha}K562, in the {beta}-chain: {beta}K233, and in the {gamma}-chain: {gamma}K170 and {gamma}K273. Glycations were found at {beta}K133 and {gamma}K75, alternatively {gamma}K85. Notably, the lysine 539 is a site involved in FXIII-mediated cross-linking of fibrin. With isotope labeling in vitro, using [{sup 14}C-acetyl]salicylic acid and [{sup 14}C]glucose, a labeling of 0.013-0.084 and 0.12-0.5 mol of acetylated and glycated adduct/mol fibrinogen, respectively, was found for clinically (12.9-100 {mu}M aspirin) and physiologically (2-8 mM glucose) relevant plasma concentrations. No competition between acetylation and glycation could be demonstrated. Thus, fibrinogen is acetylated at several lysine residues, some of which are involved in the cross-linking of fibrinogen. This may

  1. RESRAD. Site-Specific Residual Radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.

    1989-06-01

    RESRAD is designed to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil. A guideline is defined as a radionuclide concentration or a level of radiation or radioactivity that is acceptable if a site is to be used without radiological restrictions. Guidelines are expressed as (1) concentrations of residual radionuclides in soil, (2) concentrations of airborne radon decay products, (3) levels of external gamma radiation, (4) levels of radioactivity from surface contamination, and (5) concentrations of residual radionuclides in air and water. Soil is defined as unconsolidated earth material, including rubble and debris that may be present. The controlling principles of all guidelines are (1) the annual radiation dose received by a member of the critical population group from the residual radioactive material - predicted by a realistic but reasonably conservative analysis and averaged over a 50 year period - should not exceed 100 mrem/yr, and (2) doses should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. All significant exposure pathways for the critical population group are considered in deriving soil guidelines. These pathways include direct exposure to external radiation from the contaminated soil material; internal radiation from inhalation of airborne radionuclides; and internal radiation from ingestion of plant foods grown in the contaminated soil, meat and milk from livestock fed with contaminated fodder and water, drinking water from a contaminated well, and fish from a contaminated pond.

  2. Increase in the carbohydrate content of the microalgae Spirulina in culture by nutrient starvation and the addition of residues of whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Vieira Salla, Ana Cláudia; Margarites, Ana Cláudia; Seibel, Fábio Ivan; Holz, Luiz Carlos; Brião, Vandré Barbosa; Bertolin, Telma Elita; Colla, Luciane Maria; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Non-renewable sources that will end with time are the largest part of world energy consumption, which emphasizes the necessity to develop renewable sources of energy. This necessity has created opportunities for the use of microalgae as a biofuel. The use of microalgae as a feedstock source for bioethanol production requires high yields of both biomass and carbohydrates. With mixotrophic cultures, wastewater can be used to culture algae. The aim of the study was to increase the carbohydrate content in the microalgae Spirulina with the additions of residues from the ultra and nanofiltration of whey protein. The nutrient deficit in the Zarrouk medium diluted to 20% and the addition of 2.5% of both residue types led to high carbohydrate productivity (60 mg L(-1) d(-1)). With these culture conditions, the increase in carbohydrate production in Spirulina indicated that the conditions were appropriate for use with microalgae as a feedstock in the production of bioethanol.

  3. A manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.; Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Jusko, M.J.; Wallo, A. III

    1989-06-01

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material at sites identified by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. 36 refs., 16 figs, 22 tabs.

  4. Exposure to residual concentrations of elements from a remediated coal fly ash spill does not adversely influence stress and immune responses of nestling tree swallows.

    PubMed

    Beck, Michelle L; Hopkins, William A; Hallagan, John J; Jackson, Brian P; Hawley, Dana M

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities often produce pollutants that can affect the physiology, growth and reproductive success of wildlife. Many metals and trace elements play important roles in physiological processes, and exposure to even moderately elevated concentrations of essential and non-essential elements could have subtle effects on physiology, particularly during development. We examined the effects of exposure to a number of elements from a coal fly ash spill that occurred in December 2008 and has since been remediated on the stress and immune responses of nestling tree swallows. We found that nestlings at the site of the spill had significantly greater blood concentrations of Cu, Hg, Se and Zn in 2011, but greater concentrations only of Se in 2012, in comparison to reference colonies. The concentrations of elements were below levels of significant toxicological concern in both years. In 2011, we found no relationship between exposure to elements associated with the spill and basal or stress-induced corticosterone concentrations in nestlings. In 2012, we found that Se exposure was not associated with cell-mediated immunity based on the response to phytohaemagglutinin injection. However, the bactericidal capacity of nestling plasma had a positive but weak association with blood Se concentrations, and this association was stronger at the spill site. Our results indicate that exposure to these low concentrations of elements had few effects on nestling endocrine and immune physiology. The long-term health consequences of low-level exposure to elements and of exposure to greater element concentrations in avian species require additional study.

  5. Very low residual concentrations of rituximab long after infusion still induce positive B-cell complement-dependent cytotoxicity-crossmatch.

    PubMed

    Gatault, Philippe; Philippe, Gatault; Jollet, Isabelle; Isabelle, Jollet; Paintaud, Gilles; Gilles, Paintaud; Magdelaine, Charlotte; Charlotte, Magdelaine; Bridoux, Franck; Franck, Bridoux; Lebranchu, Yvon; Yvon, Lebranchu; Büchler, Matthias; Matthias, Büchler; Touchard, Guy; Guy, Touchard; Thierry, Antoine; Antoine, Thierry

    2013-12-01

    Rituximab may induce positive B-cell complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch (CDC-XM) in the absence of donor-specific antibodies, as we report in these two cases. We retrospectively assessed the in vitro concentration-effect relationship of rituximab in sera. B-cell CDC-XM results were positive only in the presence of rituximab, even with low concentrations (inferior to 1 μg/mL). Moreover, rituximab neutralization with increasing concentration of an anti-rituximab-idiotype monoclonal antibody progressively reduced B-cell lysis. In conclusion, measurement of rituximab content may be useful to identify sera at risk of misinterpretation in immunized patients.

  6. IQ and blood lead from 2 to 7 years of age: are the effects in older children the residual of high blood lead concentrations in 2-year-olds?

    PubMed

    Chen, Aimin; Dietrich, Kim N; Ware, James H; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Rogan, Walter J

    2005-05-01

    Increases in peak blood lead concentrations, which occur at 18-30 months of age in the United States, are thought to result in lower IQ scores at 4-6 years of age, when IQ becomes stable and measurable. Data from a prospective study conducted in Boston suggested that blood lead concentrations at 2 years of age were more predictive of cognitive deficits in older children than were later blood lead concentrations or blood lead concentrations measured concurrently with IQ. Therefore, cross-sectional associations between blood lead and IQ in school-age children have been widely interpreted as the residual effects of higher blood lead concentrations at an earlier age or the tendency of less intelligent children to ingest more leaded dust or paint chips, rather than as a causal relationship in older children. Here we analyze data from a clinical trial in which children were treated for elevated blood lead concentrations (20-44 microg/dL) at about 2 years of age and followed until 7 years of age with serial IQ tests and measurements of blood lead. We found that cross-sectional associations increased in strength as the children became older, whereas the relation between baseline blood lead and IQ attenuated. Peak blood lead level thus does not fully account for the observed association in older children between their lower blood lead concentrations and IQ. The effect of concurrent blood level on IQ may therefore be greater than currently believed.

  7. Chemical Stabilization of Hanford Tank Residual Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Um, Wooyong; Williams, Benjamin D.; Bowden, Mark E.; Gartman, Brandy N.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mausolf, Edward J.

    2014-03-01

    Three different chemical treatment methods were tested for their ability to stabilize residual waste from Hanford tank C-202 for reducing contaminant release (Tc, Cr, and U in particular). The three treatment methods tested were lime addition [Ca(OH)2], an in-situ Ceramicrete waste form based on chemically bonded phosphate ceramics, and a ferrous iron/goethite treatment. These approaches rely on formation of insoluble forms of the contaminants of concern (lime addition and ceramicrete) and chemical reduction followed by co-precipitation (ferrous iron/goethite incorporation treatment). The results have demonstrated that release of the three most significant mobile contaminants of concern from tank residual wastes can be dramatically reduced after treatment compared to contact with simulated grout porewater without treatment. For uranium, all three treatments methods reduced the leachable uranium concentrations by well over three orders of magnitude. In the case of uranium and technetium, released concentrations were well below their respective MCLs for the wastes tested. For tank C-202 residual waste, chromium release concentrations were above the MCL but were considerably reduced relative to untreated tank waste. This innovative approach has the potential to revolutionize Hanford’s tank retrieval process, by allowing larger volumes of residual waste to be left in tanks while providing an acceptably low level of risk with respect to contaminant release that is protective of the environment and human health. Such an approach could enable DOE to realize significant cost savings through streamlined retrieval and closure operations.

  8. Exposure to residual concentrations of elements from a remediated coal fly ash spill does not adversely influence stress and immune responses of nestling tree swallows

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Michelle L.; Hopkins, William A.; Hallagan, John J.; Jackson, Brian P.; Hawley, Dana M.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities often produce pollutants that can affect the physiology, growth and reproductive success of wildlife. Many metals and trace elements play important roles in physiological processes, and exposure to even moderately elevated concentrations of essential and non-essential elements could have subtle effects on physiology, particularly during development. We examined the effects of exposure to a number of elements from a coal fly ash spill that occurred in December 2008 and has since been remediated on the stress and immune responses of nestling tree swallows. We found that nestlings at the site of the spill had significantly greater blood concentrations of Cu, Hg, Se and Zn in 2011, but greater concentrations only of Se in 2012, in comparison to reference colonies. The concentrations of elements were below levels of significant toxicological concern in both years. In 2011, we found no relationship between exposure to elements associated with the spill and basal or stress-induced corticosterone concentrations in nestlings. In 2012, we found that Se exposure was not associated with cell-mediated immunity based on the response to phytohaemagglutinin injection. However, the bactericidal capacity of nestling plasma had a positive but weak association with blood Se concentrations, and this association was stronger at the spill site. Our results indicate that exposure to these low concentrations of elements had few effects on nestling endocrine and immune physiology. The long-term health consequences of low-level exposure to elements and of exposure to greater element concentrations in avian species require additional study. PMID:27293639

  9. Label-Free Nanoplasmonic-Based Short Noncoding RNA Sensing at Attomolar Concentrations Allows for Quantitative and Highly Specific Assay of MicroRNA-10b in Biological Fluids and Circulating Exosomes.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Gayatri K; Deitz-McElyea, Samantha; Liyanage, Thakshila; Lawrence, Katie; Mali, Sonali; Sardar, Rajesh; Korc, Murray

    2015-11-24

    MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAs consisting of 18-25 nucleotides that target specific mRNA moieties for translational repression or degradation, thereby modulating numerous biological processes. Although microRNAs have the ability to behave like oncogenes or tumor suppressors in a cell-autonomous manner, their exact roles following release into the circulation are only now being unraveled and it is important to establish sensitive assays to measure their levels in different compartments in the circulation. Here, an ultrasensitive localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-based microRNA sensor with single nucleotide specificity was developed using chemically synthesized gold nanoprisms attached onto a solid substrate with unprecedented long-term stability and reversibility. The sensor was used to specifically detect microRNA-10b at the attomolar (10(-18) M) concentration in pancreatic cancer cell lines, derived tissue culture media, human plasma, and media and plasma exosomes. In addition, for the first time, our label-free and nondestructive sensing technique was used to quantify microRNA-10b in highly purified exosomes isolated from patients with pancreatic cancer or chronic pancreatitis, and from normal controls. We show that microRNA-10b levels were significantly higher in plasma-derived exosomes from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients when compared with patients with chronic pancreatitis or normal controls. Our findings suggest that this unique technique can be used to design novel diagnostic strategies for pancreatic and other cancers based on the direct quantitative measurement of plasma and exosome microRNAs, and can be readily extended to other diseases with identifiable microRNA signatures.

  10. Label-Free Nanoplasmonic-Based Short Noncoding RNA Sensing at Attomolar Concentrations Allows for Quantitative and Highly Specific Assay of MicroRNA-10b in Biological Fluids and Circulating Exosomes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAs consisting of 18–25 nucleotides that target specific mRNA moieties for translational repression or degradation, thereby modulating numerous biological processes. Although microRNAs have the ability to behave like oncogenes or tumor suppressors in a cell-autonomous manner, their exact roles following release into the circulation are only now being unraveled and it is important to establish sensitive assays to measure their levels in different compartments in the circulation. Here, an ultrasensitive localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-based microRNA sensor with single nucleotide specificity was developed using chemically synthesized gold nanoprisms attached onto a solid substrate with unprecedented long-term stability and reversibility. The sensor was used to specifically detect microRNA-10b at the attomolar (10–18 M) concentration in pancreatic cancer cell lines, derived tissue culture media, human plasma, and media and plasma exosomes. In addition, for the first time, our label-free and nondestructive sensing technique was used to quantify microRNA-10b in highly purified exosomes isolated from patients with pancreatic cancer or chronic pancreatitis, and from normal controls. We show that microRNA-10b levels were significantly higher in plasma-derived exosomes from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients when compared with patients with chronic pancreatitis or normal controls. Our findings suggest that this unique technique can be used to design novel diagnostic strategies for pancreatic and other cancers based on the direct quantitative measurement of plasma and exosome microRNAs, and can be readily extended to other diseases with identifiable microRNA signatures. PMID:26444644

  11. Evaluation of a method for determining concentrations of isoeugenol, an AQUI-S residue, in fillet tissue from freshwater fish species.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, J.R.; Schreier, T.M.; Bernardy, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    AQUI-S is a fish anesthetic/sedative that is approved for use in a number of countries throughout the world and has the potential for use in the United States. The active ingredient in AQUI-S is isoeugenol. A method for determining isoeugenol concentrations in edible fillet tissue is needed for regulatory purposes, including surveillance and potential use in studies fulfilling human food safety data requirements if U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval is pursued. A method was developed and evaluated for determining isoeugenol concentrations in fillet tissue using relatively common procedures and equipment. The method produced accurate and precise results with fillet tissue from 10 freshwater fish species. The percentage of isoeugenol recovered from samples fortified with isoeugenol at nominal concentrations of 1, 50, and 100 microg/g for all species was always >80 and <97%. Within-day precision for samples fortified at those same concentrations was < or =10%, and day-to-day precision was < or =4.0%. Method precision with fillet tissue containing biologically incurred isoeugenol was < or =8.1%. There were no or minimal chromatographic interferences in control fillet tissue extracts from 9 of the 10 species. The method detection limits for all but one species ranged from 0.004 to 0.014 microg/g, and the quantitation limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.048 microg/g.

  12. Hole traps associated with high-concentration residual carriers in p-type GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Elleuch, Omar Wang, Li; Lee, Kan-Hua; Demizu, Koshiro; Ikeda, Kazuma; Kojima, Nobuaki; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2015-01-28

    The hole traps associated with high background doping in p-type GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy are studied based on the changes of carrier concentration, junction capacitance, and hole traps properties due to the annealing. The carrier concentration was increased dramatically with annealing time, based on capacitance–voltage (C–V) measurement. In addition, the temperature dependence of the junction capacitance (C–T) was increased rapidly two times. Such behavior is explained by the thermal ionization of two acceptor states. These acceptors are the main cause of high background doping in the film, since the estimated carrier concentration from C–T results explains the measured carrier concentration at room temperature using C–V method. The acceptor states became shallower after annealing, and hence their structures are thermally unstable. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) showed that the HC2 hole trap was composed of two signals, labeled HC21 and HC22. These defects correspond to the acceptor levels, as their energy levels obtained from DLTS are similar to those deduced from C–T. The capture cross sections of HC21 and HC22 are larger than those of single acceptors. In addition, their energy levels and capture cross sections change in the same way due to the annealing. This tendency suggests that HC21 and HC22 signals originate from the same defect which acts as a double acceptor.

  13. Comparison of parallel flow and concentric micronebulizers for elemental determination in lubricant oil, residual fuel oil and biodiesel by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Jefferson R.; dos Santos, Eider Fernando; Duyck, Christiane B.; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D.

    2011-05-01

    Two micronebulizers, PFA-100 and Miramist, were evaluated using a method for elemental determination by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES) in lubricant and residual fuel oils diluted in xylene. The facility and speed of direct sample dilution in organic solvents, without additional pretreatment, combined with the multielemental capacity and robustness of ICP OES are advantageous. The operational conditions were optimized through factorial design. Improvement in the signal-to-background ratio was observed for Ag, Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Si, Ti and V. Higher sensitivity was obtained with the PFA-100 micronebulizer, although the limits of detection (LOD) obtained for both micronebulizers were similar, between 0.3 μg kg -1 (Mg) and 18 μg kg -1 (Ni). The certified reference materials NIST 1634c and NIST 1085b were used for method validation and good recoveries were obtained with values between 93% (Pb) and 102% (P) for PFA-100 and 90% (Pb) and 103% (P) for Miramist. The method was also validated for analysis of biodiesel samples by recovery tests, with results from 89% to 103%. The proposed method was employed for the analysis of crude oil, lubricant oil and biodiesel from different raw materials.

  14. The effects of fuel composition and ammonium sulfate addition on PCDD, PCDF, PCN and PCB concentrations during the combustion of biomass and paper production residuals.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Lisa; Jansson, Stina

    2014-01-01

    The use of waste wood as an energy carrier has increased during the last decade. However, the higher levels of alkali metals and chlorine in waste wood compared to virgin biomass can promote the formation of deposits and organic pollutants. Here, the effect of fuel composition and the inhibitory effects of ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2SO4, on the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the flue gas of a lab-scale combustor was investigated. Ammonium sulfate is often used as a corrosion-preventing additive and may also inhibit formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). In addition to PCDDs and PCDFs, polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCN) and biphenyls (PCB) were also analyzed. It was found that the flue gas composition changed dramatically when (NH4)2SO4 was added: CO, SO2, and NH3 levels increased, while those of HCl decreased to almost zero. However, the additive's effects on POP formation were less pronounced. When (NH4)2SO4 was added to give an S:Cl ratio of 3, only the PCDF concentration was reduced, indicating that this ratio was not sufficient to achieve a general reduction in POP emissions. Conversely, at an S:Cl ratio of 6, significant reductions in the WHO-TEQ value and the PCDD and PCDF contents of the flue gas were observed. The effect on the PCDF concentration was especially pronounced. PCN formation seemed to be promoted by the elevated CO concentrations caused by adding (NH4)2SO4.

  15. Radionuclide concentration variations in the fuel and residues of oil shale-fired power plants: Estimations of the radiological characteristics over a 2-year period.

    PubMed

    Vaasma, Taavi; Loosaar, Jüri; Kiisk, Madis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2016-10-19

    Several multi-day samplings were conducted over a 2-year period from an oil shale-fired power plant operating with pulverized fuel type of boilers that were equipped with either novel integrated desulphurization system and bag filters or with electrostatic precipitators. Oil shale, bottom ash and fly ash samples were collected and radionuclides from the (238)U and (232)Th series as well as (40)K were determined. The work aimed at determining possible variations in the concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides within the collected samples and detect the sources of these fluctuations. During the continuous multi-day samplings, various boiler parameters were recorded as well. With couple of exceptions, no statistically significant differences were detected (significance level 0.05) between the measured radionuclide mean values in various ash samples within the same sampling. When comparing the results between multiple years and samplings, no statistically significant variations were observed between (238)U and (226)Ra values. However, there were significant differences between the values in the fly ashes when comparing (210)Pb, (40)K, (228)Ra and (232)Th values between the various samplings. In all cases the radionuclide activity concentrations in the specific fly ash remained under 100 Bq kg(-1), posing no radiological concerns when using this material as an additive in construction or building materials. Correlation analysis between the registered boiler parameters and measured radionuclide activity concentrations showed weak or no correlation. The obtained results suggest that the main sources of variations are due to the characteristics of the used fuel. The changes in the radionuclide activity concentrations between multiple years were in general rather modest. The radionuclide activity concentrations varied dominantly between 4% and 15% from the measured mean within the same sampling. The relative standard deviation was however within the same range

  16. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  17. Use of the semipermeable membrane device as an in situ sampler of waterborne bioavailable PCDD and PCDF residues at sub-parts-per-quadrillion concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lebo, Jon A.; Gale, Robert W.; Petty, Jimmie D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Huckins, James N.; Meadows, John C.; Orazio, Carl E.; Echols, Kathy R.; Schroeder, Dennis J.; Inmon, Lloyd E.

    1995-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to passively sample aqueous polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in Bayou Meto, AR. The two sites were upstream and downstream from the confluence with a tributary that delivers PCDDs and PCDFs to the Bayou. Following dialysis, cleanup, and fractionation, four replicate 17-9 SPMD samples from each site were analyzed by GUMS, and four were evaluated by H411E bioassay. Traces of only OCDD and HpCDDs were detected in samples from the upstream site. The four samples from below the tributary contained averages of 1550 ± 80 pg of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1640 ± 80 pg of 2,3,7,8-TCDF, and lesser quantities of other congeners. The TCDD equivalents obtained by bioassay of replicate SPMD samples agreed well with results obtained by GC/MS. The quantities of 2,3,7,8- TCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDF sequestered by SPMDs at the downstream site were used to estimate the aqueous concentrations for both compounds as 2 pg/L.

  18. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility planning in accordance with appendix B of this subpart. (b) Advance of allowance to potential grant... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right...

  19. Regulatory framework for NORM residues in Belgium

    SciTech Connect

    Pepin, S.; Dehandschutter, B.; Poffijn, A.; Sonck, M.

    2013-07-01

    The Belgian radiation protection authority (Federal Agency for Nuclear Control - FANC) has published in March 2013 a decree regulating the acceptance of NORM residues by nonradioactive waste treatment facilities. This regulation is based on the concept of 'work activities involving natural radiation sources' in the sense of article 40 of the 96/29/EURATOM directive. The disposal or processing facilities which accept NORM residues with an activity concentration above a generic exemption level will be considered as 'work activities' and submitted to declaration according to the Belgian radiation protection regulations. On basis of this declaration, specific acceptance criteria for the different types of processing/ disposal of the residues (disposal on landfill, recycling into building materials, etc.) are imposed. FANC has drafted guidelines for these acceptance criteria. A methodological guide for the operators of the concerned facilities was also published. Moreover, sites where significant quantities of NORM residues are or have been disposed, are subjected to an environmental monitoring in the framework of the national program of radiological surveillance of FANC. FANC also introduced in its regulations the concept of anthropogenic radon-prone areas: e.g. former phosphogypsum stacks have been defined as anthropogenic radon-prone areas, which allows some form of regulatory control of these sites. (authors)

  20. Emergent biomarkers of residual cardiovascular risk in patients with low HDL-c and/or high triglycerides and average LDL-c concentrations: focus on HDL subpopulations, Oxidized LDL, adiponectin, and uric acid.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas-Melo, Filipa; Palavra, Filipe; Marado, Daniela; Sereno, José; Teixeira-Lemos, Edite; Freitas, Isabel; Isabel-Mendonça, Maria; Pinto, Rui; Teixeira, Frederico; Reis, Flávio

    2013-01-01

    This study intended to determine the impact of HDL-c and/or TGs levels on patients with average LDL-c concentration, focusing on lipidic, oxidative, inflammatory, and angiogenic profiles. Patients with cardiovascular risk factors (n = 169) were divided into 4 subgroups, combining normal and low HDL-c with normal and high TGs patients. The following data was analyzed: BP, BMI, waist circumference and serum glucose, Total-c, TGs, LDL-c, oxidized-LDL, total HDL-c and HDL subpopulations, paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, hsCRP, uric acid, TNF- α , adiponectin, VEGF, and iCAM1. The two populations with increased TGs levels, regardless of the normal or low HDL-c, presented obesity and higher waist circumference, Total-c, LDL-c, Ox-LDL, and uric acid. Adiponectin concentration was significantly lower and VEGF was higher in the population with cumulative low values of HDL-c and high values of TGs, while HDL quality was reduced in the populations with impaired values of HDL-c and/or TGs, viewed by reduced large and increased small HDL subfractions. In conclusion, in a population with cardiovascular risk factors, low HDL-c and/or high TGs concentrations seem to be associated with a poor cardiometabolic profile, despite average LDL-c levels. This condition, often called residual risk, is better evidenced by using both traditional and nontraditional CV biomarkers, including large and small HDL subfractions, Ox-LDL, adiponectin, VEGF, and uric acid.

  1. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  2. Progesterone binding to the tryptophan residues of human alpha1-acid glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Albani, J R

    2006-11-06

    Binding studies between progesterone and alpha1-acid glycoprotein allowed us to demonstrate that the binding site of progesterone contains one hydrophobic tryptophan residue and that the structure of the protein is not altered upon binding. The data obtained at saturated concentrations of progesterone clearly reveal the type of interaction at physiological levels.

  3. Control of the Kanzawa Spider Mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Pink Tea Rust Mite, Acaphylla theavagrans Kadono and the Residual Effect of Spraying Petroleum Oil Emulsifiable Concentrate just before the Sprouting of the First Crop of Tea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Tetsuya; Sakaida, Teruki; Nakazono, Kentaro; Nitabaru, Yuichi

    Petroleum oil emulsifiable concentrate (POEC) is a commercial acaricide used for the control of Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida in the autumn/winter season. Further, the damage of bacterial shoot blight increases if POEC is sprayed at this time of the year. It is thought that the occurrence of bacterial shoot blight doesn't increase if POEC is sprayed just before the sprouting of the first crop of tea. However, it is suspected that spraying of POEC at this time results in the formation of an oily film that floats on the surface of tea infusion. In this study, we examined the efficiency of spraying POEC at this time of the year in controlling the growth of T. kanzawai and Acaphylla theavagrans Kadono and the residual effect. We obtained the following results: (1) spraying POEC before sprouting of the first crop of tea resulted in effective control of the density of T. kanzawai and A. theavagrans for 1 month or longer, and (2) the oily film was not observed on the surface of the tea infusion. These results indicate that POEC can serve as one of the important control agents of mites when sprayed just before the sprouting of the first crop of tea.

  4. Review of environmental exposure concentrations of chemical warfare agent residues and associated the fish community risk following the construction and completion of the Nord Stream gas pipeline between Russia and Germany.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Rahbek, Malene; Larsen, Jørn Bo

    2014-08-30

    This paper compiles all the measured chemical warfare agent (CWA) concentrations found in relation to the Nord Stream pipeline work in Danish waters for the past 5 years. Sediment and biota sampling were performed along the pipeline route in four campaigns, prior to (in 2008 and 2010), during (in 2011) and after (in 2012) the construction work. No parent CWAs were detected in the sediments. Patchy residues of CWA degradation products of Adamsite, Clark I, phenyldichloroarsine, trichloroarsine and Lewisite II, were detected in a total of 29 of the 391 sediment samples collected and analyzed the past 5 years. The cumulative fish community risk quotient for the different locations, calculated as a sum of background and added risk, ranged between 0 and 0.017 suggesting a negligible acute CWA risk toward the fish community. The added risk from sediment disturbance in relation to construction of the pipelines represents less than 2% of the total risk in the areas with the highest calculated risk. The analyses of benthic infauna corroborate the finding of CWA related low risk across the years. There was no significant difference in CWA risk before (2008) and after the pipeline construction (2012).

  5. Americium recovery from reduction residues

    DOEpatents

    Conner, W.V.; Proctor, S.G.

    1973-12-25

    A process for separation and recovery of americium values from container or bomb'' reduction residues comprising dissolving the residues in a suitable acid, adjusting the hydrogen ion concentration to a desired level by adding a base, precipitating the americium as americium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, digesting the solution, separating the precipitate, and thereafter calcining the americium oxalate precipitate to form americium oxide. (Official Gazette)

  6. Vietnam recommended dietary allowances 2007.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Hoan, Pham Van

    2008-01-01

    It has been well acknowledged that Vietnam is undergoing a nutrition transition. With a rapid change in the country's reform and economic growth, food supply at the macronutrient level has improved. Changes of the Vietnamese diet include significantly more foods of animal origin, and an increase of fat/oils, and ripe fruits. Consequently, nutritional problems in Vietnam now include not only malnutrition but also overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases related to nutrition and lifestyles. The recognition of these shifts, which is also associated with morbidity and mortality, was a major factor in the need to review and update the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for the Vietnamese population. This revised RDA established an important science-based tool for evaluation of nutrition adequacy, for teaching, and for scientific communications within Vietnam. It is expected that the 2007 Vietnam RDA and its conversion to food-based dietary guidelines will facilitate education to the public, as well as the policy implementation of programs for prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases and addressing the double burden of both under and over nutrition.

  7. An examination of the association of serum IGF-I concentration, potential candidate genes, and fiber type composition with variation in residual feed intake in progeny of Red Angus sires divergent for maintenance energy EPD.

    PubMed

    Welch, C M; Thornton, K J; Murdoch, G K; Chapalamadugu, K C; Schneider, C S; Ahola, J K; Hall, J B; Price, W J; Hill, R A

    2013-12-01

    Investigating the genetic and physiological drivers of postweaning residual feed intake (RFI) and finishing phase feed efficiency (FE) may identify underlying mechanisms that are responsible for the variation in these complex FE traits. The objectives were 1) to evaluate the relationship of serum IGF-I concentration and muscle gene expression with postweaning RFI and sire maintenance energy (MEM) EPD and 2) to determine fiber type composition as it relates to postweaning RFI and finishing phase FE. Results indicate that RFI and serum IGF-I concentration were not associated (P > 0.05); however, negative correlations (P < 0.05) between sire MEM EPD and serum IGF-I concentration were observed. Gene expression differences between high- and low-RFI animals were observed in cohort 1, where IGFBP5 expression was greater (P < 0.05) in high-RFI animals. When animals were grouped according to sire MEM EPD, the low MEM EPD group of cohort 1 showed greater muscle mRNA expression (P < 0.01) of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and marginally (P < 0.10) greater expression of IGFBP5 and C/EBP alpha (C/EBPα) whereas the high MEM EPD group of cohort 2 had greater muscle mRNA expression of IGFBP2 (P < 0.05) and C/EBPα (P ≤ 0.01) and marginally (P < 0.10) greater expression of IGFBP3. Biopsy tissue samples collected at harvest revealed that the percentage of type IIa fibers was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in high-RFI steers, with a similar trend (P < 0.10) being observed in high finishing phase FE steers. The percentage of type IIb fibers was higher (P < 0.05) in high-RFI (and finishing phase FE) steers than in low-RFI (and finishing phase FE) steers. There was a marginal, negative correlation between RFI and type I (r = -0.36, P = 0.08) and IIa (r = -0.37, P = 0.07) fiber percentages and a positive correlation (r = 0.48, P = 0.01) between RFI and type IIb fiber percentage whereas finishing phase FE was negatively correlated (r = -0.43, P = 0.03) with type I fiber percentage and positively

  8. Non-local residue-residue contacts in proteins are more conserved than local ones.

    PubMed

    Noivirt-Brik, Orly; Hazan, Gershon; Unger, Ron; Ofran, Yanay

    2013-02-01

    Non-covalent residue-residue contacts drive the folding of proteins and stabilize them. They may be local-i.e. involve residues that are close in sequence, or non-local. It has been suggested that, in most proteins, local contacts drive protein folding by providing crucial constraints of the conformational space, thus allowing proteins to fold. We compared residues that are involved in local contacts to residues that are involved in non-local contacts and found that, in most proteins, residues in non-local contacts are significantly more conserved evolutionarily than residues in local contacts. Moreover, non-local contacts are more structurally conserved: a contact between positions that are distant in sequence is more likely to exist in many structural homologues compared with a contact between positions that are close in sequence. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of protein folding and may allow for better prediction of critical intra-chain contacts.

  9. 78 FR 20640 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... AGENCY Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental... will generally allow for the recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue, relying principally...

  10. Standoff detection of explosive residues on unknown surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Neste, C. W.; Liu, Xunchen; Gupta, Manisha; Kim, Seonghwan; Tsui, Ying; Thundat, T.

    2012-06-01

    Standoff identification of explosive residues may offer early warnings to many hazards plaguing present and future military operations. The greatest challenge is posed by the need for molecular recognition of trace explosive compounds on real-world surfaces. Most techniques that offer eye-safe, long-range detection fail when unknown surfaces with no prior knowledge of the surface spectral properties are interrogated. Inhomogeneity in the surface concentration and optical absorption from background molecules can introduce significant reproducibility challenges for reliable detection when surface residue concentrations are below tens of micrograms per square centimeter. Here we present a coupled standoff technique that allows identification of explosive residues concentrations in the sub microgram per square centimeter range on real-world surfaces. Our technique is a variation of standoff photoacoustic spectroscopy merged with ultraviolet chemical photodecomposition for selective identification of explosives. We demonstrate the detection of standard military grade explosives including RDX, PETN, and TNT along with a couple of common compounds such as diesel and sugar. We obtain identification at several hundred nanograms per centimeter square at a distance of four meters.

  11. Crop Residues: The Rest of the Story

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent scientific publication stated that to remove CO2 from the atmosphere, the most permanent and rapid solution would be to sink crop residues to the ocean floor where they would be buried in deep ocean sediments. However, mitigating rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations by removing crop residu...

  12. Pesticide residues in olive oil.

    PubMed

    Lentza-Rizos, C; Avramides, E J

    1995-01-01

    The attacks of pests and diseases and the presence of weeds make it necessary to apply pesticides to olive trees to ensure crop protection. Residues of these compounds may remain and contaminate the oil produced. For the analysis of pesticide residues in olive oil, the most common methods are multiresidue methods for fatty substrates, based on partitioning between hexane or light petroleum and acetonitrile. Recently, other methods have been applied, such as ready-to-use, disposable minicolumns or direct injection of oil into a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a precolumn with an oil recovery tank. Although several pesticides are registered in oil-producing countries for use on olive trees, available literature on the level and fate of residues is very limited. However, it is clear that fat-soluble pesticides tend to concentrate in the oil, both after full coverage and bait spraying, and their use close to harvest should therefore be avoided. Because it is sometimes necessary to use such pesticides late in autumn because of their effectiveness in cases of severe attack, residue trials should be carried out to determine the residue concentration in oil and to set a reasonable preharvest safety interval. Data produced by such trials would permit the establishment of MRLs (tolerances) in olive oil to cover cases where the residues, although relatively high, are not of toxicological significance for consumers (risk assessment). Such is the case with corn oil and the fat-soluble insecticide methyl pirimiphos, registered in the U.S. for use on corn. The U.S. EPA tolerance for methyl pirimiphos in corn is 8 mg/kg, whereas it is 11 times higher (88 mg/kg) for corn oil because it is known to concentrate in the oil. Similar provisions for olive oil, based on data from residue trials according to Good Agricultural Practice, the long-term toxicity of each pesticide as expressed by its ADI for man, and olive oil consumption patterns, would facilitate international trade

  13. A simulation model for the prediction of tissue:plasma partition coefficients for drug residues in natural casings.

    PubMed

    Haritova, Aneliya Milanova; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2010-09-01

    Tissue residues arise from the exposure of animals to undesirable substances in animal feed materials and drinking water and to the therapeutic or zootechnical use of veterinary medicinal products. In the framework of this study, an advanced toxicokinetic model was developed to predict the likelihood of residue disposition of licensed veterinary products in natural casings used as envelope for a variety of meat products, such as sausages. The model proved suitable for the calculation of drug concentrations in the muscles of pigs, cattle and sheep, the major species of which intestines are used. On the basis of drug concentrations in muscle tissue, the model allowed a prediction of intestinal concentrations and residues in the intestines that remained equal to or below the concentrations in muscle tissue, the major consumable product of slaughter animals. Subsequently, residues in intestines were found to be below the maximum residue limit value for muscle tissue when drugs were used according to prescribed procedures, including the application of appropriate withdrawal times. Considering the low consumption of natural casings (which represents only about 1-2% of the weight of a normal sausage), it was concluded that the exposure to drug residues from casings is negligible.

  14. Chemistry of combined residual chlorination

    SciTech Connect

    Leao, S.F.; Selleck, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The decay of the combined chlorine residual was investigated in this work. Recent concerns about the formation of undesirable compounds such as chloroform with free residual chlorination have focused attention on the alternative use of combined residual chlorination. This work investigates the applicability of reactions proposed to describe the transformations and decay of the combined residual with time. Sodium hypochlorite was added to buffered solutions of ammonia with the chlorine residual being monitored over periods extending up to 10 days. The reaction was studied at four initial concentrations of hypochlorite of 100, 50, 25 and 10 mg/L as Cl/sub 2/ with molar application ratios of chlorine to ammonia, defined herein as M ratios, of 0.90, 0.50, 0.25 and 0.05 at each hypochlorite dose. Sixty-eight experiments were conducted at the pH of 6.6 and 7.2. The conclusions are: (1) in the absence of free chlorine, the concentration of NH/sub 3/ does not seem to affect the rate of disappearance of the residual other than through the formation of NHCl/sub 2/ by NH/sub 2/Cl hydrolysis; (2) the reaction between NHCl/sub 2/ and NH/sub 4//sup +/ to form NH/sub 2/Cl is either much slower than reported by Gray et. al. or the mechanism is different with a rate limiting step not involving NH/sub 3/ or NH/sub 4//sup +/; (3) a redox reaction in addition to the first-order decomposition of NHCl/sub 2/ appears necessary. Model simulation results indicated that a reaction of the type NH/sub 2/Cl + NHCl/sub 2/ ..-->.. P added to the first-order NHCl/sub 2/ decomposition can explain the results observed except at the higher chlorine doses.

  15. [Study of pesticide residues in agricultural products for the "Positive List" system].

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yumi; Yoshioka, Naoki; Ichihashi, Keiko

    2005-12-01

    During a 3-year monitoring survey (April 2002-March 2005) of pesticide residues in agricultural products, 592 samples (324 domestic; 268 imported) collected in Hyogo prefecture, Japan were analyzed. The number of pesticides tested increased from 232 in FY 2002 to 323 in FY 2004. The purpose of the study was to clarify the residue status by accumulating information about pesticides detected frequently, to allow effective and efficient regulation under the new "Positive List" legislation to be implemented in FY 2006. Overall, 47% of domestic and 61% of imported samples contained detectable residues and ca. 60% of positive samples contained multiple residues. The limit of quantitation was set at 0.01 microg/g and the limit of detection was 0.001-0.003 microg/ g. Most of the residues were present at low concentrations: 80% of the detections in samples excluding imported citrus fruits were < 0.05 microg/g. More than 5 different pesticides (> 0.01 microg/g) were detected simultaneously in 13 samples. The sum of the ratios of residues to MRLs was calculated as one of the indexes to represent the risk of multiple residues, and they exceeded 100% in 3 imported frozen vegetables; baby kidney bean, spinach, Welsh onion. Samples in violation of the Food Sanitation Law were not found in our survey, but 1.9% of the samples might be in conflict with the new "Positive List" legislation.

  16. Detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Abdul; Kashif, Natasha; Kifayat, Nasira; Ahmad, Shabeer

    2016-09-01

    The antibiotic residues in poultry meat can pose certain hazards to human health among them are sensitivity to antibiotics, allergic reactions, mutation in cells, imbalance of intestinal micro biota and bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The purpose of the present paper was to detect antibiotic residue in poultry meat. During the present study a total of 80 poultry kidney and liver samples were collected and tested for detection of different antibiotic residues at different pH levels Eschericha coli at pH 6, 7 and Staphyloccocus aureus at pH 8 & 9. Out of 80 samples only 4 samples were positive for antibiotic residues. The highest concentrations of antibiotic residue found in these tissues were tetracycline (8%) followed by ampicilin (4%), streptomycine (2%) and aminoglycosides (1%) as compared to other antibiotics like sulfonamides, neomycine and gentamycine. It was concluded that these microorganism at these pH levels could be effectively used for detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.

  17. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 1210.27... Management § 1210.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost...

  18. 45 CFR 1183.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1183.22 Section 1183.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  19. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 74.27 Section 74.27 Public... Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a particular set of Federal principles that applies in determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with...

  20. 45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1157.22 Section 1157.22 Public... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form...

  1. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  2. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education... allowable expenditures by projects funded under the program: (a) Cost of attendance, as defined in Title...

  3. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 74.27 Section 74.27 Education Office... and Program Management § 74.27 Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a set of cost principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs are determined in accordance with the...

  4. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education... allowable expenditures by projects funded under the program: (a) Cost of attendance, as defined in Title...

  5. 45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1174.22 Section 1174.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  6. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 602.22 Section 602.22 Public... Requirements § 602.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable...

  7. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form...

  8. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84....27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost principles...

  9. 15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 24.22 Section 24.22... Administration § 24.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  10. 49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 266.11 Section 266.11... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.11 Allowable costs. Allowable costs include only the following costs which are properly allocable to the work performed: Planning and program operation costs which are allowed under...

  11. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form...

  12. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 14.27 Section 14.27... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs...

  13. 2 CFR 215.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 215.27 Section 215.27... § 215.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost...

  14. 7 CFR 3019.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 3019.27 Section 3019.27 Agriculture... Management § 3019.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost...

  15. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2543.27 Section 2543.27 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability...

  16. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84....27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost principles...

  17. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  18. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  19. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  20. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  1. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  2. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clothing allowance. 3.810..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.810 Clothing allowance. (a) Except... therefor, to an annual clothing allowance as specified in 38 U.S.C. 1162. The annual clothing allowance...

  3. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Moving allowance. 617.47 Section 617.47... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.47 Moving allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of a moving allowance payable under § 617.45(a)(2) shall be 90 percent of the total...

  4. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Moving allowance. 617.47 Section 617.47... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.47 Moving allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of a moving allowance payable under § 617.45(a)(2) shall be 90 percent of the total...

  5. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Moving allowance. 617.47 Section 617.47... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.47 Moving allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of a moving allowance payable under § 617.45(a)(2) shall be 90 percent of the total...

  6. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Moving allowance. 617.47 Section 617.47... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.47 Moving allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of a moving allowance payable under § 617.45(a)(2) shall be 90 percent of the total...

  7. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Moving allowance. 617.47 Section 617.47... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.47 Moving allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of a moving allowance payable under § 617.45(a)(2) shall be 90 percent of the total...

  8. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  9. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  10. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  11. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  12. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  13. PCBs have declined more than DDT-group residues in Arctic ringed seals (Phoca hispida) between 1972 and 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Addison, R.F.; Zinck, M.E.; Smith, T.G.

    1986-03-01

    Mean DDT-group concentrations in the blubber of western Arctic ringed seals (Phoca hispida) sampled in 1981 were less than 1..mu..g.g/sup -1/ wet weight. Male seals had higher concentrations than did females. PCB concentrations were about half of those in a sample of the same population taken in 1972, when allowance was made for the variation of residue concentrations with age, sex, and condition. This decline probably results from the ban on PCB manufacture and use imposed in the early 1970s. Concentrations of DDT-group residues did not show any clear decline over the same interval, and the relative proportions of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE suggested that there is a continuing supply of DDT to the western Arctic. The most probable source of this is by atmospheric or water transport from the Far East, where DDT was used until at least the late 1970s.

  14. Residue distribution of the acaricide coumaphos in honey following application of a new slow-release formulation.

    PubMed

    Karazafiris, Emmanuel; Tananaki, Chrysoula; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Thrasyvoulou, Andreas

    2008-02-01

    Acaricide used in beehives for the control of varroa often leaves residues in bee products. The behaviour and distribution of the acaricide coumaphos in honey following the application of a new slow-release strip formulation (CheckMite+) was assessed. The bee colonies were allowed to build new combs without foundation, and two strips were hung in the brood chamber of each colony for a period of 42 days. The distribution of coumaphos residues in honey in relation to the position of the frame and the duration of treatment was examined by collecting samples from each comb at various time intervals up to 145 days after treatment. In the brood chamber, coumaphos was incorporated into honey from the first day of application, and residues accumulated mainly in combs placed next to strips. In the adjacent combs, residues remained at low concentrations with slight variations. In the honey chamber, residue concentrations on the day of strip removal ranged between 0.006 and 0.020 mg kg(-1), while 79 days after application the concentration of coumaphos residues was below 0.020 mg kg(-1). Residues above the EC fixed maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.1 mg kg(-1) were measured only in brood chamber honey obtained from those combs placed next to strips. In these samples, 0.060-0.111 mg kg(-1) of coumaphos was detected up to 103 days after strip removal. Coumaphos residues in honey extracted from combs that were placed at the edge of the brood chamber were found below the MRL value, even during the 42 day period of CheckMite+ strip treatment.

  15. Cover crops and crop residue management under no-till systems improve soils and environmental quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Wegner, Brianna; Vahyala, Ibrahim; Osborne, Shannon; Schumacher, Thomas; Lehman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Crop residue harvest is a common practice in the Midwestern USA for the ethanol production. However, excessive removal of crop residues from the soil surface contributes to the degradation of important soil quality indicators such as soil organic carbon (SOC). Addition of a cover crop may help to mitigate these negative effects. The present study was set up to assess the impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal and cover crops on various soil quality indicators and surface greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The study was being conducted on plots located at the North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory (NCARL) in Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plots of a corn and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation under a no-till (NT) system are being monitored for soils and surface gas fluxes. Each plot has three residue removal (high residue removal, HRR; medium residue removal, MRR; and low residue removal, LRR) treatments and two cover crops (cover crops and no cover crops) treatments. Both corn and soybean are represented every year. Gas flux measurements were taken weekly using a closed static chamber method. Data show that residue removal significantly impacted soil quality indicators while more time was needed for an affect from cover crop treatments to be noticed. The LRR treatment resulted in higher SOC concentrations, increased aggregate stability, and increased microbial activity. The LRR treatment also increased soil organic matter (SOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations. Cover crops used in HRR (high corn residue removal) improved SOC (27 g kg-1) by 6% compared to that without cover crops (25.4 g kg-1). Cover crops significantly impacted POM concentration directly after the residue removal treatments were applied in 2012. CO2 fluxes were observed to increase as temperature increased, while N2O fluxes increased as soil moisture increased. CH4 fluxes were responsive to both increases in temperature and moisture. On average, soils under

  16. Simple approach for ranking structure determining residues.

    PubMed

    Luna-Martínez, Oscar D; Vidal-Limón, Abraham; Villalba-Velázquez, Miryam I; Sánchez-Alcalá, Rosalba; Garduño-Juárez, Ramón; Uversky, Vladimir N; Becerril, Baltazar

    2016-01-01

    Mutating residues has been a common task in order to study structural properties of the protein of interest. Here, we propose and validate a simple method that allows the identification of structural determinants; i.e., residues essential for preservation of the stability of global structure, regardless of the protein topology. This method evaluates all of the residues in a 3D structure of a given globular protein by ranking them according to their connectivity and movement restrictions without topology constraints. Our results matched up with sequence-based predictors that look up for intrinsically disordered segments, suggesting that protein disorder can also be described with the proposed methodology.

  17. Simple approach for ranking structure determining residues

    PubMed Central

    Luna-Martínez, Oscar D.; Vidal-Limón, Abraham; Villalba-Velázquez, Miryam I.; Sánchez-Alcalá, Rosalba; Garduño-Juárez, Ramón; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    Mutating residues has been a common task in order to study structural properties of the protein of interest. Here, we propose and validate a simple method that allows the identification of structural determinants; i.e., residues essential for preservation of the stability of global structure, regardless of the protein topology. This method evaluates all of the residues in a 3D structure of a given globular protein by ranking them according to their connectivity and movement restrictions without topology constraints. Our results matched up with sequence-based predictors that look up for intrinsically disordered segments, suggesting that protein disorder can also be described with the proposed methodology. PMID:27366642

  18. Derived concentration guideline levels for Argonne National Laboratory's building 310 area.

    SciTech Connect

    Kamboj, S., Dr.; Yu, C ., Dr.

    2011-08-12

    The derived concentration guideline level (DCGL) is the allowable residual radionuclide concentration that can remain in soil after remediation of the site without radiological restrictions on the use of the site. It is sometimes called the single radionuclide soil guideline or the soil cleanup criteria. This report documents the methodology, scenarios, and parameters used in the analysis to support establishing radionuclide DCGLs for Argonne National Laboratory's Building 310 area.

  19. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs...

  20. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 92.22 Section 92.22 Public... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors,...

  1. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs...

  2. 29 CFR 1470.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 1470.22 Section 1470.22 Labor Regulations... Financial Administration § 1470.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors,...

  3. 50 CFR 85.41 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 85.41 Section 85.41... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.41 Allowable costs. (a) Allowable grant costs are limited to those costs... applicable Federal cost principles in 43 CFR 12.60(b). Purchase of informational signs, program signs,...

  4. 7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 3016.22 Section 3016.22 Agriculture... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees...

  5. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education... costs. (a)(1) Allowable and unallowable costs. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, costs reasonably related to carrying out the programs described in § 675.32 are allowable. (2)...

  6. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1180.56 Section 1180.56 Public... by a Grantee General Administrative Responsibilities § 1180.56 Allowable costs. (a) Determination of costs allowable under a grant is made in accordance with government-wide cost principles in...

  7. 45 CFR 2541.220 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2541.220 Section 2541.220 Public... Post-Award Requirements § 2541.220 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for— (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type...

  8. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that are proper...

  9. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the...

  10. 43 CFR 12.927 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 12.927 Section 12.927... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Agreements... Requirements § 12.927 Allowable costs. Federal awarding agencies shall determine allowable costs in...

  11. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the...

  12. 38 CFR 49.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 49.27... costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

  13. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 632.37 Section 632.37... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Administrative Standards and Procedures § 632.37 Allowable costs. (a) General. To be allowable, a cost must be necessary and reasonable for proper and efficient...

  14. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 1207.22... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1207.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees...

  15. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 43.22... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type...

  16. 20 CFR 633.303 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 633.303 Section 633.303... FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Program Design and Administrative Procedures § 633.303 Allowable costs. (a) General. To be allowable, a cost must be necessary and reasonable for proper and efficient administration of...

  17. 42 CFR 405.2468 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 405.2468 Section 405.2468 Public... Allowable costs. (a) Applicability of general Medicare principles. In determining whether and to what extent a specific type or item of cost is allowable, such as interest, depreciation, bad debts and...

  18. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.228 Section 206.228 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR...

  19. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.228 Section 206.228 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR...

  20. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 206.228 Section 206.228 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR...

  1. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  2. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  3. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  4. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  5. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  6. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  7. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  8. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  9. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  10. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  11. 5 CFR 591.305 - Allowance rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Allowance Based on Duty at Remote Worksites § 591.305 Allowance rates. (a) General. An allowance rate may... remote under § 591.304, and shall be terminated or adjusted as warranted. In determining the amount of... commuting to the remote post of duty as compared to transportation expenses (including cost of...

  12. 5 CFR 591.305 - Allowance rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Allowance Based on Duty at Remote Worksites § 591.305 Allowance rates. (a) General. An allowance rate may... remote under § 591.304, and shall be terminated or adjusted as warranted. In determining the amount of... commuting to the remote post of duty as compared to transportation expenses (including cost of...

  13. Evaluation of residues of essential oil components in honey after different anti-varroa treatments.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Sabine; Lázaro, Regina; Pérez-Arquillué, Consuelo; Conchello, Pilar; Herrera, Antonio

    2005-12-28

    Apiary trials on the use of three different treatments (Apilife Var, thymol solution in olive oil, and thymol solution in ethanol) for the control of Varroa destructor were conducted in Aragon (northeastern Spain). For the evaluation of the presence of residues of these treatments in honey an analytical method was developed. The method is applied to analyze honey samples before and after treatments with the acaricides mentioned. A solid-phase extraction on trifunctional silane SPE C18 cartridge and gas chromatography separation using a flame ionization detector allow reliable and precise determination of residues of thymol, menthol, eucalyptol, and camphor in honey. The results indicate that camphor is present in only low concentrations, residues of eucalyptol or menthol were not found at all, and only thymol left residues in high concentrations. Residues of thymol found in honey collected from the beehives ranged from 0.75 to 8.20 microg/g for Apilife Var, from 0.03 to 6.30 microg/g for thymol solution in olive oil, and from 0.05 to 6.20 microg/g for thymol solution in ethanol. Even so, natural treatments can be considered to be good alternatives for synthetic acaricides, especially because they do not represent a sanitary risk.

  14. Dynamics of Potassium Release and Adsorption on Rice Straw Residue

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jifu; Lu, Jianwei; Li, Xiaokun; Ren, Tao; Cong, Rihuan; Zhou, Li

    2014-01-01

    Straw application can not only increase crop yields, improve soil structure and enrich soil fertility, but can also enhance water and nutrient retention. The aim of this study was to ascertain the relationships between straw decomposition and the release-adsorption processes of K+. This study increases the understanding of the roles played by agricultural crop residues in the soil environment, informs more effective straw recycling and provides a method for reducing potassium loss. The influence of straw decomposition on the K+ release rate in paddy soil under flooded condition was studied using incubation experiments, which indicated the decomposition process of rice straw could be divided into two main stages: (a) a rapid decomposition stage from 0 to 60 d and (b) a slow decomposition stage from 60 to 110 d. However, the characteristics of the straw potassium release were different from those of the overall straw decomposition, as 90% of total K was released by the third day of the study. The batches of the K sorption experiments showed that crop residues could adsorb K+ from the ambient environment, which was subject to decomposition periods and extra K+ concentration. In addition, a number of materials or binding sites were observed on straw residues using IR analysis, indicating possible coupling sites for K+ ions. The aqueous solution experiments indicated that raw straw could absorb water at 3.88 g g−1, and this rate rose to its maximum 15 d after incubation. All of the experiments demonstrated that crop residues could absorb large amount of aqueous solution to preserve K+ indirectly during the initial decomposition period. These crop residues could also directly adsorb K+ via physical and chemical adsorption in the later period, allowing part of this K+ to be absorbed by plants for the next growing season. PMID:24587364

  15. Improved microbial screening assay for the detection of quinolone residues in poultry and eggs.

    PubMed

    Pikkemaat, M G; Mulder, P P J; Elferink, J W A; de Cocq, A; Nielen, M W F; van Egmond, H J

    2007-08-01

    An improved microbiological screening assay is reported for the detection of quinolone residues in poultry muscle and eggs. The method was validated using fortified tissue samples and is the first microbial assay to effectively detect enrofloxacin, difloxacin, danofloxacin, as well as flumequine and oxolinic acid, at or below their EU maximum residue limits (MRL). The accuracy of the assay was shown by analysing incurred tissue samples containing residue levels around the MRL. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) quantification of the quinolone concentration in these samples showed that the test plate can be used semi-quantitatively, allowing the definition of an "action level" as an inhibition zone above which a sample can be considered "suspect". The presented assay is a useful improvement or addition to existing screening systems.

  16. GLC determination of quinaldine residue in fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.L.; Sills, J.B.

    1970-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of quinaldine residue in various fish tissues is described. Homogenized tissues are extracted wi th hexane-ethyl ether, the extracts are concentrated by partitioning through O.IN sulfuric acid, and the residues are measured by alkali Harne ionization gas chromatography. Muscle tissues containing from 0.01 to 10.0 ppm quinaldine were successfully analyzed with recoveries from 75 to 100%.

  17. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of residual solvent trapped into illicit cocaine exhibits using head-space solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Chiarotti, Marcello; Marsili, Remo; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2002-06-05

    The analysis of solvent residues trapped into crystals of illicit drugs provides useful evidence for monitoring current use trend in the chemical underground, and is also a suitable tool to achieve the complete chemical characterisation of street drugs for comparative examination of separate specimens. This paper describes a method developed in order to perform simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of solvent residues in cocaine samples. The method is based on GC-MS analysis of solvents after their extraction/concentration from drug matrices accomplished by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in static head space. The proposed method has been used to detect residues of solvents in 47 illicit street cocaine samples. Quantitative analyses were carried out only for the solvents identified at concentration values higher than 1 ppm. Statistical evaluation of our results allowed us to group the illicit samples into various classes according to different kinds of residual solvent, in connection with different clandestine manufacturing processes used to prepare illicit cocaine.

  18. Pyrethroid insecticide residues on vegetable crops.

    PubMed

    Ripley, B D; Ritcey, G M; Harris, C R; Denommé, M A; Brown, P D

    2001-08-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides were applied on various vegetable crops as foliar treatments to determine dissipation rates. On Chinese broccoli (Guy Lon), Chinese mustard (Pak Choi) and Chinese cabbage (Kasumi, napa), fenvalerate was persistent with residues of 0.10, 0.14 and 0.11 mg kg-1, respectively, by day 21. Cypermethrin residues on head lettuce were below 0.1 mg kg-1 by day 10 but on the leafier romaine and endive varieties it was more persistent and required 14-19 days to dissipate below this concentration. After three applications, residues of cypermethrin in harvested carrots and of permethrin in eggplant were not detected on the day of application. On asparagus, deltamethrin and cypermethrin residues declined to less than 0.1 mg kg-1 by days 1 and 2, respectively; permethrin was more persistent, requiring more than 2 days to decline to less than 0.1 mg kg-1. Deltamethrin on dry (cooking) and Spanish onions was not detected on the day of application. On tomatoes, the concentration of permethrin was 0.093 mg kg-1 on the day of application and declined to about 0.05 mg kg-1 after 2-4 days. In general, permethrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin residues declined to acceptable concentrations within an acceptable pre-harvest interval. Fenvalerate may be too persistent on these speciality crops unless a maximum residue limit > 0.1 mg kg-1 is permitted.

  19. Metallic elements fractionation in municipal solid waste incineration residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Piotr R.; Kasina, Monika; Michalik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are represented by three main materials: bottom ash, fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues. Among them ˜80 wt% is bottom ash. All of that materials are products of high temperature (>1000° C) treatment of waste. Incineration process allows to obtain significant reduction of waste mass (up to 70%) and volume (up to 90%) what is commonly used in waste management to reduce the amount need to be landfilled or managed in other way. Incineration promote accumulation non-combustible fraction of waste, which part are metallic elements. That type of concentration is object of concerns about the incineration residues impact on the environment and also gives the possibility of attempts to recover them. Metallic elements are not equally distributed among the materials. Several factors influence the process: melting points, volatility and place and forms of metallic occurrence in the incinerated waste. To investigate metallic elements distribution in MSWI residues samples from one of the biggest MSW incineration plant in Poland were collected in 2015. Chemical analysis with emphasis on the metallic elements content were performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bottom ash was a SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-Fe2O3-Na2O rich material, whereas fly ash and APC residues were mostly composed of CaO and SiO2. All of the materials were rich in amorphous phase occurring together with various, mostly silicate crystalline phases. In a mass of bottom ash 11 wt% were metallic elements but also in ashes 8.5 wt% (fly ash) and ˜4.5 wt% (APC residues) of them were present. Among the metallic elements equal distribution between bottom and fly ash was observed for Al (˜3.85 wt%), Mn (770 ppm) and Ni (˜65 ppm). In bottom ash Fe (5.5 wt%), Cr (590 ppm) and Cu (1250 ppm) were concentrated. These values in comparison to fly ash were 5-fold higher for Fe, 3-fold for Cu and 1.5-fold for

  20. [Serum and tissue concentration of tegafur and 5-FU after administration of tegafur suppository in patients with lung cancer--correcting the influence of residual blood in the tissue].

    PubMed

    Ohno, K; Nakahara, K; Hashimoto, J; Matsumura, A; Mizuta, T; Akashi, A; Nakagawa, K; Takeda, S; Minami, M; Kawashima, Y

    1989-11-01

    Tissue concentration of tegafur and 5-FU was studied in 25 patients with of primary lung cancer, given 2 x 750 mg of tegafur suppository daily preoperatively (total doses 3.75-9.75 g, mean 5.16 g). Furthermore, the influence of blood remaining in the tissue was corrected in the determination of tegafur and 5-FU concentration. The tegafur level in tumor tissue (9.614 +/- 5.739 micrograms/g) was significantly (p less than 0.01) low compared with those in serum and normal lung tissue (13.185 +/- 8.198 micrograms/ml, 12.954 +/- 10.048 micrograms/g). On the other hand, the 5-FU level in tumor tissue (0.124 +/- 0.208) was significantly (p less than 0.01, p less than 0.05) high compared with those in serum and normal lung tissue (0.019 +/- 0.013 micrograms/ml, 0.035 +/- 0.031 micrograms/g) and showed approximately 2.5 times more minimum effective concentration against tumor cells (0.05 micrograms/g). The results show that preoperative administration of 2 x 750 mg of tegafur suppository daily is effective for the transfer of tegafur and 5-FU to lung cancer tissue.

  1. 43 CFR 12.62 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 12.62 Section 12.62... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements to State and Local Governments Post-Award Requirements § 12.62 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation...

  2. 15 CFR 921.81 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 921.81 Section 921.81... costs. (a) Allowable costs will be determined in accordance with applicable OMB Circulars and guidance... Department of Commerce and NOAA directives. The term “costs” applies to both the Federal and...

  3. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FIRE MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAM Grant Administration § 204.63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44...

  4. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  5. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  6. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  7. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  8. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  9. 30 CFR 725.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 725.21 Section 725.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.21 Allowable costs. (a) The Director or his authorized...

  10. 30 CFR 735.24 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 735.24 Section 735.24 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT... AND ENFORCEMENT § 735.24 Allowable costs. The Director or his authorized designee shall...

  11. 30 CFR 725.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 725.21 Section 725.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.21 Allowable costs. (a) The Director or his authorized...

  12. 30 CFR 735.24 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 735.24 Section 735.24 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT... AND ENFORCEMENT § 735.24 Allowable costs. The Director or his authorized designee shall...

  13. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  14. 30 CFR 206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating allowances. 206.160 Section 206.160 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any other provisions...

  15. 20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable activities. 632.258 Section 632.258 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable...

  16. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs incurred by...

  17. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs incurred by...

  18. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  19. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs incurred by...

  20. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs incurred by...

  1. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  2. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  3. 28 CFR 100.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 100.11 Section 100.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.11 Allowable costs. (a) Costs that are eligible...

  4. Moral Appraisals Affect Doing/Allowing Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Fiery; Knobe, Joshua; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2008-01-01

    An extensive body of research suggests that the distinction between doing and allowing plays a critical role in shaping moral appraisals. Here, we report evidence from a pair of experiments suggesting that the converse is also true: moral appraisals affect doing/allowing judgments. Specifically, morally bad behavior is more likely to be construed…

  5. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other... of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs....

  6. 13 CFR 143.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including... cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set...

  7. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other... of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs....

  8. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors...) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles...

  9. 15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors...) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles...

  10. 32 CFR 33.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of...

  11. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors... profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is...

  12. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors...) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles...

  13. 40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors... profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or sub-grantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is...

  14. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including... cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set...

  15. 14 CFR 1273.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type.... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal...

  16. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  17. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  18. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any other provisions in these regulations, an operating allowance may be used for the purpose of computing...

  19. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any other provisions in these regulations, an operating allowance may be used for the purpose of computing...

  20. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food... EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory... registered manufacturer shall be allowed as a part of the quota an amount sufficient to maintain an...

  1. 21 CFR 1303.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1303.24 Section 1303.24 Food... Quotas § 1303.24 Inventory allowance. (a) For the purpose of determining individual manufacturing quotas... sufficient to maintain an inventory equal to, (1) For current manufacturers, 50 percent of his...

  2. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food... EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory... registered manufacturer shall be allowed as a part of the quota an amount sufficient to maintain an...

  3. 21 CFR 1303.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1303.24 Section 1303.24 Food... Quotas § 1303.24 Inventory allowance. (a) For the purpose of determining individual manufacturing quotas... sufficient to maintain an inventory equal to, (1) For current manufacturers, 50 percent of his...

  4. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  5. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  6. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  7. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  8. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  9. Allocation of Allowances and Associated Family Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, M. Kaye; Cheadle, Tannis

    This study gathered information on general family practices concerning allowances given to children, parental reasons for the provision of allowances, the bases for their administration, and the frequency of conflicts generated around them. The subjects were 81 parents of elementary school children in a midwest Canadian city. Subjects completed…

  10. 10 CFR 600.222 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allowable costs. 600.222 Section 600.222 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform Administrative....222 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  11. 10 CFR 600.222 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 600.222 Section 600.222 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform Administrative....222 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  12. Family Allowances and Fertility: Socioeconomic Differences

    PubMed Central

    SCHELLEKENS, JONA

    2009-01-01

    This article explores socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances on fertility. Although several studies have examined the relationship between cash benefits and fertility, few studies have addressed the possible differential effects of cash benefits on families of different income or education levels. I reconstructed the birth histories of women in the past two Israeli censuses of 1983 and 1995 to study socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances up to the seventh parity. The results indicate that family allowances have a significant effect at every parity. Using female education as an indicator of socioeconomic status, I find that socioeconomic status is a significant modifier of the effect of family allowances. Family allowances seem to have a relatively large impact on more-educated women. PMID:19771939

  13. Pesticide residue levels in Argentinian pasteurised milk.

    PubMed

    Maitre, M I; de la Sierra, P; Lenardon, A; Enrique, S; Marino, F

    1994-10-14

    Pasteurised milk--120 samples--was analysed (in Santa Fe City, Argentina) to determine organochlorinated pesticides. Almost all samples showed the presence of such residues; the compounds more frequently detected being: heptachlor and its epoxide (98%) and hexachlorocyclohexane .HCH. alpha and gamma isomers. Residues of aldrin and dieldrin; chlordane (alpha and gamma); endosulfan (I and II); DDT (o,p-DDT, p,p'-DDE, o,p-DDD, p,p'-DDD) as well as hexachlorocyclobenzene (HCB) were also found. Despite their presence high concentrations are sporadic, the mean values being less than FAO/OMS tolerance limits. Relations between maxima concentrations and seasons were not found.

  14. Residue contact-count potentials are as effective as residue-residue contact-type potentials for ranking protein decoys

    PubMed Central

    Bolser, Dan M; Filippis, Ioannis; Stehr, Henning; Duarte, Jose; Lappe, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background For over 30 years potentials of mean force have been used to evaluate the relative energy of protein structures. The most commonly used potentials define the energy of residue-residue interactions and are derived from the empirical analysis of the known protein structures. However, single-body residue 'environment' potentials, although widely used in protein structure analysis, have not been rigorously compared to these classical two-body residue-residue interaction potentials. Here we do not try to combine the two different types of residue interaction potential, but rather to assess their independent contribution to scoring protein structures. Results A data set of nearly three thousand monomers was used to compare pairwise residue-residue 'contact-type' propensities to single-body residue 'contact-count' propensities. Using a large and standard set of protein decoys we performed an in-depth comparison of these two types of residue interaction propensities. The scores derived from the contact-type and contact-count propensities were assessed using two different performance metrics and were compared using 90 different definitions of residue-residue contact. Our findings show that both types of score perform equally well on the task of discriminating between near-native protein decoys. However, in a statistical sense, the contact-count based scores were found to carry more information than the contact-type based scores. Conclusion Our analysis has shown that the performance of either type of score is very similar on a range of different decoys. This similarity suggests a common underlying biophysical principle for both types of residue interaction propensity. However, several features of the contact-count based propensity suggests that it should be used in preference to the contact-type based propensity. Specifically, it has been shown that contact-counts can be predicted from sequence information alone. In addition, the use of a single-body term allows

  15. Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory contains measured data on holdings and transactions of allowances under the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), a market-based cap and trade program created to reduce the regional transport of NOx emissions from power plants and other large combustion sources that contribute to ozone nonattainment.The statutory authority leading to the collection of this information comes from Title V of the Clean Air Act. Sustance classes include SO2 and NOx. Data of allowance holdings and transfers are made available in real time.

  16. Evaluating pasture and soil allowance of manganese for Kajli rams grazing in semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zafar Iqbal; Ahmad, Kafeel; Ashraf, Muhammad; Naqvi, Syed Ali Hassan; Seidavi, Alireza; Akram, Nudrat Aisha; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2015-03-01

    The current research on the manganese (Mn) transfer from soil to plant as well as to grazing Kajli rams in the form of sampling periods was carried out under semi-arid environmental conditions. Forage, soil and blood plasma samples were collected during 4 months of the year after a 1-month interval, and Mn concentrations were assessed after wet digestion using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that Mn concentration in soil ranged from 48.28 to 59.44 mg/kg, with incoherent augment and decline across sampling periods, and effect of sampling period on soil Mn was also found to be significant (P < 0.05). The mean levels of Mn in soil appeared higher than the critical value and sufficient for forage crop requirement. The Mn concentration in forage ranged between 24.8 and 37.2 mg/kg, resulting deficient based on the requirement allowance of Mn for livestock grazing animals, therein with almost unchanged forage Mn concentration. The Mn values in blood plasma of rams varied from 0.066 to 0.089 mg/l, with a consistent increase based on sampling period, and the effect of sampling periods on plasma Mn was found to be highly significant (P < 0.05). The Mn levels in ram blood plasma were lesser than the normal level suggesting reasonable need for supplementation. Our study revealed the role of Mn availability in soil and plant species amassing capability on the transport of Mn in the soil-plant-animal system. Results indicated a much higher accumulation rate at the sampling characterized by vegetation dominated by legumes in comparison to grasses, crop residues and mixed pasture and a pronounced seasonal supply of Mn at the four sampling period of grazing land of diverse botanical composition.

  17. Setting site-specific water-quality standards by using tissue residue criteria and bioaccumulation data. Part 1. Methodology.

    PubMed

    Toll, John E; Tear, Lucinda M; DeForest, David K; Brix, Kevin V; Adams, William J

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a method for determining site-specific water-quality standards (SSWQSs) for substances regulated based on tissue residues. The method uses a multisite regression model to solve for the conditional prior probability density function (PDF) on water concentration, given that tissue concentration equals a tissue residue threshold. The method then uses site-specific water and tissue concentration data to update the probabilities on a Monte Carlo sample of the prior PDF by using Bayesian Monte Carlo analysis. The resultant posterior PDF identifies the water concentration that, if met at the site, would provide a desired level of confidence of meeting the tissue residue threshold contingent on model assumptions. This allows for derivation of a SSWQS. The method is fully reproducible, statistically rigorous, and easily implemented. A useful property of the method is that the model is sensitive to the amount of site-specific data available, that is, a more conservative or protective number (water concentration) is derived when the data set is small or the variance is large. Likewise, as the site water concentration increases above the water-quality standard, more site-specific information is needed to demonstrate a safe concentration at the site. A companion paper demonstrates the method by using selenium as an example.

  18. Antioxidant properties of roasted coffee residues.

    PubMed

    Yen, Wen-Jye; Wang, Bor-Sen; Chang, Lee-Wen; Duh, Pin-Der

    2005-04-06

    The antioxidant activity of roasted coffee residues was evaluated. Extraction with four solvents (water, methanol, ethanol, and n-hexane) showed that water extracts of roasted coffee residues (WERCR) produced higher yields and gave better protection for lipid peroxidation. WERCR showed a remarkable protective effect on oxidative damage of protein. In addition, WERCR showed scavenging of free radicals as well as the reducing ability and to bind ferrous ions, indicating that WERCR acts as both primary and secondary antioxidants. The HPLC analyses showed that phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid) and nonphenolic compounds [caffeine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfuraldehyde] remained in roasted coffee residues. These compounds showed a protective effect on a liposome model system. The concentrations of flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds in roasted coffee residues were 8,400 and 20,400 ppm, respectively. In addition, the Maillard reaction products (MRPs) remaining in roasted coffee residues were believed to show antioxidant activity. These data indicate that roasted coffee residues have excellent potential for use as a natural antioxidant source because the antioxidant compounds remained in roasted coffee residues.

  19. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a wheelchair) because of such disability and such disability is the loss or loss of use of a hand or... wheelchair. (b) Effective August 1, 1972, the initial lump sum clothing allowance is due and payable...

  20. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL... Organizations.” (c) Allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined...

  1. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... organization is determined as follows: (i) Institutions of higher education. Allowability is determined in... prior approval of the contracting officer, DOE may pay those costs incurred within the ninety...

  2. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... organization is determined as follows: (i) Institutions of higher education. Allowability is determined in... prior approval of the contracting officer, DOE may pay those costs incurred within the ninety...

  3. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... organization is determined as follows: (i) Institutions of higher education. Allowability is determined in... prior approval of the contracting officer, DOE may pay those costs incurred within the ninety...

  4. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... organization is determined as follows: (i) Institutions of higher education. Allowability is determined in... prior approval of the contracting officer, DOE may pay those costs incurred within the ninety...

  5. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Administrative Standards and Procedures § 632.37 Allowable costs. (a... or consortium administrative entity for the purpose of carrying out programs under the Act....

  6. Quasihomomorphisms and the residue Chern character

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrot, Denis

    2010-10-01

    We develop a general procedure, based on the renormalized eta-cochain, which allows to find "local" representatives of the bivariant Chern character of finitely summable quasihomomorphisms. In particular, using zeta-function renormalization we obtain a bivariant generalization of the Connes-Moscovici residue formula, and explain the link with chiral and multiplicative anomalies in quantum field theory.

  7. Regulatory treatment of allowances and compliance costs

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.

    1993-07-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) established a national emission allowance trading system, a market-based form of environmental regulation designed to reduce and limit sulfur dioxide emissions. However, the allowance trading system is being applied primarily to an economically regulated electric utility industry. The combining of the new form of environmental regulation and economic regulation of electric utilities has raised a number of questions including what the role should be of the federal and state utility regulating commissions and how those actions will affect the decision making process of the utilities and the allowance market. There are several dimensions to the regulatory problems that commissions face. Allowances and utility compliance expenditures have implications for least-cost/IPR (integrated resource planning), prudence review procedures, holding company and multistate utility regulation and ratemaking treatment. The focus of this paper is on the ratemaking treatment. The following topics are covered: ratemaking treatment of allowances and compliance costs; Traditional cost-recovery mechanisms; limitations to the traditional approach; traditional approach and the allowance trading market; market-based cost recovery mechanisms; methods of determining the benchmark; determining the split between ratepayers and the utility; other regulatory approaches; limitations of incentive mechanisms.

  8. TENORM: Coal Combustion Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burning coal in boilers to create steam for power generation and industrial applications produces a number of combustion residuals. Naturally radioactive materials that were in the coal mostly end up in fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag.

  9. Photovoltaic concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boes, E. C.

    1980-01-01

    A status report on photovoltaic (PV) concentrators technology is presented. The major topics covered are as follows: (1) current PV concentrator arrays; designs, performances, and costs; (2) current PV concentrator array components; cells and cell assemblies, optical concentrators, support structures, tracking, and drive; (3) design of PV concentrator arrays; and (4) array manufacturing technology.

  10. 77 FR 74006 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics From Shredder Residue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... AGENCY Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics From Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental... interpretation of its regulations currently under consideration that would generally allow for the recycling of... Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue, relying principally on the regulatory provisions for excluded...

  11. Geologic cross sections showing the concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn in acid-insoluble residues of Paleozoic rocks within the Doniphan/Eleven Point Ranger District of the Mark Twain National Forest, Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Lopaka; Goldhaber, Martin B.

    2002-01-01

    This report is a product of a U.S. Geological Survey investigation that is focused on characterizing the potential environmental impacts of lead-zinc mining within the Doniphan/Eleven Point ranger district of the Mark Twain national forest. The elemental concentrations of iron (Fe), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in acidinsoluble residues are shown for boreholes along two geologic cross sections within Doniphan/Elevan Point ranger district (Figure 1). The purpose of this report is to characterize, in a general sense, the distribution of economically and environmentally important elements within the rocks and aquifers of the Doniphan/Eleven Point ranger district

  12. Thin solar concentrator with high concentration ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jhe-Syuan; Liang, Chao-Wen

    2013-09-01

    Solar concentrators are often used in conjunction with III-V multi-junction solar cells for cost reduction and efficiency improvement purposes. High flux concentration ratio, high optical efficiency and high manufacture tolerance are the key features required for a successful solar concentrator design. This paper describes a novel solar concentrator that combines the concepts, and thus the advantages, of both the refractive type ad reflective type. The proposed concentrator design adopts the Etendue-cascading concept that allows the light beams from all the concentric annular entrance pupils to be collected and transferred to the solar cell with minimal loss. This concept enables the system to perform near its Etendue-Limit and have a high concentration ratio simultaneously. Thereby reducing the costs of solar cells and therefor achieves a better the per watts cost. The concentrator demonstrated has a thing aspect ratio of 0.19 with a zero back focal distance. The numerical aperture at the solar cell immersed inside the dielectric concentrator is as high as 1.33 achieving a unprecedented high optical concentration ratio design.

  13. Toxaphene residues from cotton fields in soils and in the coastal environment of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F P; Montenegro-Guillén, S; Villeneuve, J P; Cattini, C; Tolosa, I; Bartocci, J; Lacayo-Romero, M; Cruz-Granja, A

    2003-11-01

    Toxaphene (camphechlor) was intensively used in the cotton growing fields of Nicaragua for decades with application rates as high as 31 kg ha(-1) in 1985. Although the use of this compound has recently been discontinued in the country, its intensive use in the past and its long persistence in soil allowed for the build up of large reservoirs of toxaphene in agriculture soils and a wide dispersal of residues in the environment. Measurements of toxaphene in coastal areas on the coast of the Pacific Ocean show that environmental concentrations are particularly high in the district of Chinandega, the traditional cotton growing region. Toxaphene residues measured in soils attained 44 microg g(-1) (dry weight) while concentrations in lagoon sediments attained 6.9 microg g(-1) (dry weight) near the mouth of the rivers flowing across the agricultural region. Measurements in aquatic biota showed concentrations as high as 1.6 microg g(-1) (dry weight) in the soft tissues of clams. The toxaphene reservoir in soils combined with the obvious persistence of this compound in soils and lagoon sediments allows predicting that toxaphene will remain in the coastal ecosystem at relatively high concentrations for many years. Toxic effects in lagoon fauna are likely to be observed especially in benthic species that may recycle this compound from sediments. Consumption of seafood, in particular of clams (Anadara spp.) from the more contaminated areas, may expose the population to unacceptably high intake of toxaphene, 30 microg d(-1) per person, with the diet.

  14. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  15. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  16. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235 Section 136.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  17. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  18. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  19. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  20. 38 CFR 49.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research...

  1. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants...

  2. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair) which tends to wear or tear... appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair) which tends to wear or tear clothing; or (B) A... allowance for each prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair)...

  3. 44 CFR 208.41 - Administrative allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative allowance. 208.41 Section 208.41 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM...

  4. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Job Location and Development Program § 675.33...

  5. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Job Location and Development Program § 675.33...

  6. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Job Location and Development Program § 675.33...

  7. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... sets out in this subpart. (d) Indirect costs. Indirect costs beyond the administrative and...

  8. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of 10... directly to FEMA is eligible for management costs consisting of a maximum of 10 percent of grants...

  9. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of 10... directly to FEMA is eligible for management costs consisting of a maximum of 10 percent of grants...

  10. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.439 Section 206.439 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... section. (b) Administrative and management costs for major disasters will be paid in accordance with...

  11. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of 10... directly to FEMA is eligible for management costs consisting of a maximum of 10 percent of grants...

  12. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.228 Section 206.228 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF.... (3) Administrative and management costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid...

  13. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.439 Section 206.439 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... section. (b) Administrative and management costs for major disasters will be paid in accordance with...

  14. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of 10... directly to FEMA is eligible for management costs consisting of a maximum of 10 percent of grants...

  15. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... sets out in this subpart. (d) Indirect costs. Indirect costs beyond the administrative and...

  16. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.439 Section 206.439 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... section. (b) Administrative and management costs for major disasters will be paid in accordance with...

  17. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.228 Section 206.228 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF.... (3) Administrative and management costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid...

  18. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of 10... directly to FEMA is eligible for management costs consisting of a maximum of 10 percent of grants...

  19. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... sets out in this subpart. (d) Indirect costs. Indirect costs beyond the administrative and...

  20. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... sets out in this subpart. (d) Indirect costs. Indirect costs beyond the administrative and...

  1. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... sets out in this subpart. (d) Indirect costs. Indirect costs beyond the administrative and...

  2. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 206.439 Section 206.439 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... section. (b) Administrative and management costs for major disasters will be paid in accordance with...

  3. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.439 Section 206.439 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... section. (b) Administrative and management costs for major disasters will be paid in accordance with...

  4. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is..., however, pay consultants more than this amount.) This limitation applies to consultation services...

  5. 21 CFR 1303.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... estimated net disposal for the current calendar year and the last preceding calendar year; or (2) For new manufacturers, 50 percent of his reasonably estimated net disposal for the next calendar year as determined by the Administrator. (b) During each calendar year each registered manufacturer shall be allowed...

  6. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... typical “provider” costs, and costs (such as marketing, enrollment, membership, and operation of the HMO... principles applicable to provider costs, as set forth in § 417.536. (2) The allowability of other costs is determined in accordance with principles set forth in §§ 417.538 through 417.550. (3) Costs for...

  7. 20 CFR 633.303 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., or committee for section 402 program purposes, and reimbursement of actual expenses connected with... grantee per quarter. (2) Allowances and loss of wages. Any individual or family member who is a member of... family income does not exceed either 70 percent of the lower living standard income level or the...

  8. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SERVICE OBLIGATIONS UNDER SPECIAL...

  9. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SERVICE OBLIGATIONS UNDER SPECIAL...

  10. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SERVICE OBLIGATIONS UNDER SPECIAL...

  11. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... the applicable cost principles. For the costs of a— Use the principles in— State, local or...

  12. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... the applicable cost principles. For the costs of a— Use the principles in— State, local or...

  13. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial...— Private nonprofit organization other than (1) An institution of higher education; (2) a hospital; or (3... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 74.27 Section 74.27 Education...

  14. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial...— Private nonprofit organization other than (1) An institution of higher education; (2) a hospital; or (3... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 74.27 Section 74.27 Education...

  15. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs incurred by commercial... with their normal travel reimbursement practices. Contracts with firms for services which are awarded... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE...

  16. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84.27 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management §...

  17. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84.27 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management §...

  18. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84.27 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management §...

  19. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.223...

  20. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.217...

  1. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241 Section 136.241 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.241...

  2. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235 Section 136.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.235...

  3. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205...

  4. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.229...

  5. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211...

  6. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements...

  7. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements...

  8. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements...

  9. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements...

  10. 29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... service with the Department and: (l) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent... the other provisions of this subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss, of personal property incident... authorized places. Claims may be allowable for damage to, or loss of, property arising from fire,...

  11. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met... OMB circulars. (b) No costs shall be allowed for the purchase of any object to be included in the collection of a museum, except library, literary, or archival material specifically required for a...

  12. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met... OMB circulars. (b) No costs shall be allowed for the purchase of any object to be included in the collection of a museum, except library, literary, or archival material specifically required for a...

  13. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met... OMB circulars. (b) No costs shall be allowed for the purchase of any object to be included in the collection of a museum, except library, literary, or archival material specifically required for a...

  14. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met... OMB circulars. (b) No costs shall be allowed for the purchase of any object to be included in the collection of a museum, except library, literary, or archival material specifically required for a...

  15. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 632.37 Section 632.37 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN... applicable State and local law, rules or regulations as determined by the Native American grantee. (b)...

  16. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....16(f). (b) Other types of organizations. Allowability of costs incurred by other types of... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements... accordance with the cost principles applicable to the type of entity incurring the costs, as follows: (a)...

  17. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit... principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining...

  18. 15 CFR 921.81 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable costs. 921.81 Section 921.81 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC... program in either the current or a prior award period. (d) General guidelines for the non-Federal...

  19. 29 CFR 15.41 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Arising Out of the Operation of the Job Corps § 15.41 Allowable claims. (a)(1) A claim for damage to persons or property arising out of an act or omission of a student enrolled in the Job Corps may...

  20. 50 CFR 80.15 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.15 Allowable costs. (a) What are... designed to include purposes other than those eligible under either the Dingell-Johnson Sport...

  1. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  2. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  3. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 30.27 Section 30.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  4. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 30.27 Section 30.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  5. 32 CFR 32.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 32.27 Allowable... subrecipients or contractors under awards subject to this part is determined in accordance with the provisions... awards, is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A-122, “Cost Principles for...

  6. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  7. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  8. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  9. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241 Section 136.241 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  10. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  11. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  12. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  13. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  14. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  15. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  16. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  17. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  18. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241 Section 136.241 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  19. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235 Section 136.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  20. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241 Section 136.241 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  1. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  2. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  3. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241 Section 136.241 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  4. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  5. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  6. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235 Section 136.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  7. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235 Section 136.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  8. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  9. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  10. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  11. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-12-31

    The use of the SO{sub 2} allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO{sub 2} emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO{sub 2} for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO{sub x} emission averaging, the utility would average NO{sub x} emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  12. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the SO[sub 2] allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO[sub 2] emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO[sub 2] for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO[sub x] emission averaging, the utility would average NO[sub x] emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  13. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy... expenditures. (a) Except as adjusted, the expenditure of financial assistance provided under this part for... adjusted in paragraph (c) of this section. (b) The expenditure of financial assistance provided under...

  14. 5 CFR 180.104 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable claims. 180.104 Section 180.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYEES' PERSONAL PROPERTY... are payable: (i) Where personal funds were accepted by responsible Government personnel with...

  15. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Job Location and Development Program § 675.33...

  16. Continuous Removal of Coal-Gasification Residue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.; Suitor, J.; Dubis, D.

    1986-01-01

    Continuous-flow hopper processes solid residue from coal gasification, converting it from ashes, cinders, and clinkers to particles size of sand granules. Unit does not require repeated depressurization of lockhopper to admit and release materials. Therefore consumes less energy. Because unit has no airlock valves opened and closed repeatedly on hot, abrasive particles, subjected to lesser wear. Coal-gasification residue flows slowly through pressure-letdown device. Material enters and leaves continuously. Cleanout door on each pressure-letdown chamber allows access for maintenance and emergencies.

  17. 40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... critical use allowances. 82.8 Section 82.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 82.8 Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances. (a) Effective January 1, 1996...). There is no amount specified for this exemption. (c) Effective January 1, 2005, critical use...

  18. Sucrose lyophiles: a semi-quantitative study of residual water content by total X-ray diffraction analysis.

    PubMed

    Bates, S; Jonaitis, D; Nail, S

    2013-10-01

    Total X-ray Powder Diffraction Analysis (TXRPD) using transmission geometry was able to observe significant variance in measured powder patterns for sucrose lyophilizates with differing residual water contents. Integrated diffraction intensity corresponding to the observed variances was found to be linearly correlated to residual water content as measured by an independent technique. The observed variance was concentrated in two distinct regions of the lyophilizate powder pattern, corresponding to the characteristic sucrose matrix double halo and the high angle diffuse region normally associated with free-water. Full pattern fitting of the lyophilizate powder patterns suggested that the high angle variance was better described by the characteristic diffraction profile of a concentrated sucrose/water system rather than by the free-water diffraction profile. This suggests that the residual water in the sucrose lyophilizates is intimately mixed at the molecular level with sucrose molecules forming a liquid/solid solution. The bound nature of the residual water and its impact on the sucrose matrix gives an enhanced diffraction response between 3.0 and 3.5 beyond that expected for free-water. The enhanced diffraction response allows semi-quantitative analysis of residual water contents within the studied sucrose lyophilizates to levels below 1% by weight.

  19. Measurement of residual stresses using fracture mechanics weight functions

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Y.

    2000-10-01

    A residual stress measurement method has been developed to quantify through-the-thickness residual stresses. Accurate measurement of residual stresses is crucial for many engineering structures. Fabrication processes such as welding and machining generate residual stresses that are difficult to predict. Residual stresses affect the integrity of structures through promoting failures due to brittle fracture, fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, and wear. In this work, the weight function theory of fracture mechanics is used to measure residual stresses. The weight function theory is an important development in computational fracture mechanics. Stress intensity factors for arbitrary stress distribution on the crack faces can be accurately and efficiently computed for predicting crack growth. This paper demonstrates that the weight functions are equally useful in measuring residual stresses. In this method, an artificial crack is created by a thin cut in a structure containing residual stresses. The cut relieves the residual stresses normal to the crack-face and allows the relieved residual stresses to deform the structure. Strain gages placed adjacent to the cut measure the relieved strains corresponding to incrementally increasing depths of the cut. The weight functions of the cracked body relate the measured strains to the residual stresses normal to the cut within the structure. The procedure details, such as numerical integration of the singular functions in applying the weight function method, will be discussed.

  20. Rigid Residue Scan Simulations Systematically Reveal Residue Entropic Roles in Protein Allostery.

    PubMed

    Kalescky, Robert; Zhou, Hongyu; Liu, Jin; Tao, Peng

    2016-04-01

    Intra-protein information is transmitted over distances via allosteric processes. This ubiquitous protein process allows for protein function changes due to ligand binding events. Understanding protein allostery is essential to understanding protein functions. In this study, allostery in the second PDZ domain (PDZ2) in the human PTP1E protein is examined as model system to advance a recently developed rigid residue scan method combining with configurational entropy calculation and principal component analysis. The contributions from individual residues to whole-protein dynamics and allostery were systematically assessed via rigid body simulations of both unbound and ligand-bound states of the protein. The entropic contributions of individual residues to whole-protein dynamics were evaluated based on covariance-based correlation analysis of all simulations. The changes of overall protein entropy when individual residues being held rigid support that the rigidity/flexibility equilibrium in protein structure is governed by the La Châtelier's principle of chemical equilibrium. Key residues of PDZ2 allostery were identified with good agreement with NMR studies of the same protein bound to the same peptide. On the other hand, the change of entropic contribution from each residue upon perturbation revealed intrinsic differences among all the residues. The quasi-harmonic and principal component analyses of simulations without rigid residue perturbation showed a coherent allosteric mode from unbound and bound states, respectively. The projection of simulations with rigid residue perturbation onto coherent allosteric modes demonstrated the intrinsic shifting of ensemble distributions supporting the population-shift theory of protein allostery. Overall, the study presented here provides a robust and systematic approach to estimate the contribution of individual residue internal motion to overall protein dynamics and allostery.

  1. Rigid Residue Scan Simulations Systematically Reveal Residue Entropic Roles in Protein Allostery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Intra-protein information is transmitted over distances via allosteric processes. This ubiquitous protein process allows for protein function changes due to ligand binding events. Understanding protein allostery is essential to understanding protein functions. In this study, allostery in the second PDZ domain (PDZ2) in the human PTP1E protein is examined as model system to advance a recently developed rigid residue scan method combining with configurational entropy calculation and principal component analysis. The contributions from individual residues to whole-protein dynamics and allostery were systematically assessed via rigid body simulations of both unbound and ligand-bound states of the protein. The entropic contributions of individual residues to whole-protein dynamics were evaluated based on covariance-based correlation analysis of all simulations. The changes of overall protein entropy when individual residues being held rigid support that the rigidity/flexibility equilibrium in protein structure is governed by the La Châtelier’s principle of chemical equilibrium. Key residues of PDZ2 allostery were identified with good agreement with NMR studies of the same protein bound to the same peptide. On the other hand, the change of entropic contribution from each residue upon perturbation revealed intrinsic differences among all the residues. The quasi-harmonic and principal component analyses of simulations without rigid residue perturbation showed a coherent allosteric mode from unbound and bound states, respectively. The projection of simulations with rigid residue perturbation onto coherent allosteric modes demonstrated the intrinsic shifting of ensemble distributions supporting the population-shift theory of protein allostery. Overall, the study presented here provides a robust and systematic approach to estimate the contribution of individual residue internal motion to overall protein dynamics and allostery. PMID:27115535

  2. Allowable stresses in FRP marine vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visuri, Manuri

    The publication consists of a literature survey of allowable stresses used in fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) structures, and a new method for the determination of allowable stresses is presented. In the literature survey, primary attention has been paid to the marine industry (including classification societies), the aerospace industry, and to pressure vessel and pipe standards. Generally the subject is only briefly discussed in the literature. This is a drawback, since the conservatism dominating the rules used today often means unnecessary weight penalties. High factors of safety (FoS), except in the aerospace industry, are used in most designs. The short experience of structures in service, wide variety of material combinations and the rather complicated mechanical behavior are the most important factors in this regard. The presented determination method for allowable stresses aims at introducing a more rational way for dimensioning. The method is based on the partial factors of safety concept. A statistical analysis can be included for better accuracy. This requires enough data of material and load behavior. The method is flexible and can be tailored to various needs. One major drawback is the lack of information concerning material behavior under long-term loads. The method is aimed to be expanded in the future.

  3. 30 CFR 1206.177 - What general requirements regarding transportation allowances apply to me?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... unprocessed gas, residue gas, or gas plant product. For purposes of this section, natural gas liquids are... transportation allowances apply to me? 1206.177 Section 1206.177 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas...

  4. 30 CFR 1206.177 - What general requirements regarding transportation allowances apply to me?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... unprocessed gas, residue gas, or gas plant product. For purposes of this section, natural gas liquids are... transportation allowances apply to me? 1206.177 Section 1206.177 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas...

  5. 30 CFR 1206.177 - What general requirements regarding transportation allowances apply to me?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... unprocessed gas, residue gas, or gas plant product. For purposes of this section, natural gas liquids are... transportation allowances apply to me? 1206.177 Section 1206.177 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas...

  6. 38 CFR 21.260 - Subsistence allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Subsistence allowance. 21... $374.93 $465.08 $548.05 $39.95 3/4 time 281.71 349.32 409.76 30.73 1/2 time 188.49 233.56 274.54 20.49... 374.93 465.08 548.05 39.95 Nonpay or nominal pay work experience in a Federal, State, or local...

  7. Estimating provisional acceptable residues for extralabel drug use in livestock.

    PubMed

    Baynes, R E; Martín-Jiménez, T; Craigmill, A L; Riviere, J E

    1999-06-01

    In 1996, the United States Congress passed legislation (Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act, AMDUCA), which allows some veterinary or human drugs to be used off label in food-producing animals. In order to implement this Act and protect the U.S. consumer, tolerances or safe concentrations are required before a withdrawal time can be estimated for extralabel drug use. Use of foreign MRLs to satisfy these data needs may not be applicable because of differences in safety standards between the U.S. and other countries. This paper presents strategies that can be used to derive equivalent safe concentrations, referred to as provisional acceptable residues (PARs), that may then be used to estimate drug withdrawal times. Health-based methods are proposed for calculating a PAR for a tissue. Procedure A partitions 50% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) to edible tissues and reserves the remainder for milk. Procedure B equally partitions the ADI into all edible tissues. Procedure C partitions 50% of the ADI to milk and equally partitions the remaining 50% ADI into edible tissues. Simulations were performed for florfenicol, tetracycline, dexamethasone, azaperone, ivermectin, eprinomectin, and doramectin. In general, these simulations resulted in derivation of conservative PARs, which did not result in daily intakes of residues greater than the health-based ADI. These simulations demonstrated that provided the safe concentrations or equivalent PARs are based on rigorous toxicology safety data (e.g., NOELs, ADIs), the safety of food animal products will not be compromised. It is proposed that these PARs can be used for estimating withdrawal times after extralabel drug use or inadvertent exposure to an environmental contaminant where no approved withdrawal time exists. Finally, implementing similar transparent methods could have a positive impact on international harmonization and trade.

  8. Multiple Concentric Cylinder Model (MCCM) user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Todd O.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy

    1994-01-01

    A user's guide for the computer program mccm.f is presented. The program is based on a recently developed solution methodology for the inelastic response of an arbitrarily layered, concentric cylinder assemblage under thermomechanical loading which is used to model the axisymmetric behavior of unidirectional metal matrix composites in the presence of various microstructural details. These details include the layered morphology of certain types of ceramic fibers, as well as multiple fiber/matrix interfacial layers recently proposed as a means of reducing fabrication-induced, and in-service, residual stress. The computer code allows efficient characterization and evaluation of new fibers and/or new coating systems on existing fibers with a minimum of effort, taking into account inelastic and temperature-dependent properties and different morphologies of the fiber and the interfacial region. It also facilitates efficient design of engineered interfaces for unidirectional metal matrix composites.

  9. Residues of sulfadiazine and doxycycline in egg matrices due to cross-contamination in the feed of laying hens and the possible correlation with physicochemical, pharmacokinetic and physiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Vandenberge, V; Delezie, E; Huyghebaert, G; Delahaut, P; De Backer, P; Daeseleire, E; Croubels, S

    2012-01-01

    In the poultry industry, the widespread use of veterinary drugs such as antimicrobial compounds may lead to the presence of residues in whole eggs, egg white and egg yolk. During this study, laying hens received experimental feed containing sulfadiazine or doxycycline at cross-contamination levels of 2.5%, 5% and 10% of the therapeutic concentration. Since the therapeutic dose is 250 mg kg(-1) for both substances, cross-contamination concentrations in the feed of 6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg kg(-1) were expected. Whole egg, egg white and egg yolk samples were collected during the treatment and depletion period and were analysed via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. For both drugs, a plateau phase was reached within 3-5 days and residue concentrations were detected in all egg matrices. For the 10% cross-contamination group, residual sulfadiazine concentrations of 208, 299 and 60 µg kg(-1) and residual doxycycline concentrations of 455, 332, 206 µg kg(-1) were detected in whole egg, egg white and egg yolk on day 13 of the treatment period, respectively. Both sulfadiazine and doxycycline had higher concentrations in egg white than in egg yolk, but the egg white-egg yolk ratio was higher for sulfadiazine than for doxycycline. As neither drug is allowed in Belgium for use in laying hens, residues may pose food safety concerns.

  10. Optimization of biohydrogen yield produced by bacterial consortia using residual glycerin from biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Faber, Mariana de Oliveira; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana Santana

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this study were to simplify the fermentation medium and to optimize the conditions of dark fermentation of residual glycerin to produce biohydrogen. It was possible to remove all micronutrients of fermentation medium and improve biohydrogen production by applying residual glycerin as feedstock. After statistical analysis of the following parameters pH, glycerin concentration and volatile suspended solids, the values of 5.5; 0.5g.L(-1) and 8.7g.L(-1), respectively, were defined as optimum condition for this process. It generated 2.44molH2/molglycerin, an expressive result when compared to previous results reported in literature and considering that theoretical yield of H2 from glycerol in dark fermentation process is 3molH2/molglycerol. This study allowed the improvement of yield and productivity by 68% and 67%, respectively.

  11. The ASCE Residuals Transport Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Albertson, O.E.; Bizier, P.A.; Brown, J.; Koch, C.; Sadick, T.

    1999-07-01

    This presentation will highlight the ASCE Residuals Transport Manual, which has been published by ASCE this year. This document, which represents the state of the art in information on residuals transport, is designed to be used by both the active practitioner, as well as for instructional purposes. The authors will present the various chapters which cover the following topics: Conveyance of Water and Wastewater Residuals, Rheology, Sludge Characteristics, Quality and Quantity, Overview of Residuals Conveyance Devices, Pumping of Viscous Sludges and Slurries, Transport of Thickened Residuals, Conveyance of Dewatered Residuals, Transport of Granular and Compactable Residuals, and Case Studies. The Objective of the Transport Monograph is to summarize in one concise volume the general state of knowledge regarding residuals transport from both water and wastewater residuals. The presentation will cover each chapter and will review the pertinent information contained in the manual.

  12. [Organochlorine pesticide residues in human adipose tissue in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Barquero, M; Constenla, M A

    1986-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were found in 82 samples of human adipose material from 82 surgical cases in 16 Costa Rica hospitals. Identification was made by gas-liquid chromatography. The highest pesticide concentration was that of DDT and its metabolites (33.16 micrograms/g). Residues of almost all commercial pesticides were also found. Concentrations of alpha-chlordane. Aldrin and Polychlorinated biphenyls were not significant.

  13. Treatment of vacuum residues in hydroconversion conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, A. Y.; Mendoza, D. L.; Espinosa, J. O.; Laverde, D.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper the use of a liquid homogeneous catalyst has been studied in reactivity vacuum residues by hydroconversion under different conditions. To cover a wide range of compositions, six (6) vacuum residues were selected from crude mixtures. Hydroconversion test were performed in batch reactor with hydrogen atmosphere at about 2000psi in a temperature range between 430 and 480°C. The results allowed to establish that the reactivity hydroconversion conditions about coke formation is higher in vacuum residues with higher content of resins and asphaltenes. The reaction conditions promote distillate formation, however, with increasing stringency conditions, the distillate yield decreases due to distillate transformation into temperature range 430 and 460°C compared to the tests performed without catalyst demonstrating that the use of homogeneous catalyst is an alternative to treating vacuum residues and results are satisfactory in the conversion processes. Finally, predictive expressions have been developed in the formation of products depending on the conditions of temperature and physicochemical properties of processed vacuum residue.

  14. Residual α-L-iduronidase activity in fibroblasts of mild to severe Mucopolysaccharidosis type I patients.

    PubMed

    Oussoren, Esmee; Keulemans, Joke; van Diggelen, Otto P; Oemardien, Linda F; Timmermans, Remco G; van der Ploeg, Ans T; Ruijter, George J G

    2013-08-01

    Three major clinical subgroups are usually distinguished in Mucopolysaccharidosis type I: Hurler (MPS IH, severe presentation), Hurler-Scheie (MPS IH/S, intermediate) and Scheie (MPS IS, mild). To facilitate treatment with hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, early diagnosis is important for MPS IH patients. Although screening for MPS I in newborns would allow detection at an early age, it may be difficult to predict the phenotype on the basis of the genotype in these infants. Extra diagnostic tools are thus required. Based on the hypothesis that distinct MPS I phenotypes may result from differences in residual α-l-iduronidase (IDUA) activity, we modified the common IDUA assay using the substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-α-l-iduronide to allow quantification of low IDUA activity in MPS I fibroblasts. Enzyme incubation was performed with high protein concentrations at different time points up to 8h. Mean residual IDUA activity was 0.18% (range 0-0.6) of the control value in MPS IH fibroblasts (n=5); against 0.27% (range 0.2-0.3) in MPS IH/S cells (n=3); and 0.79% (range 0.3-1.8) in MPS IS fibroblasts (n=5). These results suggest that residual IDUA activity and severity of the MPS I phenotype are correlated. Two MPS IS patients with rare (E276K/E276K) or indefinite (A327P/unknown) IDUA genotypes had residual IDUA activity in the MPS IS range, illustrating the usefulness of our approach. IDUA(E276K) was very unstable at 37°C, but more stable at 23°C, suggesting thermal instability. We conclude that this procedure for determining residual IDUA activity in fibroblasts of MPS I patients may be helpful to predict MPS I phenotype.

  15. 76 FR 32340 - Federal Travel Regulation; Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION 41 CFR Parts 301-11, 302-2, 302-3, and 302-17 RIN 3090-AI95 Federal Travel Regulation; Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances (Taxes) AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide... amend the Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) by incorporating recommendations of the...

  16. 78 FR 26637 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowance-Relocation Income Tax (RIT) Allowable Tables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowance--Relocation Income Tax (RIT) Allowable... tables would be available on a GSA Web site. The purpose of this notice is to inform agencies that...

  17. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  18. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  19. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  20. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  1. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  2. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  3. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  4. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  5. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  6. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  7. Residual stresses in material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kozaczek, K.J.; Watkins, T.R.; Hubbard, C.R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.

    1994-09-01

    Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then adresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X-ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.

  8. Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2004-06-01

    Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today’s waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous longterm management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by externalintrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the longterm success of the prescribed system. In fact

  9. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOEpatents

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  10. Critical body residues in the marine amphipod Ampelisca abdita: Sediment exposures with nonionic organic contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Fay, A.A.; Brownawell, B.J.; Elskus, A.A.; McElroy, A.E.

    2000-04-01

    Body residues associated with acute toxicity were determined in the marine amphipod Ampelisca abdita exposed to spiked sediments. Nonylphenol and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl critical body residues (CBRs, body residue of contaminant at 50% mortality) were 1.1 {micro}mol/g wet tissue and 0.57 {micro}mol/g wet tissue, respectively, values near the low end of the CBR range expected for compounds acting via narcosis. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons tested, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and benz[a]anthracene (BaA), were not acutely toxic at exposure concentrations of up to 43 and 1,280 {micro}g/g dry sediment for BaA and BaP respectively, and body burdens up to 1.2 {micro}mol/g wet tissue (for BaP). Neither polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was significantly metabolized by A. abdita. The microextraction technique employed here allowed residue analysis of samples containing as few as three amphipods (0.33 mg dry wt). The CBR approach avoids confounding factors such as variations in bioavailability and uptake kinetics and could be employed to assess the relative contribution of specific contaminants or contaminant classes in mixtures to effects observed in toxicity tests with Ampelisca and other organisms.

  11. Stabilization of geothermal residues by encapsulation in polymer concrete and portland cement mortar composites

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, R.P.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1987-11-01

    Presented are the results from the preliminary phase of a laboratory test program conducted to identify and evaluate materials for converting hazardous geothermal residues to a non-hazardous and potentially usable form. Laboratory test results indicate that geothermal residues can be effectively incorporated, as a fine aggregate, into polymer concrete (PC) and portland cement mortar (PCM) composites. PC composites made using an emulsifiable polyester resin and a methyl methacrylate (MMA)-based monomer system exhibited compressive strengths varying between 3700 and 16,500 psi (25.5 and 113.8 MPa), depending upon the type of binder used and the moisture content of the residue. Waste extraction tests (WET) performed on ground samples of the composites indicate elemental levels of leachable heavy metals are below specified soluble threshold limit concentrations (STLC), thereby allowing the composites to be classified as non-hazardous. PCM composites exhibited compressive strengths varying between 2875 and 5530 psi (19.8 and 38.1 MPa), depending upon the type, amount and moisture content of the residue. WET analysis indicates that all but one of the PCM composites evaluated can be classified as non-hazardous. 8 tabs.

  12. Analytical electron microscopy of LDEF impactor residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Barrett, Ruth A.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1995-01-01

    The LDEF contained 57 individual experiment trays or tray portions specifically designed to characterize critical aspects of meteoroid and debris environment in low-Earth orbit (LEO). However, it was realized from the beginning that the most efficient use of the satellite would be to characterize impact features from the entire surface of the LDEF. With this in mind particular interest has focused on common materials facing in all 26 LDEF facing directions; among the most important of these materials has been the tray clamps. Therefore, in an effort to better understand the nature and flux of particulates in LEO, and their effects on spacecraft hardware, we are analyzing residues found in impact features on LDEF tray clamp surfaces. This paper summarizes all data from 79 clamps located on Bay A & B of the LDEF. We also describe current efforts to characterize impactor residues recovered from the impact craters, and we have found that a low, but significant, fraction of these residues have survived in a largely unmelted state. These residues can be characterized sufficiently to permit resolution of the impactor origin. We have concentrated on the residue from chondritic interplanetary dust particles (micrometeoroids), as these represent the harshest test of our analytical capabilities.

  13. Prolonging life and allowing death: infants.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A G; McHaffie, H E

    1995-12-01

    Dilemmas about resuscitation and life-prolonging treatment for severely compromised infants have become increasingly complex as skills in neonatal care have developed. Quality of life and resource issues necessarily influence management. Our Institute of Medical Ethics working party, on whose behalf this paper is written, recognises that the ultimate responsibility for the final decision rests with the doctor in clinical charge of the infant. However, we advocate a team approach to decision-making, emphasising the important role of parents and nurses in the process. Assessing the relative burdens and benefits can be troubling, but doctors and parents need to retain a measure of discretion; legislation which would determine action in all cases is inappropriate. Caution should be exercised in involving committees in decision-making and, where they exist, their remit should remain to advise rather than to decide. Support for families who bear the consequences of their decisions is often inadequate, and facilitating access to such services is part of the wider responsibilities of the intensive care team. The authors believe that allowing death by withholding or withdrawing treatment is legitimate, where those closely involved in the care of the infant together deem the burdens to be unacceptable without compensating benefits for the infant. As part of the process accurate and careful recording is essential.

  14. Serial FBG sensor network allowing overlapping spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbenseth, S.; Lochmann, S.; Ahrens, A.; Rehm, B.

    2016-05-01

    For structure or material monitoring low impact serial fiber Bragg grating (FBG) networks have attracted increasing research interest. Common sensor networks using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) for FBG interrogation are limited in their efficiency by the spectral width of their light source, the FBG tuning range and the spectral guard bands. Overlapping spectra are strictly forbidden in this case. Applying time division multiplexing (TDM) or active resonator schemes may overcome these restrictions. However, they introduce other substantial disadvantages like signal roundtrip dependency or sophisticated control of active resonating structures. Code division multiplexing (CDM) as a means of FBG interrogation by simple autocorrelation of appropriate codes has been shown to be superior in this respect. However, it came at the cost of a second spectrometer introducing additional equalization efforts. We demonstrate a new serial FBG sensor network utilizing CDM signal processing for efficient sensor interrogation without the need of a second spectrometer and additional state of polarization (SOP) controlling components. It allows overlapping spectra even when all sensing FBGs are positioned at the same centre wavelength and it shows a high degree of insensitivity to SOP. Sequence inversed keyed (SIK) serial signal processing utilizing quasi-orthogonal balanced codes ensures simple and quick sensor interrogation with high signal-to-interference/noise ratio.

  15. Cluster approach allows budgeting, planning with DRGs.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, P L

    1984-01-01

    Measuring costs and revenues on a diagnosis related group (DRG) basis allows health care managers to define product lines, identify market shares, and examine the effects of case mix and physician behavior on profitability. It also enables public agencies to predict bed needs and evaluate certificate-of-need applications. The large number of DRGs, however, and other managerial considerations may discourage the use of DRG-based budgeting and planning. To save time and enhance data usefulness, financial officers may consolidate the DRGs into fewer groups. Revenue, for example, can be estimated by grouping the DRGs into 23 major diagnostic categories or by clustering them according to cost weight or into one group. Comparisons of payment rates and costs will identify the DRGs that lose money and will determine whether departmental costs are excessive. Strategic planning units formed from the 468 DRGs will help health care managers analyze and project performance. Product lines for this purpose may be clustered according to major diagnostic category, physician specialty, or clinical department. Since a potentially enormous amount of DRG-based clinical and financial information could be generated, hospitals should create data committees to ensure that managers receive only the information they need.

  16. Pesticide residues in birds and mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Edwards, C.A.

    1973-01-01

    exposure to an organochlorine pesticide, the concentrations of residues in the different tissues are ordinarily directly correlated with each other. When the dosage is at lethal levels, or when stored residues are mobilised to lethal levels, the balanced relationship is disrupted. The concentrations of residues in the brain provide the most rigorous criteria for diagnosis of death due to these chemicals, and levels are generally similar across a wide range of species of birds and mammals. Residues in liver are closely correlated with recent dose, either from direct intake or from mobilisation from storage, and so reflect hazardous exposure. Residues in the whole carcass show the storage reserve, and so indicate the potential for adverse effects from lethal mobilisation or from the continuous slow mobilisation that occurs during the normal processes of metabolism and excretion. A synchronous, rapid, and widespread decline in weight and thickness of shells of eggs laid by many species of wild birds occurred in the late 1940's and has persisted. Birds of prey were primarily affected; exceptions apparently are the result of lesser exposure because of different food habits. Many species of fish-eating birds are also affected. Others, however, appear to be more resistant and to accumulate much higher residues before shell-thinning occurs. Seed-eating birds do not appear to have been generally affected; their exposure is ordinarily lower, but physiological factors also seem to be involved. A relationship between shell-thinning and population decline has been established for many species. In exceptional cases, such as the herring gull, persistent re-nesting and other population reactions have overcome adverse effects at the population level. The discovery of shell-thinning among natural populations, and the hypothesis that this thinning was related to the occurrence of organochlorine pesticides, stimulated experimental studies to determine wheth

  17. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was <3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be

  18. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was < 3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be < rmax. Further, the ratio of desired harvest rate to 0.5 x rmax may be a useful metric for ascertaining the applicability of specific requirements of the National Environmental Protection Act.

  19. Concentrating collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    Selected specifications from sixteen concentrating collector manufacturers are tabulated. Eleven are linear parabolic trough collectors, and the others include slats, cylindrical trough, linear Fresnel lens, parabolic cylindrical Fresnel lens, and two point focus parabolic dish collectors. Also included is a brief discussion of the operating temperatures and other design considerations for concentrating collectors. (LEW)

  20. Manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines using RESRAD, Version 5.0

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; Zielen, A.J.; Cheng, J.J.

    1993-09-01

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material. It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating doses, risks, and guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. Two new pathways, radon inhalation and soil ingestion, have been added to RESRAD. Twenty-seven new radionuclides have also been added, and the cutoff half-life for associated radionuclides has been reduced to six months. Other major improvements to the RESRAD code include the ability to run sensitivity analyses, the addition of graphical output, user-specified dose factors, updated databases, an improved groundwater transport model, optional input of a groundwater concentration and a solubility constant, special models for tritium and carbon-14, calculation of cancer incidence risk, and the use of a mouse with menus.

  1. Soil C saturation does not seem to influence short-term decomposition of maize residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Vincent; Angers, Denis; Rochette, Philippe; Whalen, Joann

    2010-05-01

    Accumulation of organic C in agricultural soil has the potential to mitigate the increasing CO2 content of the atmosphere, but as a soil reaches C saturation, its ability to retain additional organic C might be limited. As such, the amount of clay and silt particles and the initial organic C content of the soil are believed to influence the decomposition of plant residues and their stabilization as soil organic C (SOC). A soil with SOC content far below its theoretical C storage potential (C saturation limit), i.e. a soil having a high C saturation deficit, would have much capacity to sequester additional C. The objective of this study was to evaluate, under controlled condition, the effects of soil C saturation deficit and level of C input on corn residue decomposition in topsoil and subsoil of a cultivated heavy clay soil from the St. Lawrence lowlands, Eastern Canada. Comparison of this topsoil and subsoil, which had similar texture (941 g clay + silt kg-1 soil) and mineralogy (> 40% illite + chlorite in the clay fraction) but contrasting SOC contents, should allow for a clear evaluation of the effect of C saturation deficit on residue decomposition. We incubated topsoil (31.3 g C kg-1 soil) and subsoil (4.5 g C kg-1 soil) samples with 13C-15N-labelled corn residues at rates of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 g C kg-1 soil under laboratory conditions for 51 d. Temperature, soil moisture content and mineral N concentrations were adjusted to optimal levels for microbial activity. Whole soil SOC content increased linearly with increasing residue inputs and both soils responded similarly to increasing C additions. Such linear accumulation reflects non-saturation behaviour of the whole soil SOC pool during the short term incubation. The amounts of residue-C stabilized were not statistically different between the two soils for each residue addition rate, despite the much greater C saturation deficit in the subsoil than in the topsoil. Even when the residue C input greatly

  2. Limitations in the determination of maximum residue limits and highest residues of pesticides: Part I.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Zsuzsanna; Sali, Judit; Zentai, Andrea; Dorogházi, Enikő; Farkas, Zsuzsa; Kerekes, Kata; Ambrus, Árpád

    2014-01-01

    The pesticide usages are controlled by comparing residue concentrations in treated commodities to legally permitted maximum levels (MRLs) determined based on supervised trials designed to reflect likely maximum residues occurring in practice following authorised use. The number of trials available may significantly affect the accuracy of estimated maximum residues. We conducted a study with synthetic lognormal distributions with mean of 1 and standard deviations of 0.8 and 1.0, which reflect the residue distributions observed in practice. The likely residues in samples were modelled by drawing random samples of size 3, 5, 10 and 25 from the synthetic populations. The results indicate that the estimations of highest residues (HR), used for calculation of short-term intake, and the MRLs, serving as legal limits, are very uncertain based on 3-5 trials indicated by the calculated HR0.975/HR0.025 and MRL0.975/MRL0.025 ratios of 12 and 9, and 13 and 10, respectively, which question the suitability of such trials for the intended purpose. As the 95% range of HR and MRL rapidly decreases with number of trials, ideally ≥15 but minimum 6-8 trials should be used for estimation of HR and MRL according to the current typical practice of Codex Alimentarius.

  3. Herbicide retention in soil as affected by sugarcane mulch residue.

    PubMed

    Selim, H M; Zhou, L; Zhu, H

    2003-01-01

    Reducing surface and subsurface losses of herbicides in the soil and thus their potential contamination of water resources is a national concern. This study evaluated the effectiveness of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) residue (mulch cover) in reducing nonpoint-source contamination of applied herbicides from sugarcane fields. Specifically, the effect of mulch residue on herbicide retention was quantified. Two main treatments were investigated: a no-till treatment and a no-mulch treatment. The amounts of extractable atrazine [2-chloro-4-(isopropylamino)-6-ethylamino-s-triazine], metribuzin [4-amino-6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-(methylthio)-1,2,4-triazin-5(4H)-one], and pendimethalin [N-(ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitroaniline] from the mulch residue and the surface soil layer were quantified during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons. Significant amounts of applied herbicides were intercepted by the mulch residue. Extractable concentrations were at least one order of magnitude higher for the mulch residue compared with that retained by the soil. Moreover, the presence of mulch residue on the sugarcane rows was highly beneficial in minimizing runoff losses of the herbicides applied. When the residue was not removed, a reduction in runoff-effluent concentrations, as much as 50%, for atrazine and pendimethalin was realized. Moreover, the presence of mulch residue resulted in consistently lower estimates for rates of decay or disappearance of atrazine and pendimethalin in the surface soil.

  4. Determination of Residual Chlorine and Turbidity in Drinking Water. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This student's manual covers analytical methods for residual chlorine and turbidity. Topics include sample handling, permissable concentration levels, substitution of residual chlorine for bacteriological work, public notification, and the required analytical techniques to determine residual chlorine and turbidity. The publication is intended for…

  5. Determination of Residual Chlorine and Turbidity in Drinking Water. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This instructor's guide presents analytical methods for residual chlorine and turbidity. Topics include sample handling, permissable concentration levels, substitution of residual chlorine for bacteriological work, public notification, and the required analytical techniques to determine residual chlorine and turbidity. This publication is intended…

  6. Contaminant Release from Residual Waste in Single Shell Tanks at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA - 9276

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Deutsch, William J.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2009-06-01

    concentrations of U were likely controlled by the solubility of schoepite (UO3•2H2O). Therefore, a reactive transport model based upon solubility of schoepite and the expected composition and infiltration rates of pore water could be used to simulate future release of U from this residual tank waste. In addition to the development of release models, the residual tank waste studies completed so far have provided a number of new insights that have changed our understanding of residual tank waste. For example, the release of contaminants from different tanks, although governed by the same general chemical principles, can be very different. It has also been found that significant fractions of Tc-99 and other typically highly mobile contaminants are frequently not readily released from tank residuals and occur in recalcitrant phases that are resistant to aqueous dissolution. As these studies progress, such key cross-cutting geochemical processes and solid phase characteristics important to contaminant release from residual tank waste are becoming apparent. This may allow the grouping of tanks into general categories with certain common chemical features and contaminant release characteristics – an important goal because complete characterization of residual wastes from all 149 single-shell storage tanks is not practical.

  7. Concentrating Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  8. 76 FR 16629 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    .... FTR Bulletin 11-05 and all other FTR Bulletins can be found at http://www.gsa.gov/ftrbulletin . The RIT allowance tables are located at http://www.gsa.gov/relocationpolicy . DATES: This notice is... http://www.gsa.gov/relocationpolicy . Dated: March 21, 2011. Janet Dobbs, Director, Office of...

  9. Stochastic model of the residual acceleration environment in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinals, Jorge

    1994-01-01

    We describe a theoretical investigation of the effects that stochastic residual accelerations (g-jitter) onboard spacecraft can have on experiments conducted in a microgravity environment. We first introduce a stochastic model of the residual acceleration field, and develop a numerical algorithm to solve the equations governing fluid flow that allow for a stochastic body force. We next summarize our studies of two generic situations: stochastic parametric resonance and the onset of convective flow induced by a fluctuating acceleration field.

  10. Data Concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willett, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Orbital Research, Inc., developed, built, and tested three high-temperature components for use in the design of a data concentrator module in distributed turbine engine control. The concentrator receives analog and digital signals related to turbine engine control and communicates with a full authority digital engine control (FADEC) or high-level command processor. This data concentrator follows the Distributed Engine Controls Working Group (DECWG) roadmap for turbine engine distributed controls communication development that operates at temperatures at least up to 225 C. In Phase I, Orbital Research developed detailed specifications for each component needed for the system and defined the total system specifications. This entailed a combination of system design, compiling existing component specifications, laboratory testing, and simulation. The results showed the feasibility of the data concentrator. Phase II of this project focused on three key objectives. The first objective was to update the data concentrator design modifications from DECWG and prime contractors. Secondly, the project defined requirements for the three new high-temperature, application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs): one-time programmable (OTP), transient voltage suppression (TVS), and 3.3V. Finally, the project validated each design by testing over temperature and under load.

  11. Determination of Pesticides Residues in Cucumbers Grown in Greenhouse and the Effect of Some Procedures on Their Residues

    PubMed Central

    LEILI, Mostafa; PIRMOGHANI, Amin; SAMADI, Mohammad Taghi; SHOKOOHI, Reza; ROSHANAEI, Ghodratollah; POORMOHAMMADI, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to determine the residual concentrations of ethion and imidacloprid in cucumbers grown in greenhouse. The effect of some simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were also studied. Methods: Ten active greenhouses that produce cucumber were randomly selected. Ethion and imidacloprid as the most widely used pesticides were measured in cucumber samples of studied greenhouses. Moreover, the effect of storing, washing, and peeling as simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were investigated. Results: One hour after pesticide application; the maximum residue levels (MRLs) of ethion and imidacloprid were higher than that of Codex standard level. One day after pesticide application, the levels of pesticides were decreased about 35 and 31% for ethion and imidacloprid, respectively, which still were higher than the MRL. Washing procedure led to about 51 and 42.5% loss in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. Peeling procedure also led to highest loss of 93.4 and 63.7% in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. The recovery for both target analytes was in the range between 88 and 102%. Conclusion: The residue values in collected samples one hour after pesticides application were higher than standard value. The storing, washing, and peeling procedures lead to the decrease of pesticide residues in greenhouse cucumbers. Among them, the peeling procedure has the greatest impact on residual reduction. Therefore, these procedures can be used as simple and effective processing techniques for reducing and removing pesticides from greenhouse products before their consumption. PMID:28032066

  12. 14C-carbaryl residues in hazelnut.

    PubMed

    Yücel, Ulkü; Ilim, Murat; Aslan, Nazife

    2006-01-01

    A hazelnut ocak (shrub growing form) in the field in Black Sea region of Turkey was treated with commercial carbaryl insecticide spiked with 14C-carbaryl. Three months later, the harvested hazelnuts were separated into husk, shell, and kernel components, then homogenized and analyzed. The total and unextractable (bound) 14C-residues were determined by combustion and the extractable 14C-residues were obtained by extracting the samples with methanol. Concentrated extracts were first analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The extracts were also subjected to a series of liquid-liquid extraction procedures for clean-up and the final extracts were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Crude hazelnut oil was also extracted with hexane and analyzed for total 14C-residue. A total of 1.3% of applied radioactivity was recovered from the total nut harvested, with 0.04%, 0.06%, and 1.2% present in shell, kernel, and husk, respectively. The results show that the inedible husk and shell contained 95.7% 14C, whereas the edible kernel contained 4.3% of the total 14C recovered. The terminal 14C-residue in hazelnut kernel and oil did not contain carbaryl and/or its metabolite naphthol.

  13. Selenium speciation in flue desulfurization residues.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Liping; Cao, Yan; Li, Wenying; Xie, Kechang; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile selenium (Se). The capture of Se in the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in a generation of metal-laden residues. It is important to determine Se speciation to understand the environmental impact of its disposal. A simple method has been developed for selective inorganic Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic Se determination in the liquid-phase FGD residues by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). It has been determined that Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic Se can be accurately determined with detection limits (DL) of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.06 microg/L, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing the certified reference material, NIST CRM 1632c, and also by analyzing spiked tap-water samples. Analysis indicates that the concentration of Se is high in FGD liquid residues and primarily exists in a reduced state as selenite (Se(IV)). The toxicity of Se(IV) is the strongest of all Se species. Flue gas desulfurization residues pose a serious environmental risk.

  14. Residual flexibility test method for verification of constrained structural models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Admire, John R.; Tinker, Michael L.; Ivey, Edward W.

    1992-01-01

    A method is presented for deriving constrained modes and frequencies from a model correlated to a set of free-free test modes and a set of measured residual flexibilities. The method involves a simple modification of the MacNeal and Rubin component mode representation to allow verification of a constrained structural model. Results for two spaceflight structures show quick convergence of constrained modes using an easily measurable set of free-free modes plus the residual flexibility matrix or its boundary partition. This paper further validates the residual flexibility approach as an alternative test/analysis method when fixed-base testing proves impractical.

  15. residue and shunting pinholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorji, Nima E.

    2014-09-01

    The present work considers two observable phenomena through the experimental fabrication and electrical characterization of the rf-sputtered CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells that extremely reduce the overall conversion efficiency of the device: CdCl2 residue on the surface of the semiconductor and shunting pinholes. The former happens through nonuniform treatment of the As-deposited solar cells before annealing at high temperature and the latter occurs by shunting pinholes when the cell surface is shunted by defects, wire-like pathways or scratches on the metallic back contact caused from the external contacts. Such physical problems may be quite common in the experimental activities and reduce the performance down to 4-5 % which leads to dismantle the device despite its precise fabrication. We present our electrical characterization on the samples that received wet CdCl2 surface treatment (uniform or nonuniform) and are damaged by the pinholes.

  16. Residual stress in spin-cast polyurethane thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-19

    Residual stress is inevitable during spin-casting. Herein, we report a straightforward method to evaluate the residual stress in as-cast polyurethane thin films using area shrinkage measurement of films in floating state, which shows that the residual stress is independent of radial location on the substrate and decreased with decreasing film thickness below a critical value. We demonstrate that the residual stress is developed due to the solvent evaporation after vitrification during spin-casting and the polymer chains in thin films may undergo vitrification at an increased concentration. The buildup of residual stress in spin-cast polymer films provides an insight into the size effects on the nature of polymer thin films.

  17. Organochlorine residues in eggs of Alaskan seabirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Bartonek, J.C.; Divoky, G.J.; Klass, E.

    1982-01-01

    One egg from each of 440 clutches of eggs of 19 species of Alaskan seabirds collected in 1973-76 was analyzed for organochlorine residues. All eggs contained DDE; 98.9% contained PCB's; 84.3%, oxychlordane; and 82.7%, HCB. Endrin was found in only one egg, but DDD, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, mirex, cis-chlordane (or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, and toxaphene each occurred in at least 22% of the samples.Concentrations of organochlorines in the samples were generally low. Mean concentrations of eight compounds were highest in eggs of glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) from three sites: DDE (5.16 ppm, wet weight), dieldrin (0.214 ppm), oxychlordane (0.251 ppm), and PCB's (3.55 ppm) in eggs from Bogoslof Island; heptachlor epoxide (0.037 ppm), cis-chlordane (0.075 ppm), and HCB (0.188 ppm) in eggs from Buldir Island; and cis-nonachlor (0.026 ppm) in eggs from the Semidi Islands. Highest concentrations of DDD (0.157 ppm), DDT (0.140 ppm), and toxaphene (0.101 ppm) were in eggs of fork-tailed storm-petrel (Oceanodroma furcata) from Buldir Island, and the highest concentration of mirex (0.044 ppm) was in fork-tailed storm-petrel eggs from the Barren Islands.Both frequency of occurrence and concentration of residues in the eggs differed geographically and by species, apparently reflecting non-uniform distribution of organochlorines in the environment, dissimilar feeding habits and migration patterns of the species, or metabolic differences among the species.The overall frequency of residue occurrence was highest in eggs from the Pribilof Islands, but only three species were represented in the samples collected there. Detectable residues also were more frequent in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska colonies than elsewhere, and the lowest frequency was in eggs from nesting colonies on or near the Seward Peninsula. Regionally, concentrations of DDE and PCB's were usually higher than average in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska and lower than average in eggs from the

  18. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Plankton, Rangsit Agricultural Area, Central Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Siriwong, W.; Thirakhupt, K.; Sitticharoenchai, D.; Borjan, M.; Robson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated organochlorine pesticide residue content in freshwater plankton communities in Thailand. As a result, this study looks to examine the concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues in plankton collected from Khlong 7 (canal) at Rangsit agricultural area, central Thailand from June 2006 to February 2007. The results from this study show that plankton communities were composed of microphytoplankton, microzooplankton, and mesozooplankton. The average method recoveries varied from 84% to 103% with a relative standard deviation between 0.20% and 3.72%. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues during a one-year-period were in the range of 0.10–3.65 ng/g wet wt and contained DDT and derivatives > Σ endosulfan > Σ HCH > Σ heptachlor > aldrin and dieldrin > endrin and endrin aldehyde > methoxychlor, respectively. Moreover, the residues of Σ HCH, DDT and derivatives, and methoxychlor were higher during wet season than dry season (t-test, p ≤ 0.05). PMID:18777151

  19. Organochlorine pesticide residues in plankton, Rangsit agricultural area, central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Siriwong, W; Thirakhupt, K; Sitticharoenchai, D; Borjan, M; Robson, M

    2008-12-01

    Few studies have investigated organochlorine pesticide residue content in freshwater plankton communities in Thailand. As a result, this study looks to examine the concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues in plankton collected from Khlong 7 (canal) at Rangsit agricultural area, central Thailand from June 2006 to February 2007. The results from this study show that plankton communities were composed of microphytoplankton, microzooplankton, and mesozooplankton. The average method recoveries varied from 84% to 103% with a relative standard deviation between 0.20% and 3.72%. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues during a one-year-period were in the range of 0.10-3.65 ng/g wet wt and contained DDT and derivatives > Sigma endosulfan > Sigma HCH > Sigma heptachlor > aldrin and dieldrin > endrin and endrin aldehyde > methoxychlor, respectively. Moreover, the residues of Sigma HCH, DDT and derivatives, and methoxychlor were higher during wet season than dry season (t-test, p

  20. Filtrates & Residues: Olfactory Titration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, John T.; Eddy, Roberta M.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an experiment that uses a unique acid-base indicator--the odor of raw onion--to indicate the end point of the titration of sodium hydroxide with hydrochloric acid. Allows the student to detect the completion of the neutralization reaction by olfaction rather than sight. (JRH)

  1. Thermal Insulation from Hardwood Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sable, I.; Grinfelds, U.; Vikele, L.; Rozenberga, L.; Zeps, M.; Luguza, S.

    2015-11-01

    Adequate heat is one of the prerequisites for human wellbeing; therefore, building insulation is required in places where the outside temperature is not suitable for living. The climate change, with its rising temperatures and longer dry periods, promotes enlargement of the regions with conditions more convenient for hardwood species than for softwood species. Birch (Betula pendula) is the most common hardwood species in Latvia. The aim of this work was to obtain birch fibres from wood residues of plywood production and to form low-density thermal insulation boards. Board formation and production was done in the presence of water; natural binder, fire retardant and fungicide were added in different concentrations. Board properties such as density, transportability or resistance to particulate loss, thermal conductivity and reaction to fire were investigated. This study included thermal insulation boards with the density of 102-120 kg/m3; a strong correlation between density and the binder amount was found. Transportability also improved with the addition of a binder, and 0.1-0.5% of the binder was the most appropriate amount for this purpose. The measured thermal conductivity was in the range of 0.040-0.043 W/(m·K). Fire resistance increased with adding the fire retardant. We concluded that birch fibres are applicable for thermal insulation board production, and it is possible to diversify board properties, changing the amount of different additives.

  2. Materials recovery from shredder residues

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, E. J.; Jody, B. J.; Pomykala, J., Jr.

    2000-07-24

    Each year, about five (5) million ton of shredder residues are landfilled in the US. Similar quantities are landfilled in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Landfilling of these residues results in a cost to the existing recycling industry and also represents a loss of material resources that are otherwise recyclable. In this paper, the authors outline the resources recoverable from typical shredder residues and describe technology that they have developed to recover these resources.

  3. Operator-Friendly Technique and Quality Control Considerations for Indigo Colorimetric Measurement of Ozone Residual

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water ozone disinfection systems measure ozone residual concentration, C, for regulatory compliance reporting of concentration-times-time (CT), and the resultant log-inactivation of virus, Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The indigotrisulfonate (ITS) colorimetric procedure i...

  4. Characterization of organic residues of size-resolved fog droplets and their atmospheric implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhishek; Ervens, Barbara; Gupta, Tarun; Tripathi, Sachchida N.

    2016-04-01

    Size-resolved fog water samples were collected in two consecutive winters at Kanpur, a heavily polluted urban area of India. Samples were analyzed by an aerosol mass spectrometer after drying and directly in other instruments. Residues of fine fog droplets (diameter: 4-16 µm) are found to be more enriched with oxidized (oxygen to carbon ratio, O/C = 0.88) and low volatility organics than residues of coarse (diameter > 22 µm) and medium size (diameter: 16-22 µm) droplets with O/C of 0.68 and 0.74, respectively. These O/C ratios are much higher than those observed for background ambient organic aerosols, indicating efficient oxidation in fog water. Accompanying box model simulations reveal that longer residence times, together with high aqueous OH concentrations in fine droplets, can explain these trends. High aqueous OH concentrations in smaller droplets are caused by their highest surface-volume ratio and high Fe and Cu concentrations, allowing more uptake of gas phase OH and enhanced Fenton reaction rates, respectively. Although some volatile organic species may have escaped during droplet evaporation, these findings indicate that aqueous processing of dissolved organics varies with droplet size. Therefore, large (regional, global)-scale models need to consider the variable reaction rates, together with metal-catalyzed radical formation throughout droplet populations for accurately predicting aqueous secondary organic aerosol formation.

  5. Impact of imidacloprid residues on the development of Eisenia fetida during vermicomposting of greenhouse plant waste.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gómez, Manuel J; Romero, Esperanza; Nogales, Rogelio

    2011-09-15

    Pesticide application in agriculture causes residues in post-harvest plant waste at different concentrations. Knowledge concerning how pesticide concentrations in such waste affect earthworms is essential for recycling greenhouse plant debris through vermicomposting. Here, we have evaluated the effects of imidacloprid (IMD) residues on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) during the vermicomposting of plant waste from greenhouse crops in Spain. Before, the effect of different IMD concentrations on earthworms was tested using cattle manure as an optimum waste for worm development. The results after using cattle manure indicate that IMD dose ≥ 5 mg kg(-1) hinders worm growth and even causes death, whereas IMD dose ≤ 2 mg IMD kg(-1) allows worm growth similar to control but impedes reproduction. The results from the vermicomposting of plant waste reveal that IMD inhibits adequate worm growth and increases mortality. Although 89% worms became sexually mature in substrate containing 2 mg IMD kg(-1), they did not produce cocoons. IMD also affected microorganisms harboured in the substrates for vermicomposting, as indicated by the reduction in their dehydrogenase activity. This enzyme activity was restored after vermicomposting. This study provides a sound basis for the vermicomposting of pesticide-contaminated plant waste.

  6. Effects of residual ethanol on the rate and degree of conversion of five experimental resins

    PubMed Central

    Cadenaro, Milena; Breschi, Lorenzo; Rueggeberg, Frederick A.; Suchko, Michael; Grodin, Evan; Agee, Kelli; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the extent of ethanol retention in five comonomer blends of experimental methacrylate-based dental adhesives, containing (10, 20, or 30 wt%) ethanol, after solvent evaporation, as well as observing the effect of residual ethanol and exposure duration on degree of conversion (DC). The null hypothesis that was tested was that residual, unevaporated ethanol has no effect on the rate or extent of DC of polymerized adhesive resins. Methods A known mass of each mixture was placed in glass wells and evaporated for 60 sec. The mass of the mixtures before and after evaporation was measured, allowing calculation of the gravimetric ethanol loss/retention. Results The concentration of retained ethanol increased significantly with ethanol concentration (p<0.01): 1.1–1.9 moles/L for 10% ethanol/90% comonomers, 2.2–3.5 moles/L for 20% ethanol, and 2.6–3.7 moles/L for 30% ethanol/70% comonomers. As ethanol is evaporated from solvated comonomer mixtures, the molar concentration of comonomers increases, reducing the vapor pressure of the remaining ethanol. Thus, the fractional loss of ethanol solvent decreases as the comonomer concentration increases. The DC of 10, 20, and 30 wt% ethanol blends increased with ethanol concentration in 4 of the 5 experimental resins (p<0.05), increasing by 30 to 45% when 10 or 20 wt% ethanol was added to neat resins, regardless of exposure duration. Depending on the resin system, inclusion of 30% ethanol lowered DC at 20 s but increased DC after 40–60 sec of light exposure. Conclusion Since 10 and 20 wt% ethanol-resin blends increased the DC of solvated resins by 30–45% over neat resins, the test null hypothesis is rejected. Even with prolonged evaporation, 4–9% residual ethanol concentration can remain in 90/10 (wt/wt) comonomer/ethanol mixtures. This is thought to be because comonomers lower the vapor pressure of ethanol. This amount of residual ethanol facilitates DC but lowers the rate of polymerization

  7. Microwave emission and crop residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; O'Neill, Peggy E.

    1991-01-01

    A series of controlled experiments were conducted to determine the significance of crop residues or stubble in estimating the emission of the underlying soil. Observations using truck-mounted L and C band passive microwave radiometers showed that for dry wheat and soybeans the dry residue caused negligible attenuation of the background emission. Green residues, with water contents typical of standing crops, did have a significant effect on the background emission. Results for these green residues also indicated that extremes in plant structure, as created using parallel and perpendicular stalk orientations, can cause very large differences in the degree of attenuation.

  8. Short communication: Macrocyclic lactone residues in butter from Brazilian markets.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Fabio; Marsico, Eliane Teixeira; Conte-Júnior, Carlos Adam; de Almeida Furtado, Leonardo; Brasil, Taila Figueredo; Pereira Netto, Annibal Duarte

    2015-06-01

    Macrocyclic lactones (ML) are commonly used in drug formulations for the treatment of parasites in cattle. In Brazil, except for drugs (or formulations) with long-term (half-life) effects, ML are registered for use in bovines. Indiscriminate use of ML may result in the presence of residues in milk and dairy products due to their lipophilic properties and thermal stability. This study applied a method of liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection, recently developed and validated for the determination of residues of abamectin, doramectin, ivermectin, and moxidectin in butter. The method was applied to 38 samples of commercial butter purchased in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between June and September 2013, analyzed in triplicate. Ivermectin was detected in 89.5% of the samples, with concentrations between 0.3 and 119.4 µg/kg; 76.3% of the samples contained doramectin (0.6 to 64.7 µg/kg) and 55.2% contained abamectin (0.7 to 4.5 µg/kg). Most butter samples (76.3%) contained residues of more than 1 ML; however, no residues of moxidectin were detected. The results showed a high incidence of the presence of avermectins in butter samples. Butter is not included in the Brazilian National Plan for Control of Residues and Contaminants in Animal Products. As ML residues concentrate in lipophilic compounds, butter and other fatty dairy products should be screened for the presence of ML residues.

  9. Polylogarithmic equilibrium treatment of molecular aggregation and critical concentrations.

    PubMed

    Michel, Denis; Ruelle, Philippe

    2017-02-15

    A full equilibrium treatment of molecular aggregation is presented for prototypes of 1D and 3D aggregates, with and without nucleation. By skipping complex kinetic parameters like aggregate size-dependent diffusion, the equilibrium treatment allows us to predict directly time-independent quantities such as critical concentrations. The relationships between the macroscopic equilibrium constants for different paths are first established by statistical corrections and so as to comply with the detailed balance constraints imposed by nucleation, and the composition of the mixture resulting from homogeneous aggregation is then analyzed using a polylogarithmic function. Several critical concentrations are distinguished: the residual monomer concentration at equilibrium (RMC) and the critical nucleation concentration (CNC), which is the threshold concentration of total subunits necessary for initiating aggregation. When increasing the concentration of total subunits, the RMC converges more strongly to its asymptotic value, the equilibrium constant of depolymerization, for 3D aggregates and in the case of nucleation. The CNC moderately depends on the number of subunits in the nucleus, but sharply increases with the difference between the equilibrium constants of polymerization and nucleation. As the RMC and CNC can be numerically but not analytically determined, ansatz equations connecting them to thermodynamic parameters are proposed.

  10. Photochemical Microscale Electrophoresis Allows Fast Quantification of Biomolecule Binding.

    PubMed

    Möller, Friederike M; Kieß, Michael; Braun, Dieter

    2016-04-27

    Intricate spatiotemporal patterns emerge when chemical reactions couple to physical transport. We induce electrophoretic transport by a confined photochemical reaction and use it to infer the binding strength of a second, biomolecular binding reaction under physiological conditions. To this end, we use the photoactive compound 2-nitrobenzaldehyde, which releases a proton upon 375 nm irradiation. The charged photoproducts locally perturb electroneutrality due to differential diffusion, giving rise to an electric potential Φ in the 100 μV range on the micrometer scale. Electrophoresis of biomolecules in this field is counterbalanced by back-diffusion within seconds. The biomolecule concentration is measured by fluorescence and settles proportionally to exp(-μ/D Φ). Typically, binding alters either the diffusion coefficient D or the electrophoretic mobility μ. Hence, the local biomolecule fluorescence directly reflects the binding state. A fit to the law of mass action reveals the dissociation constant of the binding reaction. We apply this approach to quantify the binding of the aptamer TBA15 to its protein target human-α-thrombin and to probe the hybridization of DNA. Dissociation constants in the nanomolar regime were determined and match both results in literature and in control experiments using microscale thermophoresis. As our approach is all-optical, isothermal and requires only nanoliter volumes at nanomolar concentrations, it will allow for the fast screening of biomolecule binding in low volume multiwell formats.

  11. Characterizing Solids in Residual Wastes from Single-Shell Tanks at the Hanford Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Arey, Bruce W.; Heald, Steve M.; Deutsch, William J.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2010-03-03

    Solid-phase characterization methods have been used in an ongoing study of residual wastes (i.e., waste remaining after final retrieval operations) from underground single-shell storage tanks 241-C-103, 241 C 106, 241-C-202, 241-C-203, and 241-S-112 at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington State. The results of studies completed to date show variability in the compositions of those residual wastes and the compositions, morphologies, and crystallinities of the individual phases that make up these wastes. These differences undoubtedly result from the various waste types stored and transferred into and out of each tank and the different sluicing and retrieval operations used for waste retrieval. The studies indicate that these residual wastes are chemically-complex assemblages of crystalline and amorphous solids that contain contaminants as discrete phases and/or coprecipitated within oxide/hydroxide phases. Depending on the specific tank, various solids (e.g., gibbsite; böhmite; dawsonite; cancrinite; Fe oxides/hydroxides such as hematite, goethite, and maghemite; rhodochrosite; lindbergite; whewellite; nitratine; and numerous amorphous or poorly crystalline phases) have been identified by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in residual wastes studied to date. The studies also show that contact of residual wastes with Ca(OH)2- and CaCO3-saturated aqueous solutions, which were used as surrogates for the compositions of pore-fluid leachants derived from young and aged cements, respectively, may alter the composition of solid phases present in the contacted wastes. Iron oxides/hydroxides have been identified in all residual wastes studied to date. They occur in these wastes as discrete particles, particles intergrown within a matrix of other phases, and surface coatings on other particles or particle aggregates. These Fe oxides/hydroxides typically contain trace concentrations of other

  12. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  13. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  14. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  15. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  16. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  17. 17 CFR 190.07 - Calculation of allowed net equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calculation of allowed net... BANKRUPTCY § 190.07 Calculation of allowed net equity. Allowed net equity shall be computed as follows: (a) Allowed claim. The allowed net equity claim of a customer shall be equal to the aggregate of the...

  18. On tide-induced lagrangian residual current and residual transport: 1. Lagrangian residual current

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feng, Shizuo; Cheng, Ralph T.; Pangen, Xi

    1986-01-01

    Residual currents in tidal estuaries and coastal embayments have been recognized as fundamental factors which affect the long-term transport processes. It has been pointed out by previous studies that it is more relevant to use a Lagrangian mean velocity than an Eulerian mean velocity to determine the movements of water masses. Under weakly nonlinear approximation, the parameter k, which is the ratio of the net displacement of a labeled water mass in one tidal cycle to the tidal excursion, is assumed to be small. Solutions for tides, tidal current, and residual current have been considered for two-dimensional, barotropic estuaries and coastal seas. Particular attention has been paid to the distinction between the Lagrangian and Eulerian residual currents. When k is small, the first-order Lagrangian residual is shown to be the sum of the Eulerian residual current and the Stokes drift. The Lagrangian residual drift velocity or the second-order Lagrangian residual current has been shown to be dependent on the phase of tidal current. The Lagrangian drift velocity is induced by nonlinear interactions between tides, tidal currents, and the first-order residual currents, and it takes the form of an ellipse on a hodograph plane. Several examples are given to further demonstrate the unique properties of the Lagrangian residual current.

  19. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging demonstrates the specific localization of deca-bromo-diphenyl-ether residues in the ovaries and adrenal glands of exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Seyer, Alexandre; Riu, Anne; Debrauwer, Laurent; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie; Brunelle, Alain; Laprévote, Olivier; Zalko, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    Deca-bromo-diphenyl ether (DBDE) is one of the most efficient brominated flame retardant (BFR) available on the market. We recently demonstrated that when administered to female rat by oral route, DBDE is efficiently absorbed, with the highest residual concentrations found in two endocrine glands, namely the adrenal glands and the ovaries. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) imaging, a technique usually used for the study of endogenous compounds, was applied for the first time to a persistent organic pollutant, allowing to detect and to precisely localize DBDE residues in these two target tissues. The detection of the bromide ion ((81)Br isotope) by TOF-SIMS mass spectrometry imaging allowed us to demonstrate a marked cortical tropism of DBDE residues for the adrenal glands in female rats dosed per os 2 mg·kg(-1) DBDE, daily, over 96 h. In ovaries, DBDE residues were found to be concentrated in spots corresponding to part of the corpora lutea. Hepatic residues of DBDE were found to be homogeneously distributed. Due to the intrinsic toxicity of DBDE, its accumulation in the adrenal glands and the ovaries may be connected to the mechanisms of actions by which DBDE could trigger endocrine disruption in mammals.

  20. Patterns of residual stresses due to welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botros, B. M.

    1983-01-01

    Residual stresses caused by welding result from the nonuniform rate of cooling and the restrained thermal contraction or non-uniform plastic deformation. From the zone of extremely high temperature at the weld, heat flows into both the adjoining cool body and the surrounding atmosphere. The weld metal solidifies under very rapid cooling. The plasticity of the hot metal allows adjustment initially, but as the structure cools the rigidity of the surrounding cold metal inhibits further contraction. The zone is compressed and the weld is put under tensile stresses of high magnitude. The danger of cracking in these structural elements is great. Change in specific volume is caused by the change in temperature.