Science.gov

Sample records for allowable resistance requirements

  1. 40 CFR 97.41 - Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.41 Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations. (a) The NOX allowance...

  2. 40 CFR 97.41 - Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.41 Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations. (a) The NOX allowance...

  3. 40 CFR 96.41 - Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.41 Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 96.41 - Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.41 Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Season allowance allocations. 96.341 Section 96.341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting...

  6. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Season allowance allocations. 97.341 Section 97.341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will determine by order the CAIR NOX...

  7. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Season allowance allocations. 97.341 Section 97.341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will determine by order the CAIR NOX...

  8. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Season allowance allocations. 96.341 Section 96.341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting...

  9. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Season allowance allocations. 97.341 Section 97.341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will determine by order the CAIR NOX...

  10. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Season allowance allocations. 96.341 Section 96.341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting...

  11. 40 CFR 97.411 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual... TR NOX Annual Trading Program § 97.411 Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Annual allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  12. 40 CFR 97.711 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2... TR SO2 Group 2 Trading Program § 97.711 Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR SO2 Group 2 allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  13. 40 CFR 97.711 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2... TR SO2 Group 2 Trading Program § 97.711 Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR SO2 Group 2 allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  14. 40 CFR 97.611 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1... TR SO2 Group 1 Trading Program § 97.611 Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR SO2 Group 1 allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  15. 40 CFR 97.511 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.511 Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are allocated, for the...

  16. 40 CFR 97.511 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.511 Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are allocated, for the...

  17. 40 CFR 97.611 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1... TR SO2 Group 1 Trading Program § 97.611 Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR SO2 Group 1 allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  18. 40 CFR 97.411 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual... TR NOX Annual Trading Program § 97.411 Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Annual allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  19. 40 CFR 97.411 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual... TR NOX Annual Trading Program § 97.411 Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Annual allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  20. 40 CFR 97.511 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.511 Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are allocated, for the...

  1. 40 CFR 97.711 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2... TR SO2 Group 2 Trading Program § 97.711 Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR SO2 Group 2 allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  2. 40 CFR 97.611 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1... TR SO2 Group 1 Trading Program § 97.611 Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR SO2 Group 1 allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  3. 40 CFR 97.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.141 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 97.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.141 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  5. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.328 Section 192.328 Transportation... Lines and Mains § 192.328 Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative...

  6. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.328 Section 192.328 Transportation... Lines and Mains § 192.328 Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative...

  7. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.328 Section 192.328 Transportation... Lines and Mains § 192.328 Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative...

  8. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.328 Section 192.328 Transportation... Lines and Mains § 192.328 Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative...

  9. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.328 Section 192.328 Transportation... Lines and Mains § 192.328 Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative...

  10. 40 CFR 96.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.141 Timing requirements for CAIR...

  11. 40 CFR 96.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.141 Timing requirements for CAIR...

  12. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR...

  13. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR...

  14. College that Requires Workers to Be Christians Allowed to Post Job Ads on Pennsylvania Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Geneva College, a Christian institution in Pennsylvania, will be allowed to post job advertisements on a state-sponsored Web site even though the college requires employees to be Christians, according to the terms of a settlement reached in federal court. The college had sued the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry and the U.S.…

  15. 45 CFR 1310.12 - Required use of School Buses or Allowable Alternate Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Required use of School Buses or Allowable Alternate Vehicles. 1310.12 Section 1310.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD...

  16. 40 CFR 96.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting authority will submit to the Administrator... § 96.142(a) and (b), for the control periods in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. (b) By...

  17. 40 CFR 96.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting authority will submit to the Administrator... § 96.142(a) and (b), for the control periods in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. (b) By...

  18. 40 CFR 60.4141 - Timing requirements for Hg allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for Hg allowance... accordance with § 60.4142(a) and (b), for the control periods in 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. (b)(1) By October 31, 2008 and October 31 of each year thereafter, the permitting authority will submit to...

  19. 40 CFR 60.4141 - Timing requirements for Hg allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for Hg allowance... accordance with § 60.4142(a) and (b), for the control periods in 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. (b)(1) By October 31, 2008 and October 31 of each year thereafter, the permitting authority will submit to...

  20. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341...

  1. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341...

  2. Trehalose glycopolymer resists allow direct writing of protein patterns by electron-beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bat, Erhan; Lee, Juneyoung; Lau, Uland Y.; Maynard, Heather D.

    2015-03-01

    Direct-write patterning of multiple proteins on surfaces is of tremendous interest for a myriad of applications. Precise arrangement of different proteins at increasingly smaller dimensions is a fundamental challenge to apply the materials in tissue engineering, diagnostics, proteomics and biosensors. Herein, we present a new resist that protects proteins during electron-beam exposure and its application in direct-write patterning of multiple proteins. Polymers with pendant trehalose units are shown to effectively crosslink to surfaces as negative resists, while at the same time providing stabilization to proteins during the vacuum and electron-beam irradiation steps. In this manner, arbitrary patterns of several different classes of proteins such as enzymes, growth factors and immunoglobulins are realized. Utilizing the high-precision alignment capability of electron-beam lithography, surfaces with complex patterns of multiple proteins are successfully generated at the micrometre and nanometre scale without requiring cleanroom conditions.

  3. 49 CFR 236.552 - Insulation resistance; requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insulation resistance; requirement. 236.552... Insulation resistance; requirement. When periodic test prescribed in § 236.588 is performed, insulation... intermittent inductive automatic train stop system, not less than 250,000 ohms. Insulation resistance...

  4. 49 CFR 236.552 - Insulation resistance; requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insulation resistance; requirement. 236.552... Insulation resistance; requirement. When periodic test prescribed in § 236.588 is performed, insulation... intermittent inductive automatic train stop system, not less than 250,000 ohms. Insulation resistance...

  5. 49 CFR 236.552 - Insulation resistance; requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insulation resistance; requirement. 236.552... Insulation resistance; requirement. When periodic test prescribed in § 236.588 is performed, insulation... intermittent inductive automatic train stop system, not less than 250,000 ohms. Insulation resistance...

  6. 49 CFR 236.552 - Insulation resistance; requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insulation resistance; requirement. 236.552... Insulation resistance; requirement. When periodic test prescribed in § 236.588 is performed, insulation... intermittent inductive automatic train stop system, not less than 250,000 ohms. Insulation resistance...

  7. 49 CFR 236.552 - Insulation resistance; requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insulation resistance; requirement. 236.552... Insulation resistance; requirement. When periodic test prescribed in § 236.588 is performed, insulation... intermittent inductive automatic train stop system, not less than 250,000 ohms. Insulation resistance...

  8. 42 CFR 84.192 - Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.192 Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be essentially equal....

  9. 42 CFR 84.192 - Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.192 Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be essentially equal....

  10. 42 CFR 84.192 - Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.192 Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be essentially equal....

  11. 42 CFR 84.192 - Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.192 Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be essentially equal....

  12. 42 CFR 84.192 - Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. 84... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.192 Cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be essentially equal....

  13. Corrosion-resistant fuel cladding allow for liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    DOEpatents

    Brehm, Jr., William F.; Colburn, Richard P.

    1982-01-01

    An aluminide coating for a fuel cladding tube for LMFBRs (liquid metal fast breeder reactors) such as those using liquid sodium as a heat transfer agent. The coating comprises a mixture of nickel-aluminum intermetallic phases and presents good corrosion resistance to liquid sodium at temperatures up to 700.degree. C. while additionally presenting a barrier to outward diffusion of .sup.54 Mn.

  14. A physical map of the heterozygous grapevine 'Cabernet Sauvignon' allows mapping candidate genes for disease resistance

    PubMed Central

    Moroldo, Marco; Paillard, Sophie; Marconi, Raffaella; Fabrice, Legeai; Canaguier, Aurelie; Cruaud, Corinne; De Berardinis, Veronique; Guichard, Cecile; Brunaud, Veronique; Le Clainche, Isabelle; Scalabrin, Simone; Testolin, Raffaele; Di Gaspero, Gabriele; Morgante, Michele; Adam-Blondon, Anne-Francoise

    2008-01-01

    Background Whole-genome physical maps facilitate genome sequencing, sequence assembly, mapping of candidate genes, and the design of targeted genetic markers. An automated protocol was used to construct a Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' physical map. The quality of the result was addressed with regard to the effect of high heterozygosity on the accuracy of contig assembly. Its usefulness for the genome-wide mapping of genes for disease resistance, which is an important trait for grapevine, was then assessed. Results The physical map included 29,727 BAC clones assembled into 1,770 contigs, spanning 715,684 kbp, and corresponding to 1.5-fold the genome size. Map inflation was due to high heterozygosity, which caused either the separation of allelic BACs in two different contigs, or local mis-assembly in contigs containing BACs from the two haplotypes. Genetic markers anchored 395 contigs or 255,476 kbp to chromosomes. The fully automated assembly and anchorage procedures were validated by BAC-by-BAC blast of the end sequences against the grape genome sequence, unveiling 7.3% of chimerical contigs. The distribution across the physical map of candidate genes for non-host and host resistance, and for defence signalling pathways was then studied. NBS-LRR and RLK genes for host resistance were found in 424 contigs, 133 of them (32%) were assigned to chromosomes, on which they are mostly organised in clusters. Non-host and defence signalling genes were found in 99 contigs dispersed without a discernable pattern across the genome. Conclusion Despite some limitations that interfere with the correct assembly of heterozygous clones into contigs, the 'Cabernet Sauvignon' physical map is a useful and reliable intermediary step between a genetic map and the genome sequence. This tool was successfully exploited for a quick mapping of complex families of genes, and it strengthened previous clues of co-localisation of major NBS-LRR clusters and disease resistance loci in

  15. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional design requirements for steel pipe...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.112 Additional design requirements for steel pipe using... for the steel pipe (1) The plate, skelp, or coil used for the pipe must be micro-alloyed, fine...

  16. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional design requirements for steel pipe...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.112 Additional design requirements for steel pipe using... for the steel pipe (1) The plate, skelp, or coil used for the pipe must be micro-alloyed, fine...

  17. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional design requirements for steel pipe...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.112 Additional design requirements for steel pipe using... for the steel pipe (1) The plate, skelp, or coil used for the pipe must be micro-alloyed, fine...

  18. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional design requirements for steel pipe...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.112 Additional design requirements for steel pipe using... for the steel pipe (1) The plate, skelp, or coil used for the pipe must be micro-alloyed, fine...

  19. 30 CFR 1206.177 - What general requirements regarding transportation allowances apply to me?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... unprocessed gas, residue gas, or gas plant product. For purposes of this section, natural gas liquids are... transportation allowances apply to me? 1206.177 Section 1206.177 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas...

  20. 30 CFR 206.177 - What general requirements regarding transportation allowances apply to me?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., or gas plant product. For purposes of this section, natural gas liquids are considered one product..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas Transportation Allowances... gas under § 206.174 at a point off the lease, unit, or communitized area (for example, sales point...

  1. 30 CFR 1206.177 - What general requirements regarding transportation allowances apply to me?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... unprocessed gas, residue gas, or gas plant product. For purposes of this section, natural gas liquids are... transportation allowances apply to me? 1206.177 Section 1206.177 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas...

  2. 30 CFR 1206.177 - What general requirements regarding transportation allowances apply to me?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... unprocessed gas, residue gas, or gas plant product. For purposes of this section, natural gas liquids are... transportation allowances apply to me? 1206.177 Section 1206.177 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas...

  3. 30 CFR 206.179 - What general requirements regarding processing allowances apply to me?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 CFR part 206. In those situations where a processing plant processes gas from more than one lease... payment interest determined under 30 CFR 218.54. Alternatively, you may be entitled to a credit, but you... allowed for placing lease products in marketable condition. These costs include among others,...

  4. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis that required 2 years for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yano, Shuichi; Kobayashi, Kanako; Ikeda, Toshikazu

    2012-01-01

    Isoniazid (H) or rifampicin (R) mono-resistant disease can be treated easily and effectively with first-line drugs, while combined H and R resistance (ie, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB)) requires treatment with at least four agents, including a quinolone and an injectable agent. Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are reported to be extremely difficult to cultivate invitro. The authors report a case of MDRTB that required 2 years for diagnosis, and was detected only in sputum culture on solid medium. Physicians should consider MDRTB if TB is suspected but pathogens are not detected. PMID:22605803

  5. 40 CFR 97.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...), for the control periods in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. (b) By July 31, 2011 and July 31 of... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... applicable deadline for determination under this paragraph. (c) By July 31, 2009 and July 31 of each...

  6. 40 CFR 97.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...), for the control periods in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. (b) By July 31, 2011 and July 31 of... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... applicable deadline for determination under this paragraph. (c) By July 31, 2009 and July 31 of each...

  7. Natural diversity in the model legume Medicago truncatula allows identifying distinct genetic mechanisms conferring partial resistance to Verticillium wilt

    PubMed Central

    Gentzbittel, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Verticillium wilt is a major threat to alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and many other crops. The model legume Medicago truncatula was used as a host for studying resistance and susceptibility to Verticillium albo-atrum. In addition to presenting well-established genetic resources, this wild plant species enables to investigate biodiversity of the response to the pathogen and putative crosstalk between disease and symbiosis. Symptom scoring after root inoculation and modelling of disease curves allowed assessing susceptibility levels in recombinant lines of three crosses between susceptible and resistant lines, in a core collection of 32 lines, and in mutants affected in symbiosis with rhizobia. A GFP-expressing V. albo-atrum strain was used to study colonization of susceptible plants. Symptoms and colonization pattern in infected M. truncatula plants were typical of Verticillium wilt. Three distinct major quantitative trait loci were identified using a multicross, multisite design, suggesting that simple genetic mechanisms appear to control Verticillium wilt resistance in M. truncatula lines A17 and DZA45.5. The disease functional parameters varied largely in lines of the core collection. This biodiversity with regard to disease response encourages the development of association genetics and ecological approaches. Several mutants of the resistant line, impaired in different steps of rhizobial symbiosis, were affected in their response to V. albo-atrum, which suggests that mechanisms involved in the establishment of symbiosis or disease might have some common regulatory control points. PMID:23213135

  8. 41 CFR 102-74.290 - May Federal agencies allow employees to use parking spaces not required for official needs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May Federal agencies allow employees to use parking spaces not required for official needs? 102-74.290 Section 102-74.290 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...

  9. 41 CFR 102-74.290 - May Federal agencies allow employees to use parking spaces not required for official needs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May Federal agencies allow employees to use parking spaces not required for official needs? 102-74.290 Section 102-74.290 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY...

  10. Reduced workfunction intermetallic seed layers allow growth of porous n-GaN and low resistivity, ohmic electron transport.

    PubMed

    Bilousov, Oleksandr V; Carvajal, Joan J; Drouin, Dominique; Mateos, Xavier; Díaz, Francesc; Aguiló, Magdalena; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2012-12-01

    Porous GaN crystals have been successfully grown and electrically contacted simultaneously on Pt- and Au-coated silicon substrates as porous crystals and as porous layers. By the direct reaction of metallic Ga and NH(3) gas through chemical vapor deposition, intermetallic metal-Ga alloys form at the GaN-metal interface, allowing vapor-solid-solid seeding and subsequent growth of porous GaN. Current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements confirm that the intermetallic seed layers prevent interface oxidation and give a high-quality reduced workfunction contact that allows exceptionally low contact resistivities. Additionally, the simultaneous formation of a lower workfunction intermetallic permits ohmic electron transport to n-type GaN grown using high workfunction metals that best catalyze the formation of porous GaN layers and may be employed to seed and ohmically contact a range of III-N compounds and alloys for broadband absorption and emission. PMID:23167596

  11. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84.203 Section 84.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators §...

  12. HIGH RESOLUTION RESISTIVITY LEAK DETECTION DATA PROCESSING & EVALUATION MEHTODS & REQUIREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    SCHOFIELD JS

    2007-10-04

    This document has two purposes: {sm_bullet} Describe how data generated by High Resolution REsistivity (HRR) leak detection (LD) systems deployed during single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval operations are processed and evaluated. {sm_bullet} Provide the basic review requirements for HRR data when Hrr is deployed as a leak detection method during SST waste retrievals.

  13. Dectin-1 is required for resistance to coccidioidomycosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Viriyakosol, Suganya; Jimenez, Maria del Pilar; Gurney, Michael A; Ashbaugh, Mark E; Fierer, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    -glucan receptor on myeloid cells, is required for resistance to this pathogen. Dectin-1 is part of the innate immune system, and it is needed to direct the acquired immune response toward into a pathway that will lead to macrophage activation. Lungs from infected mice lacking Dectin-1 had lower concentrations of Th1 and Th17 cytokines, two cytokine pathways that are very important for acquired T cell immunity to Coccidioides spp. This is the first demonstration that Dectin-1 is required for host resistance to a dimorphic, primary pathogenic fungus. PMID:23386437

  14. Race Against Antimicrobial Resistance Requires Coordinated Action – An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Premanandh, J.; Samara, B. S.; Mazen, A. N.

    2016-01-01

    Resistance developed by microbes is challenging success stories of treatment of infectious diseases with anti-microbials. Developing new antimicrobials against these resistant organisms does not progress at the same speed. In an effort to address this key issue, this work overviews the role of different stakeholders and discusses preventative and control measures for effective management of available resources. Roles and concerns of physicians, pharmacists and the public are also discussed. More than anything, this situation requires immediate action to establish antimicrobial stewardship program, control over the counter sale and promote public awareness. The paper also confronts the idea of curbing the use of antimicrobials using mass media, while detailing the consequences of non-therapeutic use. The role of policy makers in taking global action is essential to establishing authority or agency for formulating national guidelines and regulations for prudently using antimicrobials. To do this, this paper recommend the establishment of a global fund. In conclusion, the race against resistance is a collective responsibility requiring coordinated action at local, national, regional and international levels to ensure sustained utilization of antimicrobials. PMID:26869998

  15. Race Against Antimicrobial Resistance Requires Coordinated Action - An Overview.

    PubMed

    Premanandh, J; Samara, B S; Mazen, A N

    2015-01-01

    Resistance developed by microbes is challenging success stories of treatment of infectious diseases with anti-microbials. Developing new antimicrobials against these resistant organisms does not progress at the same speed. In an effort to address this key issue, this work overviews the role of different stakeholders and discusses preventative and control measures for effective management of available resources. Roles and concerns of physicians, pharmacists and the public are also discussed. More than anything, this situation requires immediate action to establish antimicrobial stewardship program, control over the counter sale and promote public awareness. The paper also confronts the idea of curbing the use of antimicrobials using mass media, while detailing the consequences of non-therapeutic use. The role of policy makers in taking global action is essential to establishing authority or agency for formulating national guidelines and regulations for prudently using antimicrobials. To do this, this paper recommend the establishment of a global fund. In conclusion, the race against resistance is a collective responsibility requiring coordinated action at local, national, regional and international levels to ensure sustained utilization of antimicrobials. PMID:26869998

  16. 20 CFR 641.847 - What uniform allowable cost requirements apply to the use of SCSEP funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... regulations at 29 CFR 95.27 and 29 CFR 97.22 identify the Federal principles for determining allowable costs...) Allowable costs for hospitals must be determined in accordance with appendix E of 45 CFR part 74... Hospitals.” (5) Allowable costs for commercial organizations and those nonprofit organizations listed...

  17. 48 CFR 211.170 - Requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-resistant rayon fiber. 211.170 Section 211.170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Developing Requirements Documents 211.170 Requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. See 225.7016 for the statutory prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber....

  18. 48 CFR 211.170 - Requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-resistant rayon fiber. 211.170 Section 211.170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Developing Requirements Documents 211.170 Requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. See 225.7016 for the statutory prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber....

  19. 48 CFR 211.170 - Requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-resistant rayon fiber. 211.170 Section 211.170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Developing Requirements Documents 211.170 Requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. See 225.7016 for the statutory prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber....

  20. Interfamilial recombination between viruses led to acquisition of a novel translation-enhancing RNA element that allows resistance breaking

    PubMed Central

    Miras, Manuel; Sempere, Raquel N.; Kraft, Jelena J.; Miller, W. Allen; Aranda, Miguel A.; Truniger, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Summary Many plant viruses depend on functional RNA elements, called 3′-UTR cap-independent translation enhancers (3′-CITEs), for translation of their RNAs. In this manuscript we provide direct proof for the existing hypothesis that 3′-CITEs are modular and transferable by recombination in nature, and that this is associated with an advantage for the created virus. By characterizing a newly identified Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV; Tombusviridae) isolate, which is able to overcome eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-mediated resistance, we found that it contains a 55 nucleotide insertion in its 3′-UTR. We provide strong evidence that this insertion was acquired by interfamilial recombination with the 3′-UTR of an Asiatic Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV; Luteoviridae). By constructing chimeric viruses, we showed that this recombined sequence is responsible for resistance breaking. Analysis of the translational efficiency of reporter constructs showed that this sequence functions as a novel 3′-CITE in both resistant and susceptible plants, being essential for translation control in resistant plants. In conclusion, we showed that a recombination event between two clearly identified viruses from different families led to the transfer of exactly the sequence corresponding to a functional RNA element, giving rise to a new isolate with the capacity to infect an otherwise non-susceptible host. PMID:24372390

  1. Contact transmission of influenza virus between ferrets imposes a looser bottleneck than respiratory droplet transmission allowing propagation of antiviral resistance

    PubMed Central

    Frise, Rebecca; Bradley, Konrad; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Galiano, Monica; Elderfield, Ruth A.; Stilwell, Peter; Ashcroft, Jonathan W.; Fernandez-Alonso, Mirian; Miah, Shahjahan; Lackenby, Angie; Roberts, Kim L.; Donnelly, Christl A.; Barclay, Wendy S.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. It is important to elucidate the stringency of bottlenecks during transmission to shed light on mechanisms that underlie the evolution and propagation of antigenic drift, host range switching or drug resistance. The virus spreads between people by different routes, including through the air in droplets and aerosols, and by direct contact. By housing ferrets under different conditions, it is possible to mimic various routes of transmission. Here, we inoculated donor animals with a mixture of two viruses whose genomes differed by one or two reverse engineered synonymous mutations, and measured the transmission of the mixture to exposed sentinel animals. Transmission through the air imposed a tight bottleneck since most recipient animals became infected by only one virus. In contrast, a direct contact transmission chain propagated a mixture of viruses suggesting the dose transferred by this route was higher. From animals with a mixed infection of viruses that were resistant and sensitive to the antiviral drug oseltamivir, resistance was propagated through contact transmission but not by air. These data imply that transmission events with a looser bottleneck can propagate minority variants and may be an important route for influenza evolution. PMID:27430528

  2. Contact transmission of influenza virus between ferrets imposes a looser bottleneck than respiratory droplet transmission allowing propagation of antiviral resistance.

    PubMed

    Frise, Rebecca; Bradley, Konrad; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Galiano, Monica; Elderfield, Ruth A; Stilwell, Peter; Ashcroft, Jonathan W; Fernandez-Alonso, Mirian; Miah, Shahjahan; Lackenby, Angie; Roberts, Kim L; Donnelly, Christl A; Barclay, Wendy S

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. It is important to elucidate the stringency of bottlenecks during transmission to shed light on mechanisms that underlie the evolution and propagation of antigenic drift, host range switching or drug resistance. The virus spreads between people by different routes, including through the air in droplets and aerosols, and by direct contact. By housing ferrets under different conditions, it is possible to mimic various routes of transmission. Here, we inoculated donor animals with a mixture of two viruses whose genomes differed by one or two reverse engineered synonymous mutations, and measured the transmission of the mixture to exposed sentinel animals. Transmission through the air imposed a tight bottleneck since most recipient animals became infected by only one virus. In contrast, a direct contact transmission chain propagated a mixture of viruses suggesting the dose transferred by this route was higher. From animals with a mixed infection of viruses that were resistant and sensitive to the antiviral drug oseltamivir, resistance was propagated through contact transmission but not by air. These data imply that transmission events with a looser bottleneck can propagate minority variants and may be an important route for influenza evolution. PMID:27430528

  3. 21 CFR 1311.45 - Requirements for registrants that allow powers of attorney to obtain CSOS digital certificates...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Obtaining and Using Digital Certificates for Electronic Orders § 1311.45 Requirements for...) A registrant that grants power of attorney must report to the DEA Certification Authority within...

  4. 21 CFR 1311.45 - Requirements for registrants that allow powers of attorney to obtain CSOS digital certificates...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Obtaining and Using Digital Certificates for Electronic Orders § 1311.45 Requirements for...) A registrant that grants power of attorney must report to the DEA Certification Authority within...

  5. 21 CFR 1311.45 - Requirements for registrants that allow powers of attorney to obtain CSOS digital certificates...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Obtaining and Using Digital Certificates for Electronic Orders § 1311.45 Requirements for...) A registrant that grants power of attorney must report to the DEA Certification Authority within...

  6. 21 CFR 1311.45 - Requirements for registrants that allow powers of attorney to obtain CSOS digital certificates...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Obtaining and Using Digital Certificates for Electronic Orders § 1311.45 Requirements for...) A registrant that grants power of attorney must report to the DEA Certification Authority within...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1107-2 - Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-2 Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements. Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1107-2 - Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-2 Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements. Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1107-2 - Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-2 Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements. Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1107-2 - Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-2 Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements. Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1107-2 - Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-2 Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; minimum requirements. Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids...

  12. 41 CFR 102-39.80 - What are the accounting requirements for exchange allowances or proceeds of sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the accounting... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT... Exchange/Sale Methods and Reports § 102-39.80 What are the accounting requirements for exchange...

  13. 41 CFR 102-39.80 - What are the accounting requirements for exchange allowances or proceeds of sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What are the accounting... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT... Exchange/Sale Methods and Reports § 102-39.80 What are the accounting requirements for exchange...

  14. 41 CFR 102-39.80 - What are the accounting requirements for exchange allowances or proceeds of sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are the accounting... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT... Exchange/Sale Methods and Reports § 102-39.80 What are the accounting requirements for exchange...

  15. 41 CFR 102-39.80 - What are the accounting requirements for exchange allowances or proceeds of sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the accounting... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT... Exchange/Sale Methods and Reports § 102-39.80 What are the accounting requirements for exchange...

  16. 20 CFR 641.850 - Are there other specific allowable and unallowable cost requirements for the SCSEP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Lobbying costs. In addition to the prohibition contained in 29 CFR part 93, SCSEP funds must not be used to...) One-Stop Costs. Costs of participating as a required partner in the One-Stop delivery system... suitable for use for project purposes; (2) Minor repair and rehabilitation of publicly used facilities...

  17. 41 CFR 102-39.80 - What are the accounting requirements for exchange allowances or proceeds of sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the accounting... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT... Exchange/Sale Methods and Reports § 102-39.80 What are the accounting requirements for exchange...

  18. 21 CFR 1311.45 - Requirements for registrants that allow powers of attorney to obtain CSOS digital certificates...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Obtaining and Using Digital Certificates for Electronic Orders § 1311.45... registration. (a) A registrant that grants power of attorney must report to the DEA Certification...

  19. 42 CFR 84.112 - Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance... DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.112 Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more canisters or cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be...

  20. 42 CFR 84.112 - Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance... DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.112 Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more canisters or cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be...

  1. 42 CFR 84.112 - Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance... DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.112 Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more canisters or cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be...

  2. 42 CFR 84.112 - Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance... DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.112 Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more canisters or cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be...

  3. 42 CFR 84.112 - Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance... DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.112 Canisters and cartridges in parallel; resistance requirements. Where two or more canisters or cartridges are used in parallel, their resistance to airflow shall be...

  4. 48 CFR 225.7016 - Prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. 225.7016 Section 225.7016 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7016 Prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. In accordance with section... include the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. However, this does not preclude issuing a solicitation...

  5. 48 CFR 225.7016 - Prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. 225.7016 Section 225.7016 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7016 Prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. In accordance with section... include the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. However, this does not preclude issuing a solicitation...

  6. 48 CFR 225.7016 - Prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. 225.7016 Section 225.7016 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7016 Prohibition on requiring the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. In accordance with section... include the use of fire-resistant rayon fiber. However, this does not preclude issuing a solicitation...

  7. 32 CFR 37.680 - Must I require a participant to report when it enters into a subaward allowing a for-profit firm...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.680 Must I require a participant to report when it enters into a subaward allowing...

  8. 32 CFR 37.680 - Must I require a participant to report when it enters into a subaward allowing a for-profit firm...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.680 Must I require a participant to report when it enters into a subaward allowing...

  9. 21 CFR 700.25 - Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or labeling requirement. (1) Initial effective date for packaging requirements. (i) The packaging... packaging requirement in paragraph (b) of this section is effective on May 5, 1983 for each cosmetic product... after that date. (3) Retail level effective date. The tamper-resistant packaging requirement...

  10. Identification of Genes Required for Nonhost Resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Reveals Novel Signaling Components

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen; Xu, You-Ping; Zhang, Zhi-Xin; Cao, Wen-Yuan; Li, Fei; Zhou, Xueping; Chen, Gong-You; Cai, Xin-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Background Nonhost resistance is a generalized, durable, broad-spectrum resistance exhibited by plant species to a wide variety of microbial pathogens. Although nonhost resistance is an attractive breeding strategy, the molecular basis of this form of resistance remains unclear for many plant-microbe pathosystems, including interactions with the bacterial pathogen of rice, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Methods and Findings Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and an assay to detect the hypersensitive response (HR) were used to screen for genes required for nonhost resistance to Xoo in N. benthamiana. When infiltrated with Xoo strain YN-1, N. benthamiana plants exhibited a strong necrosis within 24 h and produced a large amount of H2O2 in the infiltrated area. Expression of HR- and defense-related genes was induced, whereas bacterial numbers dramatically decreased during necrosis. VIGS of 45 ACE (Avr/Cf-elicited) genes revealed identified seven genes required for nonhost resistance to Xoo in N. benthamiana. The seven genes encoded a calreticulin protein (ACE35), an ERF transcriptional factor (ACE43), a novel Solanaceous protein (ACE80), a hydrolase (ACE117), a peroxidase (ACE175) and two proteins with unknown function (ACE95 and ACE112). The results indicate that oxidative burst and calcium-dependent signaling pathways play an important role in nonhost resistance to Xoo. VIGS analysis further revealed that ACE35, ACE80, ACE95 and ACE175, but not the other three ACE genes, interfered with the Cf-4/Avr4-dependent HR. Conclusions/Significance N. benthamiana plants inoculated with Xoo respond by rapidly eliciting an HR and nonhost resistance. The oxidative burst and other signaling pathways are pivotal in Xoo-N. benthamiana nonhost resistance, and genes involved in this response partially overlap with those involved in Cf/Avr4-dependent HR. The seven genes required for N. benthamiana-mediated resistance to Xoo provide a basis for further dissecting the molecular

  11. 21 CFR 700.25 - Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.25 Section 700.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.25 Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products. (a) General. Because most cosmetic...

  12. 21 CFR 700.25 - Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.25 Section 700.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.25 Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products. (a) General. Because most cosmetic...

  13. 21 CFR 700.25 - Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.25 Section 700.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.25 Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products. (a) General. Because most cosmetic...

  14. A "Whirly" transcription factor is required for salicylic acid-dependent disease resistance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Desveaux, Darrell; Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Després, Charles; Mess, Jean-Nicholas; Lévesque, Caroline; Fobert, Pierre R; Dangl, Jeffery L; Brisson, Normand

    2004-02-01

    Transcriptional reprogramming is critical for plant disease resistance responses; its global control is not well understood. Salicylic acid (SA) can induce plant defense gene expression and a long-lasting disease resistance state called systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Plant-specific "Whirly" DNA binding proteins were previously implicated in defense gene regulation. We demonstrate that the potato StWhy1 protein is a transcriptional activator of genes containing the PBF2 binding PB promoter element. DNA binding activity of AtWhy1, the Arabidopsis StWhy1 ortholog, is induced by SA and is required for both SA-dependent disease resistance and SA-induced expression of an SAR response gene. AtWhy1 is required for both full basal and specific disease resistance responses. The transcription factor-associated protein NPR1 is also required for SAR. Surprisingly, AtWhy1 activation by SA is NPR1 independent, suggesting that AtWhy1 works in conjunction with NPR1 to transduce the SA signal. Our analysis of AtWhy1 adds a critical component to the SA-dependent plant disease resistance response. PMID:14960277

  15. Identification of a New Locus, Ptr(t), Required for Rice Blast Resistance Gene Pi-ta-Mediated Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Yulin; Martin, Rodger Carl

    2008-01-01

    Resistance to the blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is proposed to be initiated by physical binding of a putative cytoplasmic receptor encoded by a NBS type resistance gene Pi-ta to the processed elicitor encoded by the corresponding avirulence gene AVR-Pita. Here we report the identification of a new locus Ptr(t) that is required for Pi-ta-mediated signal recognition. A Pi-ta expressing susceptible mutant was identified using a genetic screen. Putative mutations at Ptr(t) does not alter recognition specificity to another resistance gene Pi-ks in the Pi-ta homozygote indicate that Ptr(t) is more likely specific to Pi-ta-mediated signal recognition. Genetic crosses of Pi-ta Ptr(t) and Pi-ta ptr(t) homozygotes suggest that Ptr(t) segregate at single dominant nuclear gene. A ratio of 1 resistant: 1 susceptible of a BC1 using Pi-ta Ptr(t) with pi-ta ptr(t) homozygotes indicates that Pi-ta and Ptr(t) are linked and co-segregated. Genotyping of mutants of pi-ta ptr(t) and Pi-ta Ptr(t) homozygotes using ten simple sequence repeat markers spanning 9 megabase of Pi-ta determines that Pi-ta and Ptr(t) are of indica origin. Identification of Ptr(t) is a significant advancement in studying Pi-ta-mediated signal recognition and transduction.

  16. A strand-passage conformation of DNA gyrase is required to allow the bacterial toxin, CcdB, to access its binding site.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew B; Maxwell, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    DNA gyrase is the only topoisomerase able to introduce negative supercoils into DNA. Absent in humans, gyrase is a successful target for antibacterial drugs. However, increasing drug resistance is a serious problem and new agents are urgently needed. The naturally-produced Escherichia coli toxin CcdB has been shown to target gyrase by what is predicted to be a novel mechanism. CcdB has been previously shown to stabilize the gyrase 'cleavage complex', but it has not been shown to inhibit the catalytic reactions of gyrase. We present data showing that CcdB does indeed inhibit the catalytic reactions of gyrase by stabilization of the cleavage complex and that the GyrA C-terminal DNA-wrapping domain and the GyrB N-terminal ATPase domain are dispensable for CcdB's action. We further investigate the role of specific GyrA residues in the action of CcdB by site-directed mutagenesis; these data corroborate a model for CcdB action based on a recent crystal structure of a CcdB-GyrA fragment complex. From this work, we are now able to present a model for CcdB action that explains all previous observations relating to CcdB-gyrase interaction. CcdB action requires a conformation of gyrase that is only revealed when DNA strand passage is taking place. PMID:16963775

  17. Directly observed treatment, short-course strategy and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: are any modifications required?

    PubMed Central

    Bastian, I.; Rigouts, L.; Van Deun, A.; Portaels, F.

    2000-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) should be defined as tuberculosis with resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin because these drugs are the cornerstone of short-course chemotherapy, and combined isoniazid and rifampicin resistance requires prolonged treatment with second-line agents. Short-course chemotherapy is a key ingredient in the tuberculosis control strategy known as directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS). For populations in which multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is endemic, the outcome of the standard short-course chemotherapy regimen remains uncertain. Unacceptable failure rates have been reported and resistance to additional agents may be induced. As a consequence there have been calls for well-functioning DOTS programmes to provide additional services in areas with high rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. These "DOTS-plus for MDRTB programmes" may need to modify all five elements of the DOTS strategy: the treatment may need to be individualized rather than standardized; laboratory services may need to provide facilities for on-site culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing; reliable supplies of a wide range of expensive second-line agents would have to be supplied; operational studies would be required to determine the indications for and format of the expanded programmes; financial and technical support from international organizations and Western governments would be needed in addition to that obtained from local governments. PMID:10743297

  18. The Toll-Dorsal Pathway Is Required for Resistance to Viral Oral Infection in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Álvaro Gil; Naylor, Huw; Esteves, Sara Santana; Pais, Inês Silva; Martins, Nelson Eduardo; Teixeira, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen entry route can have a strong impact on the result of microbial infections in different hosts, including insects. Drosophila melanogaster has been a successful model system to study the immune response to systemic viral infection. Here we investigate the role of the Toll pathway in resistance to oral viral infection in D. melanogaster. We show that several Toll pathway components, including Spätzle, Toll, Pelle and the NF-kB-like transcription factor Dorsal, are required to resist oral infection with Drosophila C virus. Furthermore, in the fat body Dorsal is translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and a Toll pathway target gene reporter is upregulated in response to Drosophila C Virus infection. This pathway also mediates resistance to several other RNA viruses (Cricket paralysis virus, Flock House virus, and Nora virus). Compared with control, viral titres are highly increased in Toll pathway mutants. The role of the Toll pathway in resistance to viruses in D. melanogaster is restricted to oral infection since we do not observe a phenotype associated with systemic infection. We also show that Wolbachia and other Drosophila-associated microbiota do not interact with the Toll pathway-mediated resistance to oral infection. We therefore identify the Toll pathway as a new general inducible pathway that mediates strong resistance to viruses with a route-specific role. These results contribute to a better understanding of viral oral infection resistance in insects, which is particularly relevant in the context of transmission of arboviruses by insect vectors. PMID:25473839

  19. The Toll-dorsal pathway is required for resistance to viral oral infection in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Álvaro Gil; Naylor, Huw; Esteves, Sara Santana; Pais, Inês Silva; Martins, Nelson Eduardo; Teixeira, Luis

    2014-12-01

    Pathogen entry route can have a strong impact on the result of microbial infections in different hosts, including insects. Drosophila melanogaster has been a successful model system to study the immune response to systemic viral infection. Here we investigate the role of the Toll pathway in resistance to oral viral infection in D. melanogaster. We show that several Toll pathway components, including Spätzle, Toll, Pelle and the NF-kB-like transcription factor Dorsal, are required to resist oral infection with Drosophila C virus. Furthermore, in the fat body Dorsal is translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and a Toll pathway target gene reporter is upregulated in response to Drosophila C Virus infection. This pathway also mediates resistance to several other RNA viruses (Cricket paralysis virus, Flock House virus, and Nora virus). Compared with control, viral titres are highly increased in Toll pathway mutants. The role of the Toll pathway in resistance to viruses in D. melanogaster is restricted to oral infection since we do not observe a phenotype associated with systemic infection. We also show that Wolbachia and other Drosophila-associated microbiota do not interact with the Toll pathway-mediated resistance to oral infection. We therefore identify the Toll pathway as a new general inducible pathway that mediates strong resistance to viruses with a route-specific role. These results contribute to a better understanding of viral oral infection resistance in insects, which is particularly relevant in the context of transmission of arboviruses by insect vectors. PMID:25473839

  20. Identification of a new locus, Ptr(t), required for rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta-mediated resistance.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yulin; Martin, Rodger

    2008-04-01

    Resistance to the blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is proposed to be initiated by physical binding of a putative cytoplasmic receptor encoded by a nucleotide binding site-type resistance gene, Pi-ta, to the processed elicitor encoded by the corresponding avirulence gene AVR-Pita. Here, we report the identification of a new locus, Ptr(t), that is required for Pi-ta-mediated signal recognition. A Pi-ta-expressing susceptible mutant was identified using a genetic screen. Putative mutations at Ptr(t) do not alter recognition specificity to another resistance gene, Pi-k(s), in the Pi-ta homozygote, indicating that Ptr(t) is more likely specific to Pi-ta-mediated signal recognition. Genetic crosses of Pi-ta Ptr(t) and Pi-ta ptr(t) homozygotes suggest that Ptr(t) segregates as a single dominant nuclear gene. A ratio of 1:1 (resistant/susceptible) of a population of BC1 of Pi-ta Ptr(t) with pi-ta ptr(t) homozygotes indicates that Pi-ta and Ptr(t) are linked and cosegregate. Genotyping of mutants of pi-ta ptr(t) and Pi-ta Ptr(t) homozygotes using ten simple sequence repeat markers at the Pi-ta region determined that Pi-ta and Ptr(t) are located within a 9-megabase region and are of indica origin. Identification of Ptr(t) is a significant advancement in studying Pi-ta-mediated signal recognition and transduction. PMID:18321185

  1. The WRKY45-Dependent Signaling Pathway Is Required For Resistance against Striga hermonthica Parasitism1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Satoko; Takahashi, Akira; Seo, Mitsunori

    2015-01-01

    The root hemiparasite witchweed (Striga spp.) is a devastating agricultural pest that causes losses of up to $1 billion US annually in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of resistant crops is one of the cost-effective ways to address this problem. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance are not well understood. To understand molecular events upon Striga spp. infection, we conducted genome-scale RNA sequencing expression analysis using Striga hermonthica-infected rice (Oryza sativa) roots. We found that transcripts grouped under the Gene Ontology term defense response were significantly enriched in up-regulated differentially expressed genes. In particular, we found that both jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) pathways were induced, but the induction of the JA pathway preceded that of the SA pathway. Foliar application of JA resulted in higher resistance. The hebiba mutant plants, which lack the JA biosynthesis gene ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE, exhibited severe S. hermonthica susceptibility. The resistant phenotype was recovered by application of JA. By contrast, the SA-deficient NahG rice plants were resistant against S. hermonthica, indicating that endogenous SA is not required for resistance. However, knocking down WRKY45, a regulator of the SA/benzothiadiazole pathway, resulted in enhanced susceptibility. Interestingly, NahG plants induced the JA pathway, which was down-regulated in WRKY45-knockdown plants, linking the resistant and susceptible phenotypes to the JA pathway. Consistently, the susceptibility phenotype in the WRKY45-knockdown plants was recovered by foliar JA application. These results point to a model in which WRKY45 modulates a cross talk in resistance against S. hermonthica by positively regulating both SA/benzothiadiazole and JA pathways. PMID:26025049

  2. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  3. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  4. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  5. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  6. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  7. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  8. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  9. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  10. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. 84.156 Section 84.156 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  11. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. 84.156 Section 84.156 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  12. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. 84.156 Section 84.156 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  13. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. 84.156 Section 84.156 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  14. Sustained platelet-sparing effect of weekly low dose paclitaxel allows effective, tolerable delivery of extended dose dense weekly carboplatin in platinum resistant/refractory epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Platinum agents have shown demonstrable activity in the treatment of patients with platinum resistant, recurrent ovarian cancer when delivered in a "dose-dense" fashion. However, the development of thrombocytopenia limits the weekly administration of carboplatin to no greater than AUC 2. Paclitaxel has a well-described platelet sparing effect however its use to explicitly provide thromboprotection in the context of dose dense carboplatin has not been explored. Methods We treated seven patients with platinum resistant ovarian cancer who had previously received paclitaxel or who had developed significant peripheral neuropathy precluding the use of further full dose weekly paclitaxel. Results We were able to deliver carboplatin AUC 3 and paclitaxel 20 mg/m2 with no thrombocytopenia or worsening of neuropathic side-effects, and with good activity. Conclusions We conclude that this regimen may be feasible and active, and could be formally developed as a "platinum-focussed dose-dense scaffold" into which targeted therapies that reverse platinum resistance can be incorporated, and merits further evaluation. PMID:21745358

  15. Molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Switzerland: sampling only invasive isolates does not allow a representative description of the local diversity of clones.

    PubMed

    Senn, L; Basset, P; Greub, G; Prod'hom, G; Frei, R; Zbinden, R; Gaia, V; Balmelli, C; Pfyffer, G E; Mühlemann, K; Zanetti, G; Blanc, D S

    2013-07-01

    We conducted a molecular study of MRSA isolated in Swiss hospitals, including the first five consecutive isolates recovered from blood cultures and the first ten isolates recovered from other sites in newly identified carriers. Among 73 MRSA isolates, 44 different double locus sequence typing (DLST) types and 32 spa types were observed. Most isolates belonged to the NewYork/Japan, the UK-EMRSA-15, the South German and the Berlin clones. In a country with a low to moderate MRSA incidence, inclusion of non-invasive isolates allowed a more accurate description of the diversity. PMID:23458418

  16. Molecular genetic analysis of a locus required for resistance to antimicrobial peptides in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Parra-Lopez, C; Baer, M T; Groisman, E A

    1993-01-01

    The innate immunity of vertebrates and invertebrates to microbial infection is mediated in part by small cationic peptides with antimicrobial activity. Successful pathogens have evolved mechanisms to withstand the antibiotic activity of these molecules. We have isolated a set of genes from Salmonella typhimurium which are required for virulence and resistance to the antimicrobial peptides melittin and protamine. Sequence analysis of a 5.7 kb segment from the wild-type plasmid conferring resistance to protamine contained five open reading frames: sapA, sapB, sapC, sapD and sapF, organized in an operon structure and transcribed as a 5.3 kb mRNA. SapD and SapF exhibited similarity with the 'ATP binding cassette' family of transporters including the bacterial Opp and SpoOK, involved in the uptake of oligopeptides; the yeast STE6, necessary for the export of a peptide pheromone; and the mammalian mdr, which mediates resistance to chemotherapeutic agents in cancer cells. SapA showed identity with other periplasmic solute binding proteins involved in peptide transport. The SapABCDF system constitutes a novel transporter for enteric bacteria and the first one harboring a periplasmic component with a role in virulence. Images PMID:8223423

  17. Comparison of genes required for H2O2 resistance in Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yifan; Itzek, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is produced by several members of the genus Streptococcus mainly through the pyruvate oxidase SpxB under aerobic growth conditions. The acute toxic nature of H2O2 raises the interesting question of how streptococci cope with intrinsically produced H2O2, which subsequently accumulates in the microenvironment and threatens the closely surrounding population. Here, we investigate the H2O2 susceptibility of oral Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis and elucidate potential mechanisms of how they protect themselves from the deleterious effect of H2O2. Both organisms are considered primary colonizers and occupy the same intraoral niche making them potential targets for H2O2 produced by other species. We demonstrate that S. gordonii produces relatively more H2O2 and has a greater ability for resistance to H2O2 stress. Functional studies show that, unlike in Streptococcus pneumoniae, H2O2 resistance is not dependent on a functional SpxB and confirms the important role of the ferritin-like DNA-binding protein Dps. However, the observed increased H2O2 resistance of S. gordonii over S. sanguinis is likely to be caused by an oxidative stress protection machinery present even under anaerobic conditions, while S. sanguinis requires a longer period of time for adaptation. The ability to produce more H2O2 and be more resistant to H2O2 might aid S. gordonii in the competitive oral biofilm environment, since it is lower in abundance yet manages to survive quite efficiently in the oral biofilm. PMID:25280752

  18. Large numbers of random point and cluster mutations within the adenovirus VA I gene allow characterization of sequences required for efficient transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Snouwaert, J; Bunick, D; Hutchison, C; Fowlkes, D M

    1987-01-01

    We have isolated clones with well over 100 randomly dispersed point mutations distributed throughout the 5' half of chemically synthesized adenovirus type 2 VA I genes. In addition, we have isolated clusters of mutations targeted to the regions corresponding to the A and B block consensus sequences of eukaryotic tRNA and adenovirus VA genes. In vitro analyses of these constructs have allowed us to survey in detail the importance of DNA sequence to transcriptional efficiency. Our analyses demonstrate that certain constructs with radically substituted A block regions can be transcribed efficiently. In contrast, there is little tolerance for variation in the sequence within the B block region. We propose that the B block sequence should be R-G-A/T-T-C-R-A-N-N-C for optimal transcriptional efficiency of the VA I gene in mammalian cells. PMID:3671085

  19. Contemporary Issues in Protein Requirements and Consumption for Resistance Trained Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jacob; Wilson, Gabriel J

    2006-01-01

    In recent years an explosion of research papers concerning protein consumption has been published. The need to consolidate this information has become critical from both practical and future research standpoints. For this reason, the following paper presents an in depth analysis of contemporary issues in protein requirements and consumption for resistance trained athletes. Specifically, the paper covers: 1.) protein requirements for resistance trained athletes; 2.) the effect of the digestion rate of protein on muscular protein balance; 3.) the optimal timing of protein intake relative to exercise; 4.) the optimal pattern of protein ingestion, relative to how an individual should consume their protein throughout a 24 hour period, and what sources are utilized during this time frame; 5.) protein composition and its interaction with measures of protein balance and strength performance; 6.) the combination of protein and carbohydrates on plasma insulin levels and protein balance; 7.) the efficacy of protein supplements and whole food protein sources. Our goal is to provide the reader with practical information in optimizing protein intake as well as for provision of sound advice to their clients. Finally, special care was taken to provide future research implications. PMID:18500966

  20. Neither Dectin-2 nor the Mannose Receptor Is Required for Resistance to Coccidioides immitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Viriyakosol, Suganya; Jimenez, Maria del Pilar; Saijo, Sinobu

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the roles of the mannose receptor (MR) and Dectin-2 in resistance to pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in C57BL/6 (B6) mice and in the interaction of myeloid cells with spherules, using B6 mice with targeted mutations in Mrc1 and Clec4n. Spherules are the tissue form of Coccidioides, and we determined that the MR on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) was important for recognition of spherules (formalin-killed spherules [FKS]) and for secretion of interleukin 10 (IL-10) and proinflammatory cytokines in response to FKS by both elicited macrophages and BMDC. Infected MR knockout (KO) mice produced more IL-10 in their lungs than did B6 mice, and MR KO mice also made more protective Th-17 cytokines. In contrast to the MR, Dectin-2 was not required for recognition of FKS by BMDC or for the production of cytokines by BMDC in response to FKS. However, Dectin-2 KO was required for stimulation of elicited peritoneal macrophages. Despite that, lung cytokine levels were not significantly different in Dectin-2 KO mice and B6 mice 14 days after infection, except for IL-1β, which was higher in Dectin-2 KO lungs. Although both Dectin-2−/− and MR−/− myeloid cells had reduced proinflammatory cytokine responses to FKS in vitro, neither MR nor Dectin-2 deficiency reduced the resistance of B6 mice to pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. PMID:24379281

  1. Neither dectin-2 nor the mannose receptor is required for resistance to Coccidioides immitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Viriyakosol, Suganya; Jimenez, Maria Del Pilar; Saijo, Sinobu; Fierer, Joshua

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the roles of the mannose receptor (MR) and Dectin-2 in resistance to pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in C57BL/6 (B6) mice and in the interaction of myeloid cells with spherules, using B6 mice with targeted mutations in Mrc1 and Clec4n. Spherules are the tissue form of Coccidioides, and we determined that the MR on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) was important for recognition of spherules (formalin-killed spherules [FKS]) and for secretion of interleukin 10 (IL-10) and proinflammatory cytokines in response to FKS by both elicited macrophages and BMDC. Infected MR knockout (KO) mice produced more IL-10 in their lungs than did B6 mice, and MR KO mice also made more protective Th-17 cytokines. In contrast to the MR, Dectin-2 was not required for recognition of FKS by BMDC or for the production of cytokines by BMDC in response to FKS. However, Dectin-2 KO was required for stimulation of elicited peritoneal macrophages. Despite that, lung cytokine levels were not significantly different in Dectin-2 KO mice and B6 mice 14 days after infection, except for IL-1β, which was higher in Dectin-2 KO lungs. Although both Dectin-2(-/-) and MR(-/-) myeloid cells had reduced proinflammatory cytokine responses to FKS in vitro, neither MR nor Dectin-2 deficiency reduced the resistance of B6 mice to pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. PMID:24379281

  2. Akt2 is required for hepatic lipid accumulation in models of insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Leavens, Karla F.; Easton, Rachael M.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Previs, Stephen F.; Birnbaum, Morris J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Insulin drives the global anabolic response to nutrient ingestion, regulating both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Previous studies have demonstrated that Akt2/protein kinase B is critical to insulin’s control of glucose metabolism, but its role in lipid metabolism has remained controversial. Here we show that Akt2 is required for hepatic lipid accumulation in obese, insulin-resistant states induced by either leptin-deficiency or high fat diet feeding. Lepob/ob mice lacking hepatic Akt2 failed to amass triglycerides in their livers, associated with and most likely due to a decrease in lipogenic gene expression and de novo lipogenesis. However, Akt2 is also required for steatotic pathways unrelated to fatty acid synthesis, as mice fed high fat diet had reduced liver triglycerides in the absence of hepatic Akt2 but did not exhibit changes in lipogenesis. These data demonstrate that Akt2 is a requisite component of the insulin-dependent regulation of lipid metabolism during insulin resistance. PMID:19883618

  3. Arabidopsis dual resistance proteins, both RPS4 and RRS1, are required for resistance to bacterial wilt in transgenic Brassica crops

    PubMed Central

    Narusaka, Mari; Hatakeyama, Katsunori; Shirasu, Ken; Narusaka, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial wilt phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is a serious soil-borne disease that attacks several economically important plants worldwide, including Brassicaceae. Previous studies indicate that recognition of avirulence (Avr)-effector PopP2 by resistance (R) protein, RRS1-R, and physical interaction between RRS1-R and PopP2 in the nucleus are required for resistance. Of late, we showed that a pair of Arabidopsis thaliana TIR-NLR proteins, RRS1 and RPS4, function together in disease resistance against multiple pathogen isolates. Here, we report that dual R proteins, RRS1 and RPS4, from A. thaliana ecotype Wassilewskija confer resistance to bacterial wilt in transgenic Brassica crops. For practical applications, this finding may provide a new strategy for developing disease resistant plants that express R genes from other plants. PMID:25763492

  4. Identification of a new locus Ptr(t) required for rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta-mediated resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to the blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is proposed to be initiated by physical binding of a putative cytoplasmic receptor encoded by a NBS-type resistance gene, Pi-ta, to the processed elicitor encoded by the corresponding avirulence gene AVR-Pita. Here we report the identification of a...

  5. Alpharetroviral self-inactivating vectors produced by a superinfection-resistant stable packaging cell line allow genetic modification of primary human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Labenski, Verena; Suerth, Julia D; Barczak, Elke; Heckl, Dirk; Levy, Camille; Bernadin, Ornellie; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Williams, David A; Fehse, Boris; Verhoeyen, Els; Schambach, Axel

    2016-08-01

    Primary human T lymphocytes represent an important cell population for adoptive immunotherapies, including chimeric-antigen and T-cell receptor applications, as they have the capability to eliminate non-self, virus-infected and tumor cells. Given the increasing numbers of clinical immunotherapy applications, the development of an optimal vector platform for genetic T lymphocyte engineering, which allows cost-effective high-quality vector productions, remains a critical goal. Alpharetroviral self-inactivating vectors (ARV) have several advantages compared to other vector platforms, including a more random genomic integration pattern and reduced likelihood for inducing aberrant splicing of integrated proviruses. We developed an ARV platform for the transduction of primary human T lymphocytes. We demonstrated functional transgene transfer using the clinically relevant herpes-simplex-virus thymidine kinase variant TK.007. Proof-of-concept of alpharetroviral-mediated T-lymphocyte engineering was shown in vitro and in a humanized transplantation model in vivo. Furthermore, we established a stable, human alpharetroviral packaging cell line in which we deleted the entry receptor (SLC1A5) for RD114/TR-pseudotyped ARVs to prevent superinfection and enhance genomic integrity of the packaging cell line and viral particles. We showed that superinfection can be entirely prevented, while maintaining high recombinant virus titers. Taken together, this resulted in an improved production platform representing an economic strategy for translating the promising features of ARVs for therapeutic T-lymphocyte engineering. PMID:27162078

  6. P53- and mevalonate pathway-driven malignancies require Arf6 for metastasis and drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ari; Oikawa, Tsukasa; Hashimoto, Shigeru; Sugino, Hirokazu; Yoshikawa, Ayumu; Otsuka, Yutaro; Handa, Haruka; Onodera, Yasuhito; Nam, Jin-Min; Oneyama, Chitose; Okada, Masato; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Sabe, Hisataka

    2016-04-11

    Drug resistance, metastasis, and a mesenchymal transcriptional program are central features of aggressive breast tumors. The GTPase Arf6, often overexpressed in tumors, is critical to promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasiveness. The metabolic mevalonate pathway (MVP) is associated with tumor invasiveness and known to prenylate proteins, but which prenylated proteins are critical for MVP-driven cancers is unknown. We show here that MVP requires the Arf6-dependent mesenchymal program. The MVP enzyme geranylgeranyl transferase II (GGT-II) and its substrate Rab11b are critical for Arf6 trafficking to the plasma membrane, where it is activated by receptor tyrosine kinases. Consistently, mutant p53, which is known to support tumorigenesis via MVP, promotes Arf6 activation via GGT-II and Rab11b. Inhibition of MVP and GGT-II blocked invasion and metastasis and reduced cancer cell resistance against chemotherapy agents, but only in cells overexpressing Arf6 and components of the mesenchymal program. Overexpression of Arf6 and mesenchymal proteins as well as enhanced MVP activity correlated with poor patient survival. These results provide insights into the molecular basis of MVP-driven malignancy. PMID:27044891

  7. A Salmonella protein that is required for resistance to antimicrobial peptides and transport of potassium.

    PubMed Central

    Parra-Lopez, C; Lin, R; Aspedon, A; Groisman, E A

    1994-01-01

    The ability of invading pathogens to proliferate within host tissues requires the capacity to resist the killing effects of a wide variety of host defense molecules. sap mutants of the facultative intracellular parasite Salmonella typhimurium exhibit hypersensitivity to antimicrobial peptides, cannot survive within macrophages in vitro and are attenuated for mouse virulence in vivo. We conducted a molecular genetic analysis of the sapG locus and showed that it encodes a product that is 99% identical to the NAD+ binding protein TrkA, a component of a low-affinity K+ uptake system in Escherichia coli. SapG exhibits similarity with other E. coli proteins implicated in K+ transport including KefC, a glutathione-regulated efflux protein, and Kch, a putative transporter similar to eukaryotic K+ channel proteins, sapG mutants were killed by the antimicrobial peptide protamine in the presence of both high and low K+, indicating that protamine hypersensitivity is not due to K+ starvation. Strains with mutations in sapG and either sapJ or the sapABCDF operon were as susceptible as sapG single mutants, suggesting that the proteins encoded by these loci participate in the same resistance pathway. SapG may modulate the activities of SapABCDF and SapJ to mediate the transport of peptides and potassium. Images PMID:8076592

  8. RCY1, an Arabidopsis thaliana RPP8/HRT family resistance gene, conferring resistance to cucumber mosaic virus requires salicylic acid, ethylene and a novel signal transduction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hideki; Miller, Jennifer; Nozaki, Yukine; Takeda, Megumi; Shah, Jyoti; Hase, Shu; Ikegami, Masato; Ehara, Yoshio; Dinesh-Kumar, S P

    2002-12-01

    The dominant locus, RCY1, in the Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype C24 confers resistance to the yellow strain of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-Y). The RCY1 locus was mapped to a 150-kb region on chromosome 5. Sequence comparison of this region from C24 and a CMV-Y-susceptible C24 mutant predicts that the RCY1 gene encodes a 104-kDa CC-NBS-LRR-type protein. The RCY1 gene from C24, when expressed in the susceptible ecotype Wassilewskija (Ws), restricted the systemic spread of virus. RCY1 is allelic to the resistance genes RPP8 from the ecotype Landsberg erecta and HRT from the ecotype Dijon-17, which confer resistance to Peronospora parasitica biotype Emco5 and turnip crinkle virus (TCV), respectively. Examination of RCY1 plants defective in salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene signaling revealed a requirement for SA and ethylene signaling in mounting a resistance response to CMV-Y. The RCY1 nahG etr1 double mutants exhibited an intermediate level of susceptibility to CMV-Y, compared to the resistant ecotype C24 and the susceptible ecotypes Columbia and Nossen. This suggests that in addition to SA and ethylene, a novel signaling mechanism is associated with the induction of resistance in CMV-Y-infected C24 plants. Moreover, our results suggest that the signaling pathways downstream of the RPP8, HRT, and RCY1 have evolved independently. PMID:12472683

  9. Requirement of MrpH for Mannose-Resistant Proteus-Like Fimbria-Mediated Hemagglutination by Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Johnson, David E.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    1999-01-01

    Two new genes, mrpH and mrpJ, were identified downstream of mrpG in the mrp gene cluster encoding mannose-resistant Proteus-like (MR/P) fimbriae of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis. Since the predicted MrpH has 30% amino acid sequence identity to PapG, the Galα(1-4)Gal-binding adhesin of Escherichia coli P fimbriae, we hypothesized that mrpH encodes the functional MR/P hemagglutinin. MR/P fimbriae, expressed in E. coli DH5α, conferred on bacteria both the ability to cause mannose-resistant hemagglutination and the ability to aggregate to form pellicles on the broth surface. Both a ΔmrpH mutant expressed in E. coli DH5α and an isogenic mrpH::aphA mutant of P. mirabilis were unable to produce normal MR/P fimbriae efficiently, suggesting that MrpH was involved in fimbrial assembly. Amino acid residue substitution of the N-terminal cysteine residues (C66S and C128S) of MrpH abolished the receptor-binding activity (hemagglutinating ability) of MrpH but allowed normal fimbrial assembly, supporting the notion that MrpH was the functional MR/P hemagglutinin. Immunogold electron microscopy of P. mirabilis HI4320 revealed that MrpH was located at the tip of MR/P fimbriae, also consistent with its role in receptor binding. The isogenic mrpH::aphA mutant of HI4320 was less able to colonize the urine, bladder, and kidneys in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection (P < 0.01), and therefore MR/P fimbriae contribute significantly to bacterial colonization in mice. While there are similarities between P. mirabilis MR/P and E. coli P fimbriae, there are more notable differences: (i) synthesis of the MrpH adhesin is required to initiate fimbrial assembly, (ii) MR/P fimbriae confer an aggregation phenotype, (iii) site-directed mutation of specific residues can abolish receptor binding but allows fimbrial assembly, and (iv) mutation of the adhesin gene abolishes virulence in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection. PMID:10338487

  10. A peroxiredoxin, PRDX-2, is required for insulin secretion and insulin/IIS-dependent regulation of stress resistance and longevity.

    PubMed

    Oláhová, Monika; Veal, Elizabeth A

    2015-08-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are abundant thiol peroxidases with a conserved anti-ageing role. In contrast to most animals, the nematode worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, encodes a single cytosolic 2-Cys Prx, PRDX-2, rendering it an excellent model for examining how peroxiredoxins affect animal physiology and ageing. Our previous work revealed that, although PRDX-2 protects against the toxicity of peroxides, enigmatically, prdx-2-mutant animals are hyper-resistant to other forms of oxidative stress. Here, we have investigated the basis for this increased resistance. Mammalian FOXO and Nrf2 transcription factors directly promote the expression of a range of detoxification enzymes. We show that the FOXO orthologue, DAF-16, and the Nrf2 orthologue, SKN-1, are required for the increased stress resistance of prdx-2-mutant worms. Our data suggest that PRDX-2 is required for normal levels of insulin secretion and hence the inhibition of DAF-16 and SKN-1 by insulin/IGF-1-like signalling (IIS) under nutrient-rich conditions. Intriguingly, loss of PRDX-2 increases DAF-16 and SKN-1 activities sufficiently to increase arsenite resistance without initiating other IIS-inhibited processes. Together, these data suggest that loss of peroxiredoxin function may increase stress resistance by reducing insulin secretion, but that further changes in insulin signalling are required for the reprogramming of development and fat metabolism. In addition, we reveal that the temperature-dependent prolongevity function of PRDX-2 is required for the extended lifespan associated with several pathways, including further reductions in IIS. PMID:25808059

  11. Glutamate Dehydrogenase Is Required by Mycobacterium bovis BCG for Resistance to Cellular Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gallant, James L.; Viljoen, Albertus J.; van Helden, Paul D.; Wiid, Ian J. F.

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported on our success to generate deletion mutants of the genes encoding glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GOGAT) in M. bovis BCG, despite their in vitro essentiality in M. tuberculosis. We could use these mutants to delineate the roles of GDH and GOGAT in mycobacterial nitrogen metabolism by using M. bovis BCG as a model for M. tuberculosis specifically. Here, we extended our investigation towards the involvement of GDH and GOGAT in other aspects of M. bovis BCG physiology, including the use of glutamate as a carbon source and resistance to known phagosomal stresses, as well as in survival inside macrophages. We find that gdh is indispensable for the utilization of glutamate as a major carbon source, in low pH environments and when challenged with nitric oxide. On the other hand, the gltBD mutant had increased viability under low pH conditions and was unaffected by a challenge with nitric oxide. Strikingly, GDH was required to sustain M. bovis BCG during infection of both murine RAW 264.7 and bone-marrow derived and macrophages, while GOGAT was not. We conclude that the catabolism of glutamate in slow growing mycobacteria may be a crucial function during infection of macrophage cells and demonstrate a novel requirement for M. bovis BCG GDH in the protection against acidic and nitrosative stress. These results provide strong clues on the role of GDH in intracellular survival of M. tuberculosis, in which the essentiality of the gdh gene complicates knock out studies making the study of the role of this enzyme in pathogenesis difficult. PMID:26824899

  12. Learned stressor resistance requires extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Christianson, John P.; Flyer-Adams, Johanna G.; Drugan, Robert C.; Amat, Jose; Daut, Rachel A.; Foilb, Allison R.; Watkins, Linda R.; Maier, Steven F.

    2014-01-01

    Behaviorally controllable stressors confer protection from the neurochemical and behavioral consequences of future uncontrollable stressors, a phenomenon termed “behavioral immunization”. Recent data implicate protein synthesis within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as critical to behavioral immunization. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a series of controllable tailshocks and 1 week later to uncontrollable tailshocks, followed 24 h later by social exploration and shuttlebox escape tests. To test the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade in behavioral immunization, either D-AP5 or the MEK inhibitor U0126 was injected to the prelimbic (PL) or infralimbic (IL) mPFC prior to controllable stress exposure. Phosphorylated ERK and P70S6K, regulators of transcription and translation, were quantified by Western blot or immunohistochemistry after controllable or uncontrollable tailshocks. Prior controllable stress prevented the social exploration and shuttlebox performance deficits caused by the later uncontrollable stressor, and this effect was blocked by injections of D-AP5 into mPFC. A significant increase in phosphorylated ERK1 and ERK2, but not P70S6K, occurred within the PL and IL in rats exposed to controllable stress, but not to uncontrollable stress. However, U0126 only prevented behavioral immunization when injected to the PL. We provide evidence that NMDAR and ERK dependent signaling within the PL region is required for behavioral immunization, a learned form of stressor resistance. PMID:25324750

  13. TaCPK2-A, a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene that is required for wheat powdery mildew resistance enhances bacterial blight resistance in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Geng, Shuaifeng; Li, Aili; Tang, Lichuan; Yin, Lingjie; Wu, Liang; Lei, Cailin; Guo, Xiuping; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Guanghuai; Zhai, Wenxue; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, Youliang; Lan, Xiujin; Mao, Long

    2013-08-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) are important Ca2+ signalling components involved in complex immune and stress signalling networks; but the knowledge of CPK gene functions in the hexaploid wheat is limited. Previously, TaCPK2 was shown to be inducible by powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis tritici, Bgt) infection in wheat. Here, its functions in disease resistance are characterized further. This study shows the presence of defence-response and cold-response cis-elements on the promoters of the A subgenome homoeologue (TaCPK2-A) and D subgenome homoeologue (TaCPK2-D), respectively. Their expression patterns were then confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) using genome-specific primers, where TaCPK2-A was induced by Bgt treatment while TaCPK2-D mainly responded to cold treatment. Downregulation of TaCPK2-A by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) causes loss of resistance to Bgt in resistant wheat lines, indicating that TaCPK2-A is required for powdery mildew resistance. Furthermore, overexpression of TaCPK2-A in rice enhanced bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Xoo) resistance. qRT-PCR analysis showed that overexpression of TaCPK2-A in rice promoted the expression of OsWRKY45-1, a transcription factor involved in both fungal and bacterial resistance by regulating jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signalling genes. The opposite effect was found in wheat TaCPK2-A VIGS plants, where the homologue of OsWRKY45-1 was significantly repressed. These data suggest that modulation of WRKY45-1 and associated defence-response genes by CPK2 genes may be the common mechanism for multiple disease resistance in grass species, which may have undergone subfunctionalization in promoters before the formation of hexaploid wheat. PMID:23918959

  14. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and...

  15. Pea germplasm with partial resistance to sclerotinia sclerotiorum that extends the time required by the pathogen to infect host tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold, caused by the fungus S. sclerotiorum can be a serious disease on pea. Currently there are no pea genotypes with complete resistance to this pathogen. Selective wild pea genotypes from the Pisum Core Collection and cultivars were assessed for the time required by S. sclerotiorum to seve...

  16. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. 84.156 Section 84.156 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  17. Monoterpenes as nitrofurantoin resistance modulating agents: minimal structural requirements, molecular dynamics simulations, and the effect of piperitone on the emergence of nitrofurantoin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Shahverdi, Ahmad R; Mirzaie, Sako; Rafii, Fatemeh; Kakavand, Marjan; Foroumadi, Alireza

    2015-08-01

    The effects of different monoterpenes and 2-cyclohexen-1-one on the antibacterial activity of nitrofurantoin against resistant Enterobacter cloacae, were compared and the minimal structural component of monoterpene required for the highest level of resistance-modulating activity was determined. Subinhibitory concentrations of all compounds tested enhanced the antibacterial activity of nitrofurantoin against E. cloacae to different extents. The highest synergistic effect was observed for the monoterpenes, like piperitone, which contained a conjugated ketone and C=C bond in their carbon ring structure. Piperitone also suppressed the emergence of nitrofurantoin-resistant strains of Enterobacteriaceae that were mutagenized by ethyl methanesulfonate. The modes of interaction of carvone, piperitone, and an enzyme inhibitor, benzoate, with nitroreductase were investigated by molecular docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulation for 20 ns. MD simulation supported greater stability of the benzoate and monoterpene-nitroreductase (NR) complexes than of free NR. The results of this investigation are promising for the synthesis of more effective lead compounds to enhance the antibacterial activity of nitro drugs against resistant Enterobacter strains. PMID:26174760

  18. Cryptococcus neoformans Yap1 is required for normal fluconazole and oxidative stress resistance

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Sanjoy; Doering, Tamara L.; Moye-Rowley, W. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogen that is the most common cause of fungal meningitis. As with most fungal pathogens, the most prevalent clinical antifungal used to treat Cryptococcosis is orally administered fluconazole. Resistance to this antifungal is an increasing concern in treatment of fungal disease in general. Our knowledge of the specific determinants involved in fluconazole resistance in Cryptococcus is limited. Here we report the identification of an important genetic determinant of fluconazole resistance in Cryptococcus neoformans that encodes a basic region-leucine zipper transcription factor homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yap1. Expression of a codon-optimized form of the Cn YAP1 cDNA in S. cerevisiae complemented defects caused by loss of the endogenous S. cerevisiae YAP1 gene and activated transcription from a reporter gene construct. Mutant strains of C. neoformans lacking YAP1 were hypersensitive to a range of oxidative stress agents but importantly also to fluconazole. Loss of Yap1 homologues from other fungal pathogens like Candida albicans or Aspergillus fumigatus was previously found to cause oxidant hypersensitivity but had no detectable effect on fluconazole resistance. Our data provide evidence for a unique biological role of Yap1 in wild-type fluconazole resistance in C. neoformans. PMID:25445311

  19. PhoP-PhoQ-Regulated Loci Are Required for Enhanced Bile Resistance in Salmonella spp.

    PubMed Central

    van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C.; Gunn, John S.

    1999-01-01

    As enteric pathogens, Salmonella spp. are resistant to the actions of bile. Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella typhi strains were examined to better define the bile resistance phenotype. The MICs of bile for wild-type S. typhimurium and S. typhi were 18 and 12%, respectively, and pretreatment of log-phase S. typhimurium with 15% bile dramatically increased bile resistance. Mutant strains of S. typhimurium and S. typhi lacking the virulence regulator PhoP-PhoQ were killed at significantly lower bile concentrations than wild-type strains, while strains with constitutively active PhoP were able to survive prolonged incubation with bile at concentrations of >60%. PhoP-PhoQ was shown to mediate resistance specifically to the bile components deoxycholate and conjugated forms of chenodeoxycholate, and the protective effect was not generalized to other membrane-active agents. Growth of both S. typhimurium and S. typhi in bile and in deoxycholate resulted in the induction or repression of a number of proteins, many of which appeared identical to PhoP-PhoQ-activated or -repressed products. The PhoP-PhoQ regulon was not induced by bile, nor did any of the 21 PhoP-activated or -repressed genes tested play a role in bile resistance. However, of the PhoP-activated or -repressed genes tested, two (prgC and prgH) were transcriptionally repressed by bile in the medium independent of PhoP-PhoQ. These data suggest that salmonellae can sense and respond to bile to increase resistance and that this response likely includes proteins that are members of the PhoP regulon. These bile- and PhoP-PhoQ-regulated products may play an important role in the survival of Salmonella spp. in the intestine or gallbladder. PMID:10084994

  20. Energy requirements for methods improving gas detection by modulating physical properties of resistive gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trawka, M.; Kotarski, M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important disadvantage of resistive gas sensors is their limited gas selectivity. Therefore, various methods modulating their physical properties are used to improve gas detection. These methods are usually limited to temperature modulation or UV light irradiation for the layers exhibiting photocatalytic effect. These methods cause increased energy consumption. In our study we consider how much energy has to be supplied to utilize such methods and what kind of additional information can be gathered. We present experimental results of selected resistive gas sensors, including commercial and prototype constructions, and practical solutions of modulating their physical properties.

  1. THE TSC COMPLEX IS REQUIRED FOR THE BENEFITS OF DIETARY PROTEIN RESTRICTION ON STRESS RESISTANCE IN VIVO

    PubMed Central

    Harputlugil, Eylul; Hine, Christopher; Vargas, Dorathy; Robertson, Lauren; Manning, Brendan D.; Mitchell, James R.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Protein restriction (PR) is important for the benefits of dietary restriction on longevity and stress resistance, but relevant nutrient sensors and downstream effectors in mammals remain poorly defined. We used PR-mediated protection from hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury to probe genetic requirements for evolutionarily conserved nutrient sensors GCN2 and mTORC1 in stress resistance. One week of PR reduced free amino acids and circulating growth factors, activating GCN2 and mTORC1 repressor TSC complex. However, while GCN2 was dispensable for PR-induced protection, hepatic TSC1 was required. PR improved hepatic insulin sensitivity in a TSC1-dependent manner prior to ischemia, facilitating increased pro-survival signaling and reduced apoptosis after reperfusion. These benefits were partially abrogated by pharmacological PI3K inhibition or genetic deletion of the insulin receptor in hepatocytes. In conclusion, improved insulin sensitivity upon short-term PR required TSC1, facilitated increased pro-survival signaling after injury, and contributed partially to PR-mediated resistance to clinically relevant ischemia reperfusion injury. PMID:25131199

  2. The TSC complex is required for the benefits of dietary protein restriction on stress resistance in vivo.

    PubMed

    Harputlugil, Eylul; Hine, Christopher; Vargas, Dorathy; Robertson, Lauren; Manning, Brendan D; Mitchell, James R

    2014-08-21

    Protein restriction (PR) is important for the benefits of dietary restriction on longevity and stress resistance, but relevant nutrient sensors and downstream effectors in mammals remain poorly defined. We used PR-mediated protection from hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury to probe genetic requirements for the evolutionarily conserved nutrient sensors GCN2 and mTORC1 in stress resistance. One week of PR reduced free amino acids and circulating growth factors, activating GCN2 and mTORC1 repressor tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). However, although GCN2 was dispensable for PR-induced protection, hepatic TSC1 was required. PR improved hepatic insulin sensitivity in a TSC1-dependent manner prior to ischemia, facilitating increased prosurvival signaling and reduced apoptosis after reperfusion. These benefits were partially abrogated by pharmacological PI3K inhibition or genetic deletion of the insulin receptor in hepatocytes. In conclusion, improved insulin sensitivity upon short-term PR required TSC1, facilitated increased prosurvival signaling after injury, and contributed partially to PR-mediated resistance to clinically relevant ischemia reperfusion injury. PMID:25131199

  3. UPC2A is required for high-level azole antifungal resistance in Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Whaley, Sarah G; Caudle, Kelly E; Vermitsky, John-Paul; Chadwick, Sean G; Toner, Geoffrey; Barker, Katherine S; Gygax, Scott E; Rogers, P David

    2014-08-01

    Candida glabrata, the second most common cause of Candida infections, is associated with high rates of mortality and often exhibits resistance to the azole class of antifungal agents. Upc2 and Ecm22 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Upc2 in Candida albicans are the transcriptional regulators of ERG11, the gene encoding the target of azoles in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. Recently two homologs for these transcription factors, UPC2A and UPC2B, were identified in C. glabrata. One of these, UPC2A, was shown to influence azole susceptibility. We hypothesized that due to the global role for Upc2 in sterol biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae and C. albicans, disruption of UPC2A would enhance the activity of fluconazole in both azole-susceptible dose-dependent (SDD) and -resistant C. glabrata clinical isolates. To test this hypothesis, we constructed mutants with disruptions in UPC2A and UPC2B alone and in combination in a matched pair of clinical azole-SDD and -resistant isolates. Disruption of UPC2A in both the SDD and resistant isolates resulted in increased susceptibility to sterol biosynthesis inhibitors, including a reduction in fluconazole MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration, enhanced azole activity by time-kill analysis, a decrease in ergosterol content, and downregulation of baseline and inducible expression of several sterol biosynthesis genes. Our results indicate that Upc2A is a key regulator of ergosterol biosynthesis and is essential for resistance to sterol biosynthesis inhibitors in C. glabrata. Therefore, the UPC2A pathway may represent a potential cotherapeutic target for enhancing azole activity against this organism. PMID:24867980

  4. High-Level Chromate Resistance in Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24 Requires Previously Uncharacterized Accessory Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Henne, Kristene L.; Nakatsu, Cindy N.; Thompson, Dorothea K.; Konopka, Allan

    2009-09-24

    The annotated genome sequence of Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24 revealed a chromate resistance determinant (CRD): a cluster of 8 genes located on a 10.6 kb fragment of a 96 kb plasmid. The CRD includes chrA, which encodes a putative chromate efflux protein, and three genes with amino acid similarities to the amino and carboxy termini of ChrB, a putative regulatory protein. There are also three novel genes that have not been previously associated with chromate resistance in other bacteria; they encode an oxidoreductase (most similar to malate:quinone oxidoreductase), a functionally unknown protein with a WD40 repeat domain and a lipoprotein. A chromate-sensitive mutant (strain D11) was generated by curing FB24 of its 96-kb plasmid. Elemental analysis indicated that chromate-exposed cells of strain D11 accumulated three times more chromium than strain FB24. Introduction of the CRD into strain D11 conferred chromate resistance comparable to wild-type levels, whereas deletion of specific regions of the CRD led to decreased resistance. Using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, we show that expression of each gene within the CRD is specifically induced in response to chromate but not by lead, hydrogen peroxide or arsenate. Higher levels of chrA expression were achieved when the chrB orthologs and the WD40 repeat domain genes were present, suggesting their regulatory roles. Collectively, our findings indicate that chromate resistance in strain FB24 is primarily achieved by plasmid-mediated chromate efflux with the contribution of previously unrecognized accessory genes.

  5. Successful treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis following drug-induced hepatic necrosis requiring liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Marra, F; Cox, V C; FitzGerald, J M; Moadebi, S; Elwood, R K

    2004-07-01

    A 28-year-old female developed multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculous lymphadenitis following a trip to India. She was initially treated with a four-drug regimen of first-line anti-tuberculosis medications, but when sensitivities indicated resistance to isoniazid and rifampin, her regimen was altered to ciprofloxacin (CFX), pyrazinamide (PZA) and ethambutol. She subsequently developed a rash, flu-like symptoms and fever, which progressed to acute hepatic necrosis despite discontinuation of medication. The clinical presentation and subsequent investigations suggested a hypersensitivity reaction, possibly related to the quinolone. The patient subsequently had an orthoptic liver transplant; second-line anti-tuberculosis medications were restarted to which she responded clinically and radiologically. Our findings raise the possibility that the CFX and PZA combination was responsible for the hepatic necrosis. The patient also illustrates that active, even MDR tuberculosis is not a contraindication to hepatic transplant. PMID:15260286

  6. Effective Global Action on Antibiotic Resistance Requires Careful Consideration of Convening Forums.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Zain; Hoffman, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Global collective action is needed to address the growing transnational threat of antibiotic resistance (ABR). Some commentators have recommended an international legal agreement as the most promising mechanism for coordinating such action. While much has been said about what must be done to address ABR, far less work has analyzed how or where such collective action should be facilitated - even though the success of any international agreement depends greatly on where it is negotiated and implemented. This article evaluates four different forums that states may use to develop an international legal agreement for antibiotic resistance: (1) a self-organized venue; (2) the World Health Organization; (3) the World Trade Organization; and (4) the United Nations General Assembly. The need for a multisectoral approach and the diverse institutional landscape suggest that an effective response may best be coordinated through linked action pursued through multiple forums. PMID:26243247

  7. Copper/Zinc-Superoxide Dismutase Is Required for Oxytetracycline Resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Simon V.; Malkapuram, Srividya; Mateus, Carolina; Babb, Kimberly S.

    2000-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, along with other eukaryotes, is resistant to tetracyclines. We found that deletion of SOD1 (encoding Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase) rendered S. cerevisiae hypersensitive to oxytetracycline (OTC): a sod1Δ mutant exhibited a >95% reduction in colony-forming ability at an OTC concentration of 20 μg ml−1, whereas concentrations of up to 1,000 μg ml−1 had no effect on the growth of the wild type. OTC resistance was restored in the sod1Δ mutant by complementation with wild-type SOD1. The effect of OTC appeared to be cytotoxic and was not evident in a ctt1Δ (cytosolic catalase) mutant or in the presence of tetracycline. SOD1 transcription was not induced by OTC, suggesting that constitutive SOD1 expression is sufficient for wild-type OTC resistance. OTC uptake levels in wild-type and sod1Δ strains were similar. However, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were both enhanced during exposure of the sod1Δ mutant, but not the wild type, to OTC. We propose that Sod1p protects S. cerevisiae against a mode of OTC action that is dependent on oxidative damage. PMID:10613865

  8. Sterol Biosynthesis Is Required for Heat Resistance but Not Extracellular Survival in Leishmania

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Baykal, Eda; Huang, Juyang; Zhang, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Sterol biosynthesis is a crucial pathway in eukaryotes leading to the production of cholesterol in animals and various C24-alkyl sterols (ergostane-based sterols) in fungi, plants, and trypanosomatid protozoa. Sterols are important membrane components and precursors for the synthesis of powerful bioactive molecules, including steroid hormones in mammals. Their functions in pathogenic protozoa are not well characterized, which limits the development of sterol synthesis inhibitors as drugs. Here we investigated the role of sterol C14α-demethylase (C14DM) in Leishmania parasites. C14DM is a cytochrome P450 enzyme and the primary target of azole drugs. In Leishmania, genetic or chemical inactivation of C14DM led to a complete loss of ergostane-based sterols and accumulation of 14-methylated sterols. Despite the drastic change in lipid composition, C14DM-null mutants (c14dm−) were surprisingly viable and replicative in culture. They did exhibit remarkable defects including increased membrane fluidity, failure to maintain detergent resistant membrane fraction, and hypersensitivity to heat stress. These c14dm− mutants showed severely reduced virulence in mice but were highly resistant to itraconazole and amphotericin B, two drugs targeting sterol synthesis. Our findings suggest that the accumulation of toxic sterol intermediates in c14dm− causes strong membrane perturbation and significant vulnerability to stress. The new knowledge may help improve the efficacy of current drugs against pathogenic protozoa by exploiting the fitness loss associated with drug resistance. PMID:25340392

  9. γ-Secretase inhibitor-resistant glioblastoma stem cells require RBPJ to propagate.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xing

    2016-07-01

    Targeting glioblastoma stem cells with γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) disrupts the Notch pathway and has shown some benefit in both pre-clinical models and in patients during phase I/II clinical trials. However, it is largely unknown why some glioblastoma (GBM) does not respond to GSI treatment. In this issue of the JCI, Xie et al. determined that GSI-resistant brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs) from GBM express a higher level of the gene RBPJ, which encodes a mediator of canonical Notch signaling, compared to non-BTICs. Knockdown of RBPJ in BTICs decreased propagation in vitro and in vivo by inducing apoptosis. Interestingly, RBPJ was shown to regulate a different transcription program than Notch in BTICs by binding CDK9, thereby affecting Pol II-regulated transcript elongation. Targeting CDK9 or c-MYC, an upstream regulator of RBPJ, with small molecules also decreased BTIC propagation, and prolonged survival in mice bearing orthotopic GBM xenografts. This study not only provides a mechanism for GSI treatment resistance, but also identifies two potential therapeutic strategies to target GSI-resistant BTICs. PMID:27322058

  10. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those requirements as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained in paragraph (b) of this... CFR part 207. (c) Pre-award costs. FEMA may fund eligible pre-award planning or project costs at...

  11. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those requirements as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained in paragraph (b) of this... CFR part 207. (c) Pre-award costs. FEMA may fund eligible pre-award planning or project costs at...

  12. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those requirements as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained in paragraph (b) of this... CFR part 207. (c) Pre-award costs. FEMA may fund eligible pre-award planning or project costs at...

  13. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those requirements as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained in paragraph (b) of this... CFR part 207. (c) Pre-award costs. FEMA may fund eligible pre-award planning or project costs at...

  14. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those requirements as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained in paragraph (b) of this... CFR part 207. (c) Pre-award costs. FEMA may fund eligible pre-award planning or project costs at...

  15. The α and Δ Isoforms of CREB1 Are Required to Maintain Normal Pulmonary Vascular Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Sands, Michelle; Banahan, Mark; Frohlich, Stephen; Rowan, Simon C.; Neary, Roisín; Ryan, Donal; McLoughlin, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia causes pulmonary hypertension associated with structural alterations in pulmonary vessels and sustained vasoconstriction. The transcriptional mechanisms responsible for these distinctive changes are unclear. We have previously reported that CREB1 is activated in the lung in response to alveolar hypoxia but not in other organs. To directly investigate the role of α and Δ isoforms of CREB1 in the regulation of pulmonary vascular resistance we examined the responses of mice in which these isoforms of CREB1 had been inactivated by gene mutation, leaving only the β isoform intact (CREBαΔ mice). Here we report that expression of CREB regulated genes was altered in the lungs of CREBαΔ mice. CREBαΔ mice had greater pulmonary vascular resistance than wild types, both basally in normoxia and following exposure to hypoxic conditions for three weeks. There was no difference in rho kinase mediated vasoconstriction between CREBαΔ and wild type mice. Stereological analysis of pulmonary vascular structure showed characteristic wall thickening and lumen reduction in hypoxic wild-type mice, with similar changes observed in CREBαΔ. CREBαΔ mice had larger lungs with reduced epithelial surface density suggesting increased pulmonary compliance. These findings show that α and Δ isoforms of CREB1 regulate homeostatic gene expression in the lung and that normal activity of these isoforms is essential to maintain low pulmonary vascular resistance in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions and to maintain the normal alveolar structure. Interventions that enhance the actions of α and Δ isoforms of CREB1 warrant further investigation in hypoxic lung diseases. PMID:24349008

  16. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-522). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may...

  17. Dissecting the cosubstrate structure requirements of the Staphylococcus aureus aminoglycoside resistance enzyme ANT(4').

    PubMed

    Porter, Vanessa R; Green, Keith D; Zolova, Olga E; Houghton, Jacob L; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2010-12-01

    Aminoglycosides are important antibiotics used against a wide range of pathogens. As a mechanism of defense, bacteria have evolved enzymes able to inactivate these drugs by regio-selectively adding a variety of functionalities (acetyl, phospho, and nucelotidyl groups) to their scaffolds. The aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferase ANT(4') is one of the most prevalent and unique modifying-enzymes. Here, by TLC, HRMS, and colorimetric assays, we demonstrate that the resistance enzyme ANT(4') from Staphylococcus aureus is highly substrate and cosubstrate promiscuous. We show that deoxy-ribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) are better cosubstrates than NTPs. We demonstrate that the position of the triphosphate group (5' and not 3') on the ribose/deoxyribose ring is important for recognition by ANT(4'), and that NTPs with larger substituents at the 3'-position of the ribose ring are not cosubstrates for ANT(4'). We confirm that for all aminoglycosides tested, the respective nucleotidylated products are completely inactive. These results provide valuable insights into the development of strategies to combat the ever-growing bacterial resistance problem. PMID:21040710

  18. Nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species are required for systemic acquired resistance in plants

    PubMed Central

    El-Shetehy, Mohamed; Wang, Caixia; Shine, M B; Yu, Keshun; Kachroo, Aardra; Kachroo, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a form of broad-spectrum disease resistance that is induced in response to primary infection and that protects uninfected portions of the plant against secondary infections by related or unrelated pathogens. SAR is associated with an increase in chemical signals that operate in a collective manner to confer protection against secondary infections. These include, the phytohormone salicylic acid (SA), glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), azelaic acid (AzA) and more recently identified signals nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). NO, ROS, AzA and G3P function in the same branch of the SAR pathway, and in parallel to the SA-regulated branch. NO and ROS function upstream of AzA/G3P and different reactive oxygen species functions in an additive manner to mediate chemical cleavage of the C9 double bond on C18 unsaturated fatty acids to generate AzA. The parallel and additive functioning of various chemical signals provides important new insights in the overlapping pathways leading to SAR. PMID:26375184

  19. [Management of TB suspected cases of drug resistant tuberculosis requiring a second treatment].

    PubMed

    Caminero, José A

    2004-06-01

    The management of patients with resistance to anti tuberculous drugs is complex and therefore must be managed by physician specialists. The most difficult patients are the cases in retreatment, where some very different possibilities are possible, as abandonment, failures and relapses. Patients with multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis are the most difficult to treat; MDR appears in all the failures or non-adherences to the treatment regime. To elaborate a scheme of retreatment for these patients, two guidelines must be followed: (1) do not rely on outcomes of drug susceptibility tests and (2) a detailed history of drug treatment must be considered of paramount importance. With this information, a retreatment scheme can be formulated that involves the use of at least three drugs not previously taken by the patient. For a successful control of tuberculosis, the national tuberculosis programs in Latin American countries must assure careful management of newly diagnosed patients. Secondly, if resources are available, a bank of second-line drugs must be ready for managing retreatment situations (e.g., 3 Z-Kn-Eth-Of/15 Z-Eth-Of) if first line drug treatments fail. Using individualized retreatment with second line drugs is recommended only in industrialized countries, and for a few middle income countries as a last resort. PMID:15495588

  20. The Rhizobium etli opt operon is required for symbiosis and stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Vos, K; Braeken, K; Fauvart, M; Ndayizeye, M; Verhaert, J; Zachurzok, S; Lambrichts, I; Michiels, J

    2007-07-01

    Rhizobium etli is a Gram-negative root-colonizing soil bacterium capable of fixing nitrogen while living in symbiosis with its leguminous host Phaseolus vulgaris. A genome-wide screening for R. etli symbiotic mutants revealed a R. etli operon encoding an oligopeptide ABC-transporter (Opt), two redA homologous genes and one redB gene. Expression analysis showed this opt operon to be transcribed both under free-living and symbiotic conditions and expression levels were demonstrated to be growth-phase-dependent. Plants nodulated by R. etli opt mutants showed a reduced symbiotic nitrogen fixation activity (approximately 50% reduction). Growth experiments with opt mutants in the presence of oligopeptides as the sole nitrogen source confirmed the involvement of the opt genes in oligopeptide uptake. Further phenotypic analysis of the opt mutants revealed them to display an enhanced resistance to the oligopeptide antibiotic bacitracin, an increased susceptibility to the beta-lactam antibiotic ampicillin and a decreased osmotolerance. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the opt operon plays a crucial role during symbiosis and stress resistance. PMID:17564602

  1. Allele characterization of genes required for rpg4-mediated wheat stem rust resistance identifies Rpg5 as the R gene.

    PubMed

    Arora, D; Gross, T; Brueggeman, R

    2013-11-01

    A highly virulent form of the wheat stem rust pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKSK is virulent on both wheat and barley, presenting a major threat to world food security. The recessive and temperature-sensitive rpg4 gene is the only effective source of resistance identified in barley (Hordeum vulgare) against P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKSK. Efforts to position clone rpg4 localized resistance to a small interval on barley chromosome 5HL, tightly linked to the rye stem rust (P. graminis f. sp. secalis) resistance (R) gene Rpg5. High-resolution genetic analysis and post-transcriptional gene silencing of the genes at the rpg4/Rpg5 locus determined that three tightly linked genes (Rpg5, HvRga1, and HvAdf3) are required together for rpg4-mediated wheat stem rust resistance. Alleles of the three genes were analyzed from a diverse set of 14 domesticated barley lines (H. vulgare) and 8 wild barley accessions (H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum) to characterize diversity that may determine incompatibility (resistance). The analysis determined that HvAdf3 and HvRga1 code for predicted functional proteins that do not appear to contain polymorphisms determining the compatible (susceptible) interactions with the wheat stem rust pathogen and were expressed at the transcriptional level from both resistant and susceptible barley lines. The HvAdf3 alleles shared 100% amino acid identity among all 22 genotypes examined. The P. graminis f. sp. tritici race QCCJ-susceptible barley lines with HvRga1 alleles containing the limited amino acid substitutions unique to the susceptible varieties also contained predicted nonfunctional rpg5 alleles. Thus, susceptibility in these lines is likely due to the nonfunctional RPG5 proteins. The Rpg5 allele analysis determined that 9 of the 13 P. graminis f. sp. tritici race QCCJ-susceptible barley lines contain alleles that either code for predicted truncated proteins as the result of a single nucleotide substitution, resulting in a

  2. A serine carboxypeptidase-like acyltransferase is required for synthesis of antimicrobial compounds and disease resistance in oats.

    PubMed

    Mugford, Sam T; Qi, Xiaoquan; Bakht, Saleha; Hill, Lionel; Wegel, Eva; Hughes, Richard K; Papadopoulou, Kalliopi; Melton, Rachel; Philo, Mark; Sainsbury, Frank; Lomonossoff, George P; Roy, Abhijeet Deb; Goss, Rebecca J M; Osbourn, Anne

    2009-08-01

    Serine carboxypeptidase-like (SCPL) proteins have recently emerged as a new group of plant acyltransferases. These enzymes share homology with peptidases but lack protease activity and instead are able to acylate natural products. Several SCPL acyltransferases have been characterized to date from dicots, including an enzyme required for the synthesis of glucose polyesters that may contribute to insect resistance in wild tomato (Solanum pennellii) and enzymes required for the synthesis of sinapate esters associated with UV protection in Arabidopsis thaliana. In our earlier genetic analysis, we identified the Saponin-deficient 7 (Sad7) locus as being required for the synthesis of antimicrobial triterpene glycosides (avenacins) and for broad-spectrum disease resistance in diploid oat (Avena strigosa). Here, we report on the cloning of Sad7 and show that this gene encodes a functional SCPL acyltransferase, SCPL1, that is able to catalyze the synthesis of both N-methyl anthraniloyl- and benzoyl-derivatized forms of avenacin. Sad7 forms part of an operon-like gene cluster for avenacin synthesis. Oat SCPL1 (SAD7) is the founder member of a subfamily of monocot-specific SCPL proteins that includes predicted proteins from rice (Oryza sativa) and other grasses with potential roles in secondary metabolism and plant defense. PMID:19684243

  3. The MAP kinase Pmk1 and protein kinase A are required for rotenone resistance in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yiwei; Gulis, Galina; Buckner, Scott; Johnson, P. Connor; Sullivan, Daniel; Busenlehner, Laura; Marcus, Stevan

    2010-08-20

    Research highlights: {yields} Rotenone induces generation of ROS and mitochondrial fragmentation in fission yeast. {yields} The MAPK Pmk1 and PKA are required for rotenone resistance in fission yeast. {yields} Pmk1 and PKA are required for ROS clearance in rotenone treated fission yeast cells. {yields} PKA plays a role in ROS clearance under normal growth conditions in fission yeast. -- Abstract: Rotenone is a widely used pesticide that induces Parkinson's disease-like symptoms in rats and death of dopaminergic neurons in culture. Although rotenone is a potent inhibitor of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, it can induce death of dopaminergic neurons independently of complex I inhibition. Here we describe effects of rotenone in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which lacks complex I and carries out rotenone-insensitive cellular respiration. We show that rotenone induces generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as fragmentation of mitochondrial networks in treated S. pombe cells. While rotenone is only modestly inhibitory to growth of wild type S. pombe cells, it is strongly inhibitory to growth of mutants lacking the ERK-type MAP kinase, Pmk1, or protein kinase A (PKA). In contrast, cells lacking the p38 MAP kinase, Spc1, exhibit modest resistance to rotenone. Consistent with these findings, we provide evidence that Pmk1 and PKA, but not Spc1, are required for clearance of ROS in rotenone treated S. pombe cells. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of S. pombe for elucidating complex I-independent molecular targets of rotenone as well as mechanisms conferring resistance to the toxin.

  4. Interplay between seven secondary metal uptake systems is required for full metal resistance of Cupriavidus metallidurans.

    PubMed

    Herzberg, M; Bauer, L; Kirsten, A; Nies, D H

    2016-03-01

    The beta-proteobacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans is able to grow in metal-contaminated environments due to having sophisticated metal efflux systems. Here, the contribution of all seven known secondary metal uptake systems (ZupT, PitA, CorA1, CorA2, CorA3, ZntB, HoxN) to metal resistance is characterized. In a strategic deletion approach, all ten double deletion mutants, a variety of triple and quadruple mutants, and from the Δ4 mutant (ΔzupT ΔcorA1 ΔcorA2 ΔcorA3) the mutants Δ5 (=Δ4 ΔpitA), Δ6 (=Δ4 ΔpitA ΔzntB), and finally Δ7 (ΔzupT ΔcorA1 ΔcorA2 ΔcorA3 ΔpitA ΔzntB ΔhoxN) were constructed. Metal resistance, metal content, and regulation of expression of these genes were characterized in these mutants. The ΔzupT single deletion strain exhibited an extended lag phase in Tris-buffered liquid mineral salts medium (TMM) compared to its parent strain AE104, indicating a decreased fitness level. Further deletions up to Δ6 did not influence growth in TMM without added metals but fitness of the Δ7 strain dropped to a lower level compared to Δ6, Δ5 and ΔzupT. The cells of the Δ7 multiple deletion strain still contained all essential metals, demonstrating that additional metal import systems must exist in C. metallidurans. PitA was an important contributor of metal:phosphate complexes to C. metallidurans. Up to Δ5 no evidence was found for increased expression of the transporter genes to recruit substitutes for the deleted importers. Only the hoxN-lacZ reporter gene fusion displayed a changed expression pattern in the Δ6 strain, indicating recruitment of HoxN. Metal resistance of the deletion strains decreased along the deletion series although all strains still contained metal efflux systems: up to the Δ6 mutant the overall fitness was kept at the ΔzupT mutant strain level at the cost of a diminished competence to handle μM concentrations of transition metals. Together, these data demonstrated an important contribution of the seven

  5. Mitochondrial localization of fission yeast manganese superoxide dismutase is required for its lysine acetylation and for cellular stress resistance and respiratory growth

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hidekazu; Shirai, Atsuko; Matsuyama, Akihisa; Yoshida, Minoru

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Fission yeast manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is acetylated. {yields} The mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) is required for the acetylation of MnSOD. {yields} The MTS is not crucial for MnSOD activity, but is important for respiratory growth. {yields} Posttranslational regulation of MnSOD differs between budding and fission yeast. -- Abstract: Manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is localized in the mitochondria and is important for oxidative stress resistance. Although transcriptional regulation of MnSOD has been relatively well studied, much less is known about the protein's posttranslational regulation. In budding yeast, MnSOD is activated after mitochondrial import by manganese ion incorporation. Here we characterize posttranslational modification of MnSOD in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Fission yeast MnSOD is acetylated at the 25th lysine residue. This acetylation was diminished by deletion of N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence, suggesting that MnSOD is acetylated after import into mitochondria. Mitochondrial localization of MnSOD is not essential for the enzyme activity, but is crucial for oxidative stress resistance and growth under respiratory conditions of fission yeast. These results suggest that, unlike the situation in budding yeast, S. pombe MnSOD is already active even before mitochondrial localization; nonetheless, mitochondrial localization is critical to allow the cell to cope with reactive oxygen species generated inside or outside of mitochondria.

  6. Supplemental arginine above the requirement during suckling causes obesity and insulin resistance in rats.

    PubMed

    Otani, Lila; Mori, Tomomi; Koyama, Ayaka; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Kato, Hisanori

    2016-06-01

    Nutrition in early life is important in determining susceptibility to adult obesity, and arginine may promote growth acceleration in infants. We hypothesized that maternal arginine supplementation may promote growth in their pups and contribute to obesity and alteration of the metabolic system in later life. Dams and pups of Wistar rats were given a normal diet (15% protein) as a control (CN) or a normal diet with 2% arginine (ARG). Altered profiles of free amino acids in breast milk were observed in that the concentrations of threonine and glycine were lower in the ARG dams compared with the CN dams. The offspring of the CN and ARG dams were further subdivided into normal-diet (CN-CN and ARG-CN) groups and a high fat-diet groups (CN-HF and ARG-HF). In response to the high fat-diet feeding, the visceral fat deposits were significantly increased in the ARG-HF group (although not compared with the CN-HF group); no difference was observed between the CN-CN and ARG-CN groups. The blood glucose and insulin levels after glucose loading were significantly higher in the ARG-HF group compared with the CN-HF group. The results suggest that the offspring of dams supplemented with arginine during lactation acquired increased susceptibility to a high-fat diet, resulting in visceral obesity and insulin resistance. The lower supply of threonine and glycine to pups may be one of the contributing causes to the programming of lifelong obesity risk in offspring. Our findings also indicated that maternal arginine supplementation during suckling causes obesity and insulin resistance in rats. PMID:27188903

  7. MACROAUTOPHAGY AND CHAPERONE-MEDIATED AUTOPHAGY ARE REQUIRED FOR HEPATOCYTE RESISTANCE TO OXIDANT STRESS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongjun; Singh, Rajat; Xiang, Youqing; Czaja, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    The function of the lysosomal degradative pathway of autophagy in cellular injury is unclear as findings in nonhepatic cells have implicated autophagy as both a mediator of cell death and as a survival response. Autophagic function is impaired in steatotic and aged hepatocytes, suggesting that in these settings hepatocellular injury may be altered by the decrease in autophagy. To delineate the specific function of autophagy in the hepatocyte injury response, the effects of menadione-induced oxidative stress were examined in the RALA255-10G rat hepatocyte line when macroautophagy was inhibited by an shRNA-mediated knockdown of the autophagy gene atg5. Inhibition of macroautophagy sensitized cells to apoptotic and necrotic death from normally nontoxic concentrations of menadione. Inhibition of macroautophagy led to overactivation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/c-Jun signaling pathway that induced cell death. Death occurred from activation of the mitochondrial death pathway with cellular ATP depletion, mitochondrial cytochrome c release and caspase activation. Sensitization to death from menadione occurred despite up regulation of other forms of autophagy in compensation for the loss of macroautophagy. Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) also mediated resistance to menadione as CMA inhibition sensitized cells to death from menadione through a mechanism different from that of a loss of macroautophagy as death occurred in the absence of JNK/c-Jun overactivation or ATP depletion. Conclusion Hepatocyte resistance to injury from menadione-induced oxidative stress is mediated by distinct functions of both macroautophagy and CMA, indicating that impaired function of either form of autophagy may promote oxidant-induced liver injury. PMID:20578144

  8. The TCA cycle is not required for selection or survival of multidrug-resistant Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Vito; Loman, Nick; Pallen, Mark; Ivens, Alasdair; Fookes, Maria; Langridge, Gemma C.; Wain, John; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The initial aim of this study was to use a systems biology approach to analyse a ciprofloxacin-selected multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, L664. Methods The whole genome sequence and transcriptome of L664 were analysed. Site-directed mutagenesis to recreate each mutation was carried out, followed by phenotypic characterization and mutation frequency analysis. As a mutation in the TCA cycle was detected we tested the controversial hypothesis regarding the bacterial response to bactericidal antibiotics, put forward by Kohanski et al. (Cell 2007; 130: 797–810 and Mol Cell 2010; 37: 311–20), that exposure of bacteria to agents such as ciprofloxacin produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), which transiently increase the mutation rate giving rise to MDR bacteria. Results L664 contained a mutation in ramR that conferred MDR. A mutation in tctA affected the TCA cycle and conferred the inability to grow on minimal agar. The virulence of L664 was not attenuated. Ciprofloxacin exposure produced ROS in L664 and SL1344 (tctA::aph), but it was reduced and occurred later. There were no significant differences in the rates of killing or mutations per generation to antibiotic resistance between the strains. Conclusions Whilst we confirm production of ROS in response to ciprofloxacin, we have no data to support the hypothesis that this leads to selection of MDR strains. Our results indicate that the mutations in tctA and glgA were random as they did not pre-exist in the parental strain, and that the mutation in tctA did not provide a survival advantage or disadvantage in the presence of antibiotic. PMID:22186876

  9. The ABC transporter YejABEF is required for resistance to antimicrobial peptides and the virulence of Brucella melitensis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Bie, Pengfei; Cheng, Jie; Lu, Lin; Cui, Buyun; Wu, Qingmin

    2016-01-01

    The ability to resist the killing effects of host antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) plays a vital role in the virulence of pathogens. The Brucella melitensis NI genome has a gene cluster that encodes ABC transport. In this study, we constructed yejA1, yejA2, yejB, yejE, yejF, and whole yej operon deletion mutants, none of which exhibited discernible growth defect in TSB or minimal medium. Unlike their parental strain, the mutants showed a significantly increased sensitivity to acidic stress. The NIΔyejE and NIΔyejABEF mutants were also more sensitive than B. melitensis NI to polymyxin B, and the expression of yej operon genes was induced by polymyxin B. Moreover, cell and mouse infection assays indicated that NIΔyejE and NIΔyejABEF have restricted invasion and replication abilities inside macrophages and are rapidly cleared from the spleens of infected mice. These findings indicate that the ABC transporter YejABEF is required for the virulence of Brucella, suggesting that resistance to host antimicrobials is a key mechanism for Brucella to persistently survive in vivo. This study provided insights that led us to further investigate the potential correlation of AMP resistance with the mechanisms of immune escape and persistent infection by pathogens. PMID:27550726

  10. The ABC transporter YejABEF is required for resistance to antimicrobial peptides and the virulence of Brucella melitensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Bie, Pengfei; Cheng, Jie; Lu, Lin; Cui, Buyun; Wu, Qingmin

    2016-01-01

    The ability to resist the killing effects of host antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) plays a vital role in the virulence of pathogens. The Brucella melitensis NI genome has a gene cluster that encodes ABC transport. In this study, we constructed yejA1, yejA2, yejB, yejE, yejF, and whole yej operon deletion mutants, none of which exhibited discernible growth defect in TSB or minimal medium. Unlike their parental strain, the mutants showed a significantly increased sensitivity to acidic stress. The NIΔyejE and NIΔyejABEF mutants were also more sensitive than B. melitensis NI to polymyxin B, and the expression of yej operon genes was induced by polymyxin B. Moreover, cell and mouse infection assays indicated that NIΔyejE and NIΔyejABEF have restricted invasion and replication abilities inside macrophages and are rapidly cleared from the spleens of infected mice. These findings indicate that the ABC transporter YejABEF is required for the virulence of Brucella, suggesting that resistance to host antimicrobials is a key mechanism for Brucella to persistently survive in vivo. This study provided insights that led us to further investigate the potential correlation of AMP resistance with the mechanisms of immune escape and persistent infection by pathogens. PMID:27550726

  11. Peroxidase-dependent apoplastic oxidative burst in Arabidopsis required for pathogen resistance.

    PubMed

    Bindschedler, Laurence V; Dewdney, Julia; Blee, Kris A; Stone, Julie M; Asai, Tsuneaki; Plotnikov, Julia; Denoux, Carine; Hayes, Tezni; Gerrish, Chris; Davies, Dewi R; Ausubel, Frederick M; Bolwell, G Paul

    2006-09-01

    The oxidative burst is an early response to pathogen attack leading to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide. Two major mechanisms involving either NADPH oxidases or peroxidases that may exist singly or in combination in different plant species have been proposed for the generation of ROS. We identified an Arabidopsis thaliana azide-sensitive but diphenylene iodonium-insensitive apoplastic oxidative burst that generates H(2)O(2) in response to a Fusarium oxysporum cell-wall preparation. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing an anti-sense cDNA encoding a type III peroxidase, French bean peroxidase type 1 (FBP1) exhibited an impaired oxidative burst and were more susceptible than wild-type plants to both fungal and bacterial pathogens. Transcriptional profiling and RT-PCR analysis showed that the anti-sense (FBP1) transgenic plants had reduced levels of specific peroxidase-encoding mRNAs, including mRNAs corresponding to Arabidopsis genes At3g49120 (AtPCb) and At3g49110 (AtPCa) that encode two class III peroxidases with a high degree of homology to FBP1. These data indicate that peroxidases play a significant role in generating H(2)O(2) during the Arabidopsis defense response and in conferring resistance to a wide range of pathogens. PMID:16889645

  12. Cryptococcal phosphoglucose isomerase is required for virulence factor production, cell wall integrity and stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Wei, Dongsheng; Li, Zhongming; Sun, Zhixiong; Pan, Jiao; Zhu, Xudong

    2015-11-01

    Regulation of virulence factor production in the pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans remains to be fully illustrated. We present here a finding that a gene, encoding the glycolysis enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi1), is critical for the biosynthesis of melanin and capsule, cell wall integrity and resistance to stress conditions. A leaky mutant of the yeast, LZM19, resulted from an insertion of T-DNA in the PGI1 promoter region, expressed PGI1 at a level only 1.9% of the wild type. LZM19 could synthesize the pigment melanin in the presence of 2% glucose, suggesting a status of LAC1 derepression. Phenotypically, capsule biosynthesis in LZM19 was remarkably reduced. Integrity of the cell wall and plasma membrane of LZM19 were impaired based on its sensitivity to Congo red and SDS. Also, LZM19 exhibited hypersensitivity to osmotic stress generated by 2 M NaCl or 1 M KCl, indicating possible impairment in the HOG signaling pathway. Furthermore, LZM19 failed to utilize mannose and fructose, suggesting a possible involvement of Pgi1 in the breakdown of these two sugars. Our results revealed a crucial role of PGI1 in coordination of the production of virulence factors, cell wall integrity and stress response in C. neoformans. PMID:26271120

  13. β-Catenin is required for intrinsic but not extrinsic BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Eiring, Anna M.; Khorashad, Jamshid S.; Anderson, David J.; Yu, Fan; Redwine, Hannah M.; Mason, Clinton C.; Reynolds, Kimberly R.; Clair, Phillip M.; Gantz, Kevin C.; Zhang, Tian Y.; Pomicter, Anthony D.; Kraft, Ira L.; Bowler, Amber D.; Johnson, Kara; Mac Partlin, Mary; O’Hare, Thomas; Deininger, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of nuclear β-catenin and expression of its transcriptional targets promotes chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) progression, tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance, and leukemic stem cell self-renewal. We report that nuclear β-catenin plays a role in leukemia cell-intrinsic but not -extrinsic BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent TKI resistance. Upon imatinib inhibition of BCR-ABL1 kinase activity, β-catenin expression was maintained in intrinsically resistant cells grown in suspension culture and sensitive cells cultured in direct contact (DC) with bone marrow (BM) stromal cells. Thus, TKI resistance uncouples β-catenin expression from BCR-ABL1 kinase activity. In β-catenin reporter assays, intrinsically resistant cells showed increased transcriptional activity versus parental TKI-sensitive controls, and this was associated with restored expression of β-catenin target genes. In contrast, DC with BM stromal cells promoted TKI resistance, but had little effects on Lef/Tcf reporter activity and no consistent effects on cytoplasmic β-catenin levels, arguing against a role for β-catenin in extrinsic TKI resistance. N-cadherin or H-cadherin blocking antibodies abrogated DC-based resistance despite increasing Lef/Tcf reporter activity, suggesting that factors other than β-catenin contribute to extrinsic, BM-derived TKI resistance. Our data indicate that, while nuclear β-catenin enhances survival of intrinsically TKI-resistant CML progenitors, it is not required for extrinsic resistance mediated by the BM microenvironment. PMID:26202934

  14. [Resistant hypertension].

    PubMed

    Feldstein, Carlos A

    2008-04-01

    Resistant hypertension, defined as a persistent blood pressure over 140/90 mmHg despite the use of three antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic, is unusual. The diagnosis requires ruling out initially pseudoresistance and a lack of compliance with treatment. Ambulatory blood pressure recording allow the recognition of white coat hypertension. When there is a clinical or laboratory suspicion, secondary causes of hypertension should be discarded. Excessive salt intake, the presence of concomitant diseases such as diabetes mellitus, chronic renal disease, obesity, and psychiatric conditions such as panic attacks, anxiety and depression, should also be sought. The presence of target organ damage requires a more aggressive treatment of hypertension. Recent clinical studies indicate that the administration of aldosterone antagonists as a fourth therapeutic line provides significant additional blood pressure reduction, when added to previous antihypertensive regimens in subjects with resistant hypertension. The possible blood pressure lowering effects of prolonged electrical activation of carotid baroreceptors is under investigation. PMID:18769797

  15. 50 CFR 80.15 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., see 5 CFR 1310.3.). (b) What is required to determine the allowability of costs? Source documents or...) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.15 Allowable costs. (a) What...

  16. Proliferation of Double-Strand Break-Resistant Polyploid Cells Requires Drosophila FANCD2.

    PubMed

    Bretscher, Heidi S; Fox, Donald T

    2016-06-01

    Conserved DNA-damage responses (DDRs) sense genome damage and prevent mitosis of broken chromosomes. How cells lacking DDRs cope with broken chromosomes during mitosis is poorly understood. DDRs are frequently inactivated in cells with extra genomes (polyploidy), suggesting that study of polyploidy can reveal how cells with impaired DDRs/genome damage continue dividing. Here, we show that continued division and normal organ development occurs in polyploid, DDR-impaired Drosophila papillar cells. As papillar cells become polyploid, they naturally accumulate broken acentric chromosomes but do not apoptose/arrest the cell cycle. To survive mitosis with acentric chromosomes, papillar cells require Fanconi anemia proteins FANCD2 and FANCI, as well as Blm helicase, but not canonical DDR signaling. FANCD2 acts independently of previous S phases to promote alignment and segregation of acentric DNA produced by double-strand breaks, thus avoiding micronuclei and organ malformation. Because polyploidy and impaired DDRs can promote cancer, our findings provide insight into disease-relevant DNA-damage tolerance mechanisms. PMID:27270041

  17. SlWRKY70 is required for Mi-1-mediated resistance to aphids and nematodes in tomato.

    PubMed

    Atamian, Hagop S; Eulgem, Thomas; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2012-02-01

    Plant resistance (R) gene-mediated defense responses against biotic stresses include vast transcriptional reprogramming. In several plant-pathogen systems, members of the WRKY family of transcription factors have been demonstrated to act as both positive and negative regulators of plant defense transcriptional networks. To identify the possible roles of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) WRKY transcription factors in defense mediated by the R gene Mi-1 against potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, and root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne javanica, we used tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based virus-induced gene silencing and transcriptionally suppressed SlWRKY70, a tomato ortholog of the Arabidopsis thaliana WRKY70 gene. Silencing SlWRKY70 attenuated Mi-1-mediated resistance against both potato aphid and RKN showing that SlWRKY70 is required for Mi-1 function. Furthermore, we found SlWRKY70 transcripts to be inducible in response to aphid infestation and RKN inoculation. Mi-1-mediated recognition of these pests modulates this transcriptional response. As previously described for AtWRKY70, we found SlWRKY70 transcript levels to be up-regulated by salicylic acid and suppressed by methyl jasmonate. This indicates that some aspects of WRKY70 regulation are conserved among distantly related eudicots. PMID:21898085

  18. Requirement of Functional Ethylene-Insensitive 2 Gene for Efficient Resistance of Arabidopsis to Infection by Botrytis cinerea1

    PubMed Central

    Thomma, Bart P.H.J.; Eggermont, Kristel; Tierens, Koenraad F.M.-J.; Broekaert, Willem F.

    1999-01-01

    Inoculation of wild-type Arabidopsis plants with the fungus Alternaria brassicicola results in systemic induction of genes encoding a plant defensin (PDF1.2), a basic chitinase (PR-3), and an acidic hevein-like protein (PR-4). Pathogen-induced induction of these three genes is almost completely abolished in the ethylene-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant ein2-1. This indicates that a functional ethylene signal transduction component (EIN2) is required in this response. The ein2-1 mutants were found to be markedly more susceptible than wild-type plants to infection by two different strains of the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. In contrast, no increased fungal colonization of ein2-1 mutants was observed after challenge with avirulent strains of either Peronospora parasitica or A. brassicicola. Our data support the conclusion that ethylene-controlled responses play a role in resistance of Arabidopsis to some but not all types of pathogens. PMID:10594097

  19. Mutation to Wider Virulence in Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici: Evidence for the Existence of Loci Which Allow the Fungus To Overcome Several Host Stem Rust Resistance Genes Simultaneously †

    PubMed Central

    Gates, J. E.; Loegering, W. Q.

    1991-01-01

    Mutants of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici were obtained which were able to overcome simultaneously several host stem rust resistance (Sr) genes effective against the wild-type culture. These results suggest that, in addition to those Psr loci which relate specifically to host Sr genes in a “gene for gene” manner, one or more general loci may be present in this pathogen. The product(s) of these general genes may be necessary for the expression of various host Sr genes. The evolution of a super race capable of overcoming many Sr genes for resistance seems likely, as such a pathogen would not have to give up the many proteins predicted by the gene-for-gene relationship. Moreover, it appears that specificity in the wheat rust system is more complicated than suggested by the gene-for-gene concept. PMID:16348542

  20. Crystallographic study of the phosphoethanolamine transferase EptC required for polymyxin resistance and motility in Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Fage, Christopher D.; Brown, Dusty B.; Boll, Joseph M.; Keatinge-Clay, Adrian T.; Trent, M. Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The foodborne enteric pathogen Campylobacter jejuni decorates a variety of its cell-surface structures with phosphoethanolamine (pEtN). Modifying lipid A with pEtN promotes cationic antimicrobial peptide resistance, whereas post-translationally modifying the flagellar rod protein FlgG with pEtN promotes flagellar assembly and motility, which are processes that are important for intestinal colonization. EptC, the pEtN transferase required for all known pEtN cell-surface modifications in C. jejuni, is a predicted inner-membrane metalloenzyme with a five-helix N-terminal transmembrane domain followed by a soluble sulfatase-like catalytic domain in the periplasm. The atomic structure of the catalytic domain of EptC (cEptC) was crystallized and solved to a resolution of 2.40 Å. cEptC adopts the α/β/α fold of the sulfatase protein family and harbors a zinc-binding site. A phosphorylated Thr266 residue was observed that was hypothesized to mimic a covalent pEtN–enzyme intermediate. The requirement for Thr266 as well as the nearby residues Asn308, Ser309, His358 and His440 was ascertained via in vivo activity assays on mutant strains. The results establish a basis for the design of pEtN transferase inhibitors. PMID:25286856

  1. PerR Controls Oxidative Stress Resistance and Iron Storage Proteins and Is Required for Virulence in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Horsburgh, Malcolm J.; Clements, Mark O.; Crossley, Howard; Ingham, Eileen; Foster, Simon J.

    2001-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus genome encodes three ferric uptake regulator (Fur) homologues: Fur, PerR, and Zur. To determine the exact role of PerR, we inactivated the gene by allelic replacement using a kanamycin cassette, creating strain MJH001 (perR). PerR was found to control transcription of the genes encoding the oxidative stress resistance proteins catalase (KatA), alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpCF), bacterioferritin comigratory protein (Bcp), and thioredoxin reductase (TrxB). Furthermore, PerR regulates transcription of the genes encoding the iron storage proteins ferritin (Ftn) and the ferritin-like Dps homologue, MrgA. Transcription of perR was autoregulated, and PerR repressed transcription of the iron homeostasis regulator Fur, which is a positive regulator of catalase expression. PerR functions as a manganese-dependent, transcriptional repressor of the identified regulon. Elevated iron concentrations produced induction of the PerR regulon. PerR may act as a peroxide sensor, since addition of external hydrogen peroxide to 8325-4 (wild type) resulted in increased transcription of most of the PerR regulon, except for fur and perR itself. The PerR-regulated katA gene encodes the sole catalase of S. aureus, which is an important starvation survival determinant but is surprisingly not required for pathogenicity in a murine skin abscess model of infection. In contrast, PerR is not necessary for starvation survival but is required for full virulence (P < 0.005) in this model of infection. PerR of S. aureus may act as a redox sentinel protein during infection, analogous to the in vitro activities of OxyR and PerR of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. However, it differs in its response to the metal balance within the cell and has the added capability of regulating iron uptake and storage. PMID:11349039

  2. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 602.22 Section 602.22 Public... Requirements § 602.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for:...

  3. 45 CFR 2541.220 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2541.220 Section 2541.220 Public... Post-Award Requirements § 2541.220 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may...

  4. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  5. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and an organization named in OMB Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31... Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  6. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and an organization named in OMB Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31... Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  7. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and an organization named in OMB Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31... Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  8. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and an organization named in OMB Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31... Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  9. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  10. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 43.22... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds...

  11. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 602.22 Section 602.22 Public... Requirements § 602.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for:...

  12. 7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable costs. 3016.22 Section 3016.22 Agriculture... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on...

  13. 32 CFR 33.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 33.22 Section 33.22 National... Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 33.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use...

  14. 40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31, Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 31.22 Section 31.22... Requirements Financial Administration § 31.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds...

  15. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  16. 7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 3016.22 Section 3016.22 Agriculture... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on...

  17. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 43.22... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds...

  18. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) OMB Circular A-122 does not cover the treatment of bid and proposal...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a.... Allowability of costs must be determined in accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

  19. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) OMB Circular A-122 does not cover the treatment of bid and proposal...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a.... Allowability of costs must be determined in accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

  20. Hippocampal UCP2 is essential for cognition and resistance to anxiety but not required for the benefits of exercise.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Zhai, X; Chen, P; Yang, M; Zhao, J; Dong, J; Liu, H

    2014-09-26

    Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) reduces oxidative stress by facilitating the influx of protons into mitochondrial matrix, thus dissociating mitochondrial oxidation from ATP synthesis. UCP2 is expressed abundantly in brain areas and plays a key role in neuroprotection. Here, we sought to determine if UCP2 deficiency produces cognitive impairment and anxiety in young mice, and to determine if hippocampal UCP2 is essential for the beneficial effects of voluntary exercise. Antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) was used to produce UCP2 knockdown in mice. Our results firstly showed that UCP2-targeted ASO significantly reduced UCP2 mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus. ASO treatment impaired learning and memory of the mice in Y-maze, T-maze, and object recognition tests (ORT). ASO-treated mice exhibited more anxiously in OPT, light/dark box test, and elevated plus maze (EPM) than the control mice. We also found that wheel running ameliorated cognitive dysfunction and anxiety-like behaviors in ASO-treated mice. Furthermore, voluntary exercise reversed ASO-induced changes in hippocampal levels of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE). However, UCP2 protein in the hippocampus was not correlated with cognitive and anxiolytic benefits of exercise. These findings suggest that hippocampal UCP2 is essential for cognitive function and the resistance to anxiety of mice, but not required for the beneficial effects of exercise. PMID:25003714

  1. Substrate-induced stable enzyme-inhibitor complex formation allows tight binding of novel 2-aminopyrimidin-4(3H)-ones to drug-resistant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase mutants.

    PubMed

    Samuele, Alberta; Facchini, Marcella; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello; Artico, Marino; Armand-Ugón, Mercedes; Esté, José A; Maga, Giovanni

    2008-09-01

    We recently reported the synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel series of 5-alkyl-2-(N,N-disubstituted)amino-6-(2,6-difluorophenylalkyl)-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-4(3H)-ones (F(2)-N,N-DABOs). These compounds are highly active against both wild-type HIV-1 and the K103N, Y181C, and Y188L mutant strains. Herein we present novel 6-(2-chloro-6-fluorophenylalkyl)-N,N-DABO (2-Cl-6-F-N,N-DABO) derivatives and investigate the molecular basis for their high-affinity binding to HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). Our results show that the new compounds display higher association rates than the difluoro derivatives toward wild-type HIV-1 RT or drug-resistant RT mutant forms. We also show that they preferentially associate to either the free enzyme or the enzyme-nucleic acid binary complex, and that this binding is stabilized upon formation of the ternary complex between HIV-1 RT and both the nucleic acid and nucleotide substrates. Interestingly, one compound showed dissociation rates from the ternary complex with RT mutants K103N and Y181I 10-20-fold slower than from the corresponding complex with wild-type RT. PMID:18465760

  2. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test;...

  3. Long-term strength and allowable stresses of grade 10Kh9MFB and X10CrMoVNb9-1 (T91/P91) chromium heat-resistant steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorobogatykh, V. N.; Danyushevskiy, I. A.; Schenkova, I. A.; Prudnikov, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    Currently, grade X10CrMoVNb9-1 (T91, P91) and 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh) chromium steels are widely applied in equipment manufacturing for thermal power plants in Russia and abroad. Compilation and comparison of tensile, impact, and long-term strength tests results accumulated for many years of investigations of foreign grade X10CrMoVNb9-1, T91, P91, and domestic grade 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh) steels is carried out. The property identity of metals investigated is established. High strength and plastic properties of steels, from which pipes and other products are made, for operation under creep conditions are confirmed. Design characteristics of long-term strength on the basis of tests with more than one million of hour-samples are determined ( and at temperatures of 500-650°C). The table of recommended allowable stresses for grade 10Kh9MFB, 10Kh9MFB-SH, X10CrMoVNb9-1, T91, and P91 steels is developed. The long-time properties of pipe welded joints of grade 10Kh9MFB+10Kh9MFB, 10Kh9MFB-Sh+10Kh9MFB-Sh, X10CrMoVNb9-1+X10CrMoVNb9-1, P91+P91, T91+T91, 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh)+X10CrMoVNb9-1(T/P91) steels is researched. The welded joint reduction factor is experimentally determined.

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa High-Level Resistance to Polymyxins and Other Antimicrobial Peptides Requires cprA, a Gene That Is Disrupted in the PAO1 Strain

    PubMed Central

    Gutu, Alina D.; Rodgers, Nicole S.; Park, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    The arn locus, found in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, mediates resistance to polymyxins and other cationic antimicrobial peptides through 4-amino-l-arabinose modification of the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, several two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) control the arn locus, which is necessary but not sufficient for these resistance phenotypes. A previous transposon mutagenesis screen to identify additional polymyxin resistance genes that these systems regulate implicated an open reading frame designated PA1559 in the genome of the P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain. Resequencing of this chromosomal region and bioinformatics analysis for a variety of P. aeruginosa strains revealed that in the sequenced PAO1 strain, a guanine deletion at the end of PA1559 results in a frameshift and truncation of a full-length open reading frame that also encompasses PA1560 in non-PAO1 strains, such as P. aeruginosa PAK. Deletion analysis in the PAK strain showed that this full-length open reading frame, designated cprA, is necessary for polymyxin resistance conferred by activating mutations in the PhoPQ, PmrAB, and CprRS TCSs. The cprA gene was also required for PmrAB-mediated resistance to other cationic antimicrobial peptides in the PAK strain. Repair of the mutated cprA allele in the PAO1 strain restored polymyxin resistance conferred by an activating TCS mutation. The deletion of cprA did not affect the arn-mediated lipid A modification, indicating that the CprA protein is necessary for a different aspect of polymyxin resistance. This protein has a domain structure with a strong similarity to the extended short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family that comprises isomerases, lyases, and oxidoreductases. These results suggest a new avenue through which to pursue targeted inhibition of polymyxin resistance. PMID:26100714

  5. Induction of autophagy-dependent necroptosis is required for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells to overcome glucocorticoid resistance

    PubMed Central

    Bonapace, Laura; Bornhauser, Beat C.; Schmitz, Maike; Cario, Gunnar; Ziegler, Urs; Niggli, Felix K.; Schäfer, Beat W.; Schrappe, Martin; Stanulla, Martin; Bourquin, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    In vivo resistance to first-line chemotherapy, including to glucocorticoids, is a strong predictor of poor outcome in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Modulation of cell death regulators represents an attractive strategy for subverting such drug resistance. Here we report complete resensitization of multidrug-resistant childhood ALL cells to glucocorticoids and other cytotoxic agents with subcytotoxic concentrations of obatoclax, a putative antagonist of BCL-2 family members. The reversal of glucocorticoid resistance occurred through rapid activation of autophagy-dependent necroptosis, which bypassed the block in mitochondrial apoptosis. This effect was associated with dissociation of the autophagy inducer beclin-1 from the antiapoptotic BCL-2 family member myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (MCL-1) and with a marked decrease in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity. Consistent with a protective role for mTOR in glucocorticoid resistance in childhood ALL, combination of rapamycin with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone triggered autophagy-dependent cell death, with characteristic features of necroptosis. Execution of cell death, but not induction of autophagy, was strictly dependent on expression of receptor-interacting protein (RIP-1) kinase and cylindromatosis (turban tumor syndrome) (CYLD), two key regulators of necroptosis. Accordingly, both inhibition of RIP-1 and interference with CYLD restored glucocorticoid resistance completely. Together with evidence for a chemosensitizing activity of obatoclax in vivo, our data provide a compelling rationale for clinical translation of this pharmacological approach into treatments for patients with refractory ALL. PMID:20200450

  6. Riboflavin-Induced Disease Resistance Requires the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases 3 and 6 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Nie, Shengjun; Xu, Huilian

    2016-01-01

    As a resistance elicitor, riboflavin (vitamin B2) protects plants against a wide range of pathogens. At molecular biological levels, it is important to elucidate the signaling pathways underlying the disease resistance induced by riboflavin. Here, riboflavin was tested to induce resistance against virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) in Arabidopsis. Results showed that riboflavin induced disease resistance based on MAPK-dependent priming for the expression of PR1 gene. Riboflavin induced transient expression of PR1 gene. However, following Pst DC3000 inoculation, riboflavin potentiated stronger PR1 gene transcription. Further was suggested that the transcript levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases, MPK3 and MPK6, were primed under riboflavin. Upon infection by Pst DC3000, these two enzymes were more strongly activated. The elevated activation of both MPK3 and MPK6 was responsible for enhanced defense gene expression and resistance after riboflavin treatment. Moreover, riboflavin significantly reduced the transcript levels of MPK3 and MPK6 by application of AsA and BAPTA, an H2O2 scavenger and a calcium (Ca2+) scavenger, respectively. In conclusion, MPK3 and MPK6 were responsible for riboflavin-induced resistance, and played an important role in H2O2- and Ca2+-related signaling pathways, and this study could provide a new insight into the mechanistic study of riboflavin-induced defense responses. PMID:27054585

  7. Riboflavin-Induced Disease Resistance Requires the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases 3 and 6 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Shengjun; Xu, Huilian

    2016-01-01

    As a resistance elicitor, riboflavin (vitamin B2) protects plants against a wide range of pathogens. At molecular biological levels, it is important to elucidate the signaling pathways underlying the disease resistance induced by riboflavin. Here, riboflavin was tested to induce resistance against virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) in Arabidopsis. Results showed that riboflavin induced disease resistance based on MAPK-dependent priming for the expression of PR1 gene. Riboflavin induced transient expression of PR1 gene. However, following Pst DC3000 inoculation, riboflavin potentiated stronger PR1 gene transcription. Further was suggested that the transcript levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases, MPK3 and MPK6, were primed under riboflavin. Upon infection by Pst DC3000, these two enzymes were more strongly activated. The elevated activation of both MPK3 and MPK6 was responsible for enhanced defense gene expression and resistance after riboflavin treatment. Moreover, riboflavin significantly reduced the transcript levels of MPK3 and MPK6 by application of AsA and BAPTA, an H2O2 scavenger and a calcium (Ca2+) scavenger, respectively. In conclusion, MPK3 and MPK6 were responsible for riboflavin-induced resistance, and played an important role in H2O2- and Ca2+-related signaling pathways, and this study could provide a new insight into the mechanistic study of riboflavin-induced defense responses. PMID:27054585

  8. HIV-1 Resistance to the Capsid-Targeting Inhibitor PF74 Results in Altered Dependence on Host Factors Required for Virus Nuclear Entry

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jing; Price, Amanda J.; Halambage, Upul D.; James, Leo C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During HIV-1 infection of cells, the viral capsid plays critical roles in reverse transcription and nuclear entry of the virus. The capsid-targeting small molecule PF74 inhibits HIV-1 at early stages of infection. HIV-1 resistance to PF74 is complex, requiring multiple amino acid substitutions in the viral CA protein. Here we report the identification and analysis of a novel PF74-resistant mutant encoding amino acid changes in both domains of CA, three of which are near the pocket where PF74 binds. Interestingly, the mutant virus retained partial PF74 binding, and its replication was stimulated by the compound. The mutant capsid structure was not significantly perturbed by binding of PF74; rather, the mutations inhibited capsid interactions with CPSF6 and Nup153 and altered HIV-1 dependence on these host factors and on TNPO3. Moreover, the replication of the mutant virus was markedly impaired in activated primary CD4+ T cells and macrophages. Our results suggest that HIV-1 escapes a capsid-targeting small molecule inhibitor by altering the virus's dependence on host factors normally required for entry into the nucleus. They further imply that clinical resistance to inhibitors targeting the PF74 binding pocket is likely to be strongly limited by functional constraints on HIV-1 evolution. IMPORTANCE The HIV-1 capsid plays critical roles in early steps of infection and is an attractive target for therapy. Here we show that selection for resistance to a capsid-targeting small molecule inhibitor can result in viral dependence on the compound. The mutant virus was debilitated in primary T cells and macrophages—cellular targets of infection in vivo. The mutations also altered the virus's dependence on cellular factors that are normally required for HIV-1 entry into the nucleus. This work provides new information regarding mechanisms of HIV-1 resistance that should be useful in efforts to develop clinically useful drugs targeting the HIV-1 capsid. PMID:26109731

  9. Multiple mutations in hepatitis C virus NS5A domain II are required to confer a significant level of resistance to alisporivir.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rivera, Jose A; Bobardt, Michael; Chatterji, Udayan; Hopkins, Sam; Gregory, Matthew A; Wilkinson, Barrie; Lin, Kai; Gallay, Philippe A

    2012-10-01

    Alisporivir is the most advanced host-targeting antiviral cyclophilin (Cyp) inhibitor in phase III studies and has demonstrated a great deal of promise in decreasing hepatitis C virus (HCV) viremia in infected patients. In an attempt to further elucidate the mechanism of action of alisporivir, HCV replicons resistant to the drug were selected. Interestingly, mutations constantly arose in domain II of NS5A. To demonstrate that these mutations are responsible for drug resistance, they were reintroduced into the parental HCV genome, and the resulting mutant viruses were tested for replication in the presence of alisporivir or in the absence of the alisporivir target, CypA. We also examined the effect of the mutations on NS5A binding to itself (oligomerization), CypA, RNA, and NS5B. Importantly, the mutations did not affect any of these interactions. Moreover, the mutations did not preserve NS5A-CypA interactions from alisporivir rupture. NS5A mutations alone render HCV only slightly resistant to alisporivir. In sharp contrast, when multiple NS5A mutations are combined, significant resistance was observed. The introduction of multiple mutations in NS5A significantly restored viral replication in CypA knockdown cells. Interestingly, the combination of NS5A mutations renders HCV resistant to all classes of Cyp inhibitors. This study suggests that a combination of multiple mutations in domain II of NS5A rather than a single mutation is required to render HCV significantly and universally resistant to Cyp inhibitors. This in accordance with in vivo data that suggest that alisporivir is associated with a low potential for development of viral resistance. PMID:22802259

  10. Infectious Bronchitis Coronavirus Inhibits STAT1 Signaling and Requires Accessory Proteins for Resistance to Type I Interferon Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kint, Joeri; Dickhout, Annemiek; Kutter, Jasmin; Maier, Helena J.; Britton, Paul; Koumans, Joseph; Pijlman, Gorben P.; Fros, Jelke J.; Wiegertjes, Geert F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The innate immune response is the first line of defense against viruses, and type I interferon (IFN) is a critical component of this response. Similar to other viruses, the gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) has evolved under evolutionary pressure to evade and counteract the IFN response to enable its survival. Previously, we reported that IBV induces a delayed activation of the IFN response. In the present work, we describe the resistance of IBV to IFN and the potential role of accessory proteins herein. We show that IBV is fairly resistant to the antiviral state induced by IFN and identify that viral accessory protein 3a is involved in resistance to IFN, as its absence renders IBV less resistant to IFN treatment. In addition to this, we found that independently of its accessory proteins, IBV inhibits IFN-mediated phosphorylation and translocation of STAT1. In summary, we show that IBV uses multiple strategies to counteract the IFN response. IMPORTANCE In the present study, we show that infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is resistant to IFN treatment and identify a role for accessory protein 3a in the resistance against the type I IFN response. We also demonstrate that, in a time-dependent manner, IBV effectively interferes with IFN signaling and that its accessory proteins are dispensable for this activity. This study demonstrates that the gammacoronavirus IBV, similar to its mammalian counterparts, has evolved multiple strategies to efficiently counteract the IFN response of its avian host, and it identifies accessory protein 3a as multifaceted antagonist of the avian IFN system. PMID:26401035

  11. Cover Crops Reduce Water, Sediment, and Herbicide Loss in Acreage Requiring Tillage to Control Glyphosate-Resistant Weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate-resistant crops (GRCs) facilitated the adoption of no-tillage cropping systems. No-tillage, that is, omitting all tilling, disking, or harrowing operations, promotes crop residue accumulation on the soil surface. Crop residues protect the soil surface from rainfall impact, impede surfac...

  12. 43 CFR 12.62 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 12.62 Section 12.62... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and...

  13. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allowable costs. 135.22 Section 135.22 Foreign... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.22...

  14. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 135.22 Section 135.22 Foreign... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.22...

  15. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 135.22 Section 135.22 Foreign... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.22...

  16. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 135.22 Section 135.22 Foreign... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.22...

  17. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 135.22 Section 135.22 Foreign... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.22...

  18. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  19. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind...

  20. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  1. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  2. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  3. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  4. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind...

  5. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a... current period. However, if the recipient's established practice is to treat these costs by some other... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) OMB Circular A-122 does not cover the treatment of bid and...

  6. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a... current period. However, if the recipient's established practice is to treat these costs by some other... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) OMB Circular A-122 does not cover the treatment of bid and...

  7. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS...

  8. 43 CFR 12.62 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 12.62 Section 12.62 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND...

  9. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  10. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind...

  11. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  12. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  13. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  14. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  15. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  16. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.27... cost principles applicable to the entity incurring the costs. Thus, allowability of costs incurred...

  17. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.27... cost principles applicable to the entity incurring the costs. Thus, allowability of costs incurred...

  18. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  19. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind...

  20. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  1. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  2. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind...

  3. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... organizations, is to be determined in accordance with: (1) The for-profit cost principles in 48 CFR parts 31 and.... (3) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part 74... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-award...

  4. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... organizations, is to be determined in accordance with: (1) The for-profit cost principles in 48 CFR parts 31 and.... (3) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part 74... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-award...

  5. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... organizations, is to be determined in accordance with: (1) The for-profit cost principles in 48 CFR parts 31 and.... (3) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part 74... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-award...

  6. Identification of an amino acid residue required for differential recognition of a viral movement protein by the Tomato mosaic virus resistance gene Tm-2(2).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michie; Yamamoto-Katou, Ayako; Katou, Shinpei; Hirai, Katsuyuki; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ohashi, Yuko; Mitsuhara, Ichiro

    2011-07-01

    The Tm-2 gene of tomato and its allelic gene, Tm-2(2), confer resistance to Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) and encode a member of the coiled-coil/nucleotide binding-ARC/leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein class of plant resistance (R) genes. Despite exhibiting only four amino acid differences between the products of Tm-2 and Tm-2(2), Tm-2(2) confers resistance to ToMV mutant B7, whereas Tm-2 is broken by ToMV-B7. An Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system was used to study the mechanism of differential recognition of the movement proteins (MPs), an avirulence factor for ToMV resistance, of ToMV-B7 by Tm-2 and Tm-2(2). Although resistance induced by Tm-2 and Tm-2(2) is not usually accompanied by hypersensitive response (HR), Tm-2 and Tm-2(2) induced HR-like cell death by co-expression with MP of a wild-type ToMV, a strain that causes resistance for these R genes, and Tm-2(2) but not Tm-2 induced cell death with B7-MP in this system. Site-directed amino acid mutagenesis revealed that Tyr-767 in the LRR of Tm-2(2) is required for the specific recognition of the B7-MP. These results suggest that the Tyr residue in LRR contributes to the recognition of B7-MP, and that Tm-2 and Tm-2(2) are involved in HR cell death. PMID:21310506

  7. Novel resistance functions uncovered using functional metagenomic investigations of resistance reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Pehrsson, Erica C.; Forsberg, Kevin J.; Gibson, Molly K.; Ahmadi, Sara; Dantas, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    Rates of infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria have increased precipitously over the past several decades, with far-reaching healthcare and societal costs. Recent evidence has established a link between antibiotic resistance genes in human pathogens and those found in non-pathogenic, commensal, and environmental organisms, prompting deeper investigation of natural and human-associated reservoirs of antibiotic resistance. Functional metagenomic selections, in which shotgun-cloned DNA fragments are selected for their ability to confer survival to an indicator host, have been increasingly applied to the characterization of many antibiotic resistance reservoirs. These experiments have demonstrated that antibiotic resistance genes are highly diverse and widely distributed, many times bearing little to no similarity to known sequences. Through unbiased selections for survival to antibiotic exposure, functional metagenomics can improve annotations by reducing the discovery of false-positive resistance and by allowing for the identification of previously unrecognizable resistance genes. In this review, we summarize the novel resistance functions uncovered using functional metagenomic investigations of natural and human-impacted resistance reservoirs. Examples of novel antibiotic resistance genes include those highly divergent from known sequences, those for which sequence is entirely unable to predict resistance function, bifunctional resistance genes, and those with unconventional, atypical resistance mechanisms. Overcoming antibiotic resistance in the clinic will require a better understanding of existing resistance reservoirs and the dissemination networks that govern horizontal gene exchange, informing best practices to limit the spread of resistance-conferring genes to human pathogens. PMID:23760651

  8. The outer membrane protein TolC is required for phytoalexin resistance and virulence of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora

    PubMed Central

    Al‐Karablieh, Nehaya; Weingart, Helge; Ullrich, Matthias S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight on several plant species such as apple and pear, which produce diverse phytoalexins as defence mechanisms. An evolutionary successful pathogen thus must develop resistance mechanisms towards these toxic compounds. The E. amylovora outer membrane protein, TolC, might mediate phytoalexin resistance through its interaction with the multidrug efflux pump, AcrAB. To prove this, a tolC mutant and an acrB/tolC double mutant were constructed. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of diverse antimicrobials and phytoalexins were determined for these mutants and compared with that of a previously generated acrB mutant. The tolC and arcB/tolC mutants were considerably more susceptible than the wild type but showed similar levels as the acrB mutant. The results clearly indicated that neither TolC nor AcrAB significantly interacted with other transport systems during the efflux of the tested toxic compounds. Survival and virulence assays on inoculated apple plants showed that pathogenicity and the ability of E. amylovora to colonize plant tissue were equally impaired by mutations of tolC and acrB/tolC. Our results allowed the conclusion that TolC plays an important role as a virulence and fitness factor of E. amylovora by mediating resistance towards phytoalexins through its exclusive interaction with AcrAB. PMID:21255278

  9. Intact immune defenses are required for mice to resist the ts-4 vaccine strain of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed Central

    Sayles, P C; Johnson, L L

    1996-01-01

    The ts-4 strain of Toxoplasma gondii is a temperature-sensitive mutant that fails to grow at 40 degrees C in vitro. Unlike mildly virulent cyst-forming strains, which can cause fatal chronic infections in certain mouse strains, ts-4 has been widely used to vaccinate mice against virulent T. gondii and is a valuable tool with which to investigate mechanisms of acquired resistance to this parasite. In this report, the basis for the avirulence of ts-4 is analyzed. It is shown that ts-4 is able to persist long-term in vivo in mildly immunocompromised mice, which rules out an intrinsic growth defect as a reason for avirulence. ts-4 does not induce body temperatures in mice as high as that needed to kill it in vitro. Moreover, the mild fevers elicited in resistant B6 mice are also seen in susceptible C57BL/6 scid/scid mice. However, ts-4 elicits strong preimmune defenses, dependent on gamma interferon, which are needed by mice to survive acute infection. Furthermore, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell-dependent acquired immunity is essential for long-term survival of ts-4-infected mice. PMID:8757838

  10. A Serine Carboxypeptidase-Like Acyltransferase Is Required for Synthesis of Antimicrobial Compounds and Disease Resistance in Oats[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Mugford, Sam T.; Qi, Xiaoquan; Bakht, Saleha; Hill, Lionel; Wegel, Eva; Hughes, Richard K.; Papadopoulou, Kalliopi; Melton, Rachel; Philo, Mark; Sainsbury, Frank; Lomonossoff, George P.; Roy, Abhijeet Deb; Goss, Rebecca J.M.; Osbourn, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Serine carboxypeptidase-like (SCPL) proteins have recently emerged as a new group of plant acyltransferases. These enzymes share homology with peptidases but lack protease activity and instead are able to acylate natural products. Several SCPL acyltransferases have been characterized to date from dicots, including an enzyme required for the synthesis of glucose polyesters that may contribute to insect resistance in wild tomato (Solanum pennellii) and enzymes required for the synthesis of sinapate esters associated with UV protection in Arabidopsis thaliana. In our earlier genetic analysis, we identified the Saponin-deficient 7 (Sad7) locus as being required for the synthesis of antimicrobial triterpene glycosides (avenacins) and for broad-spectrum disease resistance in diploid oat (Avena strigosa). Here, we report on the cloning of Sad7 and show that this gene encodes a functional SCPL acyltransferase, SCPL1, that is able to catalyze the synthesis of both N-methyl anthraniloyl- and benzoyl-derivatized forms of avenacin. Sad7 forms part of an operon-like gene cluster for avenacin synthesis. Oat SCPL1 (SAD7) is the founder member of a subfamily of monocot-specific SCPL proteins that includes predicted proteins from rice (Oryza sativa) and other grasses with potential roles in secondary metabolism and plant defense. PMID:19684243

  11. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the SO[sub 2] allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO[sub 2] emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO[sub 2] for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO[sub x] emission averaging, the utility would average NO[sub x] emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  12. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-12-31

    The use of the SO{sub 2} allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO{sub 2} emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO{sub 2} for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO{sub x} emission averaging, the utility would average NO{sub x} emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  13. Requirement for CD4+ T Lymphocytes in Host Resistance against Cryptococcus neoformans in the Central Nervous System of Immunized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Kent L.; Doyle, Hester A.

    2000-01-01

    The importance of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and CD4+ T lymphocytes in host resistance against Cryptococcus neoformans is well documented and is exemplified by the high susceptibility to progressive infection with this pathogen of AIDS patients with reduced CD4+ T-cell numbers. Although much has been learned about the role of CMI in the clearance of C. neoformans from the lungs and other internal organs, less is known about the protective mechanisms in the brain, the organ most frequently involved with a fatal outcome of cryptococcosis. We hypothesized that host resistance mechanisms against C. neoformans in the central nervous system (CNS) were similar to those outside the CNS (i.e., gamma interferon [IFN-γ], CD4+ T cells, and others). To test this hypothesis, we used a murine model of cryptococcal meningitis whereby cryptococci are introduced directly into the CNS. In experiments where mice were immunized to mount an anticryptococcal CMI response, our results indicate that immunization induced protective mechanisms that could be detected in the CNS by inhibition of the growth of viable yeast cells. Flow cytometric analyses of leukocytes in brain and spinal cord homogenates revealed that T lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils accumulated in C. neoformans-infected brains of immune mice. In vivo depletion of CD4+ T cells, but not CD8+ T cells, resulted in significantly reduced leukocyte accumulation in the brains of immune mice. Furthermore, depletion of CD4+ T cells or neutralization of IFN-γ exacerbated CNS infection in immune mice, suggesting a critical role for CMI mechanisms in acquired protection in the CNS. PMID:10639404

  14. Medicago truncatula natural resistance-associated macrophage Protein1 is required for iron uptake by rhizobia-infected nodule cells.

    PubMed

    Tejada-Jiménez, Manuel; Castro-Rodríguez, Rosario; Kryvoruchko, Igor; Lucas, M Mercedes; Udvardi, Michael; Imperial, Juan; González-Guerrero, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    Iron is critical for symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) as a key component of multiple ferroproteins involved in this biological process. In the model legume Medicago truncatula, iron is delivered by the vasculature to the infection/maturation zone (zone II) of the nodule, where it is released to the apoplast. From there, plasma membrane iron transporters move it into rhizobia-containing cells, where iron is used as the cofactor of multiple plant and rhizobial proteins (e.g. plant leghemoglobin and bacterial nitrogenase). MtNramp1 (Medtr3g088460) is the M. truncatula Natural Resistance-Associated Macrophage Protein family member, with the highest expression levels in roots and nodules. Immunolocalization studies indicate that MtNramp1 is mainly targeted to the plasma membrane. A loss-of-function nramp1 mutant exhibited reduced growth compared with the wild type under symbiotic conditions, but not when fertilized with mineral nitrogen. Nitrogenase activity was low in the mutant, whereas exogenous iron and expression of wild-type MtNramp1 in mutant nodules increased nitrogen fixation to normal levels. These data are consistent with a model in which MtNramp1 is the main transporter responsible for apoplastic iron uptake by rhizobia-infected cells in zone II. PMID:25818701

  15. Arabidopsis COPPER MODIFIED RESISTANCE1/PATRONUS1 is essential for growth adaptation to stress and required for mitotic onset control.

    PubMed

    Juraniec, Michal; Heyman, Jefri; Schubert, Veit; Salis, Pietrino; De Veylder, Lieven; Verbruggen, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    The mitotic checkpoint (MC) guards faithful sister chromatid segregation by monitoring the attachment of spindle microtubules to the kinetochores. When chromosome attachment errors are detected, MC delays the metaphase-to-anaphase transition through the inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase. In contrast to yeast and mammals, our knowledge on the proteins involved in MC in plants is scarce. Transient synchronization of root tips as well as promoter-reporter gene fusions were performed to analyze temporal and spatial expression of COPPER MODIFIED RESISTANCE1/PATRONUS1 (CMR1/PANS1) in developing Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Functional analysis of the gene was carried out, including CYCB1;2 stability in CMR1/PANS1 knockout and overexpressor background as well as metaphase-anaphase chromosome status. CMR1/PANS1 is transcriptionally active during M phase. Its deficiency provokes premature cell cycle exit and in consequence a rapid consumption of the number of meristematic cells in particular under stress conditions that are known to affect spindle microtubules. Root growth impairment is correlated with a failure to delay the onset of anaphase, resulting in anaphase bridges and chromosome missegregation. CMR1/PANS1 overexpression stabilizes the mitotic CYCB1;2 protein. Likely, CMR1/PANS1 coordinates mitotic cell cycle progression by acting as an APC/C inhibitor and plays a key role in growth adaptation to stress. PMID:26261921

  16. Resistant hypertension - an update.

    PubMed

    Pasha, K; Towhiduzzaman, M; Manwar, A; Jahan, M U

    2015-04-01

    Patients with hypertension are increasing in Bangladesh. Among these patients a growing number of patients are having resistant hypertension faced by both primary care physicians and specialists. There is no data regarding prevalence of resistant hypertension in Bangladesh, but clinical trials abroad suggests that it is not rare, involving perhaps 20% to 30% of study participants. Cardiovascular risk is undoubtedly increased in such patients and the condition is often complicated by multiple other cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, sleep apnea, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Resistant hypertension is almost always multifactorial in etiology. Successful treatment requires identification and reversal of lifestyle factors contributing to treatment resistance; diagnosis and appropriate treatment of secondary causes of hypertension; and use of effective multi drug regimens. Studies of resistant hypertension are limited by the high cardiovascular risk of patients within this subgroup, which generally precludes safe withdrawal of medications; presence of multiple disease processes and their associated medical therapies, which confound interpretation of study results. Therefore we should concentrate on expanding our knowledge of the causes of resistant hypertension which will allow for more effective prevention and/or treatment which is essential to improve long-term clinical management of this condition. PMID:26007281

  17. Vietnam recommended dietary allowances 2007.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Hoan, Pham Van

    2008-01-01

    It has been well acknowledged that Vietnam is undergoing a nutrition transition. With a rapid change in the country's reform and economic growth, food supply at the macronutrient level has improved. Changes of the Vietnamese diet include significantly more foods of animal origin, and an increase of fat/oils, and ripe fruits. Consequently, nutritional problems in Vietnam now include not only malnutrition but also overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases related to nutrition and lifestyles. The recognition of these shifts, which is also associated with morbidity and mortality, was a major factor in the need to review and update the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for the Vietnamese population. This revised RDA established an important science-based tool for evaluation of nutrition adequacy, for teaching, and for scientific communications within Vietnam. It is expected that the 2007 Vietnam RDA and its conversion to food-based dietary guidelines will facilitate education to the public, as well as the policy implementation of programs for prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases and addressing the double burden of both under and over nutrition. PMID:18460440

  18. Requirement of UNC93B1 reveals a critical role for Toll-Like Receptor 7 in host resistance to primary infection with Trypanosoma cruzi1,2

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Braulia C.; Carmo, Bianca B.; Melo, Mariane B.; Cerny, Anna; dos Santos, Sara L.; Bartholomeu, Daniella C.; Golenbock, Douglas T.; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.

    2011-01-01

    UNC93B1 associates with Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 3, 7 and 9, mediating their translocation from the endoplasmic reticulum to the endolysosome, thus allowing proper activation by microbial nucleic acids. We found that the triple deficient ‘3d’ mice, which lack functional UNC93B1 as well as functional endossomal TLRs, are highly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. The enhanced parasitemia and mortality in 3d animals were associated with impaired pro-inflammatory response, including reduced levels of IL-12p40 and IFN-γ. Importantly, the phenotype of 3d mice was intermediary between MyD88−/− (highly susceptible) and TLR9−/− (less susceptible), indicating the involvement of an additional UN93B1-dependent-TLR(s) on host resistance to T. cruzi. Hence, our experiments also revealed that TLR7 is a critical innate immune receptor involved in recognition of parasite RNA, induction of IL-12p40 by dendritic cells, and consequent IFN-γ by T lymphocytes. Furthermore, we show that upon T. cruzi infection triple TLR3/7/9−/− mice had similar phenotype than 3d mice. These data imply that the nucleic acid-sensing TLRs are critical determinants of host resistance to primary infection with T. cruzi. PMID:21753151

  19. Interleukin 6 Is Required for Pancreatic Cancer Progression by Promoting MAPK Signaling Activation and Oxidative Stress Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaqing; Yan, Wei; Collins, Meredith A.; Bednar, Filip; Rakshit, Sabita; Zetter, Bruce R.; Stanger, Ben Z.; Chung, Ivy; Rhim, Andrew D.; di Magliano, Marina Pasca

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest human malignancies, is almost invariably associated with the presence of an oncogenic form of Kras. Mice expressing oncogenic Kras in the pancreas recapitulate the step-wise progression of the human disease. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL6) is often expressed by multiple cell types within the tumor microenvironment. Here, we show that IL6 is required for the maintenance and progression of pancreatic cancer precursor lesions. In fact, the lack of IL6 completely ablates cancer progression even in presence of oncogenic Kras. Mechanistically, we show that IL6 synergizes with oncogenic Kras to activate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification program downstream of the MAPK/ERK signaling cascade. In addition, IL6 regulates the inflammatory microenvironment of pancreatic cancer throughout its progression, providing several signals that are essential for carcinogenesis. Thus, IL6 emerges as a key player at all stages of pancreatic carcinogenesis, and a potential therapeutic target. PMID:24097820

  20. NF-kappa B1 is required for optimal CD4+ Th1 cell development and resistance to Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Artis, David; Speirs, Kendra; Joyce, Karen; Goldschmidt, Michael; Caamaño, Jorge; Hunter, Christopher A; Scott, Phillip

    2003-02-15

    The NF-kappaB family of transcription factors regulates the expression of a wide range of immune response genes involved in immunity to pathogens. However, the need for individual family members in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses in vivo has yet to be clearly defined. We investigated the role of NF-kappaB1 in the induction of protective IL-12-dependent Th1 cell responses following infection with the intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania major. Whereas wild-type C57BL/6 mice controlled parasite replication, NF-kappaB1 knockout (KO) mice were susceptible to infection, developing chronic unresolving lesions associated with persistent parasites. There was a profound defect in Ag-specific CD4(+) T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production in infected KO mice, although innate responses-including IL-12 production and control of intracellular parasite replication by macrophages-were intact. In vitro polyclonal stimulation of purified naive KO T cells revealed an intrinsic defect in CD4(+) T cell proliferation associated with reduced IL-2 receptor expression, but operating independently of APC function and IL-2 production. Critically, the frequency of proliferating KO CD4(+) T cells secreting IFN-gamma matched that of wild-type cells, suggesting that NF-kappaB1 was not required for efficient transcription of the IFN-gamma gene. Taken together, these results identify a novel role for NF-kappaB1 in CD4(+) T cell proliferation and the development of Th1 cell responses required for protective immunity against intracellular pathogens. PMID:12574369

  1. 46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance must be as required in 46 CFR 54.01-35. ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Corrosion allowance. 54.25-5 Section 54.25-5...

  2. 46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance must be as required in 46 CFR 54.01-35. ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Corrosion allowance. 54.25-5 Section 54.25-5...

  3. 46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance must be as required in 46 CFR 54.01-35. ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Corrosion allowance. 54.25-5 Section 54.25-5...

  4. 30 CFR 1206.157 - Determination of transportation allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements of FERC Orders in 18 CFR part 284; (3) Commodity charges. The commodity charge allows the pipeline... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determination of transportation allowances... of transportation allowances. (a) Arm's-length transportation contracts. (1)(i) For...

  5. A Putative P-Type ATPase Required for Virulence and Resistance to Haem Toxicity in Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Rosemarie B.; Pi, Hualiang; Casey, Pat G.; Darby, Trevor; Charbit, Alain; Sleator, Roy D.; Joyce, Susan A.; Cowart, Richard E.; Hill, Colin; Klebba, Phillip E.; Gahan, Cormac G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of iron homeostasis in many pathogens is principally mediated by the ferric uptake regulator, Fur. Since acquisition of iron from the host is essential for the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, we predicted the existence of Fur-regulated systems that support infection. We examined the contribution of nine Fur-regulated loci to the pathogenicity of L. monocytogenes in a murine model of infection. While mutating the majority of the genes failed to affect virulence, three mutants exhibited a significantly compromised virulence potential. Most striking was the role of the membrane protein we designate FrvA (Fur regulated virulence factor A; encoded by frvA [lmo0641]), which is absolutely required for the systemic phase of infection in mice and also for virulence in an alternative infection model, the Wax Moth Galleria mellonella. Further analysis of the ΔfrvA mutant revealed poor growth in iron deficient media and inhibition of growth by micromolar concentrations of haem or haemoglobin, a phenotype which may contribute to the attenuated growth of this mutant during infection. Uptake studies indicated that the ΔfrvA mutant is unaffected in the uptake of ferric citrate but demonstrates a significant increase in uptake of haem and haemin. The data suggest a potential role for FrvA as a haem exporter that functions, at least in part, to protect the cell against the potential toxicity of free haem. PMID:22363518

  6. Sequential Activation of Two Pathogen-Sensing Pathways Required for Type I Interferon Expression and Resistance to an Acute DNA Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ren-Huan; Wong, Eric B; Rubio, Daniel; Roscoe, Felicia; Ma, Xueying; Nair, Savita; Remakus, Sanda; Schwendener, Reto; John, Shinu; Shlomchik, Mark; Sigal, Luis J

    2015-12-15

    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), its adaptor MyD88, the downstream transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7), and type I interferons (IFN-I) are all required for resistance to infection with ectromelia virus (ECTV). However, it is not known how or in which cells these effectors function to promote survival. Here, we showed that after infection with ECTV, the TLR9-MyD88-IRF7 pathway was necessary in CD11c(+) cells for the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and the recruitment of inflammatory monocytes (iMos) to the draining lymph node (dLN). In the dLN, the major producers of IFN-I were infected iMos, which used the DNA sensor-adaptor STING to activate IRF7 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling to induce the expression of IFN-α and IFN-β, respectively. Thus, in vivo, two pathways of DNA pathogen sensing act sequentially in two distinct cell types to orchestrate resistance to a viral disease. PMID:26682986

  7. CD8+ T Cells Specific for Immunodominant Trans-sialidase Epitopes Contribute to Control of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection but are Not Required for Resistance1

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Charles S.; Martin, Diana L.; Tarleton, Rick L.

    2011-01-01

    CD8+ T cells are essential for controlling Trypanosoma cruzi infection. During Brazil strain infection, C57BL/6 mice expand parasite-specific CD8+ T cells recognizing the dominant TSKB20 (ANYKFTLV) and sub-dominant TSKB74 (VNYDFTLV) trans-sialidase gene (TS)-encoded epitopes with up to 40% of all CD8+ T cells specific for these epitopes. Though this is one of the largest immunodominant T cell responses described for any infection, most mice fail to clear T. cruzi and subsequently develop chronic disease. To determine if immunodominant TS-specific CD8+ T cells are necessary for resistance to infection, we epitope-tolerized mice by high-dose intravenous injections of TSKB20 or TSKB74 peptides. Tolerance induction led to deletion of TS-specific CD8+ T cells but did not prevent the expansion of other effector CD8+ T cell populations. Mice tolerized against either TSKB20 or TSKB74, or both epitopes simultaneously, exhibited transient increases in parasite loads, though ultimately they controlled the acute infection. Furthermore, BALB/c mice tolerized against the TSKD14 peptide effectively controlled acute T. cruzi infection. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that development of high frequency CD8+ T cell populations focused on TS-derived epitopes contributes to optimal control of acute infection, but is not required for the development of immune resistance. PMID:20530265

  8. The catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase is required for cellular resistance to oxidative stress independent of DNA double strand break repair

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mengxia; Lin, Yu-Fen; Palchik, Guillermo; Matsunaga, Shinji; Wang, Dong; Chen, Benjamin P.C.

    2014-01-01

    DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) are the two major kinases involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, and are required for cellular resistance to ionizing radiation. While ATM is the key upstream kinase for DSB signaling, DNA-PKcs is primarily involved in DSB repair through the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) mechanism. In addition to DSB repair, ATM has been shown to be involved in oxidative stress response and could be activated directly in vitro upon hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment. However, the role of DNA-PKcs in cellular response to oxidative stress is not clear. We hypothesize that DNA-PKcs may participate in the regulation of ATM activation in response to oxidative stress, and that this regulatory role is independent of its role in DNA double strand break repair. Our findings reveal that H2O2 induces hyperactivation of ATM signaling in DNA-PKcs deficient, but not Ligase 4 deficient cells, suggesting an NHEJ-independent role for DNA-PKcs. Furthermore, DNA-PKcs deficiency leads to the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and to a decrease in cellular survival against H2O2. For the first time, our results reveal that DNA-PKcs plays a non-canonical role in the cellular response to oxidative stress, which is independent from its role in NHEJ. In addition, DNA-PKcs is a critical regulator of the oxidative stress response and contributes to the maintenance of redox homeostasis. Our findings reveal that DNA-PKcs is required for cellular resistance to oxidative stress and suppression of ROS build-up independently to its function in DSB repair. PMID:25224041

  9. Resistant Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Doroszko, Adrian; Janus, Agnieszka; Szahidewicz-Krupska, Ewa; Mazur, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a severe medical condition which is estimated to appear in 9-18% of hypertensive patients. Due to higher cardiovascular risk, this disorder requires special diagnosis and treatment. The heterogeneous etiology, risk factors and comorbidities of resistant hypertension stand in need of sophisticated evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and select the best therapeutic options, which should consider lifestyle modifications as well as pharmacological and interventional treatment. After having excluded pseudohypertension, inappropriate blood pressure measurement and control as well as the white coat effect, suspicion of resistant hypertension requires an analysis of drugs which the hypertensive patient is treated with. According to one definition - ineffective treatment with 3 or more antihypertensive drugs including diuretics makes it possible to diagnose resistant hypertension. A multidrug therapy including angiotensin - converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, long-acting calcium channel blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to be effective in resistant hypertension treatment. Nevertheless, optional, innovative therapies, e.g. a renal denervation or baroreflex activation, may create a novel pathway of blood pressure lowering procedures. The right diagnosis of this disease needs to eliminate the secondary causes of resistant hypertension e.g. obstructive sleep apnea, atherosclerosis and renal or hormonal disorders. This paper briefly summarizes the identification of the causes of resistant hypertension and therapeutic strategies, which may contribute to the proper diagnosis and an improvement of the long term management of resistant hypertension. PMID:26935512

  10. Methods of airway resistance assessment.

    PubMed

    Urbankowski, Tomasz; Przybyłowski, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Airway resistance is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of the airflow in the airways. The most frequent methods used to measure airway resistance are whole-body plethysmography, the interrupter technique and the forced oscillation technique. All these methods allow to measure resistance during respiration at the level close to tidal volume, they do not require forced breathing manoeuvres or deep breathing during measurement. The most popular method for measuring airway resistance is whole-body plethysmography. The results of plethysmography include among others the following parameters: airway resistance (Raw), airway conductance (Gaw), specific airway resistance (sRaw) and specific airway conductance (sGaw). The interrupter technique is based on the assumption that at the moment of airway occlusion, air pressure in the mouth is equal to the alveolar pressure . In the forced oscillation technique (FOT), airway resistance is calculated basing on the changes in pressure and flow caused by air vibration. The methods for measurement of airway resistance that are described in the present paper seem to be a useful alternative to the most common lung function test - spirometry. The target group in which these methods may be widely used are particularly the patients who are unable to perform spirometry. PMID:27238174

  11. The Borrelia hermsii Factor H Binding Protein FhbA Is Not Required for Infectivity in Mice or for Resistance to Human Complement In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Lindy M.; Miller, Daniel P.; Mallory, Katherine L.; Tegels, Brittney K.; Earnhart, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    The primary causative agent of tick-borne relapsing fever in North America is Borrelia hermsii. It has been hypothesized that B. hermsii evades complement-mediated destruction by binding factor H (FH), a host-derived negative regulator of complement. In vitro, B. hermsii produces a single FH binding protein designated FhbA (FH binding protein A). The properties and ligand binding activity of FhbA suggest that it plays multiple roles in pathogenesis. It binds plasminogen and has been identified as a significant target of a B1b B cell-mediated IgM response in mice. FhbA has also been explored as a potential diagnostic antigen for B. hermsii infection in humans. The ability to test the hypothesis that FhbA is a critical virulence factor in vivo has been hampered by the lack of well-developed systems for the genetic manipulation of the relapsing fever spirochetes. In this report, we have successfully generated a B. hermsii fhbA deletion mutant (the B. hermsii YORΔfhbA strain) through allelic exchange mutagenesis. Deletion of fhbA abolished FH binding by the YORΔfhbA strain and eliminated cleavage of C3b on the cell surface. However, the YORΔfhbA strain remained infectious in mice and retained resistance to killing in vitro by human complement. Collectively, these results indicate that B. hermsii employs an FhbA/FH-independent mechanism of complement evasion that allows for resistance to killing by human complement and persistence in mice. PMID:24866803

  12. Comparative Functional Genomic Analysis Identifies Distinct and Overlapping Sets of Genes Required for Resistance to Monomethylarsonous Acid (MMAIII) and Arsenite (AsIII) in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Jo, William J.; Loguinov, Alex; Wintz, Henri; Chang, Michelle; Smith, Allan H.; Kalman, Dave; Zhang, Luoping; Smith, Martyn T.; Vulpe, Chris D.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic is a human toxin and carcinogen commonly found as a contaminant in drinking water. Arsenite (AsIII) is the most toxic inorganic form, but recent evidence indicates that the metabolite monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) is even more toxic. We have used a chemical genomics approach to identify the genes that modulate the cellular toxicity of MMAIII and AsIII in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Functional profiling using homozygous deletion mutants provided evidence of the requirement of highly conserved biological processes in the response against both arsenicals including tubulin folding, DNA double-strand break repair, and chromatin modification. At the equitoxic doses of 150μM MMAIII and 300μM AsIII, genes related to glutathione metabolism were essential only for resistance to the former, suggesting a higher potency of MMAIII to disrupt glutathione metabolism than AsIII. Treatments with MMAIII induced a significant increase in glutathione levels in the wild-type strain, which correlated to the requirement of genes from the sulfur and methionine metabolic pathways and was consistent with the induction of oxidative stress. Based on the relative sensitivity of deletion strains deficient in GSH metabolism and tubulin folding processes, oxidative stress appeared to be the primary mechanism of MMAIII toxicity whereas secondary to tubulin disruption in the case of AsIII. Many of the identified yeast genes have orthologs in humans that could potentially modulate arsenic toxicity in a similar manner as their yeast counterparts. PMID:19635755

  13. FBN-1, a fibrillin-related protein, is required for resistance of the epidermis to mechanical deformation during C. elegans embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Melissa; Yochem, John; Krieg, Michael; Calixto, Andrea; Heiman, Maxwell G; Kuzmanov, Aleksandra; Meli, Vijaykumar; Chalfie, Martin; Goodman, Miriam B; Shaham, Shai; Frand, Alison; Fay, David S

    2015-01-01

    During development, biomechanical forces contour the body and provide shape to internal organs. Using genetic and molecular approaches in combination with a FRET-based tension sensor, we characterized a pulling force exerted by the elongating pharynx (foregut) on the anterior epidermis during C. elegans embryogenesis. Resistance of the epidermis to this force and to actomyosin-based circumferential constricting forces is mediated by FBN-1, a ZP domain protein related to vertebrate fibrillins. fbn-1 was required specifically within the epidermis and FBN-1 was expressed in epidermal cells and secreted to the apical surface as a putative component of the embryonic sheath. Tiling array studies indicated that fbn-1 mRNA processing requires the conserved alternative splicing factor MEC-8/RBPMS. The conserved SYM-3/FAM102A and SYM-4/WDR44 proteins, which are linked to protein trafficking, function as additional components of this network. Our studies demonstrate the importance of the apical extracellular matrix in preventing mechanical deformation of the epidermis during development. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06565.001 PMID:25798732

  14. Proteus mirabilis mannose-resistant, Proteus-like fimbriae: MrpG is located at the fimbrial tip and is required for fimbrial assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Li, X; Zhao, H; Geymonat, L; Bahrani, F; Johnson, D E; Mobley, H L

    1997-01-01

    The mannose-resistant, Proteus-like (MR/P) fimbria, responsible for mannose-resistant hemagglutination, is a virulence factor for uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis. Based on known fimbrial gene organization, we postulated that MrpG, a putative minor subunit of the MR/P fimbria, functions as an adhesin responsible for hemagglutination, while MrpA serves as the major structural subunit for the filamentous structure. To test this hypothesis, an mrpG mutant was constructed by allelic-exchange mutagenesis and verified by PCR and Southern blotting. The mrpG mutant was found to be negative for hemagglutination, while wild-type strain H14320 and the complemented mutant were positive. Western blots with antiserum raised against an overexpressed MrpG'-His6 fusion protein showed that MrpG was present in the fimbrial preparations of both the wild-type strain and the complemented mutant but absent in that of the mrpG mutant. The mrpG mutant was significantly less virulent in a CBA mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection. Western blots with antiserum to whole MR/P fimbriae showed that MrpA protein was also missing from the fimbrial preparation of the mrpG mutant. Using immunogold electron microscopy, we found that the normal MR/P-fimbrial structure was absent in the mrpG mutant, suggesting that MrpG is essential for initiation of normal fimbrial formation. In the wild-type strain, MrpG protein was localized to the tips of the fimbriae or at the surface of the cell when antiserum raised against overexpressed MrpG was used. Given the tip localization, MrpG may be required for initiation of assembly of MR/P fimbriae but does not appear to be the fimbrial adhesin. PMID:9119470

  15. Two Genes Encoding Structurally Different CC-NB-LRR Proteins are Required for Lr10-Mediated Leaf Rust Resistance in Wheat of Two Ploidy Levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gene pools of crop plant relatives have been proposed as a source of new functional resistance genes to broaden the basis of genetic resistance. Here, we have studied the allelic diversity of the Lr10 leaf rust resistance gene, encoding a CC-NBS-LRR protein originally identified in hexaploid bre...

  16. 5 CFR 591.305 - Allowance rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowance rates. 591.305 Section 591.305 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Allowance Based on Duty at Remote Worksites § 591.305 Allowance rates. (a) General. An allowance rate may not exceed $10 a day....

  17. The rpg4-mediated resistance to wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis) in barley (Hordeum vulgare) requires Rpg5, a second NBS-LRR gene, and an actin depolymerization factor.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Richards, J; Gross, T; Druka, A; Kleinhofs, A; Steffenson, B; Acevedo, M; Brueggeman, R

    2013-04-01

    The rpg4 gene confers recessive resistance to several races of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) and Rpg5 provides dominant resistance against isolates of the rye stem rust (P. graminis f. sp. secalis) in barley. The rpg4 and Rpg5 genes are tightly linked on chromosome 5H, and positional cloning using high-resolution populations clearly separated the genes, unambiguously identifying Rpg5; however, the identity of rpg4 remained unclear. High-resolution genotyping of critical recombinants at the rpg4/Rpg5 locus, designated here as rpg4-mediated resistance locus (RMRL) delimited two distinct yet tightly linked loci required for resistance, designated as RMRL1 and RMRL2. Utilizing virus-induced gene silencing, each gene at RMRL1, i.e., HvRga1 (a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat [NBS-LRR] domain gene), Rpg5 (an NBS-LRR-protein kinase domain gene), and HvAdf3 (an actin depolymerizing factor-like gene), was individually silenced followed by inoculation with P. graminis f. sp. tritici race QCCJ. Silencing each gene changed the reaction type from incompatible to compatible, indicating that all three genes are required for rpg4-mediated resistance. This stem rust resistance mechanism in barley follows the emerging theme of unrelated pairs of genetically linked NBS-LRR genes required for specific pathogen recognition and resistance. It also appears that actin cytoskeleton dynamics may play an important role in determining resistance against several races of stem rust in barley. PMID:23216085

  18. Iron-regulated metabolites produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r are not required for eliciting induced systemic resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Djavaheri, Mohammad; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Versluis, C; Meyer, J-M; Loon, L C; Bakker, Peter A H M

    2012-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r produces several iron-regulated metabolites, including the fluorescent siderophore pseudobactin (Psb374), salicylic acid (SA), and pseudomonine (Psm), a siderophore that contains a SA moiety. After purification of Psb374 from culture supernatant of WCS374r, its structure was determined following isoelectrofocusing and tandem mass spectrometry, and found to be identical to the fluorescent siderophore produced by P. fluorescens ATCC 13525. To study the role of SA and Psm production in colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana roots and in induced systemic resistance (ISR) against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) by strain WCS374r, mutants disrupted in the production of these metabolites were obtained by homologous recombination. These mutants were further subjected to transposon Tn5 mutagenesis to generate mutants also deficient in Psb374 production. The mutants behaved similar to the wild type in both their Arabidopsis rhizosphere-colonizing capacity and their ability to elicit ISR against Pst. We conclude that Psb374, SA, and Psm production by P. fluorescens WCS374r are not required for eliciting ISR in Arabidopsis. PMID:23170230

  19. The ubiquitin-specific protease family from Arabidopsis. AtUBP1 and 2 are required for the resistance to the amino acid analog canavanine.

    PubMed

    Yan, N; Doelling, J H; Falbel, T G; Durski, A M; Vierstra, R D

    2000-12-01

    Ubiquitin-specific proteases (UBPs) are a family of unique hydrolases that specifically remove polypeptides covalently linked via peptide or isopeptide bonds to the C-terminal glycine of ubiquitin. UBPs help regulate the ubiquitin/26S proteolytic pathway by generating free ubiquitin monomers from their initial translational products, recycling ubiquitins during the breakdown of ubiquitin-protein conjugates, and/or by removing ubiquitin from specific targets and thus presumably preventing target degradation. Here, we describe a family of 27 UBP genes from Arabidopsis that contain both the conserved cysteine (Cys) and histidine boxes essential for catalysis. They can be clustered into 14 subfamilies based on sequence similarity, genomic organization, and alignments with their closest relatives from other organisms, with seven subfamilies having two or more members. Recombinant AtUBP2 functions as a bona fide UBP: It can release polypeptides attached to ubiquitins via either alpha- or epsilon-amino linkages by an activity that requires the predicted active-site Cys within the Cys box. From the analysis of T-DNA insertion mutants, we demonstrate that the AtUBP1 and 2 subfamily helps confer resistance to the arginine analog canavanine. This phenotype suggests that the AtUBP1 and 2 enzymes are needed for abnormal protein turnover in Arabidopsis. PMID:11115897

  20. ABC transporter PEN3/PDR8/ABCG36 interacts with calmodulin that, like PEN3, is required for Arabidopsis nonhost resistance.

    PubMed

    Campe, Ruth; Langenbach, Caspar; Leissing, Franz; Popescu, George V; Popescu, Sorina C; Goellner, Katharina; Beckers, Gerold J M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Nonhost resistance (NHR) is the most prevalent form of plant immunity. In Arabidopsis, NHR requires membrane-localized ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter PENETRATION (PEN) 3. Upon perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PEN3 becomes phosphorylated, suggestive of PEN3 regulation by post-translational modification. Here, we investigated the PEN3 protein interaction network. We probed the Arabidopsis protein microarray AtPMA-5000 with the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of PEN3. Several of the proteins identified to interact with PEN3 in vitro represent cellular Ca(2+) sensors, including calmodulin (CaM) 3, CaM7 and several CaM-like proteins, pointing to the importance of Ca(2+) sensing to PEN3-mediated NHR. We demonstrated co-localization of PEN3 and CaM7, and we confirmed PEN3-CaM interaction in vitro and in vivo by PEN3 pull-down with CaM Sepharose, CaM overlay assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation. We also show that just like in pen3, NHR to the nonadapted fungal pathogens Phakopsora pachyrhizi and Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei is compromised in the Arabidopsis cam7 and pen3 cam7 mutants. Our study discloses CaM7 as a PEN3-interacting protein crucial to Arabidopsis NHR and emphasizes the importance of Ca(2+) sensing to plant immunity. PMID:26315018

  1. 30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable limits of dust concentration. 33.33... MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable limits of dust concentration. (a) The concentration of dust determined by the control sample shall be subtracted from the average concentration of dust determined by...

  2. 30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable limits of dust concentration. 33.33... MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable limits of dust concentration. (a) The concentration of dust determined by the control sample shall be subtracted from the average concentration of dust determined by...

  3. 30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable limits of dust concentration. 33.33... MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable limits of dust concentration. (a) The concentration of dust determined by the control sample shall be subtracted from the average concentration of dust determined by...

  4. 45 CFR 2400.50 - Allowances and Summer Institute costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowances and Summer Institute costs. 2400.50 Section 2400.50 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Graduate Study § 2400.50 Allowances and...

  5. 49 CFR 325.7 - Allowable noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... is based on motor carrier noise emission requirements specified in 40 CFR 202.20 and 40 CFR 202.21. ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable noise levels. 325.7 Section 325.7... EMISSION STANDARDS General Provisions § 325.7 Allowable noise levels. Motor vehicle noise emissions,...

  6. 30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable limits of dust concentration. 33.33... MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable limits of dust concentration. (a) The concentration of dust determined by the control sample shall be subtracted from the average concentration of dust determined by...

  7. 30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable limits of dust concentration. 33.33... MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable limits of dust concentration. (a) The concentration of dust determined by the control sample shall be subtracted from the average concentration of dust determined by...

  8. 30 CFR 206.157 - Determination of transportation allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with 30 CFR 218.54. (e) Adjustments. (1) If the actual transportation allowance is less than the amount... shall be required to pay additional royalties due plus interest computed under 30 CFR 218.54 from the... Orders in 18 CFR part 284; (3) Commodity charges. The commodity charge allows the pipeline to recover...

  9. 45 CFR 2400.50 - Allowances and Summer Institute costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowances and Summer Institute costs. 2400.50 Section 2400.50 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Graduate Study § 2400.50 Allowances and...

  10. 45 CFR 2400.50 - Allowances and Summer Institute costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowances and Summer Institute costs. 2400.50 Section 2400.50 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Graduate Study § 2400.50 Allowances and...

  11. 45 CFR 2400.50 - Allowances and Summer Institute costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowances and Summer Institute costs. 2400.50 Section 2400.50 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Graduate Study § 2400.50 Allowances and...

  12. 45 CFR 2400.50 - Allowances and Summer Institute costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowances and Summer Institute costs. 2400.50 Section 2400.50 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Graduate Study § 2400.50 Allowances and...

  13. 30 CFR 1206.157 - Determination of transportation allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... restructuring requirements of FERC Orders in 18 CFR part 284; (3) Commodity charges. The commodity charge allows... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Determination of transportation allowances... INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.157 Determination of...

  14. 30 CFR 1206.157 - Determination of transportation allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... restructuring requirements of FERC Orders in 18 CFR part 284; (3) Commodity charges. The commodity charge allows... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Determination of transportation allowances... INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.157 Determination of...

  15. 30 CFR 1206.157 - Determination of transportation allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements of FERC Orders in 18 CFR part 284; (3) Commodity charges. The commodity charge allows the pipeline... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determination of transportation allowances... INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.157 Determination of...

  16. 49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 266.11 Section 266.11... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.11 Allowable costs. Allowable costs include only the following costs which are properly allocable to the work performed: Planning and program operation costs which are allowed under...

  17. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  18. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  19. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  20. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  1. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  2. Oxidation-resistant cermet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. M.

    1977-01-01

    Chromium metal alloys and chromium oxide ceramic are combined to produce cermets with oxidation-resistant properties. Application of cermets includes use in hot corrosive environments requiring strong resistive materials.

  3. Application of human haploid cell genetic screening model in identifying the genes required for resistance to environmental toxicants: Chlorpyrifos as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinqiu; Dubois, Amber; Ge, Yichen; Olson, James A.; Ren, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction High-throughput loss-of-function genetic screening tools in yeast or other model systems except in mammalian cells have been implemented to study human susceptibility to chemical toxicity. Here, we employed a newly developed human haploid cell (KBM7)-based mutagenic screening model (KBM7-mu cells) and examined its applicability in identifying genes whose absence allows cells to survive and proliferate in the presence of chemicals. Methods KBM7-mucells were exposed to 200 µM Chlorpyrifos (CPF), a widely used organophosphate pesticide, a dose causing approximately 50% death of cells after 48 h of treatment. After a 2–3 week period of continuous CPF exposure, survived single cell colonies were recovered and used for further analysis. DNA isolated from these cells was amplified using Splinkerette PCR with specific designed primers, and sequenced to determine the genomic locations with virus insertion and identify genes affected by the insertion. Quantitative realtime reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to confirm the knockdown of transcription of identified target genes. Results We identified total 9 human genes in which the cells carrying these genes conferred the resistance to CPF, including AGPAT6, AIG1, ATP8B2, BIK, DCAF12, FNBP4, LAT2, MZF1-AS1 and PPTC7. MZF1-AS1 is an antisense RNA and not included in the further analysis. qRT-PCR results showed that the expression of 6 genes was either significantly reduced or completely lost. There were no changes in the expression of DCAF12 and AGPAT6 genes between the KBM7-mu and the control KBM7 cells. Discussion The KBM7-mu genetic screening system can be modified and applied to identify novel susceptibility genes in response to environmental toxicants, which could provide valuable insights into potential mechanisms of toxicity. PMID:26299976

  4. Development of a Real-Time PCR Protocol Requiring Minimal Handling for Detection of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci with the Fully Automated BD Max System.

    PubMed

    Dalpke, Alexander H; Hofko, Marjeta; Zimmermann, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are an important cause of health care-associated infections, resulting in significant mortality and a significant economic burden in hospitals. Active surveillance for at-risk populations contributes to the prevention of infections with VRE. The availability of a combination of automation and molecular detection procedures for rapid screening would be beneficial. Here, we report on the development of a laboratory-developed PCR for detection of VRE which runs on the fully automated Becton Dickinson (BD) Max platform, which combines DNA extraction, PCR setup, and real-time PCR amplification. We evaluated two protocols: one using a liquid master mix and the other employing commercially ordered dry-down reagents. The BD Max VRE PCR was evaluated in two rounds with 86 and 61 rectal elution swab (eSwab) samples, and the results were compared to the culture results. The sensitivities of the different PCR formats were 84 to 100% for vanA and 83.7 to 100% for vanB; specificities were 96.8 to 100% for vanA and 81.8 to 97% for vanB The use of dry-down reagents and the ExK DNA-2 kit for extraction showed that the samples were less inhibited (3.3%) than they were by the use of the liquid master mix (14.8%). Adoption of a cutoff threshold cycle of 35 for discrimination of vanB-positive samples allowed an increase of specificity to 87.9%. The performance of the BD Max VRE assay equaled that of the BD GeneOhm VanR assay, which was run in parallel. The use of dry-down reagents simplifies the assay and omits any need to handle liquid PCR reagents. PMID:27358466

  5. Evolving spiking networks with variable resistive memories.

    PubMed

    Howard, Gerard; Bull, Larry; de Lacy Costello, Ben; Gale, Ella; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Neuromorphic computing is a brainlike information processing paradigm that requires adaptive learning mechanisms. A spiking neuro-evolutionary system is used for this purpose; plastic resistive memories are implemented as synapses in spiking neural networks. The evolutionary design process exploits parameter self-adaptation and allows the topology and synaptic weights to be evolved for each network in an autonomous manner. Variable resistive memories are the focus of this research; each synapse has its own conductance profile which modifies the plastic behaviour of the device and may be altered during evolution. These variable resistive networks are evaluated on a noisy robotic dynamic-reward scenario against two static resistive memories and a system containing standard connections only. The results indicate that the extra behavioural degrees of freedom available to the networks incorporating variable resistive memories enable them to outperform the comparative synapse types. PMID:23614774

  6. 41 CFR 302-2.3 - What determines my entitlements and allowances for relocation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-EMPLOYEES ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS... and allowances for relocation are determined by the regulatory provisions that are in effect at...

  7. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was <3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be requirements of the National Environmental Protection Act.

  8. 9 CFR 73.10 - Permitted dips; substances allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... IN CATTLE § 73.10 Permitted dips; substances allowed. (a) The dips at present permitted by the Department for the treatment, as required in this part, of cattle affected with or exposed to scabies, are as... of scabies in cattle, the APHIS 3 will require that the product be registered under the provisions...

  9. 9 CFR 73.10 - Permitted dips; substances allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... IN CATTLE § 73.10 Permitted dips; substances allowed. (a) The dips at present permitted by the Department for the treatment, as required in this part, of cattle affected with or exposed to scabies, are as... of scabies in cattle, the APHIS 3 will require that the product be registered under the provisions...

  10. 9 CFR 73.10 - Permitted dips; substances allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... IN CATTLE § 73.10 Permitted dips; substances allowed. (a) The dips at present permitted by the Department for the treatment, as required in this part, of cattle affected with or exposed to scabies, are as... of scabies in cattle, the APHIS 3 will require that the product be registered under the provisions...

  11. 9 CFR 73.10 - Permitted dips; substances allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... IN CATTLE § 73.10 Permitted dips; substances allowed. (a) The dips at present permitted by the Department for the treatment, as required in this part, of cattle affected with or exposed to scabies, are as... of scabies in cattle, the APHIS 3 will require that the product be registered under the provisions...

  12. 9 CFR 73.10 - Permitted dips; substances allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... IN CATTLE § 73.10 Permitted dips; substances allowed. (a) The dips at present permitted by the Department for the treatment, as required in this part, of cattle affected with or exposed to scabies, are as... of scabies in cattle, the APHIS 3 will require that the product be registered under the provisions...

  13. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... clothing allowance; multiple types of garments affected. A veteran is entitled to an annual clothing...) Two clothing allowances; single type of garment affected. A veteran is entitled to two annual...

  14. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... clothing allowance; multiple types of garments affected. A veteran is entitled to an annual clothing...) Two clothing allowances; single type of garment affected. A veteran is entitled to two annual...

  15. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... clothing allowance; multiple types of garments affected. A veteran is entitled to an annual clothing...) Two clothing allowances; single type of garment affected. A veteran is entitled to two annual...

  16. Sphingolipid Degradation by Leishmania major Is Required for Its Resistance to Acidic pH in the Mammalian Host▿†

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Xin, Lijun; Soong, Lynn; Zhang, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Leishmania parasites alternate between flagellated promastigotes in sand flies and nonflagellated amastigotes in mammals, causing a spectrum of serious diseases. To survive, they must resist the harsh conditions in phagocytes (including acidic pH, elevated temperature, and increased oxidative/nitrosative stress) and evade the immune response. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of sphingolipid (SL) metabolism in Leishmania virulence. In particular, we have generated a Leishmania major iscl− mutant which is deficient in SL degradation but grows normally as promastigotes in culture. Importantly, iscl− mutants cannot induce pathology in either immunocompetent or immunodeficient mice yet are able to persist at low levels. In this study, we investigated how the degradation of SLs might contribute to Leishmania infection. First, unlike wild-type (WT) L. major, iscl− mutants do not trigger polarized T cell responses in mice. Second, like WT parasites, iscl− mutants possess the ability to downregulate macrophage activation by suppressing the production of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and nitric oxide. Third, during the stationary phase, iscl− promastigotes were extremely vulnerable to acidic pH but not to other adverse conditions, such as elevated temperature and oxidative/nitrosative stress. In addition, inhibition of phagosomal acidification significantly improved iscl− survival in murine macrophages. Together, these findings indicate that SL degradation by Leishmania is essential for its adaption to the acidic environment in phagolysosomes but is not required for the suppression of host cell activation. Finally, our studies with iscl− mutant-infected mice suggest that having viable, persistent parasites is not sufficient to provide immunity against virulent Leishmania challenge. PMID:21576322

  17. 45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1157.22 Section 1157.22 Public... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  18. 50 CFR 85.41 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable Federal cost principles in 43 CFR 12.60(b). Purchase of informational signs, program signs, and... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 85.41 Section 85.41... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.41 Allowable costs. (a) Allowable grant costs are limited to those...

  19. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items are... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21...

  20. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1180.56 Section 1180.56 Public... by a Grantee General Administrative Responsibilities § 1180.56 Allowable costs. (a) Determination of costs allowable under a grant is made in accordance with government-wide cost principles in...

  1. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that are proper...

  2. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs...

  3. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... organizations, is to be determined in accordance with: (1) The for-profit cost principles in 48 CFR parts 31 and.... (3) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part 74... Financial and Program Management § 34.17 Allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined...

  4. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid in accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  5. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... organizations, is to be determined in accordance with: (1) The for-profit cost principles in 48 CFR parts 31 and.... (3) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part 74... Financial and Program Management § 34.17 Allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined...

  6. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid in accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  7. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs....

  8. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs....

  9. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  10. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  11. 20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable activities. 632.258 Section 632.258 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable activities. Allowable activities are...

  12. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  13. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  14. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that...

  15. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  16. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items are... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21...

  17. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education... costs. (a)(1) Allowable and unallowable costs. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, costs reasonably related to carrying out the programs described in § 675.32 are allowable. (2)...

  18. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education... costs. (a)(1) Allowable and unallowable costs. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, costs reasonably related to carrying out the programs described in § 675.32 are allowable. (2)...

  19. 45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1157.22 Section 1157.22 Public... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  20. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items are... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21...

  1. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  2. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  3. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  4. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  5. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  6. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  7. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  8. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  9. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  10. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  11. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  12. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs....

  13. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  14. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs....

  15. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid in accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  16. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs....

  17. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  18. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  19. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  20. Salicylic acid is required for Mi-1-mediated resistance of tomato to whitefly Bemisia tabaci, but not for basal defense to this insect pest.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, C I; López-Climent, M F; Gómez-Cadenas, A; Kaloshian, I; Nombela, G

    2015-10-01

    Plant defense to pests or pathogens involves global changes in gene expression mediated by multiple signaling pathways. A role for the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway in Mi-1-mediated resistance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to aphids was previously identified and its implication in the resistance to root-knot nematodes is controversial, but the importance of SA in basal and Mi-1-mediated resistance of tomato to whitefly Bemisia tabaci had not been determined. SA levels were measured before and after B. tabaci infestation in susceptible and resistant Mi-1-containing tomatoes, and in plants with the NahG bacterial transgene. Tomato plants of the same genotypes were also screened with B. tabaci (MEAM1 and MED species, before known as B and Q biotypes, respectively). The SA content in all tomato genotypes transiently increased after infestation with B. tabaci albeit at variable levels. Whitefly fecundity or infestation rates on susceptible Moneymaker were not significantly affected by the expression of NahG gene, but the Mi-1-mediated resistance to B. tabaci was lost in VFN NahG plants. Results indicated that whiteflies induce both SA and jasmonic acid accumulation in tomato. However, SA has no role in basal defense of tomato against B. tabaci. In contrast, SA is an important component of the Mi-1-mediated resistance to B. tabaci in tomato. PMID:26032615

  1. Novel transparent electrodes allow sustainable production of electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Constant, Kristen

    2010-12-27

    -particle-count clean-room facilities and multimillion-dollar equipment. On the other hand, the novel process we developed uses a method that makes use of polymer molds and standard deposition techniques in an ambient laboratory environment. The final structure consists of tall ribbons of metal (standing on edge) that are so thin that they do not block light but are very good conductors. The advantage of this design is that it avoids the competition between conductivity and transparency inherent in transparent oxide electrodes. By making the structure taller, conductivity can be increased without impacting transparency. We have measured both electrical conductivity and transparency for these structures. We performed two-wire electrical measurements to quantify the structures resistance using metal contacts deposited on each end. The total sample area was 4 x 4mm{sup 2}. We measured a resistance of structures with 40nm gold sidewalls of 7.3{Omega}, which is lower than that of ITO glass (which has a sheet resistance around 10O/square). We investigated the structures optical properties based on both specular- and total-transmission measurements. Specular transmission is measured by collecting the transmitted light at normal incidence, while total transmission is obtained by collecting transmitted light at normal incidence and diffracted light using an integrating sphere. Figure 3 shows the total transmission of a grating with 40nm gold or silver sidewalls on a glass substrate compared to that of ITO. Additionally, the transparency changes very little within 30{sup o} off normal incidence. This high visible-light transmission of our metal-patterned structures is very promising for their application as transparent electrodes, because most visible light was allowed to propagate through the patterned metallic/polymeric structures. Researchers in our group continue to refine the fabrication methods and are investigating methods to make large-scale structures for use in a variety of

  2. Concurrent MEK and autophagy inhibition is required to restore cell death associated danger-signalling in Vemurafenib-resistant melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Martin, S; Dudek-Perić, A M; Maes, H; Garg, A D; Gabrysiak, M; Demirsoy, S; Swinnen, J V; Agostinis, P

    2015-02-01

    Vemurafenib (PLX4032), an inhibitor of BRAF(V600E), has demonstrated significant clinical anti-melanoma effects. However, the majority of treated patients develop resistance, due to a variety of molecular mechanisms including MAPK reactivation through MEK. The induction of a cancer cell death modality associated with danger-signalling resulting in surface mobilization of crucial damage-associated-molecular-patterns (DAMPs), e.g. calreticulin (CRT) and heat shock protein-90 (HSP90), from dying cells, is emerging to be crucial for therapeutic success. Both cell death and danger-signalling are modulated by autophagy, a key adaptation mechanism stimulated during melanoma progression. However, whether melanoma cell death induced by MAPK inhibition is associated with danger-signalling, and the reliance of these mechanisms on autophagy, has not yet been scrutinized. Using a panel of isogenic PLX4032-sensitive and resistant melanoma cell lines we show that PLX4032-induced caspase-dependent cell death and DAMPs exposure in the drug-sensitive cells, but failed to do so in the drug-resistant cells, displaying heightened MEK activation. MEK inhibitor, U0126, treatment sensitized PLX4032-resistant cells to death and re-established their danger-signalling capacity. Only melanoma cells exposing death-induced danger-signals were phagocytosed and induced DC maturation. Although the PLX4032-resistant melanoma cells displayed higher basal and drug-induced autophagy, compromising autophagy, pharmacologically or by ATG5 knockdown, was insufficient to re-establish their PLX4032 sensitivity. Interestingly, autophagy abrogation was particularly efficacious in boosting cell death and ecto-CRT/ecto-HSP90 in PLX4032-resistant cells upon blockage of MEK hyper-activation by U0126. Thus combination of MEK inhibitors with autophagy blockers may represent a novel treatment regime to increase both cell death and danger-signalling in Vemurafenib-resistant metastatic melanoma. PMID:25529535

  3. Tomato SlRbohB, a member of the NADPH oxidase family, is required for disease resistance against Botrytis cinerea and tolerance to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohui; Zhang, Huijuan; Tian, Limei; Huang, Lei; Liu, Shixia; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2015-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (also known as respiratory burst oxidase homologs, Rbohs) are key enzymes that catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants. In the present study, eight SlRboh genes were identified in tomato and their possible involvement in resistance to Botrytis cinerea and drought tolerance was examined. Expression of SlRbohs was induced by B. cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato but displayed distinct patterns. Virus-induced gene silencing based silencing of SlRbohB resulted in reduced resistance to B. cinerea but silencing of other SlRbohs did not affect the resistance. Compared to non-silenced plants, the SlRbohB-silenced plants accumulated more ROS and displayed attenuated expression of defense genes after infection with B. cinerea. Silencing of SlRbohB also suppressed flg22-induced ROS burst and the expression of SlLrr22, a marker gene related to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Transient expression of SlRbohB in Nicotiana benthamiana led to enhanced resistance to B. cinerea. Furthermore, silencing of SlRbohB resulted in decreased drought tolerance, accelerated water loss in leaves and the altered expression of drought-responsive genes. Our data demonstrate that SlRbohB positively regulates the resistance to B. cinerea, flg22-induced PTI, and drought tolerance in tomato. PMID:26157450

  4. 14 CFR 1273.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 31, Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply...) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to...

  5. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  6. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  7. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  8. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  9. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  10. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  11. Allocation of Allowances and Associated Family Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, M. Kaye; Cheadle, Tannis

    This study gathered information on general family practices concerning allowances given to children, parental reasons for the provision of allowances, the bases for their administration, and the frequency of conflicts generated around them. The subjects were 81 parents of elementary school children in a midwest Canadian city. Subjects completed…

  12. 45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1174.22 Section 1174.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  13. 29 CFR 1470.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 1470.22 Section 1470.22 Labor Regulations... Financial Administration § 1470.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be...

  14. 2 CFR 215.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 230, “Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations (OMB Circular A-122).” The allowability of... CFR part 220, “Cost Principles for Educational Institutions (OMB Circular A-21).” The allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of appendix E of 45 CFR...

  15. 45 CFR 1183.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1183.22 Section 1183.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  16. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802...

  17. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802...

  18. 20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable activities. 632.258 Section 632.258 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable...

  19. 20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable activities. 632.258 Section 632.258 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable...

  20. 19 CFR 191.141 - Drawback allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drawback allowance. 191.141 Section 191.141 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Foreign-Built Jet Aircraft Engines Processed in the United States § 191.141 Drawback allowance. Section 313(h) of the...

  1. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  2. 7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. Program Management ... at 2 CFR part 225. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in... at 2 CFR part 230. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education...

  3. 7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. Program Management ... at 2 CFR part 225. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in... at 2 CFR part 230. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education...

  4. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  5. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  6. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clothing allowance. 3.810 Section 3.810 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.810 Clothing allowance. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

  7. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part... prevailing per diem allowance rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section...

  8. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operating allowances. 1206.160 Section 1206.160 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any...

  9. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operating allowances. 1206.160 Section 1206.160 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any...

  10. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operating allowances. 1206.160 Section 1206.160 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any...

  11. Moral Appraisals Affect Doing/Allowing Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Fiery; Knobe, Joshua; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2008-01-01

    An extensive body of research suggests that the distinction between doing and allowing plays a critical role in shaping moral appraisals. Here, we report evidence from a pair of experiments suggesting that the converse is also true: moral appraisals affect doing/allowing judgments. Specifically, morally bad behavior is more likely to be construed…

  12. 4 CFR 5.6 - Allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowances. 5.6 Section 5.6 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.6 Allowances. The provisions of chapter 59 of title 5, U.S. Code and the implementing regulations for the Executive Branch apply to Government...

  13. 28 CFR 100.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 100.11 Section 100.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.11 Allowable costs. (a) Costs that are eligible...

  14. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22... Administration § 66.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  15. 45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1174.22 Section 1174.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  16. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 92.22 Section 92.22 Public... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be...

  17. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 92.22 Section 92.22 Public... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be...

  18. 30 CFR 735.24 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 735.24 Section 735.24 Mineral... AND ENFORCEMENT § 735.24 Allowable costs. The Director or his authorized designee shall determine costs which may be reimbursed according to Office of Management and Budget Circular No. A-87....

  19. 20 CFR 633.303 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated below, direct and indirect costs shall be charged in accordance with 41 CFR part 29-70... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 633.303 Section 633.303... FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Program Design and Administrative Procedures § 633.303 Allowable costs. (a) General....

  20. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs specified... and other Part B supplier services furnished under arrangements is an allowable cost to the extent it... reasonable if they— (A) Do not exceed those that a prudent and cost-conscious buyer would incur to...

  1. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food... EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory... registered manufacturer shall be allowed as a part of the quota an amount sufficient to maintain an...

  2. 21 CFR 1303.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1303.24 Section 1303.24 Food... Quotas § 1303.24 Inventory allowance. (a) For the purpose of determining individual manufacturing quotas... sufficient to maintain an inventory equal to, (1) For current manufacturers, 50 percent of his...

  3. 7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. Program Management ... at 2 CFR part 225. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in... at 2 CFR part 230. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education...

  4. 7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. Program Management ... at 2 CFR part 225. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in... at 2 CFR part 230. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education...

  5. 7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. Program Management ... at 2 CFR part 225. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in... at 2 CFR part 230. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education...

  6. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OMB Circular A-122 is determined in accordance with the for-profit costs principles in 48 CFR part 31 in the Federal Acquisition Regulation, except that patent prosecution costs are not allowable unless... Organizations.” (iii) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part...

  7. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OMB Circular A-122 is determined in accordance with the for-profit costs principles in 48 CFR part 31 in the Federal Acquisition Regulation, except that patent prosecution costs are not allowable unless... Organizations.” (iii) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part...

  8. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OMB Circular A-122 is determined in accordance with the for-profit costs principles in 48 CFR part 31 in the Federal Acquisition Regulation, except that patent prosecution costs are not allowable unless... Organizations.” (iii) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part...

  9. Role of resistant starch in improving gut health, adiposity, and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Michael J; Zhou, June; Hegsted, Maren; Pelkman, Christine; Durham, Holiday A; Coulon, Diana B; Martin, Roy J

    2015-03-01

    The realization that low-glycemic index diets were formulated using resistant starch led to more than a decade of research on the health effects of resistant starch. Determination of the metabolizable energy of the resistant starch product allowed for the performance of isocaloric studies. Fermentation of resistant starch in rodent studies results in what appears to be a healthier gut, demonstrated by increased amounts of short-chain fatty acids, an apparent positive change in the microbiota, and increased gene expression for gene products involved in normal healthy proliferation and apoptosis of potential cancer cells. Additionally, consumption of resistant starch was associated with reduced abdominal fat and improved insulin sensitivity. Increased serum glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) likely plays a role in promoting these health benefits. One rodent study that did not use isocaloric diets demonstrated that the use of resistant starch at 8% of the weight of the diet reduced body fat. This appears to be approximately equivalent to the human fiber requirement. In human subjects, insulin sensitivity is increased with the feeding of resistant starch. However, only 1 of several studies reports an increase in serum GLP-1 associated with resistant starch added to the diet. This means that other mechanisms, such as increased intestinal gluconeogenesis or increased adiponectin, may be involved in the promotion of improved insulin sensitivity. Future research may confirm that there will be improved health if human individuals consume the requirement for dietary fiber and a large amount of the fiber is fermentable. PMID:25770258

  10. Role of Resistant Starch in Improving Gut Health, Adiposity, and Insulin Resistance1234

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Michael J; Zhou, June; Hegsted, Maren; Pelkman, Christine; Durham, Holiday A; Coulon, Diana B; Martin, Roy J

    2015-01-01

    The realization that low–glycemic index diets were formulated using resistant starch led to more than a decade of research on the health effects of resistant starch. Determination of the metabolizable energy of the resistant starch product allowed for the performance of isocaloric studies. Fermentation of resistant starch in rodent studies results in what appears to be a healthier gut, demonstrated by increased amounts of short-chain fatty acids, an apparent positive change in the microbiota, and increased gene expression for gene products involved in normal healthy proliferation and apoptosis of potential cancer cells. Additionally, consumption of resistant starch was associated with reduced abdominal fat and improved insulin sensitivity. Increased serum glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) likely plays a role in promoting these health benefits. One rodent study that did not use isocaloric diets demonstrated that the use of resistant starch at 8% of the weight of the diet reduced body fat. This appears to be approximately equivalent to the human fiber requirement. In human subjects, insulin sensitivity is increased with the feeding of resistant starch. However, only 1 of several studies reports an increase in serum GLP-1 associated with resistant starch added to the diet. This means that other mechanisms, such as increased intestinal gluconeogenesis or increased adiponectin, may be involved in the promotion of improved insulin sensitivity. Future research may confirm that there will be improved health if human individuals consume the requirement for dietary fiber and a large amount of the fiber is fermentable. PMID:25770258

  11. Family Allowances and Fertility: Socioeconomic Differences

    PubMed Central

    SCHELLEKENS, JONA

    2009-01-01

    This article explores socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances on fertility. Although several studies have examined the relationship between cash benefits and fertility, few studies have addressed the possible differential effects of cash benefits on families of different income or education levels. I reconstructed the birth histories of women in the past two Israeli censuses of 1983 and 1995 to study socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances up to the seventh parity. The results indicate that family allowances have a significant effect at every parity. Using female education as an indicator of socioeconomic status, I find that socioeconomic status is a significant modifier of the effect of family allowances. Family allowances seem to have a relatively large impact on more-educated women. PMID:19771939

  12. Dual disease resistance mediated by the immune receptor Cf-2 in tomato requires a common virulence target of a fungus and a nematode.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Torres, Jose L; Wilbers, Ruud H P; Gawronski, Piotr; Boshoven, Jordi C; Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Cordewener, Jan H G; America, Antoine H P; Overmars, Hein A; Van 't Klooster, John W; Baranowski, Lukasz; Sobczak, Miroslaw; Ilyas, Muhammad; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Schots, Arjen; de Wit, Pierre J G M; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska; Smant, Geert

    2012-06-19

    Plants lack the seemingly unlimited receptor diversity of a somatic adaptive immune system as found in vertebrates and rely on only a relatively small set of innate immune receptors to resist a myriad of pathogens. Here, we show that disease-resistant tomato plants use an efficient mechanism to leverage the limited nonself recognition capacity of their innate immune system. We found that the extracellular plant immune receptor protein Cf-2 of the red currant tomato (Solanum pimpinellifolium) has acquired dual resistance specificity by sensing perturbations in a common virulence target of two independently evolved effectors of a fungus and a nematode. The Cf-2 protein, originally identified as a monospecific immune receptor for the leaf mold fungus Cladosporium fulvum, also mediates disease resistance to the root parasitic nematode Globodera rostochiensis pathotype Ro1-Mierenbos. The Cf-2-mediated dual resistance is triggered by effector-induced perturbations of the apoplastic Rcr3(pim) protein of S. pimpinellifolium. Binding of the venom allergen-like effector protein Gr-VAP1 of G. rostochiensis to Rcr3(pim) perturbs the active site of this papain-like cysteine protease. In the absence of the Cf-2 receptor, Rcr3(pim) increases the susceptibility of tomato plants to G. rostochiensis, thus showing its role as a virulence target of these nematodes. Furthermore, both nematode infection and transient expression of Gr-VAP1 in tomato plants harboring Cf-2 and Rcr3(pim) trigger a defense-related programmed cell death in plant cells. Our data demonstrate that monitoring host proteins targeted by multiple pathogens broadens the spectrum of disease resistances mediated by single plant immune receptors. PMID:22675118

  13. Adaptation of Trypanosoma rhodesiense to hypohaptoglobinaemic serum requires transcription of the APOL1 resistance gene in a RNA polymerase I locus.

    PubMed

    Lecordier, Laurence; Uzureau, Pierrick; Tebabi, Patricia; Brauner, Jonathan; Benghiat, Fleur Samantha; Vanhollebeke, Benoit; Pays, Etienne

    2015-08-01

    Human apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) kills African trypanosomes except Trypanosoma rhodesiense and Trypanosoma gambiense, the parasites causing sleeping sickness. APOL1 uptake into trypanosomes is favoured by its association with the haptoglobin-related protein-haemoglobin complex, which binds to the parasite surface receptor for haptoglobin-haemoglobin. As haptoglobin-haemoglobin can saturate the receptor, APOL1 uptake is increased in haptoglobin-poor (hypohaptoglobinaemic) serum (HyHS). While T. rhodesiense resists APOL1 by RNA polymerase I (pol-I)-mediated expression of the serum resistance-associated (SRA) protein, T. gambiense resists by pol-II-mediated expression of the T. gambiense-specific glycoprotein (TgsGP). Moreover, in T. gambiense resistance to HyHS is linked to haptoglobin-haemoglobin receptor inactivation by mutation. We report that unlike T. gambiense, T. rhodesiense possesses a functional haptoglobin-haemoglobin receptor, and that like T. gambiense experimentally provided with active receptor, this parasite is killed in HyHS because of receptor-mediated APOL1 uptake. However, T. rhodesiense could adapt to low haptoglobin by increasing transcription of SRA. When assayed in Trypanosoma brucei, resistance to HyHS occurred with pol-I-, but not with pol-II-mediated SRA expression. Similarly, T. gambiense provided with active receptor acquired resistance to HyHS only when TgsGP was moved to a pol-I locus. Thus, transcription by pol-I favours adaptive gene regulation, explaining the presence of SRA in a pol-I locus. PMID:25899052

  14. EmrA1 Membrane Fusion Protein of Francisella tularensis LVS is required for Resistance to Oxidative Stress, Intramacrophage Survival and Virulence in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhuo; Banik, Sukalyani; Rane, Harshita; Mora, Vanessa T.; Rabadi, Seham M.; Doyle, Christopher R.; Thanassi, David G.; Bakshi, Chandra Shekhar; Malik, Meenakshi

    2014-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a Category A Biodefense agent that causes a fatal human disease known as tularemia. The pathogenicity of F. tularensis depends on its ability to persist inside host immune cells primarily by resisting an attack from host-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Based on the ability of F. tularensis to resist high ROS/RNS levels, we have hypothesized that additional unknown factors act in conjunction with known antioxidant defenses to render ROS resistance. By screening a transposon insertion library of F. tularensis LVS in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, we have identified an oxidant sensitive mutant in putative EmrA1 (FTL_0687) secretion protein. The results demonstrate that the emrA1 mutant is highly sensitive to oxidants and several antimicrobial agents, and exhibits diminished intramacrophage growth that can be restored to wild type F. tularensis LVS levels either by transcomplementation, inhibition of ROS generation, or infection in NADPH oxidase deficient (gp91Phox−/−) macrophages. The emrA1 mutant is attenuated for virulence, which is restored by infection in gp91Phox−/− mice. Further, EmrA1 contributes to oxidative stress resistance by affecting secretion of Francisella antioxidant enzymes SodB and KatG. This study exposes unique links between transporter activity and the antioxidant defense mechanisms of F. tularensis. PMID:24397487

  15. NDR1, a locus of Arabidopsis thaliana that is required for disease resistance to both a bacterial and a fungal pathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Century, K S; Holub, E B; Staskawicz, B J

    1995-01-01

    We have employed Arabidopsis thaliana as a model host plant to genetically dissect the molecular pathways leading to disease resistance. A. thaliana accession Col-0 is susceptible to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 but resistant in a race-specific manner to DC3000 carrying any one of the cloned avirulence genes avrB, avrRpm1, avrRpt2, and avrPph3. Fast-neutron-mutagenized Col-0 M2 seed was screened to identify mutants susceptible to DC3000(avrB). Disease assays and analysis of in planta bacterial growth identified one mutant, ndr1-1 (nonrace-specific disease resistance), that was susceptible to DC3000 expressing any one of the four avirulence genes tested. Interestingly, a hypersensitive-like response was still induced by several of the strains. The ndr1-1 mutation also rendered the plant susceptible to several avirulent isolates of the fungal pathogen Peronospora parasitica. Genetic analysis of ndr1-1 demonstrated that the mutation segregated as a single recessive locus, located on chromosome III. Characterization of the ndr1-1 mutation suggests that a common step exists in pathways of resistance to two unrelated pathogens. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11607554

  16. Proteolysis of the barley receptor-like protein kinase Rpg1 by a proteasome pathway is required for Rpg1 mediated stem rust resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In plants, disease resistance mediated by the gene-for-gene mechanism involves the recognition of specific effector molecules produced by the pathogen either directly or indirectly by the R-gene products. This recognition triggers a series of signals thereby serving as a molecular switch in regulati...

  17. Pseudomonas lini Strain ZBG1 Revealed Carboxylic Acid Utilization and Copper Resistance Features Required for Adaptation to Vineyard Soil Environment: A Draft Genome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Chong, Teik-Min; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Kher, Heng Leong; Grandclément, Catherine; Faure, Denis; Yin, Wai-Fong; Dessaux, Yves; Hong, Kar-Wai

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas lini strain ZBG1 was isolated from the soil of vineyard in Zellenberg, France and the draft genome was reported in this study. Bioinformatics analyses of the genome revealed presence of genes encoding tartaric and malic acid utilization as well as copper resistance that correspond to the adaptation this strain in vineyard soil environment. PMID:27512520

  18. 30 CFR 1220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OIL AND GAS LEASES § 1220.012 Overhead allowance. (a) During the capital recovery period the overhead... under § 1220.011(c) that are salvaged, returned, or used for the benefit of non-NPSL operations....

  19. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees...

  20. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees...

  1. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees...

  2. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees...

  3. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees...

  4. 15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 24.22 Section 24.22... Administration § 24.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  5. 15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable costs. 24.22 Section 24.22... Administration § 24.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  6. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Issatchenkia orientalis GPI-Anchored Protein, IoGas1, Required for Resistance to Low pH and Salt Stress.

    PubMed

    Matsushika, Akinori; Negi, Kanako; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Goshima, Tetsuya; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2016-01-01

    The use of yeasts tolerant to acid (low pH) and salt stress is of industrial importance for several bioproduction processes. To identify new candidate genes having potential roles in low-pH tolerance, we screened an expression genomic DNA library of a multiple-stress-tolerant yeast, Issatchenkia orientalis (Pichia kudriavzevii), for clones that allowed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to grow under highly acidic conditions (pH 2.0). A genomic DNA clone containing two putative open reading frames was obtained, of which the putative protein-coding gene comprising 1629 bp was retransformed into the host. This transformant grew significantly at pH 2.0, and at pH 2.5 in the presence of 7.5% Na2SO4. The predicted amino acid sequence of this new gene, named I. orientalis GAS1 (IoGAS1), was 60% identical to the S. cerevisiae Gas1 protein, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein essential for maintaining cell wall integrity, and 58-59% identical to Candida albicans Phr1 and Phr2, pH-responsive proteins implicated in cell wall assembly and virulence. Northern hybridization analyses indicated that, as for the C. albicans homologs, IoGAS1 expression was pH-dependent, with expression increasing with decreasing pH (from 4.0 to 2.0) of the medium. These results suggest that IoGAS1 represents a novel pH-regulated system required for the adaptation of I. orientalis to environments of diverse pH. Heterologous expression of IoGAS1 complemented the growth and morphological defects of a S. cerevisiae gas1Δ mutant, demonstrating that IoGAS1 and the corresponding S. cerevisiae gene play similar roles in cell wall biosynthesis. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that two conserved glutamate residues (E161 and E262) in the IoGas1 protein play a crucial role in yeast morphogenesis and tolerance to low pH and salt stress. Furthermore, overexpression of IoGAS1 in S. cerevisiae remarkably improved the ethanol fermentation ability at pH 2.5, and at pH 2.0 in the presence of

  7. The WRKY45-2 WRKY13 WRKY42 Transcriptional Regulatory Cascade Is Required for Rice Resistance to Fungal Pathogen1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hongtao; Liu, Hongbo; Deng, Yong; Xiao, Jinghua; Li, Xianghua; Wang, Shiping

    2015-01-01

    Blast caused by fungal Magnaporthe oryzae is a devastating disease of rice (Oryza sativa) worldwide, and this fungus also infects barley (Hordeum vulgare). At least 11 rice WRKY transcription factors have been reported to regulate rice response to M. oryzae either positively or negatively. However, the relationships of these WRKYs in the rice defense signaling pathway against M. oryzae are unknown. Previous studies have revealed that rice WRKY13 (as a transcriptional repressor) and WRKY45-2 enhance resistance to M. oryzae. Here, we show that rice WRKY42, functioning as a transcriptional repressor, suppresses resistance to M. oryzae. WRKY42-RNA interference (RNAi) and WRKY42-overexpressing (oe) plants showed increased resistance and susceptibility to M. oryzae, accompanied by increased or reduced jasmonic acid (JA) content, respectively, compared with wild-type plants. JA pretreatment enhanced the resistance of WRKY42-oe plants to M. oryzae. WRKY13 directly suppressed WRKY42. WRKY45-2, functioning as a transcriptional activator, directly activated WRKY13. In addition, WRKY13 directly suppressed WRKY45-2 by feedback regulation. The WRKY13-RNAi WRKY45-2-oe and WRKY13-oe WRKY42-oe double transgenic lines showed increased susceptibility to M. oryzae compared with WRKY45-2-oe and WRKY13-oe plants, respectively. These results suggest that the three WRKYs form a sequential transcriptional regulatory cascade. WRKY42 may negatively regulate rice response to M. oryzae by suppressing JA signaling-related genes, and WRKY45-2 transcriptionally activates WRKY13, whose encoding protein in turn transcriptionally suppresses WRKY42 to regulate rice resistance to M. oryzae. PMID:25624395

  8. Regulatory treatment of allowances and compliance costs

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.

    1993-07-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) established a national emission allowance trading system, a market-based form of environmental regulation designed to reduce and limit sulfur dioxide emissions. However, the allowance trading system is being applied primarily to an economically regulated electric utility industry. The combining of the new form of environmental regulation and economic regulation of electric utilities has raised a number of questions including what the role should be of the federal and state utility regulating commissions and how those actions will affect the decision making process of the utilities and the allowance market. There are several dimensions to the regulatory problems that commissions face. Allowances and utility compliance expenditures have implications for least-cost/IPR (integrated resource planning), prudence review procedures, holding company and multistate utility regulation and ratemaking treatment. The focus of this paper is on the ratemaking treatment. The following topics are covered: ratemaking treatment of allowances and compliance costs; Traditional cost-recovery mechanisms; limitations to the traditional approach; traditional approach and the allowance trading market; market-based cost recovery mechanisms; methods of determining the benchmark; determining the split between ratepayers and the utility; other regulatory approaches; limitations of incentive mechanisms.

  9. 7 CFR 3560.205 - Rent and utility allowance changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... a fully documented request to the Agency to effect any rent or utility allowance change. (1... change requests in conjunction with the annual budget submission as required under § 3560.303(d). The... the start of the season for seasonally occupied farm labor housing. However, the Agency will...

  10. 7 CFR 3560.205 - Rent and utility allowance changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... a fully documented request to the Agency to effect any rent or utility allowance change. (1... change requests in conjunction with the annual budget submission as required under § 3560.303(d). The... the start of the season for seasonally occupied farm labor housing. However, the Agency will...

  11. 7 CFR 3560.205 - Rent and utility allowance changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... a fully documented request to the Agency to effect any rent or utility allowance change. (1... change requests in conjunction with the annual budget submission as required under § 3560.303(d). The... the start of the season for seasonally occupied farm labor housing. However, the Agency will...

  12. 7 CFR 3560.205 - Rent and utility allowance changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... a fully documented request to the Agency to effect any rent or utility allowance change. (1... change requests in conjunction with the annual budget submission as required under § 3560.303(d). The... the start of the season for seasonally occupied farm labor housing. However, the Agency will...

  13. 7 CFR 3560.205 - Rent and utility allowance changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a fully documented request to the Agency to effect any rent or utility allowance change. (1... change requests in conjunction with the annual budget submission as required under § 3560.303(d). The... the start of the season for seasonally occupied farm labor housing. However, the Agency will...

  14. 76 FR 14282 - U.S. Paralympics Monthly Assistance Allowance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... published a proposed rule in the Federal Register (75 FR 54069). We proposed to add a new 38 CFR part 76 to... Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document establishes Department of Veterans Affairs (VA.... The rule requires submission of an application to establish eligibility for the allowance...

  15. 34 CFR 645.40 - What are allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... What are allowable costs? The cost principles that apply to the Upward Bound Program are in 34 CFR 74... supplies needed for project administration and recordkeeping. (p) Fees required for college admissions... to a project participant while participating in a project activity; and (2) Medical insurance...

  16. 48 CFR 31.201-2 - Determining allowability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... principles in this subpart are mandatory unless the contract is CAS-covered (see 48 CFR 9903). Business units... the following requirements: (1) Reasonableness. (2) Allocability. (3) Standards promulgated by the CAS... selected CAS and limit the allowability of costs to the amounts determined using the criteria in...

  17. 48 CFR 31.201-2 - Determining allowability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... principles in this subpart are mandatory unless the contract is CAS-covered (see 48 CFR 9903). Business units... the following requirements: (1) Reasonableness. (2) Allocability. (3) Standards promulgated by the CAS... selected CAS and limit the allowability of costs to the amounts determined using the criteria in...

  18. 48 CFR 31.201-2 - Determining allowability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... principles in this subpart are mandatory unless the contract is CAS-covered (see 48 CFR 9903). Business units... the following requirements: (1) Reasonableness. (2) Allocability. (3) Standards promulgated by the CAS... selected CAS and limit the allowability of costs to the amounts determined using the criteria in...

  19. 46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrosion allowance. 54.25-5 Section 54.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS... must be as required in 46 CFR 54.01-35....

  20. 46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Corrosion allowance. 54.25-5 Section 54.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS... must be as required in 46 CFR 54.01-35....

  1. 49 CFR 325.7 - Allowable noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... is based on motor carrier noise emission requirements specified in 40 CFR 202.20 and 40 CFR 202.21. ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable noise levels. 325.7 Section 325.7... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER...

  2. 40 CFR 280.33 - Repairs allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST... Practice for the Interior Lining of Existing Steel Underground Storage Tanks”; and National Leak...

  3. 40 CFR 280.33 - Repairs allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST... Practice for the Interior Lining of Existing Steel Underground Storage Tanks”; and National Leak...

  4. 40 CFR 280.33 - Repairs allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST... Practice for the Interior Lining of Existing Steel Underground Storage Tanks”; and National Leak...

  5. 40 CFR 280.33 - Repairs allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST... Practice for the Interior Lining of Existing Steel Underground Storage Tanks”; and National Leak...

  6. 40 CFR 280.33 - Repairs allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST... Practice for the Interior Lining of Existing Steel Underground Storage Tanks”; and National Leak...

  7. 40 CFR 258.74 - Allowable mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste management facilities under this part 258, cost estimates required for UIC facilities under 40 CFR... under 40 CFR part 280, if applicable, cost estimates required for PCB storage facilities under 40 CFR... disposal facilities under 40 CFR parts 264 and 265, if applicable; and (2) Provides evidence...

  8. 40 CFR 258.74 - Allowable mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste management facilities under this part 258, cost estimates required for UIC facilities under 40 CFR... under 40 CFR part 280, if applicable, cost estimates required for PCB storage facilities under 40 CFR... disposal facilities under 40 CFR parts 264 and 265, if applicable; and (2) Provides evidence...

  9. Protein Requirements during Aging.

    PubMed

    Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B; Elango, Rajavel

    2016-01-01

    Protein recommendations for elderly, both men and women, are based on nitrogen balance studies. They are set at 0.66 and 0.8 g/kg/day as the estimated average requirement (EAR) and recommended dietary allowance (RDA), respectively, similar to young adults. This recommendation is based on single linear regression of available nitrogen balance data obtained at test protein intakes close to or below zero balance. Using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method, we estimated the protein requirement in young adults and in both elderly men and women to be 0.9 and 1.2 g/kg/day as the EAR and RDA, respectively. This suggests that there is no difference in requirement on a gender basis or on a per kg body weight basis between younger and older adults. The requirement estimates however are ~40% higher than the current protein recommendations on a body weight basis. They are also 40% higher than our estimates in young men when calculated on the basis of fat free mass. Thus, current recommendations may need to be re-assessed. Potential rationale for this difference includes a decreased sensitivity to dietary amino acids and increased insulin resistance in the elderly compared with younger individuals. PMID:27529275

  10. Protein Requirements during Aging

    PubMed Central

    Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Ball, Ronald O.; Pencharz, Paul B.; Elango, Rajavel

    2016-01-01

    Protein recommendations for elderly, both men and women, are based on nitrogen balance studies. They are set at 0.66 and 0.8 g/kg/day as the estimated average requirement (EAR) and recommended dietary allowance (RDA), respectively, similar to young adults. This recommendation is based on single linear regression of available nitrogen balance data obtained at test protein intakes close to or below zero balance. Using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method, we estimated the protein requirement in young adults and in both elderly men and women to be 0.9 and 1.2 g/kg/day as the EAR and RDA, respectively. This suggests that there is no difference in requirement on a gender basis or on a per kg body weight basis between younger and older adults. The requirement estimates however are ~40% higher than the current protein recommendations on a body weight basis. They are also 40% higher than our estimates in young men when calculated on the basis of fat free mass. Thus, current recommendations may need to be re-assessed. Potential rationale for this difference includes a decreased sensitivity to dietary amino acids and increased insulin resistance in the elderly compared with younger individuals. PMID:27529275

  11. 44 CFR 11.73 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable claims. 11.73 Section 11.73 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... request of, or with the knowledge and consent of, superior authority or by reason of necessity. (8)...

  12. 44 CFR 11.73 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable claims. 11.73 Section 11.73 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... request of, or with the knowledge and consent of, superior authority or by reason of necessity. (8)...

  13. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  14. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  15. 30 CFR 220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 220.012 Section 220.012 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING NET PROFIT SHARE PAYMENT FOR OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF OIL AND GAS...

  16. 30 CFR 1220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 1220.012 Section 1220.012 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING NET PROFIT SHARE PAYMENT FOR OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF OIL...

  17. 29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... service with the Department and: (l) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent... the other provisions of this subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss, of personal property incident... authorized places. Claims may be allowable for damage to, or loss of, property arising from fire,...

  18. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2543.27 Section 2543.27...

  19. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section...

  20. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  1. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  2. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  3. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  4. 42 CFR 405.2468 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 405.2468 Section 405.2468 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Rural Health Clinic and Federally Qualified Health Center Services Payment for Rural...

  5. 78 FR 32629 - Post Allowance and Refiling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Post Allowance and Refiling ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing... States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking...

  6. 15 CFR 921.81 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 921.81 Section 921.81 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE...

  7. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR Part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR Part 31. ... Management § 1210.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  8. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 13.22 Section 13.22 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  9. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Consistent with Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circulars A-21, A-87, A-102 and A-110 (2 CFR part 215... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  10. 7 CFR 3019.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... Management § 3019.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  11. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Educational institution OMB Circular A-21. Hospital Appendix E to 45 CFR part 74. Commercial for-profit organization other than a hospital and an educational institution 48 CFR part 31 Contract Cost Principles and... and Program Management § 74.27 Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a set of...

  12. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section 79.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of...

  13. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section 79.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of...

  14. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 13.22 Section 13.22 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  15. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Consistent with Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circulars A-21, A-87, A-102 and A-110 (2 CFR part 215... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  16. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR Part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR Part 31. ... Management § 1210.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  17. 22 CFR 518.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... Financial and Program Management § 518.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set...

  18. 22 CFR 518.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... Financial and Program Management § 518.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set...

  19. 7 CFR 3019.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... Management § 3019.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  20. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. In addition... costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost principles applicable...