Science.gov

Sample records for allowable stress design

  1. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  2. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  3. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  4. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  5. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  6. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  7. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  8. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  9. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-522). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may...

  10. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  11. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  12. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-ENG). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may...

  13. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-ENG). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may...

  14. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-ENG). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may...

  15. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  16. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  17. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  18. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  19. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  20. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  1. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  2. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  3. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  4. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  5. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  6. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  7. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  8. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  9. 46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or less of the minimum yield stress of the framework...

  10. 46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or less of the minimum yield stress of the framework...

  11. 46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or less of the minimum yield stress of the framework...

  12. 46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or less of the minimum yield stress of the framework...

  13. 46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or less of the minimum yield stress of the framework...

  14. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the ultimate tensile strength of its material. (b) Safety factor. When it is necessary to use the code of original..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and...

  15. Test methods and design allowables for fibrous composites. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Topics discussed include extreme/hostile environment testing, establishing design allowables, and property/behavior specific testing. Papers are presented on environmental effects on the high strain rate properties of graphite/epoxy composite, the low-temperature performance of short-fiber reinforced thermoplastics, the abrasive wear behavior of unidirectional and woven graphite fiber/PEEK, test methods for determining design allowables for fiber reinforced composites, and statistical methods for calculating material allowables for MIL-HDBK-17. Attention is also given to a test method to measure the response of composite materials under reversed cyclic loads, a through-the-thickness strength specimen for composites, the use of torsion tubes to measure in-plane shear properties of filament-wound composites, the influlence of test fixture design on the Iosipescu shear test for fiber composite materials, and a method for monitoring in-plane shear modulus in fatigue testing of composites.

  16. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for...

  17. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for...

  18. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for...

  19. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for...

  20. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for...

  1. Brazed Joints Design and Allowables: Discuss Margins of Safety in Critical Brazed Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    FLom, Yury

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation tutorial discusses margins of safety in critical brazed structures. It reviews: (1) the present situation (2) definition of strength (3) margins of safety (4) design allowables (5) mechanical testing (6) failure criteria (7) design flowchart (8) braze gap (9) residual stresses and (10) delayed failures. This presentation addresses the strength of the brazed joints, the methods of mechanical testing, and our ability to evaluate the margins of safety of the brazed joints as it applies to the design of critical and expensive brazed assemblies.

  2. A Review & Assessment of Current Operating Conditions Allowable Stresses in ASME Section III Subsection NH

    SciTech Connect

    R. W. Swindeman

    2009-12-14

    The current operating condition allowable stresses provided in ASME Section III, Subsection NH were reviewed for consistency with the criteria used to establish the stress allowables and with the allowable stresses provided in ASME Section II, Part D. It was found that the S{sub o} values in ASME III-NH were consistent with the S values in ASME IID for the five materials of interest. However, it was found that 0.80 S{sub r} was less than S{sub o} for some temperatures for four of the materials. Only values for alloy 800H appeared to be consistent with the criteria on which S{sub o} values are established. With the intent of undertaking a more detailed evaluation of issues related to the allowable stresses in ASME III-NH, the availabilities of databases for the five materials were reviewed and augmented databases were assembled.

  3. Determination of design allowable strength properties of elevated-temperature alloys. Part 1: Coated columbium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Favor, R. J.; Maykuth, D. J.; Bartlett, E. S.; Mindlin, H.

    1972-01-01

    A program to determine the characteristics of two coated columbium alloy systems for spacecraft structures is discussed. The alloy was evaluated as coated base material, coated butt-welded material, and material thermal/pressure cycled prior to testing up to 30 cycles. Evaluation was by means of tensile tests covering the temperature range to 2400 F. Design allowables were computed and are presented as tables of data. The summary includes a room temperature property table, effect of temperature curves, and typical stress-strain curves.

  4. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... round, rectangular, or gusset braces shall be 9,000 psi. Strength of Materials ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS... maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  5. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... round, rectangular, or gusset braces shall be 9,000 psi. Strength of Materials ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS... maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  6. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... round, rectangular, or gusset braces shall be 9,000 psi. Strength of Materials ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS... maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  7. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... round, rectangular, or gusset braces shall be 9,000 psi. Strength of Materials ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS... maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  8. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... round, rectangular, or gusset braces shall be 9,000 psi. Strength of Materials ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS... maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  9. Test methods and design allowables for fibrous composites; Proceedings of the Symposium, Dearborn, MI, October 2, 3, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1981-01-01

    Papers are presented on special test methods for fibrous composites for quantifying design material properties. Studies are divided into four major areas: (1) new and special test methods, including those for transverse tensile strength, shear modulus, longitudinal compression, and impact resistance; (2) special test methods and analysis, including off-axes and angle-plied tension and compression, fracture and fatigue, and biaxial stress states; (3) design allowables, describing procedures for setting and selecting design allowables in general, and also for composite aircraft structures, graphite/polyimide bolted joints, cost-effective mechanical property characterization, statistical considerations, intraply hybrids, and compression and fatigue; (4) design allowables for special applications, describing procedures for buckling of cylindrical components, proof load of pressure vessels, strength of composite joints, and environmental effects and creep. The papers provide considerable information for test methods and for composite analysis of these methods, as well as tests and procedures for establishing design allowables.

  10. Stress constraints in optimality criteria design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures described emphasize the processing of stress constraints within optimality criteria designs for low structural weight with stress and compliance constraints. Prescreening criteria are used to partition stress constraints into either potentially active primary sets or passive secondary sets that require minimal processing. Side constraint boundaries for passive constraints are derived by projections from design histories to modify conventional stress-ratio boundaries. Other procedures described apply partial structural modification reanalysis to design variable groups to correct stress constraint violations of unfeasible designs. Sample problem results show effective design convergence and, in particular, advantages for reanalysis in obtaining lower feasible design weights.

  11. 14 CFR 437.85 - Allowable design changes; modification of an experimental permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Conditions of an Experimental Permit § 437.85 Allowable design changes; modification of an experimental... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable design changes; modification of an experimental permit. 437.85 Section 437.85 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE...

  12. 14 CFR 437.85 - Allowable design changes; modification of an experimental permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Conditions of an Experimental Permit § 437.85 Allowable design changes; modification of an experimental... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable design changes; modification of an experimental permit. 437.85 Section 437.85 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE...

  13. Optimality criteria design and stress constraint processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for pre-screening stress constraints into either primary or side-constraint categories are reviewed; a projection method, which is developed from prior cycle stress resultant history, is introduced as an additional screening parameter. Stress resultant projections are also employed to modify the traditional stress-ratio, side-constraint boundary. A special application of structural modification reanalysis is applied to the critical stress constraints to provide feasible designs that are preferable to those obtained by conventional scaling. Sample problem executions show relatively short run times and fewer design cycle iterations to achieve low structural weights; those attained are comparable to the minimum values developed elsewhere.

  14. Optimality of a Fully Stressed Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1998-01-01

    For a truss a fully stressed state is reached and when all its members are utilized to their full strength capacity. Historically, engineers considered such a design optimum. But recently this optimality has been questioned, especially since the weight of the structure is not explicitly used in fully stressed design calculations. This paper examines optimality of the full stressed design (FSD) with analytical and graphical illustrations. Solutions for a set of examples obtained by using the FSD method and optimization methods numerically confirm the optimality of the FSD. The FSD, which can be obtained with a small amount of calculation, can be extended to displacement constraints and to nontruss-type structures.

  15. Stressing Design in Electronics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthbert, L. G.

    1976-01-01

    Advocates a strong emphasis on the teaching of the design of electronic circuits in undergraduate courses. An instructional paradigm involving the design and construction of a single-transistor amplifier is provided. (CP)

  16. Development of design allowables data for adhesives for attaching reusable surface insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, H. P.; Carroll, M. T.

    1972-01-01

    Results are presented from tests to establish design allowables data for the following room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) silicone rubber based adhesives: (1) General Electric's RTV-560; (2) Dow Corning's 93-046; and (3) Martin Marietta's SLA-561. These adhesives are being evaluated for attaching reusable surface insulation to space shuttle structure.

  17. Modifications to the Paterson triaxial rock deformation apparatus to allow combined stress testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, S.; Mecklenburgh, J.; Xiao, W. F.; Covey-Crump, S. J.; Rutter, E. H.

    2010-12-01

    Almost all rock deformation experiments are performed in pure shear (axial compression or extension) or simple shear (torsion). However, in general, natural deformation can be expected to occur under some combination of these end member loading geometries. One of the most widely used apparatus for deforming geological samples at elevated temperatures and confining pressures is the Paterson triaxial rock deformation apparatus which is now installed in several experimental rock deformation facilities worldwide. In basic design this apparatus has the capacity for deforming samples under simultaneously applied axial loads and torques but modifications are required to the way in which axial load and torque are measured during such experiments if the mechanical data acquired are to be meaningful. Two design complications in particular arise. Firstly, at present axial load and torque are measured by a single slotted elastic element which undergoes measurable (and hence able to be calibrated) elastic distortions in response to applied axial loads and torques. The use of a single element presents no difficulties if either axial loads or torques are applied but when they are applied together the torque leads to an apparent but not real axial load and vice versa. Secondly, in a torsion test it is important to be able to detect the point during twisting at which all the slack within the rig - needed to allow test assembly - has been taken up and initial torque is applied to the sample. In a pure torsion test this is achieved by having a gap between the axial ram (containing the load cell) and the sample assembly but when there is a simultaneously applied axial load this gap is closed and the resulting friction at this surface means that torque is transferred to the load cell from the onset of twisting. In this contribution we show how a low-friction thrust bearing assembly located between the axial ram and sample assembly can be used to provide a relatively easy and

  18. Space Shuttle Orbiter - Leading edge structural design/analysis and material allowables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. W.; Curry, D. M.; Kelly, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC), a structural composite whose development was targeted for the high temperature reentry environments of reusable space vehicles, has successfully demonstrated that capability on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Unique mechanical properties, particularly at elevated temperatures up to 3000 F, make this material ideally suited for the 'hot' regions of multimission space vehicles. Design allowable characterization testing, full-scale development and qualification testing, and structural analysis techniques will be presented herein that briefly chart the history of the RCC material from infancy to eventual multimission certification for the Orbiter. Included are discussions pertaining to the development of the design allowable data base, manipulation of the test data into usable forms, and the analytical verification process.

  19. The 'robust' capture-recapture design allows components of recruitment to be estimated

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollock, K.H.; Kendall, W.L.; Nichols, J.D.; Lebreton, J.-D.; North, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    The 'robust' capture-recapture design (Pollock 1982) allows analyses which combine features of closed population model analyses (Otis et aI., 1978, White et aI., 1982) and open population model analyses (Pollock et aI., 1990). Estimators obtained under these analyses are more robust to unequal catch ability than traditional Jolly-Seber estimators (Pollock, 1982; Pollock et al., 1990; Kendall, 1992). The robust design also allows estimation of parameters for population size, survival rate and recruitment numbers for all periods of the study unlike under Jolly-Seber type models. The major advantage of this design that we emphasize in this short review paper is that it allows separate estimation of immigration and in situ recruitment numbers for a two or more age class model (Nichols and Pollock, 1990). This is contrasted with the age-dependent Jolly-Seber model (Pollock, 1981; Stokes, 1984; Pollock et L, 1990) which provides separate estimates for immigration and in situ recruitment for all but the first two age classes where there is at least a three age class model. The ability to achieve this separation of recruitment components can be very important to population modelers and wildlife managers as many species can only be separated into two easily identified age classes in the field.

  20. Role of Probabilistic Micromechanics Modeling in Establishing Design Allowables in Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Brewer, David N.

    2005-01-01

    One of the major challenges in designing with any new material, and particularly with advanced composite materials, is the fidelity of material design allowables. In the case of composite materials, the concern arises from the inherent nature of these materials, i.e., their heterogeneous make-up and the various factors that affect their properties in a specific design environment. Composites have various scales - micro, macro, laminate and structural, as well as numerous other fabrication related parameters. Many advanced composites in aerospace applications involve complex two- and three-dimensional fiber architectures and requires high-temperature processing. Since there are uncertainties associated with each of these, the observed behavior of composite materials shows scatter. Evaluating the effect of each of these variables on the observed scatter in composite properties solely by teSting is cost and time prohibitive. One alternative is to evaluate these effects by computational simulation. The authors have developed probabilistic composite micromechanics techniques by combining woven composite micromechanics and Fast Probability Integration (FPI) techniques to address these issues. In this paper these techniques will be described and demonstrated through selected examples. Results in the form of cumulative distribution functions (CDF) of the composite properties of a MI (melt-infiltrated) SiC/SiC (silicon carbide fiber in a silicon carbide matrix) Composite will be presented. A CDF is a relationship defined by the value of the property (the response variable) with respect to the cumulative probability of occurrence. Furthermore, input variables causing scatter are identified and ranked based upon their sensitivity magnitude. Sensitivity information is very valuable in quality control. How these results can be utilized to develop design allowables so that these materials may be used by structural analysts/designers will also be discussed.

  1. Modulation of oxidative stress and subsequent induction of apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress allows citral to decrease cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, Arvinder; Felder, Mildred; Fass, Lucas; Kaur, Justanjot; Czarnecki, Austin; Rathi, Kavya; Zeng, San; Osowski, Kathryn Kalady; Howell, Colin; Xiong, May P.; Whelan, Rebecca J.; Patankar, Manish S.

    2016-01-01

    The monoterpenoid, citral, when delivered through PEG-b-PCL nanoparticles inhibits in vivo growth of 4T1 breast tumors. Here, we show that citral inhibits proliferation of multiple human cancer cell lines. In p53 expressing ECC-1 and OVCAR-3 but not in p53-deficient SKOV-3 cells, citral induces G1/S cell cycle arrest and apoptosis as determined by Annexin V staining and increased cleaved caspase3 and Bax and decreased Bcl-2. In SKOV-3 cells, citral induces the ER stress markers CHOP, GADD45, EDEM, ATF4, Hsp90, ATG5, and phospho-eIF2α. The molecular chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid attenuates citral activity in SKOV-3 but not in ECC-1 and OVCAR-3 cells. In p53-expressing cells, citral increases phosphorylation of serine-15 of p53. Activation of p53 increases Bax, PUMA, and NOXA expression. Inhibition of p53 by pifithrin-α, attenuates citral-mediated apoptosis. Citral increases intracellular oxygen radicals and this leads to activation of p53. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis by L-buthionine sulfoxamine increases potency of citral. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine decreases phosphorylation of p53 in citral-treated ECC-1 and OVCAR-3. These results define a p53-dependent, and in the absence of p53, ER stress-dependent mode of action of citral. This study indicates that citral in PEG-b-PCL nanoparticle formulation should be considered for treatment of breast and other tumors. PMID:27270209

  2. Modulation of oxidative stress and subsequent induction of apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress allows citral to decrease cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Arvinder; Felder, Mildred; Fass, Lucas; Kaur, Justanjot; Czarnecki, Austin; Rathi, Kavya; Zeng, San; Osowski, Kathryn Kalady; Howell, Colin; Xiong, May P; Whelan, Rebecca J; Patankar, Manish S

    2016-01-01

    The monoterpenoid, citral, when delivered through PEG-b-PCL nanoparticles inhibits in vivo growth of 4T1 breast tumors. Here, we show that citral inhibits proliferation of multiple human cancer cell lines. In p53 expressing ECC-1 and OVCAR-3 but not in p53-deficient SKOV-3 cells, citral induces G1/S cell cycle arrest and apoptosis as determined by Annexin V staining and increased cleaved caspase3 and Bax and decreased Bcl-2. In SKOV-3 cells, citral induces the ER stress markers CHOP, GADD45, EDEM, ATF4, Hsp90, ATG5, and phospho-eIF2α. The molecular chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid attenuates citral activity in SKOV-3 but not in ECC-1 and OVCAR-3 cells. In p53-expressing cells, citral increases phosphorylation of serine-15 of p53. Activation of p53 increases Bax, PUMA, and NOXA expression. Inhibition of p53 by pifithrin-α, attenuates citral-mediated apoptosis. Citral increases intracellular oxygen radicals and this leads to activation of p53. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis by L-buthionine sulfoxamine increases potency of citral. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine decreases phosphorylation of p53 in citral-treated ECC-1 and OVCAR-3. These results define a p53-dependent, and in the absence of p53, ER stress-dependent mode of action of citral. This study indicates that citral in PEG-b-PCL nanoparticle formulation should be considered for treatment of breast and other tumors. PMID:27270209

  3. Development of design allowable data for Celion 6000/LARC-160, graphite/polyimide composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehret, R. M.; Scanlan, P. R.; Rosen, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    A design allowables test program was conducted on Celion 6000/LARC-160 graphite polyimide composite to establish material performance over a 116 K (-250 F) to 589 K (600 F) temperature range. Tension, compression, in-plane shear and short beam shear properties were determined for uniaxial, quasi-isotropic and + or - 45 deg laminates. Effects of thermal aging and moisture saturation on mechanical properties were also evaluated. Celion 6000/LARC-160 graphite/polyimide can be considered an acceptable material system for structural applications to 589 K (600 F).

  4. Strength Allowables Determination and Failure Criteria Comparison for Design of Satellite Composite Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommatau, Gilles; Alabrebis, Yves

    2012-07-01

    Considering industrial approach, taking into account batch and process scattering, Thales Alenia Space developed a philosophy of composite part calculation, in agreement with ESA rules, which will be presented in the first part of the paper. As an example, the famous Tsai-Hill criterion is used for several years in Thales Alenia Space to describe composite first ply failure, which is considered as the design driver for many classical composite parts of satellite structures. Anyway, this criterion requires using ply-by-ply finite element models, which is quite costly in terms of time of model conception and calculation. In some cases in the past, an equivalent Von-Mises allowable have been used, but with lacks of overall examination of load cases, such as tension, compression and shear in the lay-up plane of composite, which is necessary to demonstrate that the approach was conservative enough. In the second part, this paper deals with a simple automatic tool, based on Excel calculation and Matlab visualisation in the 3D space of (σx, σy, τxy). The theoretical approach and associated hypothesis are presented, including classical examples already studied showing that the equivalent Von-Mises taken into account in the past is hopefully most of the time conservative. Interest of this tool will be examined, showing that for any stacking sequence and composite properties, it permits to have a quick access to: - Firstly, the equivalent Von-Mises allowable of the composite part, whatever the loads. - Secondly, the kind of load - in terms of splitting between σx, σy and τxy - which generates the minimum gap between Von-Mises and Tsai-Hill criteria, so that an analysis of real loads applied to the composite part can generate subsequent equivalent Von-Mises allowable increase. As a conclusion, a robust methodology to design composite parts is applied in Thales Alenia Space, with now an easy-to-use tool for optimization of equivalent Von-Mises allowable. This aims to be

  5. A robust design mark-resight abundance estimator allowing heterogeneity in resighting probabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClintock, B.T.; White, Gary C.; Burnham, K.P.

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces the beta-binomial estimator (BBE), a closed-population abundance mark-resight model combining the favorable qualities of maximum likelihood theory and the allowance of individual heterogeneity in sighting probability (p). The model may be parameterized for a robust sampling design consisting of multiple primary sampling occasions where closure need not be met between primary occasions. We applied the model to brown bear data from three study areas in Alaska and compared its performance to the joint hypergeometric estimator (JHE) and Bowden's estimator (BOWE). BBE estimates suggest heterogeneity levels were non-negligible and discourage the use of JHE for these data. Compared to JHE and BOWE, confidence intervals were considerably shorter for the AICc model-averaged BBE. To evaluate the properties of BBE relative to JHE and BOWE when sample sizes are small, simulations were performed with data from three primary occasions generated under both individual heterogeneity and temporal variation in p. All models remained consistent regardless of levels of variation in p. In terms of precision, the AICc model-averaged BBE showed advantages over JHE and BOWE when heterogeneity was present and mean sighting probabilities were similar between primary occasions. Based on the conditions examined, BBE is a reliable alternative to JHE or BOWE and provides a framework for further advances in mark-resight abundance estimation. ?? 2006 American Statistical Association and the International Biometric Society.

  6. Development of design allowables data for adhesives for attaching reusables surface insulation, addendum 1A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, H. P.; Carroll, M. T.

    1973-01-01

    The task consisted of conducting mechanical and thermal tests to establish design allowables data on a new room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) silicone adhesive, X3-6004. Low modulus, coupled with relatively low density and good low-temperature properties of this adhesive, places it in contention as a candidate for attaching reusable surface insulation on the space shuttle. Data obtained show that the modulus values of X3-6004 are significantly lower than those of RTV-560 and the other three adhesives characterized at test temperatures from 550 to -175 F. At -175, -200 and -270 F, the modulus of X3-6004 is approximately the same as GE RTV-560 and the other three silicone adhesives. The X3-6004 adhesive exhibits good processing properties. It has a 12 percent lower density than RTV-560. Although lower in overall strength properties as compared to the other adhesives in the program, X3-6004 has adequate adhesion to 2024T81 aluminum to compete as an adhesive for attaching reusable surface insulation. It does exhibit some tendency to revert and soften at temperatures above 350 F when in a confined area.

  7. Design analysis, robust methods, and stress classification

    SciTech Connect

    Bees, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    This special edition publication volume is comprised of papers presented at the 1993 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, July 25--29, 1993 in Denver, Colorado. The papers were prepared for presentations in technical sessions developed under the auspices of the PVPD Committees on Computer Technology, Design and Analysis, Operations Applications and Components. The topics included are: Analysis of Pressure Vessels and Components; Expansion Joints; Robust Methods; Stress Classification; and Non-Linear Analysis. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  8. Design Criteria for Controlling Stress Corrosion Cracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, D. B.

    1987-01-01

    This document sets forth the criteria to be used in the selection of materials for space vehicles and associated equipment and facilities so that failure resulting from stress corrosion will be prevented. The requirements established herein apply to all metallic components proposed for use in space vehicles and other flight hardware, ground support equipment, and facilities for testing. These requirements are applicable not only to items designed and fabricated by MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) and its prime contractors, but also to items supplied to the prime contractor by subcontractors and vendors.

  9. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional design requirements for steel pipe...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.112 Additional design requirements for steel pipe using... segment must meet the following additional design requirements. Records for alternative MAOP must...

  10. Verification of Allowable Stresses In ASME Section III Subsection NH For Grade 91 Steel & Alloy 800H

    SciTech Connect

    R. W. Swindeman; M. J. Swindeman; B. W. Roberts; B. E. Thurgood; D. L. Marriott

    2007-11-30

    The database for the creep-rupture of 9Cr-1Mo-V (Grade 91) steel was collected and reviewed to determine if it met the needs for recommending time-dependent strength values, S{sub t}, for coverage in ASME Section III Subsection NH (ASME III-NH) to 650 C (1200 F) and 600,000 hours. The accumulated database included over 300 tests for 1% total strain, nearly 400 tests for tertiary creep, and nearly 1700 tests to rupture. Procedures for analyzing creep and rupture data for ASME III-NH were reviewed and compared to the procedures used to develop the current allowable stress values for Gr 91 for ASME II-D. The criteria in ASME III-NH for estimating S{sub t} included the average strength for 1% total strain for times to 600,000 hours, 80% of the minimum strength for tertiary creep for times to 600,000 hours, and 67% of the minimum rupture strength values for times to 600,000 hours. Time-temperature-stress parametric formulations were selected to correlate the data and make predictions of the long-time strength. It was found that the stress corresponding to 1% total strain and the initiation of tertiary creep were not the controlling criteria over the temperature-time range of concern. It was found that small adjustments to the current values in III-NH could be introduced but that the existing values were conservative and could be retained. The existing database was found to be adequate to extend the coverage to 600,000 hours for temperatures below 650 C (1200 F).

  11. A General Ligand Design for Gold Catalysis allowing Ligand-Directed Anti Nucleophilic Attack of Alkynes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanzhao; Wang, Zhixun; Li, Yuxue; Wu, Gongde; Cao, Zheng; Zhang, Liming

    2014-01-01

    Most homogenous gold catalyses demand ≥0.5 mol % catalyst loading. Due to the high cost of gold, these reactions are unlikely to be applicable in medium or large scale applications. Here we disclose a novel ligand design based on the privileged biphenyl-2-phosphine framework that offers a potentially general approach to dramatically lowering catalyst loading. In this design, an amide group at the 3’ position of the ligand framework directs and promotes nucleophilic attack at the ligand gold complex-activated alkyne, which is unprecedented in homogeneous gold catalysis considering the spatial challenge of using ligand to reach antiapproaching nucleophile in a linear P-Au-alkyne centroid structure. With such a ligand, the gold(I) complex becomes highly efficient in catalyzing acid addition to alkynes, with a turnover number up to 99,000. Density functional theory calculations support the role of the amide moiety in directing the attack of carboxylic acid via hydrogen bonding. PMID:24704803

  12. Sleeping Beauty transposase structure allows rational design of hyperactive variants for genetic engineering

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Franka; Wiedemann, Lisa; Zuliani, Cecilia; Querques, Irma; Sebe, Attila; Mátés, Lajos; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Barabas, Orsolya

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping Beauty (SB) is a prominent Tc1/mariner superfamily DNA transposon that provides a popular genome engineering tool in a broad range of organisms. It is mobilized by a transposase enzyme that catalyses DNA cleavage and integration at short specific sequences at the transposon ends. To facilitate SB's applications, here we determine the crystal structure of the transposase catalytic domain and use it to model the SB transposase/transposon end/target DNA complex. Together with biochemical and cell-based transposition assays, our structure reveals mechanistic insights into SB transposition and rationalizes previous hyperactive transposase mutations. Moreover, our data enables us to design two additional hyperactive transposase variants. Our work provides a useful resource and proof-of-concept for structure-based engineering of tailored SB transposases. PMID:27025571

  13. Sleeping Beauty transposase structure allows rational design of hyperactive variants for genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Franka; Wiedemann, Lisa; Zuliani, Cecilia; Querques, Irma; Sebe, Attila; Mátés, Lajos; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Barabas, Orsolya

    2016-03-30

    Sleeping Beauty (SB) is a prominent Tc1/mariner superfamily DNA transposon that provides a popular genome engineering tool in a broad range of organisms. It is mobilized by a transposase enzyme that catalyses DNA cleavage and integration at short specific sequences at the transposon ends. To facilitate SB's applications, here we determine the crystal structure of the transposase catalytic domain and use it to model the SB transposase/transposon end/target DNA complex. Together with biochemical and cell-based transposition assays, our structure reveals mechanistic insights into SB transposition and rationalizes previous hyperactive transposase mutations. Moreover, our data enables us to design two additional hyperactive transposase variants. Our work provides a useful resource and proof-of-concept for structure-based engineering of tailored SB transposases.

  14. Sleeping Beauty transposase structure allows rational design of hyperactive variants for genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Franka; Wiedemann, Lisa; Zuliani, Cecilia; Querques, Irma; Sebe, Attila; Mátés, Lajos; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Barabas, Orsolya

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping Beauty (SB) is a prominent Tc1/mariner superfamily DNA transposon that provides a popular genome engineering tool in a broad range of organisms. It is mobilized by a transposase enzyme that catalyses DNA cleavage and integration at short specific sequences at the transposon ends. To facilitate SB's applications, here we determine the crystal structure of the transposase catalytic domain and use it to model the SB transposase/transposon end/target DNA complex. Together with biochemical and cell-based transposition assays, our structure reveals mechanistic insights into SB transposition and rationalizes previous hyperactive transposase mutations. Moreover, our data enables us to design two additional hyperactive transposase variants. Our work provides a useful resource and proof-of-concept for structure-based engineering of tailored SB transposases. PMID:27025571

  15. Specification of CuCrZr Alloy Properties after Various Thermo-Mechanical Treatments and Design Allowables including Neutron Irradiation Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, Vladimir; Kalinin, G. M.; Fabritsiev, Sergei A.; Zinkle, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation hardened CuCrZr alloy is a promising heat sink and functional material for various applica- tions in ITER, for example the first wall, blanket electrical attachment, divertor, and heating systems. Three types of thermo-mechanical treatment were identified as most promising for the various applica- tions in ITER: solution annealing, cold working and ageing; solution annealing and ageing; solution annealing and ageing at non-optimal condition due to specific manufacturing processes for engineer- ing-scale components. The available data for these three types of treatments were assessed and mini- mum tensile properties were determined based on recommendation of Structural Design Criteria for the ITER In-vessel Components. The available data for these heat treatments were analyzed for assess- ment of neutron irradiation effect. Using the definitions of the ITER Structural Design Criteria the design allowable stress intensity values are proposed for CuCrZr alloy after various heat treatments.

  16. Computational Design of the β-Sheet Surface of a Red Fluorescent Protein Allows Control of Protein Oligomerization

    PubMed Central

    Wannier, Timothy M.; Moore, Matthew M.; Mou, Yun; Mayo, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Computational design has been used with mixed success for the design of protein surfaces, with directed evolution heretofore providing better practical solutions than explicit design. Directed evolution, however, requires a tractable high-throughput screen because the random nature of mutation does not enrich for desired traits. Here we demonstrate the successful design of the β-sheet surface of a red fluorescent protein (RFP), enabling control over its oligomerization. To isolate the problem of surface design, we created a hybrid RFP from DsRed and mCherry with a stabilized protein core that allows for monomerization without loss of fluorescence. We designed an explicit library for which 93 of 96 (97%) of the protein variants are soluble, stably fluorescent, and monomeric. RFPs are heavily used in biology, but are natively tetrameric, and creating RFP monomers has proven extremely difficult. We show that surface design and core engineering are separate problems in RFP development and that the next generation of RFP markers will depend on improved methods for core design. PMID:26075618

  17. Study on the design method of the jack-up's x-type cantilever allowable load nephogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yazhou; Sun, Chengmeng; Qin, Hongde; Jiang, Bin; Fan, Yansong

    2014-09-01

    The extending of a cantilever and transverse moving of a drilling floor enable the jack-up to operate in several well positions after the Jack-up has pitched. The cantilever allowable load nephogram is the critical reference which can evaluate the jack-up's drilling ability, design the cantilever structure and instruct a jack-up manager to make the operations safe. The intent of this paper is to explore the interrelationships between the cantilever position, drilling floor and the loads including wind force, the stand set-back weight etc., through analyzing the structure and load characteristics of the x-type cantilever and the simplified mechanics model with the restriction of the maximum moment capacity of the cantilever single side beam. Referring to several typical position designs load values, the cantilever allowable load nephogram is obtained by using the suitable interpolation method. The paper gives a method for cantilever allowable load design, which is proved reliable and effective by the calculation example.

  18. Does pulsed low intensity ultrasound allow early return to normal activities when treating stress fractures? A review of one tarsal navicular and eight tibial stress fractures.

    PubMed

    Brand, J C; Brindle, T; Nyland, J; Caborn, D N; Johnson, D L

    1999-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the efficacy of daily pulsed low intensity ultrasound (LIUS) with early return to activities for the treatment of lower extremity stress fractures. Eight patients (2 males, 6 females) with radiographic and bone scan confirmed tibial stress fractures participated in this study. Additionally, a case report of a tarsal navicular stress fracture is described. All patients except one were involved in athletics. Prior to the study, subjects completed a 5 question, 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS) regarding pain level (10 = extreme pain, 1 = no pain) and were assessed for functional performance. Subjects received 20-minute LIUS treatments 5 times a week for 4 weeks. Subjects maintained all functional activities during the treatment period. Seven patients with posterior-medial stress fractures participated without a brace. Subjects were re-tested after 4 weeks of treatment. Mann-Whitney U tests (VAS data) and paired t-tests (functional tests) assessed statistical significance (p<0.05). Although the intensity of practice was diminished in some instances, no time off from competitive sports was prescribed for the patients with the tibial stress fractures. The patient with the anterior tibial stress fracture underwent tibial intramedullary nailing at the conclusion of a season of play. In this uncontrolled experience, treatment of tibial stress fractures with daily pulsed LIUS was effective in pain relief and early return to vigorous activity without bracing for the patients with posterior-medial stress fractures.

  19. Upregulation of the mitochondrial Lon Protease allows adaptation to acute oxidative stress but dysregulation is associated with chronic stress, disease, and aging.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Jenny K; Pomatto, Laura C D; Davies, Kelvin J A

    2013-02-09

    The elimination of oxidatively modified proteins is a crucial process in maintaining cellular homeostasis, especially during stress. Mitochondria are protein-dense, high traffic compartments, whose polypeptides are constantly exposed to superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and other reactive species, generated by 'electron leakage' from the respiratory chain. The level of oxidative stress to mitochondrial proteins is not constant, but instead varies greatly with numerous metabolic and environmental factors. Oxidized mitochondrial proteins must be removed rapidly (by proteolytic degradation) or they will aggregate, cross-link, and cause toxicity. The Lon Protease is a key enzyme in the degradation of oxidized proteins within the mitochondrial matrix. Under conditions of acute stress Lon is highly inducible, possibly with the oxidant acting as the signal inducer, thereby providing increased protection. It seems that under chronic stress conditions, however, Lon levels actually decline. Lon levels also decline with age and with senescence, and senescent cells even lose the ability to induce Lon during acute stress. We propose that the regulation of Lon is biphasic, in that it is up-regulated during transient stress and down-regulated during chronic stress and aging, and we suggest that the loss of Lon responsiveness may be a significant factor in aging, and in age-related diseases.

  20. Ultraviolet and photosynthetically active radiation can both induce photoprotective capacity allowing barley to overcome high radiation stress.

    PubMed

    Klem, Karel; Holub, Petr; Štroch, Michal; Nezval, Jakub; Špunda, Vladimír; Tříska, Jan; Jansen, Marcel A K; Robson, T Matthew; Urban, Otmar

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of acclimation to ultraviolet (UV) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on photoprotective mechanisms in barley leaves. Barley plants were acclimated for 7 days under three combinations of high or low UV and PAR treatments ([UV-PAR-], [UV-PAR+], [UV+PAR+]). Subsequently, plants were exposed to short-term high radiation stress (HRS; defined by high intensities of PAR - 1000 μmol m(-2) s(-1), UV-A - 10 W m(-2) and UV-B 2 W m(-2) for 4 h), to test their photoprotective capacity. The barley variety sensitive to photooxidative stress (Barke) had low constitutive flavonoid content compared to the resistant variety (Bonus) under low UV and PAR intensities. The accumulation of lutonarin and 3-feruloylquinic acid, but not of saponarin, was greatly enhanced by high PAR and further increased by UV exposure. Acclimation of plants to both high UV and PAR intensities also increased the total pool of xanthophyll-cycle pigments (VAZ). Subsequent exposure to HRS revealed that prior acclimation to UV and PAR was able to ameliorate the negative consequences of HRS on photosynthesis. Both total contents of epidermal flavonols and the total pool of VAZ were closely correlated with small reductions in light-saturated CO2 assimilation rate and maximum quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry caused by HRS. Based on these results, we conclude that growth under high PAR can substantially increase the photoprotective capacity of barley plants compared with plants grown under low PAR. However, additional UV radiation is necessary to fully induce photoprotective mechanisms in the variety Barke. This study demonstrates that UV-exposure can lead to enhanced photoprotective capacity and can contribute to the induction of tolerance to high radiation stress in barley.

  1. Design Allowables Test Program, Celion 3000/PMR-15 and Celion 6000/PMR-15, Graphite/Polyimide Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cushman, J. B.; Mccleskey, S. F.

    1982-01-01

    A design allowables test program was conducted on Celion 3000/PRM-15 and Celion 6000/PMR-15 graphite/polyimide composite to establish material performance over a 116 K (-250 F) to 589 K (600 F) temperature range. Effects of aging, thermal cycling and moisture were also evaluated. Tension, compression and in plane shear properties were determined for uniaxial, pseudoisotropic and +45 laminates. Test results show sufficient strength and stiffness to substantiate graphite/polyimide composites as an acceptable structural material for high temperature structural applications.

  2. Effects of group size and floor space allowance on grouped sows: aggression, stress, skin injuries, and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, P H; Rice, M; Nash, J; Giri, K; Butler, K L; Tilbrook, A J; Morrison, R S

    2013-10-01

    A total of 3,120 sows, in 4 time replicates, were used to determine the effects of group size and floor space on sow welfare using behavioral, physiological, health, and fitness variables. Within 1 to 7 d postinsemination, sows were assigned randomly to treatments of a 3 by 6 factorial arrangement, with 3 group sizes (10, 30, or 80 sows/pen) and 6 floor space allowances (1.4, 1.8, 2.0, 2.2, 2.4, or 3.0 m(2)/sow). Sows were housed on partially slatted concrete floors, and overhead feeders delivered 4 times/day to provide a total of 2.5 kg of feed/sow. As pen space increased from 1.4 to 3.0 m(2)/sow, aggression at feeding decreased from about 9 to 7 bouts/sow (linear, P = 0.029) and plasma cortisol concentrations decreased from about 28 to 21 ng/mL (linear, P = 0.0089) at 2 d. Although the results are in accord with a linear decline from 1.4 to 3 m(2)/sow, the results are also in accord with a decline in these measurements from 1.4 to 1.8 m(2)/sow and no further decline greater than 1.8 m(2)/sow. Farrowing rate (percentage of inseminated sows that farrowed) also increased from about 60 to 75% as space increased from 1.4 to 3.0 m(2)/sow (linear, P = 0.012). Group size was related to skin injuries on d 9 (P = 0.0017), 23 (P = 0.0046), and 51 (P = 0.0006), with groups of 10 consistently having the lowest number of total injuries over this period. Based on the aggression and cortisol results, it is credible to judge that, within the range of floor space allowances studied, sow welfare improves with increased space. However, from a sow welfare perspective, the experiment had insufficient precision to determine what is an adequate space allowance for sows. Thus, although the results definitely support a space allowance of 1.4 m(2)/sow being too small, it is not possible to give guidance on an actual space allowance at mixing that is adequate. PMID:23893983

  3. Theoretical basis for design of thermal-stress-free fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, M. L.; Mcwithey, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    A theoretical basis was developed for the design of fasteners which are free of thermal stress. A fastener can be shaped to eliminate the thermal stress which would otherwise result from differential thermal expansion between dissimilar fastener and sheet materials for many combinations of isotropic and orthotropic materials. The resulting joint remains snug, yet free of thermal stress at any temperature, if the joint is uniform in temperature, if it is frictionless, and if the coefficients of thermal expansion of the materials do not change with temperature. In general, such a fastener has curved sides; however, if both materials have isotropic coefficients of thermal expansion, a conical fastener is free of thermal stress. Equations are presented for thermal stress free shapes at both initial and final temperature, and typical fastener shapes are shown.

  4. Vascular design for reducing hot spots and stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, L. A. O.; Lorente, S.; Bejan, A.

    2014-05-01

    This paper is a proposal to embed tree-shaped vasculatures in a wall designed such that the wall withstands without excessive hot spots and peak stresses the intense heating and pressure that impinge on it. The vasculature is a quilt of square-shaped panels, each panel having a tree vasculature that connects the center with the perimeter. The vascular designs for volumetric cooling can be complemented by the shaping and distributing of channels for maximum strength and thermal performance at the same time. Numerical simulations of heat flow and thermal stresses in three directions show that it is possible to determine the optimal geometric features of configurations with radial channels and trees with radial and one level of bifurcations. The global performance is evaluated in terms of the overall thermal resistance and peak von Mises stresses. The dendritic design is superior under the studied thermal condition.

  5. Stress-strain analysis and optimal design of aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liakhovenko, I. A.

    The papers contained in this volume present results of theoretical and experimental research related to the stress-strain analysis and optimal design of aircraft structures. Topics discussed include a study of the origin of residual stresses and strains in the transparencies of supersonic aircraft, methodology for studying the fracture of aircraft structures in static tests, and the stability of a multispan panel under combined loading. The discussion also covers optimization of the stiffness and mass characteristics of lifting surface structures modeled by an elastic beam, a study of the strength of a closed system of wings, and a method for the optimal design of a large-aspect-ratio wing.

  6. Design and analysis of composite structures with stress concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbo, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of an analytic procedure which can be used to provide comprehensive stress and strength analysis of composite structures with stress concentrations is given. The methodology provides designer/analysts with a user-oriented procedure which, within acceptable engineering accuracy, accounts for the effects of a wide range of application design variables. The procedure permits the strength of arbitrary laminate constructions under general bearing/bypass load conditions to be predicted with only unnotched unidirectional strength and stiffness input data required. Included is a brief discussion of the relevancy of this analysis to the design of primary aircraft structure; an overview of the analytic procedure with theory/test correlations; and an example of the use and interaction of this strength analysis relative to the design of high-load transfer bolted composite joints.

  7. Determining erodibility, critical shear stress, and allowable discharge estimates for cohesive channels: case study in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Thoman, R.W.; Niezgoda, S.L.

    2008-12-15

    The continuous discharge of coalbed natural gas-produced (CBNG-produced) water within ephemeral, cohesive channels in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming can result in significant erosion. A study was completed to investigate channel stability in an attempt to correlate cohesive soil properties to critical shear stress. An in situ jet device was used to determine critical shear stress (tau{sub c}) and erodibility (k{sub d}); cohesive soil properties were determined following ASTM procedures for 25 reaches. The study sites were comprised of erodible to moderately resistant clays with tau{sub c} ranging from 0.11 to 15.35 Pa and k{sub d} ranging from 0.27 to 2.38 cm{sup 3}/N s. A relationship between five cohesive soil characteristics and tau{sub c} was developed and presented for use in deriving tau{sub c} for similar sites. Allowable discharges for CBNG-produced water were also derived using tau{sub c} and the tractive force method. An increase in the allowable discharge was found for channels in which vegetation was maintained. The information from this case study is critical to the development of a conservative methodology to establish allowable discharges while minimizing flow-induced instability.

  8. ZERODUR glass ceramics: design of structures with high mechanical stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nattermann, Kurt; Hartmann, Peter; Kling, Guenther; Gath, Peter; Lucarelli, Stefano; Messerschmidt, Boris

    2008-07-01

    Designing highly mechanically loaded structures made of the zero expansion glass ceramic material ZERODUR® means to analyze the stress for the whole loaded surface, considering changes of the stress state occurring over the total lifetime. Strength data are obtained from specimens with small size and relatively short loading duration, making them not directly applicable to the much larger areas that occur in practical cases. This publication gives guidelines for calculating a fracture probability for mirrors and structures on the basis of existing strength data.

  9. GASICA: generic automated stress induction and control application design of an application for controlling the stress state

    PubMed Central

    van der Vijgh, Benny; Beun, Robbert J.; van Rood, Maarten; Werkhoven, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In a multitude of research and therapy paradigms it is relevant to know, and desirably to control, the stress state of a patient or participant. Examples include research paradigms in which the stress state is the dependent or independent variable, or therapy paradigms where this state indicates the boundaries of the therapy. To our knowledge, no application currently exists that focuses specifically on the automated control of the stress state while at the same time being generic enough to be used in various therapy and research purposes. Therefore, we introduce GASICA, an application aimed at the automated control of the stress state in a multitude of therapy and research paradigms. The application consists of three components: a digital stressor game, a set of measurement devices, and a feedback model. These three components form a closed loop (called a biocybernetic loop by Pope et al. (1995) and Fairclough (2009) that continuously presents an acute psychological stressor, measures several physiological responses to this stressor, and adjusts the stressor intensity based on these measurements by means of the feedback model, hereby aiming to control the stress state. In this manner GASICA presents multidimensional and ecological valid stressors, whilst continuously in control of the form and intensity of the presented stressors, aiming at the automated control of the stress state. Furthermore, the application is designed as a modular open-source application to easily implement different therapy and research tasks using a high-level programming interface and configuration file, and allows for the addition of (existing) measurement equipment, making it usable for various paradigms. PMID:25538554

  10. New design deforming controlling system of the active stressed lap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Li; Wang, Daxing

    2008-07-01

    A 450mm diameter active stressed lap has been developed in NIAOT by 2003. We design a new lap in 2007. This paper puts on emphases on introducing the new deforming control system of the lap. Aiming at the control characteristic of the lap, a new kind of digital deforming controller is designed. The controller consists of 3 parts: computer signal disposing, motor driving and force sensor signal disposing. Intelligent numeral PID method is applied in the controller instead of traditional PID. In the end, the result of new deformation are given.

  11. Stress analysis for wall structure in mobile hot cell design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrin, Muhammad Hannan; Rahman, Anwar Abdul; Hamzah, Mohd Arif; Mamat, Mohd Rizal; Azman, Azraf; Hasan, Hasni

    2016-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency is developing a Mobile Hot Cell (MHC) in order to handle and manage Spent High Activity Radioactive Sources (SHARS) such as teletherapy heads and irradiators. At present, there are only two units of MHC in the world, in South Africa and China. Malaysian Mobile Hot cell is developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency with the assistance of IAEA expert, based on the design of South Africa and China, but with improved features. Stress analysis has been performed on the design in order to fulfil the safety requirement in operation of MHC. This paper discusses the loading analysis effect from the sand to the MHC wall structure.

  12. The Promiscuity of [beta]-Strand Pairing Allows for Rational Design of [beta]-Sheet Face Inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Makabe, Koki; Koide, Shohei

    2009-06-17

    Recent studies suggest the dominant role of main-chain H-bond formation in specifying {beta}-sheet topology. Its essentially sequence-independent nature implies a large degree of freedom in designing {beta}-sheet-based nanomaterials. Here we show rational design of {beta}-sheet face inversions by incremental deletions of {beta}-strands from the single-layer {beta}-sheet of Borrelia outer surface protein A. We show that a {beta}-sheet structure can be maintained when a large number of native contacts are removed and that one can design large-scale conformational transitions of a {beta}-sheet such as face inversion by exploiting the promiscuity of strand-strand interactions. High-resolution X-ray crystal structures confirmed the success of the design and supported the importance of main-chain H-bonds in determining {beta}-sheet topology. This work suggests a simple but effective strategy for designing and controlling nanomaterials based on {beta}-rich peptide self-assemblies.

  13. Allowing for MSD prevention during facilities planning for a public service: an a posteriori analysis of 10 library design projects.

    PubMed

    Bellemare, Marie; Trudel, Louis; Ledoux, Elise; Montreuil, Sylvie; Marier, Micheline; Laberge, Marie; Vincent, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Research was conducted to identify an ergonomics-based intervention model designed to factor in musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) prevention when library projects are being designed. The first stage of the research involved an a posteriori analysis of 10 recent redesign projects. The purpose of the analysis was to document perceptions about the attention given to MSD prevention measures over the course of a project on the part of 2 categories of employees: librarians responsible for such projects and personnel working in the libraries before and after changes. Subjects were interviewed in focus groups. Outcomes of the analysis can guide our ergonomic assessment of current situations and contribute to a better understanding of the way inclusion or improvement of prevention measures can support the workplace design process.

  14. Induction of the Sugar-Phosphate Stress Response Allows Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2-Methyl-4-Amino-5-Hydroxymethylpyrimidine Phosphate Synthase To Function in Salmonella enterica

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Lauren D.; Paxhia, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thiamine pyrophosphate is a required cofactor for all forms of life. The pyrimidine moiety of thiamine, 2-methyl-4-amino-5-hydroxymethylpyrimidine phosphate (HMP-P), is synthesized by different mechanisms in bacteria and plants compared to fungi. In this study, Salmonella enterica was used as a host to probe requirements for activity of the yeast HMP-P synthase, Thi5p. Thi5p synthesizes HMP-P from histidine and pyridoxal-5-phosphate and was reported to use a backbone histidine as the substrate, which would mean that it was a single-turnover enzyme. Heterologous expression of Thi5p did not complement an S. enterica HMP-P auxotroph during growth with glucose as the sole carbon source. Genetic analyses described here showed that Thi5p was activated in S. enterica by alleles of sgrR that induced the sugar-phosphate stress response. Deletion of ptsG (encodes enzyme IICB [EIICB] of the phosphotransferase system [PTS]) also allowed function of Thi5p and required sgrR but not sgrS. This result suggested that the role of sgrS in activation of Thi5p was to decrease PtsG activity. In total, the data herein supported the hypothesis that one mechanism to activate Thi5p in S. enterica grown on minimal medium containing glucose (minimal glucose medium) required decreased PtsG activity and an unidentified gene regulated by SgrR. IMPORTANCE This work describes a metabolic link between the sugar-phosphate stress response and the yeast thiamine biosynthetic enzyme Thi5p when heterologously expressed in Salmonella enterica during growth on minimal glucose medium. Suppressor analysis (i) identified a mutant class of the regulator SgrR that activate sugar-phosphate stress response constitutively and (ii) determined that Thi5p is conditionally active in S. enterica. These results emphasized the power of genetic systems in model organisms to uncover enzyme function and underlying metabolic network structure. PMID:26324451

  15. 'To preserve unity while almost allowing for chaos': Testing the aesthetic principle of unity-in-variety in product design.

    PubMed

    Post, R A G; Blijlevens, J; Hekkert, P

    2016-01-01

    Unity-in-variety is considered to be one of the oldest-known universal principles of beauty. However, little empirical research exists on how unity and variety together influence aesthetic appreciation. In three studies we investigated how unity and variety predict the aesthetic appreciation of a range of product designs, and further assessed whether perceived visual complexity and individual differences in regulatory focus influence this relationship. Our findings reveal that both unity and variety, while suppressing each other's effect, positively affect aesthetic appreciation. Hence, product designs that exhibit an optimum balance between unity and variety are aesthetically preferred. Furthermore, the research reveals that unity is the dominant factor in this relationship and facilitates the appreciation of variety. We discuss several theoretical and practical implications resulting from these studies. PMID:26687018

  16. 'To preserve unity while almost allowing for chaos': Testing the aesthetic principle of unity-in-variety in product design.

    PubMed

    Post, R A G; Blijlevens, J; Hekkert, P

    2016-01-01

    Unity-in-variety is considered to be one of the oldest-known universal principles of beauty. However, little empirical research exists on how unity and variety together influence aesthetic appreciation. In three studies we investigated how unity and variety predict the aesthetic appreciation of a range of product designs, and further assessed whether perceived visual complexity and individual differences in regulatory focus influence this relationship. Our findings reveal that both unity and variety, while suppressing each other's effect, positively affect aesthetic appreciation. Hence, product designs that exhibit an optimum balance between unity and variety are aesthetically preferred. Furthermore, the research reveals that unity is the dominant factor in this relationship and facilitates the appreciation of variety. We discuss several theoretical and practical implications resulting from these studies.

  17. The Brackets Design and Stress Analysis of a Refinery's Hot Water Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, San-Ping; He, Yan-Lin

    2016-05-01

    The reconstruction engineering which reconstructs the hot water pipeline from a power station to a heat exchange station requires the new hot water pipeline combine with old pipe racks. Taking the allowable span calculated based on GB50316 and the design philosophy of the pipeline supports into account, determine the types and locations of brackets. By analyzing the stresses of the pipeline in AutoPIPE, adjusting the supports at dangerous segments, recalculating in AutoPIPE, at last determine the types, locations and numbers of supports reasonably. Then the overall pipeline system will satisfy the requirement of the ASME B31.3.

  18. Genome Wide Analysis of the Apple MYB Transcription Factor Family Allows the Identification of MdoMYB121 Gene Confering Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong-Kai; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors (TFs) in plants. Although several MYB genes have been characterized to play roles in secondary metabolism, the MYB family has not yet been identified in apple. In this study, 229 apple MYB genes were identified through a genome-wide analysis and divided into 45 subgroups. A computational analysis was conducted using the apple genomic database to yield a complete overview of the MYB family, including the intron-exon organizations, the sequence features of the MYB DNA-binding domains, the carboxy-terminal motifs, and the chromosomal locations. Subsequently, the expression of 18 MYB genes, including 12 were chosen from stress-related subgroups, while another 6 ones from other subgroups, in response to various abiotic stresses was examined. It was found that several of these MYB genes, particularly MdoMYB121, were induced by multiple stresses. The MdoMYB121 was then further functionally characterized. Its predicted protein was found to be localized in the nucleus. A transgenic analysis indicated that the overexpression of the MdoMYB121 gene remarkably enhanced the tolerance to high salinity, drought, and cold stresses in transgenic tomato and apple plants. Our results indicate that the MYB genes are highly conserved in plant species and that MdoMYB121 can be used as a target gene in genetic engineering approaches to improve the tolerance of plants to multiple abiotic stresses. PMID:23950843

  19. Fatigue criterion for the design of rotating shafts under combined stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1977-01-01

    A revised approach to the design of transmission shafting which considers the flexure fatigue characteristics of the shaft material under combined cyclic bending and static torsion stress is presented. A fatigue failure relation, corroborated by published combined stress test data, is presented which shows an elliptical variation of reversed bending endurance strength with static torsional stress. From this elliptical failure relations, a design formula for computing the diameter of rotating solid shafts under the most common condition of loading is developed.

  20. A phase-field approach to nonequilibrium phase transformations in elastic solids via an intermediate phase (melt) allowing for interface stresses.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Kasra; Levitas, Valery I

    2016-04-28

    A phase-field approach for phase transformations (PTs) between three different phases at nonequilibrium temperatures is developed. It includes advanced mechanics, thermodynamically consistent interfacial stresses, and interface interactions. A thermodynamic Landau-Ginzburg potential developed in terms of polar order parameters satisfies the desired instability and equilibrium conditions for homogeneous phases. The interfacial stresses were introduced with some terms from large-strain formulation even though the small-strain assumption was utilized. The developed model is applied to study the PTs between two solid phases via a highly disordered intermediate phase (IP) or an intermediate melt (IM) hundreds of degrees below the melting temperature. In particular, the β ↔ δ PTs in HMX energetic crystals via IM are analyzed. The effects of various parameters (temperature, ratios of widths and energies of solid-solid (SS) to solid-melt (SM) interfaces, elastic energy, and interfacial stresses) on the formation, stability, and structure of the IM within a propagating SS interface are studied. Interfacial and elastic stresses within a SS interphase and their relaxation and redistribution with the appearance of a partial or complete IM are analyzed. The energy and structure of the critical nucleus (CN) of the IM are studied as well. In particular, the interfacial stresses increase the aspect-ratio of the CN. Although including elastic energy can drastically reduce the energy of the CN of the IM, the activation energy of the CN of the IM within the SS interface increases when interfacial tension is taken into account. The developed thermodynamic potential can also be modified to model other multiphase physical phenomena, such as multi-variant martensitic PTs, grain boundary and surface-induced pre-melting and PTs, as well as developing phase diagrams for IPs.

  1. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... advance of allowance. (a) Allowance. Step 2+3 and Step 3 grant agreements will include an allowance for facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... would receive under paragraph (a) of this section. (5) In the event a Step 2+3, Step 3 or Step 7...

  2. Artificial Warming of Arctic Meadow under Pollution Stress: Experimental design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moni, Christophe; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Fjelldal, Erling; Brenden, Marius; Kimball, Bruce; Rasse, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Boreal and arctic terrestrial ecosystems are central to the climate change debate, notably because future warming is expected to be disproportionate as compared to world averages. Likewise, greenhouse gas (GHG) release from terrestrial ecosystems exposed to climate warming is expected to be the largest in the arctic. Artic agriculture, in the form of cultivated grasslands, is a unique and economically relevant feature of Northern Norway (e.g. Finnmark Province). In Eastern Finnmark, these agro-ecosystems are under the additional stressor of heavy metal and sulfur pollution generated by metal smelters of NW Russia. Warming and its interaction with heavy metal dynamics will influence meadow productivity, species composition and GHG emissions, as mediated by responses of soil microbial communities. Adaptation and mitigation measurements will be needed. Biochar application, which immobilizes heavy metal, is a promising adaptation method to promote positive growth response in arctic meadows exposed to a warming climate. In the MeadoWarm project we conduct an ecosystem warming experiment combined to biochar adaptation treatments in the heavy-metal polluted meadows of Eastern Finnmark. In summary, the general objective of this study is twofold: 1) to determine the response of arctic agricultural ecosystems under environmental stress to increased temperatures, both in terms of plant growth, soil organisms and GHG emissions, and 2) to determine if biochar application can serve as a positive adaptation (plant growth) and mitigation (GHG emission) strategy for these ecosystems under warming conditions. Here, we present the experimental site and the designed open-field warming facility. The selected site is an arctic meadow located at the Svanhovd Research station less than 10km west from the Russian mining city of Nikel. A splitplot design with 5 replicates for each treatment is used to test the effect of biochar amendment and a 3oC warming on the Arctic meadow. Ten circular

  3. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right...

  4. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right...

  5. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right...

  6. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right...

  7. Environmental Stresses of Field Growth Allow Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Deficient Nicotiana attenuata Plants to Compensate for their Structural Deficiencies1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harleen; Shaker, Kamel; Heinzel, Nicolas; Ralph, John; Gális, Ivan; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2012-01-01

    The organized lignocellulosic assemblies of cell walls provide the structural integrity required for the large statures of terrestrial plants. Silencing two CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD) genes in Nicotiana attenuata produced plants (ir-CAD) with thin, red-pigmented stems, low CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity, low lignin contents, and rubbery, structurally unstable stems when grown in the glasshouse (GH). However, when planted into their native desert habitat, ir-CAD plants produced robust stems that survived wind storms as well as the wild-type plants. Despite efficient silencing of NaCAD transcripts and enzymatic activity, field-grown ir-CAD plants had delayed and restricted spread of red stem pigmentation, a color change reflecting blocked lignification by CAD silencing, and attained wild-type-comparable total lignin contents. The rubbery GH phenotype was largely restored when field-grown ir-CAD plants were protected from wind, herbivore attack, and ultraviolet B exposure and grown in restricted rooting volumes; conversely, it was lost when ir-CAD plants were experimentally exposed to wind, ultraviolet B, and grown in large pots in growth chambers. Transcript and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight analysis revealed that these environmental stresses enhanced the accumulation of various phenylpropanoids in stems of field-grown plants; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that the lignin of field-grown ir-CAD plants had GH-grown comparable levels of sinapaldehyde and syringaldehyde cross-linked into their lignins. Additionally, field-grown ir-CAD plants had short, thick stems with normal xylem element traits, which collectively enabled field-grown ir-CAD plants to compensate for the structural deficiencies associated with CAD silencing. Environmental stresses play an essential role in regulating lignin biosynthesis in lignin-deficient plants. PMID:22645069

  8. Rethinking innovative designs to further test parasite-stress theory.

    PubMed

    Uskul, Ayse K

    2012-04-01

    Fincher & Thornhill's (F&T's) parasite-stress theory of sociality is supported largely by correlational evidence; its persuasiveness would increase significantly via lab and natural experiments and demonstrations of its mediating role. How the theory is linked to other approaches to group differences in psychological differences and to production and dissemination of cultural ideas and practices, need further clarification. So does the theory's view on the possible reduction of negative group interactions.

  9. Long-term strength and allowable stresses of grade 10Kh9MFB and X10CrMoVNb9-1 (T91/P91) chromium heat-resistant steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorobogatykh, V. N.; Danyushevskiy, I. A.; Schenkova, I. A.; Prudnikov, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    Currently, grade X10CrMoVNb9-1 (T91, P91) and 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh) chromium steels are widely applied in equipment manufacturing for thermal power plants in Russia and abroad. Compilation and comparison of tensile, impact, and long-term strength tests results accumulated for many years of investigations of foreign grade X10CrMoVNb9-1, T91, P91, and domestic grade 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh) steels is carried out. The property identity of metals investigated is established. High strength and plastic properties of steels, from which pipes and other products are made, for operation under creep conditions are confirmed. Design characteristics of long-term strength on the basis of tests with more than one million of hour-samples are determined ( and at temperatures of 500-650°C). The table of recommended allowable stresses for grade 10Kh9MFB, 10Kh9MFB-SH, X10CrMoVNb9-1, T91, and P91 steels is developed. The long-time properties of pipe welded joints of grade 10Kh9MFB+10Kh9MFB, 10Kh9MFB-Sh+10Kh9MFB-Sh, X10CrMoVNb9-1+X10CrMoVNb9-1, P91+P91, T91+T91, 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh)+X10CrMoVNb9-1(T/P91) steels is researched. The welded joint reduction factor is experimentally determined.

  10. Pericardial heterograft valves: an assessment of leaflet stresses and their implications for heart valve design.

    PubMed

    Trowbridge, E A; Crofts, C E

    1987-10-01

    Bovine pericardium, stabilized with glutaraldehyde, is used widely in the construction of heart valve substitutes, but the design and construction of valve substitutes from this material are empirically based. Collagenous tissue can support tension, but experimental evidence indicates that flexure-induced compressive stresses can lead to fatigue failure. This study uses experimental results obtained from cyclic uniaxial load tests to predict the type and magnitude of operational stresses which occur in pericardial heterograft leaflets. Both Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio varied with uniaxial loading in pericardium, chemically modified free of tension. Leaflet stresses were analysed in using effective incremental representations of these parameters. In leaflets with unrestricted rotation at the point of attachment to the stent, the mid-plane tensions always exceeded the bending stresses, and no zones of leaflet compression were predicted. In contrast, with totally restricted leaflet rotation induced by clamping (possibly between a male and female frame) the bending stresses were greater than the mid-plane tensions at the hinge line and significant compressive stresses were predicted at this site. If elastic boundary conditions were introduced at the stent (possibly by wrapping the stent in pericardium) then the compressive stresses were reduced as the degree of elasticity was increased. Glutaraldehyde fixation of the pericardium under load produced a stiffer material; higher compressive stresses at the stent and significant increases in total stress were predicted for this tissue. The application of elevated pressure loading also increased the compressive and total stresses in the leaflet. Finally, it was shown that bicuspid leaflets were likely to experience higher stresses than tricuspid leaflets. This simple stress analysis should help valve designers of pericardial heterografts to identify those conditions which lead to tissue compression, high total stress

  11. Optimal design of multiple stress constant accelerated life test plan on non-rectangle test region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenhua; Gao, Liang; Liu, Juan; Qian, Ping; Pan, Jun

    2012-11-01

    For optimal design of constant stress accelerated life test(CSALT) with two-stress, if the stresses could not reach the highest levels simultaneously, the test region becomes non-rectangular. For optimal CSALT design on non-rectangle test region, the present method is only focused on non-rectangle test region with simple boundary, and the optimization algorithm is based on experience which can not ensure to obtain the optimal plan. In this paper, considering the linear-extreme value model and the optimization goal to minimize the variance of lifetime estimate under normal stress, the optimal design method of two-stress type-I censored CSALT plan on general non-rectangular test region is proposed. First, two properties of optimal test plans are proved and the relationship of all the optimal test plans is determined analytically. Then, on the basis of the two properties, the optimal problem is simplified and the optimal design method of two-stress CSALT plan on general non-rectangular test region is proposed. Finally, a numerical example is used to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the method. The result shows that the proposed method could obtain the optimal test plan on non-rectangular test regions with arbitrary boundaries. This research provides the theory and method for two-stress optimal CSALT planning on non-rectangular test regions.

  12. Reliability approach to rotating-component design. [fatigue life and stress concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kececioglu, D. B.; Lalli, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    A probabilistic methodology for designing rotating mechanical components using reliability to relate stress to strength is explained. The experimental test machines and data obtained for steel to verify this methodology are described. A sample mechanical rotating component design problem is solved by comparing a deterministic design method with the new design-by reliability approach. The new method shows that a smaller size and weight can be obtained for specified rotating shaft life and reliability, and uses the statistical distortion-energy theory with statistical fatigue diagrams for optimum shaft design. Statistical methods are presented for (1) determining strength distributions for steel experimentally, (2) determining a failure theory for stress variations in a rotating shaft subjected to reversed bending and steady torque, and (3) relating strength to stress by reliability.

  13. Efficient design of polarization insensitive polymer optical waveguide devices considering stress-induced effects.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Faruque; Chan, Hau Ping; Kouzani, Abbas Z

    2014-04-21

    We present an approach for the efficient design of polarization insensitive polymeric optical waveguide devices considering stress-induced effects. In this approach, the stresses induced in the waveguide during the fabrication process are estimated first using a more realistic model in the finite element analysis. Then we determine the perturbations in the material refractive indices caused by the stress-optic effect. It is observed that the stresses cause non-uniform optical anisotropy in the waveguide materials, which is then incorporated in the modal analysis considering a multilayer structure of waveguide. The approach is exploited in the design of a Bragg grating on strip waveguide. Excellent agreement between calculated and published experimental results confirms the feasibility of our approach in the accurate design of polarization insensitive polymer waveguide devices.

  14. Design of a High Field Stress, Velvet Cathode for the Flash X-Ray (FXR) Induction Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, T; Brown, C; Fleming, D; Kreitzer, B; Lewis, K; Ong, M; Zentler, J

    2007-06-08

    A new cathode design has been proposed for the Flash X-Ray (FXR) induction linear accelerator with the goal of lowering the beam emittance. The original design uses a conventional Pierce geometry and applies a peak field of 134 kV/cm (no beam) to the velvet emission surface. Voltage/current measurements indicate that the velvet begins emitting near this peak field value and images of the cathode show a very non-uniform distribution of plasma light. The new design has a flat cathode/shroud profile that allows for a peak field stress of 230 kV/cm on the velvet. The emission area is reduced by about a factor of four to generate the same total current due to the greater field stress. The relatively fast acceleration of the beam, approximately 2.5 MeV in 10 cm, reduces space charge forces that tend to hollow the beam for a flat, non-Pierce geometry. The higher field stress achieved with the same rise time is expected to lead to an earlier and more uniform plasma formation over the velvet surface. Simulations and initial testing are presented.

  15. Modified Fully Utilized Design (MFUD) Method for Stress and Displacement Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya; Gendy, Atef; Berke, Laszlo; Hopkins, Dale

    1997-01-01

    The traditional fully stressed method performs satisfactorily for stress-limited structural design. When this method is extended to include displacement limitations in addition to stress constraints, it is known as the fully utilized design (FUD). Typically, the FUD produces an overdesign, which is the primary limitation of this otherwise elegant method. We have modified FUD in an attempt to alleviate the limitation. This new method, called the modified fully utilized design (MFUD) method, has been tested successfully on a number of designs that were subjected to multiple loads and had both stress and displacement constraints. The solutions obtained with MFUD compare favorably with the optimum results that can be generated by using nonlinear mathematical programming techniques. The MFUD method appears to have alleviated the overdesign condition and offers the simplicity of a direct, fully stressed type of design method that is distinctly different from optimization and optimality criteria formulations. The MFUD method is being developed for practicing engineers who favor traditional design methods rather than methods based on advanced calculus and nonlinear mathematical programming techniques. The Integrated Force Method (IFM) was found to be the appropriate analysis tool in the development of the MFUD method. In this paper, the MFUD method and its optimality are presented along with a number of illustrative examples.

  16. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: (1) For tank web frames, stringers, or girders of carbon manganese steel or aluminum alloys, meet σB... in Appendix A of this part. (c) Tank plating must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's deep...

  17. Design stress evaluation based on strain-rate sensitivity analysis for nickel alloys used in the very-high temperature nuclear system

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, K.; Tung, H. M.; Chen, X.; Zhao, Y.; Stubbins, J. F.

    2012-07-01

    Both Alloy 617 and Alloy 230 have been considered the most promising structural materials for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). In this study, mechanical properties of both alloys were examined by performing tensile tests at three different strain rates and at temperatures up to 1000 deg.C. This range covers time-dependent (plasticity) to time-independent (creep) deformations. Strain-rate sensitivity analysis for each alloy was conducted in order to approximate the long-term flow stresses. The strain-rate sensitivities for the 0.2% flow stress were found to be temperature independent (m {approx_equal} 0) at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 700 deg.C due to dynamic strain aging. At elevated temperatures (800-1000 deg.C), the strain-rate sensitivity significantly increased (m > 0.1). Compared to Alloy 617, Alloy 230 displayed higher strain-rate sensitivities at high temperatures. This leads to a lower estimated long-term flow stresses. Results of this analysis were used to evaluate current American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) allowable design limits. According to the comparison with the estimated flow stresses, the allowable design stresses in ASME B and PV Code for either alloy did not provide adequate degradation estimation for the possible long-term service life in VHTR. However, rupture stresses for Alloy 617, developed in ASME code case N-47-28, can generally satisfy the safety margin estimated in the study following the strain-rate sensitivity analysis. Nevertheless, additional material development studies might be required, since the design parameters for rupture stresses are constrained such that current VHTR conceptual designs cannot satisfy the limits. (authors)

  18. Design and Stress Analysis of Low-Noise Adjusted Bearing Contact Spiral Bevel Gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Fuentes, Alfonso; Mullins, Baxter R.; Woods, Ron

    2002-01-01

    An integrated computerized approach for design and stress analysis of low-noise spiral bevel gear drives with adjusted bearing contact has been developed. The computation procedure is an iterative process, requiring four separate steps that provide: (a) a parabolic function of transmission errors that is able to reduce the effect of errors of alignment, and (b) reduction of the shift of bearing contact caused by misalignment. Application of finite element analysis permits the contact and bending stresses to be determined and investigate the formation of the bearing contact. The design of finite element models and boundary conditions is automated and does not require an intermediate CAD computer program. A commercially available finite element analysis computer program with contact capability was used to conduct the stress analysis. The theory developed is illustrated with numerical examples.

  19. Stress distributions in maxillary central incisors restored with various types of post materials and designs.

    PubMed

    Madfa, A A; Kadir, M R Abdul; Kashani, J; Saidin, S; Sulaiman, E; Marhazlinda, J; Rahbari, R; Abdullah, B J J; Abdullah, H; Abu Kasim, N H

    2014-07-01

    Different dental post designs and materials affect the stability of restoration of a tooth. This study aimed to analyse and compare the stability of two shapes of dental posts (parallel-sided and tapered) made of five different materials (titanium, zirconia, carbon fibre and glass fibre) by investigating their stress transfer through the finite element (FE) method. Ten three-dimensional (3D) FE models of a maxillary central incisor restored with two different designs and five different materials were constructed. An oblique loading of 100 N was applied to each 3D model. Analyses along the centre of the post, the crown-cement/core and the post-cement/dentine interfaces were computed, and the means were calculated. One-way ANOVAs followed by post hoc tests were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the post materials and designs (p=0.05). For post designs, the tapered posts introduced significantly higher stress compared with the parallel-sided post (p<0.05), especially along the centre of the post. Of the materials, the highest level of stress was found for stainless steel, followed by zirconia, titanium, glass fibre and carbon fibre posts (p<0.05). The carbon and glass fibre posts reduced the stress distribution at the middle and apical part of the posts compared with the stainless steel, zirconia and titanium posts. The opposite results were observed at the crown-cement/core interface.

  20. 78 FR 9633 - Policy Statement on the Scenario Design Framework for Stress Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... November 23, 2012, at 77 FR 70124 remains February 15, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tim Clark... Federal Register of November 23, 2012, (77 FR 70124) requesting public comment on a policy statement on... CFR Part 252 RIN 7100-AD-86 Policy Statement on the Scenario Design Framework for Stress...

  1. Stress distributions in maxillary central incisors restored with various types of post materials and designs.

    PubMed

    Madfa, A A; Kadir, M R Abdul; Kashani, J; Saidin, S; Sulaiman, E; Marhazlinda, J; Rahbari, R; Abdullah, B J J; Abdullah, H; Abu Kasim, N H

    2014-07-01

    Different dental post designs and materials affect the stability of restoration of a tooth. This study aimed to analyse and compare the stability of two shapes of dental posts (parallel-sided and tapered) made of five different materials (titanium, zirconia, carbon fibre and glass fibre) by investigating their stress transfer through the finite element (FE) method. Ten three-dimensional (3D) FE models of a maxillary central incisor restored with two different designs and five different materials were constructed. An oblique loading of 100 N was applied to each 3D model. Analyses along the centre of the post, the crown-cement/core and the post-cement/dentine interfaces were computed, and the means were calculated. One-way ANOVAs followed by post hoc tests were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the post materials and designs (p=0.05). For post designs, the tapered posts introduced significantly higher stress compared with the parallel-sided post (p<0.05), especially along the centre of the post. Of the materials, the highest level of stress was found for stainless steel, followed by zirconia, titanium, glass fibre and carbon fibre posts (p<0.05). The carbon and glass fibre posts reduced the stress distribution at the middle and apical part of the posts compared with the stainless steel, zirconia and titanium posts. The opposite results were observed at the crown-cement/core interface. PMID:24834856

  2. Design and Development of Stress Engineering Techniques for III-Nitride Epitaxy on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leathersich, Jeff

    III-Nitrides have been a heavily researched material system for decades. Their material properties are favorable for a number of applications, most commonly in the optoelectronic and power device industry. Currently a majority of commercialized devices are fabricated on sapphire and SiC substrates but these are expensive and limit the widespread commercialization of the technology. There is substantial ongoing research geared toward the development of GaN on Si substrates because of the significant cost saving that would be realized through the inexpensive, large wafer and maturity of Si fabrication. Significant challenges with the deposition of GaN on Si have, thus far, prevented its wide-spread commercialization specifically the large lattice mismatch and thermal expansion coefficient mismatch. Both of these issues can be overcome by engineering the stress levels in the films. In this thesis work close examination and exploration of the stress formation and evolution in GaN-on-Si is performed. Methods of improving stress levels are developed in addition to providing a deeper understanding of the stress evolution process. A commonly used methodology of engineering stress levels is to use an AlGaN multi-layer stack. The first layer in the stack is an AlN buffer layer. Typical deposition methods for AlN leaves the surface rough and not ideal for subsequent epitaxy. Here, two specific modifications to the conventional deposition process are made which yield dramatic improvement in material quality and stress levels of an overgrown GaN layer. Full width at half maximum measurements from HRXRD rocking curve of GaN grown on the modified buffers show a 2x reduction and ~0.45 GPa greater built-in compressive stress in the films. A semi-empirical model to predict stress evolution in III-Nitrides is established using both fundamentals and experimental data. The model will allow researchers determine the desired stress levels in the films in advance of Epitaxy. This will

  3. Contact stresses with an unresurfaced patella in total knee arthroplasty: the effect of femoral component design.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, S; Ishinishi, T; Whiteside, L A

    2000-03-01

    Compressive contact stresses between the patella and the anterior femur were measured with a digital electronic sensor before and after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in 10 cadaver knee specimens. Contact stresses were measured first in normal knees, then after TKA with the Insall-Burstein Total Condylar, Miller Galante II, Ortholoc II, Porous Coated Anatomic, and Profix knee prostheses implanted without resurfacing the patella. The Insall-Burstein, Miller-Galante II, and Ortholoc II prostheses had significantly higher contact stresses than the normal knee throughout the flexion arc. The Porous Coated Anatomic, which has a smooth patellar groove, maintained contact area as in the normal knee and did not have significantly higher contact stresses at flexion angles <90 degrees. At flexion angles > or =105 degrees, patellofemoral contact occurred in two small areas as the patella encountered the intercondylar notch in all components except the Profix. The Profix maintained full contact and low compressive stresses throughout the full flexion arc because of its posteriorly extended patellar groove. Design features of the patellofemoral portion of TKA components are important factors that affect contact stresses in the patellofemoral joint. These features likely will affect the clinical results of TKA with an unresurfaced patella. PMID:10741365

  4. Design of a multi-axis implantable MEMS sensor for intraosseous bone stress monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, Fernando; Weiss, Lee; Campbell, Phil; Miller, Mark; Fedder, Gary K.

    2009-08-01

    The capability to assess the biomechanical properties of living bone is important for basic research as well as the clinical management of skeletal trauma and disease. Even though radiodensitometric imaging is commonly used to infer bone quality, bone strength does not necessarily correlate well with these non-invasive measurements. This paper reports on the design, fabrication and initial testing of an implantable ultra-miniature multi-axis sensor for directly measuring bone stresses at a micro-scale. The device, which is fabricated with CMOS-MEMS processes, is intended to be permanently implanted within open fractures, or embedded in bone grafts, or placed on implants at the interfaces between bone and prosthetics. The stress sensor comprises an array of piezoresistive pixels to detect a stress tensor at the interfacial area between the MEMS chip and bone, with a resolution to 100 Pa, in 1 s averaging. The sensor system design and manufacture is also compatible with the integration of wireless RF telemetry, for power and data retrieval, all within a 3 mm × 3 mm × 0.3 mm footprint. The piezoresistive elements are integrated within a textured surface to enhance sensor integration with bone. Finite element analysis led to a sensor design for normal and shear stress detection. A wired sensor was fabricated in the Jazz 0.35 µm BiCMOS process and then embedded in mock bone material to characterize its response to tensile and bending loads up to 250 kPa.

  5. Design and construction of a storm window with increased thermal efficiency which opens to allow ventilation as needed. Final technical report, proposal number F375

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The project as originally conceived and funded envisioned a conventional full - window - length storm sash mounted in the cement block window opening. Appropriate linkage would open the storm sash. This design proved to be a safety hazard and physically undesirable. The design of the storm window sash was revised. Individual storm frames were to be mounted on each awning sash. Mechanical interferences with the storm sash occurred when a two inch air space was used. This was solved by reducing the air space to the optimum dimension of 3/4 inches. The sizes and configuration of the awning type windows were studied to aid in cost effective and efficient design of the storm frame. It was discovered that in all but the later (aluminum conserving) models, the window pane was recessed 3/4 inches. This serendipidous fact resulted in the design of a triple glazed window utilizing only one storm sash glazed on both sides. The resultant combination window and storm sash is estimated to give approximately R 3.9 to R 5.2 insulation value.

  6. Bi-Metallic Composite Structures With Designed Internal Residual Stress Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brice, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) have a unique ability to recover small amounts of plastic strain through a temperature induced phase change. For these materials, mechanical displacement can be accomplished by heating the structure to induce a phase change, through which some of the plastic strain previously introduced to the structure can be reversed. This paper introduces a concept whereby an SMA phase is incorporated into a conventional alloy matrix in a co-continuous reticulated arrangement forming a bi-metallic composite structure. Through memory activation of the mechanically constrained SMA phase, a controlled residual stress field is developed in the interior of the structure. The presented experimental data show that the memory activation of the SMA composite component significantly changes the residual stress distribution in the overall structure. Designing the structural arrangement of the two phases to produce a controlled residual stress field could be used to create structures that have much improved durability and damage tolerance properties.

  7. Non-linear analysis and the design of Pumpkin Balloons: stress, stability and viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, J. L.; Wakefield, D. S.

    Tensys have a long-established background in the shape generation and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures Founded upon their inTENS finite element analysis suite these activities have broadened to encompass lighter than air structures such as aerostats hybrid air-vehicles and stratospheric balloons Winzen Engineering couple many years of practical balloon design and fabrication experience with both academic and practical knowledge of the characterisation of the non-linear viscoelastic response of the polymeric films typically used for high-altitude scientific balloons Both companies have provided consulting services to the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon ULDB Program Early implementations of pumpkin balloons have shown problems of geometric instability characterised by improper deployment and these difficulties have been reproduced numerically using inTENS The solution lies in both the shapes of the membrane lobes and also the need to generate a biaxial stress field in order to mobilise in-plane shear stiffness Balloons undergo significant temperature and pressure variations in flight The different thermal characteristics between tendons and film can lead to significant meridional stress Fabrication tolerances can lead to significant local hoop stress concentrations particularly adjacent to the base and apex end fittings The non-linear viscoelastic response of the envelope film acts positively to help dissipate stress concentrations However creep over time may produce lobe geometry variations that may

  8. Stress analysis and design considerations for Shuttle pointed autonomous research tool for astronomy /SPARTAN/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferragut, N. J.

    1982-01-01

    The Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) family of spacecraft are intended to operate with minimum interfaces with the U.S. Space Shuttle in order to increase flight opportunities. The SPARTAN I Spacecraft was designed to enhance structural capabilities and increase reliability. The approach followed results from work experience which evolved from sounding rocket projects. Structural models were developed to do the analyses necessary to satisfy safety requirements for Shuttle hardware. A loads analysis must also be performed. Stress analysis calculations will be performed on the main structural elements and subcomponents. Attention is given to design considerations and program definition, the schematic representation of a finite element model used for SPARTAN I spacecraft, details of loads analysis, the stress analysis, and fracture mechanics plan implications.

  9. Design and Stress Analysis of Low-Noise Adjusted Bearing Contact Spiral Bevel Gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuentes, A.; Litvin, F. L.; Mullins, B. R.; Woods, R.; Handschuh, R. F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2002-01-01

    An integrated computerized approach for design and stress analysis of low-noise spiral bevel gear drives with adjusted bearing contact is proposed. The procedure of computations is an iterative process that requires four separate procedures and provide: (a) a parabolic function of transmission errors that is able to reduce the effect of errors of alignment on noise and vibration, and (b) reduction of the shift of bearing contact caused by misalignment. Application of finite element analysis enables us to determine the contact and bending stresses and investigate the formation of the bearing contact. The design of finite element models and boundary conditions is automated and does not require intermediate CAD computer programs for application of general purpose computer program for finite element analysis.

  10. Design prediction for long term stress rupture service of composite pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Ernest Y.

    1992-01-01

    Extensive stress rupture studies on glass composites and Kevlar composites were conducted by the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory beginning in the late 1960's and extending to about 8 years in some cases. Some of the data from these studies published over the years were incomplete or were tainted by spurious failures, such as grip slippage. Updated data sets were defined for both fiberglass and Kevlar composite stand test specimens. These updated data are analyzed in this report by a convenient form of the bivariate Weibull distribution, to establish a consistent set of design prediction charts that may be used as a conservative basis for predicting the stress rupture life of composite pressure vessels. The updated glass composite data exhibit an invariant Weibull modulus with lifetime. The data are analyzed in terms of homologous service load (referenced to the observed median strength). The equations relating life, homologous load, and probability are given, and corresponding design prediction charts are presented. A similar approach is taken for Kevlar composites, where the updated stand data do show a turndown tendency at long life accompanied by a corresponding change (increase) of the Weibull modulus. The turndown characteristic is not present in stress rupture test data of Kevlar pressure vessels. A modification of the stress rupture equations is presented to incorporate a latent, but limited, strength drop, and design prediction charts are presented that incorporate such behavior. The methods presented utilize Cartesian plots of the probability distributions (which are a more natural display for the design engineer), based on median normalized data that are independent of statistical parameters and are readily defined for any set of test data.

  11. Increase in family allowances.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    In July 1989 the family allowance structure in Australia was changed from a 4-rate to a 2-rate structure. The new rates were increased to $A9 a week for the 1st 3 children and $A12 for each additional child. The Family Allowance Supplment rate for children 13-15 years old was raised from $A31 to $A34.10/week. PMID:12344544

  12. Using Designed Residual Stress Profiles to Produce Flaw-Tolerant Glass

    SciTech Connect

    BEAUCHAMP, E.K.; GLASS, S. JILL; GREEN, D.J.; SGLAVO, M.

    1999-09-02

    A processing approach has been identified and reduced to practice in which a residual stress profile can be designed such that cracks in a brittle material are arrested or grow in a stable fashion. In the procedure, cracks in the body encounter an increase in the magnitude of residual compression as the crack propagates. If correctly designed, the process increases strength, significantly decreases strength variability and gives rise to multiple cracking. This approach is demonstrated for an ion-exchanged silicate glass using four-point and biaxial flexure strength testing. Optical microscopy was used to study the morphology and development of the multiple cracking that precedes the final failure.

  13. Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... hurt or killed. Examples include a major accident, war, assault, or a natural disaster. This type of ... stress, so you can avoid more serious health effects. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  14. Computer-aided design of high-contact-ratio gears for minimum dynamic load and stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Hsiang Hsi; Lee, Chinwai; Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1990-01-01

    A computer aided design procedure is presented for minimizing dynamic effects on high contact ratio gears by modification of the tooth profile. Both linear and parabolic tooth profile modifications of high contact ratio gears under various loading conditions are examined and compared. The effects of the total amount of modification and the length of the modification zone were systematically studied at various loads and speeds to find the optimum profile design for minimizing the dynamic load and the tooth bending stress. Parabolic profile modification is preferred over linear profile modification for high contact ratio gears because of its lower sensitivity to manufacturing errors. For parabolic modification, a greater amount of modification at the tooth tip and a longer modification zone are required. Design charts are presented for high contact ratio gears with various profile modifications operating under a range of loads. A procedure is illustrated for using the charts to find the optimum profile design.

  15. Progress Report on Alloy 617 Time Dependent Allowables

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Julie Knibloe

    2015-06-01

    Time dependent allowable stresses are required in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for design of components in the temperature range where time dependent deformation (i.e., creep) is expected to become significant. There are time dependent allowable stresses in Section IID of the Code for use in the non-nuclear construction codes, however, there are additional criteria that must be considered in developing time dependent allowables for nuclear components. These criteria are specified in Section III NH. St is defined as the lesser of three quantities: 100% of the average stress required to obtain a total (elastic, plastic, primary and secondary creep) strain of 1%; 67% of the minimum stress to cause rupture; and 80% of the minimum stress to cause the initiation of tertiary creep. The values are reported for a range of temperatures and for time increments up to 100,000 hours. These values are determined from uniaxial creep tests, which involve the elevated temperature application of a constant load which is relatively small, resulting in deformation over a long time period prior to rupture. The stress which is the minimum resulting from these criteria is the time dependent allowable stress St. In this report data from a large number of creep and creep-rupture tests on Alloy 617 are analyzed using the ASME Section III NH criteria. Data which are used in the analysis are from the ongoing DOE sponsored high temperature materials program, form Korea Atomic Energy Institute through the Generation IV VHTR Materials Program and historical data from previous HTR research and vendor data generated in developing the alloy. It is found that the tertiary creep criterion determines St at highest temperatures, while the stress to cause 1% total strain controls at low temperatures. The ASME Section III Working Group on Allowable Stress Criteria has recommended that the uncertainties associated with determining the onset of tertiary creep and the lack of significant

  16. Design and Experimental Evaluation of a 3rd Generation Addressable CMOS Piezoresistive Stress Sensing Test Chip

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, J.N.; Peterson, D.W.; Hsia, A.H.

    1999-04-13

    Piezoresistive stress sensing chips have been used extensively for measurement of assembly related die surface stresses. Although many experiments can be performed with resistive structures which are directly bonded, for extensive stress mapping it is necessary to have a large number of sensor cells which can be addressed using CMOS logic circuitry. Our previous test chip, the ATC04, has 100 cells, each approximately 0.012 in. on a side, on a chip with a side dimension of 0.45 in. When a cell resistor is addressed, it is connected to a four terminal measurement bus through CMOS transmission gates. In theory, the gate resistances do not affect the measurement. In practice, there may be subtle effects which appear when very high accuracy is required. At high temperatures, gate leakage can increase to a point at which the resistor measurement becomes inaccurate. For ATC04 this occurred at or above 50 C. Here, we report on the first measurements obtained with a new prototype test chip, the ATC06. This prototype was fabricated in a 0.5 micron feature size silicided CMOS process using the MOSIS prototyping facility. The cell size was approximately 0.004 in. on a side. In order to achieve piezoresistive behavior for the implanted resistors it was necessary to employ a non-standard silicide ''blocking'' process. The stress sensitivity of both implanted and polysilicon blocked resistors is discussed. Using a new design strategy for the CMOS logic, it was possible to achieve a design in which only 5 signals had to be routed to a cell for addressing vs. 9 for ATC04. With our new design, the resistor under test is more effectively electrically isolated from other resistors on the chip, thereby improving high temperature performance. We present data showing operation up to 140 C.

  17. Comparative safety testing of genetically modified foods in a 90-day rat feeding study design allowing the distinction between primary and secondary effects of the new genetic event.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Ib; Poulsen, Morten

    2007-10-01

    This article discusses the wider experiences regarding the usefulness of the 90-day rat feeding study for the testing of whole foods from genetically modified (GM) plant based on data from a recent EU-project [Poulsen, M., Schrøder, M., Wilcks, A., Kroghsbo, S., Lindecrona, R.H., Miller, A., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Shu, Q., Emami, K., Taylor, M., Gatehouse, A., Engel, K.-H., Knudsen, I., 2007a. Safety testing of GM-rice expressing PHA-E lectin using a new animal test design. Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 364-377; Poulsen, M., Kroghsbo, S., Schrøder, M., Wilcks, A., Jacobsen, H., Miller, A., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Shu, Q., Emami, K., Sudhakar, D., Gatehouse, A., Engel, K.-H., Knudsen, I., 2007b. A 90-day safety in Wistar rats fed genetically modified rice expressing snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis (GNA). Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 350-363; Schrøder, M., Poulsen, M., Wilcks, A., Kroghsbo, S., Miller, A., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Emami, K., Gatehouse, A., Shu, Q., Engel, K.-H., Knudsen, I., 2007. A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) in Wistar rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 339-349]. The overall objective of the project has been to develop and validate the scientific methodology necessary for assessing the safety of foods from genetically modified plants in accordance with the present EU regulation. The safety assessment in the project is combining the results of the 90-day rat feeding study on the GM food with and without spiking with the pure novel gene product, with the knowledge about the identity of the genetic change, the compositional data of the GM food, the results from in-vitro/ex-vivo studies as well as the results from the preceding 28-day toxicity study with the novel gene product, before the hazard characterisation is concluded. The results demonstrated the ability of the 90-day rat feeding study to detect the biological/toxicological effects of the

  18. Can architectural design alter the physiological reaction to psychosocial stress? A virtual TSST experiment.

    PubMed

    Fich, Lars Brorson; Jönsson, Peter; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Wallergård, Mattias; Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse

    2014-08-01

    Is has long been established, that views to natural scenes can a have a dampening effect on physiological stress responses. However, as people in Europe, Canada and North America today spent 50-85% of their time indoors, attention might also be paid to how the artificial man-made indoor environment influences these mechanisms. The question that this study attempts to start addressing is therefore whether certain design, characteristics of indoor spaces can make a difference to the physiological stress response as well. Using a virtual version of the Trier Social Stress Test, in which the space is computer generated and properties of the space therefore can be systematically varied, we measured saliva cortisol and heart rate variability in participants in a closed room versus a room with openings. As shown by a significant linear contrast interaction between groups and TSST conditions, participants in the closed room responded with more pronounced cortisol reactivity to stress induction, and continued to show higher levels throughout recovery, compared to participants in the open room. No differences were found regarding any part of the autonomic nervous system. PMID:24907691

  19. Can architectural design alter the physiological reaction to psychosocial stress? A virtual TSST experiment.

    PubMed

    Fich, Lars Brorson; Jönsson, Peter; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Wallergård, Mattias; Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse

    2014-08-01

    Is has long been established, that views to natural scenes can a have a dampening effect on physiological stress responses. However, as people in Europe, Canada and North America today spent 50-85% of their time indoors, attention might also be paid to how the artificial man-made indoor environment influences these mechanisms. The question that this study attempts to start addressing is therefore whether certain design, characteristics of indoor spaces can make a difference to the physiological stress response as well. Using a virtual version of the Trier Social Stress Test, in which the space is computer generated and properties of the space therefore can be systematically varied, we measured saliva cortisol and heart rate variability in participants in a closed room versus a room with openings. As shown by a significant linear contrast interaction between groups and TSST conditions, participants in the closed room responded with more pronounced cortisol reactivity to stress induction, and continued to show higher levels throughout recovery, compared to participants in the open room. No differences were found regarding any part of the autonomic nervous system.

  20. Residual stresses in design, fabrication, assessment and repair. PVP-Volume 327

    SciTech Connect

    Warke, R.W.; Dong, P.; Dermenjian, A.

    1996-12-01

    Residual stresses introduced during fabrication, particularly those induced by welding processes, are often a significant concern in the structural integrity of pressure vessels and piping. They are rarely treated explicitly in design, and unrealistically conservative assumptions regarding their distribution are commonly adopted in flaw assessment practice. In recent years there has been renewed interest in understanding their development and true influence on structural integrity. This has been enabled by increases in computational power and innovations in modeling and measurement. Improvements in the sophistication and accuracy of traditional methods (e.g., sectioning and hole-drilling) have also been observed. Recent progress in the application of these techniques and new insights into the mechanisms of residual stress development are reflected by the various papers in this volume. The subject matter has been categorized as follows: (1) modeling techniques; (2) measurement techniques; (3) structural integrity effects; (4) residual stresses in repair welds; and (5) residual stresses in pressure vessels. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume.

  1. Stress analysis and testing of the outer capsule design for the Strontium Heat Source Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, F.A.; Shippell, R.J. Jr.; Atteridge, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the Strontium Heat Source Development Program is to obtain the data needed to license /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ heat sources - specifically the /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ capsules produced in the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) at Hanford. Toward this end, a high integrity outer capsule has been designed to replace the present outer capsule of the WESF /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ capsule. The proposed design of a Hastelloy S outer capsule which features a mechanical interlock type of end closure is described. Qualification testing requirements are outlined, and stress analyses and developmental tests are described. These tests were performed on AISI-1018 steel stand-in capsules, and included both external pressure and impact tests. The external pressure tests showed that stress calculations seriously overestimated the pressure capability of the outer capsule. Possible reasons for the lack of agreement between the tests and the analyses are evaluated. The stress analyses and tests results indicate that the proposed outer capsule will meet the heat source qualification requirements. Future tests will be conducted to experimentally verify that the Hastelloy S outer capsule in an aged condition meets the structural integrity requirements.

  2. Investigation on Stress-Rupture Behavior of a Chopped-Glass-Fiber Composite for Automotive Durability Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, W

    2001-08-24

    Practical and inexpensive testing methods were developed to investigate stress-rupture properties of a polymeric composite with chopped glass fiber reinforcement for automotive applications. The material was tested in representative automotive environments to generate experimental data. The results indicate that environments have substantial effects on the stress-rupture behavior. The data were analyzed and developed into stress-rupture design criteria to address one of the durability aspects of the material for automotive structural applications.

  3. Stress Analysis of Coated Particle Fuel in the Deep-Burn Pebble Bed Reactor Design

    SciTech Connect

    B. Boer; A. M. Ougouag

    2010-05-01

    High fuel temperatures and resulting fuel particle coating stresses can be expected in a Pu and minor actinide fueled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (400 MWth) design as compared to the ’standard’ UO2 fueled core. The high discharge burnup aimed for in this Deep-Burn design results in increased power and temperature peaking in the pebble bed near the inner and outer reflector. Furthermore, the pebble power in a multi-pass in-core pebble recycling scheme is relatively high for pebbles that make their first core pass. This might result in an increase of the mechanical failure of the coatings, which serve as the containment of radioactive fission products in the PBMR design. To investigate the integrity of the particle fuel coatings as a function of the irradiation time (i.e. burnup), core position and during a Loss Of Forced Cooling (LOFC) incident the PArticle STress Analysis code (PASTA) has been coupled to the PEBBED code for neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and depletion analysis of the core. Two deep burn fuel types (Pu with or without initial MA fuel content) have been investigated with the new code system for normal and transient conditions including the effect of the statistical variation of thickness of the coating layers.

  4. Modeling and design of a normal stress electromagnetic actuator with linear characteristics for fast steering mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yongjun; Wei, Xiaohui; Wang, Chunlei; Dai, Xin; Wang, Shigang

    2014-05-01

    A new rotary normal stress electromagnetic actuator for fast steering mirror (FSM) is presented. The study includes concept design, actuating torque modeling, actuator design, and validation with numerical simulation. To achieve an FSM with compact structure and high bandwidth, the actuator is designed with a cross armature magnetic topology. By introducing bias flux generated by four permanent magnets (PMs), the actuator has high-force density similar to a solenoid but also has essentially linear characteristics similar to a voice coil actuator, leading to a simply control algorithm. The actuating torque output is a linear function of both driving current and rotation angle and is formulated with equivalent magnetic circuit method. To improve modeling accuracy, both the PM flux and coil flux leakages are taken into consideration through finite element simulation. Based on the established actuator model, optimal design of the actuator is presented to meet the requirement of our FSM. Numerical simulation is then presented to validate the concept design, established actuator model, and designed actuator. It is shown that the calculated results are in a good agreement with the simulation results.

  5. Reynolds shear stress for textile prosthetic heart valves in relation to fabric design.

    PubMed

    Bark, David L; Yousefi, Atieh; Forleo, Marcio; Vaesken, Antoine; Heim, Frederic; Dasi, Lakshmi P

    2016-07-01

    The most widely implanted prosthetic heart valves are either mechanical or bioprosthetic. While the former suffers from thrombotic risks, the latter suffers from a lack of durability. Textile valves, alternatively, can be designed with durability and to exhibit hemodynamics similar to the native valve, lowering the risk for thrombosis. Deviations from native valve hemodynamics can result in an increased Reynolds Shear Stress (RSS), which has the potential to instigate hemolysis or shear-induced thrombosis. This study is aimed at characterizing flow in multiple textile valve designs with an aim of developing a low profile valve. Valves were created using a shaping process based on heating a textile membrane and placed within a left heart simulator. Turbulence and bulk hemodynamics were assessed through particle imaging velocimetry, along with flow and pressure measurements. Overall, RSS was reduced for low profile valves relative to high profile valves, but was otherwise similar among low profile valves involving different fabric designs. However, leakage was found in 3 of the 4 low profile valve designs driving the fabric design for low profile valves. Through textile design, low profile valves can be created with favorable hemodynamics.

  6. ZERODUR glass ceramics: strength data for the design of structures with high mechanical stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Peter; Nattermann, Kurt; Döhring, Thorsten; Kuhr, Markus; Thomas, Peter; Kling, Guenther; Gath, Peter; Lucarelli, Stefano

    2008-07-01

    With an increasing number of applications mirrors and support structures made of the zero expansion glass ceramic material ZERODUR® has to endure high mechanical loads, e.g. rocket launches or controlled deformations for optical image correction. Like for other glassy materials, the strength of glass ceramics is dominated by its surface condition. Test specimens have been ground with fine grain tools (e.g. D64 diamond grains) and / or subsequently etched. The strength data basis for the design of highly stressed structures has been extended and new information has been derived for the extrapolation to low failure probabilities.

  7. Geomechanical Modeling to Predict Wellbore Stresses and Strains for the Design of Wellbore Seal Repair Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, S. P.; Sobolik, S. R.; Matteo, E. N.; Dewers, T. A.; Taha, M. R.; Stormont, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    A critical aspect of designing effective wellbore seal repair materials is predicting thermo-mechanical perturbations in local stress that can compromise seal integrity. For the DOE-NETL project 'Wellbore Seal Repair Using Nanocomposite Materials,' we are especially interested in the stress-strain history of abandoned wells, as well as changes in local pressure, stress, and temperature conditions that accompany carbon dioxide injection or brine extraction. Building on existing thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) finite element modeling of wellbore casings subject to significant tensile and shear loads, we advance a conceptual and numerical methodology to assess responses of annulus cement and casing. Bench-scale models complement bench-top experiments of an integrated seal system in an idealized scaled wellbore mock-up being used to test candidate seal repair materials. Field scale models use the stratigraphy from a pilot CO2 injection operation to estimate the necessary mechanical properties needed for a successful repair material. We report on approaches used for adapting existing wellbore models and share preliminary results of field scale models. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND Number: 2013-6241A.

  8. The effect of thread design on stress distribution in a solid screw implant: a 3D finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Eraslan, Oğuz; Inan, Ozgür

    2010-08-01

    The biomechanical behavior of implant thread plays an important role on stresses at implant-bone interface. Information about the effect of different thread profiles upon the bone stresses is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different implant thread designs on stress distribution characteristics at supporting structures. In this study, three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) stress-analysis method was used. Four types of 3D mathematical models simulating four different thread-form configurations for a solid screw implant was prepared with supporting bone structure. V-thread (1), buttress (2), reverse buttress (3), and square thread designs were simulated. A 100-N static axial occlusal load was applied to occlusal surface of abutment to calculate the stress distributions. Solidworks/Cosmosworks structural analysis programs were used for FE modeling/analysis. The analysis of the von Mises stress values revealed that maximum stress concentrations were located at loading areas of implant abutments and cervical cortical bone regions for all models. Stress concentration at cortical bone (18.3 MPa) was higher than spongious bone (13.3 MPa), and concentration of first thread (18 MPa) was higher than other threads (13.3 MPa). It was seen that, while the von Mises stress distribution patterns at different implant thread models were similar, the concentration of compressive stresses were different. The present study showed that the use of different thread form designs did not affect the von Mises concentration at supporting bone structure. However, the compressive stress concentrations differ by various thread profiles.

  9. Photoelastic stress analysis of different designs of cement-retained fixed partial dentures on Morse taper oral implants.

    PubMed

    Menani, Luiz Ricardo; Tiossi, Rodrigo; de Torres, Érica Miranda; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; de Almeida, Rossana Pereira

    2011-03-01

    There is no consensus in literature regarding the best plan for prosthetic rehabilitation with partial multiple adjacent implants to minimize stress generated in the bone-implant interface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical behavior of cemented fixed partial dentures, splinted and nonsplinted, on Morse taper implants and with different types of coating material (ceramic and resin), using photoelastic stress analysis. A photoelastic model of an interposed edentulous space, missing a second premolar and a first molar, and rehabilitated with 4 different types of cemented crowns and supported by 2 adjacent implants was used. Groups were as follows: UC, splinted ceramic crowns; IC, nonsplinted ceramic crowns; UR, splinted resin crowns; and IR, nonsplinted resin crowns. Different vertical static loading conditions were performed: balanced occlusal load, 10 kgf; simultaneous punctiform load on the implanted premolar and molar, 10 kgf; and alternate punctiform load on the implanted premolar and molar, 5 kgf. Changes in stress distribution were analyzed in a polariscope, and digital photographs were taken of each condition to allow comparison of stress pattern distribution around the implants. Cementation of the fixed partial dentures generated stresses between implants. Splinted restorations distributed the stresses more evenly between the implants than nonsplinted when force was applied. Ceramic restorations presented better distribution of stresses than resin restorations. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that splinted ceramic restorations promote better stress distribution around osseointegrated implants when compared with nonsplinted crowns; metal-ceramic restorations present less stress concentration and magnitude than metal-plastic restorations.

  10. Mesh Deformation Based on Fully Stressed Design: The Method and Two-Dimensional Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Su-Yuen; Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2007-01-01

    Mesh deformation in response to redefined boundary geometry is a frequently encountered task in shape optimization and analysis of fluid-structure interaction. We propose a simple and concise method for deforming meshes defined with three-node triangular or four-node tetrahedral elements. The mesh deformation method is suitable for large boundary movement. The approach requires two consecutive linear elastic finite-element analyses of an isotropic continuum using a prescribed displacement at the mesh boundaries. The first analysis is performed with homogeneous elastic property and the second with inhomogeneous elastic property. The fully stressed design is employed with a vanishing Poisson s ratio and a proposed form of equivalent strain (modified Tresca equivalent strain) to calculate, from the strain result of the first analysis, the element-specific Young s modulus for the second analysis. The theoretical aspect of the proposed method, its convenient numerical implementation using a typical linear elastic finite-element code in conjunction with very minor extra coding for data processing, and results for examples of large deformation of two-dimensional meshes are presented in this paper. KEY WORDS: Mesh deformation, shape optimization, fluid-structure interaction, fully stressed design, finite-element analysis, linear elasticity, strain failure, equivalent strain, Tresca failure criterion

  11. Design and fabrication of a large area freestanding compressive stress SiO2 optical window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Toan, Nguyen; Sangu, Suguru; Ono, Takahito

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the design and fabrication of a 7.2 mm  ×  9.6 mm freestanding compressive stress SiO2 optical window without buckling. An application of the SiO2 optical window with and without liquid penetration has been demonstrated for an optical modulator and its optical characteristic is evaluated by using an image sensor. Two methods for SiO2 optical window fabrication have been presented. The first method is a combination of silicon etching and a thermal oxidation process. Silicon capillaries fabricated by deep reactive ion etching (deep RIE) are completely oxidized to form the SiO2 capillaries. The large compressive stress of the oxide causes buckling of the optical window, which is reduced by optimizing the design of the device structure. A magnetron-type RIE, which is investigated for deep SiO2 etching, is the second method. This method achieves deep SiO2 etching together with smooth surfaces, vertical shapes and a high aspect ratio. Additionally, in order to avoid a wrinkling optical window, the idea of a Peano curve structure has been proposed to achieve a freestanding compressive stress SiO2 optical window. A 7.2 mm  ×  9.6 mm optical window area without buckling integrated with an image sensor for an optical modulator has been successfully fabricated. The qualitative and quantitative evaluations have been performed in cases with and without liquid penetration.

  12. DESAP 2: A structural design program with stress and buckling constraints. Volume 1: Theoretical and user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiusalaas, J.; Reddy, G. B.

    1977-01-01

    DESAP 2 is described as a finite element program for computer-automated, minimum weight design of elastic structures with constraints on stresses (including local instability criteria) and buckling loads. No limits are placed on the number of load conditions for stress-constrained design, but only one of these load conditions can be chosen as the potential buckling load. A substantial portion of DESAP 2, particularly the analysis of the prebuckling state, is derived from the SOLID SAP finite element program. The stress-constrained design is based on the classical stress ratio method, which drives the design towards a fully stressed state. The constraints on the buckling load are handled by solving the appropriate optimality criterion by successive iterations. During each iteration, the element sizes determined by the stress ratio method are used as the minimum size constraints. The element subroutines are organized in a manner that permits the user to make additions and changes with a minimal programming effort. Consequently, DESAP 2 can readily be changed into a special-purpose program to handle the user's specific design requirements and failure criteria.

  13. A Patient Specific Biomechanical Analysis of Custom Root Analogue Implant Designs on Alveolar Bone Stress: A Finite Element Study.

    PubMed

    Anssari Moin, David; Hassan, Bassam; Wismeijer, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to analyse by means of FEA the influence of 5 custom RAI designs on stress distribution of peri-implant bone and to evaluate the impact on microdisplacement for a specific patient case. Materials and Methods. A 3D surface model of a RAI for the upper right canine was constructed from the cone beam computed tomography data of one patient. Subsequently, five (targeted) press-fit design modification FE models with five congruent bone models were designed: "Standard," "Prism," "Fins," "Plug," and "Bulbs," respectively. Preprocessor software was applied to mesh the models. Two loads were applied: an oblique force (300 N) and a vertical force (150 N). Analysis was performed to evaluate stress distributions and deformed contact separation at the peri-implant region. Results. The lowest von Mises stress levels were numerically observed for the Plug design. The lowest levels of contact separation were measured in the Fins model followed by the Bulbs design. Conclusions. Within the limitations of the applied methodology, adding targeted press-fit geometry to the RAI standard design will have a positive effect on stress distribution, lower concentration of bone stress, and will provide a better primary stability for this patient specific case. PMID:27274727

  14. A Patient Specific Biomechanical Analysis of Custom Root Analogue Implant Designs on Alveolar Bone Stress: A Finite Element Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to analyse by means of FEA the influence of 5 custom RAI designs on stress distribution of peri-implant bone and to evaluate the impact on microdisplacement for a specific patient case. Materials and Methods. A 3D surface model of a RAI for the upper right canine was constructed from the cone beam computed tomography data of one patient. Subsequently, five (targeted) press-fit design modification FE models with five congruent bone models were designed: “Standard,” “Prism,” “Fins,” “Plug,” and “Bulbs,” respectively. Preprocessor software was applied to mesh the models. Two loads were applied: an oblique force (300 N) and a vertical force (150 N). Analysis was performed to evaluate stress distributions and deformed contact separation at the peri-implant region. Results. The lowest von Mises stress levels were numerically observed for the Plug design. The lowest levels of contact separation were measured in the Fins model followed by the Bulbs design. Conclusions. Within the limitations of the applied methodology, adding targeted press-fit geometry to the RAI standard design will have a positive effect on stress distribution, lower concentration of bone stress, and will provide a better primary stability for this patient specific case. PMID:27274727

  15. Designing automation for complex work environments under different levels of stress.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Juergen; Nickel, Peter; Wastell, David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of different forms of static and adaptable automation under low- and high-stress conditions. Forty participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions, comparing three levels of static automation (low, medium and high) and one level of adaptable automation, with the environmental stressor (noise) being varied as a within-subjects variable. Participants were trained for 4 h on a simulation of a process control environment, called AutoCAMS, followed by a 2.5-h testing session. Measures of performance, psychophysiology and subjective reactions were taken. The results showed that operators preferred higher levels of automation under noise than under quiet conditions. A number of parameters indicated negative effects of noise exposure, such as performance impairments, physiological stress reactions and higher mental workload. It also emerged that adaptable automation provided advantages over low and intermediate static automation, with regard to mental workload, effort expenditure and diagnostic performance. The article concludes that for the design of automation a wider range of operational scenarios reflecting adverse as well as ideal working conditions needs to be considered.

  16. Modified Involute Helical Gears: Computerized Design, Simulation of Meshing, and Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert (Technical Monitor); Litvin, Faydor L.; Gonzalez-Perez, Ignacio; Carnevali, Luca; Kawasaki, Kazumasa; Fuentes-Aznar, Alfonso

    2003-01-01

    The computerized design, methods for generation, simulation of meshing, and enhanced stress analysis of modified involute helical gears is presented. The approaches proposed for modification of conventional involute helical gears are based on conjugation of double-crowned pinion with a conventional helical involute gear. Double-crowning of the pinion means deviation of cross-profile from an involute one and deviation in longitudinal direction from a helicoid surface. Using the method developed, the pinion-gear tooth surfaces are in point-contact, the bearing contact is localized and oriented longitudinally, and edge contact is avoided. Also, the influence of errors of aligment on the shift of bearing contact, vibration, and noise are reduced substantially. The theory developed is illustrated with numerical examples that confirm the advantages of the gear drives of the modified geometry in comparison with conventional helical involute gears.

  17. Modified Involute Helical Gears: Computerized Design, Simulation of Meshing and Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The computerized design, methods for generation, simulation of meshing, and enhanced stress analysis of modified involute helical gears is presented. The approaches proposed for modification of conventional involute helical gears are based on conjugation of double-crowned pinion with a conventional helical involute gear. Double-crowning of the pinion means deviation of cross-profile from an involute one and deviation in longitudinal direction from a helicoid surface. Using the method developed, the pinion-gear tooth surfaces are in point-contact, the bearing contact is localized and oriented longitudinally, and edge contact is avoided. Also, the influence of errors of alignment on the shift of bearing contact, vibration, and noise are reduced substantially. The theory developed is illustrated with numerical examples that confirm the advantages of the gear drives of the modified geometry in comparison with conventional helical involute gears.

  18. A 201 MHz RF cavity design with non-stressed pre-curved Be windows for muon cooling channels

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Derun; Ladran, A.; Staples, J.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Lau, W.; Yang, S .; Rimmer, R.A.

    2003-05-01

    We present a 201-MHz RF cavity design for muon cooling channels with non-stressed and pre-curved Be foils to terminate the beam apertures. The Be foils are necessary to improve the cavity shunt impedance with large beam apertures needed for accommodating large transverse size muon beams. Be is a low-Z material with good electrical and thermal properties. It presents an almost transparent window to muon beams, but terminates the RF cavity electro-magnetically. Previous designs use pre-stressed flat Be foils in order to keep cavity from detuning resulted from RF heating on the window surface. Be foils are expensive, and it is difficult to make them under desired tension. An alternative design is to use precurved and non-stressed Be foils where the buckling direction is known, and frequency shifts can be properly predicted. We will present mechanical simulations on the Be foils in this paper.

  19. The Effects of Different Miniscrew Thread Designs and Force Directions on Stress Distribution by 3-dimensional Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi, Hamidreza; Ajami, Shabnam; Nabavizadeh Rafsanjani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The use of miniscrew as an absolute anchorage device in clinical orthodontics is growing increasingly. Many attempts have been made to reduce the size, to improve the design, and to increase the stability of miniscrew. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different thread shapes and force directions of orthodontic miniscrew on stress distribution in the supporting bone structure. Materials and Method A three-dimensional finite element analysis was used. A 200-cN force in three angles (0°, 45°, and 90°) was applied on the head of the miniscrew. The stress distribution between twelve thread shapes was investigated as categorized in four main groups; buttress, reverse buttress, square, and V-shape. Results Stress distribution was not significantly different among different thread shapes. The maximum amount of bone stress at force angles 0°, 45°, and 90° were 38.90, 30.57 and 6.62 MPa, respectively. Analyzing the von Mises stress values showed that in all models, the maximum stress was concentrated on the lowest diameter of the shank, especially the part that was in the soft tissue and cervical cortical bone regions. Conclusion There was no relation between thread shapes and von Mises stress distribution in the bone; however, different force angles could affect the von Mises stress in the bone and miniscrew. PMID:26636123

  20. Design, analysis, and characterization of stress-engineered 3D microstructures comprised of PECVD silicon oxide and nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Chia-Hsing; Turner, Kevin T.

    2016-06-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are typically 2D or quasi-3D structures fabricated using surface and bulk micromachining processes. In this work, an approach for 3D structure fabrication based on stress engineering is demonstrated. Specifically, sub-mm 3D spherical cage-like structures are realized through the deformation of bilayers of residually-stressed silicon oxide and silicon nitride with micrometer-scale thicknesses. Analytical and finite models to predict the shape of stress-engineered structures based on geometry and residual stress are described and used for structure design. A systematic experimental study was performed to quantify residual stresses in silicon nitride films made by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The measurements show that the residual stress of PECVD silicon nitride can be tuned over a wide range of tensile stresses through the control of deposition parameters, such as flow rate and power. Stress engineered 3D cage-like structures comprised of PECVD silicon nitride and oxide films were fabricated. 3D structures with a range of curvatures were demonstrated. The measured geometry of the fabricated structures are in good agreement with predictions from analytical and finite element models.

  1. Numerical design and optimization of hydraulic resistance and wall shear stress inside pressure-driven microfluidic networks.

    PubMed

    Damiri, Hazem Salim; Bardaweel, Hamzeh Khalid

    2015-11-01

    Microfluidic networks represent the milestone of microfluidic devices. Recent advancements in microfluidic technologies mandate complex designs where both hydraulic resistance and pressure drop across the microfluidic network are minimized, while wall shear stress is precisely mapped throughout the network. In this work, a combination of theoretical and modeling techniques is used to construct a microfluidic network that operates under minimum hydraulic resistance and minimum pressure drop while constraining wall shear stress throughout the network. The results show that in order to minimize the hydraulic resistance and pressure drop throughout the network while maintaining constant wall shear stress throughout the network, geometric and shape conditions related to the compactness and aspect ratio of the parent and daughter branches must be followed. Also, results suggest that while a "local" minimum hydraulic resistance can be achieved for a geometry with an arbitrary aspect ratio, a "global" minimum hydraulic resistance occurs only when the aspect ratio of that geometry is set to unity. Thus, it is concluded that square and equilateral triangular cross-sectional area microfluidic networks have the least resistance compared to all rectangular and isosceles triangular cross-sectional microfluidic networks, respectively. Precise control over wall shear stress through the bifurcations of the microfluidic network is demonstrated in this work. Three multi-generation microfluidic network designs are considered. In these three designs, wall shear stress in the microfluidic network is successfully kept constant, increased in the daughter-branch direction, or decreased in the daughter-branch direction, respectively. For the multi-generation microfluidic network with constant wall shear stress, the design guidelines presented in this work result in identical profiles of wall shear stresses not only within a single generation but also through all the generations of the

  2. Numerical design and optimization of hydraulic resistance and wall shear stress inside pressure-driven microfluidic networks.

    PubMed

    Damiri, Hazem Salim; Bardaweel, Hamzeh Khalid

    2015-11-01

    Microfluidic networks represent the milestone of microfluidic devices. Recent advancements in microfluidic technologies mandate complex designs where both hydraulic resistance and pressure drop across the microfluidic network are minimized, while wall shear stress is precisely mapped throughout the network. In this work, a combination of theoretical and modeling techniques is used to construct a microfluidic network that operates under minimum hydraulic resistance and minimum pressure drop while constraining wall shear stress throughout the network. The results show that in order to minimize the hydraulic resistance and pressure drop throughout the network while maintaining constant wall shear stress throughout the network, geometric and shape conditions related to the compactness and aspect ratio of the parent and daughter branches must be followed. Also, results suggest that while a "local" minimum hydraulic resistance can be achieved for a geometry with an arbitrary aspect ratio, a "global" minimum hydraulic resistance occurs only when the aspect ratio of that geometry is set to unity. Thus, it is concluded that square and equilateral triangular cross-sectional area microfluidic networks have the least resistance compared to all rectangular and isosceles triangular cross-sectional microfluidic networks, respectively. Precise control over wall shear stress through the bifurcations of the microfluidic network is demonstrated in this work. Three multi-generation microfluidic network designs are considered. In these three designs, wall shear stress in the microfluidic network is successfully kept constant, increased in the daughter-branch direction, or decreased in the daughter-branch direction, respectively. For the multi-generation microfluidic network with constant wall shear stress, the design guidelines presented in this work result in identical profiles of wall shear stresses not only within a single generation but also through all the generations of the

  3. Design and Validation of a Novel Bioreactor to Subject Aortic Valve Leaflets to Side-Specific Shear Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ling; Rajamannan, Nalini M.; Sucosky, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Hemodynamic stresses are presumed to play an important role in the development of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). The elucidation of the shear stress mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of CAVD has been hampered by the complexity of the native unsteady and side-specific valvular flow environment. To address this gap, this article describes the design and validation of a novel device to expose leaflet samples to time-dependent side-specific shear stress. The device built on a double cone-and-plate geometry was dimensioned based on our previous single-sided shear stress device that minimizes secondary flow effects inherent to this geometry. A fluid–structure interaction (FSI) model was designed to predict the actual shear stress produced on a tissue sample mounted in the new device. Staining was performed on porcine leaflets conditioned in the new bioreactor to assess endothelial integrity and cellular apoptosis. The FSI results demonstrated good agreement between the target (native) and the actual side-specific shear stress produced on a tissue sample. No significant difference in endothelial integrity and cellular apoptosis was detected between samples conditioned for 96 h and fresh controls. This new device will enable the investigation of valvular response to normal and pathologic hemodynamics and the potential mechano-etiology of CAVD. PMID:21455792

  4. Computer Simulation of Stress-Strain State of Oil Gathering Pipeline Designed for Ugut Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkov, P. V.; Burkova, S. P.; Samigullin, V. D.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the stress and strain state modeling of infield pipeline in Ugut oil field. The finite element models of the stress field distribution in the pipeline wall are presented in this paper. The attention is paid to the pipeline reliability under stress conditions induced by the internal pressure and external compressive or tensile loads.

  5. Numerical simulation of CTE mismatch and thermal-structural stresses in the design of interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Geoffrey John M.

    With the ever-increasing chip complexity, interconnects have to be designed to meet the new challenges. Advances in optical lithography have made chip feature sizes available today at 70 nm dimensions. With advances in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, X-ray Lithography, and Ion Projection Lithography it is expected that the line width will further decrease to 20 nm or less. With the decrease in feature size, the number of active devices on the chip increases. With higher levels of circuit integration, the challenge is to dissipate the increased heat flux from the chip surface area. Thermal management considerations include coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) matching to prevent failure between the chip and the board. This in turn calls for improved system performance and reliability of the electronic structural systems. Experience has shown that in most electronic systems, failures are mostly due to CTE mismatch between the chip, board, and the solder joint (solder interconnect). The resulting high thermal-structural stress and strain due to CTE mismatch produces cracks in the solder joints with eventual failure of the electronic component. In order to reduce the thermal stress between the chip, board, and the solder joint, this dissertation examines the effect of inserting wire bundle (wire interconnect) between the chip and the board. The flexibility of the wires or fibers would reduce the stress at the rigid joints. Numerical simulations of two, and three-dimensional models of the solder and wire interconnects are examined. The numerical simulation is linear in nature and is based on linear isotropic material properties. The effect of different wire material properties is examined. The effect of varying the wire diameter is studied by changing the wire diameter. A major cause of electronic equipment failure is due to fatigue failure caused by thermal cycling, and vibrations. A two-dimensional modal and harmonic analysis was simulated for the wire interconnect

  6. Maydays and Murphies: A Study of the Effect of Organizational Design, Task, and Stress on Organizational Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Zhiang; Carley, Kathleen

    How should organizations of intelligent agents be designed so that they exhibit high performance even during periods of stress? A formal model of organizational performance given a distributed decision-making environment in which agents encounter a radar detection task is presented. Using this model the performance of organizations with various…

  7. Visualization of Time-Series Sensor Data to Inform the Design of Just-In-Time Adaptive Stress Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Sharmin, Moushumi; Raij, Andrew; Epstien, David; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Beck, J. Gayle; Vhaduri, Sudip; Preston, Kenzie; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    We investigate needs, challenges, and opportunities in visualizing time-series sensor data on stress to inform the design of just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs). We identify seven key challenges: massive volume and variety of data, complexity in identifying stressors, scalability of space, multifaceted relationship between stress and time, a need for representation at multiple granularities, interperson variability, and limited understanding of JITAI design requirements due to its novelty. We propose four new visualizations based on one million minutes of sensor data (n=70). We evaluate our visualizations with stress researchers (n=6) to gain first insights into its usability and usefulness in JITAI design. Our results indicate that spatio-temporal visualizations help identify and explain between- and within-person variability in stress patterns and contextual visualizations enable decisions regarding the timing, content, and modality of intervention. Interestingly, a granular representation is considered informative but noise-prone; an abstract representation is the preferred starting point for designing JITAIs. PMID:26539566

  8. 20 CFR 633.303 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated below, direct and indirect costs shall be charged in accordance with 41 CFR part 29-70... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 633.303 Section 633.303... FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Program Design and Administrative Procedures § 633.303 Allowable costs. (a) General....

  9. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211 Compensation allowable. (a) The amount of compensation allowable is the reasonable cost of assessing damages, and...

  10. Anthropological and Psychological Merge: Design of a Stress Measure for Mexican Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Beti; O'Connor, Kathleen; Godina, Ruby; Ibarra, Genoveva

    2010-01-01

    This study implements qualitative and quantitative methodologies in the development of a culturally appropriate instrument of stress for Mexican immigrant farmworkers. Focus groups were used to uncover culturally based perspectives on life stressors, definitions of stress, and stress mediators. Qualitative data were analyzed using QSR NVivo and then used to develop a 23-item stress scale. The scale was tested for reliability and validity in an independent sample and demonstrates excellent reliability (α = 0.9123). Test-retest coefficients of the stress scale are also strong (r = 0.8344, p = 0.0000). Qualitative analyses indicated three major sources of stress: work, family, and community. Emotional aspects of stress also emerged, demonstrating a cultural perspective of stress closely related to feelings of despair and not being able to find a way out of despairing situations. This paper reveals themes gathered from the qualitative data and identifies reliability and validity constructs associated with the scale. The stress scale developed as part of this investigation is a reliable and culturally appropriate instrument for assessing stress among Mexican immigrant farmworkers. PMID:17955350

  11. Using an optimization approach to design an insole for lowering plantar fascia stress--a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Chun; Gung, Yih-Wen; Shih, Shih-Liang; Feng, Chi-Kuang; Wei, Shun-Hwa; Yu, Chung-Huang; Chen, Chen-Sheng

    2008-08-01

    Plantar heel pain is a commonly encountered orthopedic problem and is most often caused by plantar fasciitis. In recent years, different shapes of insole have been used to treat plantar fasciitis. However, little research has been focused on the junction stress between the plantar fascia and the calcaneus when wearing different shapes of insole. Therefore, this study aimed to employ a finite element (FE) method to investigate the relationship between different shapes of insole and the junction stress, and accordingly design an optimal insole to lower fascia stress.A detailed 3D foot FE model was created using ANSYS 9.0 software. The FE model calculation was compared to the Pedar device measurements to validate the FE model. After the FE model validation, this study conducted parametric analysis of six different insoles and used optimization analysis to determine the optimal insole which minimized the junction stress between plantar fascia and calcaneus. This FE analysis found that the plantar fascia stress and peak pressure when using the optimal insole were lower by 14% and 38.9%, respectively, than those when using the flat insole. In addition, the stress variation in plantar fascia was associated with the different shapes of insole.

  12. The Tangle of Student Allowances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Norman J.

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of the distribution of student financial aid in Australia focuses on these issues: direct vs. indirect payment to students; inequality in living allowances given to secondary and postsecondary students; and distribution of expense allowances by state government and living allowances by the Commonwealth. (MSE)

  13. Evaluation of design parameters of dental implant shape, diameter and length on stress distribution: a finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Mohammed Ibrahim, M; Thulasingam, C; Nasser, K S G A; Balaji, V; Rajakumar, M; Rupkumar, P

    2011-09-01

    The aim was to evaluate the design parameters of dental implants shape, diameter and length on stress distribution by finite element analysis (FEA).The objectives of the study was to compare the influence of stress distribution in the implants of screw-vent tapered and parallel design by varying the implant diameter with a standard implant length. Six dental implant models have been simulated three-dimensionally. The influence of diameter and length on stress distribution was evaluated by Group I: for screw-vent tapered design (Zimmer Dental Implant Carlsbad, CA, USA) (1) Dental implant model with diameter 3.7 mm and length 13 mm. (2) Dental implant model with diameter 4.1 mm and length 13 mm. (3) Dental implant model with diameter 4.7 mm and length 13 mm. Group II: for parallel design (Zimmer Dental Implant Carlsbad, CA, USA) (4) Dental implant model with diameter 3.7 mm and length 13 mm. (5) Dental implant model with diameter 4.1 mm and length 13 mm. (6) Dental implant model with diameter 4.7 mm and length 13 mm. The 3-D model of the implant was created in the pro-e wildfire 4.0 software by giving various commands. This model was imported to the ANSYS software through IGES (initial graphic exchange specification) file for further analysis. All six models were loaded with a force of 17.1, 114.6 and 23.4 N in a lingual, an axial and disto-mesial direction respectively, simulating average masticatory force in a natural oblique direction, to analyze the stress distribution on these implants. The increase in implant diameter in Group I and Group II from 3.7 to 4.1 mm and from 4.1 to 4.7 mm with constant 13 mm length for screw-vent tapered and parallel design implant resulted in a reduction in maximum value of Von Mises stress in the bone surrounding the implant was statistically significant at 5% level done by student "t" test. The overall maximum value of Von Mises stress was decreased in parallel design implant diameter of 4.7 mm with constant

  14. Biomechanical analysis of alveolar bone stress around implants with different thread designs and pitches in the mandibular molar area.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ting-Hsun; Du, Je-Kang; Pan, Chin-Yun; Lee, Huey-Er; Chung, Wei-Hao

    2012-04-01

    Threaded implants have been shown to play an important role in increasing mechanical osseointegration. The aim of this study was to determine bone stress distribution when using different types of implant thread pitches and designs. Five 3D finite element models were constructed to simulate bone stresses induced in implant bodies with two types of thread form: triangular ("Tri" prefix) and trapezoidal ("Trap" prefix). The former had thread pitches of 0.8, 1.2, and 1.6 mm, while the latter had thread pitches of 1.2 and 1.6 mm. A biting load of 143 N was applied vertically and obliquely to the occlusal central fossa of the crown. The main effects of each level of the three factors investigated (loading type, pitch, and thread form) in terms of the stress value were computed for all models. Results indicated that the loading type was the main factor of influence on the peak compressive stress of the alveolar bone. Optimal thread pitch was 1.2 mm for a triangular-thread implant, and a trapezoidal-threaded implant with thread pitch of 1.6 mm had the lowest stress value among trapezoidal-threaded implants. This study concluded that each thread form has its unique optimal thread pitch with regard to lower concentration of bone stress. Clinically, this study suggests that in biomechanical consideration, thread pitch exceeding 0.8 mm is more appropriate for a screwed implant. For clinical cases that require greater bone-implant interface, trapezoidal-threaded implants with thread pitch of 1.6 mm provide greater primary stability and lower concentration of bone stress under different loading directions. PMID:21301903

  15. Smart Elasto-Magneto-Electric (EME) Sensors for Stress Monitoring of Steel Cables: Design Theory and Experimental Validation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ru; Duan, Yuanfeng; Or, Siu Wing; Zhao, Yang

    2014-01-01

    An elasto-magnetic (EM) and magneto-electric (ME) effect based elasto-magneto-electric (EME) sensor has been proposed recently by the authors for stress monitoring of steel cables with obvious superiorities over traditional elasto-magnetic sensors. For design optimization and engineering application of the EME sensor, the design theory is interpreted with a developed model taking into account the EM coupling effect and ME coupling effect. This model is able to approximate the magnetization changes that a steel structural component undergoes when subjected to excitation magnetic field and external stress, and to simulate the induced ME voltages of the ME sensing unit located in the magnetization area. A full-scale experiment is then carried out to verify the model and to calibrate the EME sensor as a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tool to monitor the cable stress. The experimental results agree well with the simulation results using the developed model. The proposed EME sensor proves to be feasible for stress monitoring of steel cables with high sensitivity, fast response, and ease of installation. PMID:25072348

  16. Smart elasto-magneto-electric (EME) sensors for stress monitoring of steel cables: design theory and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ru; Duan, Yuanfeng; Or, Siu Wing; Zhao, Yang

    2014-07-28

    An elasto-magnetic (EM) and magneto-electric (ME) effect based elasto-magneto-electric (EME) sensor has been proposed recently by the authors for stress monitoring of steel cables with obvious superiorities over traditional elasto-magnetic sensors. For design optimization and engineering application of the EME sensor, the design theory is interpreted with a developed model taking into account the EM coupling effect and ME coupling effect. This model is able to approximate the magnetization changes that a steel structural component undergoes when subjected to excitation magnetic field and external stress, and to simulate the induced ME voltages of the ME sensing unit located in the magnetization area. A full-scale experiment is then carried out to verify the model and to calibrate the EME sensor as a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tool to monitor the cable stress. The experimental results agree well with the simulation results using the developed model. The proposed EME sensor proves to be feasible for stress monitoring of steel cables with high sensitivity, fast response, and ease of installation.

  17. Design parameters dependences on contact stress distribution in gait and jogging phases after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Rixrath, E; Wendling-Mansuy, S; Flecher, X; Chabrand, P; Argenson, J N

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a mathematical model to calculate the contact stress distribution in total hip arthroplasty (THA) prosthesis between the articulating surfaces. The model uses the clearance between bearing surfaces as well as the inclination and thickness of the Ultra High Molecular Weight Poly-Ethylene (UHMWPE) cup to achieve this. We have used this mathematical model to contrast the maximal force during normal gait and during jogging. This is based on the assumption that the contact stress is proportional to the radial deformation of the cup. The results show that the magnitude of the maximal contact stress remains constant for inclination values in the range of [0-35 degrees ] and increase significantly with the cup clearance and liner thickness for inclination values in the range of [35-65 degrees ]. A major use for this model would be the calculation of spatial contact stress distribution during normal gait or jogging for different couples of bearing surfaces. PMID:18234204

  18. DESAP 1: A structural design program with stress and displacement constraints. Volume 1: Theoretical and user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiusalaas, J.; Reddy, G. B.

    1977-01-01

    A finite element program is presented for computer-automated, minimum weight design of elastic structures with constraints on stresses (including local instability criteria) and displacements. Volume 1 of the report contains the theoretical and user's manual of the program. Sample problems and the listing of the program are included in Volumes 2 and 3. The element subroutines are organized so as to facilitate additions and changes by the user. As a result, a relatively minor programming effort would be required to make DESAP 1 into a special purpose program to handle the user's specific design requirements and failure criteria.

  19. 76 FR 70883 - Clothing Allowance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... published in the Federal Register on February 2, 2011 (76 FR 5733-5734), VA proposed to amend its... appliances affecting different articles of clothing. 76 FR 5733; Sursely, 551 F.3d at 1356. VA will make the... allowances. The amendment provides for an annual clothing allowance for each qualifying prosthetic...

  20. Stress-induced rearrangements of cellular networks: Consequences for protection and drug design.

    PubMed

    Szalay, Máté S; Kovács, István A; Korcsmáros, Tamás; Böde, Csaba; Csermely, Péter

    2007-07-31

    The complexity of the cells can be described and understood by a number of networks such as protein-protein interaction, cytoskeletal, organelle, signalling, gene transcription and metabolic networks. All these networks are highly dynamic producing continuous rearrangements in their links, hubs, network-skeleton and modules. Here we describe the adaptation of cellular networks after various forms of stress causing perturbations, congestions and network damage. Chronic stress decreases link-density, decouples or even quarantines modules, and induces an increased competition between network hubs and bridges. Extremely long or strong stress may induce a topological phase transition in the respective cellular networks, which switches the cell to a completely different mode of cellular function. We summarize our initial knowledge on network restoration after stress including the role of molecular chaperones in this process. Finally, we discuss the implications of stress-induced network rearrangements in diseases and ageing, and propose therapeutic approaches both to increase the robustness and help the repair of cellular networks. PMID:17433306

  1. Stress-corrosion cracking of steels in ammonia with consideration given to OTEC design: a survey

    SciTech Connect

    Teel, R.B.

    1980-03-01

    Carbon steel, alloy steel, and high-strength, quenched and tempered steel, when under applied or residual stress and especially when cold formed and/or welded without subsequent thermal stress relief, are subject to failure by stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in air-contaminated dry ammonia. Water as well as hydrazine when present in small amounts have been shown to be effective inhibitors in an all steel system. Galvanic corrosion between dissimilar metals and/or accelerated failure by SCC of stressed steel as a result of galvanic coupling may be of concern. Where water has proven effective as an inhibitor of SCC in an all steel system, it may not be adequate in a mixed metal system. With aluminum tubes, the tube sheet will either have to be solid aluminum, aluminum clad steel or some nonconductive coating will be necessary to effectively remove the cathodic alloy from the galvanic circuit. Research is required to determine the severity of the coupling effect between dissimilar alloys in ammonia under OTEC conditions; especially the possibility of accelerated SCC failures of stressed steel where the presence of an inhibitor in the ammonia may not be sufficient to override the galvanic coupling effect.

  2. A finite element study on stress distribution of two different attachment designs under implant supported overdenture

    PubMed Central

    El-Anwar, Mohamed I.; Yousief, Salah A.; Soliman, Tarek A.; Saleh, Mahmoud M.; Omar, Wael S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate stress patterns generated within implant-supported mandibular overdentures retained by two different attachment types: ball and socket and locator attachments. Materials and methods Commercial CAD/CAM and finite element analysis software packages were utilized to construct two 3D finite element models for the two attachment types. Unilateral masticatory compressive loads of 50, 100, and 150 N were applied vertically to the overdentures, parallel to the longitudinal axes of the implants. Loads were directed toward the central fossa in the molar region of each overdenture, that linear static analysis was carried out to find the generated stresses and deformation on each part of the studied model. Results According to FEA results the ball attachment neck is highly stressed in comparison to the locator one. On the other hand mucosa and cortical bone received less stresses under ball and socket attachment. Conclusions Locator and ball and socket attachments induce equivalent stresses on bone surrounding implants. Locator attachment performance was superior to that of the ball and socket attachment in the implants, nylon caps, and overdenture. Locator attachments are highly recommended and can increase the interval between successive maintenance sessions. PMID:26644755

  3. Separation by nanoparticles plasmonic resonance with low stress in microfluidics channel (analytical and design).

    PubMed

    SalmanOgli, Ahmad; Farhadnia, Farshad; Piskin, Erhan

    2016-08-01

    In this study, nanoparticles near-field plasmonic resonance is used to improve the traditional cell separation main outputs such as viability and efficiency. The live cells viability is severely depend on stresses, which are applied on cells in the microfluidics channel. Hence, for improving the cell viability, the enforced stresses inside of the structure should be declined. The major factors of the enforced stresses are related to the electric field non-uniformity, which are attributed to the hurdles and applied voltage magnitude. Therefore, in this study, a new structure is presented and thereby, the magnitude of the applied stresses on live cells is minimised which is contributed to the decreasing the non-uniformity strength of channel. It should be noted that in the new structure two arrays of nanoparticles were used to produce a short range and localised non-uniform electrical field because of their near-field plasmonic resonance. Hence, the enforced stress on the live cell severely decreased at the far-field and confined at the small section of the channel. It is due to, the near-field plasmonic amplitude is dramatically disappeared by increasing distance, hence, the cells far from the nanoparticles will be endured the low level but effective amount of the optical force. PMID:27463794

  4. Mobile Mental Wellness Training for Stress Management: Feasibility and Design Implications Based on a One-Month Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahtinen, Aino; Välkkynen, Pasi; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Vanhala, Toni; Ermes, Miikka; Sairanen, Essi; Myllymäki, Tero; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevention and management of work-related stress and related mental problems is a great challenge. Mobile applications are a promising way to integrate prevention strategies into the everyday lives of citizens. Objective The objectives of this study was to study the usage, acceptance, and usefulness of a mobile mental wellness training application among working-age individuals, and to derive preliminary design implications for mobile apps for stress management. Methods Oiva, a mobile app based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), was designed to support active learning of skills related to mental wellness through brief ACT-based exercises in the daily life. A one-month field study with 15 working-age participants was organized to study the usage, acceptance, and usefulness of Oiva. The usage of Oiva was studied based on the usage log files of the application. Changes in wellness were measured by three validated questionnaires on stress, satisfaction with life (SWLS), and psychological flexibility (AAQ-II) at the beginning and at end of the study and by user experience questionnaires after one week’s and one month’s use. In-depth user experience interviews were conducted after one month’s use to study the acceptance and user experiences of Oiva. Results Oiva was used actively throughout the study. The average number of usage sessions was 16.8 (SD 2.4) and the total usage time per participant was 3 hours 12 minutes (SD 99 minutes). Significant pre-post improvements were obtained in stress ratings (mean 3.1 SD 0.2 vs mean 2.5 SD 0.1, P=.003) and satisfaction with life scores (mean 23.1 SD 1.3 vs mean 25.9 SD 0.8, P=.02), but not in psychological flexibility. Oiva was perceived easy to use, acceptable, and useful by the participants. A randomized controlled trial is ongoing to evaluate the effectiveness of Oiva on working-age individuals with stress problems. Conclusions A feasibility study of Oiva mobile mental wellness training app showed good

  5. Application of Multi Criteria Optimization Method in Implant Design to Reduce Stress Shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizam Ahmad, M.; Shuib, Solehuddin; Hassan, A. Y.; Shokri, A. A.; Ridzwan, M. I. Z.; Ibrahim, M. N. Mohd.

    In this study, method of multi criteria optimization was used to optimise the size of hip implant to reduce the problem of stress shielding. A computer programme was written by using FORTRAN language to achieve this goal. The optimum implant was modelled and analysed by using I-DEAS software. Results were compared with the reference implant. It was shown that, the optimum implant had reduced the problem of stress shielding at almost 50%. This successful result was encouraged by an optimum load transferred along femur/implant interface.

  6. Simultaneous topology, shape and size optimization of truss structures by fully stressed design based on evolution strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrari, Ali; Atai, Ali A.; Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2015-08-01

    The most effective scheme of truss optimization considers the combined effect of topology, shape and size (TSS); however, most available studies on truss optimization by metaheuristics concentrated on one or two of the above aspects. The presence of diverse design variables and constraints in TSS optimization may account for such limited applicability of metaheuristics to this field. In this article, a recently proposed algorithm for simultaneous shape and size optimization, fully stressed design based on evolution strategy (FSD-ES), is enhanced to handle TSS optimization problems. FSD-ES combines advantages of the well-known deterministic approach of fully stressed design with potential global search of the state-of-the-art evolution strategy. A comparison of results demonstrates that the proposed optimizer reaches the same or similar solutions faster and/or is able to find lighter designs than those previously reported in the literature. Moreover, the proposed variant of FSD-ES requires no user-based tuning effort, which is desired in a practical application. The proposed methodology has been tested on a number of problems and is now ready to be applied to more complex TSS problems.

  7. Design, fabrication and test of lightweight shell structure. [axial compression loads and torsion stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lager, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    A cylindrical shell structure 3.66 m (144 in.) high by 4.57 m (180 in.) diameter was designed using a wide variety of materials and structural concepts to withstand design ultimate combined loading 1225.8 N/cm (700 lb/in.) axial compression and 245.2 N/cm (140 lb/in.) torsion. The overall cylinder geometry and design loading are representative of that expected on a high performance space tug vehicle. The relatively low design load level results in designs that use thin gage metals and fibrous-composite laminates. Fabrication and structural tests of small panels and components representative of many of the candidate designs served to demonstrate proposed fabrication techniques and to verify design and analysis methods. Three of the designs evaluated, honeycomb sandwich with aluminum faceskins, honeycomb sandwich with graphite/epoxy faceskins, and aluminum truss with fiber-glass meteoroid protection layers, were selected for further evaluation.

  8. Pipeline design and thermal stress analysis of a 10kW@20K helium refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, D.; Gong, L. H.; Xu, P.; Liu, H. M.; Li, L. F.; Xu, X. D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on the devices and pipeline in the horizontal cryogenic cold-box of a 10kW@20K helium refrigerator developed by Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Four devices, six valves, supporting components and pipe lines are positioned in the cold-box. At operating state, the temperature of these devices and pipeline is far below the room temperature, and the lowest temperature is 14K. Due to different material and temperature, the shrinkage of devices and pipes is different. Finite element analysis software SOLIDWORKS SIMULATION was used to numerically simulate the thermal stress and deformation. The results show that the thermal stress of pipe A is a little large. So we should change the pipe route or use a bellows expansion joint. Bellows expansion joints should also be used in the pipes connected to three of the six valves to protect them by decreasing the deformation. At last, the effect of diameter, thickness and bend radius on the thermal stress was analyzed. The results show that the thermal stress of the pipes increases with the increase of the diameter and the decrease of the bend radius.

  9. The Power of Role Design: Balancing the Principals Financial Responsibility with the Implications of Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The Anglo-Saxon countries have implemented Management by Objectives (MBO) complemented with school-based management (SBM) fairly rapidly. Although these countries are considered something of a benchmark of stability, research on principals reveals that they experience high levels of stress and that this is associated with poorer job performance.…

  10. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.241...

  11. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.217...

  12. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205...

  13. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.223...

  14. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.235...

  15. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.229...

  16. 24 CFR 3280.904 - Specific requirements for designing the transportation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is usually of the socket type) shall be securely fastened to the drawbar in such a manner as to... loads as outlined in § 3280.904(b)(3) without exceeding maximum allowable stresses for design spring... design loads outlined in § 3280.904(b)(3) without exceeding maximum allowable stresses for design...

  17. Programming for Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Structures under stress are designed much more rapidly -- allowing for remarkable increases in productivity -- since NASTRAN (for NASA Structural Analysis) has become available. The versatile computer program, written originally to help design more efficient space vehicles, finds additional applications each year.

  18. Design and fabrication of a direction sensitive MEMS shear stress sensor with high spatial and temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, A. V.; Haque, M. A.

    2004-12-01

    Shear stress at the fluid-wall interface is one of the most frequently studied parameters in fluid dynamics. It is also a parameter of very small magnitude and calls for high resolution force sensors. Macroscopic sensors compromise dynamic bandwidth for the required high resolution and therefore cannot resolve shear stress data in space and/or time, which is very important for fundamental understanding in non-laminar fluid dynamics. We exploit the linear reduction in stiffness accompanied by cubic reduction in mass by miniaturization to design and fabricate a novel micro-electro-mechanical sensor (MEMS) for direct measurement of shear stress along and across the direction of fluid flow, with 0.01 Pa resolution and 50 kHz bandwidth along the flow. The mechanical component of the sensor is a floating beam element and capacitive comb drives supported by an in-plane torsional spring. A resonant RLC circuit, capable of sub-femtofarad capacitive sensing, is used to sense the displacement in the floating beam under shear. Fabrication of the sensor is demonstrated using silicon-on wafer (SOI) technology. The small overall size of the sensor, wide range of measurement, large bandwidth and high spatial and temporal resolution will make it useful in a wide variety of civil and military applications such as aerospace, automotive, marine and biomedical.

  19. Regulatory treatment of allowances and compliance costs

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.

    1993-07-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) established a national emission allowance trading system, a market-based form of environmental regulation designed to reduce and limit sulfur dioxide emissions. However, the allowance trading system is being applied primarily to an economically regulated electric utility industry. The combining of the new form of environmental regulation and economic regulation of electric utilities has raised a number of questions including what the role should be of the federal and state utility regulating commissions and how those actions will affect the decision making process of the utilities and the allowance market. There are several dimensions to the regulatory problems that commissions face. Allowances and utility compliance expenditures have implications for least-cost/IPR (integrated resource planning), prudence review procedures, holding company and multistate utility regulation and ratemaking treatment. The focus of this paper is on the ratemaking treatment. The following topics are covered: ratemaking treatment of allowances and compliance costs; Traditional cost-recovery mechanisms; limitations to the traditional approach; traditional approach and the allowance trading market; market-based cost recovery mechanisms; methods of determining the benchmark; determining the split between ratepayers and the utility; other regulatory approaches; limitations of incentive mechanisms.

  20. Engineering design, stress and thermal analysis, and documentation for SATS program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An in-depth analysis and mechanical design of the solar array stowage and deployment arrangements for use in Small Applications Technology Satellite spacecraft is presented. Alternate approaches for the major elements of work are developed and evaluated. Elements include array stowage and deployment arrangements, the spacecraft and array behavior in the spacecraft despin mode, and the design of the main hinge and segment hinge assemblies. Feasibility calculations are performed and the preferred approach is identified.

  1. Designing Microfluidic Devices for Studying Cellular Responses Under Single or Coexisting Chemical/Electrical/Shear Stress Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Chou, Tzu-Yuan; Sun, Yung-Shin; Hou, Hsien-San; Wu, Shang-Ying; Zhu, Yun; Cheng, Ji-Yen; Lo, Kai-Yin

    2016-08-13

    Microfluidic devices are capable of creating a precise and controllable cellular micro-environment of pH, temperature, salt concentration, and other physical or chemical stimuli. They have been commonly used for in vitro cell studies by providing in vivo like surroundings. Especially, how cells response to chemical gradients, electrical fields, and shear stresses has drawn many interests since these phenomena are important in understanding cellular properties and functions. These microfluidic chips can be made of glass substrates, silicon wafers, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymers, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrates, or polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) substrates. Out of these materials, PMMA substrates are cheap and can be easily processed using laser ablation and writing. Although a few microfluidic devices have been designed and fabricated for generating multiple, coexisting chemical and electrical stimuli, none of them was considered efficient enough in reducing experimental repeats, particular for screening purposes. In this report, we describe our design and fabrication of two PMMA-based microfluidic chips for investigating cellular responses, in the production of reactive oxygen species and the migration, under single or coexisting chemical/electrical/shear stress stimuli. The first chip generates five relative concentrations of 0, 1/8, 1/2, 7/8, and 1 in the culture regions, together with a shear stress gradient produced inside each of these areas. The second chip generates the same relative concentrations, but with five different electric field strengths created within each culture area. These devices not only provide cells with a precise, controllable micro-environment but also greatly increase the experimental throughput.

  2. Designing Microfluidic Devices for Studying Cellular Responses Under Single or Coexisting Chemical/Electrical/Shear Stress Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Chou, Tzu-Yuan; Sun, Yung-Shin; Hou, Hsien-San; Wu, Shang-Ying; Zhu, Yun; Cheng, Ji-Yen; Lo, Kai-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices are capable of creating a precise and controllable cellular micro-environment of pH, temperature, salt concentration, and other physical or chemical stimuli. They have been commonly used for in vitro cell studies by providing in vivo like surroundings. Especially, how cells response to chemical gradients, electrical fields, and shear stresses has drawn many interests since these phenomena are important in understanding cellular properties and functions. These microfluidic chips can be made of glass substrates, silicon wafers, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymers, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrates, or polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) substrates. Out of these materials, PMMA substrates are cheap and can be easily processed using laser ablation and writing. Although a few microfluidic devices have been designed and fabricated for generating multiple, coexisting chemical and electrical stimuli, none of them was considered efficient enough in reducing experimental repeats, particular for screening purposes. In this report, we describe our design and fabrication of two PMMA-based microfluidic chips for investigating cellular responses, in the production of reactive oxygen species and the migration, under single or coexisting chemical/electrical/shear stress stimuli. The first chip generates five relative concentrations of 0, 1/8, 1/2, 7/8, and 1 in the culture regions, together with a shear stress gradient produced inside each of these areas. The second chip generates the same relative concentrations, but with five different electric field strengths created within each culture area. These devices not only provide cells with a precise, controllable micro-environment but also greatly increase the experimental throughput. PMID:27584698

  3. Non-linear visco-elastic analysis and the design of super-pressure balloons : stress, strain and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakefield, David

    Tensys have a long-established background in the shape generation and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures. Founded upon their inTENS finite element analysis suite, these activities have broadened to encompass ‘lighter than air' structures such as aerostats, hybrid air-vehicles and stratospheric balloons. Since 2004 Tensys have acted as consultants to the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) Program. Early implementations of the super-pressure balloon design chosen for ULDB have shown problems of geometric instability, characterised by improper deployment and the potential for overall geometric instability once deployed. The latter has been reproduced numerically using inTENS, and the former are better understood following a series of large-scale hangar tests simulating launch and ascent. In both cases the solution lies in minimising the film lobing between the tendons. These tendons, which span between base and apex end fittings, cause the characteristic pumpkin shape of the balloons and also provide valuable constraint against excessive film deformation. There is also the requirement to generate a biaxial stress field in order to mobilise in-plane shear stiffness. A consequence of reduced lobing between tendons is the development of higher stresses in the balloon film under pressure. The different thermal characteristics between tendons and film lead to further significant meridional stress under low temperature flight conditions. The non-linear viscoelastic response of the envelope film acts positively to help dissipate excessive stress and local concentrations. However, creep over time may produce lobe geometry variations sufficient to compromise the geometric stability of the balloon. The design of a balloon requires an analysis approach that addresses the questions of stress and stability over the duration of a flight by time stepping analyses using an appropriate material model. This paper summarises the Dynamic Relaxation

  4. Computers, Children & Repetitive Stress Injuries: The Effects of Computer Workstation Design on Children's Posture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lorraine E.; Laeser, Kathryn L.

    2007-01-01

    As adult office workers' use of computers has increased, the incidence of computer-related musculoskeletal complaints and injuries has also increased. Although the use of computers in the classroom is increasing, little attention has been paid by educators, furniture manufacturers, or researchers to the ergonomic design issues of educational…

  5. Effect of the 2010 Chilean Earthquake on Posttraumatic Stress Reducing Sensitivity to Unmeasured Bias Through Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Zubizarreta, José R.; Cerdá, Magdalena; Rosenbaum, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, a magnitude 8.8 earthquake hit Chile, devastating parts of the country. Having just completed its national socioeconomic survey, the Chilean government reinterviewed a subsample of respondents, creating unusual longitudinal data about the same persons before and after a major disaster. The follow-up evaluated posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) using Davidson’s Trauma Scale. We use these data with two goals in mind. Most studies of PTSS after disasters rely on recall to characterize the state of affairs before the disaster. We are able to use prospective data on preexposure conditions, free of recall bias, to study the effects of the earthquake. Second, we illustrate recent developments in statistical methodology for the design and analysis of observational studies. In particular, we use new and recent methods for multivariate matching to control 46 covariates that describe demographic variables, housing quality, wealth, health, and health insurance before the earthquake. We use the statistical theory of design sensitivity to select a study design with findings expected to be insensitive to small or moderate biases from failure to control some unmeasured covariate. PTSS were dramatically but unevenly elevated among residents of strongly shaken areas of Chile when compared with similar persons in largely untouched parts of the country. In 96% of exposed-control pairs exhibiting substantial PTSS, it was the exposed person who experienced stronger symptoms (95% confidence interval = 0.91–1.00). PMID:23222557

  6. Design, Analysis and Application of a Novel Test for Sheet Metal Forming Limits under Non-Planar Stress States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allwood, Julian M.; Shouler, Daniel R.

    2011-05-01

    Recent work on incremental sheet forming processes has demonstrated that they induce non-planar stress states which give significantly increased forming limits. In previous work, we have extended the Marcinak-Kuczynski analysis for in-plane loading to include proportional loading with all six components of the stress tensor, and have represented the results as a generalised forming limit diagram. This paper proposes a first standardised test of forming limits under these conditions. A novel apparatus is constructed in which a sliding carriage can apply controllable compressive rolling, three-roll bending, or through thickness shearing to a sample undergoing uniaxial extension. Finite element analysis demonstrates the effect of this loading on deformation and details of equipment design are given. Initial trials are used to assess the repeatability of the tests and to confirm whether the strain states induced in the workpieces conform with finite element predictions. Tests to examine increases in formability under various loading conditions show greatly increased failure strains, but with some variability in results, and only partial agreement with analytical predictions.

  7. Design, Fabrication and Testing of an Experimental Apparatus for Determining Particle Behavior Under Very Low Intergranular Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sture, S.; Costes, N.

    1985-01-01

    Because the constitutive laws for soils are governed mainly by interparticle friction, all aspects of their mechanical behavior depend strongly on gravitational body forces. This fact poses serious limitations on the formulation of a materially objective soil constitutive theory, based on experimentation performed on Earth. In particular, the presence of the Earth's gravity prohibits the design of controlled experiments to properly simulate a variety of critical phenomena associated with the dynamic response of soils to seismic excitation in a very low effective confining stress field. For these reasons, laboratory-controlled experiments in the Space Shuttle, under essentially zero-gravity conditions, could offer invaluable opportunities for developing a quantitative understanding of fundamental aspects of soil behavior during or after an earthquake, which, in turn, could result in significant technological advances in geotechnical earthquake engineering.

  8. Effect of Preparation Taper, Height and Marginal Design Under Varying Occlusal Loading Conditions on Cement Lute Stress: A Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Siddhi; Amarnath, Gowdagere Shamanna; Muddugangadhar, Byrasandra Channapa; Sharma, Ashish; Choudhary, Suchismita

    2014-12-01

    To assess the effect of preparation taper, height and margin design under different loading conditions on cement lute stress. A 3-D FE model of an upper second premolar and molar was developed from CT scan of human skull using software programmes (MIMICS, Hypermesh and ANSYS). 10° and 30° taper, 3 and 5 mm preparation height and shoulder and chamfer finish lines were used. Type 1 Glass ionomer cement with 24 μm lute width was taken and the model was loaded under 100 N horizontal point load, vertical point load distributed axial load. The maximum shear stress and Von Mises stress within the cement lute were recorded. The maximum shear stresses ranged from 1.70 to 3.93 MPa (horizontal point loading), 0.66 to 3.04 MPa (vertical point loading), 0.38 to 0.87 MPa (distributed loading). The maximum Von Mises stresses ranged from 3.39 to 10.62 MPa (horizontal point loading), 1.93 to 8.58 MPa (vertical point loading) and 1.49 to 3.57 MPa (distributed loading). The combination of 10° taper and 5 mm height had the lowest stress field while the combination of 30° taper and 5 mm height had the highest stress field. Distributed axial loading shows least stress, better stress homogenization and gives a favorable prognosis for the fixed prostheses. Smaller preparation taper of 10° is biomechanically more acceptable than a 30° taper. It is desirable to decrease taper as height increases. The chamfer margin design is associated with greater local cement stresses toward the margins that could place the cement at greater risk for microfracture and failure.

  9. Family allowance and family planning in Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Plank, S J

    1978-01-01

    Family allowances designed to promote maternal and child health and welfare could be self-defeating if they stimulated otherwise unwanted births, as often assumed. That assumption, with its public health and demographic implications, needs testing. An attempt to test it was made in Chile in 1969--1970 through interviews with 945 wives receiving an allowance and 690 non-recipients. Recipients practiced contraception significantly more than did non-recipients. This was not explained by wives' educational attainment or employment, the couples' earnings, or number of living children, but was associated with a 50 per cent greater utilization of professional prenatal care by recipients during the most recent pregnancy; women with such care (regardless of allowance status) were 75 per cent more likely than others to control their fertility. Prenatal care was probably sought more by recipients in part because an additional stipend was provided as soon as pregnancy was confirmed, usually at clinics with integrated family planning. Greater family income, attributable to the allowance, probably also contributed to the recipients' better prenatal attention and to contraceptive practice. Noteworthy, too, was the finding that with the number of living children controlled, contraceptive practice was significantly greater amoung couples who had never lost a child. PMID:717610

  10. Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollak, Ave

    This guide is intended for use in conducting a three-session course that will help employees in the manufacturing and service industries acquire necessary stress management skills. The instructional materials presented are designed to help students learn to accomplish the following: recognize good and bad stress and understand the physical,…

  11. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  12. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  13. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  14. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  15. Designing climate-resilient rice with ideal grain quality suited for high-temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasulu, Nese; Butardo, Vito M; Misra, Gopal; Cuevas, Rosa Paula; Anacleto, Roslen; Kavi Kishor, Polavarpu B

    2015-04-01

    To ensure rice food security, the target outputs of future rice breeding programmes should focus on developing climate-resilient rice varieties with emphasis on increased head rice yield coupled with superior grain quality. This challenge is made greater by a world that is increasingly becoming warmer. Such environmental changes dramatically impact head rice and milling yield as well as increasing chalkiness because of impairment in starch accumulation and other storage biosynthetic pathways in the grain. This review highlights the knowledge gained through gene discovery via quantitative trait locus (QTL) cloning and structural-functional genomic strategies to reduce chalk, increase head rice yield, and develop stable lines with optimum grain quality in challenging environments. The newly discovered genes and the knowledge gained on the influence of specific alleles related to stability of grain quality attributes provide a robust platform for marker-assisted selection in breeding to design heat-tolerant rice varieties with superior grain quality. Using the chalkiness trait in rice as a case study, we demonstrate here that the emerging field of systems genetics can help fast-track the identification of novel alleles and gene targets that can be pyramided for the development of environmentally robust rice varieties that possess improved grain quality.

  16. Designing climate-resilient rice with ideal grain quality suited for high-temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasulu, Nese; Butardo, Vito M; Misra, Gopal; Cuevas, Rosa Paula; Anacleto, Roslen; Kavi Kishor, Polavarpu B

    2015-04-01

    To ensure rice food security, the target outputs of future rice breeding programmes should focus on developing climate-resilient rice varieties with emphasis on increased head rice yield coupled with superior grain quality. This challenge is made greater by a world that is increasingly becoming warmer. Such environmental changes dramatically impact head rice and milling yield as well as increasing chalkiness because of impairment in starch accumulation and other storage biosynthetic pathways in the grain. This review highlights the knowledge gained through gene discovery via quantitative trait locus (QTL) cloning and structural-functional genomic strategies to reduce chalk, increase head rice yield, and develop stable lines with optimum grain quality in challenging environments. The newly discovered genes and the knowledge gained on the influence of specific alleles related to stability of grain quality attributes provide a robust platform for marker-assisted selection in breeding to design heat-tolerant rice varieties with superior grain quality. Using the chalkiness trait in rice as a case study, we demonstrate here that the emerging field of systems genetics can help fast-track the identification of novel alleles and gene targets that can be pyramided for the development of environmentally robust rice varieties that possess improved grain quality. PMID:25662847

  17. Designing climate-resilient rice with ideal grain quality suited for high-temperature stress

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasulu, Nese; Butardo, Vito M.; Misra, Gopal; Cuevas, Rosa Paula; Anacleto, Roslen; Kavi Kishor, Polavarpu B.

    2015-01-01

    To ensure rice food security, the target outputs of future rice breeding programmes should focus on developing climate-resilient rice varieties with emphasis on increased head rice yield coupled with superior grain quality. This challenge is made greater by a world that is increasingly becoming warmer. Such environmental changes dramatically impact head rice and milling yield as well as increasing chalkiness because of impairment in starch accumulation and other storage biosynthetic pathways in the grain. This review highlights the knowledge gained through gene discovery via quantitative trait locus (QTL) cloning and structural–functional genomic strategies to reduce chalk, increase head rice yield, and develop stable lines with optimum grain quality in challenging environments. The newly discovered genes and the knowledge gained on the influence of specific alleles related to stability of grain quality attributes provide a robust platform for marker-assisted selection in breeding to design heat-tolerant rice varieties with superior grain quality. Using the chalkiness trait in rice as a case study, we demonstrate here that the emerging field of systems genetics can help fast-track the identification of novel alleles and gene targets that can be pyramided for the development of environmentally robust rice varieties that possess improved grain quality. PMID:25662847

  18. Internet-based prevention of posttraumatic stress symptoms in injured trauma patients: design of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mouthaan, Joanne; Sijbrandij, Marit; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Gersons, Berthold P.R.; Olff, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Background Injured trauma victims are at risk of developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and other post-trauma psychopathology. So far, interventions using cognitive behavioral techniques (CBT) have proven most efficacious in treating early PTSD in highly symptomatic individuals. No early intervention for the prevention of PTSD for all victims has yet proven effective. In the acute psychosocial care for trauma victims, there is a clear need for easily applicable, accessible, cost-efficient early interventions. Objective To describe the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness of a brief Internet-based early intervention that incorporates CBT techniques with the aim of reducing acute psychological distress and preventing long-term PTSD symptoms in injured trauma victims. Method In a two armed RCT, 300 injured trauma victims from two Level-1 trauma centers in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, will be assigned to an intervention or a control group. Inclusion criteria are: being 18 years of age or older, having experienced a traumatic event according to the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-IV and understanding the Dutch language. The intervention group will be given access to the intervention's website (www.traumatips.nl), and are specifically requested to login within the first month postinjury. The primary clinical study outcome is PTSD symptom severity. Secondary outcomes include symptoms of depression and anxiety, quality of life, and social support. In addition, a cost-effectiveness analysis of the intervention will be performed. Data are collected at one week post-injury, prior to first login (baseline), and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Analyses will be on an intention-to-treat basis. Discussion The results will provide more insight into the effects of preventive interventions in general, and Internet-based early interventions specifically, on acute stress reactions and PTSD, in an injured population, during the acute phase after

  19. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Airborne Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2008-01-01

    The enclosed table lists official spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs), which are guideline values set by the NASA/JSC Toxicology Group in cooperation with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRCCOT). These values should not be used for situations other than human space flight without careful consideration of the criteria used to set each value. The SMACs take into account a number of unique factors such as the effect of space-flight stress on human physiology, the uniform good health of the astronauts, and the absence of pregnant or very young individuals. Documentation of the values is given in a 5 volume series of books entitled "Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants" published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. These books can be viewed electronically at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9786&page=3. Short-term (1 and 24 hour) SMACs are set to manage accidental releases aboard a spacecraft and permit risk of minor, reversible effects such as mild mucosal irritation. In contrast, the long-term SMACs are set to fully protect healthy crewmembers from adverse effects resulting from continuous exposure to specific air pollutants for up to 1000 days. Crewmembers with allergies or unusual sensitivity to trace pollutants may not be afforded complete protection, even when long-term SMACs are not exceeded. Crewmember exposures involve a mixture of contaminants, each at a specific concentration (C(sub n)). These contaminants could interact to elicit symptoms of toxicity even though individual contaminants do not exceed their respective SMACs. The air quality is considered acceptable when the toxicity index (T(sub grp)) for each toxicological group of compounds is less than 1, where T(sub grp), is calculated as follows: T(sub grp) = C(sub 1)/SMAC(sub 1) + C(sub 2/SMAC(sub 2) + ...+C(sub n)/SMAC(sub n).

  20. Two-dimensional finite element analysis of the influence of bridge design on stress distribution in bone tissues surrounding fixtures of osseointegrated implants in the lower molar region.

    PubMed

    Arataki, T; Adachi, Y; Kishi, M

    1998-08-01

    This study is a comparison and examination of the stress distribution of the bone tissues surrounding the fixture under a static vertical load condition with regard to an osseointegrated implant bridge (OIB) applied to the lower molar region. It was performed by constructing more than one of two-dimensional finite element models that differ in design conditions. In the case of the bounded type OIB design to the fixture placed in a straight line, a decrease in the maximum stress value of the compact bone surrounding the fixture was recognized with a decrease in the total inter-fixture distance and an increase in the number of placed fixtures. On the other hand, in the case of the free-end type OIB design, there is an increase in the maximum stress value compared with the bounded type OIB design and, in particular, a marked increase with the decrease in the total inter-fixture distance and the extension of the free-end pontic. However, the effect of the number of fixtures placed on the maximum stress value of the surrounding bone tissues was considered to be comparatively small.

  1. Nitrosative Stress in the Nervous System: Guidelines for Designing Experimental Strategies to Study Protein S-Nitrosylation.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tomohiro; Lipton, Stuart A

    2016-03-01

    Reactive nitrogen species, such as nitric oxide (NO), exert their biological activity in large part through post-translational modification of cysteine residues, forming S-nitrosothiols. This chemical reaction proceeds via a process that we and our colleagues have termed protein S-nitrosylation. Under conditions of normal NO production, S-nitrosylation regulates the activity of many normal proteins. However, in degenerative conditions characterized by nitrosative stress, increased levels of NO lead to aberrant S-nitrosylation that contributes to the pathology of the disease. Thus, S-nitrosylation has been implicated in a wide range of cellular mechanisms, including mitochondrial function, proteostasis, transcriptional regulation, synaptic activity, and cell survival. In recent years, the research area of protein S-nitrosylation has become prominent due to improvements in the detection systems as well as the demonstration that protein S-nitrosylation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and other neurological disorders. To further promote our understanding of how protein S-nitrosylation affects cellular systems, guidelines for the design and conduct of research on S-nitrosylated (or SNO-)proteins would be highly desirable, especially for those newly entering the field. In this review article, we provide a strategic overview of designing experimental approaches to study protein S-nitrosylation. We specifically focus on methods that can provide critical data to demonstrate that an S-nitrosylated protein plays a (patho-)physiologically-relevant role in a biological process. Hence, the implementation of the approaches described herein will contribute to further advancement of the study of S-nitrosylated proteins, not only in neuroscience but also in other research fields.

  2. Current Experience in Testing Mitochondrial Nutrients in Disorders Featuring Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Rational Design of Chemoprevention Trials

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Giovanni; Aiello Talamanca, Annarita; Castello, Giuseppe; Cordero, Mario D.; d’Ischia, Marco; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola; Pallardó, Federico V.; Petrović, Sandra; Tiano, Luca; Zatterale, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    An extensive number of pathologies are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction (MDF) and oxidative stress (OS). Thus, mitochondrial cofactors termed “mitochondrial nutrients” (MN), such as α-lipoic acid (ALA), Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), and l-carnitine (CARN) (or its derivatives) have been tested in a number of clinical trials, and this review is focused on the use of MN-based clinical trials. The papers reporting on MN-based clinical trials were retrieved in MedLine up to July 2014, and evaluated for the following endpoints: (a) treated diseases; (b) dosages, number of enrolled patients and duration of treatment; (c) trial success for each MN or MN combinations as reported by authors. The reports satisfying the above endpoints included total numbers of trials and frequencies of randomized, controlled studies, i.e., 81 trials testing ALA, 107 reports testing CoQ10, and 74 reports testing CARN, while only 7 reports were retrieved testing double MN associations, while no report was found testing a triple MN combination. A total of 28 reports tested MN associations with “classical” antioxidants, such as antioxidant nutrients or drugs. Combinations of MN showed better outcomes than individual MN, suggesting forthcoming clinical studies. The criteria in study design and monitoring MN-based clinical trials are discussed. PMID:25380523

  3. Effect of the crown design and interface lute parameters on the stress-state of a machined crown-tooth system: a finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Shahrbaf, Shirin; vanNoort, Richard; Mirzakouchaki, Behnam; Ghassemieh, Elaheh; Martin, Nicolas

    2013-08-01

    The effect of preparation design and the physical properties of the interface lute on the restored machined ceramic crown-tooth complex are poorly understood. The aim of this work was to determine, by means of three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D FEA) the effect of the tooth preparation design and the elastic modulus of the cement on the stress state of the cemented machined ceramic crown-tooth complex. The three-dimensional structure of human premolar teeth, restored with adhesively cemented machined ceramic crowns, was digitized with a micro-CT scanner. An accurate, high resolution, digital replica model of a restored tooth was created. Two preparation designs, with different occlusal morphologies, were modeled with cements of 3 different elastic moduli. Interactive medical image processing software (mimics and professional CAD modeling software) was used to create sophisticated digital models that included the supporting structures; periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. The generated models were imported into an FEA software program (hypermesh version 10.0, Altair Engineering Inc.) with all degrees of freedom constrained at the outer surface of the supporting cortical bone of the crown-tooth complex. Five different elastic moduli values were given to the adhesive cement interface 1.8GPa, 4GPa, 8GPa, 18.3GPa and 40GPa; the four lower values are representative of currently used cementing lutes and 40GPa is set as an extreme high value. The stress distribution under simulated applied loads was determined. The preparation design demonstrated an effect on the stress state of the restored tooth system. The cement elastic modulus affected the stress state in the cement and dentin structures but not in the crown, the pulp, the periodontal ligament or the cancellous and cortical bone. The results of this study suggest that both the choice of the preparation design and the cement elastic modulus can affect the stress state within the restored crown

  4. Stress echocardiography

    MedlinePlus

    Echocardiography stress test; Stress test - echocardiography; CAD - stress echocardiography; Coronary artery disease - stress echocardiography; Chest pain - stress echocardiography; Angina - stress echocardiography; ...

  5. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 252 - Policy Statement on the Scenario Design Framework for Stress Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act or Act) and through its capital plan rule (12 CFR 225.8). Under the stress... supervisory and company-run stress tests (macroeconomic scenarios).23 21 12 U.S.C. 5365(i)(1); 12 CFR part 252, subpart F. 22 12 U.S.C. 5365(i)(2); 12 CFR part 252, subparts G and H. 23 The stress test rules...

  6. Teaching Stress Physiology Using Zebrafish ("Danio Rerio")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Michael; Dhawale, Shree; Mustafa, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    A straightforward and inexpensive laboratory experiment is presented that investigates the physiological stress response of zebrafish after a 5 degree C increase in water temperature. This experiment is designed for an undergraduate physiology lab and allows students to learn the scientific method and relevant laboratory techniques without causing…

  7. Liquid micrurgy chamber and microsyringe designs allow more efficient micromanipulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, E. W.

    1967-01-01

    More efficient micromanipulations on large amoebae achieved by liquid micrurgy chamber and microsyringe. These innovations move the system closer to the specimen, and flatten the specimen for a clear view of the nuclei, also eliminating spherical abberation and evaporation.

  8. Technology Allows Engineers to Make Solid Objects from Computer Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Computer operators using the technique of three-dimensional printing or rapid prototyping may soon be able to sculpt an object on the screen and within minutes, have a paper, plastic, or ceramic version of the object in hand. The process uses the principle that physical objects can be created in layers. (MSE)

  9. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a web-based and mobile stress-management intervention for employees: design of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Work-related stress is associated with a variety of mental and emotional problems and can lead to substantial economic costs due to lost productivity, absenteeism or the inability to work. There is a considerable amount of evidence on the effectiveness of traditional face-to-face stress-management interventions for employees; however, they are often costly, time-consuming, and characterized by a high access threshold. Web-based interventions may overcome some of these problems yet the evidence in this field is scarce. This paper describes the protocol for a study that will examine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a web-based guided stress-management training which is based on problem solving and emotion regulation and aimed at reducing stress in adult employees. Methods The study will target stressed employees aged 18 and older. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) design will be applied. Based on a power calculation of d=.35 (1-β of 80%, α = .05), 264 participants will be recruited and randomly assigned to either the intervention group or a six-month waitlist control group. Inclusion criteria include an elevated stress level (Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale-10 ≥ 22) and current employment. Exclusion criteria include risk of suicide or previously diagnosed psychosis or dissociative symptoms. The primary outcome will be perceived stress, and secondary outcomes include depression and anxiety. Data will be collected at baseline and seven weeks and six months after randomization. An extended follow up at 12 months is planned for the intervention group. Moreover, a cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted from a societal perspective and will include both direct and indirect health care costs. Data will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis and per protocol. Discussion The substantial negative consequences of work-related stress emphasize the necessity for effective stress-management trainings. If the proposed internet intervention proves

  10. The Trier Social Stress Test protocol for inducing psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Birkett, Melissa A

    2011-10-19

    This article demonstrates a psychological stress protocol for use in a laboratory setting. Protocols that allow researchers to study the biological pathways of the stress response in health and disease are fundamental to the progress of research in stress and anxiety. Although numerous protocols exist for inducing stress response in the laboratory, many neglect to provide a naturalistic context or to incorporate aspects of social and psychological stress. Of psychological stress protocols, meta-analysis suggests that the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is the most useful and appropriate standardized protocol for studies of stress hormone reactivity. In the original description of the TSST, researchers sought to design and evaluate a procedure capable of inducing a reliable stress response in the majority of healthy volunteers. These researchers found elevations in heart rate, blood pressure and several endocrine stress markers in response to the TSST (a psychological stressor) compared to a saline injection (a physical stressor). Although the TSST has been modified to meet the needs of various research groups, it generally consists of a waiting period upon arrival, anticipatory speech preparation, speech performance, and verbal arithmetic performance periods, followed by one or more recovery periods. The TSST requires participants to prepare and deliver a speech, and verbally respond to a challenging arithmetic problem in the presence of a socially evaluative audience. Social evaluation and uncontrollability have been identified as key components of stress induction by the TSST. In use for over a decade, the goal of the TSST is to systematically induce a stress response in order to measure differences in reactivity, anxiety and activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) or sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axis during the task. Researchers generally assess changes in self-reported anxiety, physiological measures (e.g. heart rate), and

  11. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  12. 49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 266.11 Section 266.11... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.11 Allowable costs. Allowable costs include only the following costs which are properly allocable to the work performed: Planning and program operation costs which are allowed under...

  13. Assessment of allowance mechanism China's carbon trading pilots

    DOE PAGES

    Xiong, Ling; Shen, Bo; Qi, Shaozhou; Price, Lynn

    2015-08-28

    The allowance mechanism is one of the core and sensitive aspects in design of a carbon trading scheme and affects the compliance cost for each company covered under the scheme. By examining China's allowance mechanism from two aspects including allowance allocation and allowance distribution, this paper compares China's carbon trading pilots with the EU Emissions Trading System and California Cap-and-Trade Program, and through the comparison identify issues that affect the efficiency of the pilots. The paper also recommends course of actions to strengthen China's existing pilots and build valuable experiences for the establishment of the national cap-and-trade system in China.

  14. Investigation of the design and static behavior of cylindrical tubular composite adhesive joints utilizing the finite element method and stress-based failure theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Michael D.

    2011-12-01

    The stress and strength behavior of cylindrical tubular adhesive joints composed of dissimilar materials was explored. This was accomplished with the finite element method (FEM) and stress-based failure theories. Also, it was shown how a design of experiments (DOE) based method can be used to objectively organize the process of optimizing joint strength by using stress-based failure criteria. The finite element program used in this work was written in-house from scratch to implement the FEM for the purpose of solving both axisymmetric and three-dimensional linear elastic governing equations of static equilibrium. The formulation of the three-dimensional model is presented, and the required operations to arrive to the axisymmetric model are also presented. The axisymmetric model is two dimensional, capable of using four and eight node quadrilateral elements. However, only four node elements are used because a mesh of eight node elements requires more memory and increased mesh refinement. The three-dimensional model is capable of using eight and twenty node brick elements, but only eight node brick elements are used for the same reason. Both of the axisymmetric and three-dimensional models calculate the nodal displacements, strains, stress values for each material, and strength values for each material. The external static loads can be individually applied, or coupled together. The outputs seem to be most useful for interpretation when plotted through-the-thickness (TTT) and along-the-length (ATL) of the joint or tube. Outputs are valid only for materials that behave linearly elastic up to (or near) failure, and the stress-based failure criteria are used to define that limit. A small laboratory-sized joint was modeled to look at the theoretical stress and strength distributions plotted along-the-length of the joint at different radial locations. These stress and strength distributions can be correlated to the type of load being applied because of unique or prominent

  15. Design of low surface roughness-low residual stress-high optoelectronic merit a-IZO thin films for flexible OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naveen; Wilkinson, Taylor M.; Packard, Corinne E.; Kumar, Mukesh

    2016-06-01

    The development of efficient and reliable large-area flexible optoelectronic devices demands low surface roughness-low residual stress-high optoelectronic merit transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films. Here, we correlate surface roughness-residual stress-optoelectronic properties of sputtered amorphous indium zinc oxide (a-IZO) thin films using a statistical design of experiment (DOE) approach and find a common growth space to achieve a smooth surface in a stress-free and high optoelectronic merit a-IZO thin film. The sputtering power, growth pressure, oxygen partial pressure, and RF/(RF+DC) are varied in a two-level system with a full factorial design, and results are used to deconvolve the complex growth space, identifying significant control growth parameters and their possible interactions. The surface roughness of a-IZO thin film varies over 0.19 nm to 3.97 nm, which is not in line with the general assumption of low surface roughness in a-IZO thin films. The initial regression model and analysis of variance reveal no single optimum growth sub-space to achieve low surface roughness (≤0.5 nm), low residual stress (-1 to 0 GPa), and industrially acceptable electrical conductivity (>1000 S/cm) for a-IZO thin films. The extrapolation of growth parameters in light of the current results and previous knowledge leads to a new sub-space, resulting in a low residual stress of -0.52±0.04 GPa, a low surface roughness of 0.55±0.03 nm, and moderate electrical conductivity of 1962±3.84 S/cm in a-IZO thin films. These results demonstrate the utility of the DOE approach to multi-parameter optimization, which provides an important tool for the development of flexible TCOs for the next-generation flexible organic light emitting diodes applications.

  16. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OMB Circular A-122 is determined in accordance with the for-profit costs principles in 48 CFR part 31... Organizations.” (iii) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part 74... Allowable costs. (a) DOE determines allowability of costs in accordance with the cost principles...

  17. 7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... at 2 CFR part 230. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is... at 2 CFR part 225. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in... Institutions” codified at 2 CFR 220. The allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined...

  18. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  19. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  20. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  1. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  2. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  3. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  4. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs....

  5. 50 CFR 80.15 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., see 5 CFR 1310.3.). (b) What is required to determine the allowability of costs? Source documents or... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 80.15 Section 80.15... WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.15 Allowable costs. (a) What...

  6. 50 CFR 85.41 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable Federal cost principles in 43 CFR 12.60(b). Purchase of informational signs, program signs, and... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 85.41 Section 85.41... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.41 Allowable costs. (a) Allowable grant costs are limited to those...

  7. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education... costs. (a)(1) Allowable and unallowable costs. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, costs reasonably related to carrying out the programs described in § 675.32 are allowable. (2)...

  8. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that are proper...

  9. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs...

  10. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1180.56 Section 1180.56 Public... by a Grantee General Administrative Responsibilities § 1180.56 Allowable costs. (a) Determination of costs allowable under a grant is made in accordance with government-wide cost principles in...

  11. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items are... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21...

  12. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  13. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  14. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs...

  15. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items are... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21...

  16. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that are proper...

  17. 45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1157.22 Section 1157.22 Public... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  18. 24 CFR 17.43 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Allowable claims. (a) A claim may be allowed only if: (1) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly...) of this section, and the other provisions of this subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss of... types of claims may be allowed, unless excluded by §§ 17.44 and 17.45: (1) Property loss or damage...

  19. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.228... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22... costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid in accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  20. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.439... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22... section. (b) Administrative and management costs for major disasters will be paid in accordance with...

  1. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items...

  2. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items...

  3. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items...

  4. The effect of academic stress and attachment stress on stress-eaters and stress-undereaters.

    PubMed

    Emond, Michael; Ten Eycke, Kayla; Kosmerly, Stacey; Robinson, Adele Lafrance; Stillar, Amanda; Van Blyderveen, Sherry

    2016-05-01

    It is well established that stress is related to changes in eating patterns. Some individuals are more likely to increase their overall food intake under conditions of stress, whereas others are more likely to consume less food when stressed. Attachment style has been linked to disordered eating and eating disorders; however, comparisons of eating behaviors under attachment versus other types of stress have yet to be explored. The present laboratory study examined the eating patterns in self-identified stress-undereaters and stress-eaters under various types of stress. More specifically, the study examined the effects of academic and attachment stress on calorie, carbohydrate and sugar consumption within these two groups. Under the guise of critiquing student films, university students viewed either one of two stress-inducing videos (academic stress or attachment stress, both designed to be emotionally arousing) or a control video (designed to be emotionally neutral), and their food intake was recorded. Results demonstrated that the video manipulations were effective in inducing stress. Differential patterns of eating were noted based on group and stress condition. Specifically, stress-undereaters ate fewer calories, carbohydrates and sugars than stress-eaters in the academic stress condition, but not in the attachment stress or control condition. Findings suggest that specific types of stressors may influence eating behaviors differently.

  5. Friction Stir Weld Restart+Reweld Repair Allowables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifton, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    A friction stir weld (FSW) repair method has been developed and successfully implemented on Al 2195 plate material for the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank (ET). The method includes restarting the friction stir weld in the termination hole of the original weld followed by two reweld passes. Room temperature and cryogenic temperature mechanical properties exceeded minimum FSW design strength and compared well with the development data. Simulated service test results also compared closely to historical data for initial FSW, confirming no change to the critical flaw size or inspection requirements for the repaired weld. Testing of VPPA fusion/FSW intersection weld specimens exhibited acceptable strength and exceeded the minimum design value. Porosity, when present at the intersection was on the root side toe of the fusion weld, the "worst case" being 0.7 inch long. While such porosity may be removed by sanding, this "worst case" porosity condition was tested "as is" and demonstrated that porosity did not negatively affect the strength of the intersection weld. Large, 15-inch "wide panels" FSW repair welds were tested to demonstrate strength and evaluate residual stresses using photo stress analysis. All results exceeded design minimums, and photo stress analysis showed no significant stress gradients due to the presence of the restart and multi-pass FSW repair weld.

  6. Implementation and effects of an individual stress management intervention for family caregivers of an elderly relative living at home: a mixed research design.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Francine; Lebel, Paule; Lachance, Lise; Trudeau, Denise

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the implementation and effects of a stress management intervention for family caregivers of elderly persons. The intervention was implemented through an action research design with the collaboration of case managers working in community health centers. A total of 81 caregivers participated in the study. The quasi-experimental design used to test the effects of the intervention showed significant effects on perceived challenge associated with caregiver role, control by self, use of social support, and use of problem solving. Qualitative data demonstrate caregiver empowerment with respect to the caregiving role. This study illustrates the relevance of using a mixed research design in order to provide evidence for changes in practice.

  7. Design criteria for prestressed concrete reactor vessels for high-temperature reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Elter, C.; Becker, G.

    1982-11-01

    For the design and construction of prestressed concrete reactor vessels, data on loading, construction materials, and safety factors are required. A description is given of the design conditions according to the current state of technology in the Federal Republic of Germany. Special consideration is given to the allowable stresses and an appropriate proposal for such stresses is suggested.

  8. Distribution of normal human left ventricular myofiber stress at end diastole and end systole: a target for in silico design of heart failure treatments

    PubMed Central

    Genet, Martin; Lee, Lik Chuan; Nguyen, Rebecca; Haraldsson, Henrik; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Zhang, Zhihong; Ge, Liang; Ordovas, Karen; Kozerke, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Ventricular wall stress is believed to be responsible for many physical mechanisms taking place in the human heart, including ventricular remodeling, which is frequently associated with heart failure. Therefore, normalization of ventricular wall stress is the cornerstone of many existing and new treatments for heart failure. In this paper, we sought to construct reference maps of normal ventricular wall stress in humans that could be used as a target for in silico optimization studies of existing and potential new treatments for heart failure. To do so, we constructed personalized computational models of the left ventricles of five normal human subjects using magnetic resonance images and the finite-element method. These models were calibrated using left ventricular volume data extracted from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and validated through comparison with strain measurements from tagged MRI (950 ± 170 strain comparisons/subject). The calibrated passive material parameter values were C0 = 0.115 ± 0.008 kPa and B0 = 14.4 ± 3.18; the active material parameter value was Tmax = 143 ± 11.1 kPa. These values could serve as a reference for future construction of normal human left ventricular computational models. The differences between the predicted and the measured circumferential and longitudinal strains in each subject were 3.4 ± 6.3 and 0.5 ± 5.9%, respectively. The predicted end-diastolic and end-systolic myofiber stress fields for the five subjects were 2.21 ± 0.58 and 16.54 ± 4.73 kPa, respectively. Thus these stresses could serve as targets for in silico design of heart failure treatments. PMID:24876359

  9. Distribution of normal human left ventricular myofiber stress at end diastole and end systole: a target for in silico design of heart failure treatments.

    PubMed

    Genet, Martin; Lee, Lik Chuan; Nguyen, Rebecca; Haraldsson, Henrik; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Zhang, Zhihong; Ge, Liang; Ordovas, Karen; Kozerke, Sebastian; Guccione, Julius M

    2014-07-15

    Ventricular wall stress is believed to be responsible for many physical mechanisms taking place in the human heart, including ventricular remodeling, which is frequently associated with heart failure. Therefore, normalization of ventricular wall stress is the cornerstone of many existing and new treatments for heart failure. In this paper, we sought to construct reference maps of normal ventricular wall stress in humans that could be used as a target for in silico optimization studies of existing and potential new treatments for heart failure. To do so, we constructed personalized computational models of the left ventricles of five normal human subjects using magnetic resonance images and the finite-element method. These models were calibrated using left ventricular volume data extracted from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and validated through comparison with strain measurements from tagged MRI (950 ± 170 strain comparisons/subject). The calibrated passive material parameter values were C0 = 0.115 ± 0.008 kPa and B0 = 14.4 ± 3.18; the active material parameter value was Tmax = 143 ± 11.1 kPa. These values could serve as a reference for future construction of normal human left ventricular computational models. The differences between the predicted and the measured circumferential and longitudinal strains in each subject were 3.4 ± 6.3 and 0.5 ± 5.9%, respectively. The predicted end-diastolic and end-systolic myofiber stress fields for the five subjects were 2.21 ± 0.58 and 16.54 ± 4.73 kPa, respectively. Thus these stresses could serve as targets for in silico design of heart failure treatments.

  10. Stress on the College Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Wanda E.

    A Stress Test designed to help college students increase awareness of stress and ways they deal with it is presented, along with suggestions to reduce stress. The stress test was presented at a workshop by George Washington University graduate students. The test's four scales measure ways that students cope with stress and the student's…

  11. Thermal stress in high temperature cylindrical fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, Max L.

    1988-01-01

    Uninsulated structures fabricated from carbon or silicon-based materials, which are allowed to become hot during flight, are attractive for the design of some components of hypersonic vehicles. They have the potential to reduce weight and increase vehicle efficiency. Because of manufacturing contraints, these structures will consist of parts which must be fastened together. The thermal expansion mismatch between conventional metal fasteners and carbon or silicon-based structural materials may make it difficult to design a structural joint which is tight over the operational temperature range without exceeding allowable stress limits. In this study, algebraic, closed-form solutions for calculating the thermal stresses resulting from radial thermal expansion mismatch around a cylindrical fastener are developed. These solutions permit a designer to quickly evaluate many combinations of materials for the fastener and the structure. Using the algebraic equations developed, material properties and joint geometry were varied to determine their effect on thermal stresses. Finite element analyses were used to verify that the closed-form solutions derived give the correct thermal stress distribution around a cylindrical fastener and to investigate the effect of some of the simplifying assumptions made in developing the closed-form solutions for thermal stresses.

  12. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  13. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  14. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  15. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  16. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  17. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  18. 20 CFR 437.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type...

  19. 34 CFR 642.40 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 642.40 Section 642.40 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TRAINING PROGRAM FOR FEDERAL TRIO PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? § 642.40 Allowable costs....

  20. 10 CFR 600.222 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... organization named in OMB Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular. 48 CFR 931.2 Hospitals 45 CFR part 74... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  1. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowable costs will be determined in accordance...

  2. 15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with...) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowable costs will be determined in accordance with the cost...

  3. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part... the same trip in the same vehicle. (2) Lodging and meals. The cost allowable for lodging and meals for... prevailing per diem allowance rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part...

  4. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part... the same trip in the same vehicle. (2) Lodging and meals. The cost allowable for lodging and meals for... prevailing per diem allowance rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part...

  5. 30 CFR 206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating allowances. 206.160 Section 206.160 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any other provisions...

  6. Moral Appraisals Affect Doing/Allowing Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Fiery; Knobe, Joshua; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2008-01-01

    An extensive body of research suggests that the distinction between doing and allowing plays a critical role in shaping moral appraisals. Here, we report evidence from a pair of experiments suggesting that the converse is also true: moral appraisals affect doing/allowing judgments. Specifically, morally bad behavior is more likely to be construed…

  7. Allocation of Allowances and Associated Family Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, M. Kaye; Cheadle, Tannis

    This study gathered information on general family practices concerning allowances given to children, parental reasons for the provision of allowances, the bases for their administration, and the frequency of conflicts generated around them. The subjects were 81 parents of elementary school children in a midwest Canadian city. Subjects completed…

  8. 20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable activities. Allowable activities are those listed in § 632.78-80 except that community service employment is...

  9. 20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable activities. Allowable activities are those listed in § 632.78-80 except that community service employment is...

  10. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802...

  11. 4 CFR 5.6 - Allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowances. 5.6 Section 5.6 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.6 Allowances. The provisions of chapter 59 of title 5, U.S. Code and the implementing regulations for the Executive Branch apply to Government...

  12. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part... prevailing per diem allowance rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section...

  13. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applicable to the organization incurring the costs. The following chart lists the kinds of organizations and... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22... Administration § 66.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  14. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33... HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response Cooperative Agreements § 208.33 Allowable costs. (a) Cost neutrality. DHS policy is that an Alert or Activation should...

  15. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Operating allowances. 1206.160 Section 1206.160 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any...

  16. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and an organization named in OMB Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  17. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 1207.22... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1207.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on...

  18. 45 CFR 1183.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1183.22 Section 1183.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  19. 7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 3016.22 Section 3016.22 Agriculture... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on...

  20. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  1. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 43.22... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds...

  2. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 602.22 Section 602.22 Public... Requirements § 602.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for:...

  3. 29 CFR 1470.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 1470.22 Section 1470.22 Labor Regulations... Financial Administration § 1470.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be...

  4. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 74.27 Section 74.27 Public... Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a particular set of Federal principles...

  5. 45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1174.22 Section 1174.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  6. 2 CFR 215.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 230, “Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations (OMB Circular A-122).” The allowability of... CFR part 220, “Cost Principles for Educational Institutions (OMB Circular A-21).” The allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of appendix E of 45 CFR...

  7. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  8. 45 CFR 2541.220 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2541.220 Section 2541.220 Public... Post-Award Requirements § 2541.220 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may...

  9. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 92.22 Section 92.22 Public... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be...

  10. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Organizations.” (iii) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part 74... OMB Circular A-122 is determined in accordance with the for-profit costs principles in 48 CFR part 31... Contracts with Hospitals.” (iv) Governmental organizations. Allowability for State, local, or...

  11. 21 CFR 1303.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1303.24 Section 1303.24 Food... Quotas § 1303.24 Inventory allowance. (a) For the purpose of determining individual manufacturing quotas... sufficient to maintain an inventory equal to, (1) For current manufacturers, 50 percent of his...

  12. 10 CFR 600.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall... incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74... Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) Indirect costs. Unless restricted by...

  13. 10 CFR 600.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall... incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74... Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) Indirect costs. Unless restricted by...

  14. 10 CFR 600.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall... incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74... Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) Indirect costs. Unless restricted by...

  15. 10 CFR 600.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall... incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74... Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) Indirect costs. Unless restricted by...

  16. 75 FR 4098 - Utility Allowance Adjustments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Utility Allowance Adjustments AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... are required to advise the Secretary of the need for and request of a new utility allowance for... whether the information will have practical utility; (2) Evaluate the accuracy of the agency's estimate...

  17. 32 CFR 32.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of allowable costs that are in accordance with uniform cost accounting standards and comply with cost... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 32.27 Allowable... contractors is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E to 45 CFR part 74, “Principles...

  18. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a... bids, proposals, and applications. Bid and proposal costs of the current accounting period are all allowable as indirect costs. Bid and proposal costs of past accounting periods are unallowable in...

  19. 32 CFR 32.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of allowable costs that are in accordance with uniform cost accounting standards and comply with cost... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 32.27 Allowable... contractors is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E to 45 CFR part 74, “Principles...

  20. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a... bids, proposals, and applications. Bid and proposal costs of the current accounting period are all allowable as indirect costs. Bid and proposal costs of past accounting periods are unallowable in...

  1. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a... bids, proposals, and applications. Bid and proposal costs of the current accounting period are all allowable as indirect costs. Bid and proposal costs of past accounting periods are unallowable in...

  2. 32 CFR 32.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of allowable costs that are in accordance with uniform cost accounting standards and comply with cost... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 32.27 Allowable... contractors is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E to 45 CFR part 74, “Principles...

  3. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operating allowances. 1206.160 Section 1206.160 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any...

  4. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operating allowances. 1206.160 Section 1206.160 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any...

  5. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operating allowances. 1206.160 Section 1206.160 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any...

  6. The Role of Allowances in Adolescent Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joanne; Yung, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Examines high school student perceptions of allowances and the conditions under which they are received. Finds that, contrary to adult conceptions, students perceive allowances as an entitlement or earned income rather than as an educational opportunity promoting financial decision making and money management. (FMW)

  7. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM...) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to...

  8. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM...) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to...

  9. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM...) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to...

  10. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 30.27 Allowable..., “Cost Principles for State and Local Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit... organizations and those non-profit organizations listed in Attachment C to Circular A-122 is determined...

  11. 38 CFR 49.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 49.27 Allowable... for State, Local, and Indian Tribal Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit... organizations and those non-profit organizations listed in Attachment C to Circular A-122 is determined...

  12. Clinically-Relevant Design Features of a Three-Dimensional Correct Molar Crown and Related Maximum Principal Stress. A Finite Element Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Brian T.; Janal, Malvin N.; Zavanelli, Ricardo A.; Silva, Nelson R. F. A.; Rekow, E. Dianne; Thompson, Van P.; Coelho, Paulo G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of clinically relevant variables on the maximum principal stress (MPS) in the veneer layer of an anatomically correct veneer-core-cement-tooth model. Methods The average dimensions of a mandibular first molar crown were imported into CAD software; a tooth preparation was modeled by reducing the proximal walls by 1.5 mm and the occlusal surface by 2.0 mm. ‘Crown systems’ were composed by varying characteristics of a cement layer, structural core, and veneer solid, all designed to fit the tooth preparation. The main and interacting effects of proximal wall height reduction, core material, core thickness, cement modulus, cement thickness, and load position on the maximum stress distribution were derived from a series of nite element models and analyzed in a factorial analysis of variance. Results The average MPS in the veneer layer over the 64 models was 488 MPa (range= 248 to 840 MPa). MPS increased significantly with the addition of horizontal load components and with increasing cement thickness. In addition, MPS levels varied as a function of interactions between: proximal wall height reduction and load position; load position and cement thickness; core thickness and cement thickness; cement thickness and proximal wall height reduction; and core thickness, cement thickness and proximal wall height reduction. Conclusion Rational design of veneered structural ceramics must consider the complex geometry of the crown-tooth system and integrate the in uence of both the main effects and interactions among design parameters. PMID:19857888

  13. Family allowances and fertility: socioeconomic differences.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, Jona

    2009-08-01

    This article explores socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances on fertility. Although several studies have examined the relationship between cash benefits and fertility, few studies have addressed the possible differential effects of cash benefits on families of different income or education levels. I reconstructed the birth histories of women in the past two Israeli censuses of 1983 and 1995 to study socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances up to the seventh parity. The results indicate that family allowances have a significant effect at every parity. Using female education as an indicator of socioeconomic status, I find that socioeconomic status is a significant modifier of the effect of family allowances. Family allowances seem to have a relatively large impact on more-educated women.

  14. The relationship between pre-harvest stress and the carcass characteristics of beef heifers that qualified for kosher designation.

    PubMed

    Hayes, N S; Schwartz, C A; Phelps, K J; Borowicz, P; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Maddock, R J

    2015-02-01

    Differences in pre-harvest stress measurements and carcass characteristics between kosher and not-qualified-as-kosher cattle were evaluated. Finished heifers (n=157) were slaughtered by a shochet while held in an upright position using Glatt slaughter procedures. Stress measurements were collected prior to slaughter. Carcass data were collected, and 3.8-cm thick samples were taken from the loin at the 13th rib. Steaks from each sample were evaluated for mechanical tenderness and simulated retail display. Cattle with shorter times from gate to exsanguination and lower vocalization scores were more likely (P < 0.01) to qualify as kosher. Kosher carcasses had larger (P = 0.02) ribeye areas and higher (P < 0.0001) Warner-Bratzler shear values. At each day of simulated retail display, kosher steaks had lower (P < 0.05) L*, a*, and b* values. These data suggest that body composition and pre-harvest stress affect the likelihood of a beef animal qualifying as kosher and quality differences exist between kosher and non-kosher steaks.

  15. Nanotopography and Surface Stress Analysis of Ti6Al4V Bioimplant: An Alternative Design for Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Sweetu; Solitro, Giovanni Francesco; Sukotjo, Cortino; Takoudis, Christos; Mathew, Mathew T.; Amirouche, Farid; Shokuhfar, Tolou

    2015-11-01

    The mechanical stability of biomedical Ti6Al4V rods with vertically aligned nanotubes structure formed on their surface has yet to be fully tested during insertion into the bone. The surface of rods impacted during insertion into a bone makes shear contact with bone, generating an interfacial stress. This stress plays an important role in osseointegration and may contribute to loosening between the bone and the implant during surgery. In the current study, the mechanical stability of various Ti6Al4V surfaces, including machined (M), rough (R), machined-anodized (MA), and rough-anodized (RA) surfaces, were tested and fully analyzed during insertion and pullout test into a simulant bone with densities 15 and 20 pounds per cubic foot (pcf). Our initial results from the field emission scanning electron microscopy images taken before and after insertion reveal that titania nanotubes remained stable and maintained their structural integrity during the insertion and pullout Instron test. Furthermore, from the interfacial stress calculation during the insertion, it was observed that compared with nonanodized rods, a higher force was required to insert the anodized rods. The interfacial stress generated during the insertion of anodized rods was 1.03 ± 0.11 MPa for MA and 1.10 ± 0.36 MPa for RA, which is significantly higher ( p < 0.05) than nonanodized rods with 0.36 ± 0.07 MPa for M and 0.36 ± 0.08 MPa for R in simulant bone with density of 15 pcf. Similar behavior was also observed in 20 pcf simulant bone. Energy dissipated during anodized rod insertion (i.e., MA = 1.3 ± 0.04 Nm and RA = 1.23 ± 0.24 Nm) was not significantly different than nonanodized rod insertion (i.e., M = 0.9 ± 0.05 Nm and R = 1.04 ± 0.04 Nm) into 15 pcf simulant bone. The high stress during insertion of anodized rods suggests that the nanotubes on the surface can cause gripping and high friction on the radial side, resisting the counter motion of the bone. The latter may play a beneficial

  16. Project VALOR: design and methods of a longitudinal registry of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in combat-exposed veterans in the Afghanistan and Iraqi military theaters of operations.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Raymond C; Marx, Brian P; Maserejian, Nancy N; Holowka, Darren W; Gates, Margaret A; Sleeper, Lynn A; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Kang, Han K; Keane, Terence M

    2012-03-01

    Few studies have investigated the natural history of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Project VALOR (Veterans' After-discharge Longitudinal Registry) was designed as a longitudinal patient registry assessing the course of combat-related PTSD among 1600 male and female Veterans who served in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan or Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Aims of the study include investigating patterns and predictors of progression or remission of PTSD and treatment utilization. The study design was based on recommendations from the Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research for longitudinal disease registries and used a pre-specified theoretical model to select the measurement domains for data collection and interpretation of forthcoming results. The registry will include 1200 male and female Veterans with a recent diagnosis of PTSD in the Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) electronic medical record and a comparison group of 400 Veterans without a medical record-based PTSD diagnosis, to also allow for case-control analyses. Data are collected from administrative databases, electronic medical records, a self-administered questionnaire, and a semi-structured diagnostic telephone interview. Project VALOR is a unique and timely registry study that will evaluate the clinical course of PTSD, psychosocial correlates, and health outcomes in a carefully selected cohort of returning OEF/OIF Veterans.

  17. Organizational Stress among Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triesen, David; Williams, Mary-Jo

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine Canadian teachers' perceptions of work related stress and to assess the degree to which these stressors accounted for overall job stress. Results indicated the factors which most contributed to overall job stress were role overload, relationships with students, work load, and relationships with colleagues.…

  18. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... occurred. (7) Claims for automobiles, only when required to perform official business or parked on a... amount allowed is the value of the vehicle at the time of loss as determined by the National...

  19. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a wheelchair) because of such disability and such disability is the loss or loss of use of a hand or... wheelchair. (b) Effective August 1, 1972, the initial lump sum clothing allowance is due and payable...

  20. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a wheelchair) because of such disability and such disability is the loss or loss of use of a hand or... wheelchair. (b) Effective August 1, 1972, the initial lump sum clothing allowance is due and payable...

  1. Higher Education Tax Allowances: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Larry L.

    1976-01-01

    Tax allowances are receiving renewed attention at the federal level. Various forms are evaluated that would aid middle-income students and private institutions, and specific bills and proposals are examined. (Editor/LBH)

  2. 15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 24.22 Section 24.22... Administration § 24.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  3. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.412...

  4. 24 CFR 965.505 - Standards for allowances for utilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... formulation of methods of calculation, and actual calculation and monitoring of the allowances. (d) In... PHA installs air conditioning, it shall provide, to the maximum extent economically feasible, systems that give residents the option of choosing to use air conditioning in their units. The design...

  5. The Impact of Education Maintenance Allowances. LSDA Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mick; Clay, Sara

    The Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA) program was developed and offered in 3-year pilot projects that were designed to test whether extra funds would encourage more of England's young people from low-income families to participate in full-time education and training, stay on course for the duration of the program, and achieve their…

  6. Probabilistic Composite Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    1997-01-01

    Probabilistic composite design is described in terms of a computational simulation. This simulation tracks probabilistically the composite design evolution from constituent materials, fabrication process, through composite mechanics and structural components. Comparisons with experimental data are provided to illustrate selection of probabilistic design allowables, test methods/specimen guidelines, and identification of in situ versus pristine strength, For example, results show that: in situ fiber tensile strength is 90% of its pristine strength; flat-wise long-tapered specimens are most suitable for setting ply tensile strength allowables: a composite radome can be designed with a reliability of 0.999999; and laminate fatigue exhibits wide-spread scatter at 90% cyclic-stress to static-strength ratios.

  7. Fabrication of 'TAMU3', a 'Wind/React' stress-managed 14T Nb3Sn block coil design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, R.; Diaczenko, N.; Elliott, T.; Jaisle, A.; McInturff, A.; McIntyre, P.; Sattarov, A.

    2008-02-01

    The third phase of a high field dipole technology development, a full set (2+) of Stress-Managed winding modules is being fabricated. The dipole fabrication uses tooling, fixtures, procedures and technology modified and updated based on the second phase work and results reported plus new material developments and higher performance strand. The strand was furnished by the DOE HEP Nb3Sn conductor development program. The modules' cables were processed and cabled by the LBNL facility using the latest procedures developed. There were several new materials and processes introduced in this third phase to improve performance or simplify the fabrication which will be discussed. If all the performance inherent in the strand were to be achieved then the peak field should be higher than 14 T. The containment and flux return structure are the same as used in phase 2. This phase of the development will constitute the outer winding modules of a 'Collider' prototype Block dipole with Stress-Management. The lessons learned and the results obtained will be discussed.

  8. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211 Compensation... cost of restoring, rehabilitating, replacing, or acquiring the equivalent of the damaged...

  9. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211 Compensation... cost of restoring, rehabilitating, replacing, or acquiring the equivalent of the damaged...

  10. 2D design rule and layout analysis using novel large-area first-principles-based simulation flow incorporating lithographic and stress effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prins, Steven L.; Blatchford, James; Olubuyide, Oluwamuyiwa; Riley, Deborah; Chang, Simon; Hong, Qi-Zhong; Kim, T. S.; Borges, Ricardo; Lin, Li

    2009-03-01

    As design rules and corresponding logic standard cell layouts continue to shrink node-on-node in accordance with Moore's law, complex 2D interactions, both intra-cell and between cells, become much more prominent. For example, in lithography, lack of scaling of λ/NA implies aggressive use of resolution enhancement techniques to meet logic scaling requirements-resulting in adverse effects such as 'forbidden pitches'-and also implies an increasing range of optical influence relative to cell size. These adverse effects are therefore expected to extend well beyond the cell boundary, leading to lithographic marginalities that occur only when a given cell is placed "in context" with other neighboring cells in a variable design environment [1]. This context dependence is greatly exacerbated by increased use of strain engineering techniques such as SiGe and dual-stress liners (DSL) to enhance transistor performance, both of which also have interaction lengths on the order of microns. The use of these techniques also breaks the formerly straightforward connection between lithographic 'shapes' and end-of-line electrical performance, thus making the formulation of design rules that are robust to process variations and complex 2D interactions more difficult. To address these issues, we have developed a first-principles-based simulation flow to study contextdependent electrical effects in layout, arising not only from lithography, but also from stress and interconnect parasitic effects. This flow is novel in that it can be applied to relatively large layout clips- required for context-dependent analysis-without relying on semi-empirical or 'black-box' models for the fundamental electrical effects. The first-principles-based approach is ideal for understanding contextdependent effects early in the design phase, so that they can be mitigated through restrictive design rules. The lithographic simulations have been discussed elsewhere [1] and will not be presented in detail. The

  11. Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán

    2015-12-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.

  12. Using EPA`s allowance tracking system to assess the allowance market

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, M.; Kruger, J.

    1997-12-31

    The development of a credible framework for analyzing private allowance transfers recorded in EPA`s Allowance Tracking System (ATS) is essential for effective assessment of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) allowance market. The ATS began recording transfers of allowances in March, 1994, and since then has served as an automated record of allowance holdings and transfers of ownership. Though primarily concerned with determining compliance, the ATS contains details of private allowance transfers representing what is believed to be a significant portion of overall SO{sub 2} allowance market activity. This paper will analyze these private transfers recorded in ATS and will develop relevant categories for classification purposes. The resulting categorization will enable consistent analysis of the SO{sub 2} allowance market and provide substantial insight into the level and type of allowance trading activity under the Acid Rain Program.

  13. Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  14. Balloon Design Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Rodger

    2007-01-01

    PlanetaryBalloon Version 5.0 is a software package for the design of meridionally lobed planetary balloons. It operates in a Windows environment, and programming was done in Visual Basic 6. By including the effects of circular lobes with load tapes, skin mass, hoop and meridional stress, and elasticity in the structural elements, a more accurate balloon shape of practical construction can be determined as well as the room-temperature cut pattern for the gore shapes. The computer algorithm is formulated for sizing meridionally lobed balloons for any generalized atmosphere or planet. This also covers zero-pressure, over-pressure, and super-pressure balloons. Low circumferential loads with meridionally reinforced load tapes will produce shapes close to what are known as the "natural shape." The software allows for the design of constant angle, constant radius, or constant hoop stress balloons. It uses the desired payload capacity for given atmospheric conditions and determines the required volume, allowing users to design exactly to their requirements. The formulations are generalized to use any lift gas (or mixture of gases), any atmosphere, or any planet as described by the local acceleration of gravity. PlanetaryBalloon software has a comprehensive user manual that covers features ranging from, but not limited to, buoyancy and super-pressure, convenient design equations, shape formulation, and orthotropic stress/strain.

  15. BusWorld: designing a virtual environment for post-traumatic stress disorder in Israel: a protocol.

    PubMed

    Josman, Naomi; Somer, Eli; Reisberg, Ayelet; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Hoffman, Hunter

    2006-04-01

    A number of carefully controlled studies have documented the effectiveness of traditional imaginal exposure for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Virtual reality (VR) exposure therapy is based on a similar logic but rather than self-generating imagery, patients wear a VR helmet and go into a three-dimensional (3-D) computer generated virtual world to help them gain access to their memory of the traumatic event. Recent preliminary research has shown that some patients who fail to respond to traditional therapy benefit from virtual reality exposure therapy, presumably because VR helps the patient become emotionally engaged while recollecting/recounting/re-interpreting/emotionally processing what happened during the traumatic event. The present paper presents a brief overview of a new VR World we developed to provide virtual reality therapy for terrorist bus bombing victims in Israel, and a brief description of our research protocol and measures (for details, see www.vrpain.com).

  16. Stress-resultant models for ultimate load design of reinforced concrete frames and multi-scale parameter estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, B. H.; Brancherie, D.; Davenne, L.; Ibrahimbegovic, A.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, we present a new finite element for (geometrically linear) Timoshenko beam model for ultimate load computation of reinforced concrete frames. The proposed model combines the descriptions of the diffuse plastic failure in the beam-column followed by the creation of plastic hinges due to the failure or collapse of the concrete and of the re-bars. A modified multi-scale analysis is performed in order to identify the parameters for stress-resultant-based macro model, which is used to described the behavior of the Timoshenko beam element. For clarity, we focus upon the micro-scale models using the multi-fiber elements with embedded displacement discontinuities in mode I, which would typically be triggered by bending failure mode. More general case of micro-scale model capable of describing shear failure is described by Ibrahimbegovic et al. (Int J Numer Methods Eng 83(4):452-481, 2010).

  17. Engineering design of ARIES-III

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.; Wong, C.; Cheng, E.

    1993-07-01

    An efficient organic cooled low activation ferritic steel first wall and shield has been designed for the D-{sup 3}He power reactor ARIES-III. The design allows removal of the large surface heat load without exceeding temperature and stress design limits. The structure is expected to last for the whole reactor life. The major concerns regarding using the organic coolant in fusion reactors have been greatly alleviated.

  18. 44 CFR 208.41 - Administrative allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative allowance. 208.41 Section 208.41 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response Cooperative Agreements § 208.41...

  19. 7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or...

  20. 49 CFR 18.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors but not...

  1. Manpower Training Allowances: Financial Assistance or Investment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latour, Georges

    1975-01-01

    The author compares the differing approaches of Germany, Sweden, France, and Australia for providing financial support to adults enrolled in vocational training programs, focusing on training allowances for recurrent education. He concludes that without some governmental maintenance program, it is unlikely that adults can utilize even tuition-free…

  2. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84.27 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER...

  3. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84.27 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER...

  4. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84.27 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER...

  5. 32 CFR 33.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of...

  6. 32 CFR 32.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contractors is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E to 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for... contractor receiving a. cost-type contract under an assistance award, there is a set of Federal principles... principles applicable to the entity incurring the costs. (b) Governmental organizations. Allowability...

  7. 40 CFR 258.74 - Allowable mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... located in the United States amounting to at least the sum of current closure, post-closure care... MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Financial Assurance Criteria § 258.74 Allowable mechanisms. The mechanisms... and examined by a Federal or State agency. A copy of the trust agreement must be placed in...

  8. 40 CFR 258.74 - Allowable mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... located in the United States amounting to at least the sum of current closure, post-closure care... MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Financial Assurance Criteria § 258.74 Allowable mechanisms. The mechanisms... and examined by a Federal or State agency. A copy of the trust agreement must be placed in...

  9. 40 CFR 258.74 - Allowable mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... located in the United States amounting to at least the sum of current closure, post-closure care... MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Financial Assurance Criteria § 258.74 Allowable mechanisms. The mechanisms... and examined by a Federal or State agency. A copy of the trust agreement must be placed in...

  10. 42 CFR 405.2468 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 405.2468 Section 405.2468 Public... FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Rural Health Clinic and Federally Qualified Health... 413 of this subchapter. (b) Typical rural health clinic and Federally qualified health center...

  11. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  12. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235 Section 136.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  13. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  14. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  15. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  16. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  17. 29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... service with the Department and: (l) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent... the other provisions of this subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss, of personal property incident... authorized places. Claims may be allowable for damage to, or loss of, property arising from fire,...

  18. 29 CFR 15.41 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... if the claim is cognizable under the Federal Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. 2677). (c) A claim for damage... Secretary of Labor ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED STATUTES Claims Arising Out of the Operation of the Job Corps § 15.41 Allowable claims. (a)(1) A claim for damage...

  19. 14 CFR 1260.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Allowable costs. 1260.127 Section 1260.127 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With Institutions of Higher...

  20. 14 CFR 1260.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allowable costs. 1260.127 Section 1260.127 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With Institutions of Higher...

  1. 14 CFR 1260.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allowable costs. 1260.127 Section 1260.127 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With Institutions of Higher...

  2. 14 CFR 1260.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 1260.127 Section 1260.127 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With Institutions of Higher...

  3. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1403... the applicable cost principles. For the costs of a— Use the principles in— State, local or...

  4. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1403... the applicable cost principles. For the costs of a— Use the principles in— State, local or...

  5. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1403... the applicable cost principles. For the costs of a— Use the principles in— State, local or...

  6. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1403... the applicable cost principles. For the costs of a— Use the principles in— State, local or...

  7. 38 CFR 21.5822 - Subsistence allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on GPO... will make payments of subsistence allowance on the first day of the month following the month for which... enrollment certification so late that payment cannot be made on the first day of the month following...

  8. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-12-31

    The use of the SO{sub 2} allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO{sub 2} emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO{sub 2} for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO{sub x} emission averaging, the utility would average NO{sub x} emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  9. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 30.27 Section 30.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM...-recognized Indian tribal governments is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular...

  10. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 30.27 Section 30.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM...-recognized Indian tribal governments is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular...

  11. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 30.27 Section 30.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM...-recognized Indian tribal governments is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular...

  12. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 30.27 Section 30.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM...-recognized Indian tribal governments is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular...

  13. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the SO[sub 2] allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO[sub 2] emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO[sub 2] for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO[sub x] emission averaging, the utility would average NO[sub x] emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  14. 30 CFR 1220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 1220.012 Section 1220.012 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES... under § 1220.011(c) that are salvaged, returned, or used for the benefit of non-NPSL operations....

  15. 30 CFR 1220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 1220.012 Section 1220.012 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES... under § 1220.011(c) that are salvaged, returned, or used for the benefit of non-NPSL operations....

  16. 30 CFR 1220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 1220.012 Section 1220.012 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES... under § 1220.011(c) that are salvaged, returned, or used for the benefit of non-NPSL operations....

  17. 30 CFR 1220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 1220.012 Section 1220.012 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING NET PROFIT SHARE PAYMENT FOR OUTER CONTINENTAL...

  18. 30 CFR 220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 220.012 Section 220.012 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING NET PROFIT SHARE PAYMENT FOR OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF OIL AND GAS...

  19. 14 CFR 1273.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... principles applicable to the organization incurring the costs. The following chart lists the kinds of... CFR part 31, Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 1273.22 Section...

  20. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  1. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  2. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  3. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  4. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  5. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... prime awards from DoD Components, and those that are subrecipients under prime awards to other organizations, is to be determined in accordance with: (1) The for-profit cost principles in 48 CFR parts 31 and.... (3) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part...

  6. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... prime awards from DoD Components, and those that are subrecipients under prime awards to other organizations, is to be determined in accordance with: (1) The for-profit cost principles in 48 CFR parts 31 and.... (3) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part...

  7. 10 CFR 600.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Local Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A-122, “Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations.” The... incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part...

  8. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 13.22... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS...

  9. 40 CFR 280.33 - Repairs allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) General Operating Requirements § 280.33 Repairs allowed. Owners and operators of UST systems must ensure... operating properly. (f) UST system owners and operators must maintain records of each repair for...

  10. 40 CFR 280.33 - Repairs allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) General Operating Requirements § 280.33 Repairs allowed. Owners and operators of UST systems must ensure... operating properly. (f) UST system owners and operators must maintain records of each repair for...

  11. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 14.27 Section...

  12. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated below, direct and indirect costs shall be charged in accordance with 41 CFR 29-70 and 41 CFR 1-15.7. (c) Costs associated with repairs, maintenance, and capital improvements of existing... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 632.37 Section...

  13. 38 CFR 49.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (Authority: Pub... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs....

  14. 7 CFR 3019.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 3019.27 Section 3019.27...

  15. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR Part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR Part 31. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs....

  16. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2543.27 Section 2543.27...

  17. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section...

  18. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section...

  19. 43 CFR 12.62 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 12.62 Section 12.62... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and...

  20. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the purchase of vehicles or other certain types of equipment as defined in 10 CFR part 600 may be... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.18...

  1. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the purchase of vehicles or other certain types of equipment as defined in 10 CFR part 600 may be... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.18...

  2. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the purchase of vehicles or other certain types of equipment as defined in 10 CFR part 600 may be... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.18...

  3. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair) which tends to wear or tear... appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair) which tends to wear or tear clothing; or (B) A... allowance for each prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair)...

  4. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair) which tends to wear or tear... appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair) which tends to wear or tear clothing; or (B) A... allowance for each prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair)...

  5. 5 CFR 180.104 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable claims. 180.104 Section 180.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYEES' PERSONAL PROPERTY... are payable: (i) Where personal funds were accepted by responsible Government personnel with...

  6. 29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Department and: (l) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent or wrongful act or... subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss, of personal property incident to service with the Department... excluded: (1) Property or damage in quarters or other authorized places. Claims may be allowable for...

  7. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... costs of the current accounting period are allowable as indirect costs. Bid and proposal costs of past..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.27... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part...

  8. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... costs of the current accounting period are allowable as indirect costs. Bid and proposal costs of past..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.27... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part...

  9. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 13.22... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency....

  10. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 13.22... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency....

  11. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Program Management § 74.27 Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a set of cost... organization other than a hospital and an educational institution 48 CFR part 31 Contract Cost Principles and Procedures or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to ED. (b)...

  12. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Program Management § 74.27 Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a set of cost... organization other than a hospital and an educational institution 48 CFR part 31 Contract Cost Principles and Procedures or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to ED. (b)...

  13. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Program Management § 74.27 Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a set of cost... organization other than a hospital and an educational institution 48 CFR part 31 Contract Cost Principles and Procedures or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to ED. (b)...

  14. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 13.22... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency....

  15. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL..., Local and Indian Tribal Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A-122, “Cost Principles for...

  16. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Job Location and Development Program § 675.33...

  17. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CIVILIAN EMPLOYEES ACT § 34.4 Allowable claims. (a) What you can claim. (1) Claims for damage or loss may... for property damage or loss by fire, flood, hurricane, theft, or other serious occurrence may be... a civilian employee outside the U.S. is a local inhabitant. (3) Claims for damage to, or loss...

  18. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pounds net weight authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) by commercial..., against loss or damage in transit, if a bid from a licensed insurer is obtained by the individual and... allowable costs shall be: (A) If the trailer is hauled by private vehicle, the cost per mile for the use...

  19. 5 CFR 180.104 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for which the claim is made. For example, borrowed property may be the subject of a claim. (c) Subject... the claimant is a local inhabitant; or (iii) Any warehouse, office, working area, or other place... Government other than OPM. (11) Borrowed property. Claims may be allowed for borrowed property that has...

  20. 76 FR 32340 - Federal Travel Regulation; Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances (Taxes) AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide... Relocation Advisory Board (GRAB) concerning calculation of reimbursements for taxes on relocation expenses. In addition, this proposed rule alters the process for calculating reimbursements for taxes...

  1. Catalase activity as a biomarker for mild-stress-induced robustness in Bacillus weihenstephanensis.

    PubMed

    den Besten, Heidy M W; Effraimidou, Styliani; Abee, Tjakko

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms are able to survive and grow in changing environments by activating stress adaptation mechanisms which may enhance bacterial robustness. Stress-induced enhanced robustness complicates the predictability of microbial inactivation. Using psychrotolerant Bacillus weihenstephanensis strain KBAB4 as a model, we investigated the impact of the culturing temperature on mild-oxidative-stress-induced (cross-)protection toward multiple stresses, including severe oxidative, heat, and acid stresses. Culturing at a refrigeration temperature (7°C) compared to the optimal growth temperature (30°C) affected both the robustness level of B. weihenstephanensis and the oxidative stress adaptive response. Scavengers of reactive oxygen species have a crucial role in adaptation to oxidative stresses, and this points to a possible predictive role in mild-oxidative-stress-induced robustness. Therefore, the catalase activity was determined upon mild oxidative stress treatment and was demonstrated to be significantly correlated with the robustness level of mild-stress-treated cells toward severe oxidative and heat stresses but not toward severe acid stress for cells grown at both refrigeration and optimal temperatures. The quantified correlations supported the predictive quality of catalase activity as a biomarker and also underlined that the predictive quality is stress specific. Biomarkers that are able to predict stress-induced enhanced robustness can be used to better understand stress adaptation mechanisms and might allow the design of effective combinations of hurdles to control microbial behavior.

  2. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met... collection of a museum, except library, literary, or archival material specifically required for a designated activity under a grant under the Act....

  3. 78 FR 26637 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowance-Relocation Income Tax (RIT) Allowable Tables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowance--Relocation Income Tax (RIT) Allowable Tables AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy (OGP), General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION... June 25, 2008 (73 FR 35952), specifying that GSA would no longer publish the RIT Allowance tables...

  4. Overcoming job stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... allow workers a say in making decisions, lacks organization, or has policies that are not family-friendly. Issues with others. Problems with your boss or co-workers are a common source of stress. Fear for your future. You may feel stress ...

  5. Stress distribution and dimensional changes in chromatographic columns

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Feng; Drumm, Eric; Guiochon, Georges A

    2005-07-01

    High pressures, in the kilobar range, are now used in liquid chromatography. Basic equations from mechanics are applied to investigate the stress state in several idealized chromatography tubes, and these stresses are evaluated with respect to the maximum allowable stresses predicted by several methods used in pressure vessel design. An analytical solution is developed for the dimensional changes of idealized tubes subjected to internal pressure, and the analytical solutions used to verify the results from a numerical approximation. Numerical approximations are then used to explore the effects of the end restraint provided by the end frits. Conclusions are derived regarding the requirements for a safe operation of these high pressure chromatography tubes.

  6. An in-plane cantilever for wall shear stress measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, N. J.; Sims-Williams, D. B.; Wood, D.

    2012-07-01

    A sensor capable of measuring small shear stresses in wind tunnel applications is presented. The sensor utilizes an in-plane cantilever concept for shear stress measurement, designed to minimize intrusiveness into the airflow and allow easy incorporation into wind tunnel test models. The sensor operates independently of input voltage, and can measure <1 Pa shear stresses with a sensitivity of 8.6 (mV V-1) Pa. Altering the geometry of the sensor has a direct effect on the sensitivity and so can be used to adapt the sensor for different applications.

  7. Evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost Program

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A. James; Hefner, Dennis; Dobson, Allen; Hardy, Ralph

    1983-01-01

    This article summarizes an evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost (MAC)-Estimated Acquisition Cost (EAC) program, the Federal Government's cost-containment program for prescription drugs.1 The MAC-EAC regulations which became effective on August 26, 1976, have four major components: (1) Maximum Allowable Cost reimbursement limits for selected multisource or generically available drugs; (2) Estimated Acquisition Cost reimbursement limits for all drugs; (3) “usual and customary” reimbursement limits for all drugs; and (4) a directive that professional fee studies be performed by each State. The study examines the benefits and costs of the MAC reimbursement limits for 15 dosage forms of five multisource drugs and EAC reimbursement limits for all drugs for five selected States as of 1979. PMID:10309857

  8. Elevated Temperature Primary Load Design Method Using Pseudo Elastic-Perfectly Plastic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Peter; Sham, Sam; Jetter, Robert I

    2012-01-01

    A new primary load design method for elevated temperature service has been developed. Codification of the procedure in an ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III Code Case is being pursued. The proposed primary load design method is intended to provide the same margins on creep rupture, yielding and creep deformation for a component or structure that are implicit in the allowable stress data. It provides a methodology that does not require stress classification and is also applicable to a full range of temperature above and below the creep regime. Use of elastic-perfectly plastic analysis based on allowable stress with corrections for constraint, steady state stress and creep ductility is described. This approach is intended to ensure that traditional primary stresses are the basis for design, taking into account ductility limits to stress re-distribution and multiaxial rupture criteria.

  9. BusWorld: an analog pilot test of a virtual environment designed to treat posttraumatic stress disorder originating from a terrorist suicide bomb attack.

    PubMed

    Josman, Naomi; Reisberg, Ayelet; Weiss, Patrice L; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Hoffman, Hunter G

    2008-12-01

    Exposure therapy treatment can lead to large reductions in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy is designed to facilitate cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD. During VRE therapy, patients go into an immersive computer-generated environment (go back to the scene of the traumatic event) to help them gain access to their memories of the traumatic event, change unhealthy thought patterns, gradually habituate to their anxiety, and reduce the intensity of associated emotions. The therapist's ability to manipulate the amount of anxiety experienced by the client during therapy is an important element of successful exposure therapy. Using a within-subjects design, 30 asymptomatic volunteers each experienced four levels of a virtual world depicting a terrorist bus bombing, designed to be increasingly distressful. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean subjective units of discomfort scores (SUDS) of the four levels, and several planned paired comparisons showed significantly higher SUDS ratings with higher simulation levels. Results suggest that sound may play an important role in successful elicitation of emotional responses during VRE. The results of this analog study provide initial validation of the potential of BusWorld to provide graded exposure for individuals suffering from PTSD originating from suicide bus bombings. Future research exploring whether VR exposure therapy with BusWorld can reduce PTSD in clinical patients is warranted.

  10. 49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of maximum allowable operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding to the established... locations. The corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 72 percent of the SMYS of the pipe in Class 2... pressure per § 192.620, the corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 80 percent of the SMYS of the pipe...

  11. 49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of maximum allowable operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding to the established... locations. The corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 72 percent of the SMYS of the pipe in Class 2... pressure per § 192.620, the corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 80 percent of the SMYS of the pipe...

  12. 49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of maximum allowable operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding to the established... locations. The corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 72 percent of the SMYS of the pipe in Class 2... pressure per § 192.620, the corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 80 percent of the SMYS of the pipe...

  13. Geomechanical Modeling of CO2 Injection Site to Predict Wellbore Stresses and Strains for the Design of Wellbore Seal Repair Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolik, S. R.; Matteo, E. N.; Dewers, T. A.; Newell, P.; Gomez, S. P.; Stormont, J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper will present the results of large-scale three-dimensional calculations simulating the hydrological-mechanical behavior of a CO2 injection reservoir and the resulting effects on wellbore casings and sealant repair materials. A critical aspect of designing effective wellbore seal repair materials is predicting thermo-mechanical perturbations in local stress that can compromise seal integrity. The DOE-NETL project "Wellbore Seal Repair Using Nanocomposite Materials," is interested in the stress-strain history of abandoned wells, as well as changes in local pressure, stress, and temperature conditions that accompany carbon dioxide injection or brine extraction. Two distinct computational models comprise the current modeling effort. The first is a field scale model that uses the stratigraphy, material properties, and injection history from a pilot CO2 injection operation in Cranfield, MS to develop a stress-strain history for wellbore locations from 100 to 400 meters from an injection well. The results from the field scale model are used as input to a more detailed model of a wellbore casing. The 3D wellbore model examines the impacts of various loading scenarios on a casing structure. This model has been developed in conjunction with bench-top experiments of an integrated seal system in an idealized scaled wellbore mock-up being used to test candidate seal repair materials. The results from these models will be used to estimate the necessary mechanical properties needed for a successful repair material. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Grant Number DE-FE0009562. This project is managed and administered by the University of New Mexico and funded by DOE/NETL and cost-sharing partners. This work was funded in part by the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of

  14. Geomechanical Modeling of CO2 Injection Site to Predict Wellbore Stresses and Strains for the Design of Wellbore Seal Repair Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolik, S. R.; Gomez, S. P.; Matteo, E. N.; Stormont, J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper will present the results of large-scale three-dimensional calculations simulating the hydrological-mechanical behavior of a CO2injection reservoir and the resulting effects on wellbore casings and sealant repair materials. A critical aspect of designing effective wellbore seal repair materials is predicting thermo-mechanical perturbations in local stress that can compromise seal integrity. The DOE-NETL project "Wellbore Seal Repair Using Nanocomposite Materials," is interested in the stress-strain history of abandoned wells, as well as changes in local pressure, stress, and temperature conditions that accompany carbon dioxide injection or brine extraction. Two distinct computational models comprise the current modeling effort. The first is a field scale model that uses the stratigraphy, material properties, and injection history from a pilot CO2injection operation in Cranfield, MS to develop a stress-strain history for wellbore locations from 100 to 400 meters from an injection well. The results from the field scale model are used as input to a more detailed model of a wellbore casing. The 3D wellbore model examines the impacts of various loading scenarios on a casing structure. This model has been developed in conjunction with bench-top experiments of an integrated seal system in an idealized scaled wellbore mock-up being used to test candidate seal repair materials. The results from these models will be used to estimate the necessary mechanical properties needed for a successful repair material. This material is based upon work supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Grant Number DE-FE0009562. This project is managed and administered by the Storage Division of the NETL and funded by DOE/NETL and cost-sharing partners. This work was funded in part by the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science

  15. Geomechanical Modeling of CO2 Injection Site to Predict Wellbore Stresses and Strains for the Design of Wellbore Seal Repair Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolik, S. R.; Gomez, S. P.; Matteo, E. N.; Stormont, J.

    2015-12-01

    This paper will present the results of large-scale three-dimensional calculations simulating the hydrological-mechanical behavior of a CO2injection reservoir and the resulting effects on wellbore casings and sealant repair materials. A critical aspect of designing effective wellbore seal repair materials is predicting thermo-mechanical perturbations in local stress that can compromise seal integrity. The DOE-NETL project "Wellbore Seal Repair Using Nanocomposite Materials," is interested in the stress-strain history of abandoned wells, as well as changes in local pressure, stress, and temperature conditions that accompany carbon dioxide injection or brine extraction. Two distinct computational models comprise the current modeling effort. The first is a field scale model that uses the stratigraphy, material properties, and injection history from a pilot CO2injection operation in Cranfield, MS to develop a stress-strain history for wellbore locations from 100 to 400 meters from an injection well. The results from the field scale model are used as input to a more detailed model of a wellbore casing. The 3D wellbore model examines the impacts of various loading scenarios on a casing structure. This model has been developed in conjunction with bench-top experiments of an integrated seal system in an idealized scaled wellbore mock-up being used to test candidate seal repair materials. The results from these models will be used to estimate the necessary mechanical properties needed for a successful repair material. This material is based upon work supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Grant Number DE-FE0009562. This project is managed and administered by the Storage Division of the NETL and funded by DOE/NETL and cost-sharing partners. This work was funded in part by the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science

  16. Effects of different abutment connection designs on the stress distribution around five different implants: a 3-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Balik, Ali; Karatas, Meltem Ozdemir; Keskin, Haluk

    2012-09-01

    The stability of the bone-implant interface is required for the long-term favorable clinical outcome of implant-supported prosthetic rehabilitation. The implant failures that occur after the functional loading are mainly related to biomechanical factors. Micro movements and vibrations due to occlusal forces can lead to mechanical complications such as loosening of the screw and fractures of the abutment or implants. The aim of this study was to investigate the strain distributions in the connection areas of different implant-abutment connection systems under similar loading conditions. Five different implant-abutment connection designs from 5 different manufacturers were evaluated in this study. The investigation was performed with software using the finite element method. The geometrical modeling of the implant systems was done with CATIA virtual design software. The MSC NASTRAN solver and PATRAN postprocessing program were used to perform the linear static solution. According to the analysis, the implant-abutment connection system with external hexagonal connection showed the highest strain values, and the internal hexagonal implant-abutment connection system showed the lowest strain values. Conical + internal hexagonal and screw-in implant abutment connection interface is more successful than other systems in cases with increased vertical dimension, particularly in the posterior region.

  17. Robust technique allowing manufacturing superoleophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormashenko, Edward; Grynyov, Roman; Chaniel, Gilad; Taitelbaum, Haim; Bormashenko, Yelena

    2013-04-01

    We report the robust technique allowing manufacturing of superhydrophobic and oleophobic (omniphobic) surfaces with industrial grade low density polyethylene. The reported process includes two stages: (1) hot embossing of polyethylene with micro-scaled steel gauzes; (2) treatment of embossed surfaces with cold radiofrequency plasma of tetrafluoromethane. The reported surfaces demonstrate not only pronounced superhydrophobicity but also superoleophobicity. Superoleophobicity results from the hierarchical nano-scaled topography of fluorinated polyethylene surface. The observed superoleophobicity is strengthened by the hydrophobic recovery. The stability of the Cassie wetting regime was studied.

  18. Manage Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Manage Stress Print This Topic En español Manage Stress Browse Sections The Basics Overview Signs and Health ... and Health Effects What are the signs of stress? When people are under stress, they may feel: ...

  19. Slimhole advancements allow economic offshore exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Shanks, E.

    1995-07-01

    Slimhole drilling technology is a proven method to reduce well cost in remote areas of the world. It also provides advantages in offshore drilling and production applications where smaller tubular sizes can make marginal fields economic. The technological accomplishments within the industry have provided a sound basis to apply slimhole technology offshore worldwide. And it is feasible to develop methods to apply this technology to more sever applications, including deeper wells, high-pressure wells and hole problem areas, such as troublesome shales. Such applications will require additional technology development to be adequately prepared for proper well designs and possible contingencies during drilling. From the experience to date with this technology, it is feasible to design wells to total drilled depths of 12,000 ft--15,000 ft onshore or offshore. For purposes of this article, a slimhole well is one with the diameter at TD less than 6-in.

  20. 76 FR 16629 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-- Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA... transferee's increased tax burden due to an employee's official permanent change of station is now available... Register (73 FR 35952) specifying that the General Services Administration (GSA) would no longer...

  1. 75 FR 14442 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-- Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA... Amendment 2008-04 in the Federal Register (73 FR 35952) specifying that GSA would no longer publish the RITA... 16, 2010 and applies to relocations during tax year 2008 and earlier. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  2. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  3. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  4. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  5. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  6. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  7. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  8. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  9. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  10. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  11. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  12. Method to adjust multilayer film stress induced deformation of optics

    DOEpatents

    Spiller, Eberhard A.; Mirkarimi, Paul B.; Montcalm, Claude; Bajt, Sasa; Folta, James A.

    2000-01-01

    Stress compensating systems that reduces/compensates stress in a multilayer without loss in reflectivity, while reducing total film thickness compared to the earlier buffer-layer approach. The stress free multilayer systems contain multilayer systems with two different material combinations of opposite stress, where both systems give good reflectivity at the design wavelengths. The main advantage of the multilayer system design is that stress reduction does not require the deposition of any additional layers, as in the buffer layer approach. If the optical performance of the two systems at the design wavelength differ, the system with the poorer performance is deposited first, and then the system with better performance last, thus forming the top of the multilayer system. The components for the stress reducing layer are chosen among materials that have opposite stress to that of the preferred multilayer reflecting stack and simultaneously have optical constants that allow one to get good reflectivity at the design wavelength. For a wavelength of 13.4 nm, the wavelength presently used for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, Si and Be have practically the same optical constants, but the Mo/Si multilayer has opposite stress than the Mo/Be multilayer. Multilayer systems of these materials have practically identical reflectivity curves. For example, stress free multilayers can be formed on a substrate using Mo/Be multilayers in the bottom of the stack and Mo/Si multilayers at the top of the stack, with the switch-over point selected to obtain zero stress. In this multilayer system, the switch-over point is at about the half point of the total thickness of the stack, and for the Mo/Be--Mo/Si system, there may be 25 deposition periods Mo/Be to 20 deposition periods Mo/Si.

  13. Telephone-adapted mindfulness-based stress reduction (tMBSR) for patients awaiting kidney transplantation: trial design, rationale and feasibility

    PubMed Central

    Reilly-Spong, Maryanne; Reibel, Diane; Pearson, Terry; Koppa, Pat; Gross, Cynthia R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has demonstrated benefits for stress-related symptoms; however, for patients with burdensome treatment regimens, multiple co-morbidities and mobility impairment, time and travel requirements pose barriers to MBSR training. Purpose To describe the design, rationale and feasibility results of Journeys to Wellness, a clinical trial of mindfulness training delivered in a novel workshop and teleconference format. The trial aim is to reduce symptoms and improve quality of life in people waiting for a kidney transplant. Methods The standard 8-week MBSR program was reconfigured for delivery as two in-person workshops separated in time by six weekly teleconferences (tMBSR). A time and attention comparison condition (tSupport) was created using the workshop-telephone format. Feasibility results Kidney transplant candidates (N=63) were randomly assigned to tMBSR or tSupport: 87% (n=55) attended ≥1 class, and for these, attendance was high (6.6 ± 1.8 tMBSR and 7.0 ± 1.4 tSupport sessions). Fidelity monitoring found all treatment elements were delivered as planned and few technical problems occurred. Patients in both groups reported high treatment satisfaction, but more tMBSR (83%) than tSupport (43%) participants expected their intervention to be quite a bit or extremely useful for managing their health. Symptoms and quality of life outcomes collected before (baseline, 8 weeks and 6 months) and after kidney transplantation (2, 6 and 12 months) will be analyzed for efficacy. Conclusions tMBSR is an accessible intervention that may be useful to people with a wide spectrum of health conditions. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01254214 PMID:25847578

  14. Serial FBG sensor network allowing overlapping spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbenseth, S.; Lochmann, S.; Ahrens, A.; Rehm, B.

    2016-05-01

    For structure or material monitoring low impact serial fiber Bragg grating (FBG) networks have attracted increasing research interest. Common sensor networks using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) for FBG interrogation are limited in their efficiency by the spectral width of their light source, the FBG tuning range and the spectral guard bands. Overlapping spectra are strictly forbidden in this case. Applying time division multiplexing (TDM) or active resonator schemes may overcome these restrictions. However, they introduce other substantial disadvantages like signal roundtrip dependency or sophisticated control of active resonating structures. Code division multiplexing (CDM) as a means of FBG interrogation by simple autocorrelation of appropriate codes has been shown to be superior in this respect. However, it came at the cost of a second spectrometer introducing additional equalization efforts. We demonstrate a new serial FBG sensor network utilizing CDM signal processing for efficient sensor interrogation without the need of a second spectrometer and additional state of polarization (SOP) controlling components. It allows overlapping spectra even when all sensing FBGs are positioned at the same centre wavelength and it shows a high degree of insensitivity to SOP. Sequence inversed keyed (SIK) serial signal processing utilizing quasi-orthogonal balanced codes ensures simple and quick sensor interrogation with high signal-to-interference/noise ratio.

  15. Stress Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Under the Aircraft Structural Integrity program, Langley Research Center and Stress Photonics developed an infrared-based stress measurement system for use in nondestructive evaluation of materials and structures. Stress Photonics commercialized the technology in the DeltaTherm 1000 system, used to compare designs and detect cracks in structures, especially for aging aircraft and bridges. The system combines digital signal processing technology with a special infrared camera to provide instantaneous thermal images and live differential images.

  16. [Psychosocial stress and cardiology].

    PubMed

    Houppe, Jean-Pierre

    2013-06-01

    Psychosocial stress is a major independent risk and prognostic factor of cardiovascular events. It includes psychological, sociological and socioeconomic factors. Cardiovascular diseases are important providers of psychosocial stress. The knowledge of the cerebral development throughout the time allows to a better understanding of the relationship between psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk. Psychosocial stress leads, on top of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, to the development or to the worsening of an endothelial dysfunction, of an inflammatory response and prothrombotic phenomenon. Anxiolytics and antidepressors are not very effective against psychosocial stress. Physical activity and psychotherapy are much more indicated, particularly cognitve-behavioral therapy. The ESC recommends an evaluation of psychosocial stress through a short questionnaire.

  17. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was <3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be

  18. Monolithic Flexure Pre-Stressed Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Allen, Phillip Grant

    2011-01-01

    High-power ultrasonic actuators are generally assembled with a horn, backing, stress bolt, piezoelectric rings, and electrodes. The manufacturing process is complex, expensive, difficult, and time-consuming. The internal stress bolt needs to be insulated and presents a potential internal discharge point, which can decrease actuator life. Also, the introduction of a center hole for the bolt causes many failures, reducing the throughput of the manufactured actuators. A new design has been developed for producing ultrasonic horn actuators. This design consists of using flexures rather than stress bolts, allowing one to apply pre-load to the piezoelectric material. It also allows one to manufacture them from a single material/plate, rapid prototype them, or make an array in a plate or 3D structure. The actuator is easily assembled, and application of pre-stress greater than 25 MPa was demonstrated. The horn consists of external flexures that eliminate the need for the conventional stress bolt internal to the piezoelectric, and reduces the related complexity. The stress bolts are required in existing horns to provide prestress on piezoelectric stacks when driven at high power levels. In addition, the manufacturing process benefits from the amenability to produce horn structures with internal cavities. The removal of the pre-stress bolt removes a potential internal electric discharge point in the actuator. In addition, it significantly reduces the chances of mechanical failure in the piezoelectric stacks that result from the hole surface in conventional piezoelectric actuators. The novel features of this disclosure are: 1. A design that can be manufactured from a single piece of metal using EDM, precision machining, or rapid prototyping. 2. Increased electromechanical coupling of the horn actuator. 3. Higher energy density. 4. A monolithic structure of a horn that consists of an external flexure or flexures that can be used to pre-stress a solid piezoelectric structure

  19. Fatigue design procedure for the American SST prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    For supersonic airline operations, significantly higher environmental temperature is the primary new factor affecting structural service life. Methods for incorporating the influence of temperature in detailed fatigue analyses are shown along with current test indications. Thermal effects investigated include real-time compared with short-time testing, long-time temperature exposure, and stress-temperature cycle phasing. A method is presented which allows designers and stress analyzers to check fatigue resistance of structural design details. A communicative rating system is presented which defines the relative fatigue quality of the detail so that the analyst can define cyclic-load capability of the design detail by entering constant-life charts for varying detail quality. If necessary then, this system allows the designer to determine ways to improve the fatigue quality for better life or to determine the operating stresses which will provide the required service life.

  20. 41 CFR 301-11.601 - What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Income Tax... EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1995 and Thereafter General § 301-11.601 What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)? The ITRA is an allowance designed to...

  1. 41 CFR 301-11.501 - What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Income Tax... EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1993 and 1994 General § 301-11.501 What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)? The ITRA is an allowance designed to reimburse...

  2. 41 CFR 301-11.601 - What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the Income Tax... EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1995 and Thereafter General § 301-11.601 What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)? The ITRA is an allowance designed to...

  3. 41 CFR 301-11.501 - What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the Income Tax... EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1993 and 1994 General § 301-11.501 What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)? The ITRA is an allowance designed to reimburse...

  4. 40 CFR 74.24 - Current allowable SO 2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Current allowable SO 2 emissions rate... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.24 Current allowable SO 2 emissions rate. The designated representative shall submit the following data: (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 74.24 - Current allowable SO 2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Current allowable SO 2 emissions rate... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.24 Current allowable SO 2 emissions rate. The designated representative shall submit the following data: (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 74.24 - Current allowable SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Current allowable SO2 emissions rate... allowable SO2 emissions rate. The designated representative shall submit the following data: (a) Current allowable SO2 emissions rate of the combustion source, expressed in lbs/mmBtu, which shall be the...

  7. 40 CFR 74.24 - Current allowable SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Current allowable SO2 emissions rate... allowable SO2 emissions rate. The designated representative shall submit the following data: (a) Current allowable SO2 emissions rate of the combustion source, expressed in lbs/mmBtu, which shall be the...

  8. 40 CFR 74.24 - Current allowable SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Current allowable SO2 emissions rate... allowable SO2 emissions rate. The designated representative shall submit the following data: (a) Current allowable SO2 emissions rate of the combustion source, expressed in lbs/mmBtu, which shall be the...

  9. 41 CFR 301-11.501 - What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the Income Tax... EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1993 and 1994 General § 301-11.501 What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)? The ITRA is an allowance designed to reimburse...

  10. 41 CFR 301-11.501 - What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What is the Income Tax... EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1993 and 1994 General § 301-11.501 What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)? The ITRA is an allowance designed to reimburse...

  11. 41 CFR 301-11.601 - What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the Income Tax... EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1995 and Thereafter General § 301-11.601 What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)? The ITRA is an allowance designed to...

  12. 41 CFR 301-11.601 - What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the Income Tax... EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1995 and Thereafter General § 301-11.601 What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)? The ITRA is an allowance designed to...

  13. 41 CFR 301-11.601 - What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What is the Income Tax... EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1995 and Thereafter General § 301-11.601 What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)? The ITRA is an allowance designed to...

  14. 41 CFR 301-11.501 - What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the Income Tax... EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1993 and 1994 General § 301-11.501 What is the Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA)? The ITRA is an allowance designed to reimburse...

  15. 40 CFR 74.23 - 1985 Allowable SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.23 1985 Allowable SO2 emissions rate. (a) Data requirements. (1) The designated representative of the combustion source shall... data: (i) Allowable SO2 emissions rate of the combustion source expressed in lbs/mmBtu as defined...

  16. 40 CFR 74.23 - 1985 Allowable SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.23 1985 Allowable SO2 emissions rate. (a) Data requirements. (1) The designated representative of the combustion source shall... data: (i) Allowable SO2 emissions rate of the combustion source expressed in lbs/mmBtu as defined...

  17. Commercial Platforms Allow Affordable Space Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    At an altitude of about 240 miles, its orbital path carries it over 90 percent of the Earth s population. It circles the Earth in continuous free fall; its crew of six and one Robonaut pass the days, experiencing 16 sunrises and 16 sunsets every 24 hours, in microgravity, an environment in which everything from bodily functions to the physical behavior of materials changes drastically from what is common on the ground. Outside its shielded confines, temperatures cycle from one extreme to the other, radiation is rampant, and atomic oxygen corrodes everything it touches. A unique feat of engineering, the International Space Station (ISS) also represents the most remarkable platform for scientific research ever devised. In 2005, anticipating the space station s potential for NASA and non-NASA scientists alike, the NASA Authorization Act designated the US segment of the ISS as a national laboratory, instructing the Agency to "increase the utilization of the ISS by other Federal entities and the private sector." With the ISS set to maintain operations through at least 2020, the station offers an unprecedented long-term access to space conditions, enabling research not previously possible. "There will be new drug discoveries, new pharmaceuticals, a better understanding of how we affect the planet and how we can maintain it," says Marybeth Edeen, the ISS National Laboratory manager, based at Johnson Space Center. The ISS, she says, represents a major example of the government s role in making such advancements possible. "The government is key in that researchers cannot afford to build the kind of infrastructure that the government can provide. But we then have to make that infrastructure available at a reasonable cost." Enter Jeff Manber, who saw in the ISS National Lab an extraordinary opportunity to advance science, education, and business in ways never before seen.

  18. Using a web-based game to prevent posttraumatic stress in children following medical events: design of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Marsac, Meghan L.; Kohser, Kristen L.; Winston, Flaura K.; Kenardy, Justin; March, Sonja; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical events including acute illness and injury are among the most common potentially traumatic experiences for children. Despite the scope of the problem, only limited resources are available for prevention of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) after pediatric medical events. Web-based programs provide a low-cost, accessible means to reach a wide range of families and show promise in related areas of child mental health. Objectives To describe the design of a randomized controlled trial that will evaluate feasibility and estimate preliminary efficacy of Coping Coach, a web-based preventive intervention to prevent or reduce PTSS after acute pediatric medical events. Method Seventy children and their parents will be randomly assigned to either an intervention or a waitlist control condition. Inclusion criteria require that children are aged 8–12 years, have experienced a medical event, have access to Internet and telephone, and have sufficient competency in the English language to complete measures and understand the intervention. Participants will complete baseline measures and will then be randomized to the intervention or waitlist control condition. Children in the intervention condition will complete module 1 (Feelings Identification) in the hospital and will be instructed on how to complete modules 2 (Appraisals) and 3 (Avoidance) online. Follow-up assessments will be conducted via telephone at 6, 12, and 18 weeks after the baseline assessment. Following the 12-week assessment, children in the waitlist control condition will receive instructions for completing the intervention. Results Primary study outcomes include data on intervention feasibility and outcomes (child appraisals, coping, PTSS and health-related quality of life). Discussion Results will provide data on the feasibility of the implementation of the Coping Coach intervention and study procedures as well as estimations of efficacy to determine sample size for a larger study

  19. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Overweight/Obese Women With and Without Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Design and Methods of a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Raja-Khan, Nazia; Agito, Katrina; Shah, Julie; Stetter, Christy M.; Gustafson, Theresa S.; Socolow, Holly; Kunselman, Allen R.; Reibel, Diane K.; Legro, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) may be beneficial for overweight/obese women, including women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), as it has been shown to reduce psychological distress and improve quality of life in other patient populations. Preliminary studies suggest that MBSR may also have salutary effects on blood pressure and blood glucose. This paper describes the design and methods of an ongoing pilot randomized controlled trial evaluating the feasibility and effects of MBSR in PCOS and non-PCOS women who are overweight or obese. Eighty six (86) women with body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, including 31 women with PCOS, have been randomized to 8 weeks of MBSR or health education control, and followed for 16 weeks. The primary outcome is mindfulness assessed with the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Secondary outcomes include measures of blood pressure, blood glucose, quality of life, anxiety and depression. Our overall hypothesis is that MBSR will increase mindfulness and ultimately lead to favorable changes in blood pressure, blood glucose, psychological distress and quality of life in PCOS and non-PCOS women. This would support the integration of MBSR with conventional medical treatments to reduce psychological distress, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in PCOS and non-PCOS women who are overweight or obese. PMID:25662105

  20. Childhood Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a Move What Kids Say About: Handling Stress Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias How to Talk to Your ... About School? 5 Ways to Deal With Anxiety Anxiety Disorders Can Stress Affect My Weight? Stress Contact Us Print Resources ...