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Sample records for allowable stress framework

  1. 46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or less of the minimum yield stress of the framework...

  2. 46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or less of the minimum yield stress of the framework...

  3. 46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or less of the minimum yield stress of the framework...

  4. 46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or less of the minimum yield stress of the framework...

  5. 46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or less of the minimum yield stress of the framework...

  6. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  7. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  8. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  9. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  10. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  11. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  12. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  13. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  14. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  15. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  16. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  17. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  18. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  19. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  20. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  1. Allowable stresses in FRP marine vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visuri, Manuri

    The publication consists of a literature survey of allowable stresses used in fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) structures, and a new method for the determination of allowable stresses is presented. In the literature survey, primary attention has been paid to the marine industry (including classification societies), the aerospace industry, and to pressure vessel and pipe standards. Generally the subject is only briefly discussed in the literature. This is a drawback, since the conservatism dominating the rules used today often means unnecessary weight penalties. High factors of safety (FoS), except in the aerospace industry, are used in most designs. The short experience of structures in service, wide variety of material combinations and the rather complicated mechanical behavior are the most important factors in this regard. The presented determination method for allowable stresses aims at introducing a more rational way for dimensioning. The method is based on the partial factors of safety concept. A statistical analysis can be included for better accuracy. This requires enough data of material and load behavior. The method is flexible and can be tailored to various needs. One major drawback is the lack of information concerning material behavior under long-term loads. The method is aimed to be expanded in the future.

  2. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  3. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  4. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  5. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  6. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  7. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  8. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  9. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  10. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  11. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  12. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  13. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  14. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  15. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  16. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  17. Liftings and stresses for planar periodic frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Borcea, Ciprian; Streinu, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    We formulate and prove a periodic analog of Maxwell’s theorem relating stressed planar frameworks and their liftings to polyhedral surfaces with spherical topology. We use our lifting theorem to prove deformation and rigidity-theoretic properties for planar periodic pseudo-triangulations, generalizing features known for their finite counterparts. These properties are then applied to questions originating in mathematical crystallography and materials science, concerning planar periodic auxetic structures and ultrarigid periodic frameworks. PMID:26973370

  18. Liftings and stresses for planar periodic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Borcea, Ciprian; Streinu, Ileana

    2015-06-01

    We formulate and prove a periodic analog of Maxwell's theorem relating stressed planar frameworks and their liftings to polyhedral surfaces with spherical topology. We use our lifting theorem to prove deformation and rigidity-theoretic properties for planar periodic pseudo-triangulations, generalizing features known for their finite counterparts. These properties are then applied to questions originating in mathematical crystallography and materials science, concerning planar periodic auxetic structures and ultrarigid periodic frameworks.

  19. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for...

  20. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for...

  1. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for...

  2. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for...

  3. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for...

  4. A Partial Width Calculation of OZI-Allowed Charmonium Decays in a Coupled Channel Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Hirano, M.; Katō, K.

    2009-09-01

    Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-allowed partial decay widths, masses, and total decay width of charmonium states are studied in a nonrelativistic coupled-channel framework based on microscopic effective quark interactions. With the help of the complex scale transformation, the coupled channel equation is easily solved under the proper boundary condition for resonances. The obtained result as a whole is very successful and encouraging for the traditional charmonium states including ψ(4040) whose features of mass and partial decay widths have been argued historically. The coupling mechanisms of these states are investigated by reducing artificially the channel coupling strengths little by little and finally turning the coupling off. The situations turn out to be quite different from what we would have naively supposed. Other solutions than the traditional charmonium states were obatined at the same time. Some of them are discussed in relation with new particles observed recently.

  5. A Review & Assessment of Current Operating Conditions Allowable Stresses in ASME Section III Subsection NH

    SciTech Connect

    R. W. Swindeman

    2009-12-14

    The current operating condition allowable stresses provided in ASME Section III, Subsection NH were reviewed for consistency with the criteria used to establish the stress allowables and with the allowable stresses provided in ASME Section II, Part D. It was found that the S{sub o} values in ASME III-NH were consistent with the S values in ASME IID for the five materials of interest. However, it was found that 0.80 S{sub r} was less than S{sub o} for some temperatures for four of the materials. Only values for alloy 800H appeared to be consistent with the criteria on which S{sub o} values are established. With the intent of undertaking a more detailed evaluation of issues related to the allowable stresses in ASME III-NH, the availabilities of databases for the five materials were reviewed and augmented databases were assembled.

  6. Stress and preterm delivery: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Hogue, C J; Hoffman, S; Hatch, M C

    2001-07-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies of various kinds of stress and preterm delivery have produced either negative or weakly positive results. Those inconclusive findings could be either because of the absence of an association or because of recognised methodological problems that may have masked an association. The biological plausibility of the stress hypothesis provides one rationale for continuing stress research, using better study designs. To further this agenda, we propose an epidemiological model, based on the classic "host, environment, agent" triangle of epidemiological causality. The host is the individual woman, more or less susceptible to stressor-induced pathology. The environment includes the social and cultural conditions that are ongoing stressors as well as social and cultural modifiers of stress e.g. those factors that may influence how a particular stressor is experienced or what the physical response to it may be. The agent is the immediate emotional or physical stressor requiring her response. We draw from recent literature, published principally since 1990, to illustrate this model. This epidemiological model posits that whether the individual is overwhelmed by stressors depends not only on the strength of the agents but also upon host susceptibility to stress, as well as the background level of acute, environmental and contextual stressors, and the moderating influence of host, environmental and contextual resources for handling stress. Future research needs to be based on stress hypotheses that include all sides of the triangle, data collection instruments that adequately capture relevant stressors and stress responses, and analytical techniques capable of handling complex, multilevel relationships.

  7. Understanding Nursing Students' Stress: A Proposed Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawatzky, Jo-Ann V.

    1998-01-01

    The Adaptation Nursing Model suggests that nursing students' level of adaptation to stress is influenced by their hardiness and use of social resources. Faculty can use the information to facilitate students' coping. (SK)

  8. Extending the FairRoot framework to allow for simulation and reconstruction of free streaming data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Turany, M.; Klein, D.; Manafov, A.; Rybalchenko, A.; Uhlig, F.

    2014-06-01

    The FairRoot framework is the standard framework for simulation, reconstruction and data analysis for the FAIR experiments. The framework is designed to optimise the accessibility for beginners and developers, to be flexible and to cope with future developments. FairRoot enhances the synergy between the different physics experiments. As a first step toward simulation of free streaming data, the time based simulation was introduced to the framework. The next step is the event source simulation. This is achieved via a client server system. After digitization the so called "samplers" can be started, where sampler can read the data of the corresponding detector from the simulation files and make it available for the reconstruction clients. The system makes it possible to develop and validate the online reconstruction algorithms. In this work, the design and implementation of the new architecture and the communication layer will be described.

  9. A Conceptual Framework to Address Stress-Associated ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chronic stress leads to a variety of mental and physiological disorders, and stress effects are the primary concern after traumatic injury and exposure to infectious diseases or toxic agents from disaster events. We developed a conceptual model to address the question of whether degradation of ecosystem services (ES) by disasters such as recent hurricanes and the Deepwater Horizon oil catastrophe produce acute and chronic stress that ultimately result in short- and long-term negative health outcomes in people. An interdisciplinary team with expertise in data mining, ecology, ecosystem services, ecotoxicology, landscape ecology, mental health, psychiatry, and stress physiology utilized the Driver-Pressure-State-Ecosystem Service model of Kelble et al. (2013), the mental health framework of Palinkas (2012) and McEwen’s (1993) allostatic load model of chronic stress as starting points. Initial modeling results were augmented via expert workshops and peer review. Our conceptual model connects effects of disasters to changes in specific ecosystem components (e.g., water quality, biodiversity, fishery populations) with resulting degradation of multiple ES such as commercial and recreational fishing, tourism, and sense of place. The model shows how the degraded ES produce acute and chronic stress in people and how such stress may lead to a variety of negative mental, physical and behavioral health outcomes. Using this framework, one can trace potential for str

  10. An Integrative Framework of Stress, Attention, and Visuomotor Performance

    PubMed Central

    Vine, Samuel J.; Moore, Lee J.; Wilson, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present an integrative conceptual framework that depicts the effect of acute stress on the performance of visually guided motor skills. We draw upon seminal theories highlighting the importance of subjective interpretations of stress on subsequent performance and outline how models of disrupted attentional control might explain this effect through impairments in visuomotor control. We first synthesize and critically discuss empirical support for theories examining these relationships in isolation. We then outline our integrative framework that seeks to provide a more complete picture of the interacting influences of stress responses (challenge and threat) and attention in explaining how elevated stress may lead to different visuomotor performance outcomes. We propose a number of mechanisms that explain why evaluations of stress are related to attentional control, and highlight the emotion of anxiety as the most likely candidate to explain why negative reactions to stress lead to disrupted attention and poor visuomotor skill performance. Finally, we propose a number of feedback loops that explain why stress responses are often self-perpetuating, as well as a number of proposed interventions that are designed to help improve or maintain performance in real world performance environments (e.g., sport, surgery, military, and aviation). PMID:27847484

  11. An Integrative Framework of Stress, Attention, and Visuomotor Performance.

    PubMed

    Vine, Samuel J; Moore, Lee J; Wilson, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present an integrative conceptual framework that depicts the effect of acute stress on the performance of visually guided motor skills. We draw upon seminal theories highlighting the importance of subjective interpretations of stress on subsequent performance and outline how models of disrupted attentional control might explain this effect through impairments in visuomotor control. We first synthesize and critically discuss empirical support for theories examining these relationships in isolation. We then outline our integrative framework that seeks to provide a more complete picture of the interacting influences of stress responses (challenge and threat) and attention in explaining how elevated stress may lead to different visuomotor performance outcomes. We propose a number of mechanisms that explain why evaluations of stress are related to attentional control, and highlight the emotion of anxiety as the most likely candidate to explain why negative reactions to stress lead to disrupted attention and poor visuomotor skill performance. Finally, we propose a number of feedback loops that explain why stress responses are often self-perpetuating, as well as a number of proposed interventions that are designed to help improve or maintain performance in real world performance environments (e.g., sport, surgery, military, and aviation).

  12. Snail reprograms glucose metabolism by repressing phosphofructokinase PFKP allowing cancer cell survival under metabolic stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Hee; Cha, Yong Hoon; Lee, Jueun; Lee, Seon-Hyeong; Yang, Ji Hye; Yun, Jun Seop; Cho, Eunae Sandra; Zhang, Xianglan; Nam, Miso; Kim, Nami; Yuk, Young-Su; Cha, So Young; Lee, Yoonmi; Ryu, Joo Kyung; Park, Sunghyouk; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Kang, Sang Won; Kim, Soo-Youl; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Yook, Jong In; Kim, Hyun Sil

    2017-02-08

    Dynamic regulation of glucose flux between aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is not well-understood. Here we show that Snail (SNAI1), a key transcriptional repressor of EMT, regulates glucose flux toward PPP, allowing cancer cell survival under metabolic stress. Mechanistically, Snail regulates glycolytic activity via repression of phosphofructokinase, platelet (PFKP), a major isoform of cancer-specific phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), an enzyme involving the first rate-limiting step of glycolysis. The suppression of PFKP switches the glucose flux towards PPP, generating NADPH with increased metabolites of oxidative PPP. Functionally, dynamic regulation of PFKP significantly potentiates cancer cell survival under metabolic stress and increases metastatic capacities in vivo. Further, knockdown of PFKP rescues metabolic reprogramming and cell death induced by loss of Snail. Thus, the Snail-PFKP axis plays an important role in cancer cell survival via regulation of glucose flux between glycolysis and PPP.

  13. Snail reprograms glucose metabolism by repressing phosphofructokinase PFKP allowing cancer cell survival under metabolic stress

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Hee; Cha, Yong Hoon; Lee, Jueun; Lee, Seon-Hyeong; Yang, Ji Hye; Yun, Jun Seop; Cho, Eunae Sandra; Zhang, Xianglan; Nam, Miso; Kim, Nami; Yuk, Young-Su; Cha, So Young; Lee, Yoonmi; Ryu, Joo Kyung; Park, Sunghyouk; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Kang, Sang Won; Kim, Soo-Youl; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Yook, Jong In; Kim, Hyun Sil

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic regulation of glucose flux between aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) during epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is not well-understood. Here we show that Snail (SNAI1), a key transcriptional repressor of EMT, regulates glucose flux toward PPP, allowing cancer cell survival under metabolic stress. Mechanistically, Snail regulates glycolytic activity via repression of phosphofructokinase, platelet (PFKP), a major isoform of cancer-specific phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), an enzyme involving the first rate-limiting step of glycolysis. The suppression of PFKP switches the glucose flux towards PPP, generating NADPH with increased metabolites of oxidative PPP. Functionally, dynamic regulation of PFKP significantly potentiates cancer cell survival under metabolic stress and increases metastatic capacities in vivo. Further, knockdown of PFKP rescues metabolic reprogramming and cell death induced by loss of Snail. Thus, the Snail-PFKP axis plays an important role in cancer cell survival via regulation of glucose flux between glycolysis and PPP. PMID:28176759

  14. Extending the Cumulative Emissions Framework to Non-CO2 Gases: Can This Inform the Allocation of National Emissions Allowances?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, D.

    2014-12-01

    It is now well established that global temperature responds approximately linearly to cumulative CO2 emissions, allowing a finite carbon emissions budget to be defined and associated with a given global temperature target. However, it is less obvious how to incorporate into this framework the other greenhouse gases and aerosol emissions, owing largely to their widely varying atmospheric lifetimes and consequent climate effect. In this presentation, I will propose a new way to compare the climate effect of a range of greenhouse gases and aerosols. I will first assess the lifetime of the temperature response to different types of emissions, which depends on the atmospheric lifetime of the gas in question, as well as the timescale of the climate system response to forcing. I will then use this timescale of temperature decay to weight emissions of a given gas over time, generating an estimate of the effective cumulative emissions that produce a given amount of temperature change at a particular time. Finally, I will illustrate the application of this method to the question of quantifying historical national contributions to global warming and determine future emission allowances for a given climate target.

  15. Hierarchical petascale simulation framework for stress corrosion cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashishta, P.; Kalia, R. K.; Nakano, A.; Kaxiras, E.; Grama, A.; Lu, G.; Eidenbenz, S.; Voter, A. F.; Hood, R. Q.; Moriarty, J. A.; Yang, L. H.

    2008-07-01

    We are developing a scalable parallel and distributed computational framework consisting of methods, algorithms, and integrated software tools for multi-terascle-to-petascale simulations of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) with quantum-level accuracy. We have performed multimillion- to billion-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of deformation, flow, and fracture in amorphous silica with interatomic potentials and forces validated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Optimized potentials have been developed to study sulfur embrittlement of nickel with multimillion-to-multibillion atom MD simulations based on DFT and temperature dependent model generalized pseudopotential theory. We have also developed a quasi-continuum method embedded with quantum simulations based on DFT to reach macroscopic length scales and an accelerated molecular dynamics scheme to reach macroscopic time scales in simulations of solid-fluid interfaces that are relevant to SCC. A hybrid MD and mesoscale lattice Boltzmann simulation algorithm is being designed to study fluid flow through cracks.

  16. Mangerial Behavior and Stress in Families Headed by Divorced Women: A Proposed Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehler, Cheryl A.; Hogan, M. Janice

    1980-01-01

    Female-headed families are vulnerable to high levels of stress following divorce. A framework is proposed which conceptually links economic stressors and family management patterns. Ecosystem and management perspectives are offered as an integrated framework. (Author)

  17. Cold acclimation allows Drosophila flies to maintain mitochondrial functioning under cold stress.

    PubMed

    Colinet, Hervé; Renault, David; Roussel, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Environmental stress generally disturbs cellular homeostasis. Researchers have hypothesized that chilling injury is linked to a shortage of ATP. However, previous studies conducted on insects exposed to nonfreezing low temperatures presented conflicting results. In this study, we investigated the mitochondrial bioenergetics of Drosophila melanogaster flies exposed to chronic cold stress (4 °C). We assessed mitochondrial oxygen consumption while monitoring the rate of ATP synthesis at various times (0, 1, 2, and 3 days) during prolonged cold stress and at two assay temperatures (25 and 4 °C). We compared organelle responses between cold-susceptible and cold-acclimated phenotypes. Continuous exposure to low temperature provoked temporal declines in the rates of mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis. Respiratory control ratios (RCRs) suggested that mitochondria were not critically uncoupled. Nevertheless, after 3 days of continuous cold stress, a sharp decline in the mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate was observed in control flies when they were assayed at low temperature. This change was associated with reduced survival capacity in control flies. In contrast, cold-acclimated flies exhibited high survival and maintained higher rates of mitochondrial ATP synthesis and coupling (i.e., higher RCRs). Adaptive changes due to cold acclimation observed in the whole organism were thus manifested in isolated mitochondria. Our observations suggest that cold tolerance is linked to the ability to maintain bioenergetics capacity under cold stress.

  18. Control of the process of cooling of ceramic products with allowance for the constraints on thermal stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozkin, N. D.; Tkachev, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    A three-dimensional problem on the control of furnace temperature during cooling of ceramic products of arbitrary shape with allowance for the constraints on thermal stresses is analyzed. An algorithm for calculating a temperature regime making it possible to avoid the occurrence of fracture and irreversible deformation in the products being cooled is proposed. With the example of cooling of a ceramic holder for a spiral wire, a computational experiment is performed. A temperature regime in which the cooling of the product accomplishes in a certain time without exceeding the admissible values of thermal stresses is identified.

  19. Increasing the Oxidative Stress Response Allows Escherichia coli To Overcome Inhibitory Effects of Condensed Tannins

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Alexandra H.; Imlay, James A.; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2003-01-01

    Tannins are plant-derived polyphenols with antimicrobial effects. The mechanism of tannin toxicity towards Escherichia coli was determined by using an extract from Acacia mearnsii (Black wattle) as a source of condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins). E. coli growth was inhibited by tannins only when tannins were exposed to oxygen. Tannins auto-oxidize, and substantial hydrogen peroxide was generated when they were added to aerobic media. The addition of exogenous catalase permitted growth in tannin medium. E. coli mutants that lacked HPI, the major catalase, were especially sensitive to tannins, while oxyR mutants that constitutively overexpress antioxidant enzymes were resistant. A tannin-resistant mutant was isolated in which a promoter-region point mutation increased the level of HPI by 10-fold. Our results indicate that wattle condensed tannins are toxic to E. coli in aerobic medium primarily because they generate H2O2. The oxidative stress response helps E. coli strains to overcome their inhibitory effect. PMID:12788743

  20. Re-programming of translation following cell stress allows IRES-mediated translation to predominate.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Keith A; Stoneley, Mark; Bushell, Martin; Willis, Anne E

    2008-01-01

    There is now an overwhelming body of evidence to suggest that internal ribosome entry is required to maintain the expression of specific proteins during patho-physiological situations when cap-dependent translation is compromised, for example, following heat shock or during mitosis, hypoxia, differentiation and apoptosis. Translational profiling has been used by several groups to assess the extent to which alternative mechanisms of translation initiation selectively recruit mRNAs to polysomes during cell stress. The data from these studies have shown that under each condition 3-5% of coding mRNAs remain associated with the polysomes. Importantly, the genes identified in each of these studies do not show a significant amount of overlap, suggesting that 10-15% of all mRNAs have the capability for their initiation to occur via alternative mechanism(s).

  1. Modulation of oxidative stress and subsequent induction of apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress allows citral to decrease cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, Arvinder; Felder, Mildred; Fass, Lucas; Kaur, Justanjot; Czarnecki, Austin; Rathi, Kavya; Zeng, San; Osowski, Kathryn Kalady; Howell, Colin; Xiong, May P.; Whelan, Rebecca J.; Patankar, Manish S.

    2016-01-01

    The monoterpenoid, citral, when delivered through PEG-b-PCL nanoparticles inhibits in vivo growth of 4T1 breast tumors. Here, we show that citral inhibits proliferation of multiple human cancer cell lines. In p53 expressing ECC-1 and OVCAR-3 but not in p53-deficient SKOV-3 cells, citral induces G1/S cell cycle arrest and apoptosis as determined by Annexin V staining and increased cleaved caspase3 and Bax and decreased Bcl-2. In SKOV-3 cells, citral induces the ER stress markers CHOP, GADD45, EDEM, ATF4, Hsp90, ATG5, and phospho-eIF2α. The molecular chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid attenuates citral activity in SKOV-3 but not in ECC-1 and OVCAR-3 cells. In p53-expressing cells, citral increases phosphorylation of serine-15 of p53. Activation of p53 increases Bax, PUMA, and NOXA expression. Inhibition of p53 by pifithrin-α, attenuates citral-mediated apoptosis. Citral increases intracellular oxygen radicals and this leads to activation of p53. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis by L-buthionine sulfoxamine increases potency of citral. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine decreases phosphorylation of p53 in citral-treated ECC-1 and OVCAR-3. These results define a p53-dependent, and in the absence of p53, ER stress-dependent mode of action of citral. This study indicates that citral in PEG-b-PCL nanoparticle formulation should be considered for treatment of breast and other tumors. PMID:27270209

  2. Using a Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation Framework to Predict Physical Aggression Trajectories in Newlywed Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Amie; Lawrence, Erika; Barry, Robin A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors used a vulnerability-stress-adaptation framework to examine personality traits and chronic stress as predictors of the developmental course of physical aggression in the early years of marriage. Additionally, personality traits and physical aggression were examined as predictors of the developmental course of chronic stress. Data from…

  3. A conceptual framework of stress vulnerability, depression, and health outcomes in women: potential uses in research on complementary therapies for depression

    PubMed Central

    Kinser, Patricia A; Lyon, Debra E

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression is a chronic mental health condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide. It is well-established that psychological stress plays an integral role in depression and that depression has numerous negative health outcomes. However, a closer look at components of stress vulnerabilities and depression is required to allow for the development and testing of appropriate interventions. Aims and Discussion This article describes a conceptual framework about the complex and bidirectional relationship between stress vulnerability, depression, and health outcomes in women. The authors elucidate how the framework can be applied in clinical research about cellular aging and on the mechanisms of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for depression, using yoga as an example of a CAM modality. Conclusion The proposed conceptual framework may be helpful for adding depth to the body of knowledge about the use of mind-body therapies for individuals at high risk of stress vulnerability and/or depression. PMID:25328843

  4. Verification of Allowable Stresses In ASME Section III Subsection NH For Grade 91 Steel & Alloy 800H

    SciTech Connect

    R. W. Swindeman; M. J. Swindeman; B. W. Roberts; B. E. Thurgood; D. L. Marriott

    2007-11-30

    The database for the creep-rupture of 9Cr-1Mo-V (Grade 91) steel was collected and reviewed to determine if it met the needs for recommending time-dependent strength values, S{sub t}, for coverage in ASME Section III Subsection NH (ASME III-NH) to 650 C (1200 F) and 600,000 hours. The accumulated database included over 300 tests for 1% total strain, nearly 400 tests for tertiary creep, and nearly 1700 tests to rupture. Procedures for analyzing creep and rupture data for ASME III-NH were reviewed and compared to the procedures used to develop the current allowable stress values for Gr 91 for ASME II-D. The criteria in ASME III-NH for estimating S{sub t} included the average strength for 1% total strain for times to 600,000 hours, 80% of the minimum strength for tertiary creep for times to 600,000 hours, and 67% of the minimum rupture strength values for times to 600,000 hours. Time-temperature-stress parametric formulations were selected to correlate the data and make predictions of the long-time strength. It was found that the stress corresponding to 1% total strain and the initiation of tertiary creep were not the controlling criteria over the temperature-time range of concern. It was found that small adjustments to the current values in III-NH could be introduced but that the existing values were conservative and could be retained. The existing database was found to be adequate to extend the coverage to 600,000 hours for temperatures below 650 C (1200 F).

  5. Sensei: A Multi-Modal Framework for Assessing Stress Resiliency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    During this reporting period, we collected pilot data verifying that our stressful and relaxing tasks were having the desired effects on subjects...shaded areas indicate the time during which the subject was engaged in the Stroop + peripheral detection task, with increasing task difficulty as time...differences between subjects also show some interesting patterns. For example, in the subject on the left, a strong GSR response at the start of the Stroop

  6. A Simulation Framework for Exploring Socioecological Dynamics and Sustainability of Settlement Systems Under Stress in Ancient Mesopotamia and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, J. H.; Altaweel, M. R.

    2007-12-01

    The presentation will describe an object-oriented, agent-based simulation framework being used to help answer longstanding questions regarding the development trajectories and sustainability of ancient Mesopotamian settlement systems. This multidisciplinary, multi-model framework supports explicit, fine-scale representations of the dynamics of key natural processes such as crop growth, hydrology, and weather, operating concurrently with social processes such as kinship-driven behaviors, farming and herding practices, social stratification, and economic and political activities carried out by social agents that represent individual persons, households, and larger-scale organizations. The framework has allowed us to explore the inherently coupled dynamics of modeled settlements and landscapes that are undergoing diverse social and environmental stresses, both acute and chronic, across multi-generational time spans. The simulation framework was originally used to address single-settlement scenarios, but has recently been extended to begin to address settlement system sustainability issues at sub-regional to regional scale, by introducing a number of new dynamic mechanisms, such as the activities of nomadic communities, that manifest themselves at these larger spatial scales. The framework is flexible and scalable and has broad applicability. It has, for example, recently been adapted to address agroeconomic sustainability of settlement systems in modern rural Thailand, testing the resilience and vulnerability of settled landscapes in the face of such perturbations as large-scale political interventions, global economic shifts, and climate change.

  7. Hierarchical Petascale Simulation Framework For Stress Corrosion Cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Grama, Ananth

    2013-12-18

    A number of major accomplishments resulted from the project. These include: • Data Structures, Algorithms, and Numerical Methods for Reactive Molecular Dynamics. We have developed a range of novel data structures, algorithms, and solvers (amortized ILU, Spike) for use with ReaxFF and charge equilibration. • Parallel Formulations of ReactiveMD (Purdue ReactiveMolecular Dynamics Package, PuReMD, PuReMD-GPU, and PG-PuReMD) for Messaging, GPU, and GPU Cluster Platforms. We have developed efficient serial, parallel (MPI), GPU (Cuda), and GPU Cluster (MPI/Cuda) implementations. Our implementations have been demonstrated to be significantly better than the state of the art, both in terms of performance and scalability. • Comprehensive Validation in the Context of Diverse Applications. We have demonstrated the use of our software in diverse systems, including silica-water, silicon-germanium nanorods, and as part of other projects, extended it to applications ranging from explosives (RDX) to lipid bilayers (biomembranes under oxidative stress). • Open Source Software Packages for Reactive Molecular Dynamics. All versions of our soft- ware have been released over the public domain. There are over 100 major research groups worldwide using our software. • Implementation into the Department of Energy LAMMPS Software Package. We have also integrated our software into the Department of Energy LAMMPS software package.

  8. Teacher Stress and Pupil Behaviour Explored through a Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapy Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Caroline; Dunsmuir, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Using the psychological framework of rational-emotive behaviour therapy, the principal aim of this study was to establish whether irrational beliefs, self-efficacy or pupil behaviour predicted teacher reports of stress. A secondary aim was to establish whether these variables, in addition to teachers' verbal feedback to pupils in class, predicted…

  9. RISK MANAGEMENT OF SEDIMENT STRESS: A FRAMEWORK FOR SEDIMENT RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research related to the ecological risk management of sediment stress in watersheds is placed under a common conceptual framework in order to help promote the timely advance of decision support methods for aquatic resource managers and watershed-level planning. The proposed risk ...

  10. Allowable CO2 concentrations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a function of the climate sensitivity probability distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, L. D. Danny

    2007-03-01

    Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) calls for stabilization of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations at levels that prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference (DAI) in the climate system. Until recently, the consensus viewpoint was that the climate sensitivity (the global mean equilibrium warming for a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration) was 'likely' to fall between 1.5 and 4.5 K. However, a number of recent studies have generated probability distribution functions (pdfs) for climate sensitivity with the 95th percentile of the expected climate sensitivity as large as 10 K, while some studies suggest that the climate sensitivity is likely to fall in the lower half of the long-standing 1.5 4.5 K range. This paper examines the allowable CO2 concentration as a function of the 95th percentile of the climate sensitivity pdf (ranging from 2 to 8 K) and for the following additional assumptions: (i) the 50th percentile for the pdf of the minimum sustained global mean warming that causes unacceptable harm equal to 1.5 or 2.5 K and (ii) 1%, 5% or 10% allowable risks of unacceptable harm. For a 1% risk tolerance and the more stringent harm-threshold pdf, the allowable CO2 concentration ranges from 323 to 268 ppmv as the 95th percentile of the climate sensitivity pdf increases from 2 to 8 K, while for a 10% risk tolerance and the less stringent harm-threshold pdf, the allowable CO2 concentration ranges from 531 to 305 ppmv. In both cases it is assumed that non-CO2 GHG radiative forcing can be reduced to half of its present value, otherwise; the allowable CO2 concentration is even smaller. Accounting for the fact that the CO2 concentration will gradually fall if emissions are reduced to zero, and that peak realized warming will then be less than the peak equilibrium warming (related to peak radiative forcing) allows the CO2 concentration to peak at 10 40 ppmv higher than the limiting values given above for a climate sensitivity

  11. Transcriptional Profiling of Chondrodysplasia Growth Plate Cartilage Reveals Adaptive ER-Stress Networks That Allow Survival but Disrupt Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Trevor L.; Bell, Katrina M.; Tatarczuch, Liliana; Mackie, Eleanor J.; Rajpar, M. Helen; McDermott, Ben T.; Boot-Handford, Raymond P.; Bateman, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, Schmid type (MCDS) is characterized by mild short stature and growth plate hypertrophic zone expansion, and caused by collagen X mutations. We recently demonstrated the central importance of ER stress in the pathology of MCDS by recapitulating the disease phenotype by expressing misfolding forms of collagen X (Schmid) or thyroglobulin (Cog) in the hypertrophic zone. Here we characterize the Schmid and Cog ER stress signaling networks by transcriptional profiling of microdissected mutant and wildtype hypertrophic zones. Both models displayed similar unfolded protein responses (UPRs), involving activation of canonical ER stress sensors and upregulation of their downstream targets, including molecular chaperones, foldases, and ER-associated degradation machinery. Also upregulated were the emerging UPR regulators Wfs1 and Syvn1, recently identified UPR components including Armet and Creld2, and genes not previously implicated in ER stress such as Steap1 and Fgf21. Despite upregulation of the Chop/Cebpb pathway, apoptosis was not increased in mutant hypertrophic zones. Ultrastructural analysis of mutant growth plates revealed ER stress and disrupted chondrocyte maturation throughout mutant hypertrophic zones. This disruption was defined by profiling the expression of wildtype growth plate zone gene signatures in the mutant hypertrophic zones. Hypertrophic zone gene upregulation and proliferative zone gene downregulation were both inhibited in Schmid hypertrophic zones, resulting in the persistence of a proliferative chondrocyte-like expression profile in ER-stressed Schmid chondrocytes. Our findings provide a transcriptional map of two chondrocyte UPR gene networks in vivo, and define the consequences of UPR activation for the adaptation, differentiation, and survival of chondrocytes experiencing ER stress during hypertrophy. Thus they provide important insights into ER stress signaling and its impact on cartilage pathophysiology. PMID

  12. Transcriptional profiling of chondrodysplasia growth plate cartilage reveals adaptive ER-stress networks that allow survival but disrupt hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Trevor L; Bell, Katrina M; Tatarczuch, Liliana; Mackie, Eleanor J; Rajpar, M Helen; McDermott, Ben T; Boot-Handford, Raymond P; Bateman, John F

    2011-01-01

    Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, Schmid type (MCDS) is characterized by mild short stature and growth plate hypertrophic zone expansion, and caused by collagen X mutations. We recently demonstrated the central importance of ER stress in the pathology of MCDS by recapitulating the disease phenotype by expressing misfolding forms of collagen X (Schmid) or thyroglobulin (Cog) in the hypertrophic zone. Here we characterize the Schmid and Cog ER stress signaling networks by transcriptional profiling of microdissected mutant and wildtype hypertrophic zones. Both models displayed similar unfolded protein responses (UPRs), involving activation of canonical ER stress sensors and upregulation of their downstream targets, including molecular chaperones, foldases, and ER-associated degradation machinery. Also upregulated were the emerging UPR regulators Wfs1 and Syvn1, recently identified UPR components including Armet and Creld2, and genes not previously implicated in ER stress such as Steap1 and Fgf21. Despite upregulation of the Chop/Cebpb pathway, apoptosis was not increased in mutant hypertrophic zones. Ultrastructural analysis of mutant growth plates revealed ER stress and disrupted chondrocyte maturation throughout mutant hypertrophic zones. This disruption was defined by profiling the expression of wildtype growth plate zone gene signatures in the mutant hypertrophic zones. Hypertrophic zone gene upregulation and proliferative zone gene downregulation were both inhibited in Schmid hypertrophic zones, resulting in the persistence of a proliferative chondrocyte-like expression profile in ER-stressed Schmid chondrocytes. Our findings provide a transcriptional map of two chondrocyte UPR gene networks in vivo, and define the consequences of UPR activation for the adaptation, differentiation, and survival of chondrocytes experiencing ER stress during hypertrophy. Thus they provide important insights into ER stress signaling and its impact on cartilage pathophysiology.

  13. The multitasking framework: the effects of increasing workload on acute psychobiological stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    Wetherell, Mark A; Carter, Kirsty

    2014-04-01

    A variety of techniques exist for eliciting acute psychological stress in the laboratory; however, they vary in terms of their ease of use, reliability to elicit consistent responses and the extent to which they represent the stressors encountered in everyday life. There is, therefore, a need to develop simple laboratory techniques that reliably elicit psychobiological stress reactivity that are representative of the types of stressors encountered in everyday life. The multitasking framework is a performance-based, cognitively demanding stressor, representative of environments where individuals are required to attend and respond to several different stimuli simultaneously with varying levels of workload. Psychological (mood and perceived workload) and physiological (heart rate and blood pressure) stress reactivity was observed in response to a 15-min period of multitasking at different levels of workload intensity in a sample of 20 healthy participants. Multitasking stress elicited increases in heart rate and blood pressure, and increased workload intensity elicited dose-response increases in levels of perceived workload and mood. As individuals rarely attend to single tasks in real life, the multitasking framework provides an alternative technique for modelling acute stress and workload in the laboratory.

  14. Compassionate Allowances

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to content Social Security Search Menu Languages Sign in / up Compassionate Allowances Featured Items Compassionate Allowances Conditions CAL conditions are selected using information received ...

  15. Stress Averaging for a Beam Network for Use in a Hierarchical Multiscale Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Richard Becker and Adam Sokolow 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...14. ABSTRACT An efficient procedure for obtaining the average stress within a representative volume element (RVE) composed of beam elements is...developed and validated. A model composed of a network of elastic beam elements is taken as the lower length scale in a hierarchical modeling framework

  16. Upregulation of the mitochondrial Lon Protease allows adaptation to acute oxidative stress but dysregulation is associated with chronic stress, disease, and aging.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Jenny K; Pomatto, Laura C D; Davies, Kelvin J A

    2013-02-09

    The elimination of oxidatively modified proteins is a crucial process in maintaining cellular homeostasis, especially during stress. Mitochondria are protein-dense, high traffic compartments, whose polypeptides are constantly exposed to superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and other reactive species, generated by 'electron leakage' from the respiratory chain. The level of oxidative stress to mitochondrial proteins is not constant, but instead varies greatly with numerous metabolic and environmental factors. Oxidized mitochondrial proteins must be removed rapidly (by proteolytic degradation) or they will aggregate, cross-link, and cause toxicity. The Lon Protease is a key enzyme in the degradation of oxidized proteins within the mitochondrial matrix. Under conditions of acute stress Lon is highly inducible, possibly with the oxidant acting as the signal inducer, thereby providing increased protection. It seems that under chronic stress conditions, however, Lon levels actually decline. Lon levels also decline with age and with senescence, and senescent cells even lose the ability to induce Lon during acute stress. We propose that the regulation of Lon is biphasic, in that it is up-regulated during transient stress and down-regulated during chronic stress and aging, and we suggest that the loss of Lon responsiveness may be a significant factor in aging, and in age-related diseases.

  17. Ultraviolet and photosynthetically active radiation can both induce photoprotective capacity allowing barley to overcome high radiation stress.

    PubMed

    Klem, Karel; Holub, Petr; Štroch, Michal; Nezval, Jakub; Špunda, Vladimír; Tříska, Jan; Jansen, Marcel A K; Robson, T Matthew; Urban, Otmar

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of acclimation to ultraviolet (UV) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on photoprotective mechanisms in barley leaves. Barley plants were acclimated for 7 days under three combinations of high or low UV and PAR treatments ([UV-PAR-], [UV-PAR+], [UV+PAR+]). Subsequently, plants were exposed to short-term high radiation stress (HRS; defined by high intensities of PAR - 1000 μmol m(-2) s(-1), UV-A - 10 W m(-2) and UV-B 2 W m(-2) for 4 h), to test their photoprotective capacity. The barley variety sensitive to photooxidative stress (Barke) had low constitutive flavonoid content compared to the resistant variety (Bonus) under low UV and PAR intensities. The accumulation of lutonarin and 3-feruloylquinic acid, but not of saponarin, was greatly enhanced by high PAR and further increased by UV exposure. Acclimation of plants to both high UV and PAR intensities also increased the total pool of xanthophyll-cycle pigments (VAZ). Subsequent exposure to HRS revealed that prior acclimation to UV and PAR was able to ameliorate the negative consequences of HRS on photosynthesis. Both total contents of epidermal flavonols and the total pool of VAZ were closely correlated with small reductions in light-saturated CO2 assimilation rate and maximum quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry caused by HRS. Based on these results, we conclude that growth under high PAR can substantially increase the photoprotective capacity of barley plants compared with plants grown under low PAR. However, additional UV radiation is necessary to fully induce photoprotective mechanisms in the variety Barke. This study demonstrates that UV-exposure can lead to enhanced photoprotective capacity and can contribute to the induction of tolerance to high radiation stress in barley.

  18. Effects of group size and floor space allowance on grouped sows: aggression, stress, skin injuries, and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, P H; Rice, M; Nash, J; Giri, K; Butler, K L; Tilbrook, A J; Morrison, R S

    2013-10-01

    A total of 3,120 sows, in 4 time replicates, were used to determine the effects of group size and floor space on sow welfare using behavioral, physiological, health, and fitness variables. Within 1 to 7 d postinsemination, sows were assigned randomly to treatments of a 3 by 6 factorial arrangement, with 3 group sizes (10, 30, or 80 sows/pen) and 6 floor space allowances (1.4, 1.8, 2.0, 2.2, 2.4, or 3.0 m(2)/sow). Sows were housed on partially slatted concrete floors, and overhead feeders delivered 4 times/day to provide a total of 2.5 kg of feed/sow. As pen space increased from 1.4 to 3.0 m(2)/sow, aggression at feeding decreased from about 9 to 7 bouts/sow (linear, P = 0.029) and plasma cortisol concentrations decreased from about 28 to 21 ng/mL (linear, P = 0.0089) at 2 d. Although the results are in accord with a linear decline from 1.4 to 3 m(2)/sow, the results are also in accord with a decline in these measurements from 1.4 to 1.8 m(2)/sow and no further decline greater than 1.8 m(2)/sow. Farrowing rate (percentage of inseminated sows that farrowed) also increased from about 60 to 75% as space increased from 1.4 to 3.0 m(2)/sow (linear, P = 0.012). Group size was related to skin injuries on d 9 (P = 0.0017), 23 (P = 0.0046), and 51 (P = 0.0006), with groups of 10 consistently having the lowest number of total injuries over this period. Based on the aggression and cortisol results, it is credible to judge that, within the range of floor space allowances studied, sow welfare improves with increased space. However, from a sow welfare perspective, the experiment had insufficient precision to determine what is an adequate space allowance for sows. Thus, although the results definitely support a space allowance of 1.4 m(2)/sow being too small, it is not possible to give guidance on an actual space allowance at mixing that is adequate.

  19. Psychological stress impairs the local CD8+ T cell response to mucosal HSV-1 infection and allows for increased pathogenicity via a glucocorticoid receptor-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ashcraft, Kathleen A; Hunzeker, John; Bonneau, Robert H

    2008-08-01

    Psychological stress and its associated increases in corticosterone are generally immunosuppressive and contribute to increased herpes simplex virus (HSV)-associated pathogenicity. However, the impact of stress on local control of the initial mucosal-based HSV infection has not been elucidated, nor have the ramifications of such failures of the immune response in terms of viral spread. To address these gaps in knowledge, the studies described herein sought to determine how psychological stress and associated increases in corticosterone may increase susceptibility to HSV encephalitis by allowing for increased viral titers at the site of initial infection. We have shown that in mice intranasally infected with HSV-1, a cell-mediated immune response occurs in the nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN), and superficial cervical lymph nodes (CLN). However, psychological stress induced by restraint decreased the number of lymphocytes in these tissues in HSV-infected mice. Surprisingly, the effects of this restraint stress on HSV-specific CTL function varied by immune tissue. Increased viral titers were found in the nasal cavity of stressed mice, an observation which correlated with an increased CD8+ cell response in the CLN. These findings led us to extend our studies to also determine the ramifications of decreased numbers of locally derived lymphocytes on viral titers following infection. Using an approach in which the NALT was surgically removed prior to infection, we confirmed that decreased numbers of NALT-derived lymphocytes at the time of infection allows for increased viral replication. We conclude that the increased viral titers observed in mice experiencing psychological stress are the consequence of a glucocorticoid-mediated reduction in the numbers of lymphocytes responsible for resolving the initial infection.

  20. A stress ecology framework for comprehensive risk assessment of diffuse pollution.

    PubMed

    van Straalen, Nico M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2008-12-01

    Environmental pollution is traditionally classified as either localized or diffuse. Local pollution comes from a point source that emits a well-defined cocktail of chemicals, distributed in the environment in the form of a gradient around the source. Diffuse pollution comes from many sources, small and large, that cause an erratic distribution of chemicals, interacting with those from other sources into a complex mixture of low to moderate concentrations over a large area. There is no good method for ecological risk assessment of such types of pollution. We argue that effects of diffuse contamination in the field must be analysed in the wider framework of stress ecology. A multivariate approach can be applied to filter effects of contaminants from the many interacting factors at the ecosystem level. Four case studies are discussed (1) functional and structural properties of terrestrial model ecosystems, (2) physiological profiles of microbial communities, (3) detritivores in reedfield litter, and (4) benthic invertebrates in canal sediment. In each of these cases the data were analysed by multivariate statistics and associations between ecological variables and the levels of contamination were established. We argue that the stress ecology framework is an appropriate assessment instrument for discriminating effects of pollution from other anthropogenic disturbances and naturally varying factors.

  1. Structural Uncertainties in RANS Models: Reynolds Stress Transport contra Eddy Viscosity Frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Aashwin; Edeling, Wouter; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2016-11-01

    A vast majority of turbulent flow studies, both in academia and industry, utilize Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes based models. There are different RANS modeling frameworks to select from, depending on their complexity and computational requirements, such as eddy viscosity based models, second moment closures, etc. While the relative strengths and weaknesses of each modeling paradigm (vis-a-vis their predictive fidelity, realizability, etc) are roughly established for disparate flows, there are no extant comparative estimates on the relative uncertainty in their predictions. In this investigation, we estimate the structural uncertainty inherent to different RANS modeling approaches for select internal flows. This involves comparisons between models conforming to the same framework, and, across different modeling frameworks. We establish, compare, analyze and explicate the model inadequacy for flows such as in parallel, curved, converging and diverging channels for different models. One of the novel facets of this study involves the estimation of the structural uncertainties of established Reynolds Stress Transport models, and, contrasting these against simpler eddy viscosity models. This work was supported under the DARPA EQUiPS project(Technical Monitor: Fariba Fahroo).

  2. Risk management of sediment stress: a framework for sediment risk management research.

    PubMed

    Nietch, Christopher T; Borst, Michail; Schubauer-Berigan, Joseph P

    2005-08-01

    Research related to the ecological risk management of sediment stress in watersheds is placed under a common conceptual framework in order to help promote the timely advance of decision support methods for aquatic resource managers and watershed-level planning. The proposed risk management research program relies heavily on model development and verification, and should be applied under an adaptive management approach. The framework is centered on using best management practices (BMPs), including eco-restoration. It is designed to encourage the development of numerical representations of the performance of these management options, the integration of this information into sediment transport simulation models that account for uncertainty in both input and output, and would use strategic environmental monitoring to guide sediment-related risk management decisions for mixed land use watersheds. The goal of this project was to provide a sound scientific framework based on recent state of the practice in sediment-related risk assessment and management for research and regulatory activities. As a result, shortcomings in the extant data and measurement and modeling tools were identified that can help determine future research direction. The compilation of information is beneficial to the coordination of related work being conducted within and across entities responsible for managing watershed-scale risks to aquatic ecosystems.

  3. A simulation framework for estimating wall stress distribution of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jing; Zhang, Jing; Chui, Chee-Kong; Huang, Wei-Min; Yang, Tao; Pang, Wai-Man; Sudhakar, Venkatesh; Chang, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is believed to occur when the mechanical stress acting on the wall exceeds the strength of the wall tissue. In endovascular aneurysm repair, a stent-graft in a catheter is released at the aneurysm site to form a new blood vessel and protect the weakened AAA wall from the pulsatile pressure and, hence, possible rupture. In this paper, we propose a framework to estimate the wall stress distribution of non-stented/stented AAA based on fluid-structure interaction, which is utilized in a surgical simulation system (IRAS). The 3D geometric model of AAA is reconstructed from computed tomography angiographic (CTA) images. Based on our experiments, a combined logarithm and polynomial strain energy equation is applied to model the elastic properties of arterial wall. The blood flow is modeled as laminar, incompressible, and non-Newtonian flow by applying Navier-Stokes equation. The obtained pressure of blood flow is applied as load on the AAA meshes with and without stent-graft and the wall stress distribution is calculated by fluid-structure interaction (FSI) solver equipped in ANSYS. Experiments demonstrate that our analytical results are consistent with clinical observations.

  4. A Distributed Computing Framework for Real-Time Detection of Stress and of Its Propagation in a Team.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Parul; Lee, Eun Kyung; Pompili, Dario

    2016-11-01

    Stress is one of the key factor that impacts the quality of our daily life: From the productivity and efficiency in the production processes to the ability of (civilian and military) individuals in making rational decisions. Also, stress can propagate from one individual to other working in a close proximity or toward a common goal, e.g., in a military operation or workforce. Real-time assessment of the stress of individuals alone is, however, not sufficient, as understanding its source and direction in which it propagates in a group of people is equally-if not more-important. A continuous near real-time in situ personal stress monitoring system to quantify level of stress of individuals and its direction of propagation in a team is envisioned. However, stress monitoring of an individual via his/her mobile device may not always be possible for extended periods of time due to limited battery capacity of these devices. To overcome this challenge a novel distributed mobile computing framework is proposed to organize the resources in the vicinity and form a mobile device cloud that enables offloading of computation tasks in stress detection algorithm from resource constrained devices (low residual battery, limited CPU cycles) to resource rich devices. Our framework also supports computing parallelization and workflows, defining how the data and tasks divided/assigned among the entities of the framework are designed. The direction of propagation and magnitude of influence of stress in a group of individuals are studied by applying real-time, in situ analysis of Granger Causality. Tangible benefits (in terms of energy expenditure and execution time) of the proposed framework in comparison to a centralized framework are presented via thorough simulations and real experiments.

  5. Stress, Cognition, and Human Performance: A Literature Review and Conceptual Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staal, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    The following literature review addresses the effects of various stressors on cognition. While attempting to be as inclusive as possible, the review focuses its examination on the relationships between cognitive appraisal, attention, memory, and stress as they relate to information processing and human performance. The review begins with an overview of constructs and theoretical perspectives followed by an examination of effects across attention, memory, perceptual-motor functions, judgment and decision making, putative stressors such as workload, thermals, noise, and fatigue and closes with a discussion of moderating variables and related topics. In summation of the review, a conceptual framework for cognitive process under stress has been assembled. As one might imagine, the research literature that addresses stress, theories governing its effects on human performance, and experimental evidence that supports these notions is large and diverse. In attempting to organize and synthesize this body of work, I was guided by several earlier efforts (Bourne & Yaroush, 2003; Driskell, Mullen, Johnson, Hughes, & Batchelor, 1992; Driskell & Salas, 1996; Haridcock & Desmond, 2001; Stokes & Kite, 1994). These authors should be credited with accomplishing the monumental task of providing focused reviews in this area and their collective efforts laid the foundation for this present review. Similarly, the format of this review has been designed in accordance with these previous exemplars. However, each of these previous efforts either simply reported general findings, without sufficient experimental illustration, or narrowed their scope of investigation to the extent that the breadth of such findings remained hidden from the reader. Moreover, none of these examinations yielded an architecture that adequately describes or explains the inter-relations between information processing elements under stress conditions.

  6. Interpersonal Stress Regulation and the Development of Anxiety Disorders: An Attachment-Based Developmental Framework

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, Tobias; Guiney, Jo; Fonagy, Peter; Mayes, Linda C.; Luyten, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders represent a common but often debilitating form of psychopathology in both children and adults. While there is a growing understanding of the etiology and maintenance of these disorders across various research domains, only recently have integrative accounts been proposed. While classical attachment history has been a traditional core construct in psychological models of anxiety, contemporary attachment theory has the potential to integrate neurobiological and behavioral findings within a multidisciplinary developmental framework. The current paper proposes a modern attachment theory-based developmental model grounded in relevant literature from multiple disciplines including social neuroscience, genetics, neuroendocrinology, and the study of family factors involved in the development of anxiety disorders. Recent accounts of stress regulation have highlighted the interplay between stress, anxiety, and activation of the attachment system. This interplay directly affects the development of social–cognitive and mentalizing capacities that are acquired in the interpersonal context of early attachment relationships. Early attachment experiences are conceptualized as the key organizer of a complex interplay between genetic, environmental, and epigenetic contributions to the development of anxiety disorders – a multifactorial etiology resulting from dysfunctional co-regulation of fear and stress states. These risk-conferring processes are characterized by hyperactivation strategies in the face of anxiety. The cumulative allostatic load and subsequent “wear and tear” effects associated with hyperactivation strategies converge on the neural pathways of anxiety and stress. Attachment experiences further influence the development of anxiety as potential moderators of risk factors, differentially impacting on genetic vulnerability and relevant neurobiological pathways. Implications for further research and potential treatments are outlined. PMID

  7. Interpersonal stress regulation and the development of anxiety disorders: an attachment-based developmental framework.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Tobias; Guiney, Jo; Fonagy, Peter; Mayes, Linda C; Luyten, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders represent a common but often debilitating form of psychopathology in both children and adults. While there is a growing understanding of the etiology and maintenance of these disorders across various research domains, only recently have integrative accounts been proposed. While classical attachment history has been a traditional core construct in psychological models of anxiety, contemporary attachment theory has the potential to integrate neurobiological and behavioral findings within a multidisciplinary developmental framework. The current paper proposes a modern attachment theory-based developmental model grounded in relevant literature from multiple disciplines including social neuroscience, genetics, neuroendocrinology, and the study of family factors involved in the development of anxiety disorders. Recent accounts of stress regulation have highlighted the interplay between stress, anxiety, and activation of the attachment system. This interplay directly affects the development of social-cognitive and mentalizing capacities that are acquired in the interpersonal context of early attachment relationships. Early attachment experiences are conceptualized as the key organizer of a complex interplay between genetic, environmental, and epigenetic contributions to the development of anxiety disorders - a multifactorial etiology resulting from dysfunctional co-regulation of fear and stress states. These risk-conferring processes are characterized by hyperactivation strategies in the face of anxiety. The cumulative allostatic load and subsequent "wear and tear" effects associated with hyperactivation strategies converge on the neural pathways of anxiety and stress. Attachment experiences further influence the development of anxiety as potential moderators of risk factors, differentially impacting on genetic vulnerability and relevant neurobiological pathways. Implications for further research and potential treatments are outlined.

  8. Stress and heat flux for arbitrary multibody potentials: a unified framework.

    PubMed

    Admal, Nikhil Chandra; Tadmor, E B

    2011-05-14

    A two-step unified framework for the evaluation of continuum field expressions from molecular simulations for arbitrary interatomic potentials is presented. First, pointwise continuum fields are obtained using a generalization of the Irving-Kirkwood procedure to arbitrary multibody potentials. Two ambiguities associated with the original Irving-Kirkwood procedure (which was limited to pair potential interactions) are addressed in its generalization. The first ambiguity is due to the nonuniqueness of the decomposition of the force on an atom as a sum of central forces, which is a result of the nonuniqueness of the potential energy representation in terms of distances between the particles. This is in turn related to the shape space of the system. The second ambiguity is due to the nonuniqueness of the energy decomposition between particles. The latter can be completely avoided through an alternate derivation for the energy balance. It is found that the expressions for the specific internal energy and the heat flux obtained through the alternate derivation are quite different from the original Irving-Kirkwood procedure and appear to be more physically reasonable. Next, in the second step of the unified framework, spatial averaging is applied to the pointwise field to obtain the corresponding macroscopic quantities. These lead to expressions suitable for computation in molecular dynamics simulations. It is shown that the important commonly-used microscopic definitions for the stress tensor and heat flux vector are recovered in this process as special cases (generalized to arbitrary multibody potentials). Several numerical experiments are conducted to compare the new expression for the specific internal energy with the original one.

  9. A framework for incorporating the effects of hydrodynamic stresses on forest photosynthesis and evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheny, A. M.; Bohrer, G.; Thompsen, J.; Frasson, R.; Frasson, C. D.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2012-12-01

    Hydraulic limitations are known to control transpiration in forest ecosystems when the soil is drying or when the vapor pressure deficit between the air and stomata (VPD) is very large, but they can also impact stomatal apertures under conditions of adequate soil moisture and lower evaporative demand. We use the NACP flux measurements and models dataset for multiple site/model intercomparisons to evaluate the degree to which currently un-resolved high-frequency (sub-daily) hydrodynamic stresses affect the error in model prediction of latent heat flux. We find that many site-model combinations are characterized by a typical pattern of overestimation of afternoon flux and a corresponding underestimation of pre-noon flux. We hypothesize that this pattern is a result of un-resolved afternoon stomata closure due to hydrodynamic stresses. In a forest plot at the University of Michigan Biological Station, we use measurements of leaf-level stomata conductance and water potential to demonstrate that trees of similar type - mid-late successional deciduous trees - have very different hydrodynamic strategies that lead to differences in their temporal patterns of stomata conductance. We found that red oak trees continue transpiring despite a large stem-water deficit while red maple trees regulate stomata to maintain a high water potential. Red oaks, which are ring porous, are also able to access more soil water, assumingly from deeper ground layers and have higher conductivity, compared with the maples, which are diffuse porous. These differences will lead to large differences in stomata conductance and water use based on the species composition of the forest. We also demonstrate that the size and shape of the tree stem-branch system may lead to differences in the extent of hydrodynamic stress, which may change the forest respiration patterns as the forest grows and ages. We propose a framework to resolve tree hydrodynamics in global and regional models. It is based on the

  10. Deriving Requirements for Pervasive Well-Being Technology From Work Stress and Intervention Theory: Framework and Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Koldijk, Saskia; Kraaij, Wessel

    2016-01-01

    Background Stress in office environments is a big concern, often leading to burn-out. New technologies are emerging, such as easily available sensors, contextual reasoning, and electronic coaching (e-coaching) apps. In the Smart Reasoning for Well-being at Home and at Work (SWELL) project, we explore the potential of using such new pervasive technologies to provide support for the self-management of well-being, with a focus on individuals' stress-coping. Ideally, these new pervasive systems should be grounded in existing work stress and intervention theory. However, there is a large diversity of theories and they hardly provide explicit directions for technology design. Objective The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive and concise framework that can be used to design pervasive technologies that support knowledge workers to decrease stress. Methods Based on a literature study we identify concepts relevant to well-being at work and select different work stress models to find causes of work stress that can be addressed. From a technical perspective, we then describe how sensors can be used to infer stress and the context in which it appears, and use intervention theory to further specify interventions that can be provided by means of pervasive technology. Results The resulting general framework relates several relevant theories: we relate “engagement and burn-out” to “stress”, and describe how relevant aspects can be quantified by means of sensors. We also outline underlying causes of work stress and how these can be addressed with interventions, in particular utilizing new technologies integrating behavioral change theory. Based upon this framework we were able to derive requirements for our case study, the pervasive SWELL system, and we implemented two prototypes. Small-scale user studies proved the value of the derived technology-supported interventions. Conclusions The presented framework can be used to systematically develop theory

  11. Stress-induced chemical detection using flexible metal-organic frameworks.

    SciTech Connect

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Hesketh, Peter J.; Gall, Kenneth A.; Choudhury, A.; Pikarsky, J.; Andruszkiewicz, Leanne; Houk, Ronald J. T.; Talin, Albert Alec

    2009-09-01

    In this work we demonstrate the concept of stress-induced chemical detection using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) by integrating a thin film of the MOF HKUST-1 with a microcantilever surface. The results show that the energy of molecular adsorption, which causes slight distortions in the MOF crystal structure, can be efficiently converted to mechanical energy to create a highly responsive, reversible, and selective sensor. This sensor responds to water, methanol, and ethanol vapors, but yields no response to either N{sub 2} or O{sub 2}. The magnitude of the signal, which is measured by a built-in piezoresistor, is correlated with the concentration and can be fitted to a Langmuir isotherm. Furthermore, we show that the hydration state of the MOF layer can be used to impart selectivity to CO{sub 2}. We also report the first use of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to characterize the structure of a MOF film. We conclude that the synthetic versatility of these nanoporous materials holds great promise for creating recognition chemistries to enable selective detection of a wide range of analytes. A force field model is described that successfully predicts changes in MOF properties and the uptake of gases. This model is used to predict adsorption isotherms for a number of representative compounds, including explosives, nerve agents, volatile organic compounds, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The results show that, as a result of relatively large heats of adsorption (> 20 kcal mol{sup -1}) in most cases, we expect an onset of adsorption by MOF as low as 10{sup -6} kPa, suggesting the potential to detect compounds such as RDX at levels as low as 10 ppb at atmospheric pressure.

  12. 78 FR 9633 - Policy Statement on the Scenario Design Framework for Stress Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... with the supervisory and company-run stress tests conducted under the Board's regulations issued... supervisory and company-run stress tests conducted under the Board's regulations issued pursuant to the...

  13. An open-source framework for stress-testing non-invasive foetal ECG extraction algorithms.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Fernando; Behar, Joachim; Zaunseder, Sebastian; Oster, Julien; Clifford, Gari D

    2016-05-01

    Over the past decades, many studies have been published on the extraction of non-invasive foetal electrocardiogram (NI-FECG) from abdominal recordings. Most of these contributions claim to obtain excellent results in detecting foetal QRS (FQRS) complexes in terms of location. A small subset of authors have investigated the extraction of morphological features from the NI-FECG. However, due to the shortage of available public databases, the large variety of performance measures employed and the lack of open-source reference algorithms, most contributions cannot be meaningfully assessed. This article attempts to address these issues by presenting a standardised methodology for stress testing NI-FECG algorithms, including absolute data, as well as extraction and evaluation routines. To that end, a large database of realistic artificial signals was created, totaling 145.8 h of multichannel data and over one million FQRS complexes. An important characteristic of this dataset is the inclusion of several non-stationary events (e.g. foetal movements, uterine contractions and heart rate fluctuations) that are critical for evaluating extraction routines. To demonstrate our testing methodology, three classes of NI-FECG extraction algorithms were evaluated: blind source separation (BSS), template subtraction (TS) and adaptive methods (AM). Experiments were conducted to benchmark the performance of eight NI-FECG extraction algorithms on the artificial database focusing on: FQRS detection and morphological analysis (foetal QT and T/QRS ratio). The overall median FQRS detection accuracies (i.e. considering all non-stationary events) for the best performing methods in each group were 99.9% for BSS, 97.9% for AM and 96.0% for TS. Both FQRS detections and morphological parameters were shown to heavily depend on the extraction techniques and signal-to-noise ratio. Particularly, it is shown that their evaluation in the source domain, obtained after using a BSS technique, should be

  14. Biological stress response terminology: Integrating the concepts of adaptive response and preconditioning stress within a hormetic dose-response framework.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J; Bachmann, Kenneth A; Bailer, A John; Bolger, P Michael; Borak, Jonathan; Cai, Lu; Cedergreen, Nina; Cherian, M George; Chiueh, Chuang C; Clarkson, Thomas W; Cook, Ralph R; Diamond, David M; Doolittle, David J; Dorato, Michael A; Duke, Stephen O; Feinendegen, Ludwig; Gardner, Donald E; Hart, Ronald W; Hastings, Kenneth L; Hayes, A Wallace; Hoffmann, George R; Ives, John A; Jaworowski, Zbigniew; Johnson, Thomas E; Jonas, Wayne B; Kaminski, Norbert E; Keller, John G; Klaunig, James E; Knudsen, Thomas B; Kozumbo, Walter J; Lettieri, Teresa; Liu, Shu-Zheng; Maisseu, Andre; Maynard, Kenneth I; Masoro, Edward J; McClellan, Roger O; Mehendale, Harihara M; Mothersill, Carmel; Newlin, David B; Nigg, Herbert N; Oehme, Frederick W; Phalen, Robert F; Philbert, Martin A; Rattan, Suresh I S; Riviere, Jim E; Rodricks, Joseph; Sapolsky, Robert M; Scott, Bobby R; Seymour, Colin; Sinclair, David A; Smith-Sonneborn, Joan; Snow, Elizabeth T; Spear, Linda; Stevenson, Donald E; Thomas, Yolene; Tubiana, Maurice; Williams, Gary M; Mattson, Mark P

    2007-07-01

    Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to a moderate to severe level of stress. Due to a lack of frequent interaction among scientists in these many areas, there has emerged a broad range of terms that describe such dose-response relationships. This situation has become problematic because the different terms describe a family of similar biological responses (e.g., adaptive response, preconditioning, hormesis), adversely affecting interdisciplinary communication, and possibly even obscuring generalizable features and central biological concepts. With support from scientists in a broad range of disciplines, this article offers a set of recommendations we believe can achieve greater conceptual harmony in dose-response terminology, as well as better understanding and communication across the broad spectrum of biological disciplines.

  15. Biological stress response terminology: Integrating the concepts of adaptive response and preconditioning stress within a hormetic dose-response framework

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, Edward J. . E-mail: edwardc@schoolph.umass.edu; Bachmann, Kenneth A.; Bailer, A. John; Bolger, P. Michael; Borak, Jonathan; Cai, Lu; Cedergreen, Nina; Cherian, M. George; Chiueh, Chuang C.; Clarkson, Thomas W.; Cook, Ralph R.; Diamond, David M.; Doolittle, David J.; Dorato, Michael A.; Duke, Stephen O.; Feinendegen, Ludwig; Gardner, Donald E.; Hart, Ronald W.; Hastings, Kenneth L.; Hayes, A. Wallace; Hoffmann, George R.; Ives, John A.; Jaworowski, Zbigniew; Johnson, Thomas E.; Jonas, Wayne B.; Kaminski, Norbert E.

    2007-07-01

    Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to a moderate to severe level of stress. Due to a lack of frequent interaction among scientists in these many areas, there has emerged a broad range of terms that describe such dose-response relationships. This situation has become problematic because the different terms describe a family of similar biological responses (e.g., adaptive response, preconditioning, hormesis), adversely affecting interdisciplinary communication, and possibly even obscuring generalizable features and central biological concepts. With support from scientists in a broad range of disciplines, this article offers a set of recommendations we believe can achieve greater conceptual harmony in dose-response terminology, as well as better understanding and communication across the broad spectrum of biological disciplines.

  16. Genome Wide Analysis of the Apple MYB Transcription Factor Family Allows the Identification of MdoMYB121 Gene Confering Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong-Kai; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors (TFs) in plants. Although several MYB genes have been characterized to play roles in secondary metabolism, the MYB family has not yet been identified in apple. In this study, 229 apple MYB genes were identified through a genome-wide analysis and divided into 45 subgroups. A computational analysis was conducted using the apple genomic database to yield a complete overview of the MYB family, including the intron-exon organizations, the sequence features of the MYB DNA-binding domains, the carboxy-terminal motifs, and the chromosomal locations. Subsequently, the expression of 18 MYB genes, including 12 were chosen from stress-related subgroups, while another 6 ones from other subgroups, in response to various abiotic stresses was examined. It was found that several of these MYB genes, particularly MdoMYB121, were induced by multiple stresses. The MdoMYB121 was then further functionally characterized. Its predicted protein was found to be localized in the nucleus. A transgenic analysis indicated that the overexpression of the MdoMYB121 gene remarkably enhanced the tolerance to high salinity, drought, and cold stresses in transgenic tomato and apple plants. Our results indicate that the MYB genes are highly conserved in plant species and that MdoMYB121 can be used as a target gene in genetic engineering approaches to improve the tolerance of plants to multiple abiotic stresses. PMID:23950843

  17. The impact of chemical pollution on the resilience of soils under multiple stresses: A conceptual framework for future research.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Andreas; Amelung, Wulf; Hollert, Henner; Kaestner, Matthias; Kandeler, Ellen; Kruse, Jens; Miltner, Anja; Ottermanns, Richard; Pagel, Holger; Peth, Stephan; Poll, Christian; Rambold, Gerhard; Schloter, Michael; Schulz, Stefanie; Streck, Thilo; Roß-Nickoll, Martina

    2016-10-15

    Soils are faced with man-made chemical stress factors, such as the input of organic or metal-containing pesticides, in combination with non-chemical stressors like soil compaction and natural disturbance like drought. Although multiple stress factors are typically co-occurring in soil ecosystems, research in soil sciences on this aspect is limited and focuses mostly on single structural or functional endpoints. A mechanistic understanding of the reaction of soils to multiple stressors is currently lacking. Based on a review of resilience theory, we introduce a new concept for research on the ability of polluted soil (xenobiotics or other chemical pollutants as one stressor) to resist further natural or anthropogenic stress and to retain its functions and structure. There is strong indication that pollution as a primary stressor will change the system reaction of soil, i.e., its resilience, stability and resistance. It can be expected that pollution affects the physiological adaption of organisms and the functional redundancy of the soil to further stress. We hypothesize that the recovery of organisms and chemical-physical properties after impact of a follow-up stressor is faster in polluted soil than in non-polluted soil, i.e., polluted soil has a higher dynamical stability (dynamical stability=1/recovery time), whereas resilience of the contaminated soil is lower compared to that of not or less contaminated soil. Thus, a polluted soil might be more prone to change into another system regime after occurrence of further stress. We highlight this issue by compiling the literature exemplarily for the effects of Cu contamination and compaction on soil functions and structure. We propose to intensify research on effects of combined stresses involving a multidisciplinary team of experts and provide suggestions for corresponding experiments. Our concept offers thus a framework for system level analysis of soils paving the way to enhance ecological theory.

  18. A phase-field approach to nonequilibrium phase transformations in elastic solids via an intermediate phase (melt) allowing for interface stresses.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Kasra; Levitas, Valery I

    2016-04-28

    A phase-field approach for phase transformations (PTs) between three different phases at nonequilibrium temperatures is developed. It includes advanced mechanics, thermodynamically consistent interfacial stresses, and interface interactions. A thermodynamic Landau-Ginzburg potential developed in terms of polar order parameters satisfies the desired instability and equilibrium conditions for homogeneous phases. The interfacial stresses were introduced with some terms from large-strain formulation even though the small-strain assumption was utilized. The developed model is applied to study the PTs between two solid phases via a highly disordered intermediate phase (IP) or an intermediate melt (IM) hundreds of degrees below the melting temperature. In particular, the β ↔ δ PTs in HMX energetic crystals via IM are analyzed. The effects of various parameters (temperature, ratios of widths and energies of solid-solid (SS) to solid-melt (SM) interfaces, elastic energy, and interfacial stresses) on the formation, stability, and structure of the IM within a propagating SS interface are studied. Interfacial and elastic stresses within a SS interphase and their relaxation and redistribution with the appearance of a partial or complete IM are analyzed. The energy and structure of the critical nucleus (CN) of the IM are studied as well. In particular, the interfacial stresses increase the aspect-ratio of the CN. Although including elastic energy can drastically reduce the energy of the CN of the IM, the activation energy of the CN of the IM within the SS interface increases when interfacial tension is taken into account. The developed thermodynamic potential can also be modified to model other multiphase physical phenomena, such as multi-variant martensitic PTs, grain boundary and surface-induced pre-melting and PTs, as well as developing phase diagrams for IPs.

  19. Growth plate stress distribution implications during bone development: a simple framework computational approach.

    PubMed

    Guevara, J M; Moncayo, M A; Vaca-González, J J; Gutiérrez, M L; Barrera, L A; Garzón-Alvarado, D A

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical stimuli play a significant role in the process of long bone development as evidenced by clinical observations and in vivo studies. Up to now approaches to understand stimuli characteristics have been limited to the first stages of epiphyseal development. Furthermore, growth plate mechanical behavior has not been widely studied. In order to better understand mechanical influences on bone growth, we used Carter and Wong biomechanical approximation to analyze growth plate mechanical behavior, and explore stress patterns for different morphological stages of the growth plate. To the best of our knowledge this work is the first attempt to study stress distribution on growth plate during different possible stages of bone development, from gestation to adolescence. Stress distribution analysis on the epiphysis and growth plate was performed using axisymmetric (3D) finite element analysis in a simplified generic epiphyseal geometry using a linear elastic model as the first approximation. We took into account different growth plate locations, morphologies and widths, as well as different epiphyseal developmental stages. We found stress distribution during bone development established osteogenic index patterns that seem to influence locally epiphyseal structures growth and coincide with growth plate histological arrangement.

  20. The aetiology of post-traumatic stress following childbirth: a meta-analysis and theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Ayers, S; Bond, R; Bertullies, S; Wijma, K

    2016-04-01

    There is evidence that 3.17% of women report post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth. This meta-analysis synthesizes research on vulnerability and risk factors for birth-related PTSD and refines a diathesis-stress model of its aetiology. Systematic searches were carried out on PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science using PTSD terms crossed with childbirth terms. Studies were included if they reported primary research that examined factors associated with birth-related PTSD measured at least 1 month after birth. In all, 50 studies (n = 21 429) from 15 countries fulfilled inclusion criteria. Pre-birth vulnerability factors most strongly associated with PTSD were depression in pregnancy (r = 0.51), fear of childbirth (r = 0.41), poor health or complications in pregnancy (r = 0.38), and a history of PTSD (r = 0.39) and counselling for pregnancy or birth (r = 0.32). Risk factors in birth most strongly associated with PTSD were negative subjective birth experiences (r = 0.59), having an operative birth (assisted vaginal or caesarean, r = 0.48), lack of support (r = -0.38) and dissociation (r = 0.32). After birth, PTSD was associated with poor coping and stress (r = 0.30), and was highly co-morbid with depression (r = 0.60). Moderator analyses showed that the effect of poor health or complications in pregnancy was more apparent in high-risk samples. The results of this meta-analysis are used to update a diathesis-stress model of the aetiology of postpartum PTSD and can be used to inform screening, prevention and intervention in maternity care.

  1. [Framework of work stress for the evaluation and management of risk].

    PubMed

    Costa, G

    2009-01-01

    Occupational stress is the negative consequence of a distorted relation between the worker and the work environment (mental/physical load, work organisation, social relationships), where both components, that is work demands and human resources, are strictly interacting in causing more or less severe mal-adjustment and health impairment. This is mediated by several intervening factors, related not only to high cognitive and emotional stress, but also to scarce coping strategies, that are strongly influenced by personal characteristics, lack of control on working conditions, and social support. Hence high costs for the individual, the company and the whole society, not only in terms of workers' health and well-being, but also as regards work ability and performance efficiency, as well as social consequences and compensative interventions. The Occupational Health Physician has to deal with these multidimensional and multifaceted aspects of work stress by different and concurrent approaches, at both group and individual levels, with epidemiological and clinical perspectives, enacting preventive and therapeutic strategies. Both "external" work load and individual "responses" have to be properly considered and addressed not only for the evaluation of at fitness to work, but also to plan corrective actions. Hence, the OHP has to act in closer collaboration with work psychologists, sociologists, human resources managers and work organisation experts.

  2. Environmental Stresses of Field Growth Allow Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Deficient Nicotiana attenuata Plants to Compensate for their Structural Deficiencies1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harleen; Shaker, Kamel; Heinzel, Nicolas; Ralph, John; Gális, Ivan; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2012-01-01

    The organized lignocellulosic assemblies of cell walls provide the structural integrity required for the large statures of terrestrial plants. Silencing two CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD) genes in Nicotiana attenuata produced plants (ir-CAD) with thin, red-pigmented stems, low CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity, low lignin contents, and rubbery, structurally unstable stems when grown in the glasshouse (GH). However, when planted into their native desert habitat, ir-CAD plants produced robust stems that survived wind storms as well as the wild-type plants. Despite efficient silencing of NaCAD transcripts and enzymatic activity, field-grown ir-CAD plants had delayed and restricted spread of red stem pigmentation, a color change reflecting blocked lignification by CAD silencing, and attained wild-type-comparable total lignin contents. The rubbery GH phenotype was largely restored when field-grown ir-CAD plants were protected from wind, herbivore attack, and ultraviolet B exposure and grown in restricted rooting volumes; conversely, it was lost when ir-CAD plants were experimentally exposed to wind, ultraviolet B, and grown in large pots in growth chambers. Transcript and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight analysis revealed that these environmental stresses enhanced the accumulation of various phenylpropanoids in stems of field-grown plants; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that the lignin of field-grown ir-CAD plants had GH-grown comparable levels of sinapaldehyde and syringaldehyde cross-linked into their lignins. Additionally, field-grown ir-CAD plants had short, thick stems with normal xylem element traits, which collectively enabled field-grown ir-CAD plants to compensate for the structural deficiencies associated with CAD silencing. Environmental stresses play an essential role in regulating lignin biosynthesis in lignin-deficient plants. PMID:22645069

  3. Uncertainty in global groundwater storage estimates in a Total Groundwater Stress framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richey, Alexandra S.; Thomas, Brian F.; Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S.; Swenson, Sean; Rodell, Matthew

    2015-07-01

    Groundwater is a finite resource under continuous external pressures. Current unsustainable groundwater use threatens the resilience of aquifer systems and their ability to provide a long-term water source. Groundwater storage is considered to be a factor of groundwater resilience, although the extent to which resilience can be maintained has yet to be explored in depth. In this study, we assess the limit of groundwater resilience in the world's largest groundwater systems with remote sensing observations. The Total Groundwater Stress (TGS) ratio, defined as the ratio of total storage to the groundwater depletion rate, is used to explore the timescales to depletion in the world's largest aquifer systems and associated groundwater buffer capacity. We find that the current state of knowledge of large-scale groundwater storage has uncertainty ranges across orders of magnitude that severely limit the characterization of resilience in the study aquifers. Additionally, we show that groundwater availability, traditionally defined as recharge and redefined in this study as total storage, can alter the systems that are considered to be stressed versus unstressed. We find that remote sensing observations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment can assist in providing such information at the scale of a whole aquifer. For example, we demonstrate that a groundwater depletion rate in the Northwest Sahara Aquifer System of 2.69 ± 0.8 km3/yr would result in the aquifer being depleted to 90% of its total storage in as few as 50 years given an initial storage estimate of 70 km3.

  4. Chromium: A Stress-Processing Framework for Interactive Rendering on Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, G,; Houston, M.; Ng, Y.-R.; Frank, R.; Ahern, S.; Kirchner, P.D.; Klosowski, J.T.

    2002-01-11

    We describe Chromium, a system for manipulating streams of graphics API commands on clusters of workstations. Chromium's stream filters can be arranged to create sort-first and sort-last parallel graphics architectures that, in many cases, support the same applications while using only commodity graphics accelerators. In addition, these stream filters can be extended programmatically, allowing the user to customize the stream transformations performed by nodes in a cluster. Because our stream processing mechanism is completely general, any cluster-parallel rendering algorithm can be either implemented on top of or embedded in Chromium. In this paper, we give examples of real-world applications that use Chromium to achieve good scalability on clusters of workstations, and describe other potential uses of this stream processing technology. By completely abstracting the underlying graphics architecture, network topology, and API command processing semantics, we allow a variety of applications to run in different environments.

  5. An Electrochemical Framework to Explain Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking in an Al-5.4%Cu-0.5%Mg-0.5%Ag Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, D. A.; Connolly, B. J.; Scully, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    A modified version of the Cu-depletion electrochemical framework was used to explain the metallurgical factor creating intergranular stress corrosion cracking susceptibility in an aged Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloy, C416. This framework was also used to explain the increased resistance to intergranular stress corrosion cracking in the overaged temper. Susceptibility in the under aged and T8 condition is consistent with the grain boundary Cu-depletion mechanism. Improvements in resistance of the T8+ thermal exposure of 5000 h at 225 F (T8+) compared to the T8 condition can be explained by depletion of Cu from solid solution.

  6. Structural determinants of the psychosocial work environment: introducing technology in the work stress framework.

    PubMed

    Amick, B C; Celentano, D D

    1991-05-01

    To extend current models of psychosocial work stress research into organizational structure, technology is introduced. An exploratory model is developed combining research from ergonomics, epidemiology, and organizational science. It is hypothesized that technology influences a worker's health by structuring the job, and the relationship between the job and a worker's health is mediated by attitudes at work. To test the model, data are used from a 1978 NIOSH survey of postal workers sorting mail (N = 4903). Path analysis shows technology is indirectly associated with job satisfaction and psychosomatic symptoms by how it structured the job. A machine-paced technological system of work is associated with greater job demands, less control in the job, and less co-worker support but not with supervisor support. The implications of this model for prevention strategies at the workplace are discussed suggesting that influencing supervisor support is the most effective way to affect a person's job satisfaction and level of psychosomatic symptomology.

  7. Uncertainty in global groundwater storage estimates in a Total Groundwater Stress framework

    PubMed Central

    Richey, Alexandra S.; Thomas, Brian F.; Lo, Min‐Hui; Swenson, Sean; Rodell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Groundwater is a finite resource under continuous external pressures. Current unsustainable groundwater use threatens the resilience of aquifer systems and their ability to provide a long‐term water source. Groundwater storage is considered to be a factor of groundwater resilience, although the extent to which resilience can be maintained has yet to be explored in depth. In this study, we assess the limit of groundwater resilience in the world's largest groundwater systems with remote sensing observations. The Total Groundwater Stress (TGS) ratio, defined as the ratio of total storage to the groundwater depletion rate, is used to explore the timescales to depletion in the world's largest aquifer systems and associated groundwater buffer capacity. We find that the current state of knowledge of large‐scale groundwater storage has uncertainty ranges across orders of magnitude that severely limit the characterization of resilience in the study aquifers. Additionally, we show that groundwater availability, traditionally defined as recharge and redefined in this study as total storage, can alter the systems that are considered to be stressed versus unstressed. We find that remote sensing observations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment can assist in providing such information at the scale of a whole aquifer. For example, we demonstrate that a groundwater depletion rate in the Northwest Sahara Aquifer System of 2.69 ± 0.8 km3/yr would result in the aquifer being depleted to 90% of its total storage in as few as 50 years given an initial storage estimate of 70 km3. PMID:26900184

  8. Stress distribution in fixed-partial prosthesis and peri-implant bone tissue with different framework materials and vertical misfit levels: a three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, Ataís; Consani, Rafael L X; Mesquita, Marcelo F; dos Santos, Mateus B F

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of superstructure material and vertical misfits on the stresses created in an implant-supported partial prosthesis. A three-dimensional (3-D) finite element model was prepared based on common clinical data. The posterior part of a severely resorbed jaw with two osseointegrated implants at the second premolar and second molar regions was modeled using specific modeling software (SolidWorks 2010). Finite element models were created by importing the solid model into mechanical simulation software (ANSYS Workbench 11). The models were divided into groups according to the prosthesis framework material (type IV gold alloy, silver-palladium alloy, commercially pure titanium, cobalt-chromium alloy, or zirconia) and vertical misfit level (10 µm, 50 µm, and 100 µm) created at one implant-prosthesis interface. The gap of the vertical misfit was set to be closed and the stress values were measured in the framework, porcelain veneer, retention screw, and bone tissue. Stiffer materials led to higher stress concentration in the framework and increased stress values in the retention screw, while in the same circumstances, the porcelain veneer showed lower stress values, and there was no significant difference in stress in the peri-implant bone tissue. A considerable increase in stress concentration was observed in all the structures evaluated within the misfit amplification. The framework material influenced the stress concentration in the prosthetic structures and retention screw, but not that in bone tissue. All the structures were significantly influenced by the increase in the misfit levels.

  9. Maternal depression, stress and feeding styles: towards a framework for theory and research in child obesity.

    PubMed

    El-Behadli, Ana F; Sharp, Carla; Hughes, Sheryl O; Obasi, Ezemenari M; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of rising rates of obesity in children and adults in the USA, and modest effect sizes for obesity interventions, the aim of the present narrative review paper is to extend the UNICEF care model to focus on childhood obesity and its associated risks with an emphasis on the emotional climate of the parent-child relationship within the family. Specifically, we extended the UNICEF model by applying the systems approach to childhood obesity and by combining previously unintegrated sets of literature across multiple disciplines including developmental psychology, clinical psychology and nutrition. Specifically, we modified the extended care model by explicitly integrating new linkages (i.e. parental feeding styles, stress, depression and mother's own eating behaviour) that have been found to be associated with the development of children's eating behaviours and risk of childhood obesity. These new linkages are based on studies that were not incorporated into the original UNICEF model, but suggest important implications for childhood obesity. In all, this narrative review offers important advancements to the scientific understanding of familial influences on children's eating behaviours and childhood obesity.

  10. MD/DPD Multiscale Framework for Predicting Morphology and Stresses of Red Blood Cells in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hung-Yu; Li, Xuejin; Li, He; Karniadakis, George Em

    2016-01-01

    Healthy red blood cells (RBCs) have remarkable deformability, squeezing through narrow capillaries as small as 3 microns in diameter without any damage. However, in many hematological disorders the spectrin network and lipid bilayer of diseased RBCs may be significantly altered, leading to impaired functionality including loss of deformability. We employ a two-component whole-cell multiscale model to quantify the biomechanical characteristics of the healthy and diseased RBCs, including Plasmodium falciparum-infected RBCs (Pf-RBCs) and defective RBCs in hereditary disorders, such as spherocytosis and elliptocytosis. In particular, we develop a two-step multiscale framework based on coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to predict the static and dynamic responses of RBCs subject to tensile forcing, using experimental information only on the structural defects in the lipid bilayer, cytoskeleton, and their interaction. We first employ CGMD on a small RBC patch to compute the shear modulus, bending stiffness, and network parameters, which are subsequently used as input to a whole-cell DPD model to predict the RBC shape and corresponding stress field. For Pf-RBCs at trophozoite and schizont stages, the presence of cytoadherent knobs elevates the shear response in the lipid bilayer and stiffens the RBC membrane. For RBCs in spherocytosis and elliptocytosis, the bilayer-cytoskeleton interaction is weakened, resulting in substantial increase of the tensile stress in the lipid bilayer. Furthermore, we investigate the transient behavior of stretching deformation and shape relaxation of the normal and defective RBCs. Different from the normal RBCs possessing high elasticity, our simulations reveal that the defective RBCs respond irreversibly, i.e., they lose their ability to recover the normal biconcave shape in successive loading cycles of stretching and relaxation. Our findings provide fundamental insights into the microstructure

  11. MD/DPD Multiscale Framework for Predicting Morphology and Stresses of Red Blood Cells in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hung-Yu; Li, Xuejin; Li, He; Karniadakis, George Em

    2016-10-01

    Healthy red blood cells (RBCs) have remarkable deformability, squeezing through narrow capillaries as small as 3 microns in diameter without any damage. However, in many hematological disorders the spectrin network and lipid bilayer of diseased RBCs may be significantly altered, leading to impaired functionality including loss of deformability. We employ a two-component whole-cell multiscale model to quantify the biomechanical characteristics of the healthy and diseased RBCs, including Plasmodium falciparum-infected RBCs (Pf-RBCs) and defective RBCs in hereditary disorders, such as spherocytosis and elliptocytosis. In particular, we develop a two-step multiscale framework based on coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to predict the static and dynamic responses of RBCs subject to tensile forcing, using experimental information only on the structural defects in the lipid bilayer, cytoskeleton, and their interaction. We first employ CGMD on a small RBC patch to compute the shear modulus, bending stiffness, and network parameters, which are subsequently used as input to a whole-cell DPD model to predict the RBC shape and corresponding stress field. For Pf-RBCs at trophozoite and schizont stages, the presence of cytoadherent knobs elevates the shear response in the lipid bilayer and stiffens the RBC membrane. For RBCs in spherocytosis and elliptocytosis, the bilayer-cytoskeleton interaction is weakened, resulting in substantial increase of the tensile stress in the lipid bilayer. Furthermore, we investigate the transient behavior of stretching deformation and shape relaxation of the normal and defective RBCs. Different from the normal RBCs possessing high elasticity, our simulations reveal that the defective RBCs respond irreversibly, i.e., they lose their ability to recover the normal biconcave shape in successive loading cycles of stretching and relaxation. Our findings provide fundamental insights into the microstructure

  12. Community stress and social and technological change: a framework for interpreting the behavior of social movements and community action groups

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.W.; Schuller, C.R.; Lindell, M.K.; Greene, M.R.; Walsh, J.T.; Earle, T.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive examination of existing research on community organizations and community political systems. These findings will be integrated into a framework for understanding the variety of social and political responses which may be manifest in small communities facing the prospect of hosting a major nuclear facility. The principal focus is on the formation and behavior of social groups in communities, particularly politically oriented social movements or community action groups. This analysis is set on the context of a community experiencing social stress. Most of the discussion which follows is based on an extrapolation from the large body of reseach literature on the topics in sociology, political science, and psychology. Chapter I examines the community political systems which are the arena in which local action groups will operate. Chapter II focuses on the internal conditions necessary for the formation and maintenance of community action groups. Chapter III reviews the research literature on the social environment of organizations in communities and the external conditions which are necessary to maintain organizations over time. Chapter IV develops a logic whereby the community consensus model can be adopted to particular social movement organizations and community actions groups. Chapter V examines changes in aspects of the environment which can be a function of the operation of movement organizations, and changes in the structure and tactics of movement organizations which appear to be a response to the environment.

  13. Social Goal Orientations, Interpersonal Stress, and Depressive Symptoms among Early Adolescents in Japan: A Test of the Diathesis-Stress Model Using the Trichotomous Framework of Social Goal Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuroda, Yuji; Sakurai, Shigeo

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated whether depression among early adolescents (aged 12-14 years, N = 116; 65 girls) can be predicted by interactions between social goal orientations and interpersonal stress. Based on Kuroda and Sakurai (2001), this study applied Elliot and Harackiewicz's (1996) trichotomous framework of achievement goals to…

  14. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: (1) For tank web frames, stringers, or girders of carbon manganese steel or aluminum alloys, meet σB... in appendix A of this part. (c) Tank plating must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's deep...

  15. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: (1) For tank web frames, stringers, or girders of carbon manganese steel or aluminum alloys, meet σB... in appendix A of this part. (c) Tank plating must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's deep...

  16. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: (1) For tank web frames, stringers, or girders of carbon manganese steel or aluminum alloys, meet σB... in Appendix A of this part. (c) Tank plating must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's deep...

  17. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: (1) For tank web frames, stringers, or girders of carbon manganese steel or aluminum alloys, meet σB... in appendix A of this part. (c) Tank plating must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's deep...

  18. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: (1) For tank web frames, stringers, or girders of carbon manganese steel or aluminum alloys, meet σB... in Appendix A of this part. (c) Tank plating must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's deep...

  19. A Conceptual Framework to Address Stress-Associated Human Health Effects of Ecosystem Services Degraded by Disasters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic stress leads to a variety of mental and physiological disorders, and stress effects are the primary concern after traumatic injury and exposure to infectious diseases or toxic agents from disaster events. We developed a conceptual model to address the question of whether...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 252 - Policy Statement on the Scenario Design Framework for Stress Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... face of changes in the current and expected economic and financial conditions, and this loss in market..., particularly when conditions were changing. e. The stress tests required under the stress test rules and... does not envision that the broad approach used to develop scenarios will change from year to year,...

  1. Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... flu shot, are less effective for them. Some people cope with stress more effectively than others. It's important to know your limits when it comes to stress, so you can avoid more serious health effects. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  2. A constitutive framework for modelling thin incompressible viscoelastic materials under plane stress in the finite strain regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroon, M.

    2011-11-01

    Rubbers and soft biological tissues may undergo large deformations and are also viscoelastic. The formulation of constitutive models for these materials poses special challenges. In several applications, especially in biomechanics, these materials are also relatively thin, implying that in-plane stresses dominate and that plane stress may therefore be assumed. In the present paper, a constitutive model for viscoelastic materials in the finite strain regime and under the assumption of plane stress is proposed. It is assumed that the relaxation behaviour in the direction of plane stress can be treated separately, which makes it possible to formulate evolution laws for the plastic strains on explicit form at the same time as incompressibility is fulfilled. Experimental results from biomechanics (dynamic inflation of dog aorta) and rubber mechanics (biaxial stretching of rubber sheets) were used to assess the proposed model. The assessment clearly indicates that the model is fully able to predict the experimental outcome for these types of material.

  3. Gene Networks Involved in Hormonal Control of Root Development in Arabidopsis thaliana: A Framework for Studying Its Disturbance by Metal Stress

    PubMed Central

    De Smet, Stefanie; Cuypers, Ann; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Remans, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Plant survival under abiotic stress conditions requires morphological and physiological adaptations. Adverse soil conditions directly affect root development, although the underlying mechanisms remain largely to be discovered. Plant hormones regulate normal root growth and mediate root morphological responses to abiotic stress. Hormone synthesis, signal transduction, perception and cross-talk create a complex network in which metal stress can interfere, resulting in root growth alterations. We focus on Arabidopsis thaliana, for which gene networks in root development have been intensively studied, and supply essential terminology of anatomy and growth of roots. Knowledge of gene networks, mechanisms and interactions related to the role of plant hormones is reviewed. Most knowledge has been generated for auxin, the best-studied hormone with a pronounced primary role in root development. Furthermore, cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid, ethylene, jasmonic acid, strigolactones, brassinosteroids and salicylic acid are discussed. Interactions between hormones that are of potential importance for root growth are described. This creates a framework that can be used for investigating the impact of abiotic stress factors on molecular mechanisms related to plant hormones, with the limited knowledge of the effects of the metals cadmium, copper and zinc on plant hormones and root development included as case example. PMID:26287175

  4. Mind-Body Interventions to Reduce Risk for Health Disparities Related to Stress and Strength Among African American Women: The Potential of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Loving-Kindness, and the NTU Therapeutic Framework.

    PubMed

    Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L; Black, Angela R

    2010-12-14

    In the current article, the authors examine the potential role of mind-body interventions for preventing or reducing health disparities in a specific group-African American women. The authors first discuss how health disparities affect this group, including empirical evidence regarding the influence of biopsychosocial processes (e.g., psychological stress and social context) on disparate health outcomes. They also detail how African American women's unique stress experiences as a result of distinct sociohistorical and cultural experiences related to race and gender potentially widen exposure to stressors and influence stress responses and coping behaviors. Using two independent, but related, frameworks (Superwoman Schema [SWS] and the Strong Black Woman Script [SBW-S]), they discuss how, for African American women, stress is affected by "strength" (vis-à-vis resilience, fortitude, and self-sufficiency) and the emergent health-compromising behaviors related to strength (e.g., emotional suppression, extraordinary caregiving, and self-care postponement). The authors then describe the potential utility of three mind-body interventions-mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), loving-kindness meditation (LKM), and NTU psychotherapy-for specifically targeting the stress-, strength-, and contextually related factors that are thought to influence disparate outcomes for African American women. Self-awareness, self-care, inter- and intrapersonal restorative healing and a redefinition of inner strength may manifest through developing a mindfulness practice to decrease stress-related responses; using LKM to cultivate compassion and forgiveness for self and others; and the balance of independence and interdependence as a grounding NTU principle for redefining strength. The authors conclude with a discussion of potential benefits for integrating key aspects of the interventions with recommendations for future research.

  5. Mind-Body Interventions to Reduce Risk for Health Disparities Related to Stress and Strength Among African American Women: The Potential of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Loving-Kindness, and the NTU Therapeutic Framework

    PubMed Central

    Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L.; Black, Angela R.

    2011-01-01

    In the current article, the authors examine the potential role of mind-body interventions for preventing or reducing health disparities in a specific group—African American women. The authors first discuss how health disparities affect this group, including empirical evidence regarding the influence of biopsychosocial processes (e.g., psychological stress and social context) on disparate health outcomes. They also detail how African American women's unique stress experiences as a result of distinct sociohistorical and cultural experiences related to race and gender potentially widen exposure to stressors and influence stress responses and coping behaviors. Using two independent, but related, frameworks (Superwoman Schema [SWS] and the Strong Black Woman Script [SBW-S]), they discuss how, for African American women, stress is affected by “strength” (vis-à-vis resilience, fortitude, and self-sufficiency) and the emergent health-compromising behaviors related to strength (e.g., emotional suppression, extraordinary caregiving, and self-care postponement). The authors then describe the potential utility of three mind-body interventions—mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), loving-kindness meditation (LKM), and NTU psychotherapy—for specifically targeting the stress-, strength-, and contextually related factors that are thought to influence disparate outcomes for African American women. Self-awareness, self-care, inter- and intrapersonal restorative healing and a redefinition of inner strength may manifest through developing a mindfulness practice to decrease stress-related responses; using LKM to cultivate compassion and forgiveness for self and others; and the balance of independence and interdependence as a grounding NTU principle for redefining strength. The authors conclude with a discussion of potential benefits for integrating key aspects of the interventions with recommendations for future research. PMID:21479157

  6. Long-term strength and allowable stresses of grade 10Kh9MFB and X10CrMoVNb9-1 (T91/P91) chromium heat-resistant steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorobogatykh, V. N.; Danyushevskiy, I. A.; Schenkova, I. A.; Prudnikov, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    Currently, grade X10CrMoVNb9-1 (T91, P91) and 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh) chromium steels are widely applied in equipment manufacturing for thermal power plants in Russia and abroad. Compilation and comparison of tensile, impact, and long-term strength tests results accumulated for many years of investigations of foreign grade X10CrMoVNb9-1, T91, P91, and domestic grade 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh) steels is carried out. The property identity of metals investigated is established. High strength and plastic properties of steels, from which pipes and other products are made, for operation under creep conditions are confirmed. Design characteristics of long-term strength on the basis of tests with more than one million of hour-samples are determined ( and at temperatures of 500-650°C). The table of recommended allowable stresses for grade 10Kh9MFB, 10Kh9MFB-SH, X10CrMoVNb9-1, T91, and P91 steels is developed. The long-time properties of pipe welded joints of grade 10Kh9MFB+10Kh9MFB, 10Kh9MFB-Sh+10Kh9MFB-Sh, X10CrMoVNb9-1+X10CrMoVNb9-1, P91+P91, T91+T91, 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh)+X10CrMoVNb9-1(T/P91) steels is researched. The welded joint reduction factor is experimentally determined.

  7. Modeling the Effects of a Normal-Stress-Dependent State Variable, Within the Rate- and State-Dependent Friction Framework, at Stepovers and Dip-Slip Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Kenny J.; Oglesby, David D.

    2017-03-01

    The development of the rate- and state-dependent friction framework (Dieterich Appl Geophys 116:790-806, 1978; J Geophys Res 84, 2161-2168, 1979; Ruina Friction laws and instabilities: a quasistatic analysis of some dry friction behavior, Ph.D. Thesis, Brown Univ., Providence, R.I., 1980; J Geophys Res 88:10359-10370, 1983) includes the dependence of friction coefficient on normal stress (Linker and Dieterich J Geophys Res 97:4923-4940, 1992); however, a direct dependence of the friction law on time-varying normal stress in dynamic stepover and dip-slip fault models has not yet been extensively explored. Using rate- and state-dependent friction laws and a 2-D dynamic finite element code (Barall J Int 178, 845-859, 2009), we investigate the effect of the Linker-Dieterich dependence of state variable on normal stress at stepovers and dip-slip faults, where normal stress should not be constant with time (e.g., Harris and Day J Geophys Res 98:4461-4472, 1993; Nielsen Geophys Res Lett 25:125-128, 1998). Specifically, we use the relation d ψ/d t = -( α/ σ)(d σ/d t) from Linker and Dieterich (J Geophys Res 97:4923-4940, 1992), in which a change in normal stress leads to a change in state variable of the opposite sign. We investigate a range of values for alpha, which scales the impact of the normal stress change on state, from 0 to 0.5 (laboratory values range from 0.2 to 0.56). For stepovers, we find that adding normal-stress dependence to the state variable delays or stops re-nucleation on the secondary fault segment when compared to normal-stress-independent state evolution. This inhibition of jumping rupture is due to the fact that re-nucleation along the secondary segment occurs in areas of decreased normal stress in both compressional and dilational stepovers. However, the magnitude of such an effect differs between dilational and compressional systems. Additionally, it is well known that the asymmetric geometry of reverse and normal faults can lead to greater

  8. The Preconception Stress and Resiliency Pathways Model: a multi-level framework on maternal, paternal, and child health disparities derived by community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Sharon Landesman; Schafer, Peter; DeClerque, Julia L; Lanzi, Robin G; Hobel, Calvin; Shalowitz, Madeleine; Chinchilli, Vern; Raju, Tonse N K

    2015-04-01

    Emerging evidence supports the theoretical and clinical importance of the preconception period in influencing pregnancy outcomes and child health. Collectively, this evidence affirms the need for a novel, integrative theoretical framework to design future investigations, integrate new findings, and identify promising, evidence-informed interventions to improve intergenerational health and reduce disparities. This article presents a transdisciplinary framework developed by the NIH Community Child Health Network (CCHN) through community-based participatory research processes. CCHN developed a Preconception Stress and Resiliency Pathways (PSRP) model by building local and multi-site community-academic participatory partnerships that established guidelines for research planning and decision-making; reviewed relevant findings diverse disciplinary and community perspectives; and identified the major themes of stress and resilience within the context of families and communities. The PSRP model focuses on inter-relating the multiple, complex, and dynamic biosocial influences theoretically linked to family health disparities. The PSRP model borrowed from and then added original constructs relating to developmental origins of lifelong health, epigenetics, and neighborhood and community influences on pregnancy outcome and family functioning (cf. MCHJ 2014). Novel elements include centrality of the preconception/inter-conception period, role of fathers and the parental relationship, maternal allostatic load (a composite biomarker index of cumulative wear-and-tear of stress), resilience resources of parents, and local neighborhood and community level influences (e.g., employment, housing, education, health care, and stability of basic necessities). CCHN's integrative framework embraces new ways of thinking about how to improve outcomes for future generations, by starting before conception, by including all family members, and by engaging the community vigorously at multiple

  9. MVC Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, Zachary; McClain, Jonathan; Bauer, Travis; Titus, Brian

    2008-06-03

    Provides a reusable model-view-controller application programming interface (API) for use in the rapid development of graphical user interface applications in the .NET 2.0 framework. This includes a mechanism for adding new data stores, data sources, data analyses, and visualizations in the form of plugins.] The MVC Framework is implemented in C# as a .NET 2.0 framework that can then be built against when developing applications. The infrasturcture allows for presenting application specific views (visualizations) to the user to interact with. Based on the interactions the suer makes with a view, requests are generated which in turn are handled by the central controller facility. The controller handles the request in an application specific manner by routing the request to appropriate data stores, data accessors or data analyzers. Retrieved or processed data is published to subscribed components for further processing or for presentation to the user.

  10. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Meyer, Ilan H; Overstreet, Nicole M; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B

    2015-09-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination-frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)-and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context.

  11. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2015-01-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context. PMID:26424904

  12. Worksite Stress Management Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivancevich, John M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents a framework used for viewing stress and organizational stress interventions. Reviews the stress management intervention literature in the context of this framework. Provides examples of corporations committed to stress management programs. Identifies future needs appropriate for organizational psychologists to address. (Author/JS)

  13. Stressed and overworked? A cross-sectional study of the working situation of urban and rural general practitioners in Austria in the framework of the QUALICOPC project

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Kathryn; Wojczewski, Silvia; George, Aaron; Schäfer, Willemijn L. A.; Maier, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess the workload of general practitioners (GPs) in Austria, with a focus on identifying the differences between GPs working in urban and rural areas. Methods Within the framework of the Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe (QUALICOPC) study, data were collected from a stratified sample of GPs using a standardized questionnaire between November 2011 and May 2012. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Results The analysis included data from 173 GPs. GPs in rural areas reported an average of 49.3 working hours per week, plus 23.7 on-call duties per 3 months and 26.2 out-of-office care services per week. Compared to GPs working in urban areas, even in the fully adjusted regression model, rural GPs had significantly more working hours (B 7.00; P = 0.002) and on-call duties (B 18.91; P < 0.001). 65.8% of all GPs perceived their level of stress as high and 84.6% felt they were required to do unnecessary administrative work. Conclusion Our findings show a high workload among Austrian GPs, particularly those working in rural areas. Since physicians show a diminishing interest to work as GPs, there is an imperative to improve this situation. PMID:26321030

  14. Comparison between all-on-four and all-on-six treatment concepts and framework material on stress distribution in atrophic maxilla: A prototyping guided 3D-FEA study.

    PubMed

    Bhering, Cláudia Lopes Brilhante; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Kemmoku, Daniel Takanori; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated two treatment concepts for the rehabilitation of moderate atrophic maxilla with dental implants (all-on-four and all-on-six) and the effect of framework material on the stress distribution of implant-support system. A three-dimensional finite element model based on a prototype was built to simulate an entirely edentulous maxilla with moderate sinus pneumatization that was rehabilitated with a full-arch fixed dental prosthesis. Four standard implants were positioned according to the all-on-four concept and four standard implants and two short implants were placed according to the all-on-six concept. Three framework materials were evaluated: cobalt-chrome (CoCr), titanium (Ti) and zirconia (Zr), totalizing six groups. A unilateral oblique force of 150N was applied to the posterior teeth. The von Mises (σVM), maximum (σmax) and minimum (σmin) principal stress and displacements were obtained. All-on-six showed smaller σmin, σVM and σmax values on the cortical bone, implants and trabecular bone, respectively. All-on-four exhibited higher displacement levels. Ti presented the highest stress values on the cortical bone, implants, abutments, prosthetic screws and displacement levels. In conclusion, the all-on-six approach and framework stiffer materials showed the most favorable biomechanical behavior. However, the stress values did not exceed the bone resistance limits for both treatment concepts.

  15. Peak Stress Testing Protocol Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treatment of peak flows during wet weather is a common challenge across the country for municipal wastewater utilities with separate and/or combined sewer systems. Increases in wastewater flow resulting from infiltration and inflow (I/I) during wet weather events can result in op...

  16. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility planning in accordance with appendix B of this subpart. (b) Advance of allowance to potential grant... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right...

  17. Effect of cantilever length and alloy framework on the stress distribution in peri-implant area of cantilevered implant-supported fixed partial dentures

    PubMed Central

    SUEDAM, Valdey; MORETTI, Rafael Tobias; SOUSA, Edson Antonio Capello; RUBO, José Henrique

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Because many mechanical variables are present in the oral cavity, the proper load transfer between the prosthesis and the bone is important for treatment planning and for the longevity of the implant-supported fixed partial denture. Objectives To verify the stress generated on the peri-implant area of cantilevered implant-supported fixed partial dentures and the potential effects of such variable. Material and Methods A U-shaped polyurethane model simulating the mandibular bone containing two implants (Ø 3.75 mm) was used. Six groups were formed according to the alloy’s framework (CoCr or PdAg) and the point of load application (5 mm, 10 mm and 15 mm of cantilever arm). A 300 N load was applied in pre-determined reference points. The tension generated on the mesial, lingual, distal and buccal sides of the peri-implant regions was assessed using strain gauges. Results Two-way ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests were applied showing significant differences (p<0.05) between the groups. Pearson correlation test (p<0.05) was applied showing positive correlations between the increase of the cantilever arm and the deformation of the peri-implant area. Conclusions This report demonstrated the CoCr alloy shows larger compression values compared to the PdAg alloy for the same distances of cantilever. The point of load application influences the deformation on the peri-implant area, increasing in accordance with the increase of the lever arm. PMID:27119758

  18. Unicam Activity Framework (UAF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagliardi, R.; Mauri, M.; Polzonetti, A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation illustrates the framework of processing performance of the faculty of the University of Camerino. The evaluation criteria are explained and the technological structure that allows automatic performance assessment available online anywhere and anytime. The designed framework is usually applied to the performance evaluation of…

  19. A framework for predicting the yield stress, Charpy toughness and one hundred-year activation level for irradiated fusion power plant alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windsor, Colin; Cottrell, Geoff; Kemp, Richard

    2011-04-01

    Recent papers have demonstrated that the yield stress and the Charpy ductile to brittle transition temperature shift at the high irradiation levels of a fusion power plant may be predicted from measurements at lower irradiation levels using neural networks. It was demonstrated that the extrapolation inherent in such predictions could be validated provided that network complexity was appropriately low. Simultaneous predictions of these metallurgical properties at the 100 dpa irradiation level and 400 °C irradiation temperature of a possible fusion power plant have been made for a series of ferritic/martensitic steels, albeit based on mainly fission data. Together with the readily available one hundred-year activation level, benefit functions are defined which can be used to predict the most suitable alloys for a fusion power plant from within existing databases. Our model is sufficiently flexible to allow a variety of possible benefit functions to be defined. The F82H, Eurofer and LA12 alloy series all receive a favourable rating, although all results presented here must be tempered with caution until more data at relevant irradiation levels and with relevant energy spectra become available.

  20. Stress and Sleep Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kuem Sun; Kim, Lin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review potential, physiological, hormonal and neuronal mechanisms that may mediate the sleep changes. This paper investigates the literatures regarding the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, one of the main neuroendocrine stress systems during sleep in order to identify relations between stress and sleep disorder and the treatment of stress-induced insomnia. Sleep and wakefulness are regulated by the aminergic, cholinergic brainstem and hypothalamic systems. Activation of the HPA and/or the sympathetic nervous systems results in wakefulness and these hormones including corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol or corticosterone, noradrenaline, and adrenaline, are associated with attention and arousal. Stress-related insomnia leads to a vicious circle by activating the HPA system. An awareness of the close interaction between sleep and stress systems is emerging and the hypothalamus is now recognized as a key center for sleep regulation, with hypothalamic neurontransmitter systems providing the framework for therapeutic advances. An updated understanding of these systems may allow researchers to elucidate neural mechanisms of sleep disorder and to develop effective intervention for sleep disorder. PMID:23319874

  1. Vietnam recommended dietary allowances 2007.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Hoan, Pham Van

    2008-01-01

    It has been well acknowledged that Vietnam is undergoing a nutrition transition. With a rapid change in the country's reform and economic growth, food supply at the macronutrient level has improved. Changes of the Vietnamese diet include significantly more foods of animal origin, and an increase of fat/oils, and ripe fruits. Consequently, nutritional problems in Vietnam now include not only malnutrition but also overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases related to nutrition and lifestyles. The recognition of these shifts, which is also associated with morbidity and mortality, was a major factor in the need to review and update the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for the Vietnamese population. This revised RDA established an important science-based tool for evaluation of nutrition adequacy, for teaching, and for scientific communications within Vietnam. It is expected that the 2007 Vietnam RDA and its conversion to food-based dietary guidelines will facilitate education to the public, as well as the policy implementation of programs for prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases and addressing the double burden of both under and over nutrition.

  2. The perception of the illness with subsequent outcome measure in more favorable in continuos peritoneal dialysis vs hemodialysis in the framework of appraisal model of stress.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Zbigniew; Laudański, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to use the appraisal model of stress to compare hemodialysis (HD) and continuous peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients with special focus on the perception of end-stage renal disease and subsequent emotional profile and health related quality of life (HQoL) in. We hypothesize that different circumstances related to both modes of therapies will result in dissimilar perception of chronic illness with subsequent changes in emotional profile and heath related quality of life. The total of 88 patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) enrolled in hemodialysis (n=52; HD) or continuous peritoneal dialysis (n=36; CAPD) were given a battery of psychological tests: The Profile of Mood States, The Nottingham Health Profile, The Stress Situation Assessment Questionnaire, The Social Appreciation Questionnaire and The Situation and Trait and Anxiety Inventory. All patients perceived ESRD in terms of a loss and a threat. Moreover, CAPD patients evaluated ESRD as a challenge. Despite different perception of ESRD no significant difference in the level of fear, anxiety or emotional profile was found. Both HD and CAPD patient were reported more fatigue/inertia and confusion/bewilderment than control groups. The main health related complaints were similar in both ESRD patients with major complaints of sleeping disturbances, motor limitations and lack of energy. From the psychological point of view, CAPD treatment seems more like challenge to the enrolled patient which is positive outcome. Despite different appraisal of stress mood and health related complaints were similar in both groups. This may be a result of optimal regulation of cognitive perception of the stress depending on the circumstances of therapy.

  3. The perception of the Illness with Subsequent Outcome Measure in More Favorable in Continuos Peritoneal Dialysis vs Hemodialysis in the Framework of Appraisal Model of Stress

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Zbigniew; Laudański, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to use the appraisal model of stress to compare hemodialysis (HD) and continuous peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients with special focus on the perception of end-stage renal disease and subsequent emotional profile and health related quality of life (HQoL) in. We hypothesize that different circumstances related to both modes of therapies will result in dissimilar perception of chronic illness with subsequent changes in emotional profile and heath related quality of life. The total of 88 patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) enrolled in hemodialysis (n=52; HD) or continuous peritoneal dialysis (n=36; CAPD) were given a battery of psychological tests: The Profile of Mood States, The Nottingham Health Profile, The Stress Situation Assessment Questionnaire, The Social Appreciation Questionnaire and The Situation and Trait and Anxiety Inventory. All patients perceived ESRD in terms of a loss and a threat. Moreover, CAPD patients evaluated ESRD as a challenge. Despite different perception of ESRD no significant difference in the level of fear, anxiety or emotional profile was found. Both HD and CAPD patient were reported more fatigue/inertia and confusion/bewilderment than control groups. The main health related complaints were similar in both ESRD patients with major complaints of sleeping disturbances, motor limitations and lack of energy. From the psychological point of view, CAPD treatment seems more like challenge to the enrolled patient which is positive outcome. Despite different appraisal of stress mood and health related complaints were similar in both groups. This may be a result of optimal regulation of cognitive perception of the stress depending on the circumstances of therapy. PMID:24516354

  4. Progress Report on Alloy 617 Time Dependent Allowables

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Julie Knibloe

    2015-06-01

    Time dependent allowable stresses are required in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for design of components in the temperature range where time dependent deformation (i.e., creep) is expected to become significant. There are time dependent allowable stresses in Section IID of the Code for use in the non-nuclear construction codes, however, there are additional criteria that must be considered in developing time dependent allowables for nuclear components. These criteria are specified in Section III NH. St is defined as the lesser of three quantities: 100% of the average stress required to obtain a total (elastic, plastic, primary and secondary creep) strain of 1%; 67% of the minimum stress to cause rupture; and 80% of the minimum stress to cause the initiation of tertiary creep. The values are reported for a range of temperatures and for time increments up to 100,000 hours. These values are determined from uniaxial creep tests, which involve the elevated temperature application of a constant load which is relatively small, resulting in deformation over a long time period prior to rupture. The stress which is the minimum resulting from these criteria is the time dependent allowable stress St. In this report data from a large number of creep and creep-rupture tests on Alloy 617 are analyzed using the ASME Section III NH criteria. Data which are used in the analysis are from the ongoing DOE sponsored high temperature materials program, form Korea Atomic Energy Institute through the Generation IV VHTR Materials Program and historical data from previous HTR research and vendor data generated in developing the alloy. It is found that the tertiary creep criterion determines St at highest temperatures, while the stress to cause 1% total strain controls at low temperatures. The ASME Section III Working Group on Allowable Stress Criteria has recommended that the uncertainties associated with determining the onset of tertiary creep and the lack of significant

  5. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Airborne Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2008-01-01

    The enclosed table lists official spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs), which are guideline values set by the NASA/JSC Toxicology Group in cooperation with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRCCOT). These values should not be used for situations other than human space flight without careful consideration of the criteria used to set each value. The SMACs take into account a number of unique factors such as the effect of space-flight stress on human physiology, the uniform good health of the astronauts, and the absence of pregnant or very young individuals. Documentation of the values is given in a 5 volume series of books entitled "Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants" published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. These books can be viewed electronically at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9786&page=3. Short-term (1 and 24 hour) SMACs are set to manage accidental releases aboard a spacecraft and permit risk of minor, reversible effects such as mild mucosal irritation. In contrast, the long-term SMACs are set to fully protect healthy crewmembers from adverse effects resulting from continuous exposure to specific air pollutants for up to 1000 days. Crewmembers with allergies or unusual sensitivity to trace pollutants may not be afforded complete protection, even when long-term SMACs are not exceeded. Crewmember exposures involve a mixture of contaminants, each at a specific concentration (C(sub n)). These contaminants could interact to elicit symptoms of toxicity even though individual contaminants do not exceed their respective SMACs. The air quality is considered acceptable when the toxicity index (T(sub grp)) for each toxicological group of compounds is less than 1, where T(sub grp), is calculated as follows: T(sub grp) = C(sub 1)/SMAC(sub 1) + C(sub 2/SMAC(sub 2) + ...+C(sub n)/SMAC(sub n).

  6. Mapping Tectonic Stress Using Earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Richard; Townend, John; Vignaux, Tony

    2005-11-23

    An earthquakes occurs when the forces acting on a fault overcome its intrinsic strength and cause it to slip abruptly. Understanding more specifically why earthquakes occur at particular locations and times is complicated because in many cases we do not know what these forces actually are, or indeed what processes ultimately trigger slip. The goal of this study is to develop, test, and implement a Bayesian method of reliably determining tectonic stresses using the most abundant stress gauges available - earthquakes themselves.Existing algorithms produce reasonable estimates of the principal stress directions, but yield unreliable error bounds as a consequence of the generally weak constraint on stress imposed by any single earthquake, observational errors, and an unavoidable ambiguity between the fault normal and the slip vector.A statistical treatment of the problem can take into account observational errors, combine data from multiple earthquakes in a consistent manner, and provide realistic error bounds on the estimated principal stress directions.We have developed a realistic physical framework for modelling multiple earthquakes and show how the strong physical and geometrical constraints present in this problem allow inference to be made about the orientation of the principal axes of stress in the earth's crust.

  7. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was <3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be

  8. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was < 3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be < rmax. Further, the ratio of desired harvest rate to 0.5 x rmax may be a useful metric for ascertaining the applicability of specific requirements of the National Environmental Protection Act.

  9. To Be or Not to Be (Stressed): The Critical Role of a Psychologically Healthy Workplace in Effective Stress Management.

    PubMed

    Grawitch, Matthew J; Ballard, David W; Erb, Kaitlyn R

    2015-10-01

    This article explains how key practices pertaining to the psychologically healthy workplace can be used to develop a comprehensive approach to stress management in contemporary organizations. Specifically, we demonstrate the ways in which employee involvement, recognition, work-life balance, health and safety, and growth and development practices can be used to assist in the reduction of work stress and the proactive management of strain. Although many organizations strive to establish a positive environment conducive to work and well-being, identifying where to begin can often seem like a daunting task. Currently, many stress management efforts emphasize individual-level interventions that are simply implemented alongside existing organizational practices. We propose that a broader perspective allows for a better understanding of the stress process, resulting in the ability to consider a wider range of changes to organizational processes. Combining knowledge regarding psychologically healthy workplace practices, stress management intervention levels and the personal resource allocation framework, we present a comprehensive framework for approaching workplace stress management, which can be tailored to the unique needs of various organizations, departments and employees. By adopting this broader perspective, we believe organizations can more strategically address employee stress, resulting in more effective stress management and a profound impact on stress-related outcomes.

  10. Sci-Vis Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur Bleeker, PNNL

    2015-03-11

    SVF is a full featured OpenGL 3d framework that allows for rapid creation of complex visualizations. The SVF framework handles much of the lifecycle and complex tasks required for a 3d visualization. Unlike a game framework SVF was designed to use fewer resources, work well in a windowed environment, and only render when necessary. The scene also takes advantage of multiple threads to free up the UI thread as much as possible. Shapes (actors) in the scene are created by adding or removing functionality (through support objects) during runtime. This allows a highly flexible and dynamic means of creating highly complex actors without the code complexity (it also helps overcome the lack of multiple inheritance in Java.) All classes are highly customizable and there are abstract classes which are intended to be subclassed to allow a developer to create more complex and highly performant actors. There are multiple demos included in the framework to help the developer get started and shows off nearly all of the functionality. Some simple shapes (actors) are already created for you such as text, bordered text, radial text, text area, complex paths, NURBS paths, cube, disk, grid, plane, geometric shapes, and volumetric area. It also comes with various camera types for viewing that can be dragged, zoomed, and rotated. Picking or selecting items in the scene can be accomplished in various ways depending on your needs (raycasting or color picking.) The framework currently has functionality for tooltips, animation, actor pools, color gradients, 2d physics, text, 1d/2d/3d textures, children, blending, clipping planes, view frustum culling, custom shaders, and custom actor states

  11. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 1210.27... Management § 1210.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost...

  12. 45 CFR 1183.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1183.22 Section 1183.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  13. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 74.27 Section 74.27 Public... Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a particular set of Federal principles that applies in determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with...

  14. 45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1157.22 Section 1157.22 Public... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form...

  15. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  16. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education... allowable expenditures by projects funded under the program: (a) Cost of attendance, as defined in Title...

  17. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 74.27 Section 74.27 Education Office... and Program Management § 74.27 Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a set of cost principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs are determined in accordance with the...

  18. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education... allowable expenditures by projects funded under the program: (a) Cost of attendance, as defined in Title...

  19. 45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1174.22 Section 1174.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  20. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 602.22 Section 602.22 Public... Requirements § 602.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable...

  1. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form...

  2. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84....27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost principles...

  3. 15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 24.22 Section 24.22... Administration § 24.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  4. 49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 266.11 Section 266.11... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.11 Allowable costs. Allowable costs include only the following costs which are properly allocable to the work performed: Planning and program operation costs which are allowed under...

  5. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form...

  6. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 14.27 Section 14.27... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs...

  7. 2 CFR 215.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 215.27 Section 215.27... § 215.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost...

  8. 7 CFR 3019.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 3019.27 Section 3019.27 Agriculture... Management § 3019.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost...

  9. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2543.27 Section 2543.27 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability...

  10. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84....27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost principles...

  11. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  12. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  13. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  14. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  15. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  16. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clothing allowance. 3.810..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.810 Clothing allowance. (a) Except... therefor, to an annual clothing allowance as specified in 38 U.S.C. 1162. The annual clothing allowance...

  17. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Moving allowance. 617.47 Section 617.47... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.47 Moving allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of a moving allowance payable under § 617.45(a)(2) shall be 90 percent of the total...

  18. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Moving allowance. 617.47 Section 617.47... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.47 Moving allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of a moving allowance payable under § 617.45(a)(2) shall be 90 percent of the total...

  19. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Moving allowance. 617.47 Section 617.47... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.47 Moving allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of a moving allowance payable under § 617.45(a)(2) shall be 90 percent of the total...

  20. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Moving allowance. 617.47 Section 617.47... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.47 Moving allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of a moving allowance payable under § 617.45(a)(2) shall be 90 percent of the total...

  1. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Moving allowance. 617.47 Section 617.47... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.47 Moving allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of a moving allowance payable under § 617.45(a)(2) shall be 90 percent of the total...

  2. Vital analysis: field validation of a framework for annotating biological signals of first responders in action.

    PubMed

    Gomes, P; Lopes, B; Coimbra, M

    2012-01-01

    First responders are professionals that are exposed to extreme stress and fatigue during extended periods of time. That is why it is necessary to research and develop technological solutions based on wearable sensors that can continuously monitor the health of these professionals in action, namely their stress and fatigue levels. In this paper we present the Vital Analysis smartphone-based framework, integrated into the broader Vital Responder project, that allows the annotation and contextualization of the signals collected during real action. After a contextual study we have implemented and deployed this framework in a firefighter team with 5 elements, from where we have collected over 3300 hours of annotations during 174 days, covering 382 different events. Results are analysed and discussed, validating the framework as a useful and usable tool for annotating biological signals of first responders in action.

  3. The Umbra Simulation Framework

    SciTech Connect

    GOTTLIEB,ERIC; HARRIGAN,RAYMOND W.; MCDONALD,MICHAEL J.; OPPEL III,FRED J.; XAVIER,PATRICK G.

    2001-06-01

    Umbra is a new Sandia-developed modeling and simulation framework. The Umbra framework allows users to quickly build models and simulations for intelligent system development, analysis, experimentation, and control and supports tradeoff analyses of complex robotic systems, device, and component concepts. Umbra links together heterogeneous collections of modeling tools. The models in Umbra include 3D geometry and physics models of robots, devices and their environments. Model components can be built with varying levels of fidelity and readily switched to allow models built with low fidelity for conceptual analysis to be gradually converted to high fidelity models for later phase detailed analysis. Within control environments, the models can be readily replaced with actual control elements. This paper describes Umbra at a functional level and describes issues that Sandia uses Umbra to address.

  4. Distributed Computing Framework for Synthetic Radar Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurrola, Eric M.; Rosen, Paul A.; Aivazis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We are developing an extensible software framework, in response to Air Force and NASA needs for distributed computing facilities for a variety of radar applications. The objective of this work is to develop a Python based software framework, that is the framework elements of the middleware that allows developers to control processing flow on a grid in a distributed computing environment. Framework architectures to date allow developers to connect processing functions together as interchangeable objects, thereby allowing a data flow graph to be devised for a specific problem to be solved. The Pyre framework, developed at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and now being used as the basis for next-generation radar processing at JPL, is a Python-based software framework. We have extended the Pyre framework to include new facilities to deploy processing components as services, including components that monitor and assess the state of the distributed network for eventual real-time control of grid resources.

  5. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs...

  6. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 92.22 Section 92.22 Public... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors,...

  7. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs...

  8. 29 CFR 1470.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 1470.22 Section 1470.22 Labor Regulations... Financial Administration § 1470.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors,...

  9. 50 CFR 85.41 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 85.41 Section 85.41... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.41 Allowable costs. (a) Allowable grant costs are limited to those costs... applicable Federal cost principles in 43 CFR 12.60(b). Purchase of informational signs, program signs,...

  10. 7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 3016.22 Section 3016.22 Agriculture... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees...

  11. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education... costs. (a)(1) Allowable and unallowable costs. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, costs reasonably related to carrying out the programs described in § 675.32 are allowable. (2)...

  12. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1180.56 Section 1180.56 Public... by a Grantee General Administrative Responsibilities § 1180.56 Allowable costs. (a) Determination of costs allowable under a grant is made in accordance with government-wide cost principles in...

  13. 45 CFR 2541.220 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2541.220 Section 2541.220 Public... Post-Award Requirements § 2541.220 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for— (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type...

  14. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that are proper...

  15. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the...

  16. 43 CFR 12.927 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 12.927 Section 12.927... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Agreements... Requirements § 12.927 Allowable costs. Federal awarding agencies shall determine allowable costs in...

  17. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the...

  18. 38 CFR 49.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 49.27... costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

  19. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 632.37 Section 632.37... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Administrative Standards and Procedures § 632.37 Allowable costs. (a) General. To be allowable, a cost must be necessary and reasonable for proper and efficient...

  20. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 1207.22... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1207.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees...

  1. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 43.22... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type...

  2. 20 CFR 633.303 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 633.303 Section 633.303... FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Program Design and Administrative Procedures § 633.303 Allowable costs. (a) General. To be allowable, a cost must be necessary and reasonable for proper and efficient administration of...

  3. 42 CFR 405.2468 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 405.2468 Section 405.2468 Public... Allowable costs. (a) Applicability of general Medicare principles. In determining whether and to what extent a specific type or item of cost is allowable, such as interest, depreciation, bad debts and...

  4. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.228 Section 206.228 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR...

  5. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.228 Section 206.228 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR...

  6. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 206.228 Section 206.228 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR...

  7. 5 CFR 591.305 - Allowance rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Allowance Based on Duty at Remote Worksites § 591.305 Allowance rates. (a) General. An allowance rate may... remote under § 591.304, and shall be terminated or adjusted as warranted. In determining the amount of... commuting to the remote post of duty as compared to transportation expenses (including cost of...

  8. 5 CFR 591.305 - Allowance rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Allowance Based on Duty at Remote Worksites § 591.305 Allowance rates. (a) General. An allowance rate may... remote under § 591.304, and shall be terminated or adjusted as warranted. In determining the amount of... commuting to the remote post of duty as compared to transportation expenses (including cost of...

  9. Effects of Manufacturing Processes on Structural Allowables

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    stress ratio (R) for all fatigue tests was 0.1. r .A 4 "v q -II. . -% It% 15 - 5PH (H1025) PRECIPITATION HARDENING STAINLESS STEEL PLATE Background...Stress Strain Curve in Compression at Room Temperature for 15 - 5PH (H 1025). 29 S-,=- Jc°•"-•."•"° ."- ."• - - _ •L•_’’’ =-U...381) (.508) (cm) BEARING DEFORMATION, inches Figure 8. Typical Stress - Deflection Curve in Bearing for 15 - 5PH (if 1025), (e/D = 1.5, D = 0.251

  10. XAL Application Framework and Bricks GUI Builder

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaia II, Tom

    2007-01-01

    The XAL [1] Application Framework is a framework for rapidly developing document based Java applications with a common look and feel along with many built-in user interface behaviors. The Bricks GUI builder consists of a modern application and framework for rapidly building user interfaces in support of true Model-View-Controller (MVC) compliant Java applications. Bricks and the XAL Application Framework allow developers to rapidly create quality applications.

  11. Allow Us To Introduce: Roger Kaufman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Lisa; Narahara, Sheryl

    2001-01-01

    Presents a profile of Dr. Roger Kaufman, the former International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI) president. Discusses his education; experiences in business and industry; publications; his Organizational Elements Model (OEM), a management model that provides organizations with a practical framework for planning, assessing needs, and…

  12. Operational Framework for Nonlocality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Rodrigo; Würflinger, Lars Erik; Acín, Antonio; Navascués, Miguel

    2012-08-01

    Because of the importance of entanglement for quantum information purposes, a framework has been developed for its characterization and quantification as a resource based on the following operational principle: entanglement among N parties cannot be created by local operations and classical communication, even when N-1 parties collaborate. More recently, nonlocality has been identified as another resource, alternative to entanglement and necessary for device-independent quantum information protocols. We introduce an operational framework for nonlocality based on a similar principle: nonlocality among N parties cannot be created by local operations and allowed classical communication even when N-1 parties collaborate. We then show that the standard definition of multipartite nonlocality, due to Svetlichny, is inconsistent with this operational approach: according to it, genuine tripartite nonlocality could be created by two collaborating parties. We finally discuss alternative definitions for which consistency is recovered.

  13. 43 CFR 12.62 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 12.62 Section 12.62... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements to State and Local Governments Post-Award Requirements § 12.62 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation...

  14. 15 CFR 921.81 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 921.81 Section 921.81... costs. (a) Allowable costs will be determined in accordance with applicable OMB Circulars and guidance... Department of Commerce and NOAA directives. The term “costs” applies to both the Federal and...

  15. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FIRE MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAM Grant Administration § 204.63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44...

  16. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  17. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  18. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  19. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  20. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  1. 30 CFR 725.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 725.21 Section 725.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.21 Allowable costs. (a) The Director or his authorized...

  2. 30 CFR 735.24 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 735.24 Section 735.24 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT... AND ENFORCEMENT § 735.24 Allowable costs. The Director or his authorized designee shall...

  3. 30 CFR 725.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 725.21 Section 725.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.21 Allowable costs. (a) The Director or his authorized...

  4. 30 CFR 735.24 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 735.24 Section 735.24 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT... AND ENFORCEMENT § 735.24 Allowable costs. The Director or his authorized designee shall...

  5. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  6. 30 CFR 206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating allowances. 206.160 Section 206.160 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any other provisions...

  7. 20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable activities. 632.258 Section 632.258 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable...

  8. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs incurred by...

  9. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs incurred by...

  10. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  11. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs incurred by...

  12. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs incurred by...

  13. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  14. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  15. 28 CFR 100.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 100.11 Section 100.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.11 Allowable costs. (a) Costs that are eligible...

  16. Moral Appraisals Affect Doing/Allowing Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Fiery; Knobe, Joshua; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2008-01-01

    An extensive body of research suggests that the distinction between doing and allowing plays a critical role in shaping moral appraisals. Here, we report evidence from a pair of experiments suggesting that the converse is also true: moral appraisals affect doing/allowing judgments. Specifically, morally bad behavior is more likely to be construed…

  17. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other... of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs....

  18. 13 CFR 143.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including... cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set...

  19. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other... of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs....

  20. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors...) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles...

  1. 15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors...) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles...

  2. 32 CFR 33.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of...

  3. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors... profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is...

  4. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors...) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles...

  5. 40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors... profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or sub-grantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is...

  6. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including... cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set...

  7. 14 CFR 1273.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type.... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal...

  8. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  9. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  10. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any other provisions in these regulations, an operating allowance may be used for the purpose of computing...

  11. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any other provisions in these regulations, an operating allowance may be used for the purpose of computing...

  12. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food... EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory... registered manufacturer shall be allowed as a part of the quota an amount sufficient to maintain an...

  13. 21 CFR 1303.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1303.24 Section 1303.24 Food... Quotas § 1303.24 Inventory allowance. (a) For the purpose of determining individual manufacturing quotas... sufficient to maintain an inventory equal to, (1) For current manufacturers, 50 percent of his...

  14. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food... EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory... registered manufacturer shall be allowed as a part of the quota an amount sufficient to maintain an...

  15. 21 CFR 1303.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1303.24 Section 1303.24 Food... Quotas § 1303.24 Inventory allowance. (a) For the purpose of determining individual manufacturing quotas... sufficient to maintain an inventory equal to, (1) For current manufacturers, 50 percent of his...

  16. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  17. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  18. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  19. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  20. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  1. Allocation of Allowances and Associated Family Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, M. Kaye; Cheadle, Tannis

    This study gathered information on general family practices concerning allowances given to children, parental reasons for the provision of allowances, the bases for their administration, and the frequency of conflicts generated around them. The subjects were 81 parents of elementary school children in a midwest Canadian city. Subjects completed…

  2. 10 CFR 600.222 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allowable costs. 600.222 Section 600.222 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform Administrative....222 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  3. 10 CFR 600.222 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 600.222 Section 600.222 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform Administrative....222 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  4. Family Allowances and Fertility: Socioeconomic Differences

    PubMed Central

    SCHELLEKENS, JONA

    2009-01-01

    This article explores socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances on fertility. Although several studies have examined the relationship between cash benefits and fertility, few studies have addressed the possible differential effects of cash benefits on families of different income or education levels. I reconstructed the birth histories of women in the past two Israeli censuses of 1983 and 1995 to study socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances up to the seventh parity. The results indicate that family allowances have a significant effect at every parity. Using female education as an indicator of socioeconomic status, I find that socioeconomic status is a significant modifier of the effect of family allowances. Family allowances seem to have a relatively large impact on more-educated women. PMID:19771939

  5. Calculation of poloidal velocity in the tokamak plasma with allowance for density inhomogeneity and diamagnetic drift of ions

    SciTech Connect

    Shurygin, R. V.

    2012-02-15

    A one-dimensional evolution equation for the angle-averaged poloidal momentum of the tokamak plasma is derived in the framework of reduced magnetohydrodynamics with allowance for density inhomogeneity and diamagnetic drift of ions. In addition to fluctuations of the E Multiplication-Sign B drift velocity, the resulting turbulent Reynolds stress tensor includes fluctuations of the ion density and ion pressure, as well as turbulent radial fluxes of particles and heat. It is demonstrated numerically by using a particular example that the poloidal velocity calculated using the refined one-dimensional evolution equation differs substantially from that provided by the simplified model. When passing to the new model, both the turbulent Reynolds force and the Stringer-Winsor force increase, which leads to an increase in the amplitude of the ion poloidal velocity. This, in turn, leads to a decrease in turbulent fluxes of particles and heat due to the effect of shear decorrelation.

  6. Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory contains measured data on holdings and transactions of allowances under the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), a market-based cap and trade program created to reduce the regional transport of NOx emissions from power plants and other large combustion sources that contribute to ozone nonattainment.The statutory authority leading to the collection of this information comes from Title V of the Clean Air Act. Sustance classes include SO2 and NOx. Data of allowance holdings and transfers are made available in real time.

  7. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a wheelchair) because of such disability and such disability is the loss or loss of use of a hand or... wheelchair. (b) Effective August 1, 1972, the initial lump sum clothing allowance is due and payable...

  8. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL... Organizations.” (c) Allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined...

  9. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... organization is determined as follows: (i) Institutions of higher education. Allowability is determined in... prior approval of the contracting officer, DOE may pay those costs incurred within the ninety...

  10. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... organization is determined as follows: (i) Institutions of higher education. Allowability is determined in... prior approval of the contracting officer, DOE may pay those costs incurred within the ninety...

  11. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... organization is determined as follows: (i) Institutions of higher education. Allowability is determined in... prior approval of the contracting officer, DOE may pay those costs incurred within the ninety...

  12. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... organization is determined as follows: (i) Institutions of higher education. Allowability is determined in... prior approval of the contracting officer, DOE may pay those costs incurred within the ninety...

  13. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Administrative Standards and Procedures § 632.37 Allowable costs. (a... or consortium administrative entity for the purpose of carrying out programs under the Act....

  14. Allometric Trajectories and "Stress": A Quantitative Approach.

    PubMed

    Anfodillo, Tommaso; Petit, Giai; Sterck, Frank; Lechthaler, Silvia; Olson, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    The term "stress" is an important but vague term in plant biology. We show situations in which thinking in terms of "stress" is profitably replaced by quantifying distance from functionally optimal scaling relationships between plant parts. These relationships include, for example, the often-cited one between leaf area and sapwood area, which presumably reflects mutual dependence between sources and sink tissues and which scales positively within individuals and across species. These relationships seem to be so basic to plant functioning that they are favored by selection across nearly all plant lineages. Within a species or population, individuals that are far from the common scaling patterns are thus expected to perform negatively. For instance, "too little" leaf area (e.g., due to herbivory or disease) per unit of active stem mass would be expected to incur to low carbon income per respiratory cost and thus lead to lower growth. We present a framework that allows quantitative study of phenomena traditionally assigned to "stress," without need for recourse to this term. Our approach contrasts with traditional approaches for studying "stress," e.g., revealing that small "stressed" plants likely are in fact well suited to local conditions. We thus offer a quantitative perspective to the study of phenomena often referred to under such terms as "stress," plasticity, adaptation, and acclimation.

  15. Regulatory treatment of allowances and compliance costs

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.

    1993-07-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) established a national emission allowance trading system, a market-based form of environmental regulation designed to reduce and limit sulfur dioxide emissions. However, the allowance trading system is being applied primarily to an economically regulated electric utility industry. The combining of the new form of environmental regulation and economic regulation of electric utilities has raised a number of questions including what the role should be of the federal and state utility regulating commissions and how those actions will affect the decision making process of the utilities and the allowance market. There are several dimensions to the regulatory problems that commissions face. Allowances and utility compliance expenditures have implications for least-cost/IPR (integrated resource planning), prudence review procedures, holding company and multistate utility regulation and ratemaking treatment. The focus of this paper is on the ratemaking treatment. The following topics are covered: ratemaking treatment of allowances and compliance costs; Traditional cost-recovery mechanisms; limitations to the traditional approach; traditional approach and the allowance trading market; market-based cost recovery mechanisms; methods of determining the benchmark; determining the split between ratepayers and the utility; other regulatory approaches; limitations of incentive mechanisms.

  16. Stress Management: Job Stress

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Job stress can be all-consuming — but it doesn't have to be. Address your triggers, keep perspective and know when ... effects of stress at work. Effectively coping with job stress can benefit both your professional and personal ...

  17. Zeolite A imidazolate frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Hideki; Côté, Adrien P.; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; O'Keeffe, Michael; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2007-07-01

    Faujasite (FAU) and zeolite A (LTA) are technologically important porous zeolites (aluminosilicates) because of their extensive use in petroleum cracking and water softening. Introducing organic units and transition metals into the backbone of these types of zeolite allows us to expand their pore structures, enhance their functionality and access new applications. The invention of metal-organic frameworks and zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) has provided materials based on simple zeolite structures where only one type of cage is present. However, so far, no metal-organic analogues based on FAU or LTA topologies exist owing to the difficulty imposed by the presence of two types of large cage (super- and β-cages for FAU, α- and β-cages for LTA). Here, we have identified a strategy to produce an LTA imidazolate framework in which both the link geometry and link-link interactions play a decisive structure-directing role. We describe the synthesis and crystal structures of three porous ZIFs that are expanded analogues of zeolite A; their cage walls are functionalized, and their metal ions can be changed without changing the underlying LTA topology. Hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and argon gas adsorption isotherms are reported and the selectivity of this material for carbon dioxide over methane is demonstrated.

  18. 46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, together with the effect of any combination of... operating temperature, using for each temperature the applicable allowable stress value. Note: Table...

  19. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  20. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  1. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235 Section 136.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  2. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  3. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  4. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  5. 38 CFR 49.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research...

  6. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants...

  7. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair) which tends to wear or tear... appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair) which tends to wear or tear clothing; or (B) A... allowance for each prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair)...

  8. 44 CFR 208.41 - Administrative allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative allowance. 208.41 Section 208.41 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM...

  9. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Job Location and Development Program § 675.33...

  10. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Job Location and Development Program § 675.33...

  11. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Job Location and Development Program § 675.33...

  12. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... sets out in this subpart. (d) Indirect costs. Indirect costs beyond the administrative and...

  13. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of 10... directly to FEMA is eligible for management costs consisting of a maximum of 10 percent of grants...

  14. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of 10... directly to FEMA is eligible for management costs consisting of a maximum of 10 percent of grants...

  15. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.439 Section 206.439 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... section. (b) Administrative and management costs for major disasters will be paid in accordance with...

  16. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of 10... directly to FEMA is eligible for management costs consisting of a maximum of 10 percent of grants...

  17. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.228 Section 206.228 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF.... (3) Administrative and management costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid...

  18. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.439 Section 206.439 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... section. (b) Administrative and management costs for major disasters will be paid in accordance with...

  19. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of 10... directly to FEMA is eligible for management costs consisting of a maximum of 10 percent of grants...

  20. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... sets out in this subpart. (d) Indirect costs. Indirect costs beyond the administrative and...

  1. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.439 Section 206.439 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... section. (b) Administrative and management costs for major disasters will be paid in accordance with...

  2. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.228 Section 206.228 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF.... (3) Administrative and management costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid...

  3. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of 10... directly to FEMA is eligible for management costs consisting of a maximum of 10 percent of grants...

  4. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... sets out in this subpart. (d) Indirect costs. Indirect costs beyond the administrative and...

  5. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... sets out in this subpart. (d) Indirect costs. Indirect costs beyond the administrative and...

  6. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... sets out in this subpart. (d) Indirect costs. Indirect costs beyond the administrative and...

  7. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 206.439 Section 206.439 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... section. (b) Administrative and management costs for major disasters will be paid in accordance with...

  8. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.439 Section 206.439 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... section. (b) Administrative and management costs for major disasters will be paid in accordance with...

  9. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is..., however, pay consultants more than this amount.) This limitation applies to consultation services...

  10. 21 CFR 1303.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... estimated net disposal for the current calendar year and the last preceding calendar year; or (2) For new manufacturers, 50 percent of his reasonably estimated net disposal for the next calendar year as determined by the Administrator. (b) During each calendar year each registered manufacturer shall be allowed...

  11. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... typical “provider” costs, and costs (such as marketing, enrollment, membership, and operation of the HMO... principles applicable to provider costs, as set forth in § 417.536. (2) The allowability of other costs is determined in accordance with principles set forth in §§ 417.538 through 417.550. (3) Costs for...

  12. 20 CFR 633.303 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., or committee for section 402 program purposes, and reimbursement of actual expenses connected with... grantee per quarter. (2) Allowances and loss of wages. Any individual or family member who is a member of... family income does not exceed either 70 percent of the lower living standard income level or the...

  13. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SERVICE OBLIGATIONS UNDER SPECIAL...

  14. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SERVICE OBLIGATIONS UNDER SPECIAL...

  15. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SERVICE OBLIGATIONS UNDER SPECIAL...

  16. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... the applicable cost principles. For the costs of a— Use the principles in— State, local or...

  17. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... the applicable cost principles. For the costs of a— Use the principles in— State, local or...

  18. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial...— Private nonprofit organization other than (1) An institution of higher education; (2) a hospital; or (3... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 74.27 Section 74.27 Education...

  19. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial...— Private nonprofit organization other than (1) An institution of higher education; (2) a hospital; or (3... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 74.27 Section 74.27 Education...

  20. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs incurred by commercial... with their normal travel reimbursement practices. Contracts with firms for services which are awarded... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE...

  1. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84.27 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management §...

  2. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84.27 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management §...

  3. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84.27 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management §...

  4. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.223...

  5. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.217...

  6. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241 Section 136.241 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.241...

  7. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235 Section 136.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.235...

  8. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205...

  9. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.229...

  10. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211...

  11. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements...

  12. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements...

  13. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements...

  14. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements...

  15. 29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... service with the Department and: (l) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent... the other provisions of this subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss, of personal property incident... authorized places. Claims may be allowable for damage to, or loss of, property arising from fire,...

  16. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met... OMB circulars. (b) No costs shall be allowed for the purchase of any object to be included in the collection of a museum, except library, literary, or archival material specifically required for a...

  17. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met... OMB circulars. (b) No costs shall be allowed for the purchase of any object to be included in the collection of a museum, except library, literary, or archival material specifically required for a...

  18. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met... OMB circulars. (b) No costs shall be allowed for the purchase of any object to be included in the collection of a museum, except library, literary, or archival material specifically required for a...

  19. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met... OMB circulars. (b) No costs shall be allowed for the purchase of any object to be included in the collection of a museum, except library, literary, or archival material specifically required for a...

  20. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 632.37 Section 632.37 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN... applicable State and local law, rules or regulations as determined by the Native American grantee. (b)...

  1. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....16(f). (b) Other types of organizations. Allowability of costs incurred by other types of... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements... accordance with the cost principles applicable to the type of entity incurring the costs, as follows: (a)...

  2. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit... principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining...

  3. 15 CFR 921.81 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable costs. 921.81 Section 921.81 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC... program in either the current or a prior award period. (d) General guidelines for the non-Federal...

  4. 29 CFR 15.41 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Arising Out of the Operation of the Job Corps § 15.41 Allowable claims. (a)(1) A claim for damage to persons or property arising out of an act or omission of a student enrolled in the Job Corps may...

  5. 50 CFR 80.15 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.15 Allowable costs. (a) What are... designed to include purposes other than those eligible under either the Dingell-Johnson Sport...

  6. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  7. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  8. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 30.27 Section 30.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  9. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 30.27 Section 30.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  10. 32 CFR 32.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 32.27 Allowable... subrecipients or contractors under awards subject to this part is determined in accordance with the provisions... awards, is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A-122, “Cost Principles for...

  11. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  12. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  13. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  14. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241 Section 136.241 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  15. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  16. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  17. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  18. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  19. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  20. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  1. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  2. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  3. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241 Section 136.241 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  4. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235 Section 136.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  5. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241 Section 136.241 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  6. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  7. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  8. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241 Section 136.241 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  9. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  10. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  11. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235 Section 136.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  12. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235 Section 136.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  13. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  14. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  15. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  16. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-12-31

    The use of the SO{sub 2} allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO{sub 2} emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO{sub 2} for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO{sub x} emission averaging, the utility would average NO{sub x} emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  17. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the SO[sub 2] allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO[sub 2] emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO[sub 2] for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO[sub x] emission averaging, the utility would average NO[sub x] emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  18. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy... expenditures. (a) Except as adjusted, the expenditure of financial assistance provided under this part for... adjusted in paragraph (c) of this section. (b) The expenditure of financial assistance provided under...

  19. 5 CFR 180.104 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable claims. 180.104 Section 180.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYEES' PERSONAL PROPERTY... are payable: (i) Where personal funds were accepted by responsible Government personnel with...

  20. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Job Location and Development Program § 675.33...

  1. 40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... critical use allowances. 82.8 Section 82.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 82.8 Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances. (a) Effective January 1, 1996...). There is no amount specified for this exemption. (c) Effective January 1, 2005, critical use...

  2. A Robust Actin Filaments Image Analysis Framework

    PubMed Central

    Alioscha-Perez, Mitchel; Benadiba, Carine; Goossens, Katty; Kasas, Sandor; Dietler, Giovanni; Willaert, Ronnie; Sahli, Hichem

    2016-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a highly dynamical protein network that plays a central role in numerous cellular physiological processes, and is traditionally divided into three components according to its chemical composition, i.e. actin, tubulin and intermediate filament cytoskeletons. Understanding the cytoskeleton dynamics is of prime importance to unveil mechanisms involved in cell adaptation to any stress type. Fluorescence imaging of cytoskeleton structures allows analyzing the impact of mechanical stimulation in the cytoskeleton, but it also imposes additional challenges in the image processing stage, such as the presence of imaging-related artifacts and heavy blurring introduced by (high-throughput) automated scans. However, although there exists a considerable number of image-based analytical tools to address the image processing and analysis, most of them are unfit to cope with the aforementioned challenges. Filamentous structures in images can be considered as a piecewise composition of quasi-straight segments (at least in some finer or coarser scale). Based on this observation, we propose a three-steps actin filaments extraction methodology: (i) first the input image is decomposed into a ‘cartoon’ part corresponding to the filament structures in the image, and a noise/texture part, (ii) on the ‘cartoon’ image, we apply a multi-scale line detector coupled with a (iii) quasi-straight filaments merging algorithm for fiber extraction. The proposed robust actin filaments image analysis framework allows extracting individual filaments in the presence of noise, artifacts and heavy blurring. Moreover, it provides numerous parameters such as filaments orientation, position and length, useful for further analysis. Cell image decomposition is relatively under-exploited in biological images processing, and our study shows the benefits it provides when addressing such tasks. Experimental validation was conducted using publicly available datasets, and in osteoblasts

  3. Vulnerability Evaluation Framework

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the Vulnerability Evaluation Framework, which provides policy-makers, stakeholders, industry, and the public with a transparent framework to evaluate vulnerabilities associated with geologic sequestration sites.

  4. 38 CFR 21.260 - Subsistence allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Subsistence allowance. 21... $374.93 $465.08 $548.05 $39.95 3/4 time 281.71 349.32 409.76 30.73 1/2 time 188.49 233.56 274.54 20.49... 374.93 465.08 548.05 39.95 Nonpay or nominal pay work experience in a Federal, State, or local...

  5. 49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of maximum allowable operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding to the established... locations. The corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 72 percent of the SMYS of the pipe in Class 2... pressure per § 192.620, the corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 80 percent of the SMYS of the pipe...

  6. 49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of maximum allowable operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding to the established... locations. The corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 72 percent of the SMYS of the pipe in Class 2... pressure per § 192.620, the corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 80 percent of the SMYS of the pipe...

  7. 76 FR 32340 - Federal Travel Regulation; Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION 41 CFR Parts 301-11, 302-2, 302-3, and 302-17 RIN 3090-AI95 Federal Travel Regulation; Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances (Taxes) AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide... amend the Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) by incorporating recommendations of the...

  8. 78 FR 26637 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowance-Relocation Income Tax (RIT) Allowable Tables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowance--Relocation Income Tax (RIT) Allowable... tables would be available on a GSA Web site. The purpose of this notice is to inform agencies that...

  9. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  10. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  11. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  12. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  13. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  14. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  15. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  16. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  17. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  18. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  19. Allowable carbon emissions lowered by multiple climate targets.

    PubMed

    Steinacher, Marco; Joos, Fortunat; Stocker, Thomas F

    2013-07-11

    Climate targets are designed to inform policies that would limit the magnitude and impacts of climate change caused by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and other substances. The target that is currently recognized by most world governments places a limit of two degrees Celsius on the global mean warming since preindustrial times. This would require large sustained reductions in carbon dioxide emissions during the twenty-first century and beyond. Such a global temperature target, however, is not sufficient to control many other quantities, such as transient sea level rise, ocean acidification and net primary production on land. Here, using an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (EMIC) in an observation-informed Bayesian approach, we show that allowable carbon emissions are substantially reduced when multiple climate targets are set. We take into account uncertainties in physical and carbon cycle model parameters, radiative efficiencies, climate sensitivity and carbon cycle feedbacks along with a large set of observational constraints. Within this framework, we explore a broad range of economically feasible greenhouse gas scenarios from the integrated assessment community to determine the likelihood of meeting a combination of specific global and regional targets under various assumptions. For any given likelihood of meeting a set of such targets, the allowable cumulative emissions are greatly reduced from those inferred from the temperature target alone. Therefore, temperature targets alone are unable to comprehensively limit the risks from anthropogenic emissions.

  20. Prolonging life and allowing death: infants.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A G; McHaffie, H E

    1995-12-01

    Dilemmas about resuscitation and life-prolonging treatment for severely compromised infants have become increasingly complex as skills in neonatal care have developed. Quality of life and resource issues necessarily influence management. Our Institute of Medical Ethics working party, on whose behalf this paper is written, recognises that the ultimate responsibility for the final decision rests with the doctor in clinical charge of the infant. However, we advocate a team approach to decision-making, emphasising the important role of parents and nurses in the process. Assessing the relative burdens and benefits can be troubling, but doctors and parents need to retain a measure of discretion; legislation which would determine action in all cases is inappropriate. Caution should be exercised in involving committees in decision-making and, where they exist, their remit should remain to advise rather than to decide. Support for families who bear the consequences of their decisions is often inadequate, and facilitating access to such services is part of the wider responsibilities of the intensive care team. The authors believe that allowing death by withholding or withdrawing treatment is legitimate, where those closely involved in the care of the infant together deem the burdens to be unacceptable without compensating benefits for the infant. As part of the process accurate and careful recording is essential.

  1. Serial FBG sensor network allowing overlapping spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbenseth, S.; Lochmann, S.; Ahrens, A.; Rehm, B.

    2016-05-01

    For structure or material monitoring low impact serial fiber Bragg grating (FBG) networks have attracted increasing research interest. Common sensor networks using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) for FBG interrogation are limited in their efficiency by the spectral width of their light source, the FBG tuning range and the spectral guard bands. Overlapping spectra are strictly forbidden in this case. Applying time division multiplexing (TDM) or active resonator schemes may overcome these restrictions. However, they introduce other substantial disadvantages like signal roundtrip dependency or sophisticated control of active resonating structures. Code division multiplexing (CDM) as a means of FBG interrogation by simple autocorrelation of appropriate codes has been shown to be superior in this respect. However, it came at the cost of a second spectrometer introducing additional equalization efforts. We demonstrate a new serial FBG sensor network utilizing CDM signal processing for efficient sensor interrogation without the need of a second spectrometer and additional state of polarization (SOP) controlling components. It allows overlapping spectra even when all sensing FBGs are positioned at the same centre wavelength and it shows a high degree of insensitivity to SOP. Sequence inversed keyed (SIK) serial signal processing utilizing quasi-orthogonal balanced codes ensures simple and quick sensor interrogation with high signal-to-interference/noise ratio.

  2. Cluster approach allows budgeting, planning with DRGs.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, P L

    1984-01-01

    Measuring costs and revenues on a diagnosis related group (DRG) basis allows health care managers to define product lines, identify market shares, and examine the effects of case mix and physician behavior on profitability. It also enables public agencies to predict bed needs and evaluate certificate-of-need applications. The large number of DRGs, however, and other managerial considerations may discourage the use of DRG-based budgeting and planning. To save time and enhance data usefulness, financial officers may consolidate the DRGs into fewer groups. Revenue, for example, can be estimated by grouping the DRGs into 23 major diagnostic categories or by clustering them according to cost weight or into one group. Comparisons of payment rates and costs will identify the DRGs that lose money and will determine whether departmental costs are excessive. Strategic planning units formed from the 468 DRGs will help health care managers analyze and project performance. Product lines for this purpose may be clustered according to major diagnostic category, physician specialty, or clinical department. Since a potentially enormous amount of DRG-based clinical and financial information could be generated, hospitals should create data committees to ensure that managers receive only the information they need.

  3. A Framework for Assessing Chemical/Nonchemical ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chemical and nonchemical stressors may contribute to negative health consequences in certain individuals. Nonchemical stressors include poverty, crowding, noise, and exposure to violence. Research has suggested that some nonchemical stressors may alter chemical toxicity. We propose a framework to explore the evidence for the interaction of chemical and nonchemical stressors. Specifically, the framework is used to evaluate the potential interaction of lead exposure and psychosocial stress associated with low-socioeconomic status. We conducted a literature review and analyzed NHANES data to answer the following questions: 1) Does lead exposure occur disproportionately in low-SES groups that typically may also face higher levels of psychosocial stress? 2) Do lead and stress result in similar neurodevelopmental outcomes via similar pathways, particularly, affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA)? 3) Do studies demonstrate that stress alters the dose response for lead neurotoxicity? We found, that although overall blood lead levels continue to decline, lower-SES individuals are still disproportionately exposed to lead and that both lead exposure and stress result in cognitive impairments through their interaction with the HPA axis. We note that many human and animal studies demonstrate that psychosocial stress increases lead-toxicity. Currently, many data gaps exist regarding interactions of other chemical and nonchemical stressors. This framework may be u

  4. A Mobile Technology Framework for the Dissemination of Cultural Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kammas, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    The current research proposes a mobile technology framework in cultural heritage setting for the dissemination of cultural memory among its visitors. The framework studies the complex concept of human memory and attempts to adopt the human information perception, as a learning process, on a mobile framework that will allow their users to interact…

  5. Revisiting Confucianism as a conceptual framework for Asian family study.

    PubMed

    Park, Mijung; Chesla, Catherine

    2007-08-01

    Confucianism is the central philosophic background for much of the culture in East Asia (EA), particularly for understanding family and social context. The purpose of this article is to examine more fully Confucianism as a conceptual framework for understanding EA family processes and health practices. Confucianism stresses the traditional boundaries of ethical responsibility and the ideal of good human life as a whole. Embedded within Confucian values are five principal relationships, through which each person defines a sense of identity, duty, and responsibility. Current studies of EA families that consider Confucianism as a theoretical base focus almost exclusively on filial piety and collectivism. Focusing only on these two aspects prevents scholars from exploring more complex interpretations of EA family life. A broader inclusion of multiple concepts from Confucianism can provide guidance in exploring the complex and multidimensional aspects of EA family life and allow for broader articulation of family processes.

  6. Quantifying Livestock Heat Stress Impacts in the Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broman, D.; Rajagopalan, B.; Hopson, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Livestock heat stress, especially in regions of the developing world with limited adaptive capacity, has a largely unquantified impact on food supply. Though dominated by ambient air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation all affect heat stress, which can decrease livestock growth, milk production, reproduction rates, and mortality. Indices like the thermal-humidity index (THI) are used to quantify the heat stress experienced from climate variables. Livestock experience differing impacts at different index critical thresholds that are empirically determined and specific to species and breed. This lack of understanding has been highlighted in several studies with a limited knowledge of the critical thresholds of heat stress in native livestock breeds, as well as the current and future impact of heat stress,. As adaptation and mitigation strategies to climate change depend on a solid quantitative foundation, this knowledge gap has limited such efforts. To address the lack of study, we have investigated heat stress impacts in the pastoral system of Sub-Saharan West Africa. We used a stochastic weather generator to quantify both the historic and future variability of heat stress. This approach models temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation, the climate variables controlling heat stress. Incorporating large-scale climate as covariates into this framework provides a better historical fit and allows us to include future CMIP5 GCM projections to examine the climate change impacts on heat stress. Health and production data allow us to examine the influence of this variability on livestock directly, and are considered in conjunction with the confounding impacts of fodder and water access. This understanding provides useful information to decision makers looking to mitigate the impacts of climate change and can provide useful seasonal forecasts of heat stress risk. A comparison of the current and future heat stress conditions based on

  7. An Evolutionary Framework for Behavioral Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, D. G.

    The author proposes a framework for the study of behavior and personality that takes into account phylogeny (development of genetically related groups of organisms) as well as ontogeny (course of development of an individual organism). The adaptive function of behavior is stressed. The author states that individual personality is a unique…

  8. The Biological Framework of Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    While the need for environmental education is now widely recognized, there is still a need for a clearer definition of a conceptual framework. Biological aspects of man's relationship with his environment are reviewed, and areas of stress identified, ecological, physiological, and behavioral, which environmental education may help to counteract.…

  9. Tectonic Framework of the Kachchh Rift Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talwani, P.; Gangopadhyay, A. K.

    2001-05-01

    Evaluation of available geological data has allowed us to determine the tectonic framework of the Kachchh rift basin (KRB), the host to the 1819 Kachchh (MW 7.8), 1956 Anjar ( M 6.0) and the recent January 26, 2001 Bhachau (MW 7.6) earthquakes. The ~ 500 km x 200 km east-west trending KRB was formed during the Mesozoic following the break-up of Gondwanaland. It is bounded to the north and south by the Nagar Parkar and Kathiawar faults which separate it from the Precambrian granitic rocks of the Indian craton. The eastern border is the Radanpur-Barmer arch (defined by an elongate belt of gravity highs) which separates it from the early Cretaceous Cambay rift basin. KRB extends ~ 150 km offshore to its western boundary, the continental shelf. Following India's collision with Eurasia, starting ~ 50 MY ago, there was a stress reversal, from an extensional to the (currently N-S) compressional regime. Various geological observations attest to continuous tectonic activity within the KRB. Mesozoic sediments were uplifted and folded and then intruded by Deccan trap basalt flows in late Cretaceous. Other evidence of continuous tectonic activity include seismically induced soft sediment deformation features in the Upper Jurassic Katrol formation on the Kachchh Mainland and in the Holocene sequences in the Great Rann. Pleistocene faulting in the fluvial sequence along the Mahi River (in the bordering Cambay rift) and minor uplift during late Quaternary at Nal Sarovar, prehistoric and historic seismicity associated with surface deformation further attest to ongoing tectonic activity. KRB has responded to N-S compressional stress regime by the formation of east-west trending folds associated with Allah Bund, Kachchh Mainland, Banni, Vigodi, Katrol Hills and Wagad faults. The Allah Bund, Katrol Hill and Kachchh Mainland faults were associated with the 1819, 1956 and 2001 earthquakes. Northeast trending Median High, Bhuj fault and Rajkot-Lathi lineament cut across the east

  10. Self-Compassion: A Mentorship Framework for Counselor Educator Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Coralis; Barden, Sejal Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Counselor educators experience high levels of stress. Mothers in academia face an additional set of emotional stressors. The authors offer a self-compassion framework for mentors to increase emotional resilience of mothers in counselor education.

  11. 76 FR 16629 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    .... FTR Bulletin 11-05 and all other FTR Bulletins can be found at http://www.gsa.gov/ftrbulletin . The RIT allowance tables are located at http://www.gsa.gov/relocationpolicy . DATES: This notice is... http://www.gsa.gov/relocationpolicy . Dated: March 21, 2011. Janet Dobbs, Director, Office of...

  12. Stressed or stressed out: What is the difference?

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, Bruce S.

    2005-01-01

    The term “allostasis” has been coined to clarify ambiguities associated with the word “stress.” Allostasis refers to the adaptive processes that maintain homeostasis through the production of mediators such as adrenalin, cortisol and other chemical messengers. These mediators of the stress response promote adaptation in the aftermath of acute stress, but they also contribute to allostatic overload, the wear and tear on the body and brain that result from being “stressed out.” This conceptual framework has created a need to know how to improve the efficiency of the adaptive response to stressors while minimizing overactivity of the same systems, since such overactivity results in many of the common diseases of modern life. This framework has also helped to demystify the biology of stress by emphasizing the protective as well as the damaging effects of the body's attempts to cope with the challenges known as stressors. PMID:16151535

  13. TIMSS 2007 Assessment Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S.; Martin, Michael O.; Ruddock, Graham J.; O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Arora, Alka; Erberber, Ebru

    2005-01-01

    Developing the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 Assessment Frameworks represents an extensive collaborative effort involving individuals and expert groups from more than 60 countries around the world. The document contains three frameworks for implementing TIMSS 2007--the Mathematics Framework, the Science…

  14. Choices, Frameworks and Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Roy H.; Islam, Nayeem; Johnson, Ralph; Kougiouris, Panos; Madany, Peter

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for designing operating systems using object-oriented frameworks. A framework can be refined into subframeworks. Constraints specify the interactions between the subframeworks. We describe how we used object-oriented frameworks to design Choices, an object-oriented operating system.

  15. Spatial capture-recapture models allowing Markovian transience or dispersal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Fuller, Angela K.; Sutherland, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Spatial capture–recapture (SCR) models are a relatively recent development in quantitative ecology, and they are becoming widely used to model density in studies of animal populations using camera traps, DNA sampling and other methods which produce spatially explicit individual encounter information. One of the core assumptions of SCR models is that individuals possess home ranges that are spatially stationary during the sampling period. For many species, this assumption is unlikely to be met and, even for species that are typically territorial, individuals may disperse or exhibit transience at some life stages. In this paper we first conduct a simulation study to evaluate the robustness of estimators of density under ordinary SCR models when dispersal or transience is present in the population. Then, using both simulated and real data, we demonstrate that such models can easily be described in the BUGS language providing a practical framework for their analysis, which allows us to evaluate movement dynamics of species using capture–recapture data. We find that while estimators of density are extremely robust, even to pathological levels of movement (e.g., complete transience), the estimator of the spatial scale parameter of the encounter probability model is confounded with the dispersal/transience scale parameter. Thus, use of ordinary SCR models to make inferences about density is feasible, but interpretation of SCR model parameters in relation to movement should be avoided. Instead, when movement dynamics are of interest, such dynamics should be parameterized explicitly in the model.

  16. Nuclear stress test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  17. Standard Agent Framework 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4) Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.

  18. Adaptive notification framework for smart nursing home.

    PubMed

    Betge-Brezetz, S; Dupont, M P; Ghorbel, M; Kamga, G B; Piekarec, S

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive notification framework which allows to optimally deliver and handle multimedia requests and alerts in a nursing home. This framework is operated with various applications (e.g., health alert, medicine reminder, and activity proposition) and has been evaluated with different real end-users (elderly resident and medical staff) in a pilot site. Results of these evaluations are presented and highlight the added value of the framework technology to enhance the quality of life of elderly people as well as the efficiency of the medical staff.

  19. A multidisciplinary approach to assess the welfare of weaned pigs during transport at three space allowances.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Mhairi A; Bryer, Pamela J; Davis, Brittany L; McGlone, John J

    2010-01-01

    Transport can be a stressful experience for pigs, especially in pigs simultaneously experiencing weaning stress. The objective of this study was to use a multidisciplinary approach to assess the welfare of weaned pigs during transport at 3 space allowances. A commercial semitrailer, fitted with compartments, provided 0.05, 0.06, and 0.07 m(2)/pig. The study recorded frequency of standing, lying, sitting, and standing-rearing on another pig during the entire duration of transport. Blood samples, body weights, and lesion scores were collected from a subset of pigs (n = 48 per space allowance) in each experimental compartment. Transport time for the pigs was 148.0 +/- 10.0 min to the wean-to-finishing site. Total white blood cell counts, cortisol, and several blood chemistry values increased (p < .05) after transport regardless of space allowance. Glucose and body weight decreased (p < .05) after transport regardless of space allowance. Space allowance influenced stand-rearing, sitting, standing, and lying behaviors in pigs. Combining behavioral and physiological measures of stress provides a robust picture of piglet welfare during transport at different space allowances.

  20. Stress Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    Stress fractures Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by ... up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of a ...

  1. 17 CFR 190.07 - Calculation of allowed net equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calculation of allowed net... BANKRUPTCY § 190.07 Calculation of allowed net equity. Allowed net equity shall be computed as follows: (a) Allowed claim. The allowed net equity claim of a customer shall be equal to the aggregate of the...

  2. BOA: Framework for automated builds

    SciTech Connect

    N. Ratnikova et al.

    2003-09-30

    Managing large-scale software products is a complex software engineering task. The automation of the software development, release and distribution process is most beneficial in the large collaborations, where the big number of developers, multiple platforms and distributed environment are typical factors. This paper describes Build and Output Analyzer framework and its components that have been developed in CMS to facilitate software maintenance and improve software quality. The system allows to generate, control and analyze various types of automated software builds and tests, such as regular rebuilds of the development code, software integration for releases and installation of the existing versions.

  3. 4D-Flow validation, numerical and experimental framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansom, Kurt; Liu, Haining; Canton, Gador; Aliseda, Alberto; Yuan, Chun

    2015-11-01

    This work presents a group of assessment metrics of new 4D MRI flow sequences, an imaging modality that allows for visualization of three-dimensional pulsatile flow in the cardiovascular anatomy through time-resolved three-dimensional blood velocity measurements from cardiac-cycle synchronized MRI acquisition. This is a promising tool for clinical assessment but lacks a robust validation framework. First, 4D-MRI flow in a subject's stenotic carotid bifurcation is compared with a patient-specific CFD model using two different boundary condition methods. Second, Particle Image Velocimetry in a patient-specific phantom is used as a benchmark to compare the 4D-MRI in vivo measurements and CFD simulations under the same conditions. Comparison of estimated and measureable flow parameters such as wall shear stress, fluctuating velocity rms, Lagrangian particle residence time, will be discussed, with justification for their biomechanics relevance and the insights they can provide on the pathophysiology of arterial disease: atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia. Lastly, the framework is applied to a new sequence to provide a quantitative assessment. A parametric analysis on the carotid bifurcation pulsatile flow conditions will be presented and an accuracy assessment provided.

  4. A framework for the co-registration of hemodynamic forces and atherosclerotic plaque components

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Bernard; Chen, Huijun; Chen, Yimin; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Kerwin, William S.; Yuan, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Local hemodynamic forces, such as wall shear stress, are thought to trigger cellular and molecular mechanisms that determine atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability to rupture. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a powerful tool to characterize human carotid atherosclerotic plaque composition and morphology, and to identify plaque features shown to be key determinants of plaque vulnerability. Image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has allowed researchers to obtain time-resolved wall shear stress (WSS) information of atherosclerotic carotid arteries. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms of initiation and progression of atherosclerosis can be obtained through the comparison of WSS and plaque composition and morphology. To date, however, advance in knowledge has been limited greatly due to the lack of a reliable infrastructure to perform such analysis. The aim of this study is to establish a framework that will allow for the co-registration and analysis of the three-dimensional (3D) distribution ofWSS and plaque components and morphology. The use of this framework will lead to future studies targeted to determining the role of WSS in atherosclerotic plaque progression and vulnerability. PMID:23945133

  5. IBRD Operational Decision Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwalt, R; Hibbard, W; Raber, E; Carlsen, T; Folks, K; MacQueen, D; Mancieri, S; Bunt, T; Richards, J; Hirabayashi-Dethier, J

    2010-11-12

    The IBRD Operational Decision Framework in this document is an expansion of an emerging general risk management framework under development by an interagency working group. It provides the level of detail necessary to develop a general Consequence Management Guidance Document for biological contamination remediation and restoration. It is the intent of this document to support both wide area and individual site remediation and restoration activities. This product was initiated as a portion of the IBRD Task 1 Systems Analysis to aid in identification of wide area remediation and restoration shortcomings and gaps. The draft interagency general risk management framework was used as the basis for the analysis. The initial Task 1 analysis document expanded the draft interagency framework to a higher level of resolution, building on both the logic structure and the accompanying text explanations. It was then employed in a qualitative manner to identify responsible agencies, data requirements, tool requirements, and current capabilities for each decision and task. This resulted in identifying shortcomings and gaps needing resolution. Several meetings of a joint LLNL/SNL working group reviewed and approved the initial content of this analysis. At the conclusion of Task 1, work continued on the expanded framework to generate this Operational Decision Framework which is consistent with the existing interagency general risk management framework. A large LLNL task group met repeatedly over a three-month period to develop the expanded framework, coordinate the framework with the biological remediation checklist, and synchronize the logic with the Consequence Management Plan table of contents. The expanded framework was briefed at a large table top exercise reviewing the interagency risk management framework. This exercise had representation from major US metropolitan areas as well as national agencies. This product received positive comments from the participants. Upon

  6. Fit of CAD/CAM implant frameworks: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Abduo, Jaafar

    2014-12-01

    Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) is a strongly emerging prosthesis fabrication method for implant dentistry. Currently, CAD/CAM allows the construction of implant frameworks from different materials. This review evaluates the literature pertaining to the precision fit of fixed implant frameworks fabricated by CAD/CAM. Following a comprehensive electronic search through PubMed (MEDLINE), 14 relevant articles were identified. The results indicate that the precision fit of CAD/CAM frameworks exceeded the fit of the 1-piece cast frameworks and laser-welded frameworks. A similar fit was observed for CAD/CAM frameworks and bonding of the framework body to prefabricated cylinders. The influence of CAD/CAM materials on the fit of a framework is minimal.

  7. Generic OPC UA Server Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiel, Piotr P.; Farnham, Benjamin; Filimonov, Viatcheslav; Schlenker, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a new approach for generic design and efficient development of OPC UA servers. Development starts with creation of a design file, in XML format, describing an object-oriented information model of the target system or device. Using this model, the framework generates an executable OPC UA server application, which exposes the per-design OPC UA address space, without the developer writing a single line of code. Furthermore, the framework generates skeleton code into which the developer adds the necessary logic for integration to the target system or device. This approach allows both developers unfamiliar with the OPC UA standard, and advanced OPC UA developers, to create servers for the systems they are experts in while greatly reducing design and development effort as compared to developments based purely on COTS OPC UA toolkits. Higher level software may further benefit from the explicit OPC UA server model by using the XML design description as the basis for generating client connectivity configuration and server data representation. Moreover, having the XML design description at hand facilitates automatic generation of validation tools. In this contribution, the concept and implementation of this framework is detailed along with examples of actual production-level usage in the detector control system of the ATLAS experiment at CERN and beyond.

  8. Frameworks of Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This paper, written from a 20th-century perspective, traces the development of, and influences on, the field of instructional technology and attempts to describe a framework within which we can better understand the field. [This article is based on "Instructional Technology: Contemporary Frameworks" originally written by the author for the…

  9. Overlooking the Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leshem, Shosh; Trafford, Vernon

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual framework is alluded to in most serious texts on research, described in some and fully explained in few. However, examiners of doctoral theses devote considerable attention to exploring its function within social science doctoral vivas. A literature survey explores how the conceptual framework is itself conceptualised and explained.…

  10. Extensible Systems Dynamics Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    pedigree information across communities-of-interest and across network boundaries. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ptolemy II, Systems Dynamics, PMESII, National...3 4.2 ADAPT THE PTOLEMY II FRAMEWORK TO ENSURE A WELL-SUITED MODELING...report of activities in the Extensible Systems Dynamics Framework project performed by the Ptolemy Project, University of California, Berkeley for

  11. RMIX: A Dynamic, Heterogeneous, Reconfigurable Communication Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, Christian; Geist, Al

    2006-01-01

    RMIX is a dynamic, heterogeneous, reconfigurable communication framework that allows software components to communicate using various RMI/RPC protocols, such as ONC RPC, Java RMI and SOAP, by facilitating dynamically loadable provider plug-ins to supply different protocol stacks. With this paper, we present a native (C-based), flexible, adaptable, multi-protocol RMI/RPC communication framework that complements the Java-based RMIX variant previously developed by our partner team at Emory University. Our approach offers the same multi-protocol RMI/RPC services and advanced invocation semantics via a C-based interface that does not require an object-oriented programming language. This paper provides a detailed description of our RMIX framework architecture and some of its features. It describes the general use case of the RMIX framework and its integration into the Harness metacomputing environment in form of a plug-in.

  12. Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF) Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-29

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF) is an online collaboration and geospatial analysis tool that allows researchers, policymakers, and investors to explore and engage the latest bioenergy research. This publication describes how the KDF harnesses Web 2.0 and social networking technologies to build a collective knowledge system that facilitates collaborative production, integration, and analysis of bioenergy-related information.

  13. 38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...; Educational Assistance Allowance § 21.4145 Work-study allowance. (a) Eligibility. (1) A veteran or reservist... rate of three-quarter time or full time is eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An...

  14. 7 CFR 52.810 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Allowances for Quality Factors § 52.810 Allowances for quality factors. Table I—Allowances for Quality Factors... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowances for quality factors. 52.810 Section...

  15. 7 CFR 52.810 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Allowances for Quality Factors § 52.810 Allowances for quality factors. Table I—Allowances for Quality Factors... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowances for quality factors. 52.810 Section...

  16. 38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...; Educational Assistance Allowance § 21.4145 Work-study allowance. (a) Eligibility. (1) A veteran or reservist... rate of three-quarter time or full time is eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An...

  17. A Framework for Biobank Sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Nussbeck, Sara Y.; Carter, Candace; O'Donoghue, Sheila; Cheah, Stefanie; Matzke, Lise A.M.; Barnes, Rebecca O.; Bartlett, John; Carpenter, Jane; Grizzle, William E.; Johnston, Randal N.; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Murphy, Leigh; Sexton, Katherine; Shepherd, Lois; Simeon-Dubach, Daniel; Zeps, Nikolajs; Schacter, Brent

    2014-01-01

    Each year funding agencies and academic institutions spend millions of dollars and euros on biobanking. All funding providers assume that after initial investments biobanks should be able to operate sustainably. However the topic of sustainability is challenging for the discipline of biobanking for several major reasons: the diversity in the biobanking landscape, the different purposes of biobanks, the fact that biobanks are dissimilar to other research infrastructures and the absence of universally understood or applicable value metrics for funders and other stakeholders. In this article our aim is to delineate a framework to allow more effective discussion and action around approaches for improving biobank sustainability. The term sustainability is often used to mean fiscally self-sustaining, but this restricted definition is not sufficient for biobanking. Instead we propose that biobank sustainability should be considered within a framework of three dimensions – financial, operational, and social. In each dimension, areas of focus or elements are identified that may allow different types of biobanks to distinguish and evaluate the relevance, likelihood, and impact of each element, as well as the risks to the biobank of failure to address them. Examples of practical solutions, tools and strategies to address biobank sustainability are also discussed. PMID:24620771

  18. A framework for biobank sustainability.

    PubMed

    Watson, Peter H; Nussbeck, Sara Y; Carter, Candace; O'Donoghue, Sheila; Cheah, Stefanie; Matzke, Lise A M; Barnes, Rebecca O; Bartlett, John; Carpenter, Jane; Grizzle, William E; Johnston, Randal N; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Murphy, Leigh; Sexton, Katherine; Shepherd, Lois; Simeon-Dubach, Daniel; Zeps, Nikolajs; Schacter, Brent

    2014-02-01

    Each year funding agencies and academic institutions spend millions of dollars and euros on biobanking. All funding providers assume that after initial investments biobanks should be able to operate sustainably. However the topic of sustainability is challenging for the discipline of biobanking for several major reasons: the diversity in the biobanking landscape, the different purposes of biobanks, the fact that biobanks are dissimilar to other research infrastructures and the absence of universally understood or applicable value metrics for funders and other stakeholders. In this article our aim is to delineate a framework to allow more effective discussion and action around approaches for improving biobank sustainability. The term sustainability is often used to mean fiscally self-sustaining, but this restricted definition is not sufficient for biobanking. Instead we propose that biobank sustainability should be considered within a framework of three dimensions - financial, operational, and social. In each dimension, areas of focus or elements are identified that may allow different types of biobanks to distinguish and evaluate the relevance, likelihood, and impact of each element, as well as the risks to the biobank of failure to address them. Examples of practical solutions, tools and strategies to address biobank sustainability are also discussed.

  19. Modeling Group Size and Scalar Stress by Logistic Regression from an Archaeological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Alberti, Gianmarco

    2014-01-01

    Johnson’s scalar stress theory, describing the mechanics of (and the remedies to) the increase in in-group conflictuality that parallels the increase in groups’ size, provides scholars with a useful theoretical framework for the understanding of different aspects of the material culture of past communities (i.e., social organization, communal food consumption, ceramic style, architecture and settlement layout). Due to its relevance in archaeology and anthropology, the article aims at proposing a predictive model of critical level of scalar stress on the basis of community size. Drawing upon Johnson’s theory and on Dunbar’s findings on the cognitive constrains to human group size, a model is built by means of Logistic Regression on the basis of the data on colony fissioning among the Hutterites of North America. On the grounds of the theoretical framework sketched in the first part of the article, the absence or presence of colony fissioning is considered expression of not critical vs. critical level of scalar stress for the sake of the model building. The model, which is also tested against a sample of archaeological and ethnographic cases: a) confirms the existence of a significant relationship between critical scalar stress and group size, setting the issue on firmer statistical grounds; b) allows calculating the intercept and slope of the logistic regression model, which can be used in any time to estimate the probability that a community experienced a critical level of scalar stress; c) allows locating a critical scalar stress threshold at community size 127 (95% CI: 122–132), while the maximum probability of critical scale stress is predicted at size 158 (95% CI: 147–170). The model ultimately provides grounds to assess, for the sake of any further archaeological/anthropological interpretation, the probability that a group reached a hot spot of size development critical for its internal cohesion. PMID:24626241

  20. Modeling group size and scalar stress by logistic regression from an archaeological perspective.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Gianmarco

    2014-01-01

    Johnson's scalar stress theory, describing the mechanics of (and the remedies to) the increase in in-group conflictuality that parallels the increase in groups' size, provides scholars with a useful theoretical framework for the understanding of different aspects of the material culture of past communities (i.e., social organization, communal food consumption, ceramic style, architecture and settlement layout). Due to its relevance in archaeology and anthropology, the article aims at proposing a predictive model of critical level of scalar stress on the basis of community size. Drawing upon Johnson's theory and on Dunbar's findings on the cognitive constrains to human group size, a model is built by means of Logistic Regression on the basis of the data on colony fissioning among the Hutterites of North America. On the grounds of the theoretical framework sketched in the first part of the article, the absence or presence of colony fissioning is considered expression of not critical vs. critical level of scalar stress for the sake of the model building. The model, which is also tested against a sample of archaeological and ethnographic cases: a) confirms the existence of a significant relationship between critical scalar stress and group size, setting the issue on firmer statistical grounds; b) allows calculating the intercept and slope of the logistic regression model, which can be used in any time to estimate the probability that a community experienced a critical level of scalar stress; c) allows locating a critical scalar stress threshold at community size 127 (95% CI: 122-132), while the maximum probability of critical scale stress is predicted at size 158 (95% CI: 147-170). The model ultimately provides grounds to assess, for the sake of any further archaeological/anthropological interpretation, the probability that a group reached a hot spot of size development critical for its internal cohesion.

  1. A new pressure ulcer conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Susanne; Nixon, Jane; Keen, Justin; Wilson, Lyn; McGinnis, Elizabeth; Dealey, Carol; Stubbs, Nikki; Farrin, Amanda; Dowding, Dawn; Schols, Jos MGA; Cuddigan, Janet; Berlowitz, Dan; Jude, Edward; Vowden, Peter; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Bader, Dan L; Gefen, Amit; Oomens, Cees WJ; Nelson, E Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Aim This paper discusses the critical determinants of pressure ulcer development and proposes a new pressure ulcer conceptual framework. Background Recent work to develop and validate a new evidence-based pressure ulcer risk assessment framework was undertaken. This formed part of a Pressure UlceR Programme Of reSEarch (RP-PG-0407-10056), funded by the National Institute for Health Research. The foundation for the risk assessment component incorporated a systematic review and a consensus study that highlighted the need to propose a new conceptual framework. Design Discussion Paper. Data Sources The new conceptual framework links evidence from biomechanical, physiological and epidemiological evidence, through use of data from a systematic review (search conducted March 2010), a consensus study (conducted December 2010–2011) and an international expert group meeting (conducted December 2011). Implications for Nursing A new pressure ulcer conceptual framework incorporating key physiological and biomechanical components and their impact on internal strains, stresses and damage thresholds is proposed. Direct and key indirect causal factors suggested in a theoretical causal pathway are mapped to the physiological and biomechanical components of the framework. The new proposed conceptual framework provides the basis for understanding the critical determinants of pressure ulcer development and has the potential to influence risk assessment guidance and practice. It could also be used to underpin future research to explore the role of individual risk factors conceptually and operationally. Conclusion By integrating existing knowledge from epidemiological, physiological and biomechanical evidence, a theoretical causal pathway and new conceptual framework are proposed with potential implications for practice and research. PMID:24684197

  2. Stress Intervention Using Cognitive Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaret, Kathe

    This document describes "Coping with Stress: A Cognitive Intervention Program for Children," a six-session program that was designed to expand children's awareness of how their thoughts and feelings affect the process of coping with stress. The first three sessions concentrate on skill building; the last three sessions allow participants to apply…

  3. Cold Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  4. Conductive open frameworks

    DOEpatents

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Wan, Shun; Doonan, Christian J.; Wang, Bo; Deng, Hexiang

    2016-02-23

    The disclosure relates generally to materials that comprise conductive covalent organic frameworks. The disclosure also relates to materials that are useful to store and separate gas molecules and sensors.

  5. 7 CFR 52.782 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Allowances for Quality Factors § 52.782 Allowances for quality factors... 1 per 20 ozs. Defects: 100 cherries Total—multilated, plus minor blemished plus blemished. 10 15...

  6. 40 CFR 96.60 - Submission of NOX allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Transfers § 96.60 Submission of NOX allowance transfers. The NOX...

  7. 40 CFR 96.60 - Submission of NOX allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Transfers § 96.60 Submission of NOX allowance transfers. The NOX...

  8. 9 CFR 56.9 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.9 Claims not allowed. (a) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the...

  9. 9 CFR 56.9 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.9 Claims not allowed. (a) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the...

  10. 9 CFR 56.9 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.9 Claims not allowed. (a) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the...

  11. 9 CFR 56.9 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.9 Claims not allowed. (a) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the...

  12. 9 CFR 56.9 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.9 Claims not allowed. (a) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the...

  13. Zeolitic Boron Imidazolate Frameworks**

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Wu, Tao; Zhou, Cong; Chen, Shumei; Feng, Pingyun; Bu, Xianhui

    2009-01-01

    From porous AlPO4 to porous BIFs Reported here are a family of crystalline materials based on boron imidazolate frameworks (BIFs). It is demonstrated that the synthetic method, which is based on the crosslinking of various pre-synthesized boron imidazolates by monovalent cations (Li+ and Cu+), is capable of generating a large variety of open frameworks ranging from the 4-connected zeolitic sodalite type to the 3-connected chiral (10,3)-a type. PMID:19241428

  14. 40 CFR 35.940-3 - Costs allowable, if approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Costs allowable, if approved. 35.940-3... Costs allowable, if approved. Certain direct costs are sometimes necessary for the construction of a treatment works. The following costs are allowable if reasonable and if the Regional Administrator...

  15. 40 CFR 35.940-3 - Costs allowable, if approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Costs allowable, if approved. 35.940-3... Costs allowable, if approved. Certain direct costs are sometimes necessary for the construction of a treatment works. The following costs are allowable if reasonable and if the Regional Administrator...

  16. 30 CFR 1206.259 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... allowance by reporting it as a separate line entry on the Form MMS-4430. (2) In conducting reviews and... washing allowance by reporting it as a separate line entry on the Form MMS-4430. When necessary or...) which are an integral part of the wash plant. (i) Allowable operating expenses include:...

  17. 30 CFR 1206.259 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... claim a washing allowance by reporting it as a separate line entry on the Form MMS-4430. (2) In... must claim a washing allowance by reporting it as a separate line entry on the Form MMS-4430. When... installation of capital equipment) which are an integral part of the wash plant. (i) Allowable...

  18. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  19. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  20. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  1. 48 CFR 2152.231-70 - Accounting and allowable cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accounting and allowable... PRECONTRACT PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2152.231-70 Accounting and allowable cost. As prescribed in 2131.270, insert the following clause: Accounting and Allowable Cost...

  2. 48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accounting and Allowable... of FEHBP Clauses 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost. As prescribed in section 1616.7002, the...). Accounting and Allowable Cost (FEHBAR 1652.216-71) (JAN 2003) (a) Annual Accounting Statements. (1)...

  3. 48 CFR 2152.231-70 - Accounting and allowable cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accounting and allowable... PRECONTRACT PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2152.231-70 Accounting and allowable cost. As prescribed in 2131.270, insert the following clause: Accounting and Allowable Cost...

  4. 48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accounting and Allowable... of FEHBP Clauses 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost. As prescribed in section 1616.7002, the...). Accounting and Allowable Cost (FEHBAR 1652.216-71) (JAN 2003) (a) Annual Accounting Statements. (1)...

  5. 38 CFR 21.9670 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...-study allowance. An eligible individual pursuing a program of education under 38 U.S.C. chapter 33 at a rate of pursuit of at least 75 percent may receive a work-study allowance in accordance with...

  6. 38 CFR 21.9670 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...-study allowance. An eligible individual pursuing a program of education under 38 U.S.C. chapter 33 at a rate of pursuit of at least 75 percent may receive a work-study allowance in accordance with...

  7. 38 CFR 21.9670 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...-study allowance. An eligible individual pursuing a program of education under 38 U.S.C. chapter 33 at a rate of pursuit of at least 75 percent may receive a work-study allowance in accordance with...

  8. 38 CFR 21.9670 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...-study allowance. An eligible individual pursuing a program of education under 38 U.S.C. chapter 33 at a rate of pursuit of at least 75 percent may receive a work-study allowance in accordance with...

  9. 40 CFR 96.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.53 Recordation of NOX allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will record the NOX allowances for 2003 in the NOX Budget units' compliance accounts and...

  10. 40 CFR 96.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.53 Recordation of NOX allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will record the NOX allowances for 2003 in the NOX Budget units' compliance accounts and...

  11. 7 CFR 52.782 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allowances for quality factors. 52.782 Section 52.782 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... for Quality Factors § 52.782 Allowances for quality factors. Table IV—Allowances for Quality...

  12. 7 CFR 52.782 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowances for quality factors. 52.782 Section 52.782 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... for Quality Factors § 52.782 Allowances for quality factors. Table IV—Allowances for Quality...

  13. 7 CFR 52.810 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allowances for quality factors. 52.810 Section 52.810 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... for Quality Factors § 52.810 Allowances for quality factors. Table I—Allowances for Quality...

  14. 30 CFR 1206.460 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) When coal transported from a mine to a wash plant is eligible for a transportation allowance in... authorized for the total production which is transported. Transportation allowances shall be expressed as a... transportation allowance shall be authorized for the total production which is transported....

  15. 30 CFR 1206.460 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) When coal transported from a mine to a wash plant is eligible for a transportation allowance in... authorized for the total production which is transported. Transportation allowances shall be expressed as a... transportation allowance shall be authorized for the total production which is transported....

  16. 30 CFR 1206.261 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) When coal transported from a mine to a wash plant is eligible for a transportation allowance in... authorized for the total production which is transported. Transportation allowances shall be expressed as a... transportation allowance shall be authorized for the total production which is transported....

  17. 30 CFR 206.261 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) When coal transported from a mine to a wash plant is eligible for a transportation allowance in... authorized for the total production which is transported. Transportation allowances shall be expressed as a... transportation allowance shall be authorized for the total production which is transported....

  18. 30 CFR 1206.460 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) When coal transported from a mine to a wash plant is eligible for a transportation allowance in... authorized for the total production which is transported. Transportation allowances shall be expressed as a... transportation allowance shall be authorized for the total production which is transported....

  19. 30 CFR 206.460 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) When coal transported from a mine to a wash plant is eligible for a transportation allowance in... authorized for the total production which is transported. Transportation allowances shall be expressed as a... transportation allowance shall be authorized for the total production which is transported....

  20. 30 CFR 1206.261 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) When coal transported from a mine to a wash plant is eligible for a transportation allowance in... authorized for the total production which is transported. Transportation allowances shall be expressed as a... transportation allowance shall be authorized for the total production which is transported....

  1. 30 CFR 1206.261 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) When coal transported from a mine to a wash plant is eligible for a transportation allowance in... authorized for the total production which is transported. Transportation allowances shall be expressed as a... transportation allowance shall be authorized for the total production which is transported....

  2. 45 CFR 1801.43 - Allowance for books.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowance for books. 1801.43 Section 1801.43... HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Payments to Finalists and Scholars § 1801.43 Allowance for books. The cost allowance for a Scholar's books is $1000 per year, or such higher amount published on...

  3. 45 CFR 1801.43 - Allowance for books.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowance for books. 1801.43 Section 1801.43... HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Payments to Finalists and Scholars § 1801.43 Allowance for books. The cost allowance for a Scholar's books is $1000 per year, or such higher amount published on...

  4. 45 CFR 1801.43 - Allowance for books.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowance for books. 1801.43 Section 1801.43... HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Payments to Finalists and Scholars § 1801.43 Allowance for books. The cost allowance for a Scholar's books is $1000 per year, or such higher amount published on...

  5. 45 CFR 1801.43 - Allowance for books.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowance for books. 1801.43 Section 1801.43... HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Payments to Finalists and Scholars § 1801.43 Allowance for books. The cost allowance for a Scholar's books is $1000 per year, or such higher amount published on...

  6. 7 CFR 52.810 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Allowances for Quality Factors § 52.810 Allowances for quality factors. Table... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allowances for quality factors. 52.810 Section...

  7. 7 CFR 52.810 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Allowances for Quality Factors § 52.810 Allowances for quality factors. Table... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowances for quality factors. 52.810 Section...

  8. 43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable limits. 418.13 Section 418.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT... Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.13 Maximum allowable limits. (a) Maximum allowable diversions. (1)...

  9. 43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable limits. 418.13 Section 418.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT... Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.13 Maximum allowable limits. (a) Maximum allowable diversions. (1)...

  10. 43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Maximum allowable limits. 418.13 Section 418.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT... Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.13 Maximum allowable limits. (a) Maximum allowable diversions. (1)...

  11. 43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable limits. 418.13 Section 418.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT... Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.13 Maximum allowable limits. (a) Maximum allowable diversions. (1)...

  12. 43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable limits. 418.13 Section 418.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT... Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.13 Maximum allowable limits. (a) Maximum allowable diversions. (1)...

  13. 19 CFR 148.103 - Family grouping of allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family grouping of allowances. 148.103 Section 148... Value § 148.103 Family grouping of allowances. (a) Generally. When members of a family residing in one... grouped and allowed without regard to which member of the family is the owner of the articles. A...

  14. 7 CFR 52.782 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowances for quality factors. 52.782 Section 52.782... for Quality Factors § 52.782 Allowances for quality factors. Table IV—Allowances for Quality Factors Factor Sample unit size Maximum number permissible for the respective grade A A B B C C Pits 20 ozs...

  15. 29 CFR 779.260 - Trade-in allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trade-in allowances. 779.260 Section 779.260 Labor... Volume of Sales Made Or Business Done § 779.260 Trade-in allowances. Where merchandise is taken in trade... sale before deduction of the allowance on such trade-in merchandise. This is so even though...

  16. 48 CFR 2152.231-70 - Accounting and allowable cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accounting and allowable... PRECONTRACT PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2152.231-70 Accounting and allowable cost. As prescribed in 2131.270, insert the following clause: Accounting and Allowable Cost...

  17. 48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accounting and Allowable... of FEHBP Clauses 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost. As prescribed in section 1616.7002, the...). Accounting and Allowable Cost (FEHBAR 1652.216-71) (JAN 2003) (a) Annual Accounting Statements. (1)...

  18. 20 CFR 322.7 - Dismissal, coordination, and separation allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Dismissal, coordination, and separation... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.7 Dismissal, coordination, and separation allowances. (a... paid benefits. (b) Separation allowance. A separation allowance or severance payment made to...

  19. 20 CFR 322.7 - Dismissal, coordination, and separation allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dismissal, coordination, and separation... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.7 Dismissal, coordination, and separation allowances. (a... paid benefits. (b) Separation allowance. A separation allowance or severance payment made to...

  20. 20 CFR 322.7 - Dismissal, coordination, and separation allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dismissal, coordination, and separation... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.7 Dismissal, coordination, and separation allowances. (a... paid benefits. (b) Separation allowance. A separation allowance or severance payment made to...