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Sample records for allowable stress tank

  1. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  2. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  3. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  4. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  5. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  6. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  7. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  8. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  9. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  10. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  11. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  12. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  13. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  14. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  15. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  16. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  17. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  18. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  19. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  20. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  1. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  2. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  3. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  4. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  5. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  6. Tank waste remediation system heat stress control program report, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Carls, D.R.

    1995-09-28

    Protecting employees from heat stress within tank farms during the summer months is challenging. Work constraints typically experienced in tank farms complicate the measures taken to protect employees from heat stress. TWRS-Industrial Hygiene (IH) has endeavored to control heat stress injuries by anticipating, recognizing, evaluating and controlling the factors which lead or contribute to heat stress in Tank Farms. The TWRS Heat Stress Control Program covers such areas as: employee and PIC training, communication of daily heat stress alerts to tank farm personnel, setting work/rest regimens, and the use of engineering and personal protective controls when applicable. The program has increased worker awareness of heat stress and prevention, established provisions for worker rest periods, increased drinking water availability to help ensure worker hydration, and allowed for the increased use of other protective controls to combat heat stress. The TWRS Heat Stress Control Program is the cornerstone for controlling heat stress among tank farm employees. The program has made great strides since it`s inception during the summer of 1994. Some improvements can still be made to enhance the program for the summer of 1996, such as: (1) procurement and use of personal heat stress monitoring equipment to ensure appropriate application of administrative controls, (2) decrease the need for use of containment tents and anti-contamination clothing, and (3) providing a wider variety of engineering and personal protective controls for heat stress prevention

  7. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: (1) For tank web frames, stringers, or girders of carbon manganese steel or aluminum alloys, meet σB... in appendix A of this part. (c) Tank plating must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's deep...

  8. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: (1) For tank web frames, stringers, or girders of carbon manganese steel or aluminum alloys, meet σB... in appendix A of this part. (c) Tank plating must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's deep...

  9. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: (1) For tank web frames, stringers, or girders of carbon manganese steel or aluminum alloys, meet σB... in Appendix A of this part. (c) Tank plating must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's deep...

  10. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: (1) For tank web frames, stringers, or girders of carbon manganese steel or aluminum alloys, meet σB... in appendix A of this part. (c) Tank plating must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's deep...

  11. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: (1) For tank web frames, stringers, or girders of carbon manganese steel or aluminum alloys, meet σB... in Appendix A of this part. (c) Tank plating must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's deep...

  12. Allowable stresses in FRP marine vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visuri, Manuri

    The publication consists of a literature survey of allowable stresses used in fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) structures, and a new method for the determination of allowable stresses is presented. In the literature survey, primary attention has been paid to the marine industry (including classification societies), the aerospace industry, and to pressure vessel and pipe standards. Generally the subject is only briefly discussed in the literature. This is a drawback, since the conservatism dominating the rules used today often means unnecessary weight penalties. High factors of safety (FoS), except in the aerospace industry, are used in most designs. The short experience of structures in service, wide variety of material combinations and the rather complicated mechanical behavior are the most important factors in this regard. The presented determination method for allowable stresses aims at introducing a more rational way for dimensioning. The method is based on the partial factors of safety concept. A statistical analysis can be included for better accuracy. This requires enough data of material and load behavior. The method is flexible and can be tailored to various needs. One major drawback is the lack of information concerning material behavior under long-term loads. The method is aimed to be expanded in the future.

  13. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  14. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  15. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  16. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  17. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  18. 46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or less of the minimum yield stress of the framework...

  19. 46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or less of the minimum yield stress of the framework...

  20. 46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or less of the minimum yield stress of the framework...

  1. 46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or less of the minimum yield stress of the framework...

  2. 46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or less of the minimum yield stress of the framework...

  3. Neutron diffraction analysis of residual stresses near unannealed welds in anhydrous ammonia nurse tanks.

    PubMed

    Becker, A T; Chumbley, L S; Goettee, D; Russell, A M

    2014-01-01

    Neutron diffraction analysis was employed to measure residual stresses near welds in used anhydrous ammonia nurse tanks. Tensile residual stresses contribute to stress corrosion cracking of nurse tanks, which can cause tanks to release toxic ammonia vapor. The analysis showed that tensile residual stresses were present in the tanks measured, and the magnitudes of these stresses approached the yield strength of the steel. Implications for agricultural safety and health are discussed.

  4. 46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C. 154.655... Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C. For a design temperature colder... stress relieved by post-weld heat treatment under § 54.25-7 of this chapter or by mechanical...

  5. 46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C. 154.655... Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C. For a design temperature colder... stress relieved by post-weld heat treatment under § 54.25-7 of this chapter or by mechanical...

  6. 46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C. 154.655... Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C. For a design temperature colder... stress relieved by post-weld heat treatment under § 54.25-7 of this chapter or by mechanical...

  7. 46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C. 154.655... Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C. For a design temperature colder... stress relieved by post-weld heat treatment under § 54.25-7 of this chapter or by mechanical...

  8. 46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C. 154.655... Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C. For a design temperature colder... stress relieved by post-weld heat treatment under § 54.25-7 of this chapter or by mechanical...

  9. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  10. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  11. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  12. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  13. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  14. Analysis of stress concentration in the Dutton groove regions of the Super Lightweight External Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, R.

    1995-01-01

    Because the 2195 aluminum-lithium material of the super lightweight external tank (SLWT ET) has a lower toughness than the 2219 aluminum used in previous ET's, careful attention must be paid to stress concentrations. This report details the analysis performed on some of the stress concentrations in the orthogrid panels of the liquid hydrogen tank.

  15. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for...

  16. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for...

  17. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for...

  18. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for...

  19. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for...

  20. Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Preferentially Respond to Bottom Rather than Side Stimuli When Not Allowed Adjacent to Tank Walls.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Darcy A A; Gagnon, Yakir; Wheeler, Benjamin R; Johnsen, Sönke; Jaffe, Jules S

    2015-01-01

    Cuttlefish are cephalopods capable of rapid camouflage responses to visual stimuli. However, it is not always clear to what these animals are responding. Previous studies have found cuttlefish to be more responsive to lateral stimuli rather than substrate. However, in previous works, the cuttlefish were allowed to settle next to the lateral stimuli. In this study, we examine whether juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond more strongly to visual stimuli seen on the sides versus the bottom of an experimental aquarium, specifically when the animals are not allowed to be adjacent to the tank walls. We used the Sub Sea Holodeck, a novel aquarium that employs plasma display screens to create a variety of artificial visual environments without disturbing the animals. Once the cuttlefish were acclimated, we compared the variability of camouflage patterns that were elicited from displaying various stimuli on the bottom versus the sides of the Holodeck. To characterize the camouflage patterns, we classified them in terms of uniform, disruptive, and mottled patterning. The elicited camouflage patterns from different bottom stimuli were more variable than those elicited by different side stimuli, suggesting that S. officinalis responds more strongly to the patterns displayed on the bottom than the sides of the tank. We argue that the cuttlefish pay more attention to the bottom of the Holodeck because it is closer and thus more relevant for camouflage.

  1. Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Preferentially Respond to Bottom Rather than Side Stimuli When Not Allowed Adjacent to Tank Walls

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Darcy A. A.; Gagnon, Yakir; Wheeler, Benjamin R.; Johnsen, Sönke; Jaffe, Jules S.

    2015-01-01

    Cuttlefish are cephalopods capable of rapid camouflage responses to visual stimuli. However, it is not always clear to what these animals are responding. Previous studies have found cuttlefish to be more responsive to lateral stimuli rather than substrate. However, in previous works, the cuttlefish were allowed to settle next to the lateral stimuli. In this study, we examine whether juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond more strongly to visual stimuli seen on the sides versus the bottom of an experimental aquarium, specifically when the animals are not allowed to be adjacent to the tank walls. We used the Sub Sea Holodeck, a novel aquarium that employs plasma display screens to create a variety of artificial visual environments without disturbing the animals. Once the cuttlefish were acclimated, we compared the variability of camouflage patterns that were elicited from displaying various stimuli on the bottom versus the sides of the Holodeck. To characterize the camouflage patterns, we classified them in terms of uniform, disruptive, and mottled patterning. The elicited camouflage patterns from different bottom stimuli were more variable than those elicited by different side stimuli, suggesting that S. officinalis responds more strongly to the patterns displayed on the bottom than the sides of the tank. We argue that the cuttlefish pay more attention to the bottom of the Holodeck because it is closer and thus more relevant for camouflage. PMID:26465786

  2. A STUDY OF CORROSION AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF CARBON STEEL NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    BOOMER, K.D.

    2007-08-21

    The Hanford reservation Tank Farms in Washington State has 177 underground storage tanks that contain approximately 50 million gallons of liquid legacy radioactive waste from cold war plutonium production. These tanks will continue to store waste until it is treated and disposed. These nuclear wastes were converted to highly alkaline pH wastes to protect the carbon steel storage tanks from corrosion. However, the carbon steel is still susceptible to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The waste chemistry varies from tank to tank, and contains various combinations of hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, chloride, carbonate, aluminate and other species. The effect of each of these species and any synergistic effects on localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel have been investigated with electrochemical polarization, slow strain rate, and crack growth rate testing. The effect of solution chemistry, pH, temperature and applied potential are all considered and their role in the corrosion behavior will be discussed.

  3. Thermocryogenic buckling and stress analyses of a partially filled cryogenic tank subjected to cylindrical strip heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    1994-01-01

    Thermocryogenic buckling and stress analyses were conducted on a horizontally oriented cryogenic tank using the finite element method. The tank is a finite-length circular cylindrical shell with its two ends capped with hemispherical shells. The tank is subjected to cylindrical strip heating in the region above the liquid-cryogen fill level and to cryogenic cooling below the fill level (i.e., under thermocryogenic loading). The effects of cryogen fill level on the buckling temperature and thermocryogenic stress field were investigated in detail. Both the buckling temperature and stress magnitudes were relatively insensitive to the cryogen fill level. The buckling temperature, however, was quite sensitive to the radius-to-thickness ratio. A mechanical stress analysis of the tank also was conducted when the tank was under: (1) cryogen liquid pressure loading; (2) internal pressure loading; and (3) tank-wall inertia loading. Deformed shapes of the cryogenic tanks under different loading conditions were shown, and high-stress domains were mapped on the tank wall for the strain-gage installations. The accuracies of solutions from different finite element models were compared.

  4. Stress evaluation of the primary tank of a double-shell underground storage tank facility

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, M.B.; Stine, M.D.; Farnworth, S.K.

    1994-12-01

    A facility called the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) is being designed at the Department of Energy`s Hanford site. The MWTF is expected to be completed in 1998 and will consist of six underground double-shell waste storage tanks and associated systems. These tanks will provide safe and environmentally acceptable storage capacity to handle waste generated during single-shell and double-shell tank safety mitigation and remediation activities. This paper summarizes the analysis and qualification of the primary tank structure of the MWTF, as performed by ICF Kaiser Hanford during the latter phase of Title 1 (Preliminary) design. Both computer finite element analysis (FEA) and hand calculations methods based on the so-called Tank Seismic Experts Panel (TSEP) Guidelines were used to perform the analysis and evaluation. Based on the evaluations summarized in this paper, it is concluded that the primary tank structure of the MWTF satisfies the project design requirements. In addition, the hand calculations performed using the methodologies provided in the TSEP Guidelines demonstrate that, except for slosh height, the capacities exceed the demand. The design accounts for the adverse effect of the excessive slosh height demand, i.e., inadequate freeboard, by increasing the hydrodynamic wall and roof pressures appropriately, and designing the tank for such increased pressures.

  5. Elastic-Plastic Thermal Stress Analysis of a High-Pressure Cryogenic Storage Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. Mark; Field, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The thermal stresses on a cryogenic storage tank contribute strongly to the state of stress of the tank material and its ability to withstand operational stresses. These thermal stresses also affect the growth of any surface damage that might occur in the tank walls. These stresses are particularly of concern during the initial cooldown period for a new tank placed into service, and during any subsequent thermal cycles. A previous preliminary elastic analysis showed that the thermal stress on the inner wall would reach approximately 1,000MPa (145,000 psi). This stress far exceeds the ASTM specified room temperature values for both yield (170MPa) and ultimate (485 MPa) strength for 304L stainless steel. The present analysis determines the thermal stresses using an elastic-plastic model. The commercial software application ANSYS was used to determine the transient spatial temperature profile and the associated spatial thermal stress profiles in a segment of a thick-walled vessel during a typical cooldown process. A strictly elastic analysis using standard material properties for 304L stainless steel showed that the maximum thermal stress on the inner and outer walls was approximately 960 MPa (tensile) and - 270 MPa (compressive) respectively. These values occurred early in the cooldown process, but at different times, An elastic-plastic analysis showed significantly reducing stress, as expected due to the plastic deformation of the material. The maximum stress for the inner wall was approximately 225 MPa (tensile), while the maximum stress for the outer wall was approximately - 130 MPa (compressive).

  6. A Review & Assessment of Current Operating Conditions Allowable Stresses in ASME Section III Subsection NH

    SciTech Connect

    R. W. Swindeman

    2009-12-14

    The current operating condition allowable stresses provided in ASME Section III, Subsection NH were reviewed for consistency with the criteria used to establish the stress allowables and with the allowable stresses provided in ASME Section II, Part D. It was found that the S{sub o} values in ASME III-NH were consistent with the S values in ASME IID for the five materials of interest. However, it was found that 0.80 S{sub r} was less than S{sub o} for some temperatures for four of the materials. Only values for alloy 800H appeared to be consistent with the criteria on which S{sub o} values are established. With the intent of undertaking a more detailed evaluation of issues related to the allowable stresses in ASME III-NH, the availabilities of databases for the five materials were reviewed and augmented databases were assembled.

  7. FITNESS-FOR-SERVICE ASSESSMENT FOR A RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK THAT CONTAINS STRESS CORROSION CRACKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B; James Elder, J; Rodney Vandekamp, R; Charles Mckeel, C

    2009-04-23

    Radioactive wastes are confined in 49 underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The tanks are examined by ultrasonic (UT) methods for thinning, pitting, and stress corrosion cracking in order to assess fitness-for-service. During an inspection in 2002, ten cracks were identified on one of the tanks. Given the location of the cracks (i.e., adjacent to welds, weld attachments, and weld repairs), fabrication details (e.g., this tank was not stress-relieved), and the service history the degradation mechanism was stress corrosion cracking. Crack instability calculations utilizing API-579 guidance were performed to show that the combination of expected future service condition hydrostatic and weld residual stresses do not drive any of the identified cracks to instability. The cracks were re-inspected in 2007 to determine if crack growth had occurred. During this re-examination, one indication that was initially reported as a 'possible perpendicular crack <25% through wall' in 2002, was clearly shown not to be a crack. Additionally, examination of a new area immediately adjacent to other cracks along a vertical weld revealed three new cracks. It is not known when these new cracks formed as they could very well have been present in 2002 as well. Therefore, a total of twelve cracks were evaluated during the re-examination. Comparison of the crack lengths measured in 2002 and 2007 revealed that crack growth had occurred in four of the nine previously measured cracks. The crack length extension ranged from 0.25 to 1.8 inches. However, in all cases the cracks still remained within the residual stress zone (i.e., within two to three inches of the weld). The impact of the cracks that grew on the future service of Tank 15 was re-assessed. API-579 crack instability calculations were again performed, based on expected future service conditions and trended crack growth rates for the future tank service cycle. The analysis showed that the combined hydrostatic and weld

  8. Investigation of thermoelastic stresses induced at high altitudes on aircraft external fuel tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousseau, Stephanie Lynn Steber

    As composite technology has grown over the past several decades, the use of composite materials in military applications has become more feasible and widely accepted. Although composite materials provide many benefits, including strength optimization and reduced weight, damage and repair of these materials creates an additional challenge, especially when operating in a marine environment, such as on a carrier deck. This is evident within the Navy, as excessive damage often leads to the scrapping of F/A-18 External Fuel Tanks. This damage comes in many forms, the most elusive of which is delamination. Often the delamination found on the tanks is beyond repairable limits and the cause unknown, making it difficult to predict and prevent. The purpose of this investigation was to study the structure of the Navy's 330 gallon External Fuel Tanks and investigate one potential cause of delamination, stresses induced at high altitudes by cold temperatures. A stress analysis was completed using finite element software, and validation of the model was accomplished through testing of a scale model specimen. Due to the difficulties in modeling and predicting delamination, such as unknown presence of voids and understanding failure criteria, delamination was not modeled in Abaqus, rather stresses were observed and characteristics were studied to understand the potential for delamination within the layup. In addition, studies were performed to understand the effect of material properties and layup sequence on the stress distribution within the tank. Alternative design solutions are presented which could reduce the radial stresses within the tank, and recommendations are made for further study to understand the trade-offs between stress, cost, and manufacturability.

  9. Investigation of the Chill-Down Behavior and Thermal Stress Distribution of a Cryogenic Tank During the Filling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Zhu; Yanzhong, Li; Mengjian, Xu; Lei, Wang

    A numerical study is conducted to investigate the filling process of a specified cryogenic tank. The chill-down behavior of the tank isanalyzed by a computational fluid dynamics method considering the effect of the inflow rate and the state of the fill substance. In addition, the transient thermal stress within the tank wall during filling processes is analyzed using the finite element method. Numerical results show that the thermal stress is dominated by restricting conditions as well as the temperature distribution, which is controlled by the fluid field and heat transfer types within the tank.

  10. INHIBITION OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF CARBON STEEL STORAGE TANKS AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    BOOMER, K.D.

    2007-01-31

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of A537 tank steel was investigated in a series of environments designed to simulate the chemistry of legacy nuclear weapons production waste. Tests consisted of both slow strain rate tests using tensile specimens and constant load tests using compact tension specimens. Based on the tests conducted, nitrite was found to be a strong SCC inhibitor. Based on the test performed and the tank waste chemistry changes that are predicted to occur over time, the risk for SCC appears to be decreasing since the concentration of nitrate will decrease and nitrite will increase.

  11. EFFECTS OF CHEMISTRY AND OTHER VARIABLES ON CORROSION AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN MH

    2008-11-13

    Laboratory testing was performed to develop a comprehensive understanding of the corrosivity of the tank wastes stored in Double-Shell Tanks using simulants primarily from Tanks 241-AP-105, 241-SY-103 and 241-AW-105. Additional tests were conducted using simulants of the waste stored in 241-AZ-102, 241-SY-101, 241-AN-107, and 241-AY-101. This test program placed particular emphasis on defining the range of tank waste chemistries that do not induce the onset of localized forms of corrosion, particularly pitting and stress corrosion cracking. This document summarizes the key findings of the research program.

  12. Debonding Stress Concentrations in a Pressurized Lobed Sandwich-Walled Generic Cryogenic Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    2004-01-01

    A finite-element stress analysis has been conducted on a lobed composite sandwich tank subjected to internal pressure and cryogenic cooling. The lobed geometry consists of two obtuse circular walls joined together with a common flat wall. Under internal pressure and cryogenic cooling, this type of lobed tank wall will experience open-mode (a process in which the honeycomb is stretched in the depth direction) and shear stress concentrations at the junctures where curved wall changes into flat wall (known as a curve-flat juncture). Open-mode and shear stress concentrations occur in the honeycomb core at the curve-flat junctures and could cause debonding failure. The levels of contributions from internal pressure and temperature loading to the open-mode and shear debonding failure are compared. The lobed fuel tank with honeycomb sandwich walls has been found to be a structurally unsound geometry because of very low debonding failure strengths. The debonding failure problem could be eliminated if the honeycomb core at the curve-flat juncture is replaced with a solid core.

  13. STRESS CORROSION CRACKING SUSCEPTIBILITY OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS DURING SLUDGE MASS REDUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K

    2007-10-18

    Aluminum is a principal element in alkaline nuclear sludge waste stored in high level waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site. The mass of sludge in a HLW tank can be reduced through the caustic leaching of aluminum, i.e. converting aluminum oxides (gibbsite) and oxide-hydroxides (boehmite) into soluble hydroxides through reaction with a hot caustic solution. The temperature limits outlined by the chemistry control program for HLW tanks to prevent caustic stress corrosion cracking (CSCC) in concentrated hydroxide solutions will potentially be exceeded during the sludge mass reduction (SMR) campaign. Corrosion testing was performed to determine the potential for CSCC under expected conditions. The experimental test program, developed based upon previous test results and expected conditions during the current SMR campaign, consisted of electrochemical and mechanical testing to determine the susceptibility of ASTM A516 carbon steel to CSCC in the relevant environment. Anodic polarization test results indicated that anodic inhibition at the temperatures and concentrations of interest for SMR is not a viable, consistent technical basis for preventing CSCC. However, the mechanical testing concluded that CSCC will not occur under conditions expected during SMR for a minimum of 35 days. In addition, the stress relief for the Type III/IIIA tanks adds a level of conservatism to the estimates. The envelope for corrosion control is recommended during the SMR campaign is shown in Table 1. The underlying assumption is that solution time-in-tank is limited to the SMR campaign. The envelope recommends nitrate/aluminate intervals for discrete intervals of hydroxide concentrations, although it is recognized that a continuous interval may be developed. The limits also sets temperature limits.

  14. Snail reprograms glucose metabolism by repressing phosphofructokinase PFKP allowing cancer cell survival under metabolic stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Hee; Cha, Yong Hoon; Lee, Jueun; Lee, Seon-Hyeong; Yang, Ji Hye; Yun, Jun Seop; Cho, Eunae Sandra; Zhang, Xianglan; Nam, Miso; Kim, Nami; Yuk, Young-Su; Cha, So Young; Lee, Yoonmi; Ryu, Joo Kyung; Park, Sunghyouk; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Kang, Sang Won; Kim, Soo-Youl; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Yook, Jong In; Kim, Hyun Sil

    2017-02-08

    Dynamic regulation of glucose flux between aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is not well-understood. Here we show that Snail (SNAI1), a key transcriptional repressor of EMT, regulates glucose flux toward PPP, allowing cancer cell survival under metabolic stress. Mechanistically, Snail regulates glycolytic activity via repression of phosphofructokinase, platelet (PFKP), a major isoform of cancer-specific phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), an enzyme involving the first rate-limiting step of glycolysis. The suppression of PFKP switches the glucose flux towards PPP, generating NADPH with increased metabolites of oxidative PPP. Functionally, dynamic regulation of PFKP significantly potentiates cancer cell survival under metabolic stress and increases metastatic capacities in vivo. Further, knockdown of PFKP rescues metabolic reprogramming and cell death induced by loss of Snail. Thus, the Snail-PFKP axis plays an important role in cancer cell survival via regulation of glucose flux between glycolysis and PPP.

  15. Snail reprograms glucose metabolism by repressing phosphofructokinase PFKP allowing cancer cell survival under metabolic stress

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Hee; Cha, Yong Hoon; Lee, Jueun; Lee, Seon-Hyeong; Yang, Ji Hye; Yun, Jun Seop; Cho, Eunae Sandra; Zhang, Xianglan; Nam, Miso; Kim, Nami; Yuk, Young-Su; Cha, So Young; Lee, Yoonmi; Ryu, Joo Kyung; Park, Sunghyouk; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Kang, Sang Won; Kim, Soo-Youl; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Yook, Jong In; Kim, Hyun Sil

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic regulation of glucose flux between aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) during epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is not well-understood. Here we show that Snail (SNAI1), a key transcriptional repressor of EMT, regulates glucose flux toward PPP, allowing cancer cell survival under metabolic stress. Mechanistically, Snail regulates glycolytic activity via repression of phosphofructokinase, platelet (PFKP), a major isoform of cancer-specific phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), an enzyme involving the first rate-limiting step of glycolysis. The suppression of PFKP switches the glucose flux towards PPP, generating NADPH with increased metabolites of oxidative PPP. Functionally, dynamic regulation of PFKP significantly potentiates cancer cell survival under metabolic stress and increases metastatic capacities in vivo. Further, knockdown of PFKP rescues metabolic reprogramming and cell death induced by loss of Snail. Thus, the Snail-PFKP axis plays an important role in cancer cell survival via regulation of glucose flux between glycolysis and PPP. PMID:28176759

  16. Study of the tank systems of 125,000 cu m MRV type LNG carrier (loads and stress analysis)

    SciTech Connect

    Nagomoto, R.; Ushijima, M.; Sakai, D.; Hagiwara, K.; Takahashi, T.; Kuramoto, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental analyses of ship motion, wave load, and stress induced in the hull and tank system of a 125,000-m/sup 3/ Moss-Rosenberg Verft A/S (MRV) LNG carrier found that the roll-damping coefficient of a moving ship is 4-5 times greater than that of a ship at rest. MHI improved the methods of calculating rolling motion by accounting for the effect of the liquid motion in the tank. The results of bench tests using a 2.7-ft diam spherical tank permitted estimating the hydrodynamic pressure acting on the tank shell, the liquid velocity, and the dynamic force on the pipe tower. MHI found close agreement between its computer calculations and the results of structural tests on a 13.8-ft long hull model. Three-dimensional stress analysis determined the boundary-force distribution for the hold (including the tank cover). The axisymmetrical computer program CYLAN and the equator-zooming technique accurately estimated the tank-system induced stress. The results of these analyses indicate that the MRV tank design is safe and strong.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR CAUSTIC STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF A537 CARBON STEEL NUCLEAR WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.

    2009-10-15

    The evaporator recycle streams contain waste in a chemistry and temperature regime that may be outside of the current waste tank corrosion control program, which imposes temperature limits to mitigate caustic stress corrosion cracking (CSCC). A review of the recent service history (1998-2008) of Tanks 30 and 32 showed that these tanks were operated in highly concentrated hydroxide solution at high temperature. Visual inspections, experimental testing, and a review of the tank service history have shown that CSCC has occurred in uncooled/un-stress relieved F-Area tanks. Therefore, for the Type III/IIIA waste tanks the efficacy of the stress relief of welding residual stress is the only corrosion-limiting mechanism. The objective of this experimental program is to test carbon steel small scale welded U-bend specimens and large welded plates (12 x 12 x 1 in.) in a caustic solution with upper bound chemistry (12 M hydroxide and 1 M each of nitrate, nitrite, and aluminate) and temperature (125 C). These conditions simulate worst-case situations in Tanks 30 and 32. Both as-welded and stress-relieved specimens have been tested. No evidence of stress corrosion cracking was found in the U-bend specimens after 21 days of testing. The large plate test is currently in progress, but no cracking has been observed after 9 weeks of immersion. Based on the preliminary results, it appears that the environmental conditions of the tests are unable to develop stress corrosion cracking within the duration of these tests.

  18. POTENTIAL FOR STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF A537 CARBON STEEL NUCLEAR WASTE TANKS CONTAINING HIGHLY CAUSTIC SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.; Stripling, C.; Fisher, D.; Elder, J.

    2010-04-26

    The evaporator recycle streams of nuclear waste tanks may contain waste in a chemistry and temperature regime that exceeds the current corrosion control program, which imposes temperature limits to mitigate caustic stress corrosion cracking (CSCC). A review of the recent service history found that two of these A537 carbon steel tanks were operated in highly concentrated hydroxide solution at high temperature. Visual inspections, experimental testing, and a review of the tank service history have shown that CSCC has occurred in uncooled/un-stress relieved tanks of similar construction. Therefore, it appears that the efficacy of stress relief of welding residual stress is the primary corrosion-limiting mechanism. The objective of this experimental program is to test A537 carbon steel small scale welded U-bend specimens and large welded plates (30.48 x 30.38 x 2.54 cm) in a caustic solution with upper bound chemistry (12 M hydroxide and 1 M each of nitrate, nitrite, and aluminate) and temperature (125 C). These conditions simulate worst-case situations in these nuclear waste tanks. Both as-welded and stress-relieved specimens have been tested. No evidence of stress corrosion cracking was found in the U-bend specimens after 21 days of testing. The large plate test was completed after 12 weeks of immersion in a similar solution at 125 C except that the aluminate concentration was reduced to 0.3 M. Visual inspection of the plate revealed that stress corrosion cracking had not initiated from the machined crack tips in the weld or in the heat affected zone. NDE ultrasonic testing also confirmed subsurface cracking did not occur. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the environmental condition of these tests was unable to develop stress corrosion cracking within the test periods for the small welded U-bends and for the large plates, which were welded with an identical procedure as used in the construction of the actual nuclear waste tanks in the 1960s. The

  19. Behavioural and biochemical stress responses of Palinurus elephas after exposure to boat noise pollution in tank.

    PubMed

    Filiciotto, Francesco; Vazzana, Mirella; Celi, Monica; Maccarrone, Vincenzo; Ceraulo, Maria; Buffa, Gaspare; Di Stefano, Vincenzo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Buscaino, Giuseppa

    2014-07-15

    This study examined the effects of boat noise on the behavioural and biochemical parameters of the Mediterranean spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas). The experiment was conducted in a tank equipped with a video and audio recording system. 18 experimental trials, assigned to boat noise and control conditions, were performed using lobsters in single and group of 4 specimens. After a 1h habituation period, we audio- and video-recorded the lobsters for 1h. During the experimental phase, the animals assigned to the boat groups were exposed to boat noise pollution (a random sequence of boat noises). Exposure to the noise produced significant variations in locomotor behaviours and haemolymphatic parameters. Our results indicate that the lobsters exposed to boat noises increased significantly their locomotor activities and haemolymphatic bioindicator of stressful conditions such as glucose, total proteins, Hsp70 expression and THC when tested both singly and in groups.

  20. Cold acclimation allows Drosophila flies to maintain mitochondrial functioning under cold stress.

    PubMed

    Colinet, Hervé; Renault, David; Roussel, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Environmental stress generally disturbs cellular homeostasis. Researchers have hypothesized that chilling injury is linked to a shortage of ATP. However, previous studies conducted on insects exposed to nonfreezing low temperatures presented conflicting results. In this study, we investigated the mitochondrial bioenergetics of Drosophila melanogaster flies exposed to chronic cold stress (4 °C). We assessed mitochondrial oxygen consumption while monitoring the rate of ATP synthesis at various times (0, 1, 2, and 3 days) during prolonged cold stress and at two assay temperatures (25 and 4 °C). We compared organelle responses between cold-susceptible and cold-acclimated phenotypes. Continuous exposure to low temperature provoked temporal declines in the rates of mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis. Respiratory control ratios (RCRs) suggested that mitochondria were not critically uncoupled. Nevertheless, after 3 days of continuous cold stress, a sharp decline in the mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate was observed in control flies when they were assayed at low temperature. This change was associated with reduced survival capacity in control flies. In contrast, cold-acclimated flies exhibited high survival and maintained higher rates of mitochondrial ATP synthesis and coupling (i.e., higher RCRs). Adaptive changes due to cold acclimation observed in the whole organism were thus manifested in isolated mitochondria. Our observations suggest that cold tolerance is linked to the ability to maintain bioenergetics capacity under cold stress.

  1. Control of the process of cooling of ceramic products with allowance for the constraints on thermal stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozkin, N. D.; Tkachev, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    A three-dimensional problem on the control of furnace temperature during cooling of ceramic products of arbitrary shape with allowance for the constraints on thermal stresses is analyzed. An algorithm for calculating a temperature regime making it possible to avoid the occurrence of fracture and irreversible deformation in the products being cooled is proposed. With the example of cooling of a ceramic holder for a spiral wire, a computational experiment is performed. A temperature regime in which the cooling of the product accomplishes in a certain time without exceeding the admissible values of thermal stresses is identified.

  2. Increasing the Oxidative Stress Response Allows Escherichia coli To Overcome Inhibitory Effects of Condensed Tannins

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Alexandra H.; Imlay, James A.; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2003-01-01

    Tannins are plant-derived polyphenols with antimicrobial effects. The mechanism of tannin toxicity towards Escherichia coli was determined by using an extract from Acacia mearnsii (Black wattle) as a source of condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins). E. coli growth was inhibited by tannins only when tannins were exposed to oxygen. Tannins auto-oxidize, and substantial hydrogen peroxide was generated when they were added to aerobic media. The addition of exogenous catalase permitted growth in tannin medium. E. coli mutants that lacked HPI, the major catalase, were especially sensitive to tannins, while oxyR mutants that constitutively overexpress antioxidant enzymes were resistant. A tannin-resistant mutant was isolated in which a promoter-region point mutation increased the level of HPI by 10-fold. Our results indicate that wattle condensed tannins are toxic to E. coli in aerobic medium primarily because they generate H2O2. The oxidative stress response helps E. coli strains to overcome their inhibitory effect. PMID:12788743

  3. Re-programming of translation following cell stress allows IRES-mediated translation to predominate.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Keith A; Stoneley, Mark; Bushell, Martin; Willis, Anne E

    2008-01-01

    There is now an overwhelming body of evidence to suggest that internal ribosome entry is required to maintain the expression of specific proteins during patho-physiological situations when cap-dependent translation is compromised, for example, following heat shock or during mitosis, hypoxia, differentiation and apoptosis. Translational profiling has been used by several groups to assess the extent to which alternative mechanisms of translation initiation selectively recruit mRNAs to polysomes during cell stress. The data from these studies have shown that under each condition 3-5% of coding mRNAs remain associated with the polysomes. Importantly, the genes identified in each of these studies do not show a significant amount of overlap, suggesting that 10-15% of all mRNAs have the capability for their initiation to occur via alternative mechanism(s).

  4. Modulation of oxidative stress and subsequent induction of apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress allows citral to decrease cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, Arvinder; Felder, Mildred; Fass, Lucas; Kaur, Justanjot; Czarnecki, Austin; Rathi, Kavya; Zeng, San; Osowski, Kathryn Kalady; Howell, Colin; Xiong, May P.; Whelan, Rebecca J.; Patankar, Manish S.

    2016-01-01

    The monoterpenoid, citral, when delivered through PEG-b-PCL nanoparticles inhibits in vivo growth of 4T1 breast tumors. Here, we show that citral inhibits proliferation of multiple human cancer cell lines. In p53 expressing ECC-1 and OVCAR-3 but not in p53-deficient SKOV-3 cells, citral induces G1/S cell cycle arrest and apoptosis as determined by Annexin V staining and increased cleaved caspase3 and Bax and decreased Bcl-2. In SKOV-3 cells, citral induces the ER stress markers CHOP, GADD45, EDEM, ATF4, Hsp90, ATG5, and phospho-eIF2α. The molecular chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid attenuates citral activity in SKOV-3 but not in ECC-1 and OVCAR-3 cells. In p53-expressing cells, citral increases phosphorylation of serine-15 of p53. Activation of p53 increases Bax, PUMA, and NOXA expression. Inhibition of p53 by pifithrin-α, attenuates citral-mediated apoptosis. Citral increases intracellular oxygen radicals and this leads to activation of p53. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis by L-buthionine sulfoxamine increases potency of citral. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine decreases phosphorylation of p53 in citral-treated ECC-1 and OVCAR-3. These results define a p53-dependent, and in the absence of p53, ER stress-dependent mode of action of citral. This study indicates that citral in PEG-b-PCL nanoparticle formulation should be considered for treatment of breast and other tumors. PMID:27270209

  5. HANFORD TANK CLEANUP UPDATE

    SciTech Connect

    BERRIOCHOA MV

    2011-04-07

    Access to Hanford's single-shell radioactive waste storage tank C-107 was significantly improved when workers completed the cut of a 55-inch diameter hole in the top of the tank. The core and its associated cutting equipment were removed from the tank and encased in a plastic sleeve to prevent any potential spread of contamination. The larger tank opening allows use of a new more efficient robotic arm to complete tank retrieval.

  6. Tank 241-U-203: Tank Characterization Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1995-03-27

    The revised Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order states that a tank characterization plan will be developed for each double-shell tank and single-shell tank using the data quality objective process. The plans are intended to allow users and regulators to ensure their needs will be met and resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-U-203 sampling activities.

  7. Think Tank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governick, Heather; Wellington, Thom

    1998-01-01

    Examines the options for upgrading, replacing, and removal or closure of underground storage tanks (UST). Reveals the diverse regulatory control involving USTs, the Environmental Protection Agency's interest in pursuing violators, and stresses the need for administrators to be knowledgeable about state and local agency definitions of regulated…

  8. Modelling a Historic Oil-Tank Fire Allows an Estimation of the Sensitivity of the Infrared Receptors in Pyrophilous Melanophila Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Helmut; Bousack, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Pyrophilous jewel beetles of the genus Melanophila approach forest fires and there is considerable evidence that these beetles can detect fires from great distances of more than 60 km. Because Melanophila beetles are equipped with infrared receptors and are also attracted by hot surfaces it can be concluded that these infrared receptors are used for fire detection. The sensitivity of the IR receptors is still unknown. The lowest threshold published so far is 0.6 W/m2 which, however, cannot explain the detection of forest fires by IR radiation from distances larger than approximately 10 km. To investigate the possible sensitivity of the IR receptors we assumed that beetles use IR radiation for remote fire detection and we made use of a historic report about a big oil-tank fire in Coalinga, California, in 1924. IR emission of an oil-tank fire can be calculated by “pool fire” simulations which now are used for fire safety and risk analysis. Assuming that beetles were lured to the fire from the nearest forests 25 and 130 km away, our results show that detection from a distance of 25 km requires a threshold of the IR receptors of at least 3×10−2 W/m2. According to our investigations most beetles became aware of the fire from a distance of 130 km. In this case the threshold has to be 1.3×10−4 W/m2. Because such low IR intensities are buried in thermal noise we suggest that the infrared sensory system of Melanophila beetles utilizes stochastic resonance for the detection of weak IR radiation. Our simulations also suggest that the biological IR receptors might be even more sensitive than uncooled technical IR sensors. Thus a closer look into the mode of operation of the Melanophila IR receptors seems promising for the development of novel IR sensors. PMID:22629433

  9. STS-133 Space Shuttle External Tank Intertank Stringer Crack Investigation Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steeve, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    The first attempt to launch the STS-133 Space Shuttle mission in the fall of 2010 was halted due to indications of a gaseous hydrogen leak at the External Tank ground umbilical carrier plate seal. Subsequent inspection of the external tank (figure 1) hardware and recorded video footage revealed that the foam insulation covering the forward end of the intertank near the liquid oxygen tank had cracked severely enough to have been cause for halting the launch attempt on its own (figure 2). An investigation into the cause of the insulation crack revealed that two adjacent hat-section sheet metal stringers (figure 3) had cracks up to nine inches long in the forward ends of the stringer flanges, or feet, near the fasteners that attach the stringer to the skin of the intertank (figure 4). A repair of those two stringers was implemented and the investigation effort widened to understand the root cause of the stringer cracks and to determine whether there was sufficient flight rationale to launch with the repairs and the other installed stringers.

  10. Verification of Allowable Stresses In ASME Section III Subsection NH For Grade 91 Steel & Alloy 800H

    SciTech Connect

    R. W. Swindeman; M. J. Swindeman; B. W. Roberts; B. E. Thurgood; D. L. Marriott

    2007-11-30

    The database for the creep-rupture of 9Cr-1Mo-V (Grade 91) steel was collected and reviewed to determine if it met the needs for recommending time-dependent strength values, S{sub t}, for coverage in ASME Section III Subsection NH (ASME III-NH) to 650 C (1200 F) and 600,000 hours. The accumulated database included over 300 tests for 1% total strain, nearly 400 tests for tertiary creep, and nearly 1700 tests to rupture. Procedures for analyzing creep and rupture data for ASME III-NH were reviewed and compared to the procedures used to develop the current allowable stress values for Gr 91 for ASME II-D. The criteria in ASME III-NH for estimating S{sub t} included the average strength for 1% total strain for times to 600,000 hours, 80% of the minimum strength for tertiary creep for times to 600,000 hours, and 67% of the minimum rupture strength values for times to 600,000 hours. Time-temperature-stress parametric formulations were selected to correlate the data and make predictions of the long-time strength. It was found that the stress corresponding to 1% total strain and the initiation of tertiary creep were not the controlling criteria over the temperature-time range of concern. It was found that small adjustments to the current values in III-NH could be introduced but that the existing values were conservative and could be retained. The existing database was found to be adequate to extend the coverage to 600,000 hours for temperatures below 650 C (1200 F).

  11. Cryogenic-storage-tank support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisdom, G. H.

    1980-01-01

    Support isolates tank from thermal and mechanical loading by environment. Design uses combination of well-known common mechanisms to isolate tank and allow for tank expansion and contraction due to temperature and pressure changes. Similar support method is used on nitrogen tanks.

  12. Hanford double shell tank corrosion monitoring instrument tree prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.L.; Edgemon, G.L.; Ohl, P.C.

    1995-11-01

    High-level nuclear wastes at the Hanford site are stored underground in carbon steel double-shell and single-shell tanks (DSTs and SSTs). The installation of a prototype corrosion monitoring instrument tree into DST 241-A-101 was completed in December 1995. The instrument tree has the ability to detect and discriminate between uniform corrosion, pitting, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) through the use of electrochemical noise measurements and a unique stressed element, three-electrode probe. The tree itself is constructed of AISI 304L stainless steel (UNS S30403), with probes in the vapor space, vapor/liquid interface and liquid. Successful development of these trees will allow their application to single shell tanks and the transfer of technology to other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Keywords: Hanford, radioactive waste, high-level waste tanks, electrochemical noise, probes, double-shell tanks, single-shell tanks, corrosion.

  13. Tanks and Tank Troops

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    operational in the Bundeswehr. These include the well-known U.S. M113 APC, the HS-30 APC, developed by the Swiss company Hispano- Suiza , as well as the...powered by the Leyland L-60 engine, and the French AMX-30, powered by the Hispano- Suiza HS-110 engine. The new Japanese STB-6 tank (ඒ") is...of all foreign series-produced tank engines. A complete tank engine replacement can be performed in four hours. The Hispano- Suiza HS-110 engine

  14. Transcriptional Profiling of Chondrodysplasia Growth Plate Cartilage Reveals Adaptive ER-Stress Networks That Allow Survival but Disrupt Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Trevor L.; Bell, Katrina M.; Tatarczuch, Liliana; Mackie, Eleanor J.; Rajpar, M. Helen; McDermott, Ben T.; Boot-Handford, Raymond P.; Bateman, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, Schmid type (MCDS) is characterized by mild short stature and growth plate hypertrophic zone expansion, and caused by collagen X mutations. We recently demonstrated the central importance of ER stress in the pathology of MCDS by recapitulating the disease phenotype by expressing misfolding forms of collagen X (Schmid) or thyroglobulin (Cog) in the hypertrophic zone. Here we characterize the Schmid and Cog ER stress signaling networks by transcriptional profiling of microdissected mutant and wildtype hypertrophic zones. Both models displayed similar unfolded protein responses (UPRs), involving activation of canonical ER stress sensors and upregulation of their downstream targets, including molecular chaperones, foldases, and ER-associated degradation machinery. Also upregulated were the emerging UPR regulators Wfs1 and Syvn1, recently identified UPR components including Armet and Creld2, and genes not previously implicated in ER stress such as Steap1 and Fgf21. Despite upregulation of the Chop/Cebpb pathway, apoptosis was not increased in mutant hypertrophic zones. Ultrastructural analysis of mutant growth plates revealed ER stress and disrupted chondrocyte maturation throughout mutant hypertrophic zones. This disruption was defined by profiling the expression of wildtype growth plate zone gene signatures in the mutant hypertrophic zones. Hypertrophic zone gene upregulation and proliferative zone gene downregulation were both inhibited in Schmid hypertrophic zones, resulting in the persistence of a proliferative chondrocyte-like expression profile in ER-stressed Schmid chondrocytes. Our findings provide a transcriptional map of two chondrocyte UPR gene networks in vivo, and define the consequences of UPR activation for the adaptation, differentiation, and survival of chondrocytes experiencing ER stress during hypertrophy. Thus they provide important insights into ER stress signaling and its impact on cartilage pathophysiology. PMID

  15. Transcriptional profiling of chondrodysplasia growth plate cartilage reveals adaptive ER-stress networks that allow survival but disrupt hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Trevor L; Bell, Katrina M; Tatarczuch, Liliana; Mackie, Eleanor J; Rajpar, M Helen; McDermott, Ben T; Boot-Handford, Raymond P; Bateman, John F

    2011-01-01

    Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, Schmid type (MCDS) is characterized by mild short stature and growth plate hypertrophic zone expansion, and caused by collagen X mutations. We recently demonstrated the central importance of ER stress in the pathology of MCDS by recapitulating the disease phenotype by expressing misfolding forms of collagen X (Schmid) or thyroglobulin (Cog) in the hypertrophic zone. Here we characterize the Schmid and Cog ER stress signaling networks by transcriptional profiling of microdissected mutant and wildtype hypertrophic zones. Both models displayed similar unfolded protein responses (UPRs), involving activation of canonical ER stress sensors and upregulation of their downstream targets, including molecular chaperones, foldases, and ER-associated degradation machinery. Also upregulated were the emerging UPR regulators Wfs1 and Syvn1, recently identified UPR components including Armet and Creld2, and genes not previously implicated in ER stress such as Steap1 and Fgf21. Despite upregulation of the Chop/Cebpb pathway, apoptosis was not increased in mutant hypertrophic zones. Ultrastructural analysis of mutant growth plates revealed ER stress and disrupted chondrocyte maturation throughout mutant hypertrophic zones. This disruption was defined by profiling the expression of wildtype growth plate zone gene signatures in the mutant hypertrophic zones. Hypertrophic zone gene upregulation and proliferative zone gene downregulation were both inhibited in Schmid hypertrophic zones, resulting in the persistence of a proliferative chondrocyte-like expression profile in ER-stressed Schmid chondrocytes. Our findings provide a transcriptional map of two chondrocyte UPR gene networks in vivo, and define the consequences of UPR activation for the adaptation, differentiation, and survival of chondrocytes experiencing ER stress during hypertrophy. Thus they provide important insights into ER stress signaling and its impact on cartilage pathophysiology.

  16. Compassionate Allowances

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to content Social Security Search Menu Languages Sign in / up Compassionate Allowances Featured Items Compassionate Allowances Conditions CAL conditions are selected using information received ...

  17. 33 CFR 157.19 - Cargo tank arrangement and size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) whichever is greater, limited to a maximum of 40,000 cubic meters); (2) The volume of each wing tank and center tank is less than the allowable volume of a wing tank (VOLW) and the allowable volume of a...

  18. 33 CFR 157.19 - Cargo tank arrangement and size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) whichever is greater, limited to a maximum of 40,000 cubic meters); (2) The volume of each wing tank and center tank is less than the allowable volume of a wing tank (VOLW) and the allowable volume of a...

  19. 33 CFR 157.19 - Cargo tank arrangement and size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) whichever is greater, limited to a maximum of 40,000 cubic meters); (2) The volume of each wing tank and center tank is less than the allowable volume of a wing tank (VOLW) and the allowable volume of a...

  20. 33 CFR 157.19 - Cargo tank arrangement and size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) whichever is greater, limited to a maximum of 40,000 cubic meters); (2) The volume of each wing tank and center tank is less than the allowable volume of a wing tank (VOLW) and the allowable volume of a...

  1. Hypervelocity Impact of Unstressed and Stressed Titanium in a Whipple Configuration in Support of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module Propellant Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Christiansen, Eric; Piekutowski, Andrew; Lyons, Frankel; Keddy, Christopher; Salem, Jonathan; Miller, Joshua; Bohl, William; Poormon, Kevin; Greene, Nathanel; Rodriquez, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Hypervelocity impacts were performed on six unstressed and six stressed titanium coupons with aluminium shielding in order to assess the effects of the partial penetration damage on the post impact micromechanical properties of titanium and on the residual strength after impact. This work is performed in support of the definition of the penetration criteria of the propellant tanks surfaces for the service module of the crew exploration vehicle where such a criterion is based on testing and analyses rather than on historical precedence. The objective of this work is to assess the effects of applied biaxial stress on the damage dynamics and morphology. The crater statistics revealed minute differences between stressed and unstressed coupon damage. The post impact residual stress analyses showed that the titanium strength properties were generally unchanged for the unstressed coupons when compared with undamaged titanium. However, high localized strains were shown near the craters during the tensile tests.

  2. Hypervelocity Impact of Unstressed and Stressed Titanium in a Whipple Configuration in Support of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module Propellant Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Christiansen, Eric; Piekutowski, Andrew; Lyons, Frankel; Keddy, Christopher; Salem, Jonathan; Poormon, Kevin; Bohl, William; Miller, Joshua; Greene, Nathanael; Rodriquez, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Hypervelocity impacts were performed on six unstressed and six stressed titanium coupons with aluminium: shielding in order to assess the effects of the partial penetration damage on the post impact micromechanical properties of titanium and on the residual strength after impact. This work is performed in support of the defInition of the penetration criteria of the propellant and oxidizer tanks dome surfaces for the service module of the crew exploration vehicle where such a criterion is based on testing and analyses rather than on historical precedence. The objective of this work is to assess the effects of applied biaxial stress on the damage dynamics and morphology. The crater statistics revealed minute differences between stressed and unstressed coupon damage. The post impact residual stress analyses showed that the titanium strength properties were generally unchanged for the unstressed coupons when compared with undamaged titanium. However, high localized strains were shown near the craters during the tensile tests.

  3. Upregulation of the mitochondrial Lon Protease allows adaptation to acute oxidative stress but dysregulation is associated with chronic stress, disease, and aging.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Jenny K; Pomatto, Laura C D; Davies, Kelvin J A

    2013-02-09

    The elimination of oxidatively modified proteins is a crucial process in maintaining cellular homeostasis, especially during stress. Mitochondria are protein-dense, high traffic compartments, whose polypeptides are constantly exposed to superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and other reactive species, generated by 'electron leakage' from the respiratory chain. The level of oxidative stress to mitochondrial proteins is not constant, but instead varies greatly with numerous metabolic and environmental factors. Oxidized mitochondrial proteins must be removed rapidly (by proteolytic degradation) or they will aggregate, cross-link, and cause toxicity. The Lon Protease is a key enzyme in the degradation of oxidized proteins within the mitochondrial matrix. Under conditions of acute stress Lon is highly inducible, possibly with the oxidant acting as the signal inducer, thereby providing increased protection. It seems that under chronic stress conditions, however, Lon levels actually decline. Lon levels also decline with age and with senescence, and senescent cells even lose the ability to induce Lon during acute stress. We propose that the regulation of Lon is biphasic, in that it is up-regulated during transient stress and down-regulated during chronic stress and aging, and we suggest that the loss of Lon responsiveness may be a significant factor in aging, and in age-related diseases.

  4. Ultraviolet and photosynthetically active radiation can both induce photoprotective capacity allowing barley to overcome high radiation stress.

    PubMed

    Klem, Karel; Holub, Petr; Štroch, Michal; Nezval, Jakub; Špunda, Vladimír; Tříska, Jan; Jansen, Marcel A K; Robson, T Matthew; Urban, Otmar

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of acclimation to ultraviolet (UV) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on photoprotective mechanisms in barley leaves. Barley plants were acclimated for 7 days under three combinations of high or low UV and PAR treatments ([UV-PAR-], [UV-PAR+], [UV+PAR+]). Subsequently, plants were exposed to short-term high radiation stress (HRS; defined by high intensities of PAR - 1000 μmol m(-2) s(-1), UV-A - 10 W m(-2) and UV-B 2 W m(-2) for 4 h), to test their photoprotective capacity. The barley variety sensitive to photooxidative stress (Barke) had low constitutive flavonoid content compared to the resistant variety (Bonus) under low UV and PAR intensities. The accumulation of lutonarin and 3-feruloylquinic acid, but not of saponarin, was greatly enhanced by high PAR and further increased by UV exposure. Acclimation of plants to both high UV and PAR intensities also increased the total pool of xanthophyll-cycle pigments (VAZ). Subsequent exposure to HRS revealed that prior acclimation to UV and PAR was able to ameliorate the negative consequences of HRS on photosynthesis. Both total contents of epidermal flavonols and the total pool of VAZ were closely correlated with small reductions in light-saturated CO2 assimilation rate and maximum quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry caused by HRS. Based on these results, we conclude that growth under high PAR can substantially increase the photoprotective capacity of barley plants compared with plants grown under low PAR. However, additional UV radiation is necessary to fully induce photoprotective mechanisms in the variety Barke. This study demonstrates that UV-exposure can lead to enhanced photoprotective capacity and can contribute to the induction of tolerance to high radiation stress in barley.

  5. Stress Analysis and Testing at the Marshall Space Flight Center to Study Cause and Corrective Action of Space Shuttle External Tank Stringer Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingate, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    After the launch scrub of Space Shuttle mission STS-133 on November 5, 2010, large cracks were discovered in two of the External Tank intertank stringers. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, as managing center for the External Tank Project, coordinated the ensuing failure investigation and repair activities with several organizations, including the manufacturer, Lockheed Martin. To support the investigation, the Marshall Space Flight Center formed an ad-hoc stress analysis team to complement the efforts of Lockheed Martin. The team undertook six major efforts to analyze or test the structural behavior of the stringers. Extensive finite element modeling was performed to characterize the local stresses in the stringers near the region of failure. Data from a full-scale tanking test and from several subcomponent static load tests were used to confirm the analytical conclusions. The analysis and test activities of the team are summarized. The root cause of the stringer failures and the flight readiness rationale for the repairs that were implemented are discussed.

  6. Effects of group size and floor space allowance on grouped sows: aggression, stress, skin injuries, and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, P H; Rice, M; Nash, J; Giri, K; Butler, K L; Tilbrook, A J; Morrison, R S

    2013-10-01

    A total of 3,120 sows, in 4 time replicates, were used to determine the effects of group size and floor space on sow welfare using behavioral, physiological, health, and fitness variables. Within 1 to 7 d postinsemination, sows were assigned randomly to treatments of a 3 by 6 factorial arrangement, with 3 group sizes (10, 30, or 80 sows/pen) and 6 floor space allowances (1.4, 1.8, 2.0, 2.2, 2.4, or 3.0 m(2)/sow). Sows were housed on partially slatted concrete floors, and overhead feeders delivered 4 times/day to provide a total of 2.5 kg of feed/sow. As pen space increased from 1.4 to 3.0 m(2)/sow, aggression at feeding decreased from about 9 to 7 bouts/sow (linear, P = 0.029) and plasma cortisol concentrations decreased from about 28 to 21 ng/mL (linear, P = 0.0089) at 2 d. Although the results are in accord with a linear decline from 1.4 to 3 m(2)/sow, the results are also in accord with a decline in these measurements from 1.4 to 1.8 m(2)/sow and no further decline greater than 1.8 m(2)/sow. Farrowing rate (percentage of inseminated sows that farrowed) also increased from about 60 to 75% as space increased from 1.4 to 3.0 m(2)/sow (linear, P = 0.012). Group size was related to skin injuries on d 9 (P = 0.0017), 23 (P = 0.0046), and 51 (P = 0.0006), with groups of 10 consistently having the lowest number of total injuries over this period. Based on the aggression and cortisol results, it is credible to judge that, within the range of floor space allowances studied, sow welfare improves with increased space. However, from a sow welfare perspective, the experiment had insufficient precision to determine what is an adequate space allowance for sows. Thus, although the results definitely support a space allowance of 1.4 m(2)/sow being too small, it is not possible to give guidance on an actual space allowance at mixing that is adequate.

  7. Tank 241-B-103 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-23

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has advised the US Department of Energy (DOE) to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify sampling and analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ``A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.`` This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-B-103 (B-103) sampling activities. Tank B-103 was placed on the Organic Watch List in January 1991 due to review of TRAC data that predicts a TOC content of 3.3 dry weight percent. The tank was classified as an assumed leaker of approximately 30,280 liters (8,000 gallons) in 1978 and declared inactive. Tank B-103 is passively ventilated with interim stabilization and intrusion prevention measures completed in 1985.

  8. Psychological stress impairs the local CD8+ T cell response to mucosal HSV-1 infection and allows for increased pathogenicity via a glucocorticoid receptor-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ashcraft, Kathleen A; Hunzeker, John; Bonneau, Robert H

    2008-08-01

    Psychological stress and its associated increases in corticosterone are generally immunosuppressive and contribute to increased herpes simplex virus (HSV)-associated pathogenicity. However, the impact of stress on local control of the initial mucosal-based HSV infection has not been elucidated, nor have the ramifications of such failures of the immune response in terms of viral spread. To address these gaps in knowledge, the studies described herein sought to determine how psychological stress and associated increases in corticosterone may increase susceptibility to HSV encephalitis by allowing for increased viral titers at the site of initial infection. We have shown that in mice intranasally infected with HSV-1, a cell-mediated immune response occurs in the nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN), and superficial cervical lymph nodes (CLN). However, psychological stress induced by restraint decreased the number of lymphocytes in these tissues in HSV-infected mice. Surprisingly, the effects of this restraint stress on HSV-specific CTL function varied by immune tissue. Increased viral titers were found in the nasal cavity of stressed mice, an observation which correlated with an increased CD8+ cell response in the CLN. These findings led us to extend our studies to also determine the ramifications of decreased numbers of locally derived lymphocytes on viral titers following infection. Using an approach in which the NALT was surgically removed prior to infection, we confirmed that decreased numbers of NALT-derived lymphocytes at the time of infection allows for increased viral replication. We conclude that the increased viral titers observed in mice experiencing psychological stress are the consequence of a glucocorticoid-mediated reduction in the numbers of lymphocytes responsible for resolving the initial infection.

  9. 241-AP Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.; Reeploeg, Gretchen E.

    2014-04-04

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for the 241-AP tank farm. The construction history of the 241-AP tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AP tank farm, the sixth double-shell tank farm constructed, tank bottom flatness, refractory material quality, post-weld stress relieving, and primary tank bottom weld rejection were improved.

  10. 46 CFR 154.406 - Design loads for cargo tanks and fixtures: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... −55 °C (−67 °F) or causes thermal stresses in cargo tank supports. (5) Sloshing loads, if the cargo...° to 30° range without exceeding the allowable stress of the material. (c) A hydrostatic...

  11. 46 CFR 154.406 - Design loads for cargo tanks and fixtures: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... −55 °C (−67 °F) or causes thermal stresses in cargo tank supports. (5) Sloshing loads, if the cargo...° to 30° range without exceeding the allowable stress of the material. (c) A hydrostatic...

  12. 46 CFR 58.50-10 - Diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diesel fuel tanks. 58.50-10 Section 58.50-10 Shipping... AND RELATED SYSTEMS Independent Fuel Tanks § 58.50-10 Diesel fuel tanks. (a) Construction. (1) Tanks... allowed in the construction of independent fuel tanks shall be as indicated in Table 58.50-10(a),...

  13. 14 CFR 25.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank sump. 25.971 Section 25.971... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.971 Fuel tank sump. (a) Each fuel tank... fuel tank must allow drainage of any hazardous quantity of water from any part of the tank to its...

  14. 46 CFR 58.50-10 - Diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diesel fuel tanks. 58.50-10 Section 58.50-10 Shipping... AND RELATED SYSTEMS Independent Fuel Tanks § 58.50-10 Diesel fuel tanks. (a) Construction. (1) Tanks... allowed in the construction of independent fuel tanks shall be as indicated in Table 58.50-10(a),...

  15. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS & RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY TC; JOHNSON KI; DEIBLER JE; PILLI SP; RINKER MW; KARRI NK

    2007-02-14

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive I-bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads, based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the I-bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive I-bolt failure leading to global

  16. Life Extension of Aging High Level Waste (HLW) Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    BRYSON, D.

    2002-02-04

    The Double Shell Tanks (DSTs) play a critical role in the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex, and therefore activities are underway to protect and better understand these tanks. The DST Life Extension Program is focused on both tank life extension and on evaluation of tank integrity. Tank life extension activities focus on understanding tank failure modes and have produced key chemistry and operations controls to minimize tank corrosion and extend useful tank life. Tank integrity program activities have developed and applied key technologies to evaluate the condition of the tank structure and predict useful tank life. Program results to date indicate that DST useful life can be extended well beyond the original design life and allow the existing tanks to fill a critical function within the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex. In addition the tank life may now be more reliably predicted, facilitating improved planning for the use and possible future replacement of these tanks.

  17. Think Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A new inspection robot from Solex Robotics Systems was designed to eliminate hazardous inspections of petroleum and chemical storage tanks. The submersible robot, named Maverick, is used to inspect the bottoms of tanks, keeping the tanks operational during inspection. Maverick is able to provide services that will make manual tank inspections obsolete. While the inspection is conducted, Maverick's remote human operators remain safe outside of the tank. The risk to human health and life is now virtually eliminated. The risk to the environment is also minimal because there is a reduced chance of spillage from emptying and cleaning the tanks, where previously, tons of pollutants were released through the process of draining and refilling.

  18. 33 CFR 157.19 - Cargo tank arrangement and size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.19 Cargo tank arrangement and size. (a) This...) whichever is greater, limited to a maximum of 40,000 cubic meters); (2) The volume of each wing tank and center tank is less than the allowable volume of a wing tank (VOLW) and the allowable volume of a...

  19. TankSIM: A Cryogenic Tank Performance Prediction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolshinskiy, L. G.; Hedayat, A.; Hastings, L. J.; Moder, J. P.; Schnell, A. R.; Sutherlin, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the thermodynamic state of the cryogenic propellants in launch vehicle tanks is necessary for mission planning and successful execution. Cryogenic propellant storage and transfer in space environments requires that tank pressure be controlled. The pressure rise rate is determined by the complex interaction of external heat leak, fluid temperature stratification, and interfacial heat and mass transfer. If the required storage duration of a space mission is longer than the period in which the tank pressure reaches its allowable maximum, an appropriate pressure control method must be applied. Therefore, predictions of the pressurization rate and performance of pressure control techniques in cryogenic tanks are required for development of cryogenic fluid long-duration storage technology and planning of future space exploration missions. This paper describes an analytical tool, Tank System Integrated Model (TankSIM), which can be used for modeling pressure control and predicting the behavior of cryogenic propellant for long-term storage for future space missions. It is written in the FORTRAN 90 language and can be compiled with any Visual FORTRAN compiler. A thermodynamic vent system (TVS) is used to achieve tank pressure control. Utilizing TankSIM, the following processes can be modeled: tank self-pressurization, boiloff, ullage venting, and mixing. Details of the TankSIM program and comparisons of its predictions with test data for liquid hydrogen and liquid methane will be presented in the final paper.

  20. 241-SY Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Travis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Gunter, Jason R.; Venetz, Theodore J.

    2013-07-25

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tanks 241-SY-101, 241-SY-102, and 241-SY-103. The construction history of the 241-SY tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank 241-AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank 241-AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-SY tank farm, the third DST farm constructed, refractory quality and stress relief were improved, while similar tank and liner fabrication issues remained.

  1. SINDA/FLUINT Stratified Tank Modeling for Cryrogenic Propellant Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakowski, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    A general purpose SINDA/FLUINT (S/F) stratified tank model was created to simulate self-pressurization and axial jet TVS; Stratified layers in the vapor and liquid are modeled using S/F lumps.; The stratified tank model was constructed to permit incorporating the following additional features:, Multiple or singular lumps in the liquid and vapor regions of the tank, Real gases (also mixtures) and compressible liquids, Venting, pressurizing, and draining, Condensation and evaporation/boiling, Wall heat transfer, Elliptical, cylindrical, and spherical tank geometries; Extensive user logic is used to allow detailed tailoring - Don't have to rebuilt everything from scratch!!; Most code input for a specific case is done through the Registers Data Block:, Lump volumes are determined through user input:; Geometric tank dimensions (height, width, etc); Liquid level could be input as either a volume percentage of fill level or actual liquid level height

  2. 30 CFR 57.13011 - Air receiver tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air receiver tanks. 57.13011 Section 57.13011... Boilers § 57.13011 Air receiver tanks. Air receiver tanks shall be equipped with one or more automatic... exceeding the maximum allowable working pressure in a receiver tank by not more than 10 percent....

  3. 30 CFR 56.13011 - Air receiver tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air receiver tanks. 56.13011 Section 56.13011... § 56.13011 Air receiver tanks. Air receiver tanks shall be equipped with one or more automatic pressure... the maximum allowable working pressure in a receiver tank by not more than 10 percent. Air...

  4. Dual Tank Fuel System

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Richard William; Burkhard, James Frank; Dauer, Kenneth John

    1999-11-16

    A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

  5. Tank Platoon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-04-03

    mobility , sophisticated communications, enhanced target acquisition, lethal firepower, and effective armor protection. In combi- nation, these factors...including the platoon’s individual tank crews and OPs; the effects of terrain, weather, and movement; and the ranges of all available platoon...dismounted soldiers with automatic weapons. Likewise, enemy activity can range from an entrenched force using prepared fighting positions to a unit

  6. Stress analysis and fatigue evaluation of shell-to-footer plate joint in liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks. Final topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.P.; Outtrim, P.A.; Tong, R.T.

    1996-09-01

    The life extension efforts were initiated to gather, evaluate, and provide LNG facility operators and storage tank designers with information that will help support assurances for long-term structural integrity. For this specific effort, the evaluation of a critical tank element, i.e. the shell-to-footer plate weld was conducted.

  7. Tank 241-U-204 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, K.E.

    1995-03-23

    This document is the tank characterization plan for Tank 241-U-204 located in the 200 Area Tank Farm on the Hanford Reservation in Richland, Washington. This plan describes Data Quality Objectives (DQO) and presents historical information and scheduled sampling events for tank 241-U-204.

  8. Genome Wide Analysis of the Apple MYB Transcription Factor Family Allows the Identification of MdoMYB121 Gene Confering Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong-Kai; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors (TFs) in plants. Although several MYB genes have been characterized to play roles in secondary metabolism, the MYB family has not yet been identified in apple. In this study, 229 apple MYB genes were identified through a genome-wide analysis and divided into 45 subgroups. A computational analysis was conducted using the apple genomic database to yield a complete overview of the MYB family, including the intron-exon organizations, the sequence features of the MYB DNA-binding domains, the carboxy-terminal motifs, and the chromosomal locations. Subsequently, the expression of 18 MYB genes, including 12 were chosen from stress-related subgroups, while another 6 ones from other subgroups, in response to various abiotic stresses was examined. It was found that several of these MYB genes, particularly MdoMYB121, were induced by multiple stresses. The MdoMYB121 was then further functionally characterized. Its predicted protein was found to be localized in the nucleus. A transgenic analysis indicated that the overexpression of the MdoMYB121 gene remarkably enhanced the tolerance to high salinity, drought, and cold stresses in transgenic tomato and apple plants. Our results indicate that the MYB genes are highly conserved in plant species and that MdoMYB121 can be used as a target gene in genetic engineering approaches to improve the tolerance of plants to multiple abiotic stresses. PMID:23950843

  9. Feed tank transfer requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  10. Tank Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    For NASA's Apollo program, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, Huntington Beach, California, developed and built the S-IVB, uppermost stage of the three-stage Saturn V moonbooster. An important part of the development task was fabrication of a tank to contain liquid hydrogen fuel for the stage's rocket engine. The liquid hydrogen had to be contained at the supercold temperature of 423 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The tank had to be perfectly insulated to keep engine or solar heat from reaching the fuel; if the hydrogen were permitted to warm up, it would have boiled off, or converted to gaseous form, reducing the amount of fuel available to the engine. McDonnell Douglas' answer was a supereffective insulation called 3D, which consisted of a one-inch thickness of polyurethane foam reinforced in three dimensions with fiberglass threads. Over a 13-year development and construction period, the company built 30 tanks and never experienced a failure. Now, after years of additional development, an advanced version of 3D is finding application as part of a containment system for transporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) by ship.

  11. A phase-field approach to nonequilibrium phase transformations in elastic solids via an intermediate phase (melt) allowing for interface stresses.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Kasra; Levitas, Valery I

    2016-04-28

    A phase-field approach for phase transformations (PTs) between three different phases at nonequilibrium temperatures is developed. It includes advanced mechanics, thermodynamically consistent interfacial stresses, and interface interactions. A thermodynamic Landau-Ginzburg potential developed in terms of polar order parameters satisfies the desired instability and equilibrium conditions for homogeneous phases. The interfacial stresses were introduced with some terms from large-strain formulation even though the small-strain assumption was utilized. The developed model is applied to study the PTs between two solid phases via a highly disordered intermediate phase (IP) or an intermediate melt (IM) hundreds of degrees below the melting temperature. In particular, the β ↔ δ PTs in HMX energetic crystals via IM are analyzed. The effects of various parameters (temperature, ratios of widths and energies of solid-solid (SS) to solid-melt (SM) interfaces, elastic energy, and interfacial stresses) on the formation, stability, and structure of the IM within a propagating SS interface are studied. Interfacial and elastic stresses within a SS interphase and their relaxation and redistribution with the appearance of a partial or complete IM are analyzed. The energy and structure of the critical nucleus (CN) of the IM are studied as well. In particular, the interfacial stresses increase the aspect-ratio of the CN. Although including elastic energy can drastically reduce the energy of the CN of the IM, the activation energy of the CN of the IM within the SS interface increases when interfacial tension is taken into account. The developed thermodynamic potential can also be modified to model other multiphase physical phenomena, such as multi-variant martensitic PTs, grain boundary and surface-induced pre-melting and PTs, as well as developing phase diagrams for IPs.

  12. 46 CFR 151.15-1 - Tank types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... its carrying vessel's hull. (c) Gravity. Tanks having a design pressure (as described in Part 54 of... where stress analysis is neither readily nor completely determinate. (Integral tanks are of the gravity.... Independent gravity tanks which are of normal pressure vessel configuration (i.e., bodies of revolution,...

  13. 46 CFR 151.15-1 - Tank types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... its carrying vessel's hull. (c) Gravity. Tanks having a design pressure (as described in Part 54 of... where stress analysis is neither readily nor completely determinate. (Integral tanks are of the gravity.... Independent gravity tanks which are of normal pressure vessel configuration (i.e., bodies of revolution,...

  14. ICPP Tank Farm planning through 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, W.B.; Millet, C.B.; Staiger, M.D.; Ward, F.S.

    1998-04-01

    Historically, liquid high-level waste (HLW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant has been stored in the Tank Farm after which it is calcined with the calcine being stored in stainless steel bins. Following the curtailment of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing in 1992, the HLW treatment methods were re-evaluated to establish a path forward for producing a final waste form from the liquid sodium bearing wastes (SBW) and the HLW calcine. Projections for significant improvements in waste generation, waste blending and evaporation, and calcination were incorporated into the Tank Farm modeling. This optimized modeling shows that all of the SBW can be calcined by the end of 2012 as required by the Idaho Settlement Agreement. This Tank Farm plan discusses the use of each of the eleven HLW tanks and shows that two tanks can be emptied, allowing them to be Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closed by 2006. In addition, it describes the construction of each tank and vault, gives the chemical concentrations of the contents of each tank, based on historical input and some sampling, and discusses the regulatory drivers important to Tank Farm operation. It also discusses new waste generation, the computer model used for the Tank Farm planning, the operating schedule for each tank, and the schedule for when each tank will be empty and closed.

  15. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each...

  16. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each...

  17. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each...

  18. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each...

  19. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each...

  20. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    SciTech Connect

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-02-24

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  1. Environmental Stresses of Field Growth Allow Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Deficient Nicotiana attenuata Plants to Compensate for their Structural Deficiencies1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harleen; Shaker, Kamel; Heinzel, Nicolas; Ralph, John; Gális, Ivan; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2012-01-01

    The organized lignocellulosic assemblies of cell walls provide the structural integrity required for the large statures of terrestrial plants. Silencing two CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD) genes in Nicotiana attenuata produced plants (ir-CAD) with thin, red-pigmented stems, low CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity, low lignin contents, and rubbery, structurally unstable stems when grown in the glasshouse (GH). However, when planted into their native desert habitat, ir-CAD plants produced robust stems that survived wind storms as well as the wild-type plants. Despite efficient silencing of NaCAD transcripts and enzymatic activity, field-grown ir-CAD plants had delayed and restricted spread of red stem pigmentation, a color change reflecting blocked lignification by CAD silencing, and attained wild-type-comparable total lignin contents. The rubbery GH phenotype was largely restored when field-grown ir-CAD plants were protected from wind, herbivore attack, and ultraviolet B exposure and grown in restricted rooting volumes; conversely, it was lost when ir-CAD plants were experimentally exposed to wind, ultraviolet B, and grown in large pots in growth chambers. Transcript and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight analysis revealed that these environmental stresses enhanced the accumulation of various phenylpropanoids in stems of field-grown plants; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that the lignin of field-grown ir-CAD plants had GH-grown comparable levels of sinapaldehyde and syringaldehyde cross-linked into their lignins. Additionally, field-grown ir-CAD plants had short, thick stems with normal xylem element traits, which collectively enabled field-grown ir-CAD plants to compensate for the structural deficiencies associated with CAD silencing. Environmental stresses play an essential role in regulating lignin biosynthesis in lignin-deficient plants. PMID:22645069

  2. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM - 2011

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2012-06-21

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2011 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2011 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per SRR-LWE-2011-00026, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2011, were completed. Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2011 met the requirements of C-ESR-G-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 3, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.6. UT inspections were performed on Tanks 25, 26 and 34 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2011-00495, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2011, Waste Tanks 25, 26, 34 and 41. A total of 5813 photographs were made and 835 visual and video inspections were performed during 2011. A potential leaksite was discovered at Tank 4 during routine annual inspections performed in 2011. The new crack, which is above the allowable fill level, resulted in no release to the environment or tank annulus. The location of the crack is documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.6.

  3. Chemical composition of Hanford Tank SY-102

    SciTech Connect

    Birnbaum, E.; Agnew, S.; Jarvinen, G.; Yarbro, S.

    1993-12-01

    The US Department of Energy established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage and dispose of the radioactive waste, both current and future, stored in double-shell and single-shell tanks at the Hanford sites. One major program element in TWRS is pretreatment which was established to process the waste prior to disposal using the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. In support of this program, Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a conceptual process flow sheet which will remediate the entire contents of a selected double-shelled underground waste tank, including supernatant and sludge, into forms that allow storage and final disposal in a safe, cost-effective and environmentally sound manner. The specific tank selected for remediation is 241-SY-102 located in the 200 West Area. As part of the flow sheet development effort, the composition of the tank was defined and documented. This database was built by examining the history of liquid waste transfers to the tank and by performing careful analysis of all of the analytical data that have been gathered during the tank`s lifetime. In order to more completely understand the variances in analytical results, material and charge balances were done to help define the chemistry of the various components in the tank. This methodology of defining the tank composition and the final results are documented in this report.

  4. 46 CFR 32.63-25 - Cargo tanks and supports-B/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... yield strength of the tank material or 70 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile strength of the tank... horn and bending stresses, to the yield strength of the tank material or 70 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile strength of the tank material, if less, in the grounded condition as required by §...

  5. 46 CFR 32.63-25 - Cargo tanks and supports-B/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... yield strength of the tank material or 70 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile strength of the tank... horn and bending stresses, to the yield strength of the tank material or 70 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile strength of the tank material, if less, in the grounded condition as required by §...

  6. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked...

  7. 14 CFR 29.957 - Flow between interconnected tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flow between interconnected tanks. 29.957... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.957 Flow between interconnected tanks. (a) Where tank outlets are interconnected and allow fuel to flow...

  8. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2000-01-01

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  9. The role of fracture mechanics in the design of fuel tanks in space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denton, S. J.; Liu, C. K.

    1976-01-01

    With special reference to design of fuel tanks in space vehicles, the principles of fracture mechanics are reviewed. An approximate but extremely simple relationship is derived among the operating stress level, the length of crack, and the number of cycles of failure. Any one of the variables can be computed approximately from the knowledge of the other two, if the loading schedule (mission of the tank) is not greatly altered. Two sample examples illustrating the procedures of determining the allowable safe operating stress corresponding to a set of assumed loading schedule are included. The selection of sample examples is limited by the relatively meager available data on the candidate material for various stress ratios in the cycling.

  10. 33 CFR 157.10c - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... carries crude oil must have— (1) Segregated ballast tanks that have a total capacity to allow the vessel... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10c Segregated ballast tanks,...

  11. 33 CFR 157.10c - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... carries crude oil must have— (1) Segregated ballast tanks that have a total capacity to allow the vessel... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10c Segregated ballast tanks,...

  12. 33 CFR 157.10c - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... carries crude oil must have— (1) Segregated ballast tanks that have a total capacity to allow the vessel... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10c Segregated ballast tanks,...

  13. 33 CFR 157.10c - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... carries crude oil must have— (1) Segregated ballast tanks that have a total capacity to allow the vessel... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10c Segregated ballast tanks,...

  14. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    SciTech Connect

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1998-10-14

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft{sup 3} of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  15. Damage Tolerance Analysis of a Pressurized Liquid Oxygen Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forth, Scott C.; Harvin, Stephen F.; Gregory, Peyton B.; Mason, Brian H.; Thompson, Joe E.; Hoffman, Eric K.

    2006-01-01

    A damage tolerance assessment was conducted of an 8,000 gallon pressurized Liquid Oxygen (LOX) tank. The LOX tank is constructed of a stainless steel pressure vessel enclosed by a thermal-insulating vacuum jacket. The vessel is pressurized to 2,250 psi with gaseous nitrogen resulting in both thermal and pressure stresses on the tank wall. Finite element analyses were performed on the tank to characterize the stresses from operation. Engineering material data was found from both the construction of the tank and the technical literature. An initial damage state was assumed based on records of a nondestructive inspection performed on the tank. The damage tolerance analyses were conducted using the NASGRO computer code. This paper contains the assumptions, and justifications, made for the input parameters to the damage tolerance analyses and the results of the damage tolerance analyses with a discussion on the operational safety of the LOX tank.

  16. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS AND RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY TC; JOHNSON KI; DEIBLER JE; PILLI SP; RINKER MW; KARRI NK

    2009-01-14

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive anchor bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the concrete anchor bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive anchor bolt

  17. Acquisition and reduction of data obtained from tank 101-SY in-situ ball rheometer

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, C.L.; Chieda, M.A.; Kirihara, L.J.; Phillips, J.R.; Shekarriz, A.; Terrones, G.; Abbott, J.; Unal, C.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Graham, A.

    1995-02-01

    Development of the ball rheometer to measure rheological properties and density of the waste in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 will be completed around September 1994. This instrument is expected to provide the first-of-its-kind in-situ measurements of the fluid properties of the waste contained within this tank. A mixer pump has been installed in this tank, and this pump has been very successful at mitigating the flammable gas problem associated with Tank 101-SY. The ball rheometer will serve as a diagnostic tool for judging the effectiveness of mixing in Tank 101-SY and others and will be one of few in-situ probes available for diagnostic measurements. Based on experiments performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Pacific Northwest Laboratory, it is believed that a generalized Bingham fluid model (Herschel-Bulkley fluid model) may be useful for describing at least some of the waste contained in Tank 101-SY, and data obtained in the tank will initially be reduced using this fluid model. The single largest uncertainty in the determination of the drag force on the ball is the drag force which will be experienced by the cable attached to the ball. This drag can be a substantial fraction of the total drag when the ball is deep within the tank. It is expected that the fluid properties may be history dependent, thus rheological properties of the undisturbed fluid may be different from the same properties after the fluid has been disturbed by passage of the ball. The data collection strategy allows the determination of the waste fluid rheology both in the undisturbed state and after it has been disturbed by the ball. Unlike the rheological parameters, measurement of density requires no model for its interpretation; however, the effects of yield stress may need to be accounted for. This measurement can be made with fairly good accuracy and may provide the most useful data in determination of mixer pump effectiveness.

  18. Neptunium Disposal to the Savannah River Site Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    2004-02-26

    Researchers investigated the neutralization of an acidic neptunium solution from a Savannah River Site (SRS) processing canyon and the properties of the resulting slurry to determine the feasibility of disposal in the SRS tank farm. The acidic solution displayed no properties that precluded the proposed disposal route. Neutralization of the acidic neptunium forms a 4 wt per cent slurry of precipitated metal hydroxides. The insoluble solids consist largely of iron (92 per cent) and neptunium hydroxides (2 per cent). The concentration of soluble neptunium remaining after neutralization equaled much less than previous solubility measurements predicted. Researchers used an apparatus similar to an Ostwald-type viscometer to estimate the consistency of the neptunium slurry with the solids present. The yield stress and consistency of the 4 wt per cent slurry will allow transfer through the tank farm, although concentration of the insoluble solids above 4 wt per cent may cause significant problems due to increased consistency and yield stress. The consistency of the 4 wt per cent slurry is 7.6 centipoise (cP) with a yield stress less than 1 Pascal (Pa). The neptunium slurry, when combined with actual washed radioactive sludge, slightly reduces the yield stress and consistency of the sludge and produces a combined slurry with acceptable rheological properties for vitrification.

  19. 46 CFR 32.63-25 - Cargo tanks and supports-B/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... have sufficient additional strength so as to limit the maximum combined tank stress, including saddle... material, if less, in the grounded condition as required by § 32.63-20(b). (ii) Gravity type cargo tanks shall have sufficient additional strength to limit the maximum combined tank stress, including...

  20. 46 CFR 32.63-25 - Cargo tanks and supports-B/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... have sufficient additional strength so as to limit the maximum combined tank stress, including saddle... material, if less, in the grounded condition as required by § 32.63-20(b). (ii) Gravity type cargo tanks shall have sufficient additional strength to limit the maximum combined tank stress, including...

  1. 46 CFR 32.63-25 - Cargo tanks and supports-B/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... have sufficient additional strength so as to limit the maximum combined tank stress, including saddle... material, if less, in the grounded condition as required by § 32.63-20(b). (ii) Gravity type cargo tanks shall have sufficient additional strength to limit the maximum combined tank stress, including...

  2. Tank 241-C-103 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-10-06

    The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify the sampling analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. A Tank Characterization Plant (TCP) will be developed for each double shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. There are four Watch list tank classifications (ferrocyanide, organic salts, hydrogen/flammable gas, and high heat load). These classifications cover the six safety issues related to public and worker health that have been associated with the Hanford Site underground storage tanks. These safety issues are as follows: ferrocyanide, flammable gas, organic, criticality, high heat, and vapor safety issues. Tank C-103 is one of the twenty tanks currently on the Organic Salts Watch List. This TCP will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, hot cell sample isolation, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements in accordance with the appropriate DQO documents. In addition, the current contents and status of the tank are projected from historical information. The relevant safety issues that are of concern for tanks on the Organic Salts Watch List are: the potential for an exothermic reaction occurring from the flammable mixture of organic materials and nitrate/nitrite salts that could result in a release of radioactive material and the possibility that other safety issues may exist for the tank.

  3. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Landry

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related subtasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these subtasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these subtasks were derived from the original intent of

  4. Rheology of Savannah River site tank 42 and tank 51 HLW radioactive sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, B.C.; Bibler, N.E.

    1996-01-19

    Knowledge of the rheology of the radioactive sludge slurries at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is necessary in order to ensure that they can be retrieved from waste tanks and processed for final disposal. The high activity radioactive wastes stored as caustic slurries at SRS result from the neutralization of acid waste generated from production of nuclear defense materials. During storage, the wastes separate into a supernate layer and a sludge layer. In the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS, the radionuclides from the sludge and supernate will be immobilized into borosilicate glass for long term storage and eventual disposal. Before transferring the waste from a storage tank to the DWPF, a portion of the aluminum in the waste sludge will be dissolved and the sludge will be extensively washed to remove sodium. Tank 51 and Tank 42 radioactive sludges represent the first batch of HLW sludge to be processed in the DWPF. This paper presents results of rheology measurements of Tank 51 and Tank 42 at various solids concentrations. The rheologies of Tank 51 and Tank 42 radioactive slurries were measured remotely in the Shielded Cells Operations (SCO) at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) using a modified Haake Rotovisco RV-12 with an M150 measuring drive unit and TI sensor system. Rheological properties of the Tank 51 and Tank 42 radioactive sludges were measured as a function of weight percent solids. The weight percent solids of Tank 42 sludge was 27, as received. Tank 51 sludge had already been washed. The weight percent solids were adjusted by dilution with water or by concentration through drying. At 12, 15, and 18 weight percent solids, the yield stresses of Tank 51 sludge were 5, 11, and 14 dynes/cm2, respectively. The apparent viscosities were 6, 10, and 12 centipoises at 300 sec-1 shear rate, respectively.

  5. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    SciTech Connect

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H.; Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B.

    1991-10-01

    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  6. Tank characterization report: Tank 241-C-109

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, B.C.; Borshiem, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Single-shell tank 241-C-109 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in September 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-109 were conducted to support the resolution of the ferrocyanide unreviewed safety question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and consent Order (Tri- Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. This report describes this analysis.

  7. 46 CFR 154.901 - Atmospheric control within cargo tanks and cargo piping systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... within cargo tanks and cargo piping systems. (a) Each vessel must have a piping system for purging each... remaining after purging. (c) For cargo tanks certificated to carry flammable gases, the piping system must allow purging the tank of flammable vapors before air is introduced and purging the tank of air...

  8. Tank Characterization Report for Single Shell Tank 241-C-104

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, M.R.

    2000-04-06

    Interprets information about the tank answering a series of six questions covering areas such as information drivers, tank history, tank comparisons, disposal implications, data quality and quantity, and unique aspects of the tank.

  9. Sinda/Fluint Stratfied Tank Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakowski, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    A general purpose SINDA/FLUINT (S/F) stratified tank model was created and used to simulate the Ksite1 LH2 liquid self-pressurization tests as well as axial jet mixing within the liquid region of the tank. The S/F model employed the use of stratified layers, i.e. S/F lumps, in the vapor ullage as well as in the liquid region. The model was constructed to analyze a general purpose stratified tank that could incorporate the following features: Multiple or singular lumps in the liquid and vapor regions of the tank, Real gases (also mixtures) and compressible liquids, Venting, pressurizing, and draining, Condensation and evaporation/boiling, Wall heat transfer, Elliptical, cylindrical, and spherical tank geometries. Extensive user logic was used to allow for tailoring of the above features to specific cases. Most of the code input for a specific case could be done through the Registers Data Block.

  10. Vadose zone characterization project at the Hanford Tank Farms: U Tank Farm Report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Office (DOE-GJO) was tasked by the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) to perform a baseline characterization of the gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides that are distributed in the vadose zone sediments beneath and around the single-shell tanks (SSTs) at the Hanford Site. The intent of this characterization is to determine the nature and extent of the contamination, to identify contamination sources when possible, and to develop a baseline of the contamination distribution that will permit future data comparisons. This characterization work also allows an initial assessment of the impacts of the vadose zone contamination as required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This characterization project involves acquiring information regarding vadose zone contamination with borehole geophysical logging methods and documenting that information in a series of reports. This information is presently limited to detection of gamma-emitting radionuclides from both natural and man-made sources. Data from boreholes surrounding each tank are compiled into individual Tank Summary Data Reports. The data from each tank in a tank farm are then compiled and summarized in a Tank Farm Report. This document is the Tank Farm Report for the U Tank Farm. Logging operations used high-purity germanium detection systems to acquire laboratory-quality assays of the gamma-emitting radionuclides in the sediments around and below the tanks. These assays were acquired in 59 boreholes that surround the U Tank Farm tanks. Logging of all boreholes was completed in December 1995, and the last Tank Summary Data Report for the U Tank Farm was issued in September 1996.

  11. Tank 241-SX-103 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-03-08

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-SX-103.

  12. Tank 241-U-103 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-24

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-103.

  13. Liquid rocket metal tanks and tank components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, W. A.; Keller, R. B. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Significant guidelines are presented for the successful design of aerospace tanks and tank components, such as expulsion devices, standpipes, and baffles. The state of the art is reviewed, and the design criteria are presented along with recommended practices. Design monographs are listed.

  14. Computational Analyses of Pressurization in Cryogenic Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Mattick, Stephen; Lee, Chun P.; Field, Robert E.; Ryan, Harry

    2008-01-01

    A) Advanced Gas/Liquid Framework with Real Fluids Property Routines: I. A multi-fluid formulation in the preconditioned CRUNCH CFD(Registered TradeMark) code developed where a mixture of liquid and gases can be specified: a) Various options for Equation of state specification available (from simplified ideal fluid mixtures, to real fluid EOS such as SRK or BWR models). b) Vaporization of liquids driven by pressure value relative to vapor pressure and combustion of vapors allowed. c) Extensive validation has been undertaken. II. Currently working on developing primary break-up models and surface tension effects for more rigorous phase-change modeling and interfacial dynamics B) Framework Applied to Run-time Tanks at Ground Test Facilities C) Framework Used For J-2 Upper Stage Tank Modeling: 1) NASA MSFC tank pressurization: a) Hydrogen and oxygen tank pre-press, repress and draining being modeled at NASA MSFC. 2) NASA AMES tank safety effort a) liquid hydrogen and oxygen are separated by a baffle in the J-2 tank. We are modeling pressure rise and possible combustion if a hole develops in the baffle and liquid hydrogen leaks into the oxygen tank. Tank pressure rise rates simulated and risk of combustion evaluated.

  15. Ammonia tank failure

    SciTech Connect

    Sweat, M.E.

    1983-04-01

    An ammonia tank failure at Hawkeye Chemical of Clinton, Iowa is discussed. The tank was a double-wall, 27,000 metric-ton tank built in 1968 and commissioned in December 1969. The paper presented covers the cause of the failure, repair, and procedural changes made to prevent recurrence of the failure. (JMT)

  16. Feed tank transfer requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B.

  17. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other....63 Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car..., Large Packaging, cargo tank, or multi-unit tank car tank) containing a hazardous material in...

  18. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other....63 Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car..., Large Packaging, cargo tank, or multi-unit tank car tank) containing a hazardous material in...

  19. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other....63 Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car..., Large Packaging, cargo tank, or multi-unit tank car tank) containing a hazardous material in...

  20. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other....63 Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) A carrier may not transport a bulk packaging (e.g., portable tank, IM portable tank,...

  1. Design and Testing of a Solid-Liquid Interface Monitor for High-Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, D.; Awwad, A.; Roelant, D.; Srivastava, R.

    2008-07-01

    A high-level waste (HLW) monitor has been designed, fabricated and tested at full-scale for deployment inside a Hanford tank. The Solid-Liquid Interface Monitor (SLIM) integrates a commercial sonar system with a mechanical deployment system for deploying into an underground waste tank. The system has undergone several design modifications based upon changing requirements at Hanford. We will present the various designs of the monitor from first to last and will present performance data from the various prototype systems. We will also present modeling of stresses in the enclosure under 85 mph wind loading. The system must be able to function at winds up to 15 mph and must withstand a maximum loading of 85 mph. There will be several examples presented of engineering tradeoffs made as FIU analyzed new requirements and modified the design to accommodate. We will present our current plans for installing into the Cold Test Facility at Hanford and into a double-shelled tank at Hanford. Finally, we will present our vision for how this technology can be used at Hanford and Savannah River Site to improve the filling and emptying of high-level waste tanks. In conclusion: 1. The manually operated first-generation SLIM is a viable option on tanks where personnel are allowed to work on top of the tank. 2. The remote controlled second-generation SLIM can be utilized on tanks where personnel access is limited. 3. The totally enclosed fourth-generation SLIM, when the design is finalized, can be used when the possibility exists for wind dispersion of any HLW that maybe on the system. 4. The profiling sonar can be used effectively for real-time monitoring of the solid-liquid interface over a large area. (authors)

  2. Rheology and TIC/TOC results of ORNL tank samples

    SciTech Connect

    Pareizs, J. M.; Hansen, E. K.

    2013-04-26

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)) was requested by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC), and rheological measurements for several Oak Ridge tank samples. As received slurry samples were diluted and submitted to SRNL-Analytical for TIC and TOC analyses. Settled solids yield stress (also known as settled shear strength) of the as received settled sludge samples were determined using the vane method and these measurements were obtained 24 hours after the samples were allowed to settled undisturbed. Rheological or flow properties (Bingham Plastic viscosity and Bingham Plastic yield stress) were determined from flow curves of the homogenized or well mixed samples. Other targeted total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations samples were also analyzed for flow properties and these samples were obtained by diluting the as-received sample with de-ionized (DI) water.

  3. Selecting fuel storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, R. )

    1993-07-01

    Until the use of underground storage tanks (USTs) for fuel storage was mandated by the 1970 Uniform Fire Code, above-ground storage tanks (ASTs) were widely used. The tanks were relatively crude by today's standards so the technical superiority and fire protection afforded by use of underground tanks soon made USTs the system of choice for almost all uses. As a result, tens of thousands of tanks have been underground for more than 20 years, and at some point, many of them began leaking. Often, the first sign of these leaks appeared when groundwater became contaminated. The EPA responded to this major environmental problem by strictly regulating the use of below-ground tanks to store flammable liquids. These added regulations have had a severe effect on both service stations and private fueling. The removal of underground tanks and the removal and disposal of any contaminated soil is an extremely expensive proposition. Furthermore, new Uniform Fire Code regulations have added to the costs, imposing requirements for double-walled tanks, corrosion protection, electronic leak monitoring, and annual tank testing. These requirements, plus the financial responsibility requirements the EPA imposed on owners and users of below-ground tanks, led directly to a reconsideration of the use of above-ground tanks for some applications.

  4. SU-E-T-118: Analysis of Variability and Stability Between Two Water Tank Phantoms Utilizing Water Tank Commissioning Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Roring, J; Saenz, D; Cruz, W; Papanikolaou, N; Stathakis, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The commissioning criteria of water tank phantoms are essential for proper accuracy and reproducibility in a clinical setting. This study outlines the results of mechanical and dosimetric testing between PTW MP3-M water tank system and the Standard Imaging Doseview 3D water tank system. Methods: Measurements were taken of each axis of movement on the tank using 30 cm calipers at 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, and 200 mm for accuracy and reproducibility of tank movement. Dosimetric quantities such as percent depth dose and dose profiles were compared between tanks using a 6 MV beam from a Varian 23EX LINAC. Properties such as scanning speed effects, central axis depth dose agreement with static measurements, reproducibility of measurements, symmetry and flatness, and scan time between tanks were also investigated. Results: Results showed high geometric accuracy within 0.2 mm. Central axis PDD and in-field profiles agreed within 0.75% between the tanks. These outcomes test many possible discrepancies in dose measurements across the two tanks and form a basis for comparison on a broader range of tanks in the future. Conclusion: Both 3D water scanning phantoms possess a high degree of spatial accuracy, allowing for equivalence in measurements regardless of the phantom used. A commissioning procedure when changing water tanks or upon receipt of a new tank is nevertheless critical to ensure consistent operation before and after the arrival of new hardware.

  5. Spherical Cryogenic Hydrogen Tank Preliminary Design Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Collier, Craig S.; Yarrington, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    A structural analysis, sizing optimization, and weight prediction study was performed by Collier Research Corporation and NASA Glenn on a spherical cryogenic hydrogen tank. The tank consisted of an inner and outer wall separated by a vacuum for thermal insulation purposes. HyperSizer (Collier Research and Development Corporation), a commercial automated structural analysis and sizing software package was used to design the lightest feasible tank for a given overall size and thermomechanical loading environment. Weight trade studies were completed for different panel concepts and metallic and composite material systems. Extensive failure analyses were performed for each combination of dimensional variables, materials, and layups to establish the structural integrity of tank designs. Detailed stress and strain fields were computed from operational temperature changes and pressure loads. The inner tank wall is sized by the resulting biaxial tensile stresses which cause it to be strength driven, and leads to an optimum panel concept that need not be stiffened. Conversely, the outer tank wall is sized by a biaxial compressive stress field, induced by the pressure differential between atmospheric pressure and the vacuum between the tanks, thereby causing the design to be stability driven and thus stiffened to prevent buckling. Induced thermal stresses become a major sizing driver when a composite or hybrid composite/metallic material systems are used for the inner tank wall for purposes such as liners to contain the fuel and reduce hydrogen permeation.

  6. Erosion Modeling Analysis for SME Tank Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    LEE, SI

    2004-05-03

    Previous computational work to evaluate erosion in the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator vessel has been extended to address the potential for the erosion to accelerate because of changes to the tank bottom profile. The same erosion mechanism identified in the previous work, abrasive erosion driven by high wall shear stress, was applied to the current evaluation. The current work extends the previous analysis by incorporating the observed changes to the tank bottom and coil support structure in the vicinity of the coil guides. The results show that wall shear on the tank bottom is about the same magnitude as found in previous results. Shear stresses in the eroded cavities are reduced compared to those that caused the initial erosion to the extent that anticipated continued erosion of those locations is minimal. If SR operations were continued at an agitator speed of 130 rpm, the edge of the existing eroded cavities would probably smooth out, while the rate of erosion at the bottom of the cavity would decrease significantly with time. Further, reducing the agitator speed to 103 rpm will reduce shear stresses throughout the bottom region of the tank enough to essentially preclude any significant continued erosion. Because this report is an extension to previously documented work, most background information has been omitted. A complete discussion of the motivation for both the analysis and the modeling is provided in Lee et al., ''Erosion Modeling Analysis for Modified DWPF SR Tank''.

  7. 49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... liquid tank car tanks. 179.400 Section 179.400 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and... liquid tank car tanks....

  8. Composition and Flow Behavior of F-Canyon Tank 804 Sludge following Manganese Addition and pH Adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M. R.; Stallings, M. E.; Burket, P.R.; Fink, S. D.

    2005-11-30

    The Site Deactivation and Decommissioning (SDD) Organization is evaluating options to disposition the 800 underground tanks (including removal of the sludge heels from these tanks). To support this effort, SDD requested assistance from Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel to examine the composition and flow characteristics of the Tank 804 sludge slurry after diluting it 10:1 with water, adding manganese nitrate to produce a slurry containing 5.5 wt % manganese (40:1 ratio of Mn:Pu), and adding sufficient 8 M caustic to raise the pH to 7, 10, and 14. Researchers prepared slurries containing one part Tank 804 sludge and 10 parts water. The water contained 5.5 wt % manganese (which SDD will add to poison the plutonium in Tank 804) and was pH adjusted to 3, 7, 10, or 14. They hand mixed (i.e., shook) these slurries and allowed them to sit overnight. With the pH 3, 7, and 10 slurries, much of the sludge remained stuck to the container wall. With the pH 14 slurry, most of the sludge appeared to be suspended in the slurry. They collected samples from the top and bottom of each container, which were analyzed for plutonium, manganese, and organic constituents. Following sampling, they placed the remaining material into a viscometer and measured the relationship between applied shear stress and shear rate. The pH 14 slurry was placed in a spiral ''race track'' apparatus and allowed to gravity drain.

  9. Composite Cryotank Technologies and Development 2.4 and 5.5M out of Autoclave Tank Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Justin R.; Vickers, John; Fikes, John

    2015-01-01

    The Composite Cryotank Technologies and Demonstration (CCTD) project substantially matured composite, cryogenic propellant tank technology. The project involved the design, analysis, fabrication, and testing of large-scale (2.4-m-diameter precursor and 5.5-m-diameter) composite cryotanks. Design features included a one-piece wall design that minimized tank weight, a Y-joint that incorporated an engineered material to alleviate stress concentration under combined loading, and a fluted core cylindrical section that inherently allows for venting and purging. The tanks used out-of-autoclave (OoA) cured graphite/epoxy material and processes to enable large (up to 10-m-diameter) cryotank fabrication, and thin-ply prepreg to minimize hydrogen permeation through tank walls. Both tanks were fabricated at Boeing using automated fiber placement on breakdown tooling. A fluted core skirt that efficiently carried axial loads and enabled hydrogen purging was included on the 5.5-m-diameter tank. Ultrasonic inspection was performed, and a structural health monitoring system was installed to identify any impact damage during ground processing. The precursor and 5.5-m-diameter tanks were tested in custom test fixtures at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Marshall Space Flight Center. The testing, which consisted of a sequence of pressure and thermal cycles using liquid hydrogen, was successfully concluded and obtained valuable structural, thermal, and permeation performance data. This technology can be applied to a variety of aircraft and spacecraft applications that would benefit from 30 to 40% weight savings and substantial cost savings compared to aluminum lithium tanks.

  10. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other....63 Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank...

  11. PROBABILITY BASED CORROSION CONTROL FOR WASTE TANKS - PART II

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.; Edwards, T.

    2010-12-09

    As part of an ongoing study to evaluate the discontinuity in the corrosion controls at the SRS tank farm, a study was conducted this year to assess the minimum concentrations below 1 molar nitrate, see Figure 1. Current controls on the tank farm solution chemistry are in place to prevent the initiation and propagation of pitting and stress corrosion cracking in the primary steel waste tanks. The controls are based upon a series of experiments performed with simulated solutions on materials used for construction of the tanks, namely ASTM A537 carbon steel (A537). During FY09, an experimental program was undertaken to investigate the risk associated with reducing the minimum molar nitrite concentration required to confidently inhibit pitting in dilute solutions (i.e., less than 1 molar nitrate). The experimental results and conclusions herein provide a statistical basis to quantify the probability of pitting for the tank wall exposed to various solutions with dilute concentrations of nitrate and nitrite. Understanding the probability for pitting will allow the facility to make tank-specific risk-based decisions for chemistry control. Based on previous electrochemical testing, a statistical test matrix was developed to refine and solidify the application of the statistical mixture/amount model to corrosion of A537 steel. A mixture/amount model was identified based on statistical analysis of recent and historically collected electrochemical data. This model provides a more complex relationship between the nitrate and nitrite concentrations and the probability of pitting than is represented by the model underlying the current chemistry control program, and its use may provide a technical basis for the utilization of less nitrite to inhibit pitting at concentrations below 1 molar nitrate. FY09 results fit within the mixture/amount model, and further refine the nitrate regime in which the model is applicable. The combination of visual observations and cyclic

  12. External Tank - The Structure Backbone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welzyn, Kenneth; Pilet, Jeffrey C.; Diecidue-Conners, Dawn; Worden, Michelle; Guillot, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The External Tank forms the structural backbone of the Space Shuttle in the launch configuration. Because the tank flies to orbital velocity with the Space Shuttle Orbiter, minimization of weight is mandatory, to maximize payload performance. Choice of lightweight materials both for structure and thermal conditioning was necessary. The tank is large, and unique manufacturing facilities, tooling, handling, and transportation operations were required. Weld processes and tooling evolved with the design as it matured through several block changes, to reduce weight. Non Destructive Evaluation methods were used to assure integrity of welds and thermal protection system materials. The aluminum-lithium alloy was used near the end of the program and weld processes and weld repair techniques had to be refined. Development and implementation of friction stir welding was a substantial technology development incorporated during the Program. Automated thermal protection system application processes were developed for the majority of the tank surface. Material obsolescence was an issue throughout the 40 year program. The final configuration and tank weight enabled international space station assembly in a high inclination orbit allowing international cooperation with the Russian Federal Space Agency. Numerous process controls were implemented to assure product quality, and innovative proof testing was accomplished prior to delivery. Process controls were implemented to assure cleanliness in the production environment, to control contaminants, and to preclude corrosion. Each tank was accepted via rigorous inspections, including non-destructive evaluation techniques, proof testing, and all systems testing. In the post STS-107 era, the project focused on ascent debris risk reduction. This was accomplished via stringent process controls, post flight assessment using substantially improved imagery, and selective redesigns. These efforts were supported with a number of test programs to

  13. Water Tank with Capillary Air/Liquid Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Smith, Frederick; Edeen, Gregg; Almlie, Jay C.

    2010-01-01

    A bladderless water tank (see figure) has been developed that contains capillary devices that allow it to be filled and emptied, as needed, in microgravity. When filled with water, the tank shields human occupants of a spacecraft against cosmic radiation. A membrane that is permeable by air but is hydrophobic (neither wettable nor permeable by liquid water) covers one inside surface of the tank. Grooves between the surface and the membrane allow air to flow through vent holes in the surface as the tank is filled or drained. A margin of wettable surface surrounds the edges of the membrane, and all the other inside tank surfaces are also wettable. A fill/drain port is located in one corner of the tank and is covered with a hydrophilic membrane. As filling begins, water runs from the hydrophilic membrane into the corner fillets of the tank walls. Continued filling in the absence of gravity will result in a single contiguous air bubble that will be vented through the hydrophobic membrane. The bubble will be reduced in size until it becomes spherical and smaller than the tank thickness. Draining the tank reverses the process. Air is introduced through the hydrophobic membrane, and liquid continuity is maintained with the fill/drain port through the corner fillets. Even after the tank is emptied, as long as the suction pressure on the hydrophilic membrane does not exceed its bubble point, no air will be drawn into the liquid line.

  14. Development of a 40,000 Gallon High Profile, Collapsible, Rubberized Fabric, Fuel Storage Tank.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    standard 20,000 gallon tank and meet the performance requirements of MIL-T-82123. The tank wa developed based upon a military adaptation of a comercial...of the approach to the developemen of the 40,000 gallon tank is shown in Figura 1. Fabric stresses in standard 20,000 gallon tanks were compared with...design factor of 15, the same as a standard 20,000 gallon tank. This data is shown in Figure 2 . which also shows the height of the tanks at various

  15. NASA Experience with the Shuttle External Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickley, Fred; Schwinghamer, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    This report is a presentation reviewing the external tanks which are used to provide the propellants for the space shuttle engines. The design of the external tank, and its lift capability improvements are reviewed. The configuration, materials, and key technologies of the super lightweight tank (SLWT) are also described. Among the key technologies which allow the SLWT project to succeed, are the successful development of an appropriate alloy. The reasons for choosing the alloy, Aluminum-Lithium 2195, and issues involved in welding are reviewed. Tests of the weld procedures, and pictures of the test results are shown. The External Tank Project has successfully made the transition from the LWT design to the SLWT design. The SLWT Provides two thirds of the weight savings required to place the Space Station in a 51.6 Degree Orbit.

  16. Tank overpressure: An uplifting experience

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenegg, E.E.

    1982-05-01

    One of the most common causes of tank damage is uplift. The paper discusses the sources and magnitude of pressure that causes tank uplift, repairs that can be performed on tanks that have lifted, and the prevention of tank uplift. Discussion and examples given are limited to tanks 70 feet or less in diameter.

  17. Fuel Tank Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    structures b) - Equal thermic inertia c) - Equal fluid volume d) - Equal pressure variation on both wings at the change of the room temperature - This...individual fuel sections. Each fuel section is further ccmpartmentated by metall tank shear walls and tank floors into three individual fuel cells to...plate Dy a stretch forming process, and the metallic tank floors . The air intake segments extend from one bulkhead to the other, thus reducing assembly

  18. Submerged tank aids platform stability

    SciTech Connect

    Compagnon, J.P.

    1985-05-01

    A new floating platform concept, proposed for the installation of a new lighthouse, 64 km off Ouessant Island, northwest France, in water 130 meters deep, is described. A series of model tests carried out in test tanks in 1983 demonstrated that this new concept is viable in the offshore business as an alternative for deep and rough seas. The key to the success of this design is primarily the location and shape of a large, submerged buoyancy tank - a floater sandwiched between a conventional rig topside and a rigid, vertically suspended counter-weight. The floater balanced by a counter-weight acts as a damper and minimizes the effect of most wave action. This configuration permits a considerable gain in structure weight, improves stability and allows the structure to support a very high deck load with or without storage facilities when used as a production platform.

  19. Underground petroleum tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This book presents the results of a survey of 46 state underground storage tank program officials. The survey covers: Whether petroleum tank insurance (mandated by the EPA) is available in each state and whether category 3 and 4 owners can obtain it; state programs that help owners meet the financial responsibility and/or technical requirements of such insurance; and lending institutions' attitudes towards providing loans to storage tank owners. A survey of the number and terms of insurance policies offered to tank owners is also presented.

  20. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-07-01

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System`s tank waste retrieval Program.

  1. Advanced collapsible tank for liquid containment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, David T.; Hopkins, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Tanks for bulk liquid containment will be required to support advanced planetary exploration programs. Potential applications include storage of potable, process, and waste water, and fuels and process chemicals. The launch mass and volume penalties inherent in rigid tanks suggest that collapsible tanks may be more efficient. Collapsible tanks are made of lightweight flexible material and can be folded compactly for storage and transport. Although collapsible tanks for terrestrial use are widely available, a new design was developed that has significantly less mass and bulk than existing models. Modelled after the shape of a sessible drop, this design features a dual membrane with a nearly uniform stress distribution and a low surface-to-volume ratio. It can be adapted to store a variety of liquids in nearly any environment with constant acceleration field. Three models of 10L, 50L, and 378L capacity have been constructed and tested. The 378L (100 gallon) model weighed less than 10 percent of a commercially available collapsible tank of equivalent capacity, and required less than 20 percent of the storage space when folded for transport.

  2. Structural Continuum Modeling of Space Shuttle External Tank Foam Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steeve, Brian; Ayala, Sam; Purlee, T. Eric; Shaw, Phillip

    2006-01-01

    The Space Shuttle External Tank is covered with rigid polymeric closed-cell foam insulation to prevent ice formation, protect the metallic tank from aerodynamic heating, and control the breakup of the tank during re-entry. The cryogenic state of the tank, as well as the ascent into a vacuum environment, places this foam under significant stress. Because the loss of the foam during ascent poses a critical risk to the shuttle orbiter, there is much interest in understanding the stress state in the foam insulation and how it may contribute to fracture and debris loss. Several foam applications on the external tank have been analyzed using finite element methods. This presentation describes the approach used to model the foam material behavior and compares analytical results to experiments.

  3. Helium bubble distributions in reactor tank repair specimens. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tosten, M.H.; Kestin, P.A.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the Reactor Tank Repair (RTR) program was initiated to develop an in-tank repair process capable of repairing stress corrosion cracks within the SRS reactor tank walls, in the event that such a repair is needed. Previous attempts to repair C-reactor tank with a gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding process were unsuccessful due to significant cracking that occurred in the heat-affected-zones adjacent to the repair welds. It was determined that this additional cracking was a result of helium embrittlement caused by the combined effects of helium (existing within the tank walls), the high heat input associated with the GTA process, and weld shrinkage stresses. Based on the results of earlier studies it was suggested that the effects of helium embrittlement could be minimized by using a low heat input GMA process. Metallographic analysis played an important role throughout the investigation of alternative welding methods for the repair of helium-containing materials.

  4. Characterization of hydromechanical stress in aerated stirred tanks up to 40 m3 scale by measurement of maximum stable drop size

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Turbulence intensity, or hydromechanical stress, is a parameter that influences a broad range of processes in the fields of chemical engineering and biotechnology. Fermentation processes are often characterized by high agitation and aeration intensity resulting in high gas void fractions of up to 20% in large scale reactors. Very little experimental data on hydromechanical stress for such operating conditions exists because of the problems associated with measuring hydromechanical stress under aeration and intense agitation. Results An indirect method to quantify hydromechanical stress for aerated operating conditions by the measurement of maximum stable drop size in a break-up controlled dispersion was applied to characterize hydromechanical stress in reactor scales of 50 L, 3 m3 and 40 m3 volume with a broad range of operating conditions and impeller geometries (Rushton turbines). Results for impellers within each scale for the ratio of maximum to specific energy dissipation rate ϕ based on measured values of maximum stable drop size for aerated operating conditions are qualitatively in agreement with results from literature correlations for unaerated operating conditions. Comparison of data in the different scales shows that there is a scale effect that results in higher values for ϕ in larger reactors. This behavior is not covered by the classic theory of turbulent drop dispersion but is in good agreement with the theory of turbulence intermittency. The data for all impeller configurations and all aeration rates for the three scales can be correlated within ±20% when calculated values for ϕ based on the measured values for dmax are used to calculate the maximum local energy dissipation rate. A correlation of the data for all scales and all impeller configurations in the form ϕ = 2.3∙(ϕunaerated)0.34∙(DR)0.543 is suggested that successfully models the influence of scale and impeller geometry on ϕ for aerated operating conditions

  5. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL ANALYSIS FOR 241-AP TANK FARMS

    SciTech Connect

    TC MACKEY; JE DEIBLER; MW RINKER; KI JOHNSON; SP PILLI; NK KARRI; FG ABATT; KL STOOPS

    2009-01-14

    The essential difference between Revision 1 and the original issue of this report is the analysis of the anchor bolts that tie the steel dome of the primary tank to the concrete tank dome. The reevaluation of the AP anchor bolts showed that (for a given temperature increase) the anchor shear load distribution did not change significantly from the initially higher stiffness to the new secant shear stiffness. Therefore, the forces and displacements of the other tank components such as the primary tanks stresses, secondary liner strains, and concrete tank forces and moments also did not change significantly. Consequently, the revised work in Revision 1 focused on the changes in the anchor bolt responses and a full reevaluation of all tank components was judged to be unnecessary.

  6. 49 CFR 179.401 - Individual specification requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks. 179.401 Section 179.401 Transportation Other..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank... requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks....

  7. 49 CFR 179.401 - Individual specification requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks. 179.401 Section 179.401 Transportation Other..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank... requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks....

  8. 49 CFR 179.401 - Individual specification requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks. 179.401 Section 179.401 Transportation Other..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank... requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks....

  9. 49 CFR 179.401 - Individual specification requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks. 179.401 Section 179.401 Transportation Other..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank... requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks....

  10. Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... flu shot, are less effective for them. Some people cope with stress more effectively than others. It's important to know your limits when it comes to stress, so you can avoid more serious health effects. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  11. Underground Tank Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednar, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    The harm to human health and our environment caused by leaking underground storage tanks can be devastating. Schools can meet new federal waste management standards by instituting daily inventory monitoring, selecting a reliable volumetric testing company, locating and repairing leaks promptly, and removing and installing tanks appropriately. (MLH)

  12. Oxygen tank assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Structural design considerations for O2 tank shells and suspension systems of ground based storage and mobile tank systems are outlined. Safety factors, chemical compatibility, liquid slosh strength, and cryogenic temperature properties are summarized. Finally, costs, quality control measures, and long life characteristics are examined.

  13. 49 CFR 178.345-11 - Tank outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-11 Tank outlets. (a) General. As used in this section... outlet where vehicle length allows, or on the end of the cargo tank farthest away from the...

  14. 49 CFR 178.345-11 - Tank outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-11 Tank outlets. (a) General. As used in this section... outlet where vehicle length allows, or on the end of the cargo tank farthest away from the...

  15. 49 CFR 178.345-11 - Tank outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-11 Tank outlets. (a) General. As used in this section... outlet where vehicle length allows, or on the end of the cargo tank farthest away from the...

  16. 49 CFR 178.345-11 - Tank outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-11 Tank outlets. (a) General. As used in this section... outlet where vehicle length allows, or on the end of the cargo tank farthest away from the...

  17. 14 CFR 29.957 - Flow between interconnected tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 29.957 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.957 Flow between interconnected tanks. (a) Where tank outlets are interconnected and allow fuel to flow...

  18. 14 CFR 29.957 - Flow between interconnected tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 29.957 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.957 Flow between interconnected tanks. (a) Where tank outlets are interconnected and allow fuel to flow...

  19. 14 CFR 29.957 - Flow between interconnected tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 29.957 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.957 Flow between interconnected tanks. (a) Where tank outlets are interconnected and allow fuel to flow...

  20. 14 CFR 29.957 - Flow between interconnected tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 29.957 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.957 Flow between interconnected tanks. (a) Where tank outlets are interconnected and allow fuel to flow...

  1. 16. VIEW FROM ATOP REDWOOD HOLDING TANKS, LOOKING SOUTH Pipe ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW FROM ATOP REDWOOD HOLDING TANKS, LOOKING SOUTH Pipe at left was part of system which provided fresh sea water to the tanks, which kept the fish fresh and allowed them to be sluiced to the cutting area. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  2. Rainwater tank drowning.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W

    2008-11-01

    Drowning remains a significant cause of accidental death in young children. The site of drowning varies among communities and is influenced by cultural and geographic factors, including the availability of particular water sources. The drowning deaths of a twin two-year-old brother and sister in a rainwater tank are reported to demonstrate specific issues that may arise. Ladders, vegetation and trellises may provide access to tanks and should be removed. Secure child-proof access points should also be installed, particularly on in-ground tanks (given the ready accessibility of the latter). As there has been a recent trend in Australia to install more domestic rainwater tanks, the number of childhood rainwater tank drownings and near-drownings will need to be monitored by forensic pathologists and child death review committees to ensure that this has not led to the introduction of a new hazard into the home environment.

  3. Tank characterization reference guide

    SciTech Connect

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research.

  4. Stainless steel tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, T.

    1995-12-31

    There is currently no recognized code or standard for the design, fabrication and construction of atmospheric and low pressure stainless steel tanks. At the present time these tanks are being designed to individual specifications, manufacturers standards or utilizing other codes and standards that may not be entirely applicable. Recognizing the need, the American Petroleum Institute will be publishing a new appendix to the API STD 650 Standard which will cover stainless steel tanks. The new Appendix was put together by a Task Group of selected individuals from the API Subcommittee of Pressure Vessels and Tanks from the Committee on Refinery Equipment. This paper deals with the development and basis of the new appendix. The new appendix will provide a much needed standard to cover the material, design, fabrication, erection and testing requirements for vertical, cylindrical, austenitic stainless steel aboveground tanks in nonrefrigerated service.

  5. Structural Analysis of Helios Filament-Wound Tanks Subjected to Internal Pressure and Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L

    2005-01-01

    A finite-element stress analysis is performed on Helios filament-wound hydrogen tanks to examine the stress field and effect of end dome geometry on the stress field. Each tank is composed of a central circular cylindrical section with either geodesic or hemispherical end domes, which have metallic polar bosses. The tanks are subjected to combined and separate internal pressure and temperature loading conditions, and the stress contributions of each loading component are examined. The tank-wall-polar-boss interfacial meridional tensile stress in the hemispherical dome is found to be approximately 27 percent lower than that in the geodesic dome. The effects of both material anisotropy and the aluminum lining on the intensities of tensile meridional stress at the tank-wall-polar-boss bonding interface are examined.

  6. 49 CFR 179.201 - Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to non-pressure tank car tanks. 179.201 Section 179.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes... car tanks....

  7. Chemical Stabilization of Hanford Tank Residual Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Um, Wooyong; Williams, Benjamin D.; Bowden, Mark E.; Gartman, Brandy N.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mausolf, Edward J.

    2014-03-01

    Three different chemical treatment methods were tested for their ability to stabilize residual waste from Hanford tank C-202 for reducing contaminant release (Tc, Cr, and U in particular). The three treatment methods tested were lime addition [Ca(OH)2], an in-situ Ceramicrete waste form based on chemically bonded phosphate ceramics, and a ferrous iron/goethite treatment. These approaches rely on formation of insoluble forms of the contaminants of concern (lime addition and ceramicrete) and chemical reduction followed by co-precipitation (ferrous iron/goethite incorporation treatment). The results have demonstrated that release of the three most significant mobile contaminants of concern from tank residual wastes can be dramatically reduced after treatment compared to contact with simulated grout porewater without treatment. For uranium, all three treatments methods reduced the leachable uranium concentrations by well over three orders of magnitude. In the case of uranium and technetium, released concentrations were well below their respective MCLs for the wastes tested. For tank C-202 residual waste, chromium release concentrations were above the MCL but were considerably reduced relative to untreated tank waste. This innovative approach has the potential to revolutionize Hanford’s tank retrieval process, by allowing larger volumes of residual waste to be left in tanks while providing an acceptably low level of risk with respect to contaminant release that is protective of the environment and human health. Such an approach could enable DOE to realize significant cost savings through streamlined retrieval and closure operations.

  8. Runtime and Pressurization Analyses of Propellant Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, Robert E.; Ryan, Harry M.; Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Lee, Chung P.

    2007-01-01

    Multi-element unstructured CFD has been utilized at NASA SSC to carry out analyses of propellant tank systems in different modes of operation. The three regimes of interest at SSC include (a) tank chill down (b) tank pressurization and (c) runtime propellant draw-down and purge. While tank chill down is an important event that is best addressed with long time-scale heat transfer calculations, CFD can play a critical role in the tank pressurization and runtime modes of operation. In these situations, problems with contamination of the propellant by inclusion of the pressurant gas from the ullage causes a deterioration of the quality of the propellant delivered to the test article. CFD can be used to help quantify the mixing and propellant degradation. During tank pressurization under some circumstances, rapid mixing of relatively warm pressurant gas with cryogenic propellant can lead to rapid densification of the gas and loss of pressure in the tank. This phenomenon can cause serious problems during testing because of the resulting decrease in propellant flow rate. With proper physical models implemented, CFD can model the coupling between the propellant and pressurant including heat transfer and phase change effects and accurately capture the complex physics in the evolving flowfields. This holds the promise of allowing the specification of operational conditions and procedures that could minimize the undesirable mixing and heat transfer inherent in propellant tank operation. It should be noted that traditional CFD modeling is inadequate for such simulations because the fluids in the tank are in a range of different sub-critical and supercritical states and elaborate phase change and mixing rules have to be developed to accurately model the interaction between the ullage gas and the propellant. We show a typical run-time simulation of a spherical propellant tank, containing RP-1 in this case, being pressurized with room-temperature nitrogen at 540 R. Nitrogen

  9. Tank 241-U-202 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-02-21

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-U-202.

  10. Tank 241-U-201 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-02-21

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 22-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-U-201.

  11. Stress response of Salmo salar (Linnaeus 1758) facing low abundance infestation of Caligus rogercresseyi (Boxshall & Bravo 2000), an object in the tank, and handling.

    PubMed

    González Gómez, M P; Marín Arribas, S L; Vargas-Chacoff, L

    2016-07-01

    This study looks at how low infestation loads of adult Caligus rogercresseyi and other stressors affect the physiology of Salmo salar. Experimental fish groups were with (infested) or without (control) exposure to the parasite. The parasite cohort was followed for 78 days post-infestation (dpi), and only adult lice were observed. Additional stressors were applied at 60 and 75 dpi. The analysis included measurements of fish physiology and weight. Low-level infestations by adult C. rogercresseyi for more than 50 dpi induced moderate stress in S. salar as well as a high energy demand and increased small skin mucous cells. Threshold lice loads were identified, and above those loads, a high stress response was observed. Additional stressors altered fish physiology, inducing downregulation of the cortisol response after the first stressor and upregulation after the second stressor, but infested fish responded more strongly. Parasitism by C. rogercresseyi is energetically demanding, affecting the primary and secondary responses (e.g. cortisol and glucose levels), as well as the tertiary response (fish weight).

  12. ADM. Tanks: from left to right: fuel oil tank, fuel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADM. Tanks: from left to right: fuel oil tank, fuel pump house (TAN-611), engine fuel tank, water pump house, water storage tank. Camera facing northwest. Not edge of shielding berm at left of view. Date: November 25, 1953. INEEL negative no. 9217 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Case Study in Corporate Memory Recovery: Hanford Tank Farms Miscellaneous Underground Waste Storage Tanks - 15344

    SciTech Connect

    Washenfelder, D. J.; Johnson, J. M.; Turknett, J. C.; Barnes, T. J.; Duncan, K. G.

    2015-01-07

    In addition to managing the 177 underground waste storage tanks containing 212,000 m3 (56 million gal) of radioactive waste at the U. S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms, Washington River Protection Solutions LLC is responsible for managing numerous small catch tanks and special surveillance facilities. These are collectively known as “MUSTs” - Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks. The MUSTs typically collected drainage and flushes during waste transfer system piping changes; special surveillance facilities supported Tank Farm processes including post-World War II uranium recovery and later fission product recovery from tank wastes. Most were removed from service following deactivation of the single-shell tank system in 1980 and stabilized by pumping the remaining liquids from them. The MUSTs were isolated by blanking connecting transfer lines and adding weatherproofing to prevent rainwater entry. Over the next 30 years MUST operating records were dispersed into large electronic databases or transferred to the National Archives Regional Center in Seattle, Washington. During 2014 an effort to reacquire the historical bases for the MUSTs’ published waste volumes was undertaken. Corporate Memory Recovery from a variety of record sources allowed waste volumes to be initially determined for 21 MUSTs, and waste volumes to be adjusted for 37 others. Precursors and symptoms of Corporate Memory Loss were identified in the context of MUST records recovery.

  14. Vadose zone characterization project at the Hanford Tank Farms: BY Tank Farm report

    SciTech Connect

    Kos, S.E.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy Grand Junction Office (GJO) was tasked by the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) to perform a baseline characterization of the contamination distributed in the vadoze zone sediment beneath and around the single-shell tanks (SSTs) at the Hanford Site. The intent of this characterization is to determine the nature and extent of the contamination, to identify contamination sources, and to develop a baseline of the contamination distribution that will permit future data comparisons. This characterization work also allows an initial assessment of the impacts of the vadose zone contamination as required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This characterization project involves acquiring information about the vadose zone contamination with borehole geophysical logging methods and documenting that information in a series of reports. Data from boreholes surrounding each tank are compiled into individual Tank Summary Data Reports. The data from each tank farm are then compiled and summarized in a Tank Farm Report. This document is the Tank Farm Report for the BY Tank Farm.

  15. High priority tank sampling and analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.M.

    1998-03-05

    In July 1993, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) transmitted Recommendation 93-5 (Conway 1993) to the US Department of Energy (DOE). Recommendation 93-5 noted that there was insufficient tank waste technical information and the pace to obtain it was too slow to ensure that Hanford Site wastes could be safely stored, that associated operations could be conducted safely, and that future disposal data requirements could be met. In May 1996, the DOE issued Revision 1 of the Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan (DOE-RL 1996). The Implementation Plan revision presented a modified approach to achieve the original plan`s objectives. The approach concentrated on actions necessary to ensure that wastes can be safely stored, that operations can be safely conducted, and that timely characterization information for the tank waste Disposal Program could be obtained. The Implementation Plan proposed 28 High Priority tanks, which, if sampled and analyzed, were expected to provide information to answer questions regarding safety and disposal issues. The High Priority tank list was originally developed in Section 9.0 of the Tank Waste Characterization Basis (Brown et al. 1995) by integrating the needs of the various safety and disposal programs. The High Priority tank list represents a set of tanks that were expected to provide the highest information return for characterization resources expended. The High Priority tanks were selected for near-term core sampling and were not expected to be the only tanks that would provide meaningful information. Sampling and analysis of non-High Priority tanks also could be used to provide scientific and technical data to confirm assumptions, calibrate models, and measure safety related phenomenological characteristics of the waste. When the sampling and analysis results of the High Priority and other tanks were reviewed, it was expected that a series of questions should be answered allowing key decisions to be made. The first

  16. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, Mike; Herbert, James E.; Scheele, Patrick W.

    2015-01-12

    The Savannah River Site Tank Farms have 45 active underground waste tanks used to store and process nuclear waste materials. There are 4 different tank types, ranging in capacity from 2839 m3 to 4921 m3 (750,000 to 1,300,000 gallons). Eighteen of the tanks are older style and do not meet all current federal standards for secondary containment. The older style tanks are the initial focus of waste removal efforts for tank closure and are referred to as closure tanks. Of the original 51 underground waste tanks, six of the original 24 older style tanks have completed waste removal and are filled with grout. The insoluble waste fraction that resides within most waste tanks at SRS requires vigorous agitation to suspend the solids within the waste liquid in order to transfer this material for eventual processing into glass filled canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SRS suspends the solid waste by use of recirculating mixing pumps. Older style tanks generally have limited riser openings which will not support larger mixing pumps, since the riser access is typically 58.4 cm (23 inches) in diameter. Agitation for these tanks has been provided by four long shafted standard slurry pumps (SLP) powered by an above tank 112KW (150 HP) electric motor. The pump shaft is lubricated and cooled in a pressurized water column that is sealed from the surrounding waste in the tank. Closure of four waste tanks has been accomplished utilizing long shafted pump technology combined with heel removal using multiple technologies. Newer style waste tanks at SRS have larger riser openings, allowing the processing of waste solids to be accomplished with four large diameter SLPs equipped with 224KW (300 HP) motors. These tanks are used to process the waste from closure tanks for DWPF. In addition to the SLPs, a 224KW (300 HP) submersible mixer pump (SMP) has also been developed and deployed within older style tanks. The SMPs are product cooled and

  17. 46 CFR 153.935 - Opening of tanks and cargo sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., except: (1) To clean a tank; (2) To transfer a cargo that Table 1 allows in a containment system having... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of tanks and cargo sampling. 153.935 Section 153... Vessel Safety § 153.935 Opening of tanks and cargo sampling. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b)...

  18. Structural analysis and evaluation of the 241SY101 tank annulus heat-up

    SciTech Connect

    Ziada, H.H.

    1994-10-19

    This document provides the structural analysis (static and thermal loads) of the 241SY101 tank to determine the maximum allowable temperature and rate of heating that could be applied to tank 241SY101 through annulus air heating without detrimental effects to the structural integrity of the concrete and steel liner of the tank.

  19. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. Except as allowed under § 154.1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is independent of...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. Except as allowed under § 154.1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is independent of...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. Except as allowed under § 154.1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is independent of...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. Except as allowed under § 154.1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is independent of...

  3. Pressurizer tank upper support

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Tod H.; Ott, Howard L.

    1994-01-01

    A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90.degree. intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure.

  4. Pressurizer tank upper support

    DOEpatents

    Baker, T.H.; Ott, H.L.

    1994-01-11

    A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90[degree] intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure. 10 figures.

  5. Thermomechanics of a metal hydride-based hydrogen tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lexcellent, Christian; Gay, Guillaume; Chapelle, David

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a thermodynamical model of a porous media made of one or two solid phases α and β (depending on the hydrogen concentration) and one gas phase H2 is presented. As an extension of previous works performed by Gondor and Lexcellent (Int J Hydrog Energy 34(14):5716-5725, doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2009.05.070, 2009), our attention is paid to the identification of the vectorial displacement and by consequence to the stress and strain states in every point of the tank. This study allows a safe design of the reservoir. In front of the complexity of the problem to solve, a synthesis and a table of unknowns, constants, and parameters will ease the reader understanding. The problem is restricted to the isotropic elastic behavior of the solid phases. A great ingredient of the investigation is the phase transformation between the two phases α and β.

  6. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SERVICE HISTORY AND CORROSION SUSCEPTIBILITY OF TYPE IV WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B

    2008-09-18

    Type IV waste tanks were designed and built to store waste that does not require auxiliary cooling. Each Type IV tank is a single-shell tank constructed of a steel-lined pre-stressed concrete tank in the form of a vertical cylinder with a concrete domed roof. There are four such tanks in F-area, Tanks 17-20F, and four in H-Area, Tanks 21-24H. Leak sites were discovered in the liners for Tanks 19 and 20F in the 1980's. Although these leaks were visually observed, the investigation to determine the mechanism by which the leaks had occurred was not completed at that time. Therefore, a concern was raised that the same mechanism which caused the leak sites in the Tanks in F-area may also be operable in the H-Area tanks. Data from the construction of the tanks (i.e., certified mill test reports for the steel, no stress-relief), the service history (i.e., waste sample data, temperature data), laboratory tests on actual wastes and simulants (i.e., electrochemical testing), and the results of the visual inspections were reviewed. The following observations and conclusions were made: (1) Comparison of the compositional and microstructural features indicate that the A212 material utilized for construction of the H-Area tanks are far more resistant to SCC than the A285 materials used for construction of the F-Area tanks. (2) A review of the materials of construction, temperature history, service histories concluded that F-Area tanks likely failed by caustic stress corrosion cracking. (3) The environment in the F-Area tanks was more aggressive than that experienced by the H-Area tanks. (4) Based on a review of the service history, the H-Area tanks have not been exposed to an environment that would render the tanks susceptible to either nitrate stress corrosion cracking (i.e., the cause of failures in the Type I and II tanks) or caustic stress corrosion cracking. (5) Due to the very dilute and uninhibited solutions that have been stored in Tank 23H, vapor space corrosion has

  7. Long-term strength and allowable stresses of grade 10Kh9MFB and X10CrMoVNb9-1 (T91/P91) chromium heat-resistant steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorobogatykh, V. N.; Danyushevskiy, I. A.; Schenkova, I. A.; Prudnikov, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    Currently, grade X10CrMoVNb9-1 (T91, P91) and 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh) chromium steels are widely applied in equipment manufacturing for thermal power plants in Russia and abroad. Compilation and comparison of tensile, impact, and long-term strength tests results accumulated for many years of investigations of foreign grade X10CrMoVNb9-1, T91, P91, and domestic grade 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh) steels is carried out. The property identity of metals investigated is established. High strength and plastic properties of steels, from which pipes and other products are made, for operation under creep conditions are confirmed. Design characteristics of long-term strength on the basis of tests with more than one million of hour-samples are determined ( and at temperatures of 500-650°C). The table of recommended allowable stresses for grade 10Kh9MFB, 10Kh9MFB-SH, X10CrMoVNb9-1, T91, and P91 steels is developed. The long-time properties of pipe welded joints of grade 10Kh9MFB+10Kh9MFB, 10Kh9MFB-Sh+10Kh9MFB-Sh, X10CrMoVNb9-1+X10CrMoVNb9-1, P91+P91, T91+T91, 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh)+X10CrMoVNb9-1(T/P91) steels is researched. The welded joint reduction factor is experimentally determined.

  8. 49 CFR 179.401 - Individual specification requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks. 179.401 Section 179.401 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid... requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks....

  9. Tank 48 - Chemical Destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Simner, Steven P.; Aponte, Celia I.; Brass, Earl A.

    2013-01-09

    Small tank copper-catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) is a potentially viable technology to facilitate the destruction of tetraphenylborate (TPB) organic solids contained within the Tank 48H waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A maturation strategy was created that identified a number of near-term development activities required to determine the viability of the CCPO process, and subsequent disposition of the CCPO effluent. Critical activities included laboratory-scale validation of the process and identification of forward transfer paths for the CCPO effluent. The technical documentation and the successful application of the CCPO process on simulated Tank 48 waste confirm that the CCPO process is a viable process for the disposition of the Tank 48 contents.

  10. 49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.86 Maximum allowable operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in...) for shipments by rail. (b) For trains transporting any loaded, placarded tank cars containing...

  11. 49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.86 Maximum allowable operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in...) for shipments by rail. (b) For trains transporting any loaded, placarded tank cars containing...

  12. TANK 5 SAMPLING

    SciTech Connect

    Vrettos, N; William Cheng, W; Thomas Nance, T

    2007-11-26

    Tank 5 at the Savannah River Site has been used to store high level waste and is currently undergoing waste removal processes in preparation for tank closure. Samples were taken from two locations to determine the contents in support of Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) development for chemical cleaning. These samples were obtained through the use of the Drop Core Sampler and the Snowbank Sampler developed by the Engineered Equipment & Systems (EES) group of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL).

  13. Functional Design and Qualification of Surface Tension Propellant Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figus, C.; Haddad, D.; Ounougha, L.; Autric, J.

    2004-10-01

    During two decades, EADS Astrium has designed and qualified the surface tension device used in the propellant tanks equipping the Eurostar telecommunication satellites platforms. Recent re- orbiting phases of Eurostar E2000 satellites, have allowed to validate those designs and to graveyard the spacecraft with less than 1 kg of propellant left per tank. Moreover, with the emergence of new powerful satellites with full chemical or mixed chemical-plasma propulsion subsystems, EADS Astrium has designed a new larger and improved surface tension propellant tank. Such challenging performances require analyses, and tests in order to assess and confirm the predicted performances. The present article shows the recent development of a new enlarged Eurostar E3000 propellant tanks for Eurostar 3000 satellites and presents the main functional analyses and neutral buoyancy tests results obtained for this new propellant tank These last two years, have contributed to improve this background with the successful graveyard of the first Eurostar spacecraft with less than 1 kg of liquid propellant per tank at the end of the manoeuvre. Moreover, a new enlarged E3000 propellant tank has been designed and qualified in order to cope with the future 12 kW telecom spacecraft applications. This tank designed by EADS-ASTRIUM, is manufactured by EADS-Space transportation. This paper presents the performances and tests results obtained on this new propellant tank.

  14. SAMPLE AOR CALCULATION USING ANSYS FULL PARAMETRIC MODEL FOR TANK SST-SX

    SciTech Connect

    JULYK, L.J.; MACKEY, T.C.

    2003-06-19

    This document documents the ANSYS parametric 360-degree model for single-shell tank SX and provides sample calculation for analysis-of-record mechanical load conditions. The purpose of this calculation is to develop a parametric full model for the single shell tank (SST) SX to deal with asymmetry loading conditions and provide a sample analysis of the SST-SX tank based on analysis of record (AOR) loads. The SST-SX model is based on buyer-supplied as-built drawings and information for the AOR for SSTs, encompassing the existing tank load conditions, and evaluates stresses and deformations throughout the tank and surrounding soil mass.

  15. SAMPLE AOR CALCULATION USING ANSYS SLICE PARAMETRIC MODEL FOR TANK SST-SX

    SciTech Connect

    JULYK, L.J.; MACKEY, T.C.

    2003-06-19

    This document documents the ANSYS slice parametric model for single-shell tank SX and provides sample calculation for analysis-of-record mechanical load conditions. The purpose of this calculation is to develop a parametric model for the single shell tank (SST) SX, and provide a sample analysis of the SST-SX tank based on analysis of record (AOR) loads. The SST-SX model is based on buyer-supplied as-built drawings and information for the AOR for SSTs, encompassing the existing tank load conditions, and evaluates stresses and deformations throughout the tank and surrounding soil mass.

  16. SAMPLE AOR CALCULATION USING ANSYS AXISYMMETRIC PARAMETRIC MODEL FOR TANK SST-S

    SciTech Connect

    JULYK, L.J.; MACKEY, T.C.

    2003-06-19

    This document documents the ANSYS axisymmetric parametric model for single-shell tank S and provides sample calculation for analysis-of-record mechanical load conditions. The purpose of this calculation is to develop a parametric model for single shell tank (SST) S, and provide a sample analysis of SST-S tank based on analysis of record (AOR) loads. The SST-S model is based on buyer-supplied as-built drawings and information for the AOR for SSTs, encompassing the existing tank load conditions, and evaluates stresses and deformations throughout the tank and surrounding soil mass.

  17. SAMPLE AOR CALCULATION USING ANSYS SLICE PARAMETRIC MODEL FOR TANK SST-BX

    SciTech Connect

    JULYK, L.J.; MACKEY, T.C.

    2003-06-19

    This document documents the ANSYS slice parametric model for single-shell tank BX and provides sample calculation for analysis-of-record mechanical load conditions. The purpose of this calculation is to develop a parametric model for the single shell tank (SST) BX, and provide a sample analysis of the SST-BX tank based on analysis of record (AOR) loads. The SST-BX model is based on buyer-supplied as-built drawings and information for the AOR for SSTs, encompassing the existing tank load conditions, and evaluates stresses and deformations throughout the tank and surrounding soil mass.

  18. SAMPLE AOR CALCULATION USING ANSYS SLICE PARAMETRIC MODEL FOR TANK SST-A

    SciTech Connect

    JULYK, L.J.; MACKEY, T.C.

    2003-06-19

    This document documents the ANSYS slice parametric model for single-shell tank A and provides sample calculation for analysis-of-record mechanical load conditions. The purpose of this calculation is to develop a parametric model for the single shell tank (S) A, and provide a sample analysis of the SST-S tank based on analysis of record (AOR) loads. The SST-A model is based on buyer-supplied as-built drawings and information for the AOR for SSTs, encompassing the existing tank load conditions, and evaluates stresses and deformations throughout the tank and surrounding soil mass.

  19. SAMPLE AOR CALCULATION USING ANSYS AXISYMMETRIC PARAMETRIC MODEL FOR TANK SST-AX

    SciTech Connect

    JULYK, L.J.; MACKEY, T.C.

    2003-06-19

    This document documents the ANSYS axisymmetric parametric model for single-shell tank AX and provides sample calculation for analysis-of-record mechanical load conditions. The purpose of this calculation is to develop a parametric model for single shell tank (SST) AX, and provide a sample analysis of SST-AX tank based on analysis of record (AOR) loads. The SST-AX model is based on buyer-supplied as-built drawings and information for the AOR for SSTs, encompassing the existing tank load conditions, and evaluates stresses and deformations throughout the tank and surrounding soil mass.

  20. SAMPLE AOR CALCULATION USING ANSYS SLICE PARAMETRIC MODEL FOR TANK SST-S

    SciTech Connect

    JULYK, L.J.; MACKEY, T.C.

    2003-06-19

    This document documents the ANSYS slice parametric model for single-shell tank S and provides sample calculation for analysis-of-record mechanical load conditions. The purpose of this calculation is to develop a parametric model for the single shell tank (SST) S, and provide a sample analysis of the SST-S tank based on analysis of record (AOR) loads. The SST-S model is based on buyer-supplied as-built drawings and information for the AOR for SSTs, encompassing the existing tank load conditions, and evaluates stresses and deformations throughout the tank and surrounding soil mass.

  1. SAMPLE AOR CALCULATION USING ANSYS SLICE PARAMETRIC MODEL FOR TANK SST-AX

    SciTech Connect

    JULYK, L.J.; MACKEY, T.C.

    2003-06-19

    This document documents the ANSYS slice parametric model for single-shell tank AX and provides sample calculation for analysis-of-record mechanical load conditions. The purpose of this calculation is to develop a parametric model for the single shell tank (SST) AX, and provide a sample analysis of the SST-AX tank based on analysis of record (AOR) loads. The SST-AX model is based on buyer-supplied as-built drawings and information for the AOR for SSTs, encompassing the existing tank load conditions, and evaluates stresses and deformations throughout the tank and surrounding soil mass.

  2. SAMPLE AOR CALCULATION USING ANSYS AXISYMMETRIC PARAMETRIC MODEL FOR TANK SST-SX

    SciTech Connect

    JULYK, L.J.; MACKEY, T.C.

    2003-06-19

    This document documents the ANSYS axisymmetric parametric model for single-shell tank SX and provides sample calculation for analysis-of-record mechanical load conditions. The purpose of this calculation is to develop a parametric model for single shell tank (SST) SX, and provide a sample analysis of the SST-SX tank based on analysis of record (AOR) loads. The SST-SX model is based on buyer-supplied as-built drawings and information for the AOR for SSTs, encompassing the existing tank load conditions, and evaluates stresses and deformations throughout the tank and surrounding soil mass.

  3. SAMPLE AOR CALCULATION USING ANSYS AXISYMMETRIC PARAMETRIC MODEL FOR TANK SST-A

    SciTech Connect

    JULYK, L.J.; MACKEY, T.C.

    2003-06-19

    This document documents the ANSYS axisymmetric parametric model for single-shell tank A and provides sample calculation for analysis-of-record mechanical load conditions. The purpose of this calculation is to develop a parametric model for single shell tank (SST) A, and provide a sample analysis of SST-A tank based on analysis of record (AOR) loads. The SST-A model is based on buyer-supplied as-built drawings and information for the AOR for SSTs, encompassing the existing tank load conditions, and evaluates stresses and deformations throughout the tank and surrounding soil mass.

  4. Medium Fidelity Simulation of Oxygen Tank Venting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, Adam; Kurien, James; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The item to he cleared is a medium-fidelity software simulation model of a vented cryogenic tank. Such tanks are commonly used to transport cryogenic liquids such as liquid oxygen via truck, and have appeared on liquid-fueled rockets for decades. This simulation model works with the HCC simulation system that was developed by Xerox PARC and NASA Ames Research Center. HCC has been previously cleared for distribution. When used with the HCC software, the model generates simulated readings for the tank pressure and temperature as the simulated cryogenic liquid boils off and is vented. Failures (such as a broken vent valve) can be injected into the simulation to produce readings corresponding to the failure. Release of this simulation will allow researchers to test their software diagnosis systems by attempting to diagnose the simulated failure from the simulated readings. This model does not contain any encryption software nor can it perform any control tasks that might be export controlled.

  5. Analysis of Adsorbed Natural Gas Tank Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Ernest; Schultz, Conrad; Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Stalla, David; Gillespie, Andrew; Sweany, Mark; Seydel, Florian; Pfeifer, Peter

    With gasoline being an ever decreasing finite resource and with the desire to reduce humanity's carbon footprint, there has been an increasing focus on innovation of alternative fuel sources. Natural gas burns cleaner, is more abundant, and conforms to modern engines. However, storing compressed natural gas (CNG) requires large, heavy gas cylinders, which limits space and fuel efficiency. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) technology allows for much greater fuel storage capacity and the ability to store the gas at a much lower pressure. Thus, ANG tanks are much more flexible in terms of their size, shape, and weight. Our ANG tank employs monolithic nanoporous activated carbon as its adsorbent material. Several different configurations of this Flat Panel Tank Assembly (FPTA) along with a Fuel Extraction System (FES) were examined to compare with the mass flow rate demands of an engine.

  6. Aseismic analysis of the emergency water tank

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, H.Y.; Yu, G.F.

    1995-11-01

    The emergency water tank is one of the important equipments for safety under the accident condition of the PWR. It was specified that this equipment must be able to resist Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). There was a detailed analysis and calculation for this water container by a specially developed computer code (FSI) for the fluid-structure interaction under the earthquake. This paper describes sloshing period and wave height, dynamic pressure distribution on the tank wall and the comparison with Housner`s theory. The typical shell elements stress responses were given also. In addition, the base shear and the turn-over moment were calculated according to the shell element stress and compared with the equivalent static load method. The conclusion can be reached that the calculation results of FSI is credible.

  7. POTENTIAL IMPACT OF BLENDING RESIDUAL SOLIDS FROM TANKS 18/19 MOUNDS WITH TANK 7 OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R; Erich Hansen, E; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2007-03-29

    High level waste tanks 18F and 19F have residual mounds of waste which may require removal before the tanks can be closed. Conventional slurry pump technology, previously used for waste removal and tank cleaning, has been incapable of removing theses mounds from tanks 18F and 19F. A mechanical cleaning method has been identified that is potentially capable of removing and transferring the mound material to tank 7F for incorporation in a sludge batch for eventual disposal in high level waste glass by the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been requested to evaluate whether the material transferred from tanks 18F/19F by the mechanical cleaning technology can later be suspended in Tank 7F by conventional slurry pumps after mixing with high level waste sludge. The proposed mechanical cleaning process for removing the waste mounds from tanks 18 and 19 may utilize a high pressure water jet-eductor that creates a vacuum to mobilize solids. The high pressure jet is also used to transport the suspended solids. The jet-eductor system will be mounted on a mechanical crawler for movement around the bottom of tanks 18 and 19. Based on physical chemical property testing of the jet-eductor system processed IE-95 zeolite and size-reduced IE-95 zeolite, the following conclusions were made: (1) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite has a mean and median particle size (volume basis) of 115.4 and 43.3 microns in water. Preferential settling of these large particles is likely. (2) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite rapidly generates settled solid yield stresses in excess of 11,000 Pascals in caustic supernates and will not be easily retrieved from Tank 7 with the existing slurry pump technology. (3) Settled size-reduced IE-95 zeolite (less than 38 microns) in caustic supernate does not generate yield stresses in excess of 600 Pascals in less than 30 days. (4) Preferential settling of size-reduced zeolite is a function of the amount of

  8. Dual diaphragm tank with telltale drain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuthill, Wallace C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A fluid storage and expulsion system comprising a tank with an internal flexible diaphragm assembly of dual diaphragms in back-to-back relationship, at least one of which is provided with a patterned surface having fine edges such that the diaphragms are in contact along said edges without mating contact of surface areas to thereby form fluid channels which extend outwardly to the peripheral edges of the diaphragms is described. The interior wall of the tank at the juncture of tank sections is formed with a circumferential annular recess comprising an outer annular recess portion which forms a fluid collection chamber and an inner annular recess portion which accommodates the peripheral edge portions of the diaphragms and a sealing ring in clamped sealing relation therebetween. The sealing ring is perforated with radially extending passages which allow any fluid leaking or diffusing past a diaphragm to flow through the fluid channels between the diaphragms to the fluid collection chamber. Ports connectable to pressure fittings are provided in the tank sections for admission of fluids to opposite sides of the diaphragm assembly. A drain passage through the tank wall to the fluid collection chamber permits detection, analysis and removal of fluids in the collection chamber.

  9. Investigation of lightweight designs and materials for LO2 and LH2 propellant tanks for space vehicles, phase 2 and phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Full size Tug LO2 and LH2 tank configurations were defined, based on selected tank geometries. These configurations were then locally modeled for computer stress analysis. A large subscale test tank, representing the selected Tug LO2 tank, was designed and analyzed. This tank was fabricated using procedures which represented production operations. An evaluation test program was outlined and a test procedure defined. The necessary test hardware was also fabricated.

  10. Program plan for the resolution of tank vapor issues

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, J.W.; Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Since 1987, workers at the Hanford Site waste tank farms in Richland, Washington, have reported strong odors emanating from the large, underground high-level radioactive waste storage tanks. Some of these workers have complained of symptoms (e.g., headaches, nausea) related to the odors. In 1992, the U.S. Department of Energy, which manages the Hanford Site, and Westinghouse Hanford Company determined that the vapor emissions coming from the tanks had not been adequately characterized and represented a potential health risk to workers in the immediate vicinity of the tanks. At that time, workers in certain areas of the tank farms were required to use full-face, supplied-breathing-air masks to reduce their exposure to the fugitive emissions. While use of supplied breathing air reduced the health risks associated with the fugitive emissions, it introduced other health and safety risks (e.g., reduced field of vision, air-line tripping hazards, and heat stress). In 1992, an aggressive program was established to assure proper worker protection while reducing the use of supplied breathing air. This program focuses on characterization of vapors inside the tanks and industrial hygiene monitoring in the tank farms. If chemical filtration systems for mitigation of fugitive emissions are deemed necessary, the program will also oversee their design and installation. This document presents the plans for and approach to resolving the Hanford Site high-level waste tank vapor concerns. It is sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management.

  11. Optical Cryogenic Tank Level Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffell, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    Cryogenic fluids play an important role in space transportation. Liquid oxygen and hydrogen are vital fuel components for liquid rocket engines. It is also difficult to accurately measure the liquid level in the cryogenic tanks containing the liquids. The current methods use thermocouple rakes, floats, or sonic meters to measure tank level. Thermocouples have problems examining the boundary between the boiling liquid and the gas inside the tanks. They are also slow to respond to temperature changes. Sonic meters need to be mounted inside the tank, but still above the liquid level. This causes problems for full tanks, or tanks that are being rotated to lie on their side.

  12. OPERATIONAL CHALLENGES IN MIXING AND TRANSFER OF HIGH YIELD STRESS SLUDGE WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, T.; Bhatt, P.

    2009-12-07

    The ability to mobilize and transport non-Newtonian waste is essential to advance the closure of highly radioactive storage tanks. Recent waste removal operations from Tank 12H at the Savannah River Site (SRS) encountered sludge mixtures with a yield stress too high to pump. The waste removal equipment for Tank 12H was designed to mobilize and transport a diluted slurry mixture through an underground 550m long (1800 ft) 0.075m diameter (3 inch) pipeline. The transfer pump was positioned in a well casing submerged in the sludge slurry. The design allowed for mobilized sludge to enter the pump suction while keeping out larger tank debris. Data from a similar tank with known rheological properties were used to size the equipment. However, after installation and startup, field data from Tank 12H confirmed the yield stress of the slurry to exceed 40 Pa, whereas the system is designed for 10 Pa. A revision to the removal strategy was required, which involved metered dilution, blending, and mixing to ensure effective and safe transfer performance. The strategy resulted in the removal of over 255,000 kgs of insoluble solids with four discrete transfer evolutions for a total transfer volume of 2400 m{sup 3} (634,000 gallons) of sludge slurry.

  13. 131. NORTH PLANT TANK CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS FROM GB MANUFACTURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    131. NORTH PLANT TANK CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS FROM GB MANUFACTURING PLANT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Larrick, A.P.; Blackburn, L.D.; Brehm, W.F.; Carlos, W.C.; Hauptmann, J.P.; Danielson, M.J.; Westerman, R.E.; Divine, J.R.; Foster, G.M.

    1995-03-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy`s high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provides an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements: assessed. each requirement: and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of ASME SA 515, Grade 70, carbon steel.

  15. Automated in-situ inspection systems for underground storage tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromme, Chris C.; Whittaker, Warren C.

    1993-12-01

    The Army-has 20,000 underground fuel storage tanks (UST's) that must be brought into compliance with the new federal regulations by 1998. To be compliant, a tank must be closed, upgraded or replaced. This report covers the investigative research for the development of a robotic system capable of performing an in situ ultrasonic thickness inspection on the interior of a fueled UST. The robotic system is designed to meet the criteria outlined in the Draft Standard for the Robotic inspection of Underground Storage Tanks developed for the EPA. This robotic inspection will allow the Army to make an informed decision on the appropriate action to be taken for a given tank. The robotic system offers a cost effective way to monitor a tank when compared with the existing manual technology that produces the same results. The robotic technology also moves the human out of the UST which eliminates the human liability factor in the hazardous environment.

  16. Above- and underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Canning, K.; Kilbourne, A.

    1997-09-01

    Storage tanks are the primary means of storing liquid, fluid and gas products. Federal and state environmental regulations, as well as local building and fire codes, take into account leaks and spills, tank emissions, underground tank seepage and safety issues, and they define standards for tank manufacturers and owners. For specific regulatory information pertaining to your application, contact the local authorities having jurisdiction. Storage tanks listed within this product guide have been classified as underground or aboveground, with subcategories including modular, process and temporary tanks. Tank construction materials include aluminum, carbon steel, concrete, fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) and stainless steel. A variety of accessories, including automatic tank gauging systems, level monitors, leak detectors, overfill protection and tank inspection systems, also are listed. Aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) have less than 10 percent of their tank volume and piping below ground. Available in both vertical and horizontal configurations, they can be either erected in the field or fabricated in a factory. Underground storage tanks (USTs) are primarily used to contain regulated substances; USTs have at least 10% of their tank volume and piping buried belowground. Common UST construction materials include carbon steel, coated steel, cathodically protected steel and FRP. USTs are required to have corrosion protection, spill and overfill prevention and control and release detection in place by December 1998.

  17. Composite overwrapped metallic tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caudill, C. L.; Kirlin, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Work is reported for fabricating and testing the fiberglass overwrapped titanium pressure vessel for cryogenic service. Difficulties encountered in the tank liner fabrication phase involved explosive forming, vacuum annealing, chemical milling and electron beam welding. While each of these processes and the nondestructive test methods employed are normally considered to be individually reliable, the combination of poor material together with fabrication and development reversals prevented the full achievement of the desired end results. Eight tanks plus a prototype and tool proofing article were produced. Six of the vessels failed during the hydrostatic sizing operation. One of the remaining tanks was hydrostatically pressurized to burst and the other was pressurized repeatedly at 75 F from 100 psi to the operating pressure until failure occurred. As a result, it is not possible to draw firm conclusions as to the true value of the design concept due to the problems encountered in the program.

  18. Fireman's Air Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Together with NASA's Johnson Space Center, A-T-O Inc.'s Scott Aviation has developed light-weight firefighter's air tanks. New backpack system weighs only 20 pounds for 30 minute air supply, 13 pounds less than conventional firefighting tanks. They are pressurized at 4,500 psi, (twice current tanks). Made of aluminum liner wrapped by resin-impregnated glass fibers, eliminating corrosion as well as lightening the load. Redesigned face mask permits better vision. Warning device to tell fireman he is running out of air is personalized so it can't be heard by others reducing confusion in an already hectic environment. Structural Composites Inc., The Boeing Co., and Martin- Marietta Corp. have developed uses for this technology.

  19. Inducible SUMO modification of TANK alleviates its repression of TLR7 signalling

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Florian; Saul, Vera V; Pagenstecher, Axel; Wittwer, Tobias; Schmitz, Michael Lienhard

    2011-01-01

    Adaptor proteins allow temporal and spatial coordination of signalling. In this study, we show SUMOylation of the adaptor protein TANK and its interacting kinase TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). Modification of TANK by the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) at the evolutionarily conserved Lys 282 is triggered by the kinase activities of IκB kinase ɛ (IKKɛ) and TBK1. Stimulation of TLR7 leads to inducible SUMOylation of TANK, which in turn weakens the interaction with IKKɛ and thus relieves the negative function of TANK on signal propagation. Reconstitution experiments show that an absence of TANK SUMOylation impairs inducible expression of distinct TLR7-dependent target genes, providing a molecular mechanism that allows the control of TANK function. PMID:21212807

  20. Differential Draining of Parallel-Fed Propellant Tanks in Morpheus and Apollo Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric; Guardado, Hector; Hernandez, Humberto; Desai, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    Parallel-fed propellant tanks are an advantageous configuration for many spacecraft. Parallel-fed tanks allow the center of gravity (cg) to be maintained over the engine(s), as opposed to serial-fed propellant tanks which result in a cg shift as propellants are drained from tank one tank first opposite another. Parallel-fed tanks also allow for tank isolation if that is needed. Parallel tanks and feed systems have been used in several past vehicles including the Apollo Lunar Module. The design of the feedsystem connecting the parallel tank is critical to maintain balance in the propellant tanks. The design must account for and minimize the effect of manufacturing variations that could cause delta-p or mass flowrate differences, which would lead to propellant imbalance. Other sources of differential draining will be discussed. Fortunately, physics provides some self-correcting behaviors that tend to equalize any initial imbalance. The question concerning whether or not active control of propellant in each tank is required or can be avoided or not is also important to answer. In order to provide data on parallel-fed tanks and differential draining in flight for cryogenic propellants (as well as any other fluid), a vertical test bed (flying lander) for terrestrial use was employed. The Morpheus vertical test bed is a parallel-fed propellant tank system that uses passive design to keep the propellant tanks balanced. The system is operated in blow down. The Morpheus vehicle was instrumented with a capacitance level sensor in each propellant tank in order to measure the draining of propellants in over 34 tethered and 12 free flights. Morpheus did experience an approximately 20 lb/m imbalance in one pair of tanks. The cause of this imbalance will be discussed. This paper discusses the analysis, design, flight simulation vehicle dynamic modeling, and flight test of the Morpheus parallel-fed propellant. The Apollo LEM data is also examined in this summary report of the

  1. In-Tank Elutriation Test Report And Independent Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, H. H.; Adamson, D. J.; Qureshi, Z. H.; Steeper, T. J.

    2011-04-13

    elevations. Testing revealed that the most important variable was jet velocity which translates to a downstream fluid velocity in the vicinity of the suction tube which can suspend particles and potentially allow their removal from the tank. The optimum jet velocity in the vicinity of the sucti9on tube was between 1.5 and 2 ft/s (4-5 gpm). During testing at lower velocities a significant amount of slow-settling particles remained in the tank. At higher velocities a significant amount of fast-settling particles were elutriated from the tank. It should be noted that this range of velocities is appropriate for this particular geometry and particles. However, the principle of In-Tank Elutriation was proved. In-tank elutriation has the potential to save much money in tank closure. However, more work, both analytical and experimental, must be done before an improved version of the process could be applied to actual waste tanks. It is recommended that testing with more prototypic simulants be conducted. Also, scale-up criteria for elutriation and the resulting size of pilot scale test equipment require investigation during future research. In addition, it is recommended that the use of hydrocyclones be pursued in Phase 2 testing. Hydrocyclones are a precise and efficient separation tool that are frequently used in industry.

  2. Assessment of performing an MST strike in Tank 21H

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, Michael R.

    2014-09-29

    Previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) tank mixing studies performed for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project have shown that 3 Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) installed in Tank 41 are sufficient to support actinide removal by MST sorption as well as subsequent resuspension and removal of settled solids. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is pursuing MST addition into Tank 21 as part of the Large Tank Strike (LTS) project. The preliminary scope for LTS involves the use of three standard slurry pumps (installed in N, SE, and SW risers) in a Type IV tank. Due to the differences in tank size, internal interferences, and pump design, a separate mixing evaluation is required to determine if the proposed configuration will allow for MST suspension and strontium and actinide sorption. The author performed the analysis by reviewing drawings for Tank 21 [W231023] and determining the required cleaning radius or zone of influence for the pumps. This requirement was compared with previous pilot-scale MST suspension data collected for SCIX that determined the cleaning radius, or zone of influence, as a function of pump operating parameters. The author also reviewed a previous Tank 50 mixing analysis that examined the ability of standard slurry pumps to suspend sludge particles. Based on a review of the pilot-scale SCIX mixing tests and Tank 50 pump operating experience, three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend sludge and MST to effectively sorb strontium and actinides onto the MST. Using the SCIX data requires an assumption about the impact of cooling coils on slurry pump mixing. The basis for this assumption is described in this report. Using the Tank 50 operating experience shows three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend solids if the shear strength of the settled solids is less than 160 Pa. Because Tank 21 does not contain cooling coils, the shear strength could be larger.

  3. 33 CFR 157.15 - Slop tanks in tank vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING... ballast water containing an oily mixture of 3 percent or more of the oil carrying capacity. Two percent... tank. (2) A new vessel of 70,000 tons DWT or more must have at least two slop tanks. (b) Capacity....

  4. 33 CFR 157.15 - Slop tanks in tank vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING... ballast water containing an oily mixture of 3 percent or more of the oil carrying capacity. Two percent... tank. (2) A new vessel of 70,000 tons DWT or more must have at least two slop tanks. (b) Capacity....

  5. 33 CFR 157.15 - Slop tanks in tank vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING... ballast water containing an oily mixture of 3 percent or more of the oil carrying capacity. Two percent... tank. (2) A new vessel of 70,000 tons DWT or more must have at least two slop tanks. (b) Capacity....

  6. 33 CFR 157.15 - Slop tanks in tank vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING... ballast water containing an oily mixture of 3 percent or more of the oil carrying capacity. Two percent... tank. (2) A new vessel of 70,000 tons DWT or more must have at least two slop tanks. (b) Capacity....

  7. 33 CFR 157.15 - Slop tanks in tank vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING... ballast water containing an oily mixture of 3 percent or more of the oil carrying capacity. Two percent... tank. (2) A new vessel of 70,000 tons DWT or more must have at least two slop tanks. (b) Capacity....

  8. Tank plan for tank 241-C-104 retrieval testing

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    1999-05-21

    Tank 241-C-104 has been identified as one of the first tanks to be retrieved for high-level waste pretreatment and immobilization. Retrieval of the tank waste will require dilution. Laboratory tests are needed to determine the amount of dilution required for safe retrieval and transfer of feed. The proposed laboratory tests are described in this document.

  9. Tank depletion flow controller

    DOEpatents

    Georgeson, Melvin A.

    1976-10-26

    A flow control system includes two bubbler tubes installed at different levels within a tank containing such as radioactive liquid. As the tank is depleted, a differential pressure transmitter monitors pressure differences imparted by the two bubbler tubes at a remote, shielded location during uniform time intervals. At the end of each uniform interval, balance pots containing a dense liquid are valved together to equalize the pressures. The resulting sawtooth-shaped signal generated by the differential pressure transmitter is compared with a second sawtooth signal representing the desired flow rate during each time interval. Variations in the two signals are employed by a control instrument to regulate flow rate.

  10. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  11. Hybrid Composite Cryogenic Tank Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid lightweight composite tank has been created using specially designed materials and manufacturing processes. The tank is produced by using a hybrid structure consisting of at least two reinforced composite material systems. The inner composite layer comprises a distinct fiber and resin matrix suitable for cryogenic use that is a braided-sleeve (and/or a filamentwound layer) aramid fiber preform that is placed on a removable mandrel (outfitted with metallic end fittings) and is infused (vacuum-assisted resin transfer molded) with a polyurethane resin matrix with a high ductility at low temperatures. This inner layer is allowed to cure and is encapsulated with a filamentwound outer composite layer of a distinct fiber resin system. Both inner and outer layer are in intimate contact, and can also be cured at the same time. The outer layer is a material that performs well for low temperature pressure vessels, and it can rely on the inner layer to act as a liner to contain the fluids. The outer layer can be a variety of materials, but the best embodiment may be the use of a continuous tow of carbon fiber (T-1000 carbon, or others), or other high-strength fibers combined with a high ductility epoxy resin matrix, or a polyurethane matrix, which performs well at low temperatures. After curing, the mandrel can be removed from the outer layer. While the hybrid structure is not limited to two particular materials, a preferred version of the tank has been demonstrated on an actual test tank article cycled at high pressures with liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen, and the best version is an inner layer of PBO (poly-pphenylenebenzobisoxazole) fibers with a polyurethane matrix and an outer layer of T-1000 carbon with a high elongation epoxy matrix suitable for cryogenic temperatures. A polyurethane matrix has also been used for the outer layer. The construction method is ideal because the fiber and resin of the inner layer has a high strain to failure at cryogenic

  12. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  13. Tanks Emissions for TRI Reporting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A presentation on overcoming the challenges of TRI reporting for and monitoring the hazardous air emissions from storage tanks, including a discussion on the most accurate and feasible methods of correctly reporting tank emissions to the TRI Program.

  14. TankSIM: A Cryogenic Tank Performance Prediction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolshinskiy, L. G.; Hedayat, A.; Hastings, L. J.; Moder, J. P.; Schnell, A. R.; Sutherlin, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    Developed for predicting the behavior of cryogenic liquids inside propellant tanks under various environmental and operating conditions. Provides a multi-node analysis of pressurization, ullage venting and thermodynamic venting systems (TVS) pressure control using axial jet or spray bar TVS. Allows user to combine several different phases for predicting the liquid behavior for the entire flight mission timeline or part of it. Is a NASA in-house code, based on FORTRAN 90-95 and Intel Visual FORTRAN compiler, but can be used on any other platform (Unix-Linux, Compaq Visual FORTRAN, etc.). The last Version 7, released on December 2014, included detailed User's Manual. Includes the use of several RefPROP subroutines for calculating fluid properties.

  15. F-AREA PUMP TANK 1 MIXING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Tamburello, D; Richard Dimenna, R; Si Lee, S

    2008-11-05

    The F-area pump tanks are used to transfer supernate, sludge, and other materials. In any transfer, the solution must stay well mixed without allowing particulate matter to settle out of the liquid and, thus, accumulate in the bottom of the pump tank. Recently, the pulse jet mixing in F-area Pump Tank 1 (FPT1) has been decommissioned. An analysis of the liquid transfer through FPT1 has been performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to assess whether or not the velocities throughout the tank will remain high enough to keep all particulate suspended using only transfer and recirculation pumps. The following paragraph is an abbreviated synopsis of the transfer procedure for FPT1 [1, 2]. Prior to a transfer, FPT1 begins to be filled with inhibited water through the inlet transfer line (TI). When the tank liquid level reaches 52.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom, the recirculation pump (RI and RO) is activated. At a tank liquid level of 72.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom, the outlet transfer line (TO) is activated to reduce the liquid level in FPT1 and transfer inhibited water to H-area Pump Tank 7 (HPT7). The liquid level is reduced down to 39.5 inches, with an allowable range from 37.5 to 41.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom. HPT7 goes through a similar procedure as FPT1 until both have tank liquid levels of approximately 39.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom. The transfer of inhibited water continues until a steady-state has been reached in both pump tanks. At this point, the supernate/sludge transfer begins with a minimum flow rate of 70 gpm and an average flow rate of 150 gpm. After the transfer is complete, the pump tanks (both FPT1 and HPT7) are pumped down to between 20.5 and 22.5 inches (above absolute bottom) and then flushed with 25,000 gallons of inhibited water to remove any possible sludge heal. After the flushing, the pump tanks are emptied. Note that the tank liquid level is measured using diptubes. Figure 2

  16. PROGRESS IN HANFORDS DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) INTEGRITY PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    BERMAN HS

    2008-01-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection has an extensive integrity assessment program for the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tank System. The DOE Orders and environmental protection regulations provide the guidelines for the activities used to inspect and maintain 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), the waste evaporator, and ancillary equipment that compose this system. This program has been reviewed by oversight and regulatory bodies and found to comply with the established guidelines. The basis for the DOE Order 435.1-1 for tank integrity comes from the Tank Structural Integrity Paneled by Brookhaven National Laboratory during the late 1990s. These guidelines established criteria for performing Non-Destructive Examination (NDE), for acceptance of the NDE results, for waste chemistry control, and for monitoring the tanks. The environmental regulations mirror these requirements and allow for the tank integrity program to provide compliant storage of the tanks. Both sets of requirements provide additional guidance for the protection of ancillary equipment. CH2M HILL uses two methods of NDE: visual inspection and Ultrasonic Testing (UT). The visual inspection program examines the primary tank and secondary liner of the DST. The primary tank is examined both on the interior surface above the waste in the tank and on the exterior surface facing the annulus of the DST. The interior surface of the tank liner is examined at the same time as the outer surface of the primary tank. The UT program examines representative areas of the primary tank and secondary liner by deploying equipment in the annulus of the tank. Both programs have led to the development of new equipment for remote inspection of the tanks. Compact camera and enhanced lighting systems have been designed and deployed through narrow access ports (called risers) into the tanks. The UT program has designed two generations of crawlers and equipment for deployment through risers into the thermally hot and

  17. Progress in Hanford's Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, D.C.; Washenfelder, D.J.; Boomer, K.D.

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection has an extensive integrity assessment program for the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tank System. The DOE Orders and environmental protection regulations provide the guidelines for the activities used to inspect and maintain 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), the waste evaporator, and ancillary equipment that compose this system. This program has been reviewed by oversight and regulatory bodies and found to comply with the established guidelines. The basis for the DOE Order 435.1-1 for tank integrity comes from the Tank Structural Integrity Panel led by Brookhaven National Laboratory during the late 1990's. These guidelines established criteria for performing Non-Destructive Examination (NDE), for acceptance of the NDE results, for waste chemistry control, and for monitoring the tanks. The environmental regulations mirror these requirements and allow for the tank integrity program to provide compliant storage of the tanks. Both sets of requirements provide additional guidance for the protection of ancillary equipment. CH2M HILL uses two methods of NDE: visual inspection and Ultrasonic Testing (UT). The visual inspection program examines the primary tank and secondary liner of the DST. The primary tank is examined both on the interior surface above the waste in the tank and on the exterior surface facing the annulus of the DST. The interior surface of the tank liner is examined at the same time as the outer surface of the primary tank. The UT program examines representative areas of the primary tank and secondary liner by deploying equipment in the annulus of the tank. Both programs have led to the development of new equipment for remote inspection of the tanks. Compact camera and enhanced lighting systems have been designed and deployed through narrow access ports (called risers) into the tanks. The UT program has designed two generations of crawlers and equipment for deployment through risers into the thermally hot

  18. Computational Analyses of Pressurization in Cryogenic Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Lee, Chun P.; Field, Robert E.; Ryan, Harry

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive numerical framework utilizing multi-element unstructured CFD and rigorous real fluid property routines has been developed to carry out analyses of propellant tank and delivery systems at NASA SSC. Traditionally CFD modeling of pressurization and mixing in cryogenic tanks has been difficult primarily because the fluids in the tank co-exist in different sub-critical and supercritical states with largely varying properties that have to be accurately accounted for in order to predict the correct mixing and phase change between the ullage and the propellant. For example, during tank pressurization under some circumstances, rapid mixing of relatively warm pressurant gas with cryogenic propellant can lead to rapid densification of the gas and loss of pressure in the tank. This phenomenon can cause serious problems during testing because of the resulting decrease in propellant flow rate. With proper physical models implemented, CFD can model the coupling between the propellant and pressurant including heat transfer and phase change effects and accurately capture the complex physics in the evolving flowfields. This holds the promise of allowing the specification of operational conditions and procedures that could minimize the undesirable mixing and heat transfer inherent in propellant tank operation. In our modeling framework, we incorporated two different approaches to real fluids modeling: (a) the first approach is based on the HBMS model developed by Hirschfelder, Beuler, McGee and Sutton and (b) the second approach is based on a cubic equation of state developed by Soave, Redlich and Kwong (SRK). Both approaches cover fluid properties and property variation spanning sub-critical gas and liquid states as well as the supercritical states. Both models were rigorously tested and properties for common fluids such as oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen etc were compared against NIST data in both the sub-critical as well as supercritical regimes.

  19. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS IN SUPPORT OF INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL IN 241-AP TANK FARMS

    SciTech Connect

    TC MACKEY; FG ABATT; MW RINKER

    2009-01-14

    The essential difference between Revision 1 and the original issue of this report is in the spring constants used to model the anchor bolt response for the anchor bolts that tie the steel dome of the primary tank to the concrete tank dome. Consequently, focus was placed on the changes in the anchor bolt responses, and a full reevaluation of all tank components was judged to be unnecessary. To confirm this judgement, primary tank stresses from the revised analysis of the BES-BEC case are compared to the original analysis and it was verified that the changes are small, as expected.

  20. VOLUMETRIC TANK TESTING: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the technical findings of an EPA study on volumetric tank testing. It describes the results of the EPA study, which evaluated the viability of volumetric tank tests as a means of detecting leaks in underground storage tanks. It explains the accuracy requi...

  1. VOLUMETRIC TANK TESTING: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the technical findings of an EPA study on volumetric tank testing. The results of this study, which evaluated the viability of volumetric tank tests as a means of detecting leaks in underground storage tanks, are described. Also, the accuracy requirements s...

  2. SLUDGE BATCH 7B QUALIFICATION ACTIVITIES WITH SRS TANK FARM SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

    2011-11-16

    Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry - Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) - be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). With the tight schedule constraints for SB7b and the potential need for caustic addition to allow for an acceptable glass processing window, the qualification for SB7b was approached differently than past batches. For SB7b, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 and a Tank 40 sample for qualification. SRNL did not receive the qualification sample from Tank 51 nor did it simulate all of the Tank Farm washing and decanting operations. Instead, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 SB7b sample from samples of Tank 7 and Tank 51, along with a wash solution to adjust the supernatant composition to the final SB7b Tank 51 Tank Farm projections. SRNL then prepared a sample to represent SB7b in Tank 40 by combining portions of the SRNL-prepared Tank 51 SB7b sample and a Tank 40 Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) sample. The blended sample was 71% Tank 40 (SB7a) and 29% Tank 7/Tank 51 on an insoluble solids basis. This sample is referred to as the SB7b Qualification Sample. The blend represented the highest projected Tank 40 heel (as of May 25, 2011), and thus, the highest

  3. Plating Tank Control Software

    SciTech Connect

    Krafcik, John

    1998-03-01

    The Plating Tank Control Software is a graphical user interface that controls and records plating process conditions for plating in high aspect ratio channels that require use of low current and long times. The software is written for a Pentium II PC with an 8 channel data acquisition card, and the necessary shunt resistors for measuring currents in the millampere range.

  4. Hybrid Tank Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Researchers have accomplished great advances in pressure vessel technology by applying high-performance composite materials as an over-wrap to metal-lined pressure vessels. These composite over-wrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) are used in many areas, from air tanks for firefighters and compressed natural gas tanks for automobiles, to pressurant tanks for aerospace launch vehicles and propellant tanks for satellites and deep-space exploration vehicles. NASA and commercial industry are continually striving to find new ways to make high-performance pressure vessels safer and more reliable. While COPVs are much lighter than all-metal pressure vessels, the composite material, typically graphite fibers with an epoxy matrix resin, is vulnerable to impact damage. Carbon fiber is most frequently used for the high-performance COPV applications because of its high strength-to-weight characteristics. Other fibers have been used, but with limitations. For example, fiberglass is inexpensive but much heavier than carbon. Aramid fibers are impact resistant but have less strength than carbon and their performance tends to deteriorate.

  5. Investigation of lightweight designs and materials for LO2 and LH2 propellant tanks for space vehicles, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Design, analysis, and fabrication studies were performed on nonintegral (suspended) tanks using a representative space tug design. The LH2 and LO2 tank concept selection was developed. Tank geometries and support relationships were investigated using tug design propellant inertias and ullage pressures, then compared based on total tug systems effects. The tank combinations which resulted in the maximum payload were selected. Tests were conducted on samples of membrane material which was processed in a manner simulating production tank fabrication operations to determine fabrication effects on the fracture toughness of the tank material. Fracture mechanics analyses were also performed to establish a preliminary set of allowables for initial defects.

  6. Quality Assurance Project Plan for waste tank vapor characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Suydam, C.D. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan, WHC-SD-WM-QAPP-013, applies to four separate vapor sampling tasks associated with Phases 1 and 2 of the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program and support of the Rotary Mode Core Drilling Portable Exhauster Permit. These tasks focus on employee safety concerns and tank ventilation emission control design requirements. Previous characterization efforts and studies are of insufficient accuracy to adequately define the problem. It is believed that the technology and maturity of sampling and analytical methods can be sufficiently developed to allow the characterization of the constituents of the tank vapor space.

  7. Reusable Launch Vehicle Tank/Intertank Sizing Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, John T.; Myers, David E.; Martin, Carl J.

    2000-01-01

    A tank and intertank sizing tool that includes effects of major design drivers, and which allows parametric studies to be performed, has been developed and calibrated against independent representative results. Although additional design features, such as bulkheads and field joints, are not currently included in the process, the improved level of fidelity has allowed parametric studies to be performed which have resulted in understanding of key tank and intertank design drivers, design sensitivities, and definition of preferred design spaces. The sizing results demonstrated that there were many interactions between the configuration parameters of internal/external payload, vehicle fineness ratio (half body angle), fuel arrangement (LOX-forward/LOX-aft), number of tanks, and tank shape/arrangement (number of lobes).

  8. Reusable LH2 tank technology demonstration through ground test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianca, C.; Greenberg, H. S.; Johnson, S. E.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents the project plan to demonstrate, by March 1997, the reusability of an integrated composite LH2 tank structure, cryogenic insulation, and thermal protection system (TPS). The plan includes establishment of design requirements and a comprehensive trade study to select the most suitable Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank system (RHCTS) within the most suitable of 4 candidate structural configurations. The 4 vehicles are winged body with the capability to deliver 25,000 lbs of payload to a circular 220 nm, 51.6 degree inclined orbit (also 40,000 lbs to a 28.5 inclined 150 nm orbit). A prototype design of the selected RHCTS is established to identify the construction, fabrication, and stress simulation and test requirements necessary in an 8 foot diameter tank structure/insulation/TPS test article. A comprehensive development test program supports the 8 foot test article development and involves the composite tank itself, cryogenic insulation, and integrated tank/insulation/TPS designs. The 8 foot diameter tank will contain the integrated cryogenic insulation and TPS designs resulting from this development and that of the concurrent lightweight durable TPS program. Tank ground testing will include 330 cycles of LH2 filling, pressurization, body loading, depressurization, draining, and entry heating.

  9. DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Vormelker, P.

    2009-07-31

    Heavy water with varying chemistries is currently being stored in over 6700 drums in L- and K-areas and in seven tanks in L-, K-, and C-areas. A detailed evaluation of the potential degradation of the drums and tanks, specific to their design and service conditions, has been performed to support the demonstration of their integrity throughout the desired storage period. The 55-gallon drums are of several designs with Type 304 stainless steel as the material of construction. The tanks have capacities ranging from 8000 to 45600 gallons and are made of Type 304 stainless steel. The drums and tanks were designed and fabricated to national regulations, codes and standards per procurement specifications for the Savannah River Site. The drums have had approximately 25 leakage failures over their 50+ years of use with the last drum failure occurring in 2003. The tanks have experienced no leaks to date. The failures in the drums have occurred principally near the bottom weld, which attaches the bottom to the drum sidewall. Failures have occurred by pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking and are attributable, in part, to the presence of chloride ions in the heavy water. Probable degradation mechanisms for the continued storage of heavy water were evaluated that could lead to future failures in the drum or tanks. This evaluation will be used to support establishment of an inspection plan which will include susceptible locations, methods, and frequencies for the drums and tanks to avoid future leakage failures.

  10. PCB extraction from ORNL tank WC-14 using a unique solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, G.A.; Lucero, A.J.; Koran, L.J.; Turner, E.N.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the development work of the Engineering Development Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for an organic extraction method for removing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from tank WC-14. Tank WC-14 is part of the ORNL liquid low-level radioactive tank waste system and does not meet new secondary containment and leak detection regulations. These regulations require the tank to be taken out of service, and remediated before tank removal. To remediate the tank, the PCBs must be removed; the tank contents can then be transferred to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks before final disposal. The solvent being used for the PCB extraction experiments is triethylamine, an aliphatic amine that is soluble in water below 60{degrees}F but insoluble in water above 90{degrees}F. This property will allow the extraction to be carried out under fully miscible conditions within the tank; then, after tank conditions have been changed, the solvent will not be miscible with water and phase separation will occur. Phase separation between sludge, water, and solvent will allow solvent (loaded with PCBs) to be removed from the tank for disposal. After removing the PCBs from the sludge and removing the sludge from the tank, administrative control of the tank can be transferred to ORNL`s Environmental Restoration Program, where priorities will be set for tank removal. Experiments with WC-14 sludge show that greater than 90% extraction efficiencies can be achieved with one extraction stage and that PCB concentration in the sludge can be reduced to below 2 ppm in three extractions. It is anticipated that three extractions will be necessary to reduce the PCB concentration to below 2 ppm during field applications. The experiments conducted with tank WC-14 sludge transferred less than 0.03% of the original alpha contamination and less than 0.002% of the original beta contamination.

  11. Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank T-102

    SciTech Connect

    Remund, K.M.; Hartley, S.A.; Toth, J.J.; Tingey, J.M.; Heasler, P.G.; Ryan, F.M.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Tank 241-T-102 (hereafter referred to as T-102) is a 530,000 gallon single-shell waste tank located in the 200 West T Tank farm at the Hanford Site. In 1993, two cores were taken from this tank and analysis of the cores was conducted by Battelle`s 325-A Laboratory. Characterization of the waste in this tank was conducted to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-44-05. Tank T-102 was constructed in 1943 and put into service in 1945; it is the second tank in a cascade system with Tanks T-101 and T-103. During its process history, Tank T-102 received mostly Metal Waste (MW) from the Bismuth Phosphate Process and Coating Waste (CW) from the REDOX Process via the cascade from Tank T-101 and in transfers from Tank C-102. In 1956, the MW was removed from T-102 by pumping and sluicing`. This tank was declared inactive and retired from service in 1976. In 1981, intrusion prevention and stabilization measures were taken to isolate the waste in T-102. The tank presently contains approximately 121,100 liters (32,000 gallons) of liquid and sludge-like waste. Historically, there are no unreviewed safety issues associated with this tank and none were revealed after reviewing the data from the latest core sampling event in 1993. An extensive set of analytical measurements was performed on the core composites. The major constituents (>0.5 wt%) of the waste are water, aluminum, sodium, iron, and nitrate, ordered from the largest concentration to the smallest. The concentrations and inventories of these and other constituents are given. The results of the chemical analyses have been compared to the dangerous waste codes in the Washington Dangerous Waste Regulations (WAC 173-303).

  12. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks....

  13. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks....

  14. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks....

  15. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks....

  16. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks....

  17. 49 CFR 179.301 - Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-unit tank car tanks. 179.301 Section 179.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.301 Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) In addition...

  18. 49 CFR 179.201 - Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to non-pressure tank car tanks. 179.201 Section 179.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.201 Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks....

  19. 49 CFR 179.201 - Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to non-pressure tank car tanks. 179.201 Section 179.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.201 Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks....

  20. 49 CFR 179.301 - Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-unit tank car tanks. 179.301 Section 179.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.301 Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) In addition...

  1. 49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... liquid tank car tanks. 179.400 Section 179.400 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400 General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank...

  2. 49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... liquid tank car tanks. 179.400 Section 179.400 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400 General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank...

  3. 49 CFR 179.101 - Individual specification requirements applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to pressure tank car tanks. 179.101 Section 179.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT... tank car tanks. Editorial Note: At 66 FR 45186, Aug. 28, 2001, an amendment published amending a...

  4. 49 CFR 179.301 - Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-unit tank car tanks. 179.301 Section 179.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.301 Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) In addition...

  5. 49 CFR 179.201 - Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to non-pressure tank car tanks. 179.201 Section 179.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.201 Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks....

  6. 49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... liquid tank car tanks. 179.400 Section 179.400 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400 General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank...

  7. 49 CFR 179.301 - Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-unit tank car tanks. 179.301 Section 179.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.301 Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks. (a)...

  8. FY2003 Visual examination of In Tank and Tank annuli at 241-SY tank farm

    SciTech Connect

    AFTANAS, B.L.

    2003-07-08

    This report documents the completion of the FY 2003 in-tank and annulus video inspections for the 241-SY tank farms. Representative photos of observed anomalies, water-streaks, corrosion deposits, pitting, and in-tank strains on the 241-SY-101, 102 & 103

  9. Filament wound metal lined propellant tanks for future Earth-to-orbit transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, Ian O.; Davis, Robert B.; Freeman, William T., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    For future Earth-to-orbit transport vehicles, reusability and lighter weights are sought for the main propellant tanks. To achieve this, a filament wound tank with a metal liner and an intermediate layer of foam-filled honeycomb is proposed. A hydrogen tank is used as an example. To accommodate mismatches in the expansion of liner and overwrap a design is proposed wherin the liner is configured so that the extension of the liner under pressure matches the expected contraction of the same liner due to the presence of a cryogen. In operation, the liner is pressurized at a rate such that the pressure strain matches the contraction due to decrease in temperature. As an alternate approach, compressive pre-stress is placed in the liner such that it will not separate from the overwrap. A finite element program is used to show stresses in the liner and overwrap for various tank pressures for the pre-stressed liner concept. A fracture mechanics analysis is made of the liners to determine tank life. The tank concept shown has a similar weight to the Shuttle external hydrogen tank, but the filament wound tank is expected to be reusable. Integration of the propellant tanks into a future transport vehicle is discussed.

  10. Proposed procedure for exemption from the requirement for segregated ballast tanks (SBT), dedicated clean ballast tanks (CBT), or a crude oil washing (COW) system for existing tank vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-22

    A proposed procedure for exemption from the requirement for segregated ballast tanks (SBT), dedicated clean ballast tanks (CBT), or a crude oil washing (COW) system for existing tank vessels of 40,000 dwt and over, in domestic trade has been issued by the US Coast Guard under the Port and Tanker Safety Act. Exemption would be allowed if shore-based reception facilities are a preferred method of handling dirty ballast and if such facilities are adequate and readily available. Adoption of the proposal would recognize that in certain trades where existing tank vessels have set loading locations, it is as effective to use shore-based reception facilities for the treatment of oil residues as it is to use SBT, CBT, or COW. The proposal requires, among others, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits for the reception facilities, and contains a provision for revocation of exemptions upon noncompliance with regulations. Comments must be received by 7/7/80.

  11. Storage tanks under earthquake loading

    SciTech Connect

    Rammerstorfer, F.G.; Scharf, K. ); Fisher, F.D. )

    1990-11-01

    This is a state-of-the-art review of various treatments of earthquake loaded liquid filled shells by the methods of earthquake engineering, fluid dynamics, structural and soil dynamics, as well as the theory of stability and computational mechanics. Different types of tanks and different possibilities of tank failure will be discussed. The authors will emphasize cylindrical above-ground liquid storage tanks with vertical axis. But many of the treatments are also valid for other tank configurations. For the calculation of the dynamically activated pressure due to an earthquake a fluid-structure-soil interaction problem must be solved. The review will describe the methods, proposed by different authors, to solve this interaction problem. To study the dynamic behavior of liquid storage tanks, one must distinguish between anchored and unanchored tanks. In the case of an anchored tank, the tank bottom edge is fixed to the foundation. If the tank is unanchored, partial lifting of the tank's bottom may occur, and a strongly nonlinear problem has to be solved. They will compare the various analytical and numerical models applicable to this problem, in combination with experimental data. An essential aim of this review is to give a summary of methods applicable as tools for an earthquake resistant design, which can be used by an engineer engaged in the construction of liquid storage tanks.

  12. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-04-01

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. It is probable that tank 241-C-112 exceeds the 1,000 g-mol inventory criteria established for the Ferrocyanide USQ; however, extensive energetic analysis of the waste has determined a maximum exothermic value of -9 cal/g dry waste. This value is substantially below any levels of concern (-75 cal/g). In addition, an investigation of potential mechanisms to generate concentration levels of radionuclides high enough to be of concern was performed. No credible mechanism was postulated that could initiate the formation of such concentration levels in the tank. Tank 241-C-112 waste is a complex material made up primarily of water and inert salts. The insoluble solids are a mixture of phosphates, sulfates, and hydroxides in combination with aluminum, calcium, iron, nickel, and uranium. Disodium nickel ferrocyanide and sodium cesium nickel ferrocyanide probably exist in the tank; however, there appears to have been significant degradation of this material since the waste was initially settled in the tank.

  13. Small-Scale Metal Tanks for High Pressure Storage of Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, Adam (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Small scale metal tanks for high-pressure storage of fluids having tank factors of more than 5000 meters and volumes of ten cubic inches or less featuring arrays of interconnected internal chambers having at least inner walls thinner than gage limitations allow. The chambers may be arranged as multiple internal independent vessels. Walls of chambers that are also portions of external tank walls may be arcuate on the internal and/or external surfaces, including domed. The tanks may be shaped adaptively and/or conformally to an application, including, for example, having one or more flat outer walls and/or having an annular shape. The tanks may have dual-purpose inlet/outlet conduits of may have separate inlet and outlet conduits. The tanks are made by fusion bonding etched metal foil layers patterned from slices of a CAD model of the tank. The fusion bonded foil stack may be further machined.

  14. Industrial mixing techniques for Hanford double-shell tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Daymo, E.A.

    1997-09-01

    Jet mixer pumps are currently the baseline technology for sludge mobilization and mixing in one-million gallon double-shell tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites. Improvements to the baseline jet mixer pump technology are sought because jet mixer pumps have moving parts that may fail or require maintenance. Moreover, jet mixers are relatively expensive, they heat the waste, and, in some cases, may not mobilize enough of the sludge. This report documents a thorough literature search for commercially available applicable mixing technologies that could be used for double-shell tank sludge mobilization and mixing. Textbooks, research articles, conference proceedings, mixing experts, and the Thomas Register were consulted to identify applicable technologies. While there are many commercial methods that could be used to mobilize sludge or mix the contents of a one-million gallon tank, few will work given the geometrical constraints (e.g., the mixer must fit through a 1.07-m-diameter riser) or the tank waste properties (e.g., the sludge has such a high yield stress that it generally does not flow under its own weight). Pulsed fluid jets and submersible Flygt mixers have already been identified at Hanford and Savannah River Sites for double-shell tank mixing applications. While these mixing technologies may not be applicable for double-shell tanks that have a thick sludge layer at the bottom (since too many of these mixers would need to be installed to mobilize most of the sludge), they may have applications in tanks that do not have a settled solids layer. Retrieval projects at Hanford and other U.S. Department of Energy sites are currently evaluating the effectiveness of these mixing techniques for tank waste applications. The literature search did not reveal any previously unknown technologies that should be considered for sludge mobilization and mixing in one-million gallon double-shell tanks.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF ANSYS FINITE ELEMENT MODELS FOR SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) & DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    JULYK, L.J.; MACKEY, T.C.

    2003-06-19

    Summary report of ANSYS finite element models developed for dome load analysis of Hanford 100-series single-shell tanks and double-shell tanks. Document provides user interface for selecting proper tank model and changing of analysis parameters for tank specific analysis. Current dome load restrictions for the Hanford Site underground waste storage tanks are based on existing analyses of record (AOR) that evaluated the tanks for a specific set of design load conditions. However, greater flexibility is required in controlling dome loadings applied to the tanks due to day-to-day operations and waste retrieval activities. This requires the development of an analytical model with sufficient detail to evaluate various dome loading conditions not specifically addressed in the AOR.

  16. Investigation of low-cost LNG vehicle fuel tank concepts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, J.E.; Siahpush, A.

    1998-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate development of a low-cost liquid natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel storage tank with low fuel boil-off, low tank pressure, and high safety margin. One of the largest contributors to the cost of converting a vehicle to LNG is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. To minimize heat leak from the surroundings into the low-temperature fuel, these tanks are designed as cryogenic dewars with double walls separated by an evacuated insulation space containing multi-layer insulation. The cost of these fuel tanks is driven by this double-walled construction, both in terms of materials and labor. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that would allow for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Results of this study have validated the benefit of vacuum/MLI insulation for LNG fuel tanks and the difficulty in identifying viable alternatives. The thickness of a non-vacuum insulation layer would have to be unreasonably large to achieve an acceptable non-venting hold time. Reasonable hold times could be achieved by using an auxiliary tank to accept boil-off vapor from a non-vacuum insulated primary tank, if the vapor in the auxiliary tank can be stored at high pressure. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that allowed for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Thermodynamic relations were developed for analyzing the fuel tank transient response to heat transfer, venting of vapor, and out-flow of either vapor or liquid. One of the major costs associated with conversion of a vehicle to LNG fuel is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. The cost of these tanks is driven by the cryogenic nature of the fuel and by the fundamental design requirements of long non-venting hold times and low storage pressure.

  17. External Tank (ET) Foam Thermal/Structural Analysis Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, David F.; Ungar, Eugene K.; Chang, Li C.; Malroy, Eric T.; Stephan, Ryan A.

    2008-01-01

    An independent study was performed to assess the pre-launch thermally induced stresses in the Space Shuttle External Tank Bipod closeout and Ice/Frost ramps (IFRs). Finite element models with various levels of detail were built that included the three types of foam (BX-265, NCFI 24-124, and PDL 1034) and the underlying structure and bracketry. Temperature profiles generated by the thermal analyses were input to the structural models to calculate the stress levels. An area of high stress in the Bipod closeout was found along the aluminum tank wall near the phenolic insulator and along the phenolic insulator itself. This area of high stress might be prone to cracking and possible delamination. There is a small region of slightly increased stress in the NCFI 24-124 foam near its joint with the Bipod closeout BX-265 foam. The calculated stresses in the NCFI 24-124 acreage foam are highest at the NCFI 24-124/PDL 1034/tank wall interface under the LO2 and LH2 IFRs. The highest calculated stresses in the LH2 NCFI 24-124 foam are higher than in similar locations in the LO2 IFR. This finding is consistent with the dissection results of IFRs on ET-120.

  18. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. Analysis of the process history of the tank as well as studies of simulants provided valuable information about the physical and chemical condition of the waste. This information, in combination with the analysis of the tank waste, sup ports the conclusion that an exothermic reaction in tank 241-C-112 is not plausible. Therefore, the contents of tank 241-C-112 present no imminent threat to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public, or the environment from its forrocyanide inventory. Because an exothermic reaction is not credible, the consequences of this accident scenario, as promulgated by the General Accounting Office, are not applicable.

  19. Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank B-111

    SciTech Connect

    Remund, K.M.; Tingey, J.M.; Heasler, P.G.; Toth, J.J.; Ryan, F.M.; Hartley, S.A.; Simpson, D.B.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Tank 241-B-111 (hereafter referred to as B-111) is a 2,006,300 liter (530,000 gallon) single-shell waste tank located in the 200 East B tank farm at Hanford. Two cores were taken from this tank in 1991 and analysis of the cores was conducted by Battelle`s 325-A Laboratory in 1993. Characterization of the waste in this tank is being done to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-44-05. Tank B-111 was constructed in 1943 and put into service in 1945; it is the second tank in a cascade system with Tanks B-110 and B-112. During its process history, B-111 received mostly second-decontamination-cycle waste and fission products waste via the cascade from Tank B-110. This tank was retired from service in 1976, and in 1978 the tank was assumed to have leaked 30,300 liters (8,000 gallons). The tank was interim stabilized and interim isolated in 1985. The tank presently contains approximately 893,400 liters (236,000 gallons) of sludge-like waste and approximately 3,800 liters (1,000 gallons) of supernate. Historically, there are no unreviewed safety issues associated with this tank and none were revealed after reviewing the data from the latest core sampling event in 1991. An extensive set of analytical measurements was performed on the core composites. The major constituents (> 0.5 wt%) measured in the waste are water, sodium, nitrate, phosphate, nitrite, bismuth, iron, sulfate and silicon, ordered from largest concentration to the smallest. The concentrations and inventories of these and other constituents are given. Since Tanks B-110 and B-111 have similar process histories, their sampling results were compared. The results of the chemical analyses have been compared to the dangerous waste codes in the Washington Dangerous Waste Regulations (WAC 173-303). This assessment was conducted by comparing tank analyses against dangerous waste characteristics `D` waste codes; and against state waste codes.

  20. Safe jack-up method permits repairs of tank bottoms and foundations

    SciTech Connect

    de Wit, J.

    1991-11-04

    The oil and chemical industries use many thousands of steel tanks to store crude oil, oil products, and chemical liquids. The majority of these tanks are 30-40 years old. Tank bottoms are likely to begin leaking in the coming years, as these tanks get older. The European technique of jacking up a tank and repairing its foundation allows the thorough inspection of the underside of the tank bottom and the removal of saturated foundation material. And the possibility of soil and groundwater pollution is reduced to a minimum. With good, regular maintenance, the lifetime of a storage tank is very long. But experience has shown that special attention should be paid to the tank's bottom. Tank bottoms are only 5 or 6 mm thick, and in the last 10 years, an increasing number of leaks in tank bottoms have been reported. Tank foundations are affected by these leaks. This article describes the resulting procedure, which is used successfully in many European countries, but is not yet common in the U.S.

  1. Model based, sensor-directed remediation of underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, R.W.; Thunborg, S. )

    1990-06-01

    Sensor-rich, intelligent robots that function with respect to models of their environment have significant potential to reduce the time and cost for the cleanup of hazardous waste while increasing operator safety. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is performing technology development and experimental investigations into the application of intelligent robot control technology to the problem of cleaning up waste stored in underground tanks. The tasks addressed in the SNL experiments are in situ physical characterizations of underground storage tanks (USTs) as well as the contained waste and the removal of the waste from the tank both for laboratory analysis and as part of the tank cleanup process. Both fully automatic and manual robot control technologies are being developed and demonstrated. The SNL-developed concept of human-assisted computer control will be employed whenever manual control of the robot is required. The UST Robot Technology Development Laboratory (URTDL) consists of a commercial gantry robot modified to allow hybrid force/position control.

  2. 46 CFR 153.266 - Tank linings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank linings. 153.266 Section 153.266 Shipping COAST... Tank linings. A tank lining must be: (a) At least as elastic as the tank material; and (b) Applied or attached to the tank as recommended by the lining manufacturer. Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment...

  3. 27 CFR 19.183 - Scale tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scale tanks. 19.183... Tank Requirements § 19.183 Scale tanks. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this..., the tank must be mounted on scales and the contents of the tank must be determined by weight....

  4. 27 CFR 19.183 - Scale tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scale tanks. 19.183... Tank Requirements § 19.183 Scale tanks. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this..., the tank must be mounted on scales and the contents of the tank must be determined by weight....

  5. 27 CFR 19.183 - Scale tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scale tanks. 19.183... Tank Requirements § 19.183 Scale tanks. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this..., the tank must be mounted on scales and the contents of the tank must be determined by weight....

  6. 27 CFR 19.183 - Scale tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scale tanks. 19.183... Tank Requirements § 19.183 Scale tanks. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this..., the tank must be mounted on scales and the contents of the tank must be determined by weight....

  7. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  8. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  9. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  10. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  11. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  12. 46 CFR 154.420 - Tank design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.420 Tank design. (a) The structure of an integral tank must meet the deep tank scantling standards.... (b) The structure of an integral tank must be designed and shown by calculation to withstand...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 23.1013 Section 23.1013... tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank must be installed to— (1) Meet the requirements of § 23.967 (a...) Expansion space. Oil tank expansion space must be provided so that— (1) Each oil tank used with...

  14. 27 CFR 25.35 - Tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tanks. 25.35 Section 25.35... TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Construction and Equipment Equipment § 25.35 Tanks. Each stationary tank, vat, cask... contents of tanks or containers in lieu of providing each tank or container with a measuring device....

  15. 49 CFR 230.116 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oil tanks. 230.116 Section 230.116 Transportation... Locomotive Tanks § 230.116 Oil tanks. The oil tanks on oil burning steam locomotives shall be maintained free... adjacent to the fuel supply tank or in another safe location; (b) Closes automatically when tripped...

  16. 46 CFR 154.439 - Tank design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.439 Section 154.439 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.439 Tank design. An independent tank type A must meet the deep tank standard of the...: (a) Withstand the internal pressure determined under § 154.407; (b) Withstand loads from...

  17. 46 CFR 154.439 - Tank design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tank design. 154.439 Section 154.439 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type A § 154.439 Tank design. An independent tank type A must meet the deep tank standard of...

  18. 46 CFR 154.439 - Tank design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tank design. 154.439 Section 154.439 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type A § 154.439 Tank design. An independent tank type A must meet the deep tank standard of...

  19. 46 CFR 154.439 - Tank design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tank design. 154.439 Section 154.439 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type A § 154.439 Tank design. An independent tank type A must meet the deep tank standard of...

  20. 46 CFR 154.439 - Tank design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tank design. 154.439 Section 154.439 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type A § 154.439 Tank design. An independent tank type A must meet the deep tank standard of...

  1. 46 CFR 154.420 - Tank design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.420 Tank design. (a) The structure of an integral tank must meet the deep tank scantling standards.... (b) The structure of an integral tank must be designed and shown by calculation to withstand...

  2. 46 CFR 154.420 - Tank design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.420 Tank design. (a) The structure of an integral tank must meet the deep tank scantling standards.... (b) The structure of an integral tank must be designed and shown by calculation to withstand...

  3. 46 CFR 154.420 - Tank design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.420 Tank design. (a) The structure of an integral tank must meet the deep tank scantling standards.... (b) The structure of an integral tank must be designed and shown by calculation to withstand...

  4. 46 CFR 154.420 - Tank design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.420 Tank design. (a) The structure of an integral tank must meet the deep tank scantling standards.... (b) The structure of an integral tank must be designed and shown by calculation to withstand...

  5. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility planning in accordance with appendix B of this subpart. (b) Advance of allowance to potential grant... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right...

  6. SAMPLE AOR CALCULATION USING ANSYS PARAMETRIC MODEL FOR TANK SST-AY

    SciTech Connect

    JULYK, L.J.; MACKEY, T.C.

    2003-06-19

    This document documents the ANSYS parametric model for double-shell tank AY and provides sample calculation for analysis-of-record mechanical load conditions. The purpose of this calculation is to provide a sample analysis of the DST-AY tanks based on AOR loads, plus loads identified in the Statement of Work (SOW) for CHG contract 92879. This is not an analysis. Instead, the present calculation utilizes the parametric model generated for the double shell tank DST-AY, which is based on Buyer-supplied as-built drawings and information for the analyses of record (AOR) for Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs), encompassing the existing tank load conditions, and evaluates stresses and deformations throughout the tank and surrounding soil mass.

  7. Rheology of Savannah River Site Tank 51 HLW radioactive sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, B.C.

    1993-01-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 51 HLW radioactive sludge represents a major portion of the first batch of sludge to be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS. The rheological properties of Tank 51 sludge will determine if the waste sludge can be pumped by the current DWPF process cell pump design and the homogeneity of melter feed slurries. The rheological properties of Tank 51 sludge and sludge/frit slurries at various solids concentrations were measured remotely in the Shielded Cells Operations (SCO) at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) using a modified Haake Rotovisco viscometer system. Rheological properties of Tank 51 radioactive sludge/Frit 202 slurries increased drastically when the solids content was above 41 wt %. The yield stresses of Tank 51 sludge and sludge/frit slurries fall within the limits of the DWPF equipment design basis. The apparent viscosities also fall within the DWPF design basis for sludge consistency. All the results indicate that Tank 51 waste sludge and sludge/frit slurries are pumpable throughout the DWPF processes based on the current process cell pump design, and should produce homogeneous melter feed slurries.

  8. 33 CFR 157.208 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.208 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank...

  9. 46 CFR 153.250 - Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks. 153.250... Equipment Cargo Tanks § 153.250 Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks. Except in those cases in which Commandant (CG-522) specifically approves another arrangement, such as a double-bottom or deep tank as...

  10. 46 CFR 153.250 - Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks. 153.250... Equipment Cargo Tanks § 153.250 Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks. Except in those cases in which Commandant (CG-ENG) specifically approves another arrangement, such as a double-bottom or deep tank as...

  11. 46 CFR 153.250 - Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks. 153.250... Equipment Cargo Tanks § 153.250 Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks. Except in those cases in which Commandant (CG-ENG) specifically approves another arrangement, such as a double-bottom or deep tank as...

  12. 46 CFR 153.250 - Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks. 153.250... Equipment Cargo Tanks § 153.250 Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks. Except in those cases in which Commandant (CG-ENG) specifically approves another arrangement, such as a double-bottom or deep tank as...

  13. 46 CFR 153.250 - Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks. 153.250... Equipment Cargo Tanks § 153.250 Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks. Except in those cases in which Commandant (CG-522) specifically approves another arrangement, such as a double-bottom or deep tank as...

  14. 33 CFR 157.208 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.208 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank...

  15. 33 CFR 157.208 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.208 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank...

  16. 33 CFR 157.208 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.208 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank...

  17. 33 CFR 157.208 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.208 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank...

  18. 49 CFR 179.102 - Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.102 Section 179.102 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102 Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks. (a) In addition...

  19. 49 CFR 179.103 - Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.103 Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks. (a) In addition to the...

  20. 49 CFR 179.103 - Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.103 Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks. (a) In addition to the...

  1. 27 CFR 24.229 - Tank car and tank truck requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tank car and tank truck... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Spirits § 24.229 Tank car and tank truck requirements. Railroad tank cars and tank trucks used to transport spirits for use in wine production will be...

  2. 49 CFR 179.102 - Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.102 Section 179.102 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102 Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks. (a) In addition to §§ 179.100...

  3. 49 CFR 179.100 - General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.100 Section 179.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100 General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks....

  4. 49 CFR 179.103 - Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.103 Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks. (a) In addition to the...

  5. 49 CFR 179.100 - General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.100 Section 179.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100 General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks....

  6. 49 CFR 179.102 - Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.102 Section 179.102 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102 Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks. (a) In addition to §§ 179.100...

  7. 49 CFR 179.101 - Individual specification requirements applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to pressure tank car tanks. 179.101 Section 179.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.101 Individual specification requirements applicable to pressure tank...

  8. 27 CFR 24.229 - Tank car and tank truck requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tank car and tank truck... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.229 Tank car and tank truck requirements. Railroad tank cars and tank trucks used to transport spirits for use in wine production will be...

  9. 27 CFR 24.229 - Tank car and tank truck requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tank car and tank truck... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Spirits § 24.229 Tank car and tank truck requirements. Railroad tank cars and tank trucks used to transport spirits for use in wine production will be...

  10. 49 CFR 179.100 - General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.100 Section 179.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100 General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks....

  11. 49 CFR 179.101 - Individual specification requirements applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to pressure tank car tanks. 179.101 Section 179.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.101 Individual specification requirements applicable to pressure tank...

  12. 49 CFR 179.100 - General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.100 Section 179.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100 General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks....

  13. 49 CFR 179.101 - Individual specification requirements applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to pressure tank car tanks. 179.101 Section 179.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.101 Individual specification requirements applicable to pressure tank...

  14. 27 CFR 27.174 - Tank cars and tank trucks to be sealed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tank cars and tank trucks... Tank cars and tank trucks to be sealed. Where a shipment of distilled spirits from customs custody to the distilled spirits plant is made in a tank car or tank truck, all openings affording access to...

  15. 27 CFR 27.174 - Tank cars and tank trucks to be sealed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tank cars and tank trucks... Tank cars and tank trucks to be sealed. Where a shipment of distilled spirits from customs custody to the distilled spirits plant is made in a tank car or tank truck, all openings affording access to...

  16. 49 CFR 179.101 - Individual specification requirements applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to pressure tank car tanks. 179.101 Section 179.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.101 Individual specification requirements applicable to pressure tank...

  17. 27 CFR 24.229 - Tank car and tank truck requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tank car and tank truck... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.229 Tank car and tank truck requirements. Railroad tank cars and tank trucks used to transport spirits for use in wine production will be...

  18. 49 CFR 179.100 - General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.100 Section 179.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100 General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks....

  19. 49 CFR 179.102 - Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.102 Section 179.102 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102 Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks. (a) In addition to §§ 179.100...

  20. 27 CFR 27.174 - Tank cars and tank trucks to be sealed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tank cars and tank trucks... Tank cars and tank trucks to be sealed. Where a shipment of distilled spirits from customs custody to the distilled spirits plant is made in a tank car or tank truck, all openings affording access to...

  1. 27 CFR 24.229 - Tank car and tank truck requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tank car and tank truck... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.229 Tank car and tank truck requirements. Railroad tank cars and tank trucks used to transport spirits for use in wine production will be...

  2. 49 CFR 179.103 - Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.103 Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks. (a) In addition to the...

  3. Review of Corrosion Inhibition in High Level Radioactive Waste Tanks in the DOE Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K.H.

    2004-03-08

    Radioactive waste is stored in underground storage tanks at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The waste tanks store supernatant liquid salts, consisting primarily of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium hydroxide, and sludge. An assessment of the potential degradation mechanisms of the high level waste (HLW) tanks determined that nitrate- induced pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking were the two most significant degradation mechanisms. Controls on the solution chemistry (minimum nitrite and hydroxide concentrations) are in place to prevent the initiation and propagation of pitting and stress corrosion cracking in the tanks. These controls are based upon a series of experiments performed using simulated solutions on materials used for construction of the tanks. The technical bases and evolution of these controls is presented.

  4. Structural analysis of underground gunite storage tanks. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This report documents the structural analysis of the 50-ft diameter underground gunite storage tanks constructed in 1943 and located in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) South Tank Farm, known as Facility 3507 in the 3500-3999 area. The six gunite tanks (W-5 through W-10) are spaced in a 2 {times} 3 matrix at 60 ft on centers with 6 ft of soil cover. Each tank (Figures 1, 2, and 3) has an inside diameter of 50 ft, a 12-ft vertical sidewall having a thickness of 6 in. (there is an additional 1.5-in. inner liner for much of the height), and a spherical domed roof (nominal thickness is 10 in.) rising another 6 ft, 3 in. at the center of the tank. The thickness of both the sidewall and the domed roof increases to 30 in. near their juncture. The tank floor is nominally 3-in. thick, except at the juncture with the wall where the thickness increases to 9 in. The tanks are constructed of gunite (a mixture of Portland cement, sand, and water in the form of a mortar) sprayed from the nozzle of a cement gun against a form or a solid surface. The floor and the dome are reinforced with one layer of welded wire mesh and reinforcing rods placed in the radial direction. The sidewall is reinforced with three layers of welded wire mesh, vertical {1/2}-in. rods, and 21 horizontal rebar hoops (attached to the vertical rods) post-tensioned to 35,000 psi stress. The haunch at the sidewall/roof junction is reinforced with 17 horizontal rebar hoops post-tensioned with 35,000 to 40,000 psi stress. The yield strength of the post-tensioning steel rods is specified to be 60,000 psi, and all other steel is 40,000 psi steel. The specified 28-day design strength of the gunite is 5,000 psi.

  5. [High Pressure Gas Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quintana, Rolando

    2002-01-01

    Four high-pressure gas tanks, the basis of this study, were especially made by a private contractor and tested before being delivered to NASA Kennedy Space Center. In order to insure 100% reliability of each individual tank the staff at KSC decided to again submit the four tanks under more rigorous tests. These tests were conducted during a period from April 10 through May 8 at KSC. This application further validates the predictive safety model for accident prevention and system failure in the testing of four high-pressure gas tanks at Kennedy Space Center, called Continuous Hazard Tracking and Failure Prediction Methodology (CHTFPM). It is apparent from the variety of barriers available for a hazard control that some barriers will be more successful than others in providing protection. In order to complete the Barrier Analysis of the system, a Task Analysis and a Biomechanical Study were performed to establish the relationship between the degree of biomechanical non-conformities and the anomalies found within the system on particular joints of the body. This relationship was possible to obtain by conducting a Regression Analysis to the previously generated data. From the information derived the body segment with the lowest percentage of non-conformities was the neck flexion with 46.7%. Intense analysis of the system was conducted including Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA), Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), and Barrier Analysis. These analyses resulted in the identification of occurrences of conditions, which may be becoming hazardous in the given system. These conditions, known as dendritics, may become hazards and could result in an accident, system malfunction, or unacceptable risk conditions. A total of 56 possible dendritics were identified. Work sampling was performed to observe the occurrence each dendritic. The out of control points generated from a Weighted c control chart along with a Pareto analysis indicate that the dendritics "Personnel not

  6. Tank closure reducing grout

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  7. Improved Tank Testing Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    slowly. During the final tests, the tank is inspected for leaks and also signs of “distress” in the shell. All detected leaks are repaired. Manufacturers...capillary action. Penetrant inspection is widely used in the fabrication industries for the detection of There are two basic types of penetrants, one is a...4 in. of the leak to be detected . If the weld being inspected is wider than 1/4 in. two parallel passes must be made to ensure that all leaks are

  8. Tank Waste Remediation System Tank Waste Analysis Plan. FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, C.S.; Dove, T.H.

    1994-11-01

    This documents lays the groundwork for preparing the implementing the TWRS tank waste analysis planning and reporting for Fiscal Year 1995. This Tank Waste Characterization Plan meets the requirements specified in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, better known as the Tri-Party Agreement.

  9. 39. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY LUBRICATING OIL TANKS. THESE TANKS ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY LUBRICATING OIL TANKS. THESE TANKS ARE LOCATED AT ROOF LEVEL AT THE NORTHEAST REAR CORNER OF DIABLO POWERHOUSE, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 5F FINAL CHARATERIZATION SAMPLES-2011

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.

    2012-01-20

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 5F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2011

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.

    2012-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  12. Analysis Of The Tank 5F Final Characterization Samples-2011

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.

    2012-09-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  13. A STRUCTURAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF FLAWS DETECTED DURING ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION OF TANK 15

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B; James Elder, J

    2008-08-21

    Ultrasonic (UT) inspection of Tank 15 was conducted between April and July 2007 in accordance with the Tank 15 UT inspection plan. This was a planned re-inspection of this tank, the previous one was performed in 2002. Ten cracks were characterized in the previous examination. The re-inspection was performed to verify the present models and understanding for stress corrosion cracking. During this re-examination, one indication that was initially reported as a 'possible perpendicular crack <25% through wall' in 2002, was clearly shown not to be a crack. Additionally, examination of a new area immediately adjacent to other cracks along a vertical weld revealed three new cracks. It is not known when these new cracks formed as they could very well have been present in 2002 as well. Therefore, a total of twelve cracks were evaluated during the re-examination. A critical review of the information describing stress corrosion crack behavior for the SRS waste tanks, as well as a summary review of the service history of Tank 15, was performed. Each crack was then evaluated for service exposure history, consistency of the crack behavior with the current understanding of stress corrosion cracking, and present and future impact to the structural integrity of the tank. Crack instability calculations were performed on each crack for a bounding waste removal loading condition in Tank 15. In all cases, the crack behavior was determined to be consistent with the previous understanding of stress corrosion cracking in the SRS waste tank environment. The length of the cracks was limited due to the short-range nature of the residual stresses near seam, repair and attachment welds. Of the twelve cracks, nine were located in the vapor space above the sludge layer, including the three new cracks. Comparison of the crack lengths measured in 2002 and 2007 revealed that crack growth had occurred in four of the six previously measured vapor space cracks. However, the growth remained within the

  14. Chemical and physical processes in Tank 241-SY-101: A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    Since 1942, chemical and radioactive waste have been stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. In March 1981 one of the double shell tanks, 241-SY-101 (called 101-SY), began venting large quantities of gas, primarily hydrogen and nitrous oxide. Because of the potential for explosion Westinghouse Hanford Company and the US Department of Energy realized the need for knowledge about the processes occurring in this tank that lead to generation of the gases. In June 1990, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory began assembling a Tank Waste Science Panel to develop a better understanding of the processes occurring the Tank 101-SY. This knowledge is necessary to provide a technically defensible basis for the safety analyses, which will allow the tank contents to be sampled, as well as for the future remediation of the tank and its contents. The Panel concluded that the data available on Tank 101-SY are insufficient to allow the critical chemical and physical processes giving rise to gas formation and release to be unambiguously identified. To provide the needed information the Panel recommends that Tank 101-SY by physically and chemically characterized as fully as possible and as expeditiously as safety considerations allow, and laboratory studies and modeling efforts be undertaken the chemical and physical processes involved in gas generation and release. Finally, the Panel recommends that no remediation steps be taken until there is a better understanding of the chemical and physical phenomena occurring in Tank 101-SY. Premature remediation steps may only serve to compound the problem. Furthermore, such steps may change the chemical and physical characteristics of the tank and prevent a true understanding of the phenomena involved. As a consequence, similar problems in other tanks on the site may not be adequately addressed. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. 40 CFR 280.94 - Allowable mechanisms and combinations of mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable mechanisms and combinations of mechanisms. 280.94 Section 280.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Financial Responsibility § 280.94 Allowable mechanisms...

  16. 33 CFR 157.100 - Plans for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.100 Plans for U.S. tank... system that meets 46 CFR 56.01-10(d); (2) The design of each COW machine; (3) The arrangement, location, and installation of the COW machines; and (4) Except as allowed in § 157.104, the projected...

  17. 33 CFR 157.100 - Plans for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.100 Plans for U.S. tank... system that meets 46 CFR 56.01-10(d); (2) The design of each COW machine; (3) The arrangement, location, and installation of the COW machines; and (4) Except as allowed in § 157.104, the projected...

  18. 33 CFR 157.100 - Plans for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.100 Plans for U.S. tank... system that meets 46 CFR 56.01-10(d); (2) The design of each COW machine; (3) The arrangement, location, and installation of the COW machines; and (4) Except as allowed in § 157.104, the projected...

  19. 33 CFR 157.100 - Plans for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.100 Plans for U.S. tank... system that meets 46 CFR 56.01-10(d); (2) The design of each COW machine; (3) The arrangement, location, and installation of the COW machines; and (4) Except as allowed in § 157.104, the projected...

  20. 33 CFR 157.100 - Plans for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.100 Plans for U.S. tank... system that meets 46 CFR 56.01-10(d); (2) The design of each COW machine; (3) The arrangement, location, and installation of the COW machines; and (4) Except as allowed in § 157.104, the projected...

  1. New Experiments on Wave Physics with a Simply Modified Ripple Tank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logiurato, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    The ripple tank is one of the physics education devices most appreciated by teachers and students. It allows one to visualize various phenomena related to wave physics in an effective and enthralling way. Usually this apparatus consists of a tank with a transparent bottom that is filled with a thin layer of water. A source of light illuminates the…

  2. Review of Benzene Stripping Alternatives for the Small Tank Precipitation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dworjanyn, L.O.

    2000-11-07

    Packed columns provide a proven technology for stripping benzene from salt solution. With continuous Small Tank Precipitation process the stripping load is reduced by a factor of four vs. former ITP cycling, and process continuity is maintained through to the Saltstone transfer tank. Lower stripping capacity allows new design options, including coarser packing and possibly reduced foaming packing.

  3. Corrosion and failure processes in high-level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Mahidhara, R.K.; Elleman, T.S.; Murty, K.L.

    1992-11-01

    A large amount of radioactive waste has been stored safely at the Savannah River and Hanford sites over the past 46 years. The aim of this report is to review the experimental corrosion studies at Savannah River and Hanford with the intention of identifying the types and rates of corrosion encountered and indicate how these data contribute to tank failure predictions. The compositions of the High-Level Wastes, mild steels used in the construction of the waste tanks and degradation-modes particularly stress corrosion cracking and pitting are discussed. Current concerns at the Hanford Site are highlighted.

  4. A modular packaging approach for upgrading tanks with staring thermal imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münzberg, Mario; Achtner, Bertram; Fritze, Jörg; Rothaupt, Ottmar; Schlemmer, Harry; Welk, Markus; Weisser, Dirk

    2013-06-01

    The thermal imager ATTICA was designed to fit into the thermal sights of the new German Infantry tank PUMA. The flexible approach for the optical concept, using different folding mirrors allows meeting the different available space requirements for thermal sights also of other tanks like the main battle tank Leopard 2 and the infantry fighting vehicle Marder. These tanks are going to be upgraded. The flexible concepts of the thermal imager optics as well as the mechanical packing solutions for the different space volumes of the commander and gunner sights of the vehicles are discussed.

  5. International Space Station (ISS) Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nasrullah, Mohammed K.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) provides the following three primary functions for the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA): volume for concentrating/filtering pretreated urine, filtration of product distillate, and filtration of the Pressure Control and Pump Assembly (PCPA) effluent. The RFTAs, under nominal operations, are to be replaced every 30 days. This poses a significant logistical resupply problem, as well as cost in upmass and new tanks purchase. In addition, it requires significant amount of crew time. To address and resolve these challenges, NASA required Boeing to develop a design which eliminated the logistics and upmass issues and minimize recurring costs. Boeing developed the Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA) that allowed the tanks to be emptied on-orbit into disposable tanks that eliminated the need for bringing the fully loaded tanks to earth for refurbishment and relaunch, thereby eliminating several hundred pounds of upmass and its associated costs. The ARFTA will replace the RFTA by providing the same functionality, but with reduced resupply requirements

  6. Position paper -- Tank ventilation system design air flow rates

    SciTech Connect

    Goolsby, G.K.

    1995-01-04

    The purpose of this paper is to document a project position on required ventilation system design air flow rates for the waste storage tanks currently being designed by project W-236A, the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF). The Title 1 design primary tank heat removal system consists of two systems: a primary tank vapor space ventilation system; and an annulus ventilation system. At the conclusion of Title 1 design, air flow rates for the primary and annulus ventilation systems were 960 scfm and 4,400 scfm, respectively, per tank. These design flow rates were capable of removing 1,250,000 Btu/hr from each tank. However, recently completed and ongoing studies have resulted in a design change to reduce the extreme case heat load to 700,000 Btu/hr. This revision of the extreme case heat load, coupled with results of scale model evaporative testing performed by WHC Thermal Hydraulics, allow for a reduction of the design air flow rates for both primary and annulus ventilation systems. Based on the preceding discussion, ICF Kaiser Hanford Co. concludes that the design should incorporate the following design air flow rates: Primary ventilation system--500 scfm maximum and Annulus ventilation system--1,100 scfm maximum. In addition, the minimum air flow rates in the primary and annulus ventilation systems will be investigated during Title 2 design. The results of the Title 2 investigation will determine the range of available temperature control using variable air flows to both ventilation systems.

  7. Summary report for the tank tightness testing of underground storage tanks, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Between August 14, 1989, and August 26, 1989, 16 underground storage tanks were tank tightness tested for leaks as part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory tank management program. This report summarizes the results of these tank tightness tests, the modifications and repairs made to the tank systems, fuel transfer records, and any problems that affected the tank testing schedule. Of the 16 underground storage tanks tested, five failed the tank tightness test. Attempts were made to repair the tanks that failed the tank tightness test. Of those tanks, two were tested three times (one passed and one failed), and three were tested twice (two passed and one failed). The five failed tanks were removed and will be replaced with tanks that meet the Environmental Protection Agency regulations of underground storage tanks. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. In situ rheology and gas volume in Hanford double-shell waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.W.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Brewster, M.E.; Chen, G.; Reid, H.C.; Shepard, C.L.; Terrones, G.; Mendoza, R.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report is a detailed characterization of gas retention and release in 6 Hanford DS waste tanks. The results came from the ball rheometer and void fraction instrument in (flammable gas watch list) tanks SY-101, SY-103, AW-101, AN-103, AN-104, and AN-105 are presented. Instrument operation and derivation of data reduction methods are presented. Gas retention and release information is summarized for each tank and includes tank fill history and instrumentation, waste configuration, gas release, void fraction distribution, gas volumes, rheology, and photographs of the waste column from extruded core samples. Potential peak burn pressure is computed as a function of gas release fraction to portray the `hazard signature` of each tank. It is shown that two tanks remain well below the maximum allowable pressure, even if the entire gas content were released and ignited, and that none of the others present a hazard with their present gas release behavior.

  9. Light duty utility remote manipulator for underground storage tank inspection and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, P.W.; Carteret, B.

    1995-12-31

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) is a remote manipulator system which is being designed and fabricated to perform surveillance and characterization activities in support of the remediation of underground storage tanks at the Hanford site as well as other DOE sites. The LDUA is a mechanical manipulator which utilizes an advanced control system to safely and reliably deploy a series of sensors to characterize underground storage tanks. The electrical components of the in tank system are radiation hardened and the mechanical components are designed to operate in the corrosive environment which exists in the tanks. The use of this system will allow the US Department of Energy to sample and characterize the waste material in the tanks prior to the initiation of waste retrieval operations. In addition to its use for inspecting and characterizing underground storage tanks, the system has the potential to be used in other environments where accessibility is limited and where high radiation levels exist.

  10. Fracture control method for composite tanks with load sharing liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bixler, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The experimental program was based on the premise that the plastic sizing cycle, which each pressure vessel is subjected to prior to operation, acts as an effective proof test of the liner, screening out all flaws or cracks larger than a critical size. In doing so, flaw growth potential is available for cyclic operation at pressures less than the sizing pressure. Static fracture and cyclic life tests, involving laboratory type specimens and filament overwrapped tanks, were conducted on three liner materials: (1) 2219-T62 aluminum, (2) Inconel X750 STA, and (3) cryoformed 301 stainless steel. Variables included material condition, thickness, flaw size, flaw shape, temperature, sizing stress level, operating stress level and minimum-to-maximum operating stress ratio. From the empirical data base obtained, a procedure was established by which the service life of composite tanks with load sharing liners could be guaranteed with a high degree of confidence.

  11. Rapid Chill and Fill of a Liquid Hydrogen Tank Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudlac, Maureen T.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center, in conjunction with Boeing North American, has been supporting the High Energy Upper Stage (HEUS) program by performing feasibility studies at Lewis Supplemental Multilayer Insulation Research Facility (SMIRF). These tests were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of chilling and filling a tank with liquid hydrogen in under 5 minutes. The goal of the HEUS program is to release a satellite from the shuttle cargo bay and then use a cryogenic (high-energy) upper stage to allow the satellite to achieve final orbit. Because of safety considerations, the propellant tanks for the upper stage will be launched warm and dry. They will be filled from the shuttle's external tank during the mission phase after the solid rocket boosters have jettisoned and prior to jettison of the external tank. Data from previous shuttle missions have been analyzed to ensure that sufficient propellant would be available in the external tank to fill the propellant tank of the proposed vehicle upper stage. Because of mission time-line considerations, the propellant tanks for the upper stage will have to be chilled down and filled in approximately 5 minutes. An existing uninsulated flight weight test tank was installed inside the vacuum chamber at SMIRF, and the chamber was evacuated to the 10(exp -5) torr range to simulate space vacuum conditions in the cargo bay with the doors open. During prerun operations, the facility liquid hydrogen (LH2) supply piping was prechilled with the vent gas bypassing the test article. The liquid hydrogen supply dewar was saturated at local ambient pressure and then pressurized with ambient temperature gaseous helium to the test pressure. A control system was used to ensure that the liquid hydrogen supply pressure was maintained at the test pressure.

  12. Deflection Analysis of the Space Shuttle External Tank Door Drive Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosto, Michael A.; Trieu, Bo C.; Evernden, Brent A.; Hope, Drew J.; Wong, Kenneth A.; Lindberg, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    Upon observing an abnormal closure of the Space Shuttle s External Tank Doors (ETD), a dynamic model was created in MSC/ADAMS to conduct deflection analyses of the Door Drive Mechanism (DDM). For a similar analysis, the traditional approach would be to construct a full finite element model of the mechanism. The purpose of this paper is to describe an alternative approach that models the flexibility of the DDM using a lumped parameter approximation to capture the compliance of individual parts within the drive linkage. This approach allows for rapid construction of a dynamic model in a time-critical setting, while still retaining the appropriate equivalent stiffness of each linkage component. As a validation of these equivalent stiffnesses, finite element analysis (FEA) was used to iteratively update the model towards convergence. Following this analysis, deflections recovered from the dynamic model can be used to calculate stress and classify each component s deformation as either elastic or plastic. Based on the modeling assumptions used in this analysis and the maximum input forcing condition, two components in the DDM show a factor of safety less than or equal to 0.5. However, to accurately evaluate the induced stresses, additional mechanism rigging information would be necessary to characterize the input forcing conditions. This information would also allow for the classification of stresses as either elastic or plastic.

  13. Tank farms hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-09-30

    Hanford contractors are writing new facility specific emergency procedures in response to new and revised US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders on emergency preparedness. Emergency procedures are required for each Hanford facility that has the potential to exceed the criteria for the lowest level emergency, an Alert. The set includes: (1) a facility specific procedure on Recognition and Classification of Emergencies, (2) area procedures on Initial Emergency Response and, (3) an area procedure on Protective Action Guidance. The first steps in developing these procedures are to identify the hazards at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. These steps are called a Hazards Assessment. The final product is a document that is similar in some respects to a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The document could br produced in a month for a simple facility but could take much longer for a complex facility. Hanford has both types of facilities. A strategy has been adopted to permit completion of the first version of the new emergency procedures before all the facility hazards Assessments are complete. The procedures will initially be based on input from a task group for each facility. This strategy will but improved emergency procedures in place sooner and therefore enhance Hanford emergency preparedness. The purpose of this document is to summarize the applicable information contained within the Waste Tank Facility ``Interim Safety Basis Document, WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001`` as a resource, since the SARs covering Waste Tank Operations are not current in all cases. This hazards assessment serves to collect, organize, document and present the information utilized during the determination process.

  14. 49 CFR 180.519 - Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other... of Tank Cars § 180.519 Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car... devices must be retested periodically as specified in Retest Table 1 of paragraph (b)(5) of this...

  15. 49 CFR 180.519 - Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other... § 180.519 Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car tanks. (a) General... periodically as specified in Retest Table 1 of paragraph (b)(5) of this section. Retests may be made at...

  16. Motivational indictors predicting the engagement, frequency and adequacy of rainwater tank maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankad, Aditi; Greenhill, Murni

    2014-01-01

    Rainwater tank maintenance is a key social behavior in our changing environment, as tanks are being adopted worldwide to augment household water supplies and reduce urban water stress. The maintenance of rainwater tanks in urban areas is an important pro-environmental behavior that prevents public health issues arising from unhygienic tank use. This study examined motivational differences in maintenance behavior between householders with retrofitted and mandated (compulsory) rainwater tanks on their property (N = 1988). Results showed that retrofitted tank owners were more self-determined in their motivation than mandated owners. Amotivation and integrated regulation were both dominant predictors of engagement in tank maintenance, frequency and adequacy of tank maintenance activities. Those involved in more maintenance activity were likely driven to do so because of feelings of adherence to personal goals and values (e.g., as "sustainable" citizens), whereas individuals who experienced a lack of control and alienation from the activity were likely to view maintenance as meaningless. Thus, people with higher integrated regulation engaged in more tank maintenance activities, whereas more amotivated individuals engaged in less maintenance. As cities begin relying more on citizen self-sufficiency with respect to water and energy resources, issues relating to infrastructure maintenance and operation become paramount. Results show that motivation is important in the impetus to engage in a pro-environmental behavior as well as the frequency and accuracy with which that behavior is undertaken. Policy implications are further discussed.

  17. Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect

    Rakestraw, L.D.

    1994-11-15

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks.

  18. Tank 241-U-103 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-10-04

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-U-103.

  19. Tank characterization report for single shell tank 241-SX-108

    SciTech Connect

    Eggers, R.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-11

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in tank 241-SX-108. This report supports the requirements of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-44-09.

  20. Ecodesign of Liquid Fuel Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gicevska, Jana; Bazbauers, Gatis; Repele, Mara

    2011-01-01

    The subject of the study is a 10 litre liquid fuel tank made of metal and used for fuel storage and transportation. The study dealt with separate life cycle stages of this product, compared environmental impacts of similar fuel tanks made of metal and plastic, as well as analysed the product's end-of-life cycle stage, studying the waste treatment and disposal scenarios. The aim of this study was to find opportunities for improvement and to develop proposals for the ecodesign of 10 litre liquid fuel tank.

  1. Early Warning and the Tank

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    recharge the batteries. Naturally, this makes the tank more detectable. THE PEWS EARLY WARNING SYSTEM U.S. tank platoons currently have one Platoon... Early Warning System ( PEWS ) per platoon. These con- tain 10 seismic sensors which can be placed a kilometer or so foreward. A panel of lights indicates...BRL-.MR-3’E i" MEMORANDUM REPORT BRL-MR-3767 ’B𔃽BRL EARLY WARNING AND THE TANK FRED L. BUNN s IN JUN 16 1989 " JUNE 1989 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE

  2. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford tank initiative: Applications to the AX Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Balsley, S.D.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Borns, D.J.; McKeen, R.G.

    1998-07-01

    A combined engineering and geochemistry approach is recommended for the stabilization of waste in decommissioned tanks and contaminated soils at the AX Tank Farm, Hanford, WA. A two-part strategy of desiccation and gettering is proposed for treatment of the in-tank residual wastes. Dry portland cement and/or fly ash are suggested as an effective and low-cost desiccant for wicking excess moisture from the upper waste layer. Getters work by either ion exchange or phase precipitation to reduce radionuclide concentrations in solution. The authors recommend the use of specific natural and man-made compounds, appropriately proportioned to the unique inventory of each tank. A filler design consisting of multilayered cementitous grout with interlayered sealant horizons should serve to maintain tank integrity and minimize fluid transport to the residual waste form. External tank soil contamination is best mitigated by placement of grouted skirts under and around each tank, together with installation of a cone-shaped permeable reactive barrier beneath the entire tank farm. Actinide release rates are calculated from four tank closure scenarios ranging from no action to a comprehensive stabilization treatment plan (desiccant/getters/grouting/RCRA cap). Although preliminary, these calculations indicate significant reductions in the potential for actinide transport as compared to the no-treatment option.

  3. Review and test of chilldown methods for space-based cryogenic tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.; Sanabria, Rafael

    1991-01-01

    The literature for tank chilldown methods applicable to cryogenic tankage in the zero gravity environment of earth orbit is reviewed. One method is selected for demonstration in a ground based test. The method selected for investigation was the charge-hold-vent method which uses repeated injection of liquid slugs, followed by a hold to allow complete vaporization of the liquid and a vent of the tank to space vacuum to cool tankage to the desired temperature. The test was conducted on a 175 cubic foot, 2219 aluminum walled tank weighing 329 pounds, which was previously outfitted with spray systems to test nonvented fill technologies. To minimize hardware changes, a simple control-by-pressure scheme was implemented to control injected liquid quantities. The tank cooled from 440 R sufficiently in six charge-hold-vent cycles to allow a complete nonvented fill of the test tank. Liquid hydrogen consumed in the process is estimated at 32 pounds.

  4. 14 CFR 29.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 29.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank expansion space must be provided so that— (1) Each oil tank used with a reciprocating engine has an expansion... used with a turbine engine has an expansion space of not less than 10 percent of the tank capacity;...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 25.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank expansion... expansion space of not less than the greater of 10 percent of the tank capacity or 0.5 gallon, and each oil tank used with a turbine engine must have an expansion space of not less than 10 percent of the...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 29.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank expansion space must be provided so that— (1) Each oil tank used with a reciprocating engine has an expansion... used with a turbine engine has an expansion space of not less than 10 percent of the tank capacity;...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 25.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank expansion... expansion space of not less than the greater of 10 percent of the tank capacity or 0.5 gallon, and each oil tank used with a turbine engine must have an expansion space of not less than 10 percent of the...

  8. 46 CFR 64.29 - Tank saddles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tank saddles. 64.29 Section 64.29 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.29 Tank saddles. If a tank is not completely supported by a...

  9. 46 CFR 64.29 - Tank saddles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tank saddles. 64.29 Section 64.29 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.29 Tank saddles. If a tank is not completely supported by a...

  10. 49 CFR 229.217 - Fuel tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fuel tank. 229.217 Section 229.217 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.217 Fuel tank. (a) External fuel tanks. Locomotives equipped with external fuel tanks shall, at a...

  11. 49 CFR 229.217 - Fuel tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fuel tank. 229.217 Section 229.217 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.217 Fuel tank. (a) External fuel tanks. Locomotives equipped with external fuel tanks shall, at a...

  12. 49 CFR 229.217 - Fuel tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fuel tank. 229.217 Section 229.217 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.217 Fuel tank. (a) External fuel tanks. Locomotives equipped with external fuel tanks shall, at a...

  13. 49 CFR 229.217 - Fuel tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tank. 229.217 Section 229.217 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.217 Fuel tank. (a) External fuel tanks. Locomotives equipped with external fuel tanks shall, at a...

  14. 49 CFR 229.217 - Fuel tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fuel tank. 229.217 Section 229.217 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.217 Fuel tank. (a) External fuel tanks. Locomotives equipped with external fuel tanks shall, at a...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil tanks. 25.1013 Section 25.1013... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1013 Oil tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 25.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank...

  16. 49 CFR 230.116 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oil tanks. 230.116 Section 230.116 Transportation... Locomotive Tanks § 230.116 Oil tanks. The oil tanks on oil burning steam locomotives shall be maintained free from leaks. The oil supply pipe shall be equipped with a safety cut-off device that: (a) Is...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil tanks. 29.1013 Section 29.1013... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1013 Oil tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 29.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank...

  18. 49 CFR 230.116 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oil tanks. 230.116 Section 230.116 Transportation... Locomotive Tanks § 230.116 Oil tanks. The oil tanks on oil burning steam locomotives shall be maintained free from leaks. The oil supply pipe shall be equipped with a safety cut-off device that: (a) Is...

  19. 49 CFR 230.116 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oil tanks. 230.116 Section 230.116 Transportation... Locomotive Tanks § 230.116 Oil tanks. The oil tanks on oil burning steam locomotives shall be maintained free from leaks. The oil supply pipe shall be equipped with a safety cut-off device that: (a) Is...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil tanks. 29.1013 Section 29.1013... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1013 Oil tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 29.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil tanks. 25.1013 Section 25.1013... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1013 Oil tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 25.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank...

  2. 49 CFR 230.116 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oil tanks. 230.116 Section 230.116 Transportation... Locomotive Tanks § 230.116 Oil tanks. The oil tanks on oil burning steam locomotives shall be maintained free from leaks. The oil supply pipe shall be equipped with a safety cut-off device that: (a) Is...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 25.1013 Section 25.1013... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1013 Oil tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 25.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank...

  4. 7 CFR 58.422 - Brine tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brine tank. 58.422 Section 58.422 Agriculture....422 Brine tank. The brine tank shall be constructed of suitable non-toxic material and should be resistant to corrosion, pitting or flaking. The brine tank shall be operated so as to assure the brine...

  5. 46 CFR 64.29 - Tank saddles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank saddles. 64.29 Section 64.29 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.29 Tank saddles. If a tank is not completely supported by a...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 29.1013 Section 29.1013... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1013 Oil tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 29.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank...

  7. 7 CFR 58.218 - Surge tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surge tanks. 58.218 Section 58.218 Agriculture....218 Surge tanks. If surge tanks are used for hot milk, and temperatures of product including foam being held in the surge tank during processing, is not maintained at a minimum of 150 °F, then two...

  8. 14 CFR 27.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 27.1013 Section 27.1013... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1013 Oil tanks. Each oil tank must be... space of not less than the greater of 10 percent of the tank capacity or 0.5 gallon, and where used...

  9. 27 CFR 24.167 - Tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tanks. 24.167 Section 24... TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.167 Tanks. (a) General. All tanks on wine premises... the intended purpose. Each tank used for wine operations will be located, constructed, and equipped...

  10. 46 CFR 154.446 - Tank design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.446 Section 154.446 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... Tank Type B § 154.446 Tank design. An independent tank type B must meet the calculations under §...

  11. 7 CFR 58.320 - Brine tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brine tanks. 58.320 Section 58.320 Agriculture....320 Brine tanks. Brine tanks used for the treating of parchment liners shall be constructed of... liners. The tank should also be provided with a satisfactory drainage outlet....

  12. 49 CFR 179.10 - Tank mounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank mounting. 179.10 Section 179.10... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS General Design Requirements § 179.10 Tank mounting. (a) The manner in which tanks are attached to the...

  13. 46 CFR 154.446 - Tank design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tank design. 154.446 Section 154.446 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type B § 154.446 Tank design. An independent tank type B must meet the calculations under §...

  14. 46 CFR 154.446 - Tank design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tank design. 154.446 Section 154.446 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type B § 154.446 Tank design. An independent tank type B must meet the calculations under §...

  15. 46 CFR 154.446 - Tank design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tank design. 154.446 Section 154.446 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type B § 154.446 Tank design. An independent tank type B must meet the calculations under §...

  16. 46 CFR 154.446 - Tank design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tank design. 154.446 Section 154.446 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type B § 154.446 Tank design. An independent tank type B must meet the calculations under §...

  17. Double-shell tank emergency pumping guide

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN, M.H.

    1999-02-24

    This Double-Shell Tank Emergency Pumping Guide provides the preplanning necessary to expeditiously remove any waste that may leak from the primary tank to the secondary tank for Hanford's 28 DSTS. The strategy is described, applicable emergency procedures are referenced, and transfer routes and pumping equipment for each tank are identified.

  18. Strategic Research: In-Tank Generation of Corrosion Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    2002-08-21

    Prevention of stress corrosion cracking and pitting corrosion in high-level waste (HLW) tanks requires the periodic addition of corrosion inhibitors, sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrite. These inhibitor ions can be generated electrochemically from the nitrate present in the waste. Thus, a continuously operated electrochemical reactor placed in the top of the tank could generate nitrite and hydroxide. In-tank generation would eliminate the need to continually add process chemicals resulting in cost savings associated with the procurement, pretreatment and disposal of these chemicals. Experiments examined whether both nitrite and hydroxide could be generated simultaneously from a simple waste simulant in a single electrolytic cell. Results indicated that hydroxide, but not nitrite, formed at a rate that would be effective for in-tank generation. Nitrate reduction proceeded beyond the production of nitrite to produce other nitrogen-containing products. We recommend additional testing to identify an optimum cathode material for nitrite production. Alternatively, the in-tank generator may feature a divided cell configuration or dual electrochemical cells in which one cell generates hydroxide and the second cell generates nitrite.

  19. 49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400 General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General specification applicable to...

  20. 27 CFR 24.230 - Examination of tank car or tank truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Examination of tank car or... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Spirits § 24.230 Examination of tank car or tank truck. Upon arrival of a tank car or tank truck at the bonded wine premises, the proprietor...

  1. 27 CFR 24.230 - Examination of tank car or tank truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination of tank car or... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.230 Examination of tank car or tank truck. Upon arrival of a tank car or tank truck at the bonded wine premises, the proprietor...

  2. 27 CFR 24.230 - Examination of tank car or tank truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Examination of tank car or... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.230 Examination of tank car or tank truck. Upon arrival of a tank car or tank truck at the bonded wine premises, the proprietor...

  3. 27 CFR 24.230 - Examination of tank car or tank truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Examination of tank car or... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.230 Examination of tank car or tank truck. Upon arrival of a tank car or tank truck at the bonded wine premises, the proprietor...

  4. 27 CFR 24.230 - Examination of tank car or tank truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Examination of tank car or... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Spirits § 24.230 Examination of tank car or tank truck. Upon arrival of a tank car or tank truck at the bonded wine premises, the proprietor...

  5. Storage tank for cryogenic liquefied gas

    SciTech Connect

    Guilhem, J. R.

    1985-02-12

    The invention is related to a tank designed to contain a cryogenic liquefied gas and formed in addition to the main tank by two other tight walls. In the upper part of this tank an aperture duct connects the ceiling of the tank to the exterior of the tank, a holder supporting a device sensing in various areas wall temperatures of the tank, can be fitted into this aperture duct, a remote temperature sensor is actually hold by this support and is introduced into the tank. The invention finds an application as a means to easily localize leaking failures of the intermediate wall.

  6. Acceptance for Beneficial Use (ABU) Plan for Double Shell Tank (DST) Annulus Emergency Pumping System

    SciTech Connect

    SHIPLER, C.E.

    2001-07-03

    This documents is to facilitate the transfer of the DST annulus emergency pumping system. This document describes the project deliverables that will allow tank farms operations to deploy a pump and transfer system for timely removal of leaked waste etc..

  7. Cryogenic storage tank thermal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Parametric study discusses relationship between cryogenic boil-off and factors such as tank size, insulation thickness and performance, structural-support heat leaks and use of vapor-cooled shields. Data presented as series of nomographs and curves.

  8. Integral Radiator and Storage Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Miller, John R.; Jakupca, Ian; Sargi,Scott

    2007-01-01

    A simplified, lightweight system for dissipating heat of a regenerative fuel- cell system would include a heat pipe with its evaporator end placed at the heat source and its condenser end integrated into the wall of the regenerative fuel cell system gas-storage tanks. The tank walls act as heat-radiating surfaces for cooling the regenerative fuel cell system. The system was conceived for use in outer space, where radiation is the only physical mechanism available for transferring heat to the environment. The system could also be adapted for use on propellant tanks or other large-surface-area structures to convert them to space heat-radiating structures. Typically for a regenerative fuel cell system, the radiator is separate from the gas-storage tanks. By using each tank s surface as a heat-radiating surface, the need for a separate, potentially massive radiator structure is eliminated. In addition to the mass savings, overall volume is reduced because a more compact packaging scheme is possible. The underlying tank wall structure provides ample support for heat pipes that help to distribute the heat over the entire tank surface. The heat pipes are attached to the outer surface of each gas-storage tank by use of a high-thermal conductance, carbon-fiber composite-material wrap. Through proper choice of the composite layup, it is possible to exploit the high longitudinal conductivity of the carbon fibers (greater than the thermal conductivity of copper) to minimize the unevenness of the temperature distribution over the tank surface, thereby helping to maximize the overall heat-transfer efficiency. In a prototype of the system, the heat pipe and the composite wrap contribute an average mass of 340 g/sq m of radiator area. Lightweight space radiator panels have a mass of about 3,000 g/sq m of radiator area, so this technique saves almost 90 percent of the mass of separate radiator panels. In tests, the modified surface of the tank was found to have an emissivity of 0

  9. Toroidal Tank Development for Upper-stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Tom; Roberts, Keith

    2003-01-01

    The advantages, development, and fabrication of toroidal propellant tanks are profiled in this viewgraph presentation. Several images are included of independent research and development (IR&D) of toroidal propellant tanks at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Other images in the presentation give a brief overview of Thiokol conformal tank technology development. The presentation describes Thiokol's approach to continuous composite toroidal tank fabrication in detail. Images are shown of continuous and segmented toroidal tanks fabricated by Thiokol.

  10. Safety evaluation for adding water to tank 101-SY

    SciTech Connect

    Clinton, R.

    1994-12-09

    This document provides a new water limit for Tank 241-SY-101. The original limit was set at 9600 gallons. The new limit is now 20,000 gallons. There are various activities that require the use of additional water to the tank. The main activity is the removal of the temporary mixer pump. This requires a large amount of water which will exceed the original limit. Also, other activities such as flushing, adding a viscometer, and adding a void fraction meter requires additional water. The new limit safely incorporates these activities and allows room for more future activities.

  11. PROBABILITY BASED CORROSION CONTROL FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS: INTERIM REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E; Karthik Subramanian, K

    2008-04-23

    Controls on the solution chemistry (minimum nitrite and hydroxide concentrations) are in place to prevent the initiation and propagation of pitting and stress corrosion cracking in high level waste (HLW) tanks. These controls are based upon a series of experiments performed on carbon steel coupons in simulated waste solutions. An experimental program was undertaken to investigate reducing the minimum molar nitrite concentration required to confidently inhibit pitting. A statistical basis to quantify the probability of pitting for the tank wall, when exposed to various dilute solutions, is being developed. Electrochemical and coupon testing are being performed within the framework of the statistical test matrix to determine the minimum necessary inhibitor concentrations and develop a quantitative model to predict pitting propensity. A subset of the original statistical test matrix was used to develop an applied understanding of the corrosion response of the carbon steel in the various environments. The interim results suggest that there exists some critical nitrite concentration that sufficiently inhibits against localized corrosion mechanisms due to nitrates/chlorides/sulfates, beyond which further nitrite additions are unnecessary. The combination of visual observation and the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization scans indicate the potential for significant inhibitor reductions without consequence specifically at nitrate concentrations near 1 M. The complete data sets will be used to determine the statistical basis to confidently inhibit against pitting using nitrite inhibition with the current pH controls. Once complete, a revised chemistry control program will be devised based upon the probability of pitting specifically for dilute solutions which will allow for tank specific chemistry control implementation.

  12. Nonradioactive air emissions notice of construction, Project W-320, 241-C-106 tank sluicing

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, C.B.

    1998-01-28

    This document serves as a Notice of Construction for the Phase 2 activities of Project W-320, 241-C-106 Tank Sluicing, pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Codes (WAC) 173-400 and 173-460. Phased permitting for Project W-320 was discussed with the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) on November 2, 1993. In April 1994, it was deemed unnecessary because the Phase 1 activities did not constitute a new source of emissions and therefore did not require approval from Ecology. The 241-C-106 tank is a 2-million liter capacity, single-shell tank (SST) used for radioactive waste storage since 1947. Between mid-1963 and mid-1969, 241-C-106 tank received high-heat waste, PUREX (plutonium-uranium extraction) Facility high-level waste, and strontium-bearing solids from the strontium and cesium recovery activities. In 1971, temperatures exceeding 99 C were observed in the tank, and therefore, a ventilation system was installed to cool the tank. In addition, approximately 22,712 liters of cooling water are added to the tank each month to prevent the sludge from drying out and overheating. Excessive drying of the sludge could result in possible structural damage. The current radiolytic heat generation rate has been calculated at 32 kilowatts (kW) plus or minus 6 kW. The 241-C-106 tank was withdrawn from service in 1979 and currently is categorized as not leaking. The heat generation in 241-C-106 tank has been identified as a key safety issue on the Hanford Site. The evaporative cooling provided by the added water during operation and/or sluicing maintains the 241-C-106 tank within its specified operating temperature limits. Project W-320, 241-C-106 Tank Sluicing, will mobilize and remove the heat-generating sludge, allowing the water additions to cease. Following sludge removal, the 241-C-106 tank could be placed in a safe, interim stabilized condition. Tank-to-tank sluicing, an existing, proven technology, will provide the earliest possible

  13. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: A NEW PROCESS FOR CHEMICALLY CLEANING SAVANNAH RIVER WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E; Neil Davis, N; Renee Spires, R

    2008-01-17

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 49 high level waste (HLW) tanks that must be emptied, cleaned, and closed as required by the Federal Facilities Agreement. The current method of chemical cleaning uses several hundred thousand gallons per tank of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to partially dissolve and suspend residual waste and corrosion products such that the waste can be pumped out of the tank. This adds a significant quantity of sodium oxalate to the tanks and, if multiple tanks are cleaned, renders the waste incompatible with the downstream processing. Tank space is also insufficient to store this stream given the large number of tanks to be cleaned. Therefore, a search for a new cleaning process was initiated utilizing the TRIZ literature search approach, and Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination--Ultraviolet (CORD-UV), a mature technology currently used for decontamination and cleaning of commercial nuclear reactor primary cooling water loops, was identified. CORD-UV utilizes oxalic acid for sludge dissolution, but then decomposes the oxalic acid to carbon dioxide and water by UV treatment outside the system being treated. This allows reprecipitation and subsequent deposition of the sludge into a selected container without adding significant volume to that container, and without adding any new chemicals that would impact downstream treatment processes. Bench top and demonstration loop measurements on SRS tank sludge stimulant demonstrated the feasibility of applying CORD-UV for enhanced chemical cleaning of SRS HLW tanks.

  14. Pore Water Extraction Test Near 241-SX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Eberlein, Susan J.; Parker, Danny L.; Tabor, Cynthia L.; Holm, Melissa J.

    2013-11-11

    A proof-of-principle test is underway near the Hanford Site 241-SX Tank Farm. The test will evaluate a potential remediation technology that will use tank farm-deployable equipment to remove contaminated pore water from vadose zone soils. The test system was designed and built to address the constraints of working within a tank farm. Due to radioactive soil contamination and limitations in drilling near tanks, small-diameter direct push drilling techniques applicable to tank farms are being utilized for well placement. To address space and weight limitations in working around tanks and obstacles within tank farms, the above ground portions of the test system have been constructed to allow deployment flexibility. The test system utilizes low vacuum over a sealed well screen to establish flow into an extraction well. Extracted pore water is collected in a well sump,and then pumped to the surface using a small-diameter bladder pump.If pore water extraction using this system can be successfully demonstrated, it may be possible to target local contamination in the vadose zone around underground storage tanks. It is anticipated that the results of this proof-of-principle test will support future decision making regarding interim and final actions for soil contamination within the tank farms.

  15. 49 CFR 179.400-14 - Cleaning of inner tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-14 Cleaning of inner tank. The interior of the inner tank and all connecting lines... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning of inner tank. 179.400-14 Section...

  16. 49 CFR 179.400-16 - Access to inner tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-16 Access to inner tank. (a) The inner tank must be provided with a means of... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to inner tank. 179.400-16 Section...

  17. 49 CFR 179.400-7 - Tank heads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tank heads. 179.400-7 Section 179.400-7... Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-7 Tank heads. (a) Tank heads of the inner tank and outer jacket must be flanged and dished, or ellipsoidal. (b)...

  18. 49 CFR 179.400-7 - Tank heads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tank heads. 179.400-7 Section 179.400-7... Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-7 Tank heads. (a) Tank heads of the inner tank and outer jacket must be flanged and dished, or ellipsoidal. (b)...

  19. 49 CFR 179.400-7 - Tank heads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tank heads. 179.400-7 Section 179.400-7... Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-7 Tank heads. (a) Tank heads of the inner tank and outer jacket must be flanged and dished, or ellipsoidal. (b)...

  20. 49 CFR 179.400-7 - Tank heads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tank heads. 179.400-7 Section 179.400-7... Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-7 Tank heads. (a) Tank heads of the inner tank and outer jacket must be flanged and dished, or ellipsoidal. (b)...