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Sample records for allowable stress values

  1. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for...

  2. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for...

  3. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for...

  4. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for...

  5. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for...

  6. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  7. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  8. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  9. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  10. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  11. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  12. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  13. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-522). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may...

  14. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  15. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  16. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-ENG). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may...

  17. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-ENG). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may...

  18. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-ENG). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may...

  19. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  20. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  1. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  2. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  3. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  4. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  5. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  6. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  7. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  8. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  9. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the ultimate tensile strength of its material. (b) Safety factor. When it is necessary to use the code of original..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and...

  10. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  11. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  12. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  13. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  14. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  15. 46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or less of the minimum yield stress of the framework...

  16. 46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or less of the minimum yield stress of the framework...

  17. 46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or less of the minimum yield stress of the framework...

  18. 46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or less of the minimum yield stress of the framework...

  19. 46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or less of the minimum yield stress of the framework...

  20. A Review & Assessment of Current Operating Conditions Allowable Stresses in ASME Section III Subsection NH

    SciTech Connect

    R. W. Swindeman

    2009-12-14

    The current operating condition allowable stresses provided in ASME Section III, Subsection NH were reviewed for consistency with the criteria used to establish the stress allowables and with the allowable stresses provided in ASME Section II, Part D. It was found that the S{sub o} values in ASME III-NH were consistent with the S values in ASME IID for the five materials of interest. However, it was found that 0.80 S{sub r} was less than S{sub o} for some temperatures for four of the materials. Only values for alloy 800H appeared to be consistent with the criteria on which S{sub o} values are established. With the intent of undertaking a more detailed evaluation of issues related to the allowable stresses in ASME III-NH, the availabilities of databases for the five materials were reviewed and augmented databases were assembled.

  1. Relieving stress through value-rich work.

    PubMed

    Knoop, R

    1994-12-01

    On the basis of Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman's (1959) motivator-hygiene theory, it was hypothesized that intrinsic but not extrinsic work values would be inversely related to stress. Also investigated was the question of which work values provide the most relief from stress. Elementary school teachers and administrators (N = 607) from nine school boards in southern Ontario completed a survey that included Pines, Aronson, and Kafry's (1981) stress scale and Elizur's (1984) work values scale. Almost all of the 12 intrinsic work values investigated were negatively correlated with stress, but the 4 extrinsic work values studied were not consistently related to stress. Five work values explained 11% of the variance in physical stress, 9 work values explained 22% of the variance in emotional stress, and 6 work values explained 26% of the variance in mental stress. Four work values emerged as meaningful predictors of all three types of stress: being esteemed by others, achieving through work, doing meaningful work, and being able to use one's knowledge and abilities.

  2. Relieving stress through value-rich work.

    PubMed

    Knoop, R

    1994-12-01

    On the basis of Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman's (1959) motivator-hygiene theory, it was hypothesized that intrinsic but not extrinsic work values would be inversely related to stress. Also investigated was the question of which work values provide the most relief from stress. Elementary school teachers and administrators (N = 607) from nine school boards in southern Ontario completed a survey that included Pines, Aronson, and Kafry's (1981) stress scale and Elizur's (1984) work values scale. Almost all of the 12 intrinsic work values investigated were negatively correlated with stress, but the 4 extrinsic work values studied were not consistently related to stress. Five work values explained 11% of the variance in physical stress, 9 work values explained 22% of the variance in emotional stress, and 6 work values explained 26% of the variance in mental stress. Four work values emerged as meaningful predictors of all three types of stress: being esteemed by others, achieving through work, doing meaningful work, and being able to use one's knowledge and abilities. PMID:7869707

  3. 30 CFR 1206.109 - When may I take a transportation allowance in determining value?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When may I take a transportation allowance in determining value? 1206.109 Section 1206.109 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 1206.109 When may I take...

  4. 30 CFR 1206.109 - When may I take a transportation allowance in determining value?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When may I take a transportation allowance in determining value? 1206.109 Section 1206.109 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 1206.109 When may I take...

  5. 30 CFR 1206.109 - When may I take a transportation allowance in determining value?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When may I take a transportation allowance in determining value? 1206.109 Section 1206.109 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 1206.109 When may I take...

  6. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... round, rectangular, or gusset braces shall be 9,000 psi. Strength of Materials ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS... maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  7. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... round, rectangular, or gusset braces shall be 9,000 psi. Strength of Materials ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS... maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  8. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... round, rectangular, or gusset braces shall be 9,000 psi. Strength of Materials ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS... maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  9. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... round, rectangular, or gusset braces shall be 9,000 psi. Strength of Materials ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS... maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  10. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... round, rectangular, or gusset braces shall be 9,000 psi. Strength of Materials ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS... maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  11. Interests and values in the Recommended Dietary Allowances and nutritional guidelines for Americans.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, H O

    1996-09-01

    Evidence is provided showing that interests, values and belief systems have affected the development of Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and nutrition guidelines for Americans in the past and can be expected to do so in the future. The conflicts of the 1980s relative to the nutritional guidelines for Americans and the RDAs illustrate the tension among values that can parallel a conflict of interests. In the conflicts of the 1980s, we saw an apparent conflict between those policies that attempt to optimize outcomes for a large class of affected parties and those policies that attempt to establish constraints on actions which appear to threaten individual autonomy and freedom of choice. The former approach derives from utilitarian, consequential moral philosophy which evaluates policies by evaluating costs and harms, and weighing them against benefits to all parties. The latter has its strongest advocates in contemporary libertarianism which takes individual freedom to be the bottom line. Ethical vegetarianism, a belief system which would limit RDAs and guidelines to those that can be translated to vegan and other vegetarian diets, has been a more recent entry into the discussions. Such human value issues suggest that a set of RDAs or of nutrition guidelines is analogous to and may be considered to be an ethic. An ethic is a theory reached via the method of reflective equilibrium that is a coherent ordered triple set of beliefs: a set of considered moral judgments, a set of moral principles, and a set of relevant scientific background theories. The reasoning, however, can become circular and unsound when the considered moral judgments, moral principles and relevant background are not independent sources of information. If they are mixed or, for example, an intuition is mistaken for a scientific conclusion, the reasoning can be flawed.

  12. Maximum allowable values of the heavy metals in recycled water for household laundry.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Bandita; Pham, Thi Thu Nga; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2013-05-01

    Household laundry as a new end use of recycled water in dual reticulation systems has a great potential as the significant amount of potable water from urban households can be saved. However, there is still no sufficient evidence and supporting recycled water quality guidelines for this particular use. A key gap in knowledge is the impact of heavy metals in recycled water on clothes and washing machines. Thus, this study aims to determine the maximum allowable values (MAVs) of the heavy metals iron (Fe), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn) in recycled water for washing clothes in washing machines. Six different concentrations of each targeted metals were prepared in tap water for the washing machine experiments. The tearing/tensile strength tests were used for the assessment of cloth durability. MINITAB 16 as a statistical tool was used and ANOVA one way test was applied for the significance analysis (Turkey's test p<0.05). The results show that the MAVs of the heavy metals Fe, Pb, Zn, Cu and Mn were found to be 1 mg/l, 1 mg/l, 10 mg/l, 5 mg/l and 1 mg/l respectively in terms of cloth durability.

  13. Verification of Allowable Stresses In ASME Section III Subsection NH For Grade 91 Steel & Alloy 800H

    SciTech Connect

    R. W. Swindeman; M. J. Swindeman; B. W. Roberts; B. E. Thurgood; D. L. Marriott

    2007-11-30

    The database for the creep-rupture of 9Cr-1Mo-V (Grade 91) steel was collected and reviewed to determine if it met the needs for recommending time-dependent strength values, S{sub t}, for coverage in ASME Section III Subsection NH (ASME III-NH) to 650 C (1200 F) and 600,000 hours. The accumulated database included over 300 tests for 1% total strain, nearly 400 tests for tertiary creep, and nearly 1700 tests to rupture. Procedures for analyzing creep and rupture data for ASME III-NH were reviewed and compared to the procedures used to develop the current allowable stress values for Gr 91 for ASME II-D. The criteria in ASME III-NH for estimating S{sub t} included the average strength for 1% total strain for times to 600,000 hours, 80% of the minimum strength for tertiary creep for times to 600,000 hours, and 67% of the minimum rupture strength values for times to 600,000 hours. Time-temperature-stress parametric formulations were selected to correlate the data and make predictions of the long-time strength. It was found that the stress corresponding to 1% total strain and the initiation of tertiary creep were not the controlling criteria over the temperature-time range of concern. It was found that small adjustments to the current values in III-NH could be introduced but that the existing values were conservative and could be retained. The existing database was found to be adequate to extend the coverage to 600,000 hours for temperatures below 650 C (1200 F).

  14. Teacher Stress and Personal Values. An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachkirova, Tatiana

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the first stage of a small-scale research project into the relationship between teacher stress and personal values. It starts by outlining the problem of teacher stress and an overview of the literature investigating the sources of it. A particular combination of factors related to personal values that may increase…

  15. 30 CFR 1206.112 - What adjustments and transportation allowances apply when I value oil production from my lease...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... apply when I value oil production from my lease using NYMEX prices or ANS spot prices? 1206.112 Section... transportation allowances apply when I value oil production from my lease using NYMEX prices or ANS spot prices? This section applies when you use NYMEX prices or ANS spot prices to calculate the value of...

  16. 30 CFR 206.109 - When may I take a transportation allowance in determining value?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determining value? 206.109 Section 206.109 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 206.109 When may I take a... royalties due, plus interest under 30 CFR 218.54. You also could be entitled to a credit with interest...

  17. Health-based cyanotoxin guideline values allow for cyanotoxin-based monitoring and efficient public health response to cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Farrer, David; Counter, Marina; Hillwig, Rebecca; Cude, Curtis

    2015-02-05

    Human health risks from cyanobacterial blooms are primarily related to cyanotoxins that some cyanobacteria produce. Not all species of cyanobacteria can produce toxins. Those that do often do not produce toxins at levels harmful to human health. Monitoring programs that use identification of cyanobacteria genus and species and enumeration of cyanobacterial cells as a surrogate for cyanotoxin presence can overestimate risk and lead to unnecessary health advisories. In the absence of federal criteria for cyanotoxins in recreational water, the Oregon Health Authority (OHA) developed guideline values for the four most common cyanotoxins in Oregon's fresh waters (anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, microcystins, and saxitoxins). OHA developed three guideline values for each of the cyanotoxins found in Oregon. Each of the guideline values is for a specific use of cyanobacteria-affected water: drinking water, human recreational exposure and dog recreational exposure. Having cyanotoxin guidelines allows OHA to promote toxin-based monitoring (TBM) programs, which reduce the number of health advisories and focus advisories on times and places where actual, rather than potential, risks to health exist. TBM allows OHA to more efficiently protect public health while reducing burdens on local economies that depend on water recreation-related tourism.

  18. Modulation of oxidative stress and subsequent induction of apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress allows citral to decrease cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, Arvinder; Felder, Mildred; Fass, Lucas; Kaur, Justanjot; Czarnecki, Austin; Rathi, Kavya; Zeng, San; Osowski, Kathryn Kalady; Howell, Colin; Xiong, May P.; Whelan, Rebecca J.; Patankar, Manish S.

    2016-01-01

    The monoterpenoid, citral, when delivered through PEG-b-PCL nanoparticles inhibits in vivo growth of 4T1 breast tumors. Here, we show that citral inhibits proliferation of multiple human cancer cell lines. In p53 expressing ECC-1 and OVCAR-3 but not in p53-deficient SKOV-3 cells, citral induces G1/S cell cycle arrest and apoptosis as determined by Annexin V staining and increased cleaved caspase3 and Bax and decreased Bcl-2. In SKOV-3 cells, citral induces the ER stress markers CHOP, GADD45, EDEM, ATF4, Hsp90, ATG5, and phospho-eIF2α. The molecular chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid attenuates citral activity in SKOV-3 but not in ECC-1 and OVCAR-3 cells. In p53-expressing cells, citral increases phosphorylation of serine-15 of p53. Activation of p53 increases Bax, PUMA, and NOXA expression. Inhibition of p53 by pifithrin-α, attenuates citral-mediated apoptosis. Citral increases intracellular oxygen radicals and this leads to activation of p53. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis by L-buthionine sulfoxamine increases potency of citral. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine decreases phosphorylation of p53 in citral-treated ECC-1 and OVCAR-3. These results define a p53-dependent, and in the absence of p53, ER stress-dependent mode of action of citral. This study indicates that citral in PEG-b-PCL nanoparticle formulation should be considered for treatment of breast and other tumors. PMID:27270209

  19. Modulation of oxidative stress and subsequent induction of apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress allows citral to decrease cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Arvinder; Felder, Mildred; Fass, Lucas; Kaur, Justanjot; Czarnecki, Austin; Rathi, Kavya; Zeng, San; Osowski, Kathryn Kalady; Howell, Colin; Xiong, May P; Whelan, Rebecca J; Patankar, Manish S

    2016-01-01

    The monoterpenoid, citral, when delivered through PEG-b-PCL nanoparticles inhibits in vivo growth of 4T1 breast tumors. Here, we show that citral inhibits proliferation of multiple human cancer cell lines. In p53 expressing ECC-1 and OVCAR-3 but not in p53-deficient SKOV-3 cells, citral induces G1/S cell cycle arrest and apoptosis as determined by Annexin V staining and increased cleaved caspase3 and Bax and decreased Bcl-2. In SKOV-3 cells, citral induces the ER stress markers CHOP, GADD45, EDEM, ATF4, Hsp90, ATG5, and phospho-eIF2α. The molecular chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid attenuates citral activity in SKOV-3 but not in ECC-1 and OVCAR-3 cells. In p53-expressing cells, citral increases phosphorylation of serine-15 of p53. Activation of p53 increases Bax, PUMA, and NOXA expression. Inhibition of p53 by pifithrin-α, attenuates citral-mediated apoptosis. Citral increases intracellular oxygen radicals and this leads to activation of p53. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis by L-buthionine sulfoxamine increases potency of citral. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine decreases phosphorylation of p53 in citral-treated ECC-1 and OVCAR-3. These results define a p53-dependent, and in the absence of p53, ER stress-dependent mode of action of citral. This study indicates that citral in PEG-b-PCL nanoparticle formulation should be considered for treatment of breast and other tumors. PMID:27270209

  20. Modifications to the Paterson triaxial rock deformation apparatus to allow combined stress testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, S.; Mecklenburgh, J.; Xiao, W. F.; Covey-Crump, S. J.; Rutter, E. H.

    2010-12-01

    Almost all rock deformation experiments are performed in pure shear (axial compression or extension) or simple shear (torsion). However, in general, natural deformation can be expected to occur under some combination of these end member loading geometries. One of the most widely used apparatus for deforming geological samples at elevated temperatures and confining pressures is the Paterson triaxial rock deformation apparatus which is now installed in several experimental rock deformation facilities worldwide. In basic design this apparatus has the capacity for deforming samples under simultaneously applied axial loads and torques but modifications are required to the way in which axial load and torque are measured during such experiments if the mechanical data acquired are to be meaningful. Two design complications in particular arise. Firstly, at present axial load and torque are measured by a single slotted elastic element which undergoes measurable (and hence able to be calibrated) elastic distortions in response to applied axial loads and torques. The use of a single element presents no difficulties if either axial loads or torques are applied but when they are applied together the torque leads to an apparent but not real axial load and vice versa. Secondly, in a torsion test it is important to be able to detect the point during twisting at which all the slack within the rig - needed to allow test assembly - has been taken up and initial torque is applied to the sample. In a pure torsion test this is achieved by having a gap between the axial ram (containing the load cell) and the sample assembly but when there is a simultaneously applied axial load this gap is closed and the resulting friction at this surface means that torque is transferred to the load cell from the onset of twisting. In this contribution we show how a low-friction thrust bearing assembly located between the axial ram and sample assembly can be used to provide a relatively easy and

  1. 30 CFR 206.112 - What adjustments and transportation allowances apply when I value oil production from my lease...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 206.112 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 206.112 What adjustments and transportation allowances apply...

  2. 30 CFR 1206.112 - What adjustments and transportation allowances apply when I value oil production from my lease...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1206.112 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 1206.112 What adjustments and transportation allowances... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What adjustments and transportation...

  3. 30 CFR 1206.112 - What adjustments and transportation allowances apply when I value oil production from my lease...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1206.112 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 1206.112 What adjustments and transportation allowances... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What adjustments and transportation...

  4. 30 CFR 1206.112 - What adjustments and transportation allowances apply when I value oil production from my lease...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1206.112 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 1206.112 What adjustments and transportation allowances... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What adjustments and transportation...

  5. Allowing Physicians to Choose the Value of Compensation for Participation in a Web-Based Survey: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Cristi L; Lau, Bryan; Halpern, Scott D; Needham, Dale M

    2015-01-01

    Background Survey response rates among physicians are declining, and determining an appropriate level of compensation to motivate participation poses a major challenge. Objective To estimate the effect of permitting intensive care physicians to select their preferred level of compensation for completing a short Web-based survey on physician (1) response rate, (2) survey completion rate, (3) time to response, and (4) time spent completing the survey. Methods A total of 1850 US intensivists from an existing database were randomized to receive a survey invitation email with or without an Amazon.com incentive available to the first 100 respondents. The incentive could be instantly redeemed for an amount chosen by the respondent, up to a maximum of US $50. Results The overall response rate was 35.90% (630/1755). Among the 35.4% (111/314) of eligible participants choosing the incentive, 80.2% (89/111) selected the maximum value. Among intensivists offered an incentive, the response was 6.0% higher (95% CI 1.5-10.5, P=.01), survey completion was marginally greater (807/859, 94.0% vs 892/991, 90.0%; P=.06), and the median number of days to survey response was shorter (0.8, interquartile range [IQR] 0.2-14.4 vs 6.6, IQR 0.3-22.3; P=.001), with no difference in time spent completing the survey. Conclusions Permitting intensive care physicians to determine compensation level for completing a short Web-based survey modestly increased response rate and substantially decreased response time without decreasing the time spent on survey completion. PMID:26223821

  6. Stress and the relative reinforcing value of food in female binge eaters.

    PubMed

    Goldfield, Gary S; Adamo, Kristi B; Rutherford, Jane; Legg, Christine

    2008-02-27

    The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of stress reactivity and binge eating (BE) status on changes in the relative reinforcing value of snack foods. The relative reinforcing value of snack foods was assessed in binge eaters and non-binge eaters across a stress-induction session (after 3-minutes of anticipation of giving a speech) or a control day (after 3-minutes of reading magazines), with order of conditions counterbalanced. Subjects were divided into four groups based on scores on the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and changes in perceived stress: Binge eaters/low stress reactivity (n=12), binge eaters/high stress reactivity (n=10), non-binge eaters/low stress reactivity (n=6), non-binge eaters/high stress reactivity (n=9). Dietary restraint, hunger, disinhibition, and hedonics were measured by self-report. Body composition was estimated by body mass index (BMI=weight in kilograms divided by height in metres squared). The relative reinforcing value of snack food was influenced differently by binge status and stress reactivity in the stress and control conditions (p<0.05). Binge eaters who reacted to stress earned more snack food points (p<0.001) in stress condition, but non-binge eaters who showed high stress reactivity earned less points for snack food in stress condition (p<0.05). This same pattern of results remained after statistically controlling for body mass index (BMI) and dietary restraint. Findings suggest that reactivity to interpersonal or ego-related stress increases the relative reinforcing value of food in binge eaters but decreases the relative reinforcing value of snack food in non-binge eaters, and these findings appear to be independent of dietary restraint and BMI.

  7. Does pulsed low intensity ultrasound allow early return to normal activities when treating stress fractures? A review of one tarsal navicular and eight tibial stress fractures.

    PubMed

    Brand, J C; Brindle, T; Nyland, J; Caborn, D N; Johnson, D L

    1999-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the efficacy of daily pulsed low intensity ultrasound (LIUS) with early return to activities for the treatment of lower extremity stress fractures. Eight patients (2 males, 6 females) with radiographic and bone scan confirmed tibial stress fractures participated in this study. Additionally, a case report of a tarsal navicular stress fracture is described. All patients except one were involved in athletics. Prior to the study, subjects completed a 5 question, 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS) regarding pain level (10 = extreme pain, 1 = no pain) and were assessed for functional performance. Subjects received 20-minute LIUS treatments 5 times a week for 4 weeks. Subjects maintained all functional activities during the treatment period. Seven patients with posterior-medial stress fractures participated without a brace. Subjects were re-tested after 4 weeks of treatment. Mann-Whitney U tests (VAS data) and paired t-tests (functional tests) assessed statistical significance (p<0.05). Although the intensity of practice was diminished in some instances, no time off from competitive sports was prescribed for the patients with the tibial stress fractures. The patient with the anterior tibial stress fracture underwent tibial intramedullary nailing at the conclusion of a season of play. In this uncontrolled experience, treatment of tibial stress fractures with daily pulsed LIUS was effective in pain relief and early return to vigorous activity without bracing for the patients with posterior-medial stress fractures.

  8. Upregulation of the mitochondrial Lon Protease allows adaptation to acute oxidative stress but dysregulation is associated with chronic stress, disease, and aging.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Jenny K; Pomatto, Laura C D; Davies, Kelvin J A

    2013-02-09

    The elimination of oxidatively modified proteins is a crucial process in maintaining cellular homeostasis, especially during stress. Mitochondria are protein-dense, high traffic compartments, whose polypeptides are constantly exposed to superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and other reactive species, generated by 'electron leakage' from the respiratory chain. The level of oxidative stress to mitochondrial proteins is not constant, but instead varies greatly with numerous metabolic and environmental factors. Oxidized mitochondrial proteins must be removed rapidly (by proteolytic degradation) or they will aggregate, cross-link, and cause toxicity. The Lon Protease is a key enzyme in the degradation of oxidized proteins within the mitochondrial matrix. Under conditions of acute stress Lon is highly inducible, possibly with the oxidant acting as the signal inducer, thereby providing increased protection. It seems that under chronic stress conditions, however, Lon levels actually decline. Lon levels also decline with age and with senescence, and senescent cells even lose the ability to induce Lon during acute stress. We propose that the regulation of Lon is biphasic, in that it is up-regulated during transient stress and down-regulated during chronic stress and aging, and we suggest that the loss of Lon responsiveness may be a significant factor in aging, and in age-related diseases.

  9. Ultraviolet and photosynthetically active radiation can both induce photoprotective capacity allowing barley to overcome high radiation stress.

    PubMed

    Klem, Karel; Holub, Petr; Štroch, Michal; Nezval, Jakub; Špunda, Vladimír; Tříska, Jan; Jansen, Marcel A K; Robson, T Matthew; Urban, Otmar

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of acclimation to ultraviolet (UV) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on photoprotective mechanisms in barley leaves. Barley plants were acclimated for 7 days under three combinations of high or low UV and PAR treatments ([UV-PAR-], [UV-PAR+], [UV+PAR+]). Subsequently, plants were exposed to short-term high radiation stress (HRS; defined by high intensities of PAR - 1000 μmol m(-2) s(-1), UV-A - 10 W m(-2) and UV-B 2 W m(-2) for 4 h), to test their photoprotective capacity. The barley variety sensitive to photooxidative stress (Barke) had low constitutive flavonoid content compared to the resistant variety (Bonus) under low UV and PAR intensities. The accumulation of lutonarin and 3-feruloylquinic acid, but not of saponarin, was greatly enhanced by high PAR and further increased by UV exposure. Acclimation of plants to both high UV and PAR intensities also increased the total pool of xanthophyll-cycle pigments (VAZ). Subsequent exposure to HRS revealed that prior acclimation to UV and PAR was able to ameliorate the negative consequences of HRS on photosynthesis. Both total contents of epidermal flavonols and the total pool of VAZ were closely correlated with small reductions in light-saturated CO2 assimilation rate and maximum quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry caused by HRS. Based on these results, we conclude that growth under high PAR can substantially increase the photoprotective capacity of barley plants compared with plants grown under low PAR. However, additional UV radiation is necessary to fully induce photoprotective mechanisms in the variety Barke. This study demonstrates that UV-exposure can lead to enhanced photoprotective capacity and can contribute to the induction of tolerance to high radiation stress in barley.

  10. Effects of group size and floor space allowance on grouped sows: aggression, stress, skin injuries, and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, P H; Rice, M; Nash, J; Giri, K; Butler, K L; Tilbrook, A J; Morrison, R S

    2013-10-01

    A total of 3,120 sows, in 4 time replicates, were used to determine the effects of group size and floor space on sow welfare using behavioral, physiological, health, and fitness variables. Within 1 to 7 d postinsemination, sows were assigned randomly to treatments of a 3 by 6 factorial arrangement, with 3 group sizes (10, 30, or 80 sows/pen) and 6 floor space allowances (1.4, 1.8, 2.0, 2.2, 2.4, or 3.0 m(2)/sow). Sows were housed on partially slatted concrete floors, and overhead feeders delivered 4 times/day to provide a total of 2.5 kg of feed/sow. As pen space increased from 1.4 to 3.0 m(2)/sow, aggression at feeding decreased from about 9 to 7 bouts/sow (linear, P = 0.029) and plasma cortisol concentrations decreased from about 28 to 21 ng/mL (linear, P = 0.0089) at 2 d. Although the results are in accord with a linear decline from 1.4 to 3 m(2)/sow, the results are also in accord with a decline in these measurements from 1.4 to 1.8 m(2)/sow and no further decline greater than 1.8 m(2)/sow. Farrowing rate (percentage of inseminated sows that farrowed) also increased from about 60 to 75% as space increased from 1.4 to 3.0 m(2)/sow (linear, P = 0.012). Group size was related to skin injuries on d 9 (P = 0.0017), 23 (P = 0.0046), and 51 (P = 0.0006), with groups of 10 consistently having the lowest number of total injuries over this period. Based on the aggression and cortisol results, it is credible to judge that, within the range of floor space allowances studied, sow welfare improves with increased space. However, from a sow welfare perspective, the experiment had insufficient precision to determine what is an adequate space allowance for sows. Thus, although the results definitely support a space allowance of 1.4 m(2)/sow being too small, it is not possible to give guidance on an actual space allowance at mixing that is adequate. PMID:23893983

  11. Stress response and the value of reproduction: are birds prudent parents?

    PubMed

    Bókony, Veronika; Lendvai, Adám Z; Liker, András; Angelier, Frédéric; Wingfield, John C; Chastel, Olivier

    2009-05-01

    In vertebrates, stressors such as starvation or predator attacks stimulate the rapid elevation of circulating glucocorticoid hormones, triggering physiological and behavioral responses that aid immediate survival but simultaneously inhibit reproduction. This stress response has been proposed to serve as a physiological mediator of life-history trade-offs: when the value of current reproduction is high relative to the value of future reproduction and survival, a mitigated stress response is expected to enable successful breeding and maximize fitness. Using phylogenetic comparative analyses, we investigated baseline and peak stress-induced plasma corticosterone levels during parental care in 64 bird species. We found that (1) species with a higher value of the current brood relative to future breeding mounted weaker corticosterone responses during acute stress, and (2) females in species with more female-biased parental care had weaker corticosterone responses. These results support the brood value hypothesis, suggesting that the stress response evolves as an adaptive basis for life-history strategies. Further, we found that (3) baseline corticosterone correlated positively with brood value and negatively with body mass, and (4) peak corticosterone was greater in species breeding at higher latitudes. The latter findings suggest that circulating corticosterone concentrations might be matched to the anticipated demands and risks during nesting.

  12. Racial-ethnic disparities in maternal parenting stress: the role of structural disadvantages and parenting values.

    PubMed

    Nomaguchi, Kei; House, Amanda N

    2013-01-01

    Although researchers contend that racial-ethnic minorities experience more stress than whites, knowledge of racial-ethnic disparities in parenting stress is limited. Using a pooled time-series analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (n = 11,324), we examine racial-ethnic differences in maternal parenting stress, with a focus on structural and cultural explanations and variations by nativity and child age. In kindergarten, black mothers, albeit U.S.-born only, report more parenting stress than white mothers due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian parenting values. The black-white gap increases from kindergarten to third grade, and in third grade, U.S.-born black mothers' higher stress than white mothers' persists after controlling for structural and parenting factors. Hispanic and Asian mothers, albeit foreign-born only, report more stress than white mothers at both ages due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian values. Despite structural disadvantages, American Indian mothers report less stress. PMID:24026535

  13. Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Maternal Parenting Stress: The Role of Structural Disadvantages and Parenting Values

    PubMed Central

    Nomaguchi, Kei; House, Amanda N.

    2013-01-01

    Although researchers contend that racial-ethnic minorities experience more stress than whites, knowledge of racial-ethnic disparities in parenting stress is limited. Using a pooled time-series analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–99 (n = 11,324), we examine racial-ethnic differences in maternal parenting stress, with a focus on structural and cultural explanations and variations by nativity and child age. In kindergarten, black mothers, albeit U.S.-born only, report more parenting stress than white mothers due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian parenting values. The black-white gap increases from kindergarten to third grade, and in third grade, U.S.-born black mothers’ higher stress than white mothers’ persists after controlling for structural and parenting factors. Hispanic and Asian mothers, albeit foreign-born only, report more stress than white mothers at both ages due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian values. Despite structural disadvantages, American Indian mothers report less stress. PMID:24026535

  14. Racial-ethnic disparities in maternal parenting stress: the role of structural disadvantages and parenting values.

    PubMed

    Nomaguchi, Kei; House, Amanda N

    2013-01-01

    Although researchers contend that racial-ethnic minorities experience more stress than whites, knowledge of racial-ethnic disparities in parenting stress is limited. Using a pooled time-series analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (n = 11,324), we examine racial-ethnic differences in maternal parenting stress, with a focus on structural and cultural explanations and variations by nativity and child age. In kindergarten, black mothers, albeit U.S.-born only, report more parenting stress than white mothers due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian parenting values. The black-white gap increases from kindergarten to third grade, and in third grade, U.S.-born black mothers' higher stress than white mothers' persists after controlling for structural and parenting factors. Hispanic and Asian mothers, albeit foreign-born only, report more stress than white mothers at both ages due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian values. Despite structural disadvantages, American Indian mothers report less stress.

  15. Microalgae for high-value compounds and biofuels production: a review with focus on cultivation under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Markou, Giorgos; Nerantzis, Elias

    2013-12-01

    Microalgal biomass as feedstock for biofuel production is an attracting alternative to terrestrial plant utilization for biofuels production. However, today the microalgal cultivation systems for energy production purposes seem not yet to be economically feasible. Microalgae, though cultivated under stress conditions, such as nutrient starvation, high salinity, high temperature etc. accumulate considerable amounts (up to 60-65% of dry weight) of lipids or carbohydrates along with several secondary metabolites. Especially some of the latter are valuable compounds with an enormous range of industrial applications. The simultaneous production of lipids or carbohydrates for biofuel production and of secondary metabolites in a biorefinery concept might allow the microalgal production to be economically feasible. This paper aims to provide a review on the available literature about the cultivation of microalgae for the accumulation of high-value compounds along with lipids or carbohydrates focusing on stress cultivation conditions.

  16. Determining erodibility, critical shear stress, and allowable discharge estimates for cohesive channels: case study in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Thoman, R.W.; Niezgoda, S.L.

    2008-12-15

    The continuous discharge of coalbed natural gas-produced (CBNG-produced) water within ephemeral, cohesive channels in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming can result in significant erosion. A study was completed to investigate channel stability in an attempt to correlate cohesive soil properties to critical shear stress. An in situ jet device was used to determine critical shear stress (tau{sub c}) and erodibility (k{sub d}); cohesive soil properties were determined following ASTM procedures for 25 reaches. The study sites were comprised of erodible to moderately resistant clays with tau{sub c} ranging from 0.11 to 15.35 Pa and k{sub d} ranging from 0.27 to 2.38 cm{sup 3}/N s. A relationship between five cohesive soil characteristics and tau{sub c} was developed and presented for use in deriving tau{sub c} for similar sites. Allowable discharges for CBNG-produced water were also derived using tau{sub c} and the tractive force method. An increase in the allowable discharge was found for channels in which vegetation was maintained. The information from this case study is critical to the development of a conservative methodology to establish allowable discharges while minimizing flow-induced instability.

  17. On the transition thermal discomfort to heat stress as a function of the PMV value.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Palella, Boris Igor; Riccio, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    ISO 15265 Standard - Ergonomics of the thermal environment - Risk assessment strategy for the prevention of stress or discomfort in thermal working conditions - can be considered as a key document for helping responsible for the health protection and prevention of working situations. According to the SOBANE strategy, this standard provides a three-step protocol aimed to the prevention, elimination or reduction of risks affecting the workplaces. Although both methods and procedures suggested by ISO 15265 appear very clear, this standard could bring in confusion both beginners and not specialists in occupational health concerning Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) threshold values consistent with comfort - hot discomfort and the discomfort - hot stress transitions. In this work such matter has been extensively discussed showing a certain difficulty in the definition of an unambiguous PMV threshold value for each working situation in any microclimate.

  18. On the transition thermal discomfort to heat stress as a function of the PMV value.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Palella, Boris Igor; Riccio, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    ISO 15265 Standard - Ergonomics of the thermal environment - Risk assessment strategy for the prevention of stress or discomfort in thermal working conditions - can be considered as a key document for helping responsible for the health protection and prevention of working situations. According to the SOBANE strategy, this standard provides a three-step protocol aimed to the prevention, elimination or reduction of risks affecting the workplaces. Although both methods and procedures suggested by ISO 15265 appear very clear, this standard could bring in confusion both beginners and not specialists in occupational health concerning Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) threshold values consistent with comfort - hot discomfort and the discomfort - hot stress transitions. In this work such matter has been extensively discussed showing a certain difficulty in the definition of an unambiguous PMV threshold value for each working situation in any microclimate. PMID:23385432

  19. Review of family relational stress and pediatric asthma: the value of biopsychosocial systemic models.

    PubMed

    Wood, Beatrice L; Miller, Bruce D; Lehman, Heather K

    2015-06-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children. Despite dramatic advances in pharmacological treatments, asthma remains a leading public health problem, especially in socially disadvantaged minority populations. Some experts believe that this health gap is due to the failure to address the impact of stress on the disease. Asthma is a complex disease that is influenced by multilevel factors, but the nature of these factors and their interrelations are not well understood. This paper aims to integrate social, psychological, and biological literatures on relations between family/parental stress and pediatric asthma, and to illustrate the utility of multilevel systemic models for guiding treatment and stimulating future research. We used electronic database searches and conducted an integrated analysis of selected epidemiological, longitudinal, and empirical studies. Evidence is substantial for the effects of family/parental stress on asthma mediated by both disease management and psychobiological stress pathways. However, integrative models containing specific pathways are scarce. We present two multilevel models, with supporting data, as potential prototypes for other such models. We conclude that these multilevel systems models may be of substantial heuristic value in organizing investigations of, and clinical approaches to, the complex social-biological aspects of family stress in pediatric asthma. However, additional systemic models are needed, and the models presented herein could serve as prototypes for model development. PMID:25683472

  20. Review of family relational stress and pediatric asthma: the value of biopsychosocial systemic models.

    PubMed

    Wood, Beatrice L; Miller, Bruce D; Lehman, Heather K

    2015-06-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children. Despite dramatic advances in pharmacological treatments, asthma remains a leading public health problem, especially in socially disadvantaged minority populations. Some experts believe that this health gap is due to the failure to address the impact of stress on the disease. Asthma is a complex disease that is influenced by multilevel factors, but the nature of these factors and their interrelations are not well understood. This paper aims to integrate social, psychological, and biological literatures on relations between family/parental stress and pediatric asthma, and to illustrate the utility of multilevel systemic models for guiding treatment and stimulating future research. We used electronic database searches and conducted an integrated analysis of selected epidemiological, longitudinal, and empirical studies. Evidence is substantial for the effects of family/parental stress on asthma mediated by both disease management and psychobiological stress pathways. However, integrative models containing specific pathways are scarce. We present two multilevel models, with supporting data, as potential prototypes for other such models. We conclude that these multilevel systems models may be of substantial heuristic value in organizing investigations of, and clinical approaches to, the complex social-biological aspects of family stress in pediatric asthma. However, additional systemic models are needed, and the models presented herein could serve as prototypes for model development.

  1. Prognostic value of non-invasive stress testing for coronary artery disease in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Bigvava, Tamar; Zamani, Seyedeh Mahsa; Pieske-Kraigher, Elisabeth; Gebker, Rolf; Pieske, Burkert; Kelle, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    Detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) in obese patients remains a challenge but can have substantial prognostic implications for this patient group. Until now, sufficient data was not available on which to base the selection of the imaging modality in obese patients. The decision on which imaging modality to use should therefore follow the general guidelines. In this article, the authors discuss the prognostic value of the different non-invasive stress testing methods for CAD in obese patients.

  2. Not all resources are created equal: COR theory, values, and stress.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Neil A; Cunningham, Christopher J L

    2012-01-01

    The common usage of conservation of resources (COR) theory highlights the quantity of resources in explaining stress reactions and responses. To expand the theoretical understanding and explanatory power of COR theory, this study tested the proposition that the perceived importance of an individual's resources is a function of personal values. Using a value framework based on Schwartz (1994), it was expected that values would influence both the appraisal of resource importance and coping behaviors. Results from both student and working samples indicated that while resource importance did not clearly mediate all of the coping outcomes, values did have an influence on the importance an individual assigns to resources. Measurement and theoretical implications related to COR theory are discussed.

  3. Static stress drop in the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake: Heterogeneous distribution and low average value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Lonn; Wang, Kelin; Sun, Tianhaozhe

    2015-12-01

    Static stress drop distribution and its average value over the rupture area contain important information on the mechanics of large earthquakes. Here we derive static stress drop distributions from 40 published rupture models for the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake that are based on various multidisciplinary observations. Average stress drop value over the fault area encompassed by the 5 m coseismic slip contour is not unusually large for each rupture model; the mean for the 40 models is 2.3 ± 1.3 MPa, assuming a uniform rigidity 40 GPa. The value for the entire rupture zone and with a more realistic rigidity structure will be even lower. In the majority of the models, local stress drop in parts of the rupture zone well exceeds 20 MPa. The heterogeneous stress change distribution, with large stress drop being accompanied by large stress increase, leads to the small average for the earthquake.

  4. Induction of the Sugar-Phosphate Stress Response Allows Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2-Methyl-4-Amino-5-Hydroxymethylpyrimidine Phosphate Synthase To Function in Salmonella enterica

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Lauren D.; Paxhia, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thiamine pyrophosphate is a required cofactor for all forms of life. The pyrimidine moiety of thiamine, 2-methyl-4-amino-5-hydroxymethylpyrimidine phosphate (HMP-P), is synthesized by different mechanisms in bacteria and plants compared to fungi. In this study, Salmonella enterica was used as a host to probe requirements for activity of the yeast HMP-P synthase, Thi5p. Thi5p synthesizes HMP-P from histidine and pyridoxal-5-phosphate and was reported to use a backbone histidine as the substrate, which would mean that it was a single-turnover enzyme. Heterologous expression of Thi5p did not complement an S. enterica HMP-P auxotroph during growth with glucose as the sole carbon source. Genetic analyses described here showed that Thi5p was activated in S. enterica by alleles of sgrR that induced the sugar-phosphate stress response. Deletion of ptsG (encodes enzyme IICB [EIICB] of the phosphotransferase system [PTS]) also allowed function of Thi5p and required sgrR but not sgrS. This result suggested that the role of sgrS in activation of Thi5p was to decrease PtsG activity. In total, the data herein supported the hypothesis that one mechanism to activate Thi5p in S. enterica grown on minimal medium containing glucose (minimal glucose medium) required decreased PtsG activity and an unidentified gene regulated by SgrR. IMPORTANCE This work describes a metabolic link between the sugar-phosphate stress response and the yeast thiamine biosynthetic enzyme Thi5p when heterologously expressed in Salmonella enterica during growth on minimal glucose medium. Suppressor analysis (i) identified a mutant class of the regulator SgrR that activate sugar-phosphate stress response constitutively and (ii) determined that Thi5p is conditionally active in S. enterica. These results emphasized the power of genetic systems in model organisms to uncover enzyme function and underlying metabolic network structure. PMID:26324451

  5. Self-perception and value system as possible predictors of stress.

    PubMed

    Sivberg, B

    1998-03-01

    This study was directed towards personality-related, value system and sociodemographic variables of nursing students in a situation of change, using a longitudinal perspective to measure their improvement in principle-based moral judgement (Kohlberg; Rest) as possible predictors of stress. Three subgroups of students were included from the commencement of the first three-year academic nursing programme in 1993. The students came from the colleges of health at Jönköping, Växjö and Kristianstad in the south of Sweden. A principal component factor analysis (varimax) was performed using data obtained from the students in the spring of 1994 (n = 122) and in the spring of 1996 (n = 112). There were 23 variables, of which two were sociodemographic, eight represented self-image, six were self-values, six were interpersonal values, and one was principle-based moral judgement. The analysis of data from students in the first year of a three-year programme demonstrated eight factors that explained 68.8% of the variance. The most important factors were: (1) ascendant decisive disorderly sociability and nonpractical mindedness (18.1% of the variance); (2) original vigour person-related trust (13.3%) of the variance); (3) orderly nonvigour achievement (8.9% of the variance) and (4) independent leadership (7.9% of the variance). (The term 'ascendancy' refers to self-confidence, and 'vigour' denotes responding well to challenges and coping with stress.) The analysis in 1996 demonstrated nine factors, of which the most important were: (1) ascendant original sociability with decisive nonconformist leadership (18.2% of the variance); (2) cautious person-related responsibility (12.6% of the variance); (3) orderly nonvariety achievement (8.4% of the variance); and (4) nonsupportive benevolent conformity (7.2% of the variance). A comparison of the two most prominent factors in 1994 and 1996 showed the process of change to be stronger for 18.2% and weaker for 30% of the variance

  6. Self-perception and value system as possible predictors of stress.

    PubMed

    Sivberg, B

    1998-03-01

    This study was directed towards personality-related, value system and sociodemographic variables of nursing students in a situation of change, using a longitudinal perspective to measure their improvement in principle-based moral judgement (Kohlberg; Rest) as possible predictors of stress. Three subgroups of students were included from the commencement of the first three-year academic nursing programme in 1993. The students came from the colleges of health at Jönköping, Växjö and Kristianstad in the south of Sweden. A principal component factor analysis (varimax) was performed using data obtained from the students in the spring of 1994 (n = 122) and in the spring of 1996 (n = 112). There were 23 variables, of which two were sociodemographic, eight represented self-image, six were self-values, six were interpersonal values, and one was principle-based moral judgement. The analysis of data from students in the first year of a three-year programme demonstrated eight factors that explained 68.8% of the variance. The most important factors were: (1) ascendant decisive disorderly sociability and nonpractical mindedness (18.1% of the variance); (2) original vigour person-related trust (13.3%) of the variance); (3) orderly nonvigour achievement (8.9% of the variance) and (4) independent leadership (7.9% of the variance). (The term 'ascendancy' refers to self-confidence, and 'vigour' denotes responding well to challenges and coping with stress.) The analysis in 1996 demonstrated nine factors, of which the most important were: (1) ascendant original sociability with decisive nonconformist leadership (18.2% of the variance); (2) cautious person-related responsibility (12.6% of the variance); (3) orderly nonvariety achievement (8.4% of the variance); and (4) nonsupportive benevolent conformity (7.2% of the variance). A comparison of the two most prominent factors in 1994 and 1996 showed the process of change to be stronger for 18.2% and weaker for 30% of the variance

  7. Seismic b-Value and the Assessment of Ambient Stress in Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Prosanta Kumar; Ghosh, Manoj; Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Mukherjee, Debdeep

    2011-10-01

    Seismicity data of northeast India, recorded between 1986 and 1999 by a local network, are analysed for estimation of b-values. Based on the obtained values, viz. low ( b ≤ 0.5), moderate (0.5 < b ≤ 0.7) and high ( b > 0.7), the study area is classified into different seismic-domains. An assessment of stress level is also carried out in identifying seismic-domains. Seismic activities, though mostly confined in some sectors, are presumably triggered by mutual interaction of the Shillong Plateau, Mikir Hills, Indo-Burman Ranges and the easternmost part of the Himalayas, and the contributions from deep-seated fractures cannot be ignored. The results resemble the seismic character of a foreland setting adjacent to a convergent margin. The b-values estimated for 240 square grids of dimension 0.6° × 0.6° over five seismic domains indicate wide variation. An analysis of cumulative seismic moment release ( M O) in different layers also indicates an anomaly in reference to the total seismic-energy budget of the five zones. The lower b-value and higher M O recorded at relatively lower depth (~30 km) towards the southwest of the study area might be associated with upward bulging of a strong lithosphere. The bulging is perhaps regionally compensated by the downward flexing of the descending Indian lithosphere beneath the Upper Assam area; features unequivocally observed in any foreland setup. Towards the north and east of the study area, random variations of in both b-value and M O along the converging zone suggest a varied tectonic environment with active interaction between the tectonic elements in these areas.

  8. Kinematic analysis of the gait of adult sheep during treadmill locomotion: Parameter values, allowable total error, and potential for use in evaluating spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Safayi, Sina; Jeffery, Nick D; Shivapour, Sara K; Zamanighomi, Mahdi; Zylstra, Tyler J; Bratsch-Prince, Joshua; Wilson, Saul; Reddy, Chandan G; Fredericks, Douglas C; Gillies, George T; Howard, Matthew A

    2015-11-15

    We are developing a novel intradural spinal cord (SC) stimulator designed to improve the treatment of intractable pain and the sequelae of SC injury. In-vivo ovine models of neuropathic pain and moderate SC injury are being implemented for pre-clinical evaluations of this device, to be carried out via gait analysis before and after induction of the relevant condition. We extend previous studies on other quadrupeds to extract the three-dimensional kinematics of the limbs over the gait cycle of sheep walking on a treadmill. Quantitative measures of thoracic and pelvic limb movements were obtained from 17 animals. We calculated the total-error values to define the analytical performance of our motion capture system for these kinematic variables. The post- vs. pre-injury time delay between contralateral thoracic and pelvic-limb steps for normal and SC-injured sheep increased by ~24s over 100 steps. The pelvic limb hoof velocity during swing phase decreased, while range of pelvic hoof elevation and distance between lateral pelvic hoof placements increased after SC injury. The kinematics measures in a single SC-injured sheep can be objectively defined as changed from the corresponding pre-injury values, implying utility of this method to assess new neuromodulation strategies for specific deficits exhibited by an individual.

  9. Kinematic analysis of the gait of adult sheep during treadmill locomotion: Parameter values, allowable total error, and potential for use in evaluating spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Safayi, Sina; Jeffery, Nick D; Shivapour, Sara K; Zamanighomi, Mahdi; Zylstra, Tyler J; Bratsch-Prince, Joshua; Wilson, Saul; Reddy, Chandan G; Fredericks, Douglas C; Gillies, George T; Howard, Matthew A

    2015-11-15

    We are developing a novel intradural spinal cord (SC) stimulator designed to improve the treatment of intractable pain and the sequelae of SC injury. In-vivo ovine models of neuropathic pain and moderate SC injury are being implemented for pre-clinical evaluations of this device, to be carried out via gait analysis before and after induction of the relevant condition. We extend previous studies on other quadrupeds to extract the three-dimensional kinematics of the limbs over the gait cycle of sheep walking on a treadmill. Quantitative measures of thoracic and pelvic limb movements were obtained from 17 animals. We calculated the total-error values to define the analytical performance of our motion capture system for these kinematic variables. The post- vs. pre-injury time delay between contralateral thoracic and pelvic-limb steps for normal and SC-injured sheep increased by ~24s over 100 steps. The pelvic limb hoof velocity during swing phase decreased, while range of pelvic hoof elevation and distance between lateral pelvic hoof placements increased after SC injury. The kinematics measures in a single SC-injured sheep can be objectively defined as changed from the corresponding pre-injury values, implying utility of this method to assess new neuromodulation strategies for specific deficits exhibited by an individual. PMID:26341152

  10. Stress-related growth following sport injury: Examining the applicability of the organismic valuing theory.

    PubMed

    Wadey, R; Podlog, L; Galli, N; Mellalieu, S D

    2016-10-01

    This study explored the applicability of organismic valuing theory (OVT) to stress-related growth (SRG) following sport injury. Specifically, the direct and indirect relationships between need satisfaction (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness), SRG, and subjective well-being (i.e., positive affect) were examined. Previously injured athletes (n = 520), ranging from 18 to 59 years of age (Mage  = 23.3 years; standard deviation = 6.5), completed three measures: needs satisfaction scale, stress-related growth scale, and positive affect scale. Structural equation modeling with maximum likelihood estimation revealed a significant positive relationship between competence and relatedness and SRG, and between SRG and positive affect. In line with OVT, SRG was also found to mediate the relationship between need satisfaction (competence and relatedness) and subjective well-being. The findings offer preliminary support for the applicability of OVT in aiding our understanding of the antecedents and consequences of SRG. Future avenues of research are discussed, together with recommended methodologies to further extend and refine knowledge and understanding of the phenomenon of SRG following sport injury.

  11. A New Calibrated Bayesian Internal Goodness-of-Fit Method: Sampled Posterior p-Values as Simple and General p-Values That Allow Double Use of the Data

    PubMed Central

    Gosselin, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent approaches mixing frequentist principles with Bayesian inference propose internal goodness-of-fit (GOF) p-values that might be valuable for critical analysis of Bayesian statistical models. However, GOF p-values developed to date only have known probability distributions under restrictive conditions. As a result, no known GOF p-value has a known probability distribution for any discrepancy function. Methodology/Principal Findings We show mathematically that a new GOF p-value, called the sampled posterior p-value (SPP), asymptotically has a uniform probability distribution whatever the discrepancy function. In a moderate finite sample context, simulations also showed that the SPP appears stable to relatively uninformative misspecifications of the prior distribution. Conclusions/Significance These reasons, together with its numerical simplicity, make the SPP a better canonical GOF p-value than existing GOF p-values. PMID:21445246

  12. Rapid, Long-term Monitoring of CO2 Concentration and δ13CO2 at CCUS Sites Allows Discrimination of Leakage Patterns from Natural Background Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galfond, B.; Riemer, D. D.; Swart, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    In order for Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage (CCUS) to gain wide acceptance as a method for mitigating atmospheric CO2 concentrations, schemes must be devised to ensure that potential leakage is detected. New regulations from the US Environmental Protection Agency require monitoring and accounting for Class VI injection wells, which will remain a barrier to wide scale CCUS deployment until effective and efficient monitoring techniques have been developed and proven. Monitoring near-surface CO2 at injection sites to ensure safety and operational success requires high temporal resolution CO2 concentration and carbon isotopic (δ13C) measurements. The only technologies currently capable of this rapid measurement of δ13C are optical techniques such as Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (CRDS). We have developed a comprehensive remote monitoring approach using CRDS and a custom manifold system to obtain accurate rapid measurements from a large sample area over an extended study period. Our modified Picarro G1101-i CRDS allows for automated rapid and continuous field measurement of δ13CO2 and concentrations of relevant gas species. At our field site, where preparations have been underway for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) operations, we have been able to measure biogenic effects on a diurnal scale, as well as variation due to precipitation and seasonality. Taking these background trends into account, our statistical treatment of real data has been used to improve signal-to-noise ratios by an order of magnitude over published models. Our system has proven field readiness for the monitoring of sites with even modest CO2 fluxes.

  13. Effect of serum uric acid on the positive predictive value of dobutamine stress echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Aribas, Alpay; Akilli, Hakan; Kayrak, Mehmet; Alibasic, Hayrudin; Yildirim, Oguzhan; Sertdemir, Ahmet Lutfi; Karanfil, Mustafa; Ozdemir, Kurtulus

    2016-03-01

    There is controversial data regarding the relationship between uric acid (UA) and coronary artery disease and cardiovascular events. Despite the deleterious effects of hyperuricemia on endothelial function, the effect of UA on myocardial ischemia has not been previously studied. We aimed to investigate the relationship between UA and myocardial ischemia that was identified using dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). In this retrospective study, the laboratory and DSE reports of 548 patients were reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence of ischemia and further subdivided into three groups according to the extent of ischemia (none, ischemia in 1-3 segments, ischemia in >3 segments). Serum UA levels were compared. Determinants of ischemia were assessed using a regression model. UA was increased in patients with ischemia and was correlated with the number of ischemic segments (p < 0.001). A cutoff value of UA > 5 mg/dl had 63.9 % sensitivity, 62.0 % specificity, 42.5 % positive predictive value (PPV), and 79.6 % negative predictive value for ischemia. When the positive DSE exams were further sorted according to the UA cutoff, the PPV of DSE increased from 80.2 to 94.0 %. Uric acid (odds ratio 1.51; 95 % CI 1.14-1.99), diabetes mellitus, HDL and glomerular filtration rate were found to be independent determinants of myocardial ischemia in DSE. Increased UA is associated with both the presence and extent of DSE-identified myocardial ischemia. A UA cutoff may be a good method to improve the PPV of DSE.

  14. Genome Wide Analysis of the Apple MYB Transcription Factor Family Allows the Identification of MdoMYB121 Gene Confering Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong-Kai; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors (TFs) in plants. Although several MYB genes have been characterized to play roles in secondary metabolism, the MYB family has not yet been identified in apple. In this study, 229 apple MYB genes were identified through a genome-wide analysis and divided into 45 subgroups. A computational analysis was conducted using the apple genomic database to yield a complete overview of the MYB family, including the intron-exon organizations, the sequence features of the MYB DNA-binding domains, the carboxy-terminal motifs, and the chromosomal locations. Subsequently, the expression of 18 MYB genes, including 12 were chosen from stress-related subgroups, while another 6 ones from other subgroups, in response to various abiotic stresses was examined. It was found that several of these MYB genes, particularly MdoMYB121, were induced by multiple stresses. The MdoMYB121 was then further functionally characterized. Its predicted protein was found to be localized in the nucleus. A transgenic analysis indicated that the overexpression of the MdoMYB121 gene remarkably enhanced the tolerance to high salinity, drought, and cold stresses in transgenic tomato and apple plants. Our results indicate that the MYB genes are highly conserved in plant species and that MdoMYB121 can be used as a target gene in genetic engineering approaches to improve the tolerance of plants to multiple abiotic stresses. PMID:23950843

  15. A phase-field approach to nonequilibrium phase transformations in elastic solids via an intermediate phase (melt) allowing for interface stresses.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Kasra; Levitas, Valery I

    2016-04-28

    A phase-field approach for phase transformations (PTs) between three different phases at nonequilibrium temperatures is developed. It includes advanced mechanics, thermodynamically consistent interfacial stresses, and interface interactions. A thermodynamic Landau-Ginzburg potential developed in terms of polar order parameters satisfies the desired instability and equilibrium conditions for homogeneous phases. The interfacial stresses were introduced with some terms from large-strain formulation even though the small-strain assumption was utilized. The developed model is applied to study the PTs between two solid phases via a highly disordered intermediate phase (IP) or an intermediate melt (IM) hundreds of degrees below the melting temperature. In particular, the β ↔ δ PTs in HMX energetic crystals via IM are analyzed. The effects of various parameters (temperature, ratios of widths and energies of solid-solid (SS) to solid-melt (SM) interfaces, elastic energy, and interfacial stresses) on the formation, stability, and structure of the IM within a propagating SS interface are studied. Interfacial and elastic stresses within a SS interphase and their relaxation and redistribution with the appearance of a partial or complete IM are analyzed. The energy and structure of the critical nucleus (CN) of the IM are studied as well. In particular, the interfacial stresses increase the aspect-ratio of the CN. Although including elastic energy can drastically reduce the energy of the CN of the IM, the activation energy of the CN of the IM within the SS interface increases when interfacial tension is taken into account. The developed thermodynamic potential can also be modified to model other multiphase physical phenomena, such as multi-variant martensitic PTs, grain boundary and surface-induced pre-melting and PTs, as well as developing phase diagrams for IPs.

  16. Diagnostic Value of Electrocardiogram in Predicting Exaggerated Blood Pressure Response to Exercise Stress Testing

    PubMed Central

    Eshraghi, Ali; Ebdali, Reyhaneh Takalloo; Sajjadi, Seyed Sajed; Golnezhad, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It is believed that an exaggerated blood pressure response (EBPR) to exercise stress test is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events. It is also assumed that QT dispersion (QT-d), which was originally proposed to measure the spatial dispersion of ventricular recovery times, may have a relationship to cardiovascular events. The objective of this study was to examine the difference of changes in QT-d, Maxi-QT, Mini-QT, and QT-c (corrected QT interval) of the electrocardiogram in two groups of patients with exaggerated blood pressure responses (EBPR group) and normal responses (control group) to exercise testing. Also, the diagnostic value of each of these criteria in the prediction of EBPR was studied. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2015 to February 2016 on patients suspected of coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing exercise testing who had been referred to Ghaem and Imam Reza hospitals in Mashhad (Iran). All patients underwent a treadmill exercise test with the 12-lead ECG, which was optically scanned and digitized for analysis of QT-d, QT max, and QT min. Patients were divided into two groups of normal and EBPR to exercise testing. QT changes of ECG were compared between the two groups, and the diagnostic accuracy of QT variables for prediction of EBPR to exercise testing was studied. A multiple linear regression analysis (MLR), Pearson Chi-qquare, independent samples t-test, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used as statistical methods in IBM SPSS version 19. Results Sixty patients (55% male) with a mean age of 50.48 ± 10.89 years were studied in two groups of normal (n=30) and exaggerated blood pressure response (n=30) to exercise testing. Maximum QT and QT dispersion were statistically different in individuals’ exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise stress test (p < 0.05). The logistic regression analysis revealed that none of our parameters predicted the EBPR. The ROC

  17. Parenting Values and Parenting Stress among Impoverished Village and Middle-Class Small City Mothers in the Dominican Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foucault, Darlene C.; Schneider, Barry H.

    2009-01-01

    Poverty is known to influence parenting values, parenting stress, psychological adjustment, and social support according to North American research. The purpose of this study was to determine whether poverty might work in similar ways in a collectivistic Latin culture. The participants were primary caregivers in two distinct communities in the…

  18. [The influence of professional values in the emergence of work stress and burn-out in newly graduated nurses].

    PubMed

    Rebecchi, E; Benassi, M; Bolzani, R; Santullo, A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the work importance values in nurse population in their first years of employment to analyse if they could change and if they could be considered as predictors of job stress and burn-out which developed during this period. A group of nurses has been analysed at the beginning of their employment and during the first three years concerning the work importance values measured with the Scala dei Valori Professionali (SVP), the job stress factors evaluated with the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and the burn-out measured with Maslach Burn-out Inventory MBI. The work importance values has changed during the first three years of employment. Although also the job situation has changed during this period increasing the stress, these changes are not related to a particular configuration of the work importance values. Nevertheless, the work importance scale has found to be related to a specific burn-out scale, that is emotional exhaustion. In details, the importance given to career development is related to an increase of emotional exhaustion while the importance given to social aspects decreases it. These results suggest that the work importance values evaluated at the beginning of the working period could be considered as predictors of specific burn-out aspects such as those related to emotional exhaustion. PMID:19621536

  19. Environmental Stresses of Field Growth Allow Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Deficient Nicotiana attenuata Plants to Compensate for their Structural Deficiencies1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harleen; Shaker, Kamel; Heinzel, Nicolas; Ralph, John; Gális, Ivan; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2012-01-01

    The organized lignocellulosic assemblies of cell walls provide the structural integrity required for the large statures of terrestrial plants. Silencing two CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD) genes in Nicotiana attenuata produced plants (ir-CAD) with thin, red-pigmented stems, low CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity, low lignin contents, and rubbery, structurally unstable stems when grown in the glasshouse (GH). However, when planted into their native desert habitat, ir-CAD plants produced robust stems that survived wind storms as well as the wild-type plants. Despite efficient silencing of NaCAD transcripts and enzymatic activity, field-grown ir-CAD plants had delayed and restricted spread of red stem pigmentation, a color change reflecting blocked lignification by CAD silencing, and attained wild-type-comparable total lignin contents. The rubbery GH phenotype was largely restored when field-grown ir-CAD plants were protected from wind, herbivore attack, and ultraviolet B exposure and grown in restricted rooting volumes; conversely, it was lost when ir-CAD plants were experimentally exposed to wind, ultraviolet B, and grown in large pots in growth chambers. Transcript and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight analysis revealed that these environmental stresses enhanced the accumulation of various phenylpropanoids in stems of field-grown plants; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that the lignin of field-grown ir-CAD plants had GH-grown comparable levels of sinapaldehyde and syringaldehyde cross-linked into their lignins. Additionally, field-grown ir-CAD plants had short, thick stems with normal xylem element traits, which collectively enabled field-grown ir-CAD plants to compensate for the structural deficiencies associated with CAD silencing. Environmental stresses play an essential role in regulating lignin biosynthesis in lignin-deficient plants. PMID:22645069

  20. Adaptive Value of Phenological Traits in Stressful Environments: Predictions Based on Seed Production and Laboratory Natural Selection

    PubMed Central

    Glorieux, Cédric; Cuguen, Joel; Roux, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    Phenological traits often show variation within and among natural populations of annual plants. Nevertheless, the adaptive value of post-anthesis traits is seldom tested. In this study, we estimated the adaptive values of pre- and post-anthesis traits in two stressful environments (water stress and interspecific competition), using the selfing annual species Arabidopsis thaliana. By estimating seed production and by performing laboratory natural selection (LNS), we assessed the strength and nature (directional, disruptive and stabilizing) of selection acting on phenological traits in A. thaliana under the two tested stress conditions, each with four intensities. Both the type of stress and its intensity affected the strength and nature of selection, as did genetic constraints among phenological traits. Under water stress, both experimental approaches demonstrated directional selection for a shorter life cycle, although bolting time imposes a genetic constraint on the length of the interval between bolting and anthesis. Under interspecific competition, results from the two experimental approaches showed discrepancies. Estimation of seed production predicted directional selection toward early pre-anthesis traits and long post-anthesis periods. In contrast, the LNS approach suggested neutrality for all phenological traits. This study opens questions on adaptation in complex natural environment where many selective pressures act simultaneously. PMID:22403624

  1. Molt-associated changes in hematologic and plasma biochemical values and stress hormone levels in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Mazzaro, Lisa M; Meegan, Jenny; Sarran, Delphine; Romano, Tracy A; Bonato, Vinicius; Deng, Shibing; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2013-12-01

    Handling, including blood collection, has often been discouraged in molting penguins because it is considered an additional stress imposed on birds already experiencing major physiologic stress associated with molting. To evaluate the degree of physiologic stress posed by molting, we compared the hematologic and plasma biochemical values and hormone levels of molting and nonmolting African penguins, Spheniscus demersus. Five male and 5 female penguins randomly chosen were given complete physical examinations, were weighed, and blood samples were taken at 7 time points before, during, and after the molt. Data were analyzed by linear mixed-model analysis of variance. Throughout the study, behavior and appetite remained normal. Catecholamine levels were highly variable within and among subjects, whereas mean corticosterone levels were significantly different between baseline, molt, and postmolt values. Significant differences from baseline values were observed in many of the hematologic analytes; however, only decreases in hematocrit and red blood cell count values were considered clinically significant. Anemia due to experimentally induced blood loss as a possible cause of the significant hematologic changes was ruled out based on results of a follow-up control study during the nonmolt season, which showed no significant changes in hematocrit level or total red blood cell counts when using similar sampling protocols, which indicates that these changes were associated with molt. PMID:24640930

  2. Molt-associated changes in hematologic and plasma biochemical values and stress hormone levels in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Mazzaro, Lisa M; Meegan, Jenny; Sarran, Delphine; Romano, Tracy A; Bonato, Vinicius; Deng, Shibing; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2013-12-01

    Handling, including blood collection, has often been discouraged in molting penguins because it is considered an additional stress imposed on birds already experiencing major physiologic stress associated with molting. To evaluate the degree of physiologic stress posed by molting, we compared the hematologic and plasma biochemical values and hormone levels of molting and nonmolting African penguins, Spheniscus demersus. Five male and 5 female penguins randomly chosen were given complete physical examinations, were weighed, and blood samples were taken at 7 time points before, during, and after the molt. Data were analyzed by linear mixed-model analysis of variance. Throughout the study, behavior and appetite remained normal. Catecholamine levels were highly variable within and among subjects, whereas mean corticosterone levels were significantly different between baseline, molt, and postmolt values. Significant differences from baseline values were observed in many of the hematologic analytes; however, only decreases in hematocrit and red blood cell count values were considered clinically significant. Anemia due to experimentally induced blood loss as a possible cause of the significant hematologic changes was ruled out based on results of a follow-up control study during the nonmolt season, which showed no significant changes in hematocrit level or total red blood cell counts when using similar sampling protocols, which indicates that these changes were associated with molt.

  3. Academic stress and positive affect: Asian value and self-worth contingency as moderators among Chinese international students.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Wei, Meifen

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical model proposed by Berry and colleagues (Berry, 1997; Berry, Kim, Minde, & Mok, 1987) highlights the importance of identifying moderators in the acculturation process. Accordingly, the current study examined the Asian cultural value of family recognition through achievement (FRTA) and contingency of self-worth on academic competence (CSW-AC) as moderators in the association between academic stress and positive affect among Chinese international students. A total of 370 Chinese international students completed online surveys. Results from a hierarchical regression indicated that while academic stress was negatively associated with positive affect, FRTA was positively associated with positive affect. In other words, those with high academic stress reported a lower level of positive affect. However, individuals who endorsed high levels of FRTA reported a higher level of positive affect. In addition, results also revealed a significant interaction between academic stress and CSW-AC on positive affect. Thus, the study's finding supported the moderator role of CSW-AC. Simple effect analyses were conducted to examine the significant interaction. The results showed that higher levels of CSW-AC strengthened the negative association between academic stress and positive affect but lower levels of CSW-AC did not. Future research directions and implications are discussed. PMID:24491130

  4. Academic stress and positive affect: Asian value and self-worth contingency as moderators among Chinese international students.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Wei, Meifen

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical model proposed by Berry and colleagues (Berry, 1997; Berry, Kim, Minde, & Mok, 1987) highlights the importance of identifying moderators in the acculturation process. Accordingly, the current study examined the Asian cultural value of family recognition through achievement (FRTA) and contingency of self-worth on academic competence (CSW-AC) as moderators in the association between academic stress and positive affect among Chinese international students. A total of 370 Chinese international students completed online surveys. Results from a hierarchical regression indicated that while academic stress was negatively associated with positive affect, FRTA was positively associated with positive affect. In other words, those with high academic stress reported a lower level of positive affect. However, individuals who endorsed high levels of FRTA reported a higher level of positive affect. In addition, results also revealed a significant interaction between academic stress and CSW-AC on positive affect. Thus, the study's finding supported the moderator role of CSW-AC. Simple effect analyses were conducted to examine the significant interaction. The results showed that higher levels of CSW-AC strengthened the negative association between academic stress and positive affect but lower levels of CSW-AC did not. Future research directions and implications are discussed.

  5. The impact of racial identity, ethnic identity, asian values and race-related stress on Asian Americans and Asian international college students' psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liu, William Ming

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian values and Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Belonging were significant predictors of well-being. Asian values, Dissonance and Conformity were found to moderate the relationship between race-related stress on well-being. Specifically, individuals in low race-related stress conditions who had low Asian values, high Conformity and low Dissonance attitudes started high on well being but decreased as race-related stress increased. These findings underscore the importance of how racial identity statuses, Asian values and ethnic identity jointly and uniquely explain and moderate the effects of race-related stress on positive well-being. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:20396592

  6. The impact of racial identity, ethnic identity, asian values and race-related stress on Asian Americans and Asian international college students' psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liu, William Ming

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian values and Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Belonging were significant predictors of well-being. Asian values, Dissonance and Conformity were found to moderate the relationship between race-related stress on well-being. Specifically, individuals in low race-related stress conditions who had low Asian values, high Conformity and low Dissonance attitudes started high on well being but decreased as race-related stress increased. These findings underscore the importance of how racial identity statuses, Asian values and ethnic identity jointly and uniquely explain and moderate the effects of race-related stress on positive well-being. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.

  7. The Impact of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, Asian Values and Race-Related Stress on Asian Americans and Asian International College Students’ Psychological Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liu, William Ming

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian values and Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Belonging were significant predictors of well-being. Asian values, Dissonance and Conformity were found to moderate the relationship between race-related stress on well-being. Specifically, individuals in low race-related stress conditions who had low Asian values, high Conformity and low Dissonance attitudes started high on well being but decreased as race-related stress increased. These findings underscore the importance of how racial identity statuses, Asian values and ethnic identity jointly and uniquely explain and moderate the effects of race-related stress on positive well-being. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:20396592

  8. Functional value of elytra under various stresses in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Linz, David M.; Hu, Alan W.; Sitvarin, Michael I.; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Coleoptera (beetles) is a massively successful order of insects, distinguished by their evolutionarily modified forewings called elytra. These structures are often presumed to have been a major driving force for the successful radiation of this taxon, by providing beetles with protection against a variety of harsh environmental factors. However, few studies have directly demonstrated the functional significance of the elytra against diverse environmental challenges. Here, we sought to empirically test the function of the elytra using Tribolium castaneum (the red flour beetle) as a model. We tested four categories of stress on the beetles: physical damage to hindwings, predation, desiccation, and cold shock. We found that, in all categories, the presence of elytra conferred a significant advantage compared to those beetles with their elytra experimentally removed. This work provides compelling quantitative evidence supporting the importance of beetle forewings in tolerating a variety of environmental stresses, and gives insight into how the evolution of elytra have facilitated the remarkable success of beetle radiation. PMID:27708390

  9. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: (1) For tank web frames, stringers, or girders of carbon manganese steel or aluminum alloys, meet σB... in Appendix A of this part. (c) Tank plating must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's deep...

  10. Influence of market stress and protein level on feeder pig hematologic and blood chemical values.

    PubMed

    Clemens, E T; Schultz, B D; Brumm, M C; Jesse, G W; Mayes, H F

    1986-02-01

    One hundred twenty crossbred feeder pigs were used in 2 trials to determine the effects of food and water deprivation at the auction market and the effects of protein levels of receiving diet on blood chemical values. Food- and water-deprived animals had significantly higher packed-cell volume, colloid osmotic pressure, and cortisol values than did nondeprived animals. Total osmolality and plasma triiodothyronine values were significantly lower in deprived animals. Measurable effects of food and water deprivation were no longer apparent by 14 days after arrival at the research facility. Plasma colloid osmotic pressure had a positive linear relationship with increasing dietary protein level and was statistically different among levels of protein fed. Gilts had higher plasma triiodothyronine values than did barrows. Differential WBC ratios were not different between groups. Measurable differences for treatments (food and water deprivation vs food and water access; and level of protein in the receiving diet) were no longer apparent 84 days after pigs had arrived at the finishing unit.

  11. The habenula: from stress evasion to value-based decision-making.

    PubMed

    Hikosaka, Okihide

    2010-07-01

    Surviving in a world with hidden rewards and dangers requires choosing the appropriate behaviours. Recent discoveries indicate that the habenula plays a prominent part in such behavioural choice through its effects on neuromodulator systems, in particular the dopamine and serotonin systems. By inhibiting dopamine-releasing neurons, habenula activation leads to the suppression of motor behaviour when an animal fails to obtain a reward or anticipates an aversive outcome. Moreover, the habenula is involved in behavioural responses to pain, stress, anxiety, sleep and reward, and its dysfunction is associated with depression, schizophrenia and drug-induced psychosis. As a highly conserved structure in the brain, the habenula provides a fundamental mechanism for both survival and decision-making.

  12. Productivity and food value of Amaranthus cruentus under non-lethal salt stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macler, Bruce A.; Macelroy, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to analyze the effects of increasing salinity stress on growth, photosynthesis, and carbon allocation in the crop plant Amaranthus. Plants were germinated and grown in Hoagland's solution with NaCl concentrations of 0 to 1.0 percent. The limits of total salinity in the plant growth medium are investigated. For Amaranthus cruentus, germination, vegetative growth, flowering, seed development and yield were normal at salinities from 0 to 0.2 percent. Inhibition of these phases increased from o.2 to 0.4 percent salinity and was total above 0.5 percent with 1 percent salinity was lethal to all developmental phases. Onset of growth phases were not affected by salinity. Plants could not be adapted by gradually increasing salinity over days or weeks. Water uptake increased, while photosynthetic CO2 uptake decreased with increasing salinity on a dry weight basis during vegetative growth. Protein levels were unchanged with increasing salinity. Leaf starch levels were lower at salinities of 0.5 percent and above, while stem starch levels were not affected by these salinities. The evidence supports salt inhibition arising frm changes in primary biochemical processes rather than from effects on water relations. While not addressing the toxic effects of specific ions, it suggests that moderate salinity per se need not be a problem in space systems.

  13. Long-Term (>10 Years) Prognostic Value of Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography in a High-Risk Cohort.

    PubMed

    van der Sijde, Johannes N; Boiten, Henk J; van Domburg, Ron T; Schinkel, Arend F L

    2016-04-01

    The prognostic value of dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) at >10-year follow-up is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the very long-term prognostic value of DSE in a high-risk cohort of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. This prospective, single-center study included 3,381 patients who underwent DSE from January 1990 to January 2003. Two-dimensional echocardiographic images were acquired at rest, during dobutamine stress, and during recovery. Follow-up events were collected and included overall mortality, cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and revascularization. The incremental value of DSE in the prediction of selected end points was evaluated using multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis. During a mean follow-up of 13 ± 3.2 years (range 7.3 to 20.5 years), there were 1,725 deaths (51%), of which 1,128 (33%) were attributed to cardiac causes. Patients with an abnormal DSE had a higher mortality rate (44% vs 35% at 15-year follow-up, p <0.001) than those with a normal DSE. When comparing echocardiographic variables at rest to variables at maximum dose dobutamine, the chi-square of the test improved from 842 to 870 (p <0.0001) and from 684 to 740 (p <0.0001) for all-cause mortality and cardiac death, respectively. DSE provided incremental value in predicting all-cause mortality, cardiac death, and hard cardiac events. There seems, however, to be a "warranty period" of approximately 7 years, when the survival curves of a normal and abnormal DSE no longer diverge.

  14. [Effects of lead stress on net photosynthetic rate, SPAD value and ginsenoside production in Ginseng (Panax ginseng)].

    PubMed

    Liang, Yao; Jiang, Xiao-Li; Yang, Fen-Tuan; Cao, Qing-Jun; Li, Gang

    2014-08-01

    The paper aimed to evaluate the effects of lead stress on photosynthetic performance and ginsenoside content in ginseng (Panax ginseng). To accomplish this, three years old ginseng were cultivated in pot and in phytotron with different concentrations of lead, ranging from 0 to 1000 mg x kg(-1) soil for a whole growth period (about 150 days). The photosynthetic parameters in leaves and ginsenoside content in roots of ginseng were determined in green fruit stage and before withering stage, respectively. In comparison with the control, net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value in ginseng leaves cultivated with 100 and 250 mg x kg(-1) of lead changed insignificantly, however, ginseng supplied with 500 and 1 000 mg x kg(-1) of lead showed a noticeably decline in the net rate of photosynthesis and SPAD value (P < 0.05), the lowest net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value showed in the treatment supplied with 1 000 mg x kg(-1) of lead, with decline of 57.8%,11.0%, respectively. Total content of ginsenoside in ginseng roots cultivated with 100 mg x kg(-1) of lead showed insignificantly change compared to the control, but the content increased remarkably in treatments supplied with 250, 500, 1 000 mg x kg(-1) of lead (P < 0.05), and highest content appeared in these ginsengs exposed to 1000 mg x kg(-1) of lead. The net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value in leaves of ginseng both showed significantly negative linear correlations with lead stress level (P < 0.01), and significant positive linear correlations between total content of ginsenoside and lead concentration was also observed (P < 0.05). These results strongly indicate that exposing to high level of lead negatively affects photosynthetic performance in ginseng leaves, but benefits for accumulation of secondary metabolism (total content of ginsenoside) in ginseng root.

  15. Theories of job stress and the role of traditional values: a longitudinal study in China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jia Lin; Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S K

    2008-07-01

    This study examines how traditionality influences the relationships between job stressors and health. A sample of 496 Chinese employees provided longitudinal questionnaire data, and their health was assessed by collecting blood samples and monitoring blood pressure. The results indicated that the positive relationship between job control and health was stronger among the less traditional workers, whereas the positive relationship between distributive justice and health was stronger among the more traditional workers. Furthermore, traditionality moderated the interactive effects of job demands and perceived control/justice on health. Perceiving higher control mitigated the effects of job demands on upper respiratory infections among low traditionalists, but it exacerbated the effects among the high traditionalists. Perceptions of higher justice mitigated the effects of job demands on emotional exhaustion and immunoglobulin A for high traditionalists but not for low traditionalists. These results suggest that, in the relationship between job demands and psychological and physiological health, concern for equity is an important moderator for individuals with more traditional values, whereas perceived personal control is salutary for health primarily among people with less traditional values. PMID:18642987

  16. Productivity and food value of Amaranthus cruentus under non-lethal salt stress.

    PubMed

    Macler, B A; MacElroy, R D

    1989-01-01

    Stress effects from the accumulation of metal salts may pose a problem for plants in closed biological systems such as spacecraft. This work examined the effects of salinity on growth, photosynthesis and carbon allocation in the crop plant, Amaranthus. Plants were germinated and grown in modified Hoagland's solution with NaCl concentrations of 0 to 1.0%. Plants received salt treatments at various times in development to assess effects on particular life history phases. For Amaranthus cruentus, germination, vegetative growth, flowering, seed development and yield were normal at salinities from 0 to 0.2%. Inhibition of these phases increased from 0.2 to 0.4% salinity and was total above 0.5%. 1.0% salinity was lethal to all developmental phases. Onset of growth phases were not affected by salinity. Plants could not be adapted by gradually increasing salinity over days or weeks. Water uptake increased, while photosynthetic CO2 uptake decreased with increasing salinity on a dry weight basis during vegetative growth. Respiration was not affected by salinity. After flowering, respiration and photosynthesis decreased markedly, such that 1.0% NaCl inhibited photosynthesis completely. Protein levels were unchanged with increasing salinity. Leaf starch levels were lower at salinities of 0.5% and above, while stem starch levels were not affected by these salinities. The evidence supports salt inhibition arising from changes in primary biochemical processes rather than from effects on water relations. While not addressing the toxic effects of specific ions, it suggests that moderate salinity per se need not be a problem in space systems.

  17. Productivity and food value of Amaranthus cruentus under non-lethal salt stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macler, Bruce A.; MacElroy, Robert D.

    Stress effects from the accumulation of metal salts may pose a problem for plants in closed biological systems such as spacecraft. This work examined the effects of salinity on growth, photosynthesis and carbon allocation in the crop plant, Amaranthus. Plants were germinated and grown in modified Hoagland's solution with NaCl concentrations of 0 to 1.0%. Plants received salt treatments at various times in development to assess effects on particular life history phases. For Amaranthus cruentus, germination, vegetative growth, flowering, seed development and yield were normal at salinities from 0 to 0.2%. Inhibition of these phases increased from 0.2 to 0.4% salinity and was total above 0.5%. 1.0% salinity was lethal to all developmental phases. Onset of growth phases were not affected by salinity. Plants could not be adapted by gradually increasing salinity over days or weeks. Water uptake increased, while photosynthetic CO2 uptake decreased with increasing salinity on a dry weight basis during vegetative growth. Respiration was not affected by salinity. After flowering, respiration and photosynthesis decreased markedly, such that 1.0% NaCl inhibited photosynthesis completely. Protein levels were unchanged with increasing salinity. Leaf starch levels were lower at salinities of 0.5% and above, while stem starch levels were not affected by these salinities. The evidence supports salt inhibition arising from changes in primary biochemical processes rather than from effects on water relations. While not addressing the toxic effects of specific ions, it suggests that moderate salinity per se need not be a problem in space systems.

  18. Progress Report on Alloy 617 Time Dependent Allowables

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Julie Knibloe

    2015-06-01

    Time dependent allowable stresses are required in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for design of components in the temperature range where time dependent deformation (i.e., creep) is expected to become significant. There are time dependent allowable stresses in Section IID of the Code for use in the non-nuclear construction codes, however, there are additional criteria that must be considered in developing time dependent allowables for nuclear components. These criteria are specified in Section III NH. St is defined as the lesser of three quantities: 100% of the average stress required to obtain a total (elastic, plastic, primary and secondary creep) strain of 1%; 67% of the minimum stress to cause rupture; and 80% of the minimum stress to cause the initiation of tertiary creep. The values are reported for a range of temperatures and for time increments up to 100,000 hours. These values are determined from uniaxial creep tests, which involve the elevated temperature application of a constant load which is relatively small, resulting in deformation over a long time period prior to rupture. The stress which is the minimum resulting from these criteria is the time dependent allowable stress St. In this report data from a large number of creep and creep-rupture tests on Alloy 617 are analyzed using the ASME Section III NH criteria. Data which are used in the analysis are from the ongoing DOE sponsored high temperature materials program, form Korea Atomic Energy Institute through the Generation IV VHTR Materials Program and historical data from previous HTR research and vendor data generated in developing the alloy. It is found that the tertiary creep criterion determines St at highest temperatures, while the stress to cause 1% total strain controls at low temperatures. The ASME Section III Working Group on Allowable Stress Criteria has recommended that the uncertainties associated with determining the onset of tertiary creep and the lack of significant

  19. Transthoracic measurement of left coronary artery flow reserve improves the diagnostic value of routine dipyridamole-atropine stress echocardiogram

    PubMed Central

    Wejner-Mik, Paulina; Nouri, Aria; Szymczyk, Ewa; Krzemińska-Pakuła, Maria; Lipiec, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that coronary flow reserve (CFR) in the left anterior descending artery (LAD) can be effectively measured during an accelerated dipyridamole-atropine stress echocardiography (DASE) protocol to improve the diagnostic performance of the test. Material and methods In 64 patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease scheduled for coronary angiography DASE with concomitant CFR measurement in LAD was performed. Results Coronary flow reserve measurement and calculation were feasible in 83% of patients. The positive predictive value of undetectable LAD flow was 81% for severe LAD disease. Measured values of CFR were in the range 1.3–4.1 (mean: 2.2 ±0.7). Significantly lower CFR was found in patients with LAD disease (1.97 ±0.62 vs. 2.55 ±0.57, p = 0.0015). The optimal cutoff for detecting ≥ 50% stenosis was CFR ≤ 2.1 (ROC AUC 0.776), corresponding with 68% sensitivity and 84% specificity. In patients with negative DASE results 67% of patients with LAD disease had abnormal CFR, whereas in patients with a positive DASE result 92% of patients with normal LAD had normal CFR. The DASE diagnostic accuracy for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) increased from 75% to 85% when CFR measurement was added to wall motion abnormality (WMA) analysis. No test with both abnormalities was false positive for the detection of coronary disease. Conclusions Incorporation of CFR measurement into WMA-based stress echocardiography is feasible even in an accelerated DASE protocol and can be translated into an approximate gain of 10% in overall test accuracy. PMID:24273560

  20. Increase in family allowances.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    In July 1989 the family allowance structure in Australia was changed from a 4-rate to a 2-rate structure. The new rates were increased to $A9 a week for the 1st 3 children and $A12 for each additional child. The Family Allowance Supplment rate for children 13-15 years old was raised from $A31 to $A34.10/week. PMID:12344544

  1. Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... hurt or killed. Examples include a major accident, war, assault, or a natural disaster. This type of ... stress, so you can avoid more serious health effects. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  2. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Airborne Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2008-01-01

    The enclosed table lists official spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs), which are guideline values set by the NASA/JSC Toxicology Group in cooperation with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRCCOT). These values should not be used for situations other than human space flight without careful consideration of the criteria used to set each value. The SMACs take into account a number of unique factors such as the effect of space-flight stress on human physiology, the uniform good health of the astronauts, and the absence of pregnant or very young individuals. Documentation of the values is given in a 5 volume series of books entitled "Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants" published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. These books can be viewed electronically at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9786&page=3. Short-term (1 and 24 hour) SMACs are set to manage accidental releases aboard a spacecraft and permit risk of minor, reversible effects such as mild mucosal irritation. In contrast, the long-term SMACs are set to fully protect healthy crewmembers from adverse effects resulting from continuous exposure to specific air pollutants for up to 1000 days. Crewmembers with allergies or unusual sensitivity to trace pollutants may not be afforded complete protection, even when long-term SMACs are not exceeded. Crewmember exposures involve a mixture of contaminants, each at a specific concentration (C(sub n)). These contaminants could interact to elicit symptoms of toxicity even though individual contaminants do not exceed their respective SMACs. The air quality is considered acceptable when the toxicity index (T(sub grp)) for each toxicological group of compounds is less than 1, where T(sub grp), is calculated as follows: T(sub grp) = C(sub 1)/SMAC(sub 1) + C(sub 2/SMAC(sub 2) + ...+C(sub n)/SMAC(sub n).

  3. Long-term strength and allowable stresses of grade 10Kh9MFB and X10CrMoVNb9-1 (T91/P91) chromium heat-resistant steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorobogatykh, V. N.; Danyushevskiy, I. A.; Schenkova, I. A.; Prudnikov, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    Currently, grade X10CrMoVNb9-1 (T91, P91) and 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh) chromium steels are widely applied in equipment manufacturing for thermal power plants in Russia and abroad. Compilation and comparison of tensile, impact, and long-term strength tests results accumulated for many years of investigations of foreign grade X10CrMoVNb9-1, T91, P91, and domestic grade 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh) steels is carried out. The property identity of metals investigated is established. High strength and plastic properties of steels, from which pipes and other products are made, for operation under creep conditions are confirmed. Design characteristics of long-term strength on the basis of tests with more than one million of hour-samples are determined ( and at temperatures of 500-650°C). The table of recommended allowable stresses for grade 10Kh9MFB, 10Kh9MFB-SH, X10CrMoVNb9-1, T91, and P91 steels is developed. The long-time properties of pipe welded joints of grade 10Kh9MFB+10Kh9MFB, 10Kh9MFB-Sh+10Kh9MFB-Sh, X10CrMoVNb9-1+X10CrMoVNb9-1, P91+P91, T91+T91, 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh)+X10CrMoVNb9-1(T/P91) steels is researched. The welded joint reduction factor is experimentally determined.

  4. The Impact of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, Asian Values, and Race-Related Stress on Asian Americans and Asian International College Students' Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liu, William Ming

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian…

  5. Most oxidative stress response in water samples comes from unknown chemicals: the need for effect-based water quality trigger values.

    PubMed

    Escher, Beate I; van Daele, Charlotte; Dutt, Mriga; Tang, Janet Y M; Altenburger, Rolf

    2013-07-01

    The induction of adaptive stress response pathways is an early and sensitive indicator of the presence of chemical and non-chemical stressors in cells. An important stress response is the Nrf-2 mediated oxidative stress response pathway where electrophilic chemicals or chemicals that cause the formation of reactive oxygen species initiate the production of antioxidants and metabolic detoxification enzymes. The AREc32 cell line is sensitive to chemicals inducing oxidative stress and has been previously applied for water quality monitoring of organic micropollutants and disinfection byproducts. Here we propose an algorithm for the derivation of effect-based water quality trigger values for this end point that is based on the combined effects of mixtures of regulated chemicals. Mixture experiments agreed with predictions by the mixture toxicity concept of concentration addition. The responses in the AREc32 and the concentrations of 269 individual chemicals were quantified in nine environmental samples, ranging from treated effluent, recycled water, stormwater to drinking water. The effects of the detected chemicals could explain less than 0.1% of the observed induction of the oxidative stress response in the sample, affirming the need to use effect-based trigger values that account for all chemicals present. PMID:23432033

  6. Effects of Escherichia coli Challenge and Transport Stress on Hematology and Serum Chemistry Values of Three Genetic Lines of Turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Males and females from 3 genetic lines of turkeys were compared for their response to an Escherichia coli airsac challenge followed by transport stress (Transport). The turkey lines were a slow growing line selected for increased egg production (Egg line), a fast growing line selected for increased...

  7. Zoonotic and non-zoonotic diseases in relation to human personality and societal values: support for the parasite-stress model.

    PubMed

    Thornhill, Randy; Fincher, Corey L; Murray, Damian R; Schaller, Mark

    2010-04-11

    The parasite-stress model of human sociality proposes that humans' ontogenetic experiences with infectious diseases as well as their evolutionary historical interactions with these diseases exert causal influences on human psychology and social behavior. This model has been supported by cross-national relationships between parasite prevalence and human personality traits, and between parasite prevalence and societal values. Importantly, the parasite-stress model emphasizes the causal role of non-zoonotic parasites (which have the capacity for human-to-human transmission), rather than zoonotic parasites (which do not), but previous studies failed to distinguish between these conceptually distinct categories. The present investigation directly tested the differential predictive effects of zoonotic and non-zoonotic (both human-specific and multihost) parasite prevalence on personality traits and societal values. Supporting the parasite-stress model, cross-national differences in personality traits (unrestricted sexuality, extraversion, openness to experiences) and in societal values (individualism, collectivism, gender equality, democratization) are predicted specifically by non-zoonotic parasite prevalence.

  8. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... occurred. (7) Claims for automobiles, only when required to perform official business or parked on a... amount allowed is the value of the vehicle at the time of loss as determined by the National...

  9. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... advance of allowance. (a) Allowance. Step 2+3 and Step 3 grant agreements will include an allowance for facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... would receive under paragraph (a) of this section. (5) In the event a Step 2+3, Step 3 or Step 7...

  10. The Value of Paleopiezometry of Quartz as a Method of Estimating Flow Stress in New Zealand's Alpine Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toy, V. G.; Prior, D.; Kidder, S. B.; Norris, R.; Reid Lindroos, Z.; Billia, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    The active Alpine Fault Zone (AFZ) is the dominant plate boundary structure that transects quartzo-feldspathic continental lithosphere through New Zealand's South Island. Dextral reverse slip results in exhumation of a mylonite zone that accommodated creep at long-term average strain rates of 10-11 to 10-12s-1. The mylonites have also been continuously deformed during exhumation from ~35km depth, where Tmax = 600°C, through a brittle-creep transition at ~8km depth In >20 years of structural research in the fault rocks we have collected a plethora of recrystallised grain size data from quartz within the mylonites by a variety of methods: linear intercept, automated detection routines such as CIP, SEM-based methods (EBSD; OC imaging), etc. More work is needed to address how correlations can be made between these different measurement methods, both here and in other deformed rocks so that comparative studies can be performed. However, two important trends are apparent in all data: 1) the mean recrystallised grain size does not vary systematically in a way that reflects variations in total strain accommodated within the sheared rocks, and 2) the mean 2D recrystallised grain size (d) is mostly >30μm. We suggest that the lack of systematic change in recrystallised grain size with total strain reflects the fact that apparent grain size reduction into the shear zone is a result of incomplete overprinting of grain sizes inherited from the protolith. Here, and likely in other shear zones, apparent grain size reduction is not a reflection of a stress gradient within the shear zone. Most published paleopiezometers for quartz indicate d~30μm develop at flow stresses <50MPa; significantly less than the peak stresses predicted in quartz-dominated crust below the brittle-creep transition by empirical flow laws. If we assume the grain sizes do accurately reflect the flow stresses, the data indicate that major shear zones are weaker than their wall rocks throughout the crust

  11. Posttraumatic stress disorder among injured survivors of a terrorist attack. Predictive value of early intrusion and avoidance symptoms.

    PubMed

    Shalev, A Y

    1992-08-01

    Fifteen injured survivors of a terrorist attack on a civilian bus were followed during their admission, and 12 of the 14 living survivors were examined 10 months later. A substantial amount of distress was found, in the entire group, across the study. Four patients (33%) suffered from diagnosable PTSD on follow-up. Symptoms of intrusion and denial, recorded during admission, failed to predict PTSD, and were not significantly correlated with psychiatric symptoms on follow-up. This paper discusses the finding of low predictive validity of early PTSD symptoms, and suggests that measures of arousal should be added to those of cognitive symptoms in future prospective studies of traumatic stress.

  12. Eleven-year prognostic value of dobutamine stress (99m)Tc-sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with limited exercise capacity.

    PubMed

    Boiten, Hendrik J; van Domburg, Ron T; Valkema, Roelf; Schinkel, Arend F L

    2015-04-01

    Myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography is a routine technique for the evaluation of coronary artery disease. However, information on the very long term prognostic value of dobutamine stress single-photon emission computed tomographic myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in patients with limited exercise capacity is scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term prognostic value of dobutamine stress technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-sestamibi MPI in these patients. The study population consisted of a high-risk cohort of 531 consecutive patients with limited exercise capacity who underwent dobutamine stress (99m)Tc-sestamibi MPI for the assessment of known or suspected coronary artery disease. Follow-up was successful in 528 patients. Because of early revascularization, 55 patients were excluded. The present data are based on 473 patients. The end points were all-cause mortality, cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and late (>60 days) coronary revascularization. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were performed and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of very long term outcome. The mean age of the patients was 61 ± 12 years, and 58% were men. Abnormal results (defined as the presence of reversible or fixed defects) were observed in 312 patients (66%). During a mean follow-up period of 11.3 ± 6.7 years, 287 patients (61%) died (all-cause mortality), of whom 125 (26%) died due to cardiac causes. Nonfatal myocardial infarction occurred in 59 patients (12%). Late coronary revascularization was performed in 61 patients (13%). Univariate predictors of major cardiac events included age, male gender, previous infarction, diabetes mellitus, history of angina, heart failure, ST-segment changes, abnormal results on (99m)Tc-sestamibi scan, reversible defect, fixed defect, summed rest score, and summed stress score. Multivariate analysis identified abnormal results on MPI as a strong independent predictor of

  13. Effect of pH Value on the Electrochemical and Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of X70 Pipeline Steel in the Dilute Bicarbonate Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Z. Y.; Liu, Z. Y.; Wang, L. W.; Ma, H. C.; Du, C. W.; Li, X. G.; Wang, X.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, effects of pH value on the electrochemical and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of X70 pipeline steel in the dilute bicarbonate solutions were investigated using electrochemical measurements, slow strain rate tensile tests and surface analysis techniques. Decrease of the solution pH from 6.8 to 6.0 promotes the anodic dissolution and cathodic reduction simultaneously. Further decrease of the pH value mainly accelerates the cathodic reduction of X70 pipeline steel. As a result, when the solution pH decreases form 6.8 to 5.5, SCC susceptibility decreases because of the enhancement of the anodic dissolution. When the solution pH decreases from 5.5 to 4.0, SCC susceptibility increases gradually because of the acceleration of cathodic reactions.

  14. Metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers in liver of freshwater fish Carassius auratus following in vivo exposure to waterborne zinc under different pH values.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ruijuan; Feng, Mingbao; Wang, Xinghao; Qin, Li; Wang, Chao; Wang, Zunyao; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-05-01

    In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the combined effect of zinc and pH on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers in Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to 0.1 and 1.0mg Zn/L at three pH values (5.0, 7.25, 9.0) for 3, 12, and 30 d. After each exposure, the contents of three trace elements (Zn, Fe and Cu) were determined in liver. Generally, longer exposure to zinc (12d and 30 d) increased hepatic Zn and Cu deposition, but decreased Fe content. Increasing accumulation of Zn in the tissue was also observed with increasing zinc concentration in the exposure medium. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), together with the level of glutathione (GSH) were measured to evaluate the oxidative stress status. The decreases in the four measured biochemical parameters after 3d exposure might reflect the failure of the antioxidant defense system in neutralizing the ROS generated during the metabolic process, while the recovery of the antioxidants at days 12 and 30 suggested a possible shift toward a detoxification mechanism. With regard to the influence of pH on zinc toxicity, the general observation was that the living environment became more stressful when the water conditions changed from an acidic state toward a near-neutral or alkaline state. PMID:24632310

  15. Mapping of b-values, earthquake relocation, and Coulomb stress changes during 1992-2007 in the Murindó seismic zone, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionicio, Viviana; Sánchez, John J.

    2012-07-01

    Seismicity in the Murindó seismic zone, Colombia (6° to 8° and - 75.5° to - 78.0°) during 1992-2007 included the occurrence of the M W 6.6 foreshock on October 17, and M W 7.1 mainshock on October 18, 1992, and aftershocks, which caused severe damage throughout the region. We modeled this seismic sequence by means of Coulomb stress changes imparted by slip along two semi-vertical fault planes with left-lateral motion and subdivided slip. Seismicity thereafter (1993-2007) was characterized by earthquakes magnitude in the range 0.7-6.1 for which a magnitude of completeness M C = 2.7 was determined. b-values are relatively high to the south of the study region and relatively low to the north and northwest. The relocation of epicenters indicates that recent seismicity may be occurring on a fault that is yet to be mapped under the Atrato river valley. We conclude that the 1992 seismic sequence was a case of a major earthquake facilitated by the stress changes imparted during a strong rupture the previous day and that the aftershocks and background seismicity in the region can be explained by static Coulomb stress changes up to 50.1 bar. Our results have implications for hazard in Colombia and serve as basis to foster future investigations.

  16. Metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers in liver of freshwater fish Carassius auratus following in vivo exposure to waterborne zinc under different pH values.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ruijuan; Feng, Mingbao; Wang, Xinghao; Qin, Li; Wang, Chao; Wang, Zunyao; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-05-01

    In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the combined effect of zinc and pH on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers in Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to 0.1 and 1.0mg Zn/L at three pH values (5.0, 7.25, 9.0) for 3, 12, and 30 d. After each exposure, the contents of three trace elements (Zn, Fe and Cu) were determined in liver. Generally, longer exposure to zinc (12d and 30 d) increased hepatic Zn and Cu deposition, but decreased Fe content. Increasing accumulation of Zn in the tissue was also observed with increasing zinc concentration in the exposure medium. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), together with the level of glutathione (GSH) were measured to evaluate the oxidative stress status. The decreases in the four measured biochemical parameters after 3d exposure might reflect the failure of the antioxidant defense system in neutralizing the ROS generated during the metabolic process, while the recovery of the antioxidants at days 12 and 30 suggested a possible shift toward a detoxification mechanism. With regard to the influence of pH on zinc toxicity, the general observation was that the living environment became more stressful when the water conditions changed from an acidic state toward a near-neutral or alkaline state.

  17. Diagnostic, Prognostic, and Therapeutic Value of Circulating miRNAs in Heart Failure Patients Associated with Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Ali Sheikh, Md Sayed; Salma, Umme; Zhang, Baohai; Chen, Jimei; Zhuang, Jian; Ping, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure is a major public health problem especially in the aging population (≥65 years old), affecting nearly 5 million Americans and 15 million European people. Effective management of heart failure (HF) depends on a correct and rapid diagnosis. Presently, BNP (brain natriuretic peptide) or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) assay is generally accepted by the international community for diagnostic evaluation and risk stratification of patients with HF. However, regardless of its widespread clinical use, BNP is still encumbered by reduced specificity. As a result, diagnosis of heart failure remains challenging. Although significant improvement happened in the clinical management of HF over the last 2 decades, traditional treatments are ultimately ineffective in many patients who progress to advanced HF. Therefore, a novel diagnostic, prognostic biomarker and new therapeutic approach are required for clinical management of HF patients. Circulating miRNAs seem to be the right choice for novel noninvasive biomarkers as well as new treatment strategies for HF. In this review, we briefly discuss the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic role of circulating miRNAs in heart failure patients. We also mentioned our own technique of extraction of RNA and detection of circulating miRNAs from human plasma and oxidative stress associated miRNAs with HF. PMID:27379177

  18. Diagnostic, Prognostic, and Therapeutic Value of Circulating miRNAs in Heart Failure Patients Associated with Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ali Sheikh, Md Sayed; Salma, Umme; Zhang, Baohai; Chen, Jimei; Zhuang, Jian; Ping, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure is a major public health problem especially in the aging population (≥65 years old), affecting nearly 5 million Americans and 15 million European people. Effective management of heart failure (HF) depends on a correct and rapid diagnosis. Presently, BNP (brain natriuretic peptide) or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) assay is generally accepted by the international community for diagnostic evaluation and risk stratification of patients with HF. However, regardless of its widespread clinical use, BNP is still encumbered by reduced specificity. As a result, diagnosis of heart failure remains challenging. Although significant improvement happened in the clinical management of HF over the last 2 decades, traditional treatments are ultimately ineffective in many patients who progress to advanced HF. Therefore, a novel diagnostic, prognostic biomarker and new therapeutic approach are required for clinical management of HF patients. Circulating miRNAs seem to be the right choice for novel noninvasive biomarkers as well as new treatment strategies for HF. In this review, we briefly discuss the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic role of circulating miRNAs in heart failure patients. We also mentioned our own technique of extraction of RNA and detection of circulating miRNAs from human plasma and oxidative stress associated miRNAs with HF. PMID:27379177

  19. Preventive or Potential Therapeutic Value of Nutraceuticals against Ionizing Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Exposed Subjects and Frequent Fliers

    PubMed Central

    Giardi, Maria Teresa; Touloupakis, Eleftherios; Bertolotto, Delfina; Mascetti, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Humans are constantly exposed to ionizing radiation deriving from outer space sources or activities related to medical care. Absorption of ionizing radiation doses over a prolonged period of time can result in oxidative damage and cellular dysfunction inducing several diseases, especially in ageing subjects. In this report, we analyze the effects of ionizing radiation, particularly at low doses, in relation to a variety of human pathologies, including cancer, and cardiovascular and retinal diseases. We discuss scientific data in support of protection strategies by safe antioxidant formulations that can provide preventive or potential therapeutic value in response to long-term diseases that may develop following exposure. PMID:23965979

  20. The Tangle of Student Allowances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Norman J.

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of the distribution of student financial aid in Australia focuses on these issues: direct vs. indirect payment to students; inequality in living allowances given to secondary and postsecondary students; and distribution of expense allowances by state government and living allowances by the Commonwealth. (MSE)

  1. Effect of starvation and hibernation on the values of five biomarkers of general and specific stress using the land snail Eobania vermiculata.

    PubMed

    Moschovaki-Filippidou, F; Itziou, A; Dimitriadis, V K

    2013-08-01

    Values of five biomarkers related to cell stress or pollution were evaluated in tissues of the land snail Eobania vermiculata under starvation or hibernation conditions. The biomarkers applied were lysosomal membrane stability in digestive gland cells (LMS) or in haemocytes (neutral red retention assay (NRR)), acetylcholinesterase activity (AchE; EC 3.1.1.7), metallothionein content (MTs), and cyclic AMP content (cAMP). Three groups of snails were studied that were kept under starvation, hibernation and normal conditions, respectively. The results indicated statistically lower values of LMS and NRR in snails kept under starvation or hibernation compared to control ones. Higher values of AChE activity were measured in snails under hibernation compared to controls. MT contents were statistically higher in snails under starvation compared to controls. Measurement of cAMP contents showed no significant differences among the tested groups. The values of the first four biomarkers may be affected by factors other than pollution, such as starvation or hibernation. Therefore, these factors should be taken into consideration when biomonitoring studies are performed in time intervals of hibernation or starvation.

  2. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right...

  3. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right...

  4. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right...

  5. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right...

  6. 76 FR 70883 - Clothing Allowance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... published in the Federal Register on February 2, 2011 (76 FR 5733-5734), VA proposed to amend its... appliances affecting different articles of clothing. 76 FR 5733; Sursely, 551 F.3d at 1356. VA will make the... allowances. The amendment provides for an annual clothing allowance for each qualifying prosthetic...

  7. Inactivation model equations and their associated parameter values obtained under static acid stress conditions cannot be used directly for predicting inactivation under dynamic conditions.

    PubMed

    Janssen, M; Verhulst, A; Valdramidis, V; Devlieghere, F; Van Impe, J F; Geeraerd, A H

    2008-11-30

    Organic acids (e.g., lactic acid, acetic acid and citric acid) are popular preservatives. In this study, the Listeria innocua inactivation is investigated under dynamic conditions of pH and undissociated lactic acid ([LaH]). A combined primary (Weibull-type) and secondary model developed for the L. innocua inactivation under static conditions [Janssen, M., Geeraerd, A.H., Cappuyns, A., Garcia-Gonzalez, L., Schockaert, G., Van Houteghem, N., Vereecken, K.M., Debevere, J., Devlieghere, F., Van Impe, J.F., 2007. Individual and combined effects of pH and lactic acid concentration on L. innocua inactivation: development of a predictive model and assessment of experimental variability. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73(5), 1601-1611] was applied to predict the microbial inactivation under dynamic conditions. Because of its non-autonomous character, two approaches were proposed for the application of the Weibull-type model to dynamic conditions. The results quantitatively indicated that the L. innocua cell population was able to develop an induced acid stress resistance under dynamic conditions of pH and [LaH]. From a modeling point of view, it needs to be stressed that (i) inactivation model equations and associated parameter values, derived under static conditions, may not be suitable for use as such under dynamic conditions, and (ii) non-autonomous dynamic models reveal additional technical intricacies in comparison with autonomous models.

  8. Drilling's value stressed at hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A Senate subcommittee recently heard testimony from government, university, and industry geoscientists in support of a bill that would formalize the planning and coordination of continental scientific drilling. Among the reasons given in favor of the bill by the 13 witnesses at the July 24, 1986, hearing were the possible benefits of a continental drilling program for our understanding of the history of the earth's crust, the origins of mineral and energy resources, the mechanisms of earthquakes and volcanos, and the migration of toxic wastes. The hearing was held by the Subcommittee on Natural Resources Development and Production, chaired by Sen. John W. Warner (R-Va.).

  9. Maslow and Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rodney

    1978-01-01

    Identifies major value bases which have been used to teach values in the classroom and outlines a values education program which stresses teaching about values without indoctrination. Based upon the hierarchy of human needs developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow, the program is based upon universal values, basic human needs, and recognition of…

  10. Stress-mediated adaptive response leading to genetic diversity and instability in metabolite contents of high medicinal value: an overview on Podophyllum hexandrum.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manju Lata; Dutta, Ajaswrata

    2011-12-01

    Podophyllum hexandrum, known for its diversified clinical importance particularly for antineoplastic activity and valuable source for biological protection against high doses of radiation, has its unique position in the plant kingdom. Detailed understanding of mechanism and opportunity of chemical manipulations has amplified the scope of its bioactivity. Podophyllotoxin, the major active principle of this plant, has passed through various structural deviations with the basic aim of making the end product clinically more effective with minimal toxicity. However, over exploitation and limited growth has categorized this plant under endangered species. Depending upon the geographical variations, different species and subspecies of this plant have been explored. Morphological variations and quantitative differences in active principles are the major concern of its unstable medicinal value in whole and semifractionated preparations. The current review has addressed the issues related to the genetic diversity of P. hexandrum, extrinsic and intrinsic stresses responsible for its diversified nature, chemical modifications to enhance its multitasking bioactivity, and efforts for its cultivation and production of important metabolites to avoid collection of wild species due to its critically endangered nature.

  11. 19 CFR 148.103 - Family grouping of allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Family grouping of allowances. 148.103 Section 148... Value § 148.103 Family grouping of allowances. (a) Generally. When members of a family residing in one... grouped and allowed without regard to which member of the family is the owner of the articles. A...

  12. 19 CFR 148.103 - Family grouping of allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Family grouping of allowances. 148.103 Section 148... Value § 148.103 Family grouping of allowances. (a) Generally. When members of a family residing in one... grouped and allowed without regard to which member of the family is the owner of the articles. A...

  13. 19 CFR 148.103 - Family grouping of allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family grouping of allowances. 148.103 Section 148... Value § 148.103 Family grouping of allowances. (a) Generally. When members of a family residing in one... grouped and allowed without regard to which member of the family is the owner of the articles. A...

  14. 19 CFR 148.103 - Family grouping of allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family grouping of allowances. 148.103 Section 148... Value § 148.103 Family grouping of allowances. (a) Generally. When members of a family residing in one... grouped and allowed without regard to which member of the family is the owner of the articles. A...

  15. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  16. The influence of constitutive law choice used to characterise atherosclerotic tissue material properties on computing stress values in human carotid plaques.

    PubMed

    Teng, Zhongzhao; Yuan, Jianmin; Feng, Jiaxuan; Zhang, Yongxue; Brown, Adam J; Wang, Shuo; Lu, Qingsheng; Gillard, Jonathan H

    2015-11-01

    Calculating high stress concentration within carotid atherosclerotic plaques has been shown to be complementary to anatomical features in assessing vulnerability. Reliability of stress calculation may depend on the constitutive laws/strain energy density functions (SEDFs) used to characterize tissue material properties. Different SEDFs, including neo-Hookean, one-/two-term Ogden, Yeoh, 5-parameter Mooney-Rivlin, Demiray and modified Mooney-Rivlin, have been used to describe atherosclerotic tissue behavior. However, the capacity of SEDFs to fit experimental data and the difference in the stress calculation remains unexplored. In this study, seven SEDFs were used to fit the stress-stretch data points of media, fibrous cap, lipid and intraplaque hemorrhage/thrombus obtained from 21 human carotid plaques. Semi-analytic solution, 2D structure-only and 3D fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analyses were used to quantify stress using different SEDFs and the related material stability examined. Results show that, except for neo-Hookean, all other six SEDFs fitted the experimental points well, with vessel stress distribution in the circumferential and radial directions being similar. 2D structural-only analysis was successful for all seven SEDFs, but 3D FSI were only possible with neo-Hookean, Demiray and modified Mooney-Rivlin models. Stresses calculated using Demiray and modified Mooney-Rivlin models were nearly identical. Further analyses indicated that the energy contours of one-/two-term Ogden and 5-parameter Mooney-Rivlin models were not strictly convex and the material stability indictors under homogeneous deformations were not always positive. In conclusion, considering the capacity in characterizing material properties and stabilities, Demiray and modified Mooney-Rivlin SEDF appear practical choices for mechanical analyses to predict the critical mechanical conditions within carotid atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:26472305

  17. The influence of constitutive law choice used to characterise atherosclerotic tissue material properties on computing stress values in human carotid plaques.

    PubMed

    Teng, Zhongzhao; Yuan, Jianmin; Feng, Jiaxuan; Zhang, Yongxue; Brown, Adam J; Wang, Shuo; Lu, Qingsheng; Gillard, Jonathan H

    2015-11-01

    Calculating high stress concentration within carotid atherosclerotic plaques has been shown to be complementary to anatomical features in assessing vulnerability. Reliability of stress calculation may depend on the constitutive laws/strain energy density functions (SEDFs) used to characterize tissue material properties. Different SEDFs, including neo-Hookean, one-/two-term Ogden, Yeoh, 5-parameter Mooney-Rivlin, Demiray and modified Mooney-Rivlin, have been used to describe atherosclerotic tissue behavior. However, the capacity of SEDFs to fit experimental data and the difference in the stress calculation remains unexplored. In this study, seven SEDFs were used to fit the stress-stretch data points of media, fibrous cap, lipid and intraplaque hemorrhage/thrombus obtained from 21 human carotid plaques. Semi-analytic solution, 2D structure-only and 3D fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analyses were used to quantify stress using different SEDFs and the related material stability examined. Results show that, except for neo-Hookean, all other six SEDFs fitted the experimental points well, with vessel stress distribution in the circumferential and radial directions being similar. 2D structural-only analysis was successful for all seven SEDFs, but 3D FSI were only possible with neo-Hookean, Demiray and modified Mooney-Rivlin models. Stresses calculated using Demiray and modified Mooney-Rivlin models were nearly identical. Further analyses indicated that the energy contours of one-/two-term Ogden and 5-parameter Mooney-Rivlin models were not strictly convex and the material stability indictors under homogeneous deformations were not always positive. In conclusion, considering the capacity in characterizing material properties and stabilities, Demiray and modified Mooney-Rivlin SEDF appear practical choices for mechanical analyses to predict the critical mechanical conditions within carotid atherosclerotic plaques.

  18. The influence of constitutive law choice used to characterise atherosclerotic tissue material properties on computing stress values in human carotid plaques

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Zhongzhao; Yuan, Jianmin; Feng, Jiaxuan; Zhang, Yongxue; Brown, Adam J.; Wang, Shuo; Lu, Qingsheng; Gillard, Jonathan H.

    2015-01-01

    Calculating high stress concentration within carotid atherosclerotic plaques has been shown to be complementary to anatomical features in assessing vulnerability. Reliability of stress calculation may depend on the constitutive laws/strain energy density functions (SEDFs) used to characterize tissue material properties. Different SEDFs, including neo-Hookean, one-/two-term Ogden, Yeoh, 5-parameter Mooney–Rivlin, Demiray and modified Mooney–Rivlin, have been used to describe atherosclerotic tissue behavior. However, the capacity of SEDFs to fit experimental data and the difference in the stress calculation remains unexplored. In this study, seven SEDFs were used to fit the stress–stretch data points of media, fibrous cap, lipid and intraplaque hemorrhage/thrombus obtained from 21 human carotid plaques. Semi-analytic solution, 2D structure-only and 3D fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analyses were used to quantify stress using different SEDFs and the related material stability examined. Results show that, except for neo-Hookean, all other six SEDFs fitted the experimental points well, with vessel stress distribution in the circumferential and radial directions being similar. 2D structural-only analysis was successful for all seven SEDFs, but 3D FSI were only possible with neo-Hookean, Demiray and modified Mooney–Rivlin models. Stresses calculated using Demiray and modified Mooney–Rivlin models were nearly identical. Further analyses indicated that the energy contours of one-/two-term Ogden and 5-parameter Mooney–Rivlin models were not strictly convex and the material stability indictors under homogeneous deformations were not always positive. In conclusion, considering the capacity in characterizing material properties and stabilities, Demiray and modified Mooney–Rivlin SEDF appear practical choices for mechanical analyses to predict the critical mechanical conditions within carotid atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:26472305

  19. Stress echocardiography

    MedlinePlus

    Echocardiography stress test; Stress test - echocardiography; CAD - stress echocardiography; Coronary artery disease - stress echocardiography; Chest pain - stress echocardiography; Angina - stress echocardiography; ...

  20. 14 CFR 1261.109 - Computation of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1261.109 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY... allowed for damage to or loss of any item of property may not exceed the cost of the item (either the... exchange). There will be no allowance for replacement cost or for appreciation in the value of the...

  1. 19 CFR 148.103 - Family grouping of allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family grouping of allowances. 148.103 Section 148.103 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... Value § 148.103 Family grouping of allowances. (a) Generally. When members of a family residing in...

  2. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  3. 49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 266.11 Section 266.11... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.11 Allowable costs. Allowable costs include only the following costs which are properly allocable to the work performed: Planning and program operation costs which are allowed under...

  4. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OMB Circular A-122 is determined in accordance with the for-profit costs principles in 48 CFR part 31... Organizations.” (iii) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part 74... Allowable costs. (a) DOE determines allowability of costs in accordance with the cost principles...

  5. 7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... at 2 CFR part 230. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is... at 2 CFR part 225. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in... Institutions” codified at 2 CFR 220. The allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined...

  6. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  7. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  8. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  9. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  10. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  11. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  12. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs....

  13. 50 CFR 80.15 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., see 5 CFR 1310.3.). (b) What is required to determine the allowability of costs? Source documents or... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 80.15 Section 80.15... WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.15 Allowable costs. (a) What...

  14. 50 CFR 85.41 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable Federal cost principles in 43 CFR 12.60(b). Purchase of informational signs, program signs, and... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 85.41 Section 85.41... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.41 Allowable costs. (a) Allowable grant costs are limited to those...

  15. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education... costs. (a)(1) Allowable and unallowable costs. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, costs reasonably related to carrying out the programs described in § 675.32 are allowable. (2)...

  16. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that are proper...

  17. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs...

  18. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1180.56 Section 1180.56 Public... by a Grantee General Administrative Responsibilities § 1180.56 Allowable costs. (a) Determination of costs allowable under a grant is made in accordance with government-wide cost principles in...

  19. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items are... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21...

  20. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  1. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  2. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs...

  3. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items are... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21...

  4. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that are proper...

  5. 45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1157.22 Section 1157.22 Public... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  6. 24 CFR 17.43 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Allowable claims. (a) A claim may be allowed only if: (1) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly...) of this section, and the other provisions of this subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss of... types of claims may be allowed, unless excluded by §§ 17.44 and 17.45: (1) Property loss or damage...

  7. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.228... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22... costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid in accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  8. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.439... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22... section. (b) Administrative and management costs for major disasters will be paid in accordance with...

  9. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items...

  10. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items...

  11. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items...

  12. Added value of stress related gene inductions in HepG2 cells as effect measurement in monitoring of air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobels, Ingrid; Vanparys, Caroline; Van den Heuvel, Rosette; Vercauteren, Jordy; Blust, Ronny

    2012-08-01

    In this study we studied the effects of particulate matter samples (PM) through gene expression analysis in a routine air quality monitoring campaign by the Flemish Environment Agency (VMM, Belgium). We selected a human hepatoma (HepG2) multiple endpoint reporter assay for targeted stress related endpoint screening. Organic extracts of air samples (total suspended particles, TSP) were collected during one year in an industrial, urban and background location in Flanders, Belgium. Simultaneously, meteorological conditions (temperature, wind speed and precipitation) and particulate matter size ≤ 10 μM (PM10), organic (OC), elemental (EC) and total (TC) carbon were monitored and air samples were collected for chemical analysis (11 PAHs). Correlations between the induction of the different stress genes and the chemical pollutants were analysed. Exposure of HepG2 cells to daily air equivalents (20 m3) of organic TSP extracts revealed the dominant induction of the xenobiotic response element (Xre) and phase I (Cyp1A1) and phase II (GstYa) biotransformation enzymes. Additional effects were the induction of c-Fos, a proto-oncogen and Gadd45, a marker for cell cycle disturbance and responsive to genotoxic compounds. Inductions of other relevant pathways, such as sequestration of heavy metals, retinoids response, protein misfolding and increased cAMP levels were measured occasionally. A significant correlation was found between the genes Cyp1A1 (a typical marker for presence of PAHs and dioxin like compounds), c-Fos, Gadd45, (responsive to DNA damaging compounds) and the amount of PM10 and elemental carbon (EC) whereas no correlation was found between these genes and total PAHs content. This may suggest that the observed induction of Cyp1A1 and DNA damage related genes was provoked (partially) by other particle bound compounds (e.g. pesticides, PCBs, brominated flame retardants, dioxins, …), than PAHs. The contribution of particle bound compounds, other than PAHs might

  13. b values and ω−γ seismic source models: Implications for tectonic stress variations along active crustal fault zones and the estimation of high-frequency strong ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanks, Thomas C.

    1979-01-01

    In this study the tectonic stress along active crustal fault zones is taken to be of the form , where  is the average tectonic stress at depth y and Δσp(x, y) is a seismologically observable, essentially random function of both fault plane coordinates; the stress differences arising in the course of crustal faulting are derived from Δσp(x, y). Empirically known frequency of occurrence statistics, moment-magnitude relationships, and the constancy of earthquake stress drops may be used to infer that the number of earthquakes N of dimension ≥r is of the form N ∼ 1/r2 and that the spectral composition of Δσp(x, y) is of the form , where  is the two-dimensional Fourier transform of Δσp(x, y) expressed in radial wave number k. The γ = 2 model of the far-field shear wave displacement spectrum is consistent with the spectral composition , provided that the number of contributions to the spectral representation of the radiated field at frequency ƒ goes as (k/k0)2, consistent with the quasi-static frequency of occurrence relation N ∼ 1/r2;k0 is a reference wave number associated with the reciprocal source dimension. Separately, a variety of seismologic observations suggests that the γ = 2 model is the one generally, although certainly not always, applicable to the high-frequency spectral decay of the far-field radiation of earthquakes. In this framework, then, b values near 1, the general validity of the γ = 2 model, and the constancy of earthquake stress drops independent of size are all related to the average spectral composition of. Should one of these change as a result of premonitory effects leading to failure, as has been specifically proposed for b values, it seems likely that one or all of the other characteristics will change as well from their normative values. Irrespective of these associations, the far-field, high-frequency shear radiation for the γ = 2 model in the presence of anelastic attenuation may be interpreted as

  14. 44 CFR 295.21 - Allowable compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Claimant for future damages the amount of the payment will be Discounted to Present Value. (d) Destruction... contents, and compensation for any decrease in the value of land on which the structure sat pursuant to... trees and landscaping will be limited to 25% of the pre-fire value of the structure and lot....

  15. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  16. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  17. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  18. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  19. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  20. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  1. 20 CFR 437.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type...

  2. 34 CFR 642.40 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 642.40 Section 642.40 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TRAINING PROGRAM FOR FEDERAL TRIO PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? § 642.40 Allowable costs....

  3. 10 CFR 600.222 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... organization named in OMB Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular. 48 CFR 931.2 Hospitals 45 CFR part 74... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  4. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowable costs will be determined in accordance...

  5. 15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with...) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowable costs will be determined in accordance with the cost...

  6. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part... the same trip in the same vehicle. (2) Lodging and meals. The cost allowable for lodging and meals for... prevailing per diem allowance rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part...

  7. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part... the same trip in the same vehicle. (2) Lodging and meals. The cost allowable for lodging and meals for... prevailing per diem allowance rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part...

  8. 30 CFR 206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating allowances. 206.160 Section 206.160 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any other provisions...

  9. Moral Appraisals Affect Doing/Allowing Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Fiery; Knobe, Joshua; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2008-01-01

    An extensive body of research suggests that the distinction between doing and allowing plays a critical role in shaping moral appraisals. Here, we report evidence from a pair of experiments suggesting that the converse is also true: moral appraisals affect doing/allowing judgments. Specifically, morally bad behavior is more likely to be construed…

  10. Allocation of Allowances and Associated Family Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, M. Kaye; Cheadle, Tannis

    This study gathered information on general family practices concerning allowances given to children, parental reasons for the provision of allowances, the bases for their administration, and the frequency of conflicts generated around them. The subjects were 81 parents of elementary school children in a midwest Canadian city. Subjects completed…

  11. 20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable activities. Allowable activities are those listed in § 632.78-80 except that community service employment is...

  12. 20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable activities. Allowable activities are those listed in § 632.78-80 except that community service employment is...

  13. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802...

  14. 4 CFR 5.6 - Allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowances. 5.6 Section 5.6 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.6 Allowances. The provisions of chapter 59 of title 5, U.S. Code and the implementing regulations for the Executive Branch apply to Government...

  15. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part... prevailing per diem allowance rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section...

  16. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applicable to the organization incurring the costs. The following chart lists the kinds of organizations and... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22... Administration § 66.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  17. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33... HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response Cooperative Agreements § 208.33 Allowable costs. (a) Cost neutrality. DHS policy is that an Alert or Activation should...

  18. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Operating allowances. 1206.160 Section 1206.160 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any...

  19. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and an organization named in OMB Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  20. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 1207.22... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1207.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on...

  1. 45 CFR 1183.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1183.22 Section 1183.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  2. 7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 3016.22 Section 3016.22 Agriculture... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on...

  3. 20 CFR 633.303 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated below, direct and indirect costs shall be charged in accordance with 41 CFR part 29-70... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 633.303 Section 633.303... FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Program Design and Administrative Procedures § 633.303 Allowable costs. (a) General....

  4. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  5. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 43.22... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds...

  6. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 602.22 Section 602.22 Public... Requirements § 602.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for:...

  7. 29 CFR 1470.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 1470.22 Section 1470.22 Labor Regulations... Financial Administration § 1470.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be...

  8. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 74.27 Section 74.27 Public... Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a particular set of Federal principles...

  9. 45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1174.22 Section 1174.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  10. 2 CFR 215.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 230, “Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations (OMB Circular A-122).” The allowability of... CFR part 220, “Cost Principles for Educational Institutions (OMB Circular A-21).” The allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of appendix E of 45 CFR...

  11. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  12. 45 CFR 2541.220 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2541.220 Section 2541.220 Public... Post-Award Requirements § 2541.220 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may...

  13. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 92.22 Section 92.22 Public... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be...

  14. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Organizations.” (iii) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part 74... OMB Circular A-122 is determined in accordance with the for-profit costs principles in 48 CFR part 31... Contracts with Hospitals.” (iv) Governmental organizations. Allowability for State, local, or...

  15. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211 Compensation allowable. (a) The amount of compensation allowable is the reasonable cost of assessing damages, and...

  16. 21 CFR 1303.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1303.24 Section 1303.24 Food... Quotas § 1303.24 Inventory allowance. (a) For the purpose of determining individual manufacturing quotas... sufficient to maintain an inventory equal to, (1) For current manufacturers, 50 percent of his...

  17. 10 CFR 600.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall... incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74... Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) Indirect costs. Unless restricted by...

  18. 10 CFR 600.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall... incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74... Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) Indirect costs. Unless restricted by...

  19. 10 CFR 600.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall... incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74... Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) Indirect costs. Unless restricted by...

  20. 10 CFR 600.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall... incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74... Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) Indirect costs. Unless restricted by...

  1. 75 FR 4098 - Utility Allowance Adjustments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Utility Allowance Adjustments AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... are required to advise the Secretary of the need for and request of a new utility allowance for... whether the information will have practical utility; (2) Evaluate the accuracy of the agency's estimate...

  2. 32 CFR 32.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of allowable costs that are in accordance with uniform cost accounting standards and comply with cost... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 32.27 Allowable... contractors is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E to 45 CFR part 74, “Principles...

  3. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a... bids, proposals, and applications. Bid and proposal costs of the current accounting period are all allowable as indirect costs. Bid and proposal costs of past accounting periods are unallowable in...

  4. 32 CFR 32.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of allowable costs that are in accordance with uniform cost accounting standards and comply with cost... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 32.27 Allowable... contractors is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E to 45 CFR part 74, “Principles...

  5. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a... bids, proposals, and applications. Bid and proposal costs of the current accounting period are all allowable as indirect costs. Bid and proposal costs of past accounting periods are unallowable in...

  6. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a... bids, proposals, and applications. Bid and proposal costs of the current accounting period are all allowable as indirect costs. Bid and proposal costs of past accounting periods are unallowable in...

  7. 32 CFR 32.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of allowable costs that are in accordance with uniform cost accounting standards and comply with cost... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 32.27 Allowable... contractors is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E to 45 CFR part 74, “Principles...

  8. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operating allowances. 1206.160 Section 1206.160 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any...

  9. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operating allowances. 1206.160 Section 1206.160 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any...

  10. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operating allowances. 1206.160 Section 1206.160 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any...

  11. The Role of Allowances in Adolescent Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joanne; Yung, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Examines high school student perceptions of allowances and the conditions under which they are received. Finds that, contrary to adult conceptions, students perceive allowances as an entitlement or earned income rather than as an educational opportunity promoting financial decision making and money management. (FMW)

  12. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM...) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to...

  13. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM...) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to...

  14. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM...) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to...

  15. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 30.27 Allowable..., “Cost Principles for State and Local Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit... organizations and those non-profit organizations listed in Attachment C to Circular A-122 is determined...

  16. 38 CFR 49.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 49.27 Allowable... for State, Local, and Indian Tribal Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit... organizations and those non-profit organizations listed in Attachment C to Circular A-122 is determined...

  17. Family allowances and fertility: socioeconomic differences.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, Jona

    2009-08-01

    This article explores socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances on fertility. Although several studies have examined the relationship between cash benefits and fertility, few studies have addressed the possible differential effects of cash benefits on families of different income or education levels. I reconstructed the birth histories of women in the past two Israeli censuses of 1983 and 1995 to study socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances up to the seventh parity. The results indicate that family allowances have a significant effect at every parity. Using female education as an indicator of socioeconomic status, I find that socioeconomic status is a significant modifier of the effect of family allowances. Family allowances seem to have a relatively large impact on more-educated women.

  18. 24 CFR 14.130 - Allowable fees and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable fees and expenses. 14.130 Section 14.130 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... factors as may bear on the value of the services provided. (c) The reasonable cost of any study,...

  19. 24 CFR 14.130 - Allowable fees and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable fees and expenses. 14.130 Section 14.130 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... factors as may bear on the value of the services provided. (c) The reasonable cost of any study,...

  20. 30 CFR 1206.358 - What are byproduct transportation allowances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Geothermal Resources § 1206.358 What are byproduct transportation allowances? (a) When you determine the value of byproducts at a point off the geothermal lease... geothermal use facility to a byproduct recovery facility when that byproduct recovery facility is off...

  1. 30 CFR 1206.358 - What are byproduct transportation allowances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Geothermal Resources § 1206.358 What are byproduct transportation allowances? (a) When you determine the value of byproducts at a point off the geothermal lease... geothermal use facility to a byproduct recovery facility when that byproduct recovery facility is off...

  2. 30 CFR 1206.358 - What are byproduct transportation allowances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Geothermal Resources § 1206.358 What are byproduct transportation allowances? (a) When you determine the value of byproducts at a point off the geothermal lease... geothermal use facility to a byproduct recovery facility when that byproduct recovery facility is off...

  3. 30 CFR 206.358 - What are byproduct transportation allowances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Geothermal Resources § 206.358 What are byproduct transportation allowances? (a) When you determine the value of byproducts at a point off the geothermal lease... geothermal use facility to a byproduct recovery facility when that byproduct recovery facility is off...

  4. Initial conditions of the universe: how much isocurvature is allowed?

    PubMed

    Bucher, M; Dunkley, J; Ferreira, P G; Moodley, K; Skordis, C

    2004-08-20

    We investigate the constraints imposed by current data on correlated mixtures of adiabatic and nonadiabatic primordial perturbations. We discover subtle flat directions in parameter space that tolerate large (approximately 60%) fractions of nonadiabatic fluctuations. In particular, larger values of the baryon density and a spectral tilt are allowed. The cancellations in the degenerate directions are explored and the role of priors is elucidated.

  5. Maximum Allowed Solvent Accessibilites of Residues in Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Matthew Z.; Meyer, Austin G.; Sydykova, Dariya K.; Spielman, Stephanie J.; Wilke, Claus O.

    2013-01-01

    The relative solvent accessibility (RSA) of a residue in a protein measures the extent of burial or exposure of that residue in the 3D structure. RSA is frequently used to describe a protein's biophysical or evolutionary properties. To calculate RSA, a residue's solvent accessibility (ASA) needs to be normalized by a suitable reference value for the given amino acid; several normalization scales have previously been proposed. However, these scales do not provide tight upper bounds on ASA values frequently observed in empirical crystal structures. Instead, they underestimate the largest allowed ASA values, by up to 20%. As a result, many empirical crystal structures contain residues that seem to have RSA values in excess of one. Here, we derive a new normalization scale that does provide a tight upper bound on observed ASA values. We pursue two complementary strategies, one based on extensive analysis of empirical structures and one based on systematic enumeration of biophysically allowed tripeptides. Both approaches yield congruent results that consistently exceed published values. We conclude that previously published ASA normalization values were too small, primarily because the conformations that maximize ASA had not been correctly identified. As an application of our results, we show that empirically derived hydrophobicity scales are sensitive to accurate RSA calculation, and we derive new hydrophobicity scales that show increased correlation with experimentally measured scales. PMID:24278298

  6. Determination of allowable fluid temperature during start-up operation of outlet header under the assumption of constant and temperature-dependent material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rząsa, Dariusz; Duda, Piotr

    2013-09-01

    Modern supercritical power plants operate at very high temperatures and pressures. Thus the construction elements are subjected to both high thermal and mechanical loads. As a result high stresses in those components are created. In order to operate safely, it is important to monitor stresses, especially during start-up and shut-down processes. The maximum stresses in the construction elements should not exceed the allowable stresses that are defined according to boiler regulations. It is important to find optimum operating parameters, that can assure safe heating and cooling processes. The optimum parameters define temperature and pressure histories that can keep the highest stresses within allowable limit and reduce operation time as much as possible. In this paper a new numerical method for determining optimum working fluid parameters is presented. In this method, properties of steel can be assumed as constant or temperature dependent. The constant value is taken usually at the average temperature of the operation cycle. For both cases optimal parameters are determined. Based on these parameters start-up operations for both cases are conducted. During entire processes stresses in the heated element are monitored. The results obtained are compared with German boiler regulations - Technische Regeln fur Dampfkessel 301.

  7. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a wheelchair) because of such disability and such disability is the loss or loss of use of a hand or... wheelchair. (b) Effective August 1, 1972, the initial lump sum clothing allowance is due and payable...

  8. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a wheelchair) because of such disability and such disability is the loss or loss of use of a hand or... wheelchair. (b) Effective August 1, 1972, the initial lump sum clothing allowance is due and payable...

  9. Higher Education Tax Allowances: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Larry L.

    1976-01-01

    Tax allowances are receiving renewed attention at the federal level. Various forms are evaluated that would aid middle-income students and private institutions, and specific bills and proposals are examined. (Editor/LBH)

  10. 15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 24.22 Section 24.22... Administration § 24.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  11. Regulatory treatment of allowances and compliance costs

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.

    1993-07-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) established a national emission allowance trading system, a market-based form of environmental regulation designed to reduce and limit sulfur dioxide emissions. However, the allowance trading system is being applied primarily to an economically regulated electric utility industry. The combining of the new form of environmental regulation and economic regulation of electric utilities has raised a number of questions including what the role should be of the federal and state utility regulating commissions and how those actions will affect the decision making process of the utilities and the allowance market. There are several dimensions to the regulatory problems that commissions face. Allowances and utility compliance expenditures have implications for least-cost/IPR (integrated resource planning), prudence review procedures, holding company and multistate utility regulation and ratemaking treatment. The focus of this paper is on the ratemaking treatment. The following topics are covered: ratemaking treatment of allowances and compliance costs; Traditional cost-recovery mechanisms; limitations to the traditional approach; traditional approach and the allowance trading market; market-based cost recovery mechanisms; methods of determining the benchmark; determining the split between ratepayers and the utility; other regulatory approaches; limitations of incentive mechanisms.

  12. Friction Stir Weld Restart+Reweld Repair Allowables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifton, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    A friction stir weld (FSW) repair method has been developed and successfully implemented on Al 2195 plate material for the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank (ET). The method includes restarting the friction stir weld in the termination hole of the original weld followed by two reweld passes. Room temperature and cryogenic temperature mechanical properties exceeded minimum FSW design strength and compared well with the development data. Simulated service test results also compared closely to historical data for initial FSW, confirming no change to the critical flaw size or inspection requirements for the repaired weld. Testing of VPPA fusion/FSW intersection weld specimens exhibited acceptable strength and exceeded the minimum design value. Porosity, when present at the intersection was on the root side toe of the fusion weld, the "worst case" being 0.7 inch long. While such porosity may be removed by sanding, this "worst case" porosity condition was tested "as is" and demonstrated that porosity did not negatively affect the strength of the intersection weld. Large, 15-inch "wide panels" FSW repair welds were tested to demonstrate strength and evaluate residual stresses using photo stress analysis. All results exceeded design minimums, and photo stress analysis showed no significant stress gradients due to the presence of the restart and multi-pass FSW repair weld.

  13. Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán

    2015-12-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.

  14. Using EPA`s allowance tracking system to assess the allowance market

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, M.; Kruger, J.

    1997-12-31

    The development of a credible framework for analyzing private allowance transfers recorded in EPA`s Allowance Tracking System (ATS) is essential for effective assessment of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) allowance market. The ATS began recording transfers of allowances in March, 1994, and since then has served as an automated record of allowance holdings and transfers of ownership. Though primarily concerned with determining compliance, the ATS contains details of private allowance transfers representing what is believed to be a significant portion of overall SO{sub 2} allowance market activity. This paper will analyze these private transfers recorded in ATS and will develop relevant categories for classification purposes. The resulting categorization will enable consistent analysis of the SO{sub 2} allowance market and provide substantial insight into the level and type of allowance trading activity under the Acid Rain Program.

  15. 44 CFR 208.41 - Administrative allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative allowance. 208.41 Section 208.41 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response Cooperative Agreements § 208.41...

  16. 7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or...

  17. 49 CFR 18.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors but not...

  18. Manpower Training Allowances: Financial Assistance or Investment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latour, Georges

    1975-01-01

    The author compares the differing approaches of Germany, Sweden, France, and Australia for providing financial support to adults enrolled in vocational training programs, focusing on training allowances for recurrent education. He concludes that without some governmental maintenance program, it is unlikely that adults can utilize even tuition-free…

  19. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84.27 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER...

  20. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84.27 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER...

  1. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84.27 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER...

  2. 32 CFR 33.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of...

  3. 32 CFR 32.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contractors is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E to 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for... contractor receiving a. cost-type contract under an assistance award, there is a set of Federal principles... principles applicable to the entity incurring the costs. (b) Governmental organizations. Allowability...

  4. 40 CFR 258.74 - Allowable mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... located in the United States amounting to at least the sum of current closure, post-closure care... MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Financial Assurance Criteria § 258.74 Allowable mechanisms. The mechanisms... and examined by a Federal or State agency. A copy of the trust agreement must be placed in...

  5. 40 CFR 258.74 - Allowable mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... located in the United States amounting to at least the sum of current closure, post-closure care... MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Financial Assurance Criteria § 258.74 Allowable mechanisms. The mechanisms... and examined by a Federal or State agency. A copy of the trust agreement must be placed in...

  6. 40 CFR 258.74 - Allowable mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... located in the United States amounting to at least the sum of current closure, post-closure care... MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Financial Assurance Criteria § 258.74 Allowable mechanisms. The mechanisms... and examined by a Federal or State agency. A copy of the trust agreement must be placed in...

  7. 42 CFR 405.2468 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 405.2468 Section 405.2468 Public... FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Rural Health Clinic and Federally Qualified Health... 413 of this subchapter. (b) Typical rural health clinic and Federally qualified health center...

  8. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  9. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235 Section 136.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  10. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  11. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  12. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  13. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  14. 29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... service with the Department and: (l) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent... the other provisions of this subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss, of personal property incident... authorized places. Claims may be allowable for damage to, or loss of, property arising from fire,...

  15. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.241...

  16. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.217...

  17. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205...

  18. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.223...

  19. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.235...

  20. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.229...

  1. 29 CFR 15.41 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... if the claim is cognizable under the Federal Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. 2677). (c) A claim for damage... Secretary of Labor ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED STATUTES Claims Arising Out of the Operation of the Job Corps § 15.41 Allowable claims. (a)(1) A claim for damage...

  2. 14 CFR 1260.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Allowable costs. 1260.127 Section 1260.127 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With Institutions of Higher...

  3. 14 CFR 1260.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allowable costs. 1260.127 Section 1260.127 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With Institutions of Higher...

  4. 14 CFR 1260.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allowable costs. 1260.127 Section 1260.127 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With Institutions of Higher...

  5. 14 CFR 1260.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 1260.127 Section 1260.127 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With Institutions of Higher...

  6. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1403... the applicable cost principles. For the costs of a— Use the principles in— State, local or...

  7. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1403... the applicable cost principles. For the costs of a— Use the principles in— State, local or...

  8. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1403... the applicable cost principles. For the costs of a— Use the principles in— State, local or...

  9. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1403... the applicable cost principles. For the costs of a— Use the principles in— State, local or...

  10. 38 CFR 21.5822 - Subsistence allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on GPO... will make payments of subsistence allowance on the first day of the month following the month for which... enrollment certification so late that payment cannot be made on the first day of the month following...

  11. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-12-31

    The use of the SO{sub 2} allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO{sub 2} emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO{sub 2} for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO{sub x} emission averaging, the utility would average NO{sub x} emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  12. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 30.27 Section 30.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM...-recognized Indian tribal governments is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular...

  13. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 30.27 Section 30.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM...-recognized Indian tribal governments is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular...

  14. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 30.27 Section 30.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM...-recognized Indian tribal governments is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular...

  15. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 30.27 Section 30.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM...-recognized Indian tribal governments is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular...

  16. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the SO[sub 2] allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO[sub 2] emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO[sub 2] for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO[sub x] emission averaging, the utility would average NO[sub x] emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  17. 30 CFR 1220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 1220.012 Section 1220.012 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES... under § 1220.011(c) that are salvaged, returned, or used for the benefit of non-NPSL operations....

  18. 30 CFR 1220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 1220.012 Section 1220.012 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES... under § 1220.011(c) that are salvaged, returned, or used for the benefit of non-NPSL operations....

  19. 30 CFR 1220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 1220.012 Section 1220.012 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES... under § 1220.011(c) that are salvaged, returned, or used for the benefit of non-NPSL operations....

  20. 30 CFR 1220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 1220.012 Section 1220.012 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING NET PROFIT SHARE PAYMENT FOR OUTER CONTINENTAL...

  1. 30 CFR 220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 220.012 Section 220.012 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING NET PROFIT SHARE PAYMENT FOR OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF OIL AND GAS...

  2. 14 CFR 1273.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... principles applicable to the organization incurring the costs. The following chart lists the kinds of... CFR part 31, Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 1273.22 Section...

  3. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  4. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  5. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  6. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  7. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  8. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... prime awards from DoD Components, and those that are subrecipients under prime awards to other organizations, is to be determined in accordance with: (1) The for-profit cost principles in 48 CFR parts 31 and.... (3) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part...

  9. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... prime awards from DoD Components, and those that are subrecipients under prime awards to other organizations, is to be determined in accordance with: (1) The for-profit cost principles in 48 CFR parts 31 and.... (3) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part...

  10. 10 CFR 600.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Local Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A-122, “Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations.” The... incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part...

  11. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 13.22... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS...

  12. 40 CFR 280.33 - Repairs allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) General Operating Requirements § 280.33 Repairs allowed. Owners and operators of UST systems must ensure... operating properly. (f) UST system owners and operators must maintain records of each repair for...

  13. 40 CFR 280.33 - Repairs allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) General Operating Requirements § 280.33 Repairs allowed. Owners and operators of UST systems must ensure... operating properly. (f) UST system owners and operators must maintain records of each repair for...

  14. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 14.27 Section...

  15. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated below, direct and indirect costs shall be charged in accordance with 41 CFR 29-70 and 41 CFR 1-15.7. (c) Costs associated with repairs, maintenance, and capital improvements of existing... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 632.37 Section...

  16. 38 CFR 49.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (Authority: Pub... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs....

  17. 7 CFR 3019.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 3019.27 Section 3019.27...

  18. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR Part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR Part 31. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs....

  19. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2543.27 Section 2543.27...

  20. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section...

  1. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section...

  2. 43 CFR 12.62 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 12.62 Section 12.62... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and...

  3. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the purchase of vehicles or other certain types of equipment as defined in 10 CFR part 600 may be... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.18...

  4. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the purchase of vehicles or other certain types of equipment as defined in 10 CFR part 600 may be... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.18...

  5. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the purchase of vehicles or other certain types of equipment as defined in 10 CFR part 600 may be... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.18...

  6. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair) which tends to wear or tear... appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair) which tends to wear or tear clothing; or (B) A... allowance for each prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair)...

  7. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair) which tends to wear or tear... appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair) which tends to wear or tear clothing; or (B) A... allowance for each prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair)...

  8. 5 CFR 180.104 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable claims. 180.104 Section 180.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYEES' PERSONAL PROPERTY... are payable: (i) Where personal funds were accepted by responsible Government personnel with...

  9. Family allowance and family planning in Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Plank, S J

    1978-01-01

    Family allowances designed to promote maternal and child health and welfare could be self-defeating if they stimulated otherwise unwanted births, as often assumed. That assumption, with its public health and demographic implications, needs testing. An attempt to test it was made in Chile in 1969--1970 through interviews with 945 wives receiving an allowance and 690 non-recipients. Recipients practiced contraception significantly more than did non-recipients. This was not explained by wives' educational attainment or employment, the couples' earnings, or number of living children, but was associated with a 50 per cent greater utilization of professional prenatal care by recipients during the most recent pregnancy; women with such care (regardless of allowance status) were 75 per cent more likely than others to control their fertility. Prenatal care was probably sought more by recipients in part because an additional stipend was provided as soon as pregnancy was confirmed, usually at clinics with integrated family planning. Greater family income, attributable to the allowance, probably also contributed to the recipients' better prenatal attention and to contraceptive practice. Noteworthy, too, was the finding that with the number of living children controlled, contraceptive practice was significantly greater amoung couples who had never lost a child. PMID:717610

  10. 29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Department and: (l) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent or wrongful act or... subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss, of personal property incident to service with the Department... excluded: (1) Property or damage in quarters or other authorized places. Claims may be allowable for...

  11. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... costs of the current accounting period are allowable as indirect costs. Bid and proposal costs of past..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.27... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part...

  12. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... costs of the current accounting period are allowable as indirect costs. Bid and proposal costs of past..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.27... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part...

  13. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 13.22... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency....

  14. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 13.22... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency....

  15. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Program Management § 74.27 Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a set of cost... organization other than a hospital and an educational institution 48 CFR part 31 Contract Cost Principles and Procedures or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to ED. (b)...

  16. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Program Management § 74.27 Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a set of cost... organization other than a hospital and an educational institution 48 CFR part 31 Contract Cost Principles and Procedures or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to ED. (b)...

  17. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Program Management § 74.27 Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a set of cost... organization other than a hospital and an educational institution 48 CFR part 31 Contract Cost Principles and Procedures or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to ED. (b)...

  18. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 13.22... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency....

  19. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL..., Local and Indian Tribal Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A-122, “Cost Principles for...

  20. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Job Location and Development Program § 675.33...

  1. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CIVILIAN EMPLOYEES ACT § 34.4 Allowable claims. (a) What you can claim. (1) Claims for damage or loss may... for property damage or loss by fire, flood, hurricane, theft, or other serious occurrence may be... a civilian employee outside the U.S. is a local inhabitant. (3) Claims for damage to, or loss...

  2. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pounds net weight authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) by commercial..., against loss or damage in transit, if a bid from a licensed insurer is obtained by the individual and... allowable costs shall be: (A) If the trailer is hauled by private vehicle, the cost per mile for the use...

  3. 5 CFR 180.104 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for which the claim is made. For example, borrowed property may be the subject of a claim. (c) Subject... the claimant is a local inhabitant; or (iii) Any warehouse, office, working area, or other place... Government other than OPM. (11) Borrowed property. Claims may be allowed for borrowed property that has...

  4. 76 FR 32340 - Federal Travel Regulation; Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances (Taxes) AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide... Relocation Advisory Board (GRAB) concerning calculation of reimbursements for taxes on relocation expenses. In addition, this proposed rule alters the process for calculating reimbursements for taxes...

  5. Morphology of residually stressed tubular tissues: Beyond the elastic multiplicative decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarletta, P.; Destrade, M.; Gower, A. L.; Taffetani, M.

    2016-05-01

    Many interesting shapes appearing in the biological world are formed by the onset of mechanical instability. In this work we consider how the build-up of residual stress can cause a solid to buckle. In all past studies a fictitious (virtual) stress-free state was required to calculate the residual stress. In contrast, we use a model which is simple and allows the prescription of any residual stress field. We specialize the analysis to an elastic tube subject to a two-dimensional residual stress, and find that incremental wrinkles can appear on its inner or its outer face, depending on the location of the highest value of the residual hoop stress. We further validate the predictions of the incremental theory with finite element simulations, which allow us to go beyond this threshold and predict the shape, number and amplitude of the resulting creases.

  6. 78 FR 26637 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowance-Relocation Income Tax (RIT) Allowable Tables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowance--Relocation Income Tax (RIT) Allowable Tables AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy (OGP), General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION... June 25, 2008 (73 FR 35952), specifying that GSA would no longer publish the RIT Allowance tables...

  7. Overcoming job stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... allow workers a say in making decisions, lacks organization, or has policies that are not family-friendly. Issues with others. Problems with your boss or co-workers are a common source of stress. Fear for your future. You may feel stress ...

  8. Evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost Program

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A. James; Hefner, Dennis; Dobson, Allen; Hardy, Ralph

    1983-01-01

    This article summarizes an evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost (MAC)-Estimated Acquisition Cost (EAC) program, the Federal Government's cost-containment program for prescription drugs.1 The MAC-EAC regulations which became effective on August 26, 1976, have four major components: (1) Maximum Allowable Cost reimbursement limits for selected multisource or generically available drugs; (2) Estimated Acquisition Cost reimbursement limits for all drugs; (3) “usual and customary” reimbursement limits for all drugs; and (4) a directive that professional fee studies be performed by each State. The study examines the benefits and costs of the MAC reimbursement limits for 15 dosage forms of five multisource drugs and EAC reimbursement limits for all drugs for five selected States as of 1979. PMID:10309857

  9. Establish a rapport that allows clear communication.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The population in the UK is now more diverse than ever before. It is vital that healthcare services are equally sensitive to the beliefs of those who come from minority ethnic groups. The primary theme gathered from the study was the ability of families to balance traditional and Western values into their lifestyles.

  10. 40 CFR 258.74 - Allowable mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... second half of the corrective action period), CV is the current value of the trust fund, and Y is the... waste management facilities under this part 258, cost estimates required for UIC facilities under 40 CFR... under 40 CFR part 280, if applicable, cost estimates required for PCB storage facilities under 40...

  11. Yield stress of pretreated corn stover suspensions using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lavenson, David M; Tozzi, Emilio J; McCarthy, Michael J; Powell, Robert L

    2011-10-01

    Cellulose fibers in water form networks that give rise to an apparent yield stress, especially at high solids contents. Measuring the yield stress and correlating it with fiber concentration is important for the biomass and pulp industries. Understanding how the yield stress behaves at high solids concentrations is critical to optimize enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass in the production of biofuels. Rheological studies on pretreated corn stover and various pulp fibers have shown that yield stress values correlate with fiber mass concentration through a power-law relationship. We use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an in-line rheometer to measure velocity profiles during pipe flow. If coupled with pressure drop measurements, these allow yield stress values to be determined. We compare our results with literature values and discuss the accuracy and precision of the rheo-MRI measurement, along with the effects of fiber characteristics on the power-law coefficients.

  12. 49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of maximum allowable operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding to the established... locations. The corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 72 percent of the SMYS of the pipe in Class 2... pressure per § 192.620, the corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 80 percent of the SMYS of the pipe...

  13. 49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of maximum allowable operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding to the established... locations. The corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 72 percent of the SMYS of the pipe in Class 2... pressure per § 192.620, the corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 80 percent of the SMYS of the pipe...

  14. 49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of maximum allowable operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding to the established... locations. The corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 72 percent of the SMYS of the pipe in Class 2... pressure per § 192.620, the corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 80 percent of the SMYS of the pipe...

  15. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  16. Robust technique allowing manufacturing superoleophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormashenko, Edward; Grynyov, Roman; Chaniel, Gilad; Taitelbaum, Haim; Bormashenko, Yelena

    2013-04-01

    We report the robust technique allowing manufacturing of superhydrophobic and oleophobic (omniphobic) surfaces with industrial grade low density polyethylene. The reported process includes two stages: (1) hot embossing of polyethylene with micro-scaled steel gauzes; (2) treatment of embossed surfaces with cold radiofrequency plasma of tetrafluoromethane. The reported surfaces demonstrate not only pronounced superhydrophobicity but also superoleophobicity. Superoleophobicity results from the hierarchical nano-scaled topography of fluorinated polyethylene surface. The observed superoleophobicity is strengthened by the hydrophobic recovery. The stability of the Cassie wetting regime was studied.

  17. COMPARING THE RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCE TO TOXICITY VALUES FOR ZN, SE, MN, AND MB

    EPA Science Inventory

    Certain essential nutrients can be toxic when ingested at dosages higher than the daily nutritional requirement. Research data for the essential trace elements, zinc, selenium, manganese and molybdenum have been reviewed by various government agencies for both their nutritional n...

  18. Strong connectedness within Norwegian Cheviot and Fur Sheep ram circles allows reliable estimation of breeding values.

    PubMed

    Eikje, L S; Lewis, R M

    2015-07-01

    Breeding programs for sheep in Norway are based on cooperatives of ram circles (RC). The key features of RC are selection of rams across member flocks and their rotation among RC flocks during the mating season. Genetic gains are disseminated to flocks outside RC (ORC). In both groups, natural service and AI are practiced. The objectives were to investigate 1) connectedness within and across RC and across RC and ORC, which impacts bias in genetic comparisons across flocks, and 2) opportunities to improve accuracy by including data from ORC flocks in genetic evaluation of RC flocks. Weaning weights in Cheviot and Fur Sheep from 1990 to 2010 were used. In Cheviot, in the last year of data (2010), there were 4 RC with 49 flocks and 1,824 ewes. Seventy-seven ORC flocks, with 1,246 ewes, also were recorded that year. In total, 214,391 pedigree and 131,012 performance records in Cheviot were available. For Fur Sheep, there was 1 RC with 8 flocks and 468 ewes in 2010 and 134 ORC flocks with 1,932 ewes. In total, 198,339 pedigree and 110,955 performance records in Fur Sheep were available. Unbiased comparison of EBV requires that genetic means of flock founders are similar or that flocks are genetically connected. The latter requires that rams sire enough progeny across flocks. In RC in both breeds and in 28.6% of Cheviot and 20% of Fur Sheep ORC flocks, the average prediction error correlation of flock mean EBV (flock rij) exceeded a threshold (0.10) for strong connectedness. These flocks also had similar genetic means: the variance between means of flock founders (genetic groups) was 1.05 (Cheviot) and 0.51 (Fur Sheep) times that of the additive variance for weaning weight. With less connected flocks included (flock rij ≤ 0.10), the between genetic group variance increased to 1.6 times the additive variance. When weaning weights from connected ORC flocks were included in the genetic evaluation of RC flocks, the size of the data increased by 1.07 times in Cheviot and by 3.6 times in Fur Sheep. However, the increase in accuracy of EBV of animals in RC flocks was trivial. Because founder animals of RC flocks had similar genetic means and were strongly connected, flock owners can comfortably focus on other aspects of their breeding program. Opportunities for closer cooperation between RC and connected ORC flocks exist and could be explored to accelerate genetic improvement within the Norwegian Cheviot and Fur Sheep breeds.

  19. Strong connectedness within Norwegian Cheviot and Fur Sheep ram circles allows reliable estimation of breeding values.

    PubMed

    Eikje, L S; Lewis, R M

    2015-07-01

    Breeding programs for sheep in Norway are based on cooperatives of ram circles (RC). The key features of RC are selection of rams across member flocks and their rotation among RC flocks during the mating season. Genetic gains are disseminated to flocks outside RC (ORC). In both groups, natural service and AI are practiced. The objectives were to investigate 1) connectedness within and across RC and across RC and ORC, which impacts bias in genetic comparisons across flocks, and 2) opportunities to improve accuracy by including data from ORC flocks in genetic evaluation of RC flocks. Weaning weights in Cheviot and Fur Sheep from 1990 to 2010 were used. In Cheviot, in the last year of data (2010), there were 4 RC with 49 flocks and 1,824 ewes. Seventy-seven ORC flocks, with 1,246 ewes, also were recorded that year. In total, 214,391 pedigree and 131,012 performance records in Cheviot were available. For Fur Sheep, there was 1 RC with 8 flocks and 468 ewes in 2010 and 134 ORC flocks with 1,932 ewes. In total, 198,339 pedigree and 110,955 performance records in Fur Sheep were available. Unbiased comparison of EBV requires that genetic means of flock founders are similar or that flocks are genetically connected. The latter requires that rams sire enough progeny across flocks. In RC in both breeds and in 28.6% of Cheviot and 20% of Fur Sheep ORC flocks, the average prediction error correlation of flock mean EBV (flock rij) exceeded a threshold (0.10) for strong connectedness. These flocks also had similar genetic means: the variance between means of flock founders (genetic groups) was 1.05 (Cheviot) and 0.51 (Fur Sheep) times that of the additive variance for weaning weight. With less connected flocks included (flock rij ≤ 0.10), the between genetic group variance increased to 1.6 times the additive variance. When weaning weights from connected ORC flocks were included in the genetic evaluation of RC flocks, the size of the data increased by 1.07 times in Cheviot and by 3.6 times in Fur Sheep. However, the increase in accuracy of EBV of animals in RC flocks was trivial. Because founder animals of RC flocks had similar genetic means and were strongly connected, flock owners can comfortably focus on other aspects of their breeding program. Opportunities for closer cooperation between RC and connected ORC flocks exist and could be explored to accelerate genetic improvement within the Norwegian Cheviot and Fur Sheep breeds. PMID:26440001

  20. 30 CFR 1206.109 - When may I take a transportation allowance in determining value?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 1206.109.... You must allocate transportation costs among all products produced and transported as provided...

  1. Manage Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Manage Stress Print This Topic En español Manage Stress Browse Sections The Basics Overview Signs and Health ... and Health Effects What are the signs of stress? When people are under stress, they may feel: ...

  2. Characterizing shallow secondary clarifier performance where conventional flux theory over-estimates allowable solids loading rate.

    PubMed

    Daigger, Glen T; Siczka, John S; Smith, Thomas F; Frank, David A; McCorquodale, J A

    2016-01-01

    The performance characteristics of relatively shallow (3.3 and 3.7 m sidewater depth in 30.5 m diameter) activated sludge secondary clarifiers were extensively evaluated during a 2-year testing program at the City of Akron Water Reclamation Facility (WRF), Ohio, USA. Testing included hydraulic and solids loading stress tests, and measurement of sludge characteristics (zone settling velocity (ZSV), dispersed and flocculated total suspended solids), and the results were used to calibrate computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models of the various clarifiers tested. The results demonstrated that good performance could be sustained at surface overflow rates in excess of 3 m/h, as long as the clarifier influent mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration was controlled to below critical values. The limiting solids loading rate (SLR) was significantly lower than the value predicted by conventional solids flux analysis based on the measured ZSV/MLSS relationship. CFD analysis suggested that this resulted because mixed liquor entering the clarifier was being directed into the settled sludge blanket, diluting it and also creating a 'thin' concentration sludge blanket that overlays the thicker concentration sludge blanket typically expected. These results indicate the need to determine the allowable SLR for shallow clarifiers using approaches other than traditional solids flux analysis. A combination of actual testing and CFD analyses are demonstrated here to be effective in doing so.

  3. Characterizing shallow secondary clarifier performance where conventional flux theory over-estimates allowable solids loading rate.

    PubMed

    Daigger, Glen T; Siczka, John S; Smith, Thomas F; Frank, David A; McCorquodale, J A

    2016-01-01

    The performance characteristics of relatively shallow (3.3 and 3.7 m sidewater depth in 30.5 m diameter) activated sludge secondary clarifiers were extensively evaluated during a 2-year testing program at the City of Akron Water Reclamation Facility (WRF), Ohio, USA. Testing included hydraulic and solids loading stress tests, and measurement of sludge characteristics (zone settling velocity (ZSV), dispersed and flocculated total suspended solids), and the results were used to calibrate computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models of the various clarifiers tested. The results demonstrated that good performance could be sustained at surface overflow rates in excess of 3 m/h, as long as the clarifier influent mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration was controlled to below critical values. The limiting solids loading rate (SLR) was significantly lower than the value predicted by conventional solids flux analysis based on the measured ZSV/MLSS relationship. CFD analysis suggested that this resulted because mixed liquor entering the clarifier was being directed into the settled sludge blanket, diluting it and also creating a 'thin' concentration sludge blanket that overlays the thicker concentration sludge blanket typically expected. These results indicate the need to determine the allowable SLR for shallow clarifiers using approaches other than traditional solids flux analysis. A combination of actual testing and CFD analyses are demonstrated here to be effective in doing so. PMID:27438236

  4. Serum chemical values in hypothermic and rewarmed young calves.

    PubMed

    Olson, D P; South, P J; Hendrix, K

    1983-04-01

    Serum chemical values were determined in cold-stressed Holstein bull calves ranging from 1 to 7 days of age. The animals were anesthetized and cold-stressed until their core body temperature (colonic) was lowered 10 C. Animals were then rewarmed in warm water, with heat pads or heat lamps, or were allowed to recover naturally (unassisted) at room temperature. Blood samples were collected at selected intervals during cooling and recovery. Increases (P less than 0.05) were observed in the concentrations of glucose, calcium, phosphorus, iron, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, albumin, total globulin, serum urea nitrogen, uric acid, total bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, and cholesterol in the cold-stressed calves during cooling. Concentrations of chloride and insulin decreased (P less than 0.05) during the same period. Changes observed in many of the serum chemical values during rewarming were generally the reverse of the respective changes that occurred during cooling, although insulin values became exceedingly high in some cases midway or near the end of recovery. Serum enzyme values also remained high during most of recovery. Data did not indicate a clear advantage of one method of rewarming over the other methods used in terms of return of the serum chemical values to normal.

  5. 76 FR 16629 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-- Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA... transferee's increased tax burden due to an employee's official permanent change of station is now available... Register (73 FR 35952) specifying that the General Services Administration (GSA) would no longer...

  6. 75 FR 14442 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-- Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA... Amendment 2008-04 in the Federal Register (73 FR 35952) specifying that GSA would no longer publish the RITA... 16, 2010 and applies to relocations during tax year 2008 and earlier. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  7. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  8. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  9. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  10. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  11. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  12. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  13. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  14. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  15. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  16. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  17. 26 CFR 403.45 - Re-appraisal of property involved in an allowed petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Forfeitures § 403.45 Re-appraisal of property involved in an allowed petition. In determining the nature and extent of the relief to be afforded a petitioner pursuant to § 403.44 the value of the property with respect to which the petition has been allowed is the value of such property as determined by...

  18. The values of life.

    PubMed

    Den Hartogh, Govert

    1997-01-01

    In Life's Dominion Dworkin aims at defusing the controversy about abortion and euthanasia by redefining its terms. Basically it is not a dispute about the right to life, but about its value. Liberals should grant that human life has not only a personal, but also an intrinsic value; conservatives should accept the principle of toleration which requires to let people decide for themselves about matters of intrinsic value. Dworkin fails, however, to distinguish between two kinds of personal value: (1) the value of something to a person, when he actually or dispositionally desires it, or finds it pleasant; and (2) the value of something to a person, when it's objectively contributes to his well-being, as defined by reference to his personal point of view, whether or not he ever perceives it as so contributing. He also fails to distinguish between two meanings of the concept of 'intrinsic value': (3) ultimate, i.e. non-instrumental personal value of kind (2); (4) the impersonal value of something which is not good-for-anybody, but simply good, i.e. not a constituent of someone's well-being. Dworkin argues that the human fetus from conception onwards has a value, that it is not a personal value of kind (1), and therefore must be an intrinsic value. But the value of the life of the fetus is not a personal value of kind (2) either and therefore not an intrinsic value of kind (3): it is normally a constituent of the well-being of the pregnant woman, but that doesn't constitute its value, and it is not good 'for' the fetus itself in the relevant sense, because it doesn't have a personal point of view. If, however, the fetus' life is allowed to have an intrinsic value of kind (4), the conservative cannot be refuted by appeal to the principle of toleration, for this only concerns intrinsic value of kind (3). The liberal, indeed, should recognize that the fetus' life has a value, but it is neither a personal value (1) or (2), nor an impersonal value (4), but rather a relational

  19. Managing Time and Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffstutter, Sandra; Smith, Stuart C.

    Chapter 14 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter offers many practical suggestions for managing time and reducing stress. The primary challenge is to unblock the route to effective time/stress management by recognizing unproductive values and attitudes (such as overreliance on the Protestant work ethic or the appearance of…

  20. Education, Values and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Marlene Herbert

    The paper examines the relationship of values to education and stresses the need to design socially relevant educational systems. Problems which have contributed to the failure of most educational systems to reflect overall cultural values are identified. These include that educators are often oblivious to social needs and are unwilling to suggest…

  1. Yield stress and elasticity influence on surface tension measurements.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Loren; Le Merrer, Marie; Delanoë-Ayari, Hélène; Barentin, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    We have performed surface tension measurements on carbopol gels of different concentrations and yield stresses. Our setup, based on the force exerted by a capillary bridge on two parallel plates, allows us to measure an apparent surface tension of the complex fluid and to investigate the influence of flow history. More precisely the apparent surface tension measured after stretching the bridge is always higher than after compressing it. The difference between the two values is due to the existence of a yield stress in the fluid. The experimental observations are successfully reproduced with a simple elasto-plastic model. The shape of successive stretching-compression cycles can be described by taking into account the yield stress and the elasticity of the gel. We show that the surface tension γLV of yield stress fluids is the mean of the apparent surface tension values only if the elastic modulus is high compared to the yield stress. This work highlights that measurements of thermodynamic quantities are challenged by the fluid out-of-equilibrium state implied by jamming, even at small scales where the shape of the bridge is driven by surface energy. Therefore setups allowing for deformation in opposite directions are relevant for surface tension measurements on yield stress fluids.

  2. Serial FBG sensor network allowing overlapping spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbenseth, S.; Lochmann, S.; Ahrens, A.; Rehm, B.

    2016-05-01

    For structure or material monitoring low impact serial fiber Bragg grating (FBG) networks have attracted increasing research interest. Common sensor networks using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) for FBG interrogation are limited in their efficiency by the spectral width of their light source, the FBG tuning range and the spectral guard bands. Overlapping spectra are strictly forbidden in this case. Applying time division multiplexing (TDM) or active resonator schemes may overcome these restrictions. However, they introduce other substantial disadvantages like signal roundtrip dependency or sophisticated control of active resonating structures. Code division multiplexing (CDM) as a means of FBG interrogation by simple autocorrelation of appropriate codes has been shown to be superior in this respect. However, it came at the cost of a second spectrometer introducing additional equalization efforts. We demonstrate a new serial FBG sensor network utilizing CDM signal processing for efficient sensor interrogation without the need of a second spectrometer and additional state of polarization (SOP) controlling components. It allows overlapping spectra even when all sensing FBGs are positioned at the same centre wavelength and it shows a high degree of insensitivity to SOP. Sequence inversed keyed (SIK) serial signal processing utilizing quasi-orthogonal balanced codes ensures simple and quick sensor interrogation with high signal-to-interference/noise ratio.

  3. Influence of thick-walled cylinders length on the residual stresses generated during the single-cycle mandrelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvortsov, V. F.; Boznak, A. O.; Kim, A. B.; Arlyapov, A. Yu

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents methodology and results of experimental study by Sachs method the effect of length of mandrelled thick-walled cylinders made of steel grade 50 (0.5% C) with 5 mm diameter hole, outer diameter of 15 and 25 mm on residual stresses. Based on the review of studies, it was noted that this effect may be both due to uneven process of mandrelling along the cylinder length and due to zero axial residual stresses on its faces. It was found that the length of cylinders has the strongest influence on axial residual stresses. With allowances between 0.9 and 7.1% and length reduction from 40 to 10 mm, the largest absolute value of axial residual stresses decreases from 210 to 50 MPa. It was noted that when the outer diameter of cylinders is 15 mm their length significantly influence on both hoop and radial residual stresses. With the above-mentioned decrease in cylinders length, absolute values of hoop and radial residual stresses in the region adjacent to the hole, depending on the mandrelling allowance, increase (from -135 to -205 MPa and from -45 to 55 MPa respectively, when allowance is 7.1%), decrease (from -315 to -235 MPa and from -135 to -95 MPa respectively, when allowance is 0.9%) and remain almost unchanged (when allowance is 3.4%). Impact of length on these stresses is weak when the outer diameter of cylinders is 25 mm.

  4. [Psychosocial stress and cardiology].

    PubMed

    Houppe, Jean-Pierre

    2013-06-01

    Psychosocial stress is a major independent risk and prognostic factor of cardiovascular events. It includes psychological, sociological and socioeconomic factors. Cardiovascular diseases are important providers of psychosocial stress. The knowledge of the cerebral development throughout the time allows to a better understanding of the relationship between psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk. Psychosocial stress leads, on top of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, to the development or to the worsening of an endothelial dysfunction, of an inflammatory response and prothrombotic phenomenon. Anxiolytics and antidepressors are not very effective against psychosocial stress. Physical activity and psychotherapy are much more indicated, particularly cognitve-behavioral therapy. The ESC recommends an evaluation of psychosocial stress through a short questionnaire.

  5. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was <3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be

  6. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, M. Roy

    2015-01-01

    With more than a thousand honors programs or colleges in the United States and that number growing every year, defining the value of honors is a significant undertaking. Honors seems to have become an obligatory upgrade that no college or university president can afford to be without, but there is more than institutional trending to be considered,…

  7. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Matt

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles retiring values teacher Gene Doxey and describes his foundational contributions to the students of California's Ramona Unified School District. Every one of the Ramona Unified School District's 7,200 students is eventually funneled through Doxey's Contemporary Issues class, a required rite of passage between elementary school…

  8. 30 CFR 1206.178 - How do I determine a transportation allowance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... arm's-length transportation contract does not reflect the value of the transportation because of... have no value) bears to the volume of all products in the gaseous phase (excluding waste products which have no value). Except as provided in this paragraph, you cannot take an allowance for the costs...

  9. Childhood Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a Move What Kids Say About: Handling Stress Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias How to Talk to Your ... About School? 5 Ways to Deal With Anxiety Anxiety Disorders Can Stress Affect My Weight? Stress Contact Us Print Resources ...

  10. Exercise-induced stress response as an adaptive tolerance strategy.

    PubMed Central

    Sonneborn, J S; Barbee, S A

    1998-01-01

    Interaction between the quality of the environment and the health of the exposed population determines the survival response of living organisms. The phenomenon of induced tolerance by exposure to threshold levels of stressors to stimulate natural defense mechanisms has potential therapeutic value. The paucity of information on predictability of individual response and information on the operative fundamental mechanisms limit applicability of the adaptive tolerance strategy. A potential biomarker of the stress response includes members of the stress-inducible ubiquitin gene family. Transcript sizes detected with Northern blot analysis identify different classes of ubiquitin gene family members and the intensity of the radioactive signal allows abundance determinations. Using moderate exercise as the stressor, significant increase (p < 0.028) in abundance of inducible polyubiquitin genes was found in human blood. Both the potential of exercise as a model system of a natural stress inducer and polyubiquitin as a biomarker of stress were established in these studies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9539026

  11. The endocannabinoid system in guarding against fear, anxiety and stress.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Beat; Marsicano, Giovanni; Maldonado, Rafael; Hillard, Cecilia J

    2015-12-01

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system has emerged as a central integrator linking the perception of external and internal stimuli to distinct neurophysiological and behavioural outcomes (such as fear reaction, anxiety and stress-coping), thus allowing an organism to adapt to its changing environment. eCB signalling seems to determine the value of fear-evoking stimuli and to tune appropriate behavioural responses, which are essential for the organism's long-term viability, homeostasis and stress resilience; and dysregulation of eCB signalling can lead to psychiatric disorders. An understanding of the underlying neural cell populations and cellular processes enables the development of therapeutic strategies to mitigate behavioural maladaptation.

  12. Valuing Stillbirths.

    PubMed

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority-setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this article we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women's reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending.

  13. Valuing Stillbirths.

    PubMed

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority-setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this article we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women's reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  14. [Hypertension and stress tests].

    PubMed

    Mallion, J M; Siché, J P; de Gaudemaris, R

    1989-09-15

    Stress tests have been performed for a long time in patients with coronary disease. The study of blood pressure variations, under these circumstances, is also interesting in hypertension. Several types of stress tests, dynamic and static, may be performed. Dynamic tests on ergometric bicycles are the most frequently performed. The evolution of the BP during stress increases regularly and there is a linear correlation between the BP values and the level of work as well as the heart rate (HR). It is therefore possible to individualize a reference blood pressure profile, according to age and sex. The stress may find applications from a diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic standpoint. First of all, in borderline HT, the stress test enables to confirm the HT and better differentiate between hyperemotional and hyperkinetic patients. In severe hypertension, the stress test permits to better define the magnitude of the haemodynamic disorder. In true hypertensive patients, undergoing major physical stress (work, sports...) the stress test permits to evaluate the tolerance to stress and the faculties of myocardial adaptation. From a prognostic standpoint, the incidence of permanent hypertension is 2 to 3 times higher in patients presenting an abnormal blood pressure profile. There is a significant correlation between the BP at maximum stress and the left ventricular mass index at all stages of the HT. The stress test makes it possible to better define the mode of action of antihypertensive medications, prescribe a personalized treatment according to these patients reactivity to stress and guarantee the correction of blood pressure abnormalities, since normalisation at rest does not necessarily imply a normalisation during stress. PMID:2686518

  15. Forecasting the Value of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basarab, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The Predictive Evaluation (PE) model is a training and evaluation approach with the element of prediction. PE allows trainers and business leaders to predict the results, value, intention, adoption, and impact of training, allowing them to make smarter, more strategic training and evaluation investments. PE is invaluable for companies that…

  16. The effect of three space allowances on the physiology and behavior of weaned pigs during transportation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stocking density is an important aspect of transport which could affect animal health and welfare, especially in pigs simultaneously experiencing weaning stress. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of three different space allowances on the physiology and behavior of weaned pig...

  17. Allowing for heterogeneity in monetary subjective well-being valuations.

    PubMed

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil

    2011-03-01

    Recent research on 'happiness' regression equations has shown how monetary values can be put on the well-being effects of many life events (like health problems, marriage or the death of a spouse). Potentially, such work has practical implications for policy-makers and the courts. However, this article argues that we need to be careful in such work to use the appropriate statistical method. It goes beyond previous research and allows for heterogeneity in the subjective well-being scales. Using less restrictive models than the current literature, the article argues that standard linear or ordered response models seem consistently to overstate valuations. With data from the UK, it provides new monetary estimates of the well-being consequences of a number of health problems, social capital indicators, marital status changes and social relationships.

  18. Valuing vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  19. Viscosity parameter values in accretion flows around black holes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarkoti, Shreeram; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Viscosity is responsible for the transport of angular momentum in accretion processes. Assuming mixed stress prescription suitable for flow discontinuities, we draw parameter space of specific angular momentum and specific energy of flow at the inner sonic point for all possible values of viscosity parameter. Then, we identify the region which is capable of producing standard Rankine-Hugoniot shocks. From this analysis, it is found that a large range of values of viscosity parameter (0.0-0.3) is capable of producing shocks. At values larger than this, the parameter space allowing shock formation is negligible. The shock formation causes piling up of matter in the post-shock region which Comptonizes soft X-ray photons coming from the Keplerian accretion disk, creating the hard X-Ray radiation. Since numerical simulations generally produce alpha parameters very smaller as compared to this upper limit, we conclude that the shocks remain essential component to model black hole spectral and timing properties.

  20. Reliability Value of Fast State Estimation on Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu

    2012-05-07

    Monitoring the state of a power system under stress is key to achieving reliable operation. State estimation and timely measurements become more important when applying and designing corrective control actions (manual and automatic) to arrest or mitigate cascading blackouts. The execution time of each process, including state estimation, should be as short as possible to allow for timely action. In this paper, we provide a methodology for estimating one of the components of value of faster and more frequent state estimation: the reliability value of state estimation to assist corrective control actions for arresting or mitigating cascading blackouts. We present a new algorithm for estimating the time between successive line trips in a cascading failure. The algorithm combines power flow calculations with characteristics of the protection system to estimate the time between successive equipment trips. Using this algorithm, we illustrate the value of fast state estimation by calculating the time remaining for automatic or manual corrective actions after state estimation is finalized.

  1. 17 CFR 190.07 - Calculation of allowed net equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of allowed net... BANKRUPTCY § 190.07 Calculation of allowed net equity. Allowed net equity shall be computed as follows: (a) Allowed claim. The allowed net equity claim of a customer shall be equal to the aggregate of the...

  2. [Possiblity to forecast lung pathology via parameters of allowable length of exposure to chrysotile].

    PubMed

    Ibraev, S A; Otarov, E Zh; Zharylkasyn, Zh Zh; Koigel'dinova, Sh S; Kulov, D B; Kalishev, M G

    2015-01-01

    Studies of allowable (safe) length of service in occuptions of mining transport enterprise "Kostanaiskie mineral" JSC were conducted to forecast occurrence of dust lung diseases in workers exposed to chrysotile-asbestos dust. To calculate allowable length of service, the authors used values of average shift concentration of chrysotile-asbestos dust. Based on the calculated data of the allowable length of service in chrysotile-asbestos production, the authors forecasted course of dust lung diseases. PMID:26036015

  3. Consequences of Stress for Public School Superintendents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Kathy J.

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: This study is a quantitative study of Oklahoma Public School Superintendents. The data was collected by surveys using an online format. Data was analyzed to determine correlation and predictive values of the four specific stress factors: conflict mediating stress, boundary spanning stress, task based stress and role…

  4. Valuing charity.

    PubMed

    Kronick, R

    2001-10-01

    hospitals in providing care to the uninsured poor. Largely independent of Medicare and Medicaid, the increasing importance of pharmaceuticals and other services delivered outside of the hospital further strengthened the connection between treatment choices and ability to pay, and the growth of capitated payment systems made this connection salient to many insured patients and their physicians. In part, then, the AMA was correct: Medicare and Medicaid have contributed to the erosion of trust in physicians as incorruptible agents for patients. Some of this trust undoubtedly was misplaced, even in 1965, and trust alone was not sufficient to guarantee widespread access to medical care or to assure that treatment provided would take true social benefits and costs into account. Medicare and Medicaid, as well as the growth of prepayment insurance plans, represent institutional responses to the failure of the 1963 norms to accomplish societal goals. Still, as we have seen, these responses create their own challenges, and we continue to search for institutions that will allow widespread insurance to coexist with the physician-patient trust that Arrow correctly identified as an important response to uncertainties and information asymmetries in the medical care market. PMID:11765276

  5. 30 CFR 1206.261 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the quantity of clean coal output and the rejected waste material. The transportation allowance shall be authorized for the total production which is transported. Transportation allowances shall be..., the transportation allowance shall be authorized for the total production which is...

  6. 30 CFR 1206.460 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the quantity of clean coal output and the rejected waste material. The transportation allowance shall be authorized for the total production which is transported. Transportation allowances shall be..., the transportation allowance shall be authorized for the total production which is...

  7. Measuring wind and stress under tropical cyclones with scatterometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. Timothy

    2016-07-01

    Ocean surface stress, the turbulent transport of momentum, is largely derived from wind through a drag coefficient. In tropical cyclones (TC), scatterometers have difficulty in measuring strong wind and there is large uncertainty in the drag coefficient. We postulate that the microwave backscatter from ocean surface roughness, which is in equilibrium with local stress, does not distinguish weather systems. The reduced sensitivity of scatterometer wind retrieval algorithm under the strong wind is an air-sea interaction problem that is caused by a change in the behavior of the drag coefficient and not a sensor problem. Under this assumption, we applied a stress retrieval algorithm developed over a moderate wind range to retrieve stress under the strong winds of TCs. Over a moderate wind range, the abundant wind measurements and more established drag coefficient value allow sufficient stress data to be computed from wind to develop a stress retrieval algorithm for the scatterometer. Using unprecedented large amount of stress retrieved from the scatterometer coincident with strong winds in TC, we showed that the drag coefficient decreases with wind speed at a much steeper rate than previously revealed, for wind speeds over 25 m/s. The result implies that the ocean applies less drag to inhibit TC intensification and the TC causes less ocean mixing and surface cooling than previous studies indicated. With continuous and extensive coverage from constellations of scatterometers for several decades, the impact of tropical cyclones on the ocean and the feedback from the ocean are examined.

  8. 42 CFR 413.134 - Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation based on asset costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the purchase price for the purpose of determining allowable historical cost. (9) Net book value. The net book value of an asset is the depreciable basis used for the Medicare program by the asset's last... the present owner in acquiring the asset. (i) All providers—(A) Depreciable assets acquired after...

  9. 42 CFR 413.134 - Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation based on asset costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the purchase price for the purpose of determining allowable historical cost. (9) Net book value. The net book value of an asset is the depreciable basis used for the Medicare program by the asset's last... by the present owner in acquiring the asset. (i) All providers—(A) Depreciable assets acquired...

  10. Caregiver Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2005). Psychophysiological mediators of caregiver stress and differential cognitive decline . Psychology and Aging, 20 (3), 402–411. Pew Research ... 2005). Psychophysiological mediators of caregiver stress and differential cognitive decline . Psychology and Aging, 20 (3), 402–411. Return to ...

  11. Feeling Stressed

    MedlinePlus

    ... other physical activity. Can stress lead to more serious problems? top Stress that's too much for you to handle may play a role in some serious problems. These problems include eating disorders , hurting yourself , ...

  12. Three-dimensional finite-element modelling of coseismic Coulomb stress changes on intra-continental dip-slip faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagge, Meike; Hampel, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Investigating fault interaction plays a crucial role in seismic hazard assessment. The calculation of Coulomb stress changes allows quantifying the stress changes on so-called receiver faults in the surrounding of the fault that experienced the earthquake. A positive stress change implies that the earthquake brought the receiver fault closer to failure while a negative value indicates a delay of the next earthquake. So far, most studies focussed on stress changes for particular faults and earthquakes. Here we present a general analysis of the Coulomb stress changes on intra-continental dip-slip faults using finite-element models with normal and thrust faults arrays, respectively. Our models allow calculating coseismic ("static") stress changes on pre-defined fault planes, whose dip and position can be varied. Gravity and ongoing regional deformation (i.e. shortening or extension) are included. The results for thrust and normal faults show that synthetic receiver faults located in the hanging wall and footwall of the source fault exhibit a symmetric stress distribution, with large areas of negative and small areas of positive Coulomb stress changes. In contrast, faults positioned in along-strike prolongation of the source fault and outside of its immediate hanging wall and footwall undergo mostly positive stress changes. The stress changes are largest at the fault tip that is closer to the source fault. Our results show that the stress change distribution depends on the fault dip while the magnitude depends on the friction coefficient and the amount of coseismic slip. The Coulomb stress changes can be explained by the spatial distribution of the coseismic strain, which shows domains of horizontal extension and shortening that alternate both at the surface and with depth. Our models allow identifying the general patterns of Coulomb stress changes on dip-slip faults, which are often concealed by the peculiarity of the specific fault or earthquake in nature.

  13. Rock Stress, Rock Stress Measurements, and the Integrated Stress Determination Method (ISDM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ask, D.; Stephansson, O.; Cornet, F. H.; Ask, M. V. S.

    2009-08-01

    The primary objectives of this work are to (1) improve the understanding of the prevailing stress distribution at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in SE Sweden by employing an integrated stress determination approach, and in order to accomplish this (2) extend the existing stress integration methodology denominated integrated stress determination method (ISDM; Cornet in Comprehensive Rock Engineering vol 3, Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 413-432, 1993a). The new developments of the ISDM involve a 12-parameter representation of the regional stress field in the rock mass (i.e., the full stress tensor and its variation with depth) that is applicable to hydraulic stress data (sleeve fracturing, hydraulic fracturing, and hydraulic tests on pre-existing fractures), overcoring data (CSIR- and CSIRO-type of devices), and to combinations of hydraulic and overcoring stress data. For the latter case, the elastic parameters of the overcoring technique may be solved in situ by allowing the hydraulic stress data to constrain them. As a result, the problem then involves 14 model parameters. Results from the study show that the ISDM effectively improves the precision of the prevailing stress field determination and that it is especially powerful for identification of consistencies/inconsistencies in an existing data set. Indeed, this is the very basic premise and goal of stress integration; combine all available data to achieve as complete a characterization of the mechanical stress model as possible, and not to identify a solution that fits only loosely the maximum amount of stress data.

  14. Neuromuscular Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Timothy P.; Kern, Marialice

    1994-01-01

    Discusses exercise-induced stress that results from motor unit recruitment, the impact of recruitment on selected systemic support systems, and some of the environmental overlays that affect the degree of physiological stress. Adaptations to sustained changes in physical activity and muscle and myotendinous injury induced by stress are examined.…

  15. 17 CFR 190.07 - Calculation of allowed net equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... equity. 190.07 Section 190.07 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION BANKRUPTCY § 190.07 Calculation of allowed net equity. Allowed net equity shall be computed as follows: (a) Allowed claim. The allowed net equity claim of a customer shall be equal to the aggregate of the...

  16. 38 CFR 38.629 - Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section provides for payment of a monetary allowance for an outer burial receptacle for any interment in a... casket will not be damaged. (d) Payment of monetary allowance. VA will pay a monetary allowance for each... privately purchased the outer burial receptacle will be paid the monetary allowance. For burials during...

  17. 40 CFR 72.95 - Allowance deduction formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... formula shall be used to determine the total number of allowances to be deducted for the calendar year...) “Allowances surrendered for underutilization” is the total number of allowances calculated in accordance with § 72.92 (a) and (c). (c) “Allowances deducted for Phase I extensions” is the total number of...

  18. 38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...; Educational Assistance Allowance § 21.4145 Work-study allowance. (a) Eligibility. (1) A veteran or reservist... rate of three-quarter time or full time is eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An...

  19. 38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...; Educational Assistance Allowance § 21.4145 Work-study allowance. (a) Eligibility. (1) A veteran or reservist... rate of three-quarter time or full time is eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An...

  20. 7 CFR 3560.202 - Establishing rents and utility allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing rents and utility allowances. 3560.202... Establishing rents and utility allowances. (a) General. Rents and utility allowances for rental units in Agency... Agency. (b) Agency approval. All rents and utility allowances set by borrowers are subject to...

  1. 38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...; Educational Assistance Allowance § 21.4145 Work-study allowance. (a) Eligibility. (1) A veteran or reservist... rate of three-quarter time or full time is eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An...

  2. 38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...; Educational Assistance Allowance § 21.4145 Work-study allowance. (a) Eligibility. (1) A veteran or reservist... rate of three-quarter time or full time is eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An...

  3. The Influence of Academic Values and Belongingness Concerns on Achievement Goals, Self-Efficacy, and Perceived Stress in First Quarter Freshmen: Relationships to Academic Performance and the Mediating Role of Procrastination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the influence of student values on long-term self-regulatory decisions defined in terms of a tendency to procrastinate and how these values, indirectly through procrastination, but also directly, affect important motivational, affective, social and behavioral academic outcomes of first quarter freshmen. Results of a structural…

  4. Simulation and in situ measurement of stress distribution in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Cruz, Javier; Cano, Ulises; Romero, Tatiana

    2016-10-01

    A critical parameter for PEM fuel cell's electric contact is the nominal clamping pressure. Predicting the mechanical behavior of all components in a fuel cell stack is a very complex task due to the diversity of materials properties. Prior to the integration of a 3 kW PEMFC power plant, a numerical simulation was performed in order to obtain the mechanical stress distribution for two of the most pressure sensitive components of the stack: the membrane, and the graphite plates. The stress distribution of the above mentioned components was numerically simulated by finite element analysis and the stress magnitude for the membrane was confirmed using pressure films. Stress values were found within the elastic zone which guarantees mechanical integrity of fuel cell components. These low stress levels particularly for the membrane will allow prolonging the life and integrity of the fuel cell stack according to its design specifications.

  5. Considerations regarding the stress relieving in a special product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axinte, T.; Vladu, G.

    2015-11-01

    The special product has a steel bearing structure located inside the shoulders and it is fitted with a steel cylinder loaded by an internal pressure pi. The value of the maximum internal pressure is high, at limit being equal to the allowable stress (σa = pi), where pi = 3000 MPa. The uniform stresses decrease if there is an external pressure applied on the cylinder. Therefore, it must be produced external pressure in order to reduce the stress ctmax., in other words to achieve a relieving operation. The external diameter of the internal tube is larger than the internal diameter of the external tube. In the normal temperature conditions these two cylinders cannot be assembled. After it is heated up, expanded cylinder is mounted on the internal cylinder and after the quenching, on the contact surface it appears a relieving pressure p. We are interested in computing the parameters of this technological procedure, for the classic way of relieving, namely by heating up the external cylinder. After processing by cutting, radius R2 of the internal tube is greater than δ = 0.05 mm radius R2 of the external tube. After cooling, the two tubes have a common radius R2, which will have an average value between the values they had before the assembling process. This is why the external tube has to suffer a thermal expansion, the internal tube suffering a compression, so that the two displacements summed, measured perpendicular to the contact surface, have a value of δ = 0.05 mm. After the relieving operation, on the contact surface between the two tubes will be produces a contact pressure, p. In the paper we study the effect of the relieving pressure p, onto the stresses if there would be not relieving and the variation of stresses considering relieving of both the internal tube and the external tube. The highest values of the stresses are those on the internal face of the bearing. If calculations are in accordance with the third failure theory it results that the maximum

  6. Earned Value-Added

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Earned value management [EVM] ...either you swear by it, or swear at it. Either way, there s no getting around the fact that EVM can be one of the most efficient and insightful methods of synthesizing cost, schedule, and technical status information into a single set of program health metrics. Is there a way of implementing EVM that allows a program to reap its early warning benefits while avoiding the pitfalls that make it infamous to its detractors? That s the question recently faced by the International Space Station [ISS] program.

  7. X-ray nanodiffraction analysis of stress oscillations in a W thin film on through-silicon via

    PubMed Central

    Todt, J.; Hammer, H.; Sartory, B.; Burghammer, M.; Kraft, J.; Daniel, R.; Keckes, J.; Defregger, S.

    2016-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray nanodiffraction is used to analyse residual stress distributions in a 200 nm-thick W film deposited on the scalloped inner wall of a through-silicon via. The diffraction data are evaluated using a novel dedicated methodology which allows the quantification of axial and tangential stress components under the condition that radial stresses are negligible. The results reveal oscillatory axial stresses in the range of ∼445–885 MPa, with a distribution that correlates well with the scallop wavelength and morphology, as well as nearly constant tangential stresses of ∼800 MPa. The discrepancy with larger stress values obtained from a finite-element model, as well as from a blanket W film, is attributed to the morphology and microstructural nature of the W film in the via. PMID:26937239

  8. [Stress and migraine].

    PubMed

    Radat, F

    2013-05-01

    The link between stress and migraine is complex. In its recent conception, stress is viewed as a transactional process between an individual and his-her environment in which the individual makes a response to an internal or external constraint. This paper reviews the evidence in favor of a relationship between stress and migraine. Many studies show that 50 to 80% of patients report stress as a precipitating factor for their migraine headaches. Many authors have suggested that acute stress can provoke biological modifications lowering the threshold of the individual's susceptibility to a migraine attack. It has also been shown that the incidence of migraine is higher when stress scores are higher in the previous year. This suggests that as well as being a precipitating factor of crisis, stress could also be a precipitating factor of illness in susceptible individuals. Moreover, stress can trigger migraine chronification. This has been shown in many retrospective studies and in one prospective study. Hyperalgesia and central sensitivity to pain induced by chronic stress can partly explain this phenomenon. Many retrospective studies also show that adverse events during childhood, like sexual and physical abuse, are more frequent in migraineurs than non-migraineurs. Nevertheless, there is no prospective study allowing considering a causal link between childhood abuse and migraine in adulthood. Another point that will be tackled is the comorbidity between stress related psychiatric disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, and migraine. Here again, many studies conducted in huge samples from the general population are convincing. All that leads to propose stress management therapies to migraineurs. Randomized control trials and meta-analyses have shown that relaxation therapies, biofeedback and stress management cognitive behavioral therapies are effective in migraine prophylaxis, above all in children. The use of these therapies is of particular interest in

  9. Do Carpets Alleviate Stress?

    PubMed Central

    HOKI, Yoko; SATO, Kunio; KASAI, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Owing to increased complexity in the evolution of society, stress has become an important public health problem, and is responsible for more than 30 types of diseases. Most of the research on stress conducted to date has focused on physical and psychological aspects; however, there are very few reports about the association between psychological stress and elements within the residential environment, such as the home, room, and furniture. Therefore, in this study, we focused on the effects of indoor flooring in the residential environment on stress, as flooring is a feature that the human body is in contact with for long periods of time. We objectively measured the extent of psychological stress perceived while walking on carpeting and on wood flooring. Methods: Forty-two healthy subjects were recruited for this study, and were asked to walk on carpeting and wood flooring for 10 min each. Their electroencephalogram (EEG) and skin impedance values were measured for each task. Results: The α-wave content percentage in EEG data and skin impedance values were significantly higher just after walking on carpet than just after walking on wood flooring. Conclusion: Walking on carpeting induces less stress than walking on wood flooring.

  10. Do Carpets Alleviate Stress?

    PubMed Central

    HOKI, Yoko; SATO, Kunio; KASAI, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Owing to increased complexity in the evolution of society, stress has become an important public health problem, and is responsible for more than 30 types of diseases. Most of the research on stress conducted to date has focused on physical and psychological aspects; however, there are very few reports about the association between psychological stress and elements within the residential environment, such as the home, room, and furniture. Therefore, in this study, we focused on the effects of indoor flooring in the residential environment on stress, as flooring is a feature that the human body is in contact with for long periods of time. We objectively measured the extent of psychological stress perceived while walking on carpeting and on wood flooring. Methods: Forty-two healthy subjects were recruited for this study, and were asked to walk on carpeting and wood flooring for 10 min each. Their electroencephalogram (EEG) and skin impedance values were measured for each task. Results: The α-wave content percentage in EEG data and skin impedance values were significantly higher just after walking on carpet than just after walking on wood flooring. Conclusion: Walking on carpeting induces less stress than walking on wood flooring. PMID:27648413

  11. Stress Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    SPATE 900 Dynamic Stress Analyzer is an acronym for Stress Pattern Analysis by Thermal Emission. It detects stress-induced temperature changes in a structure and indicates the degree of stress. Ometron, Inc.'s SPATE 9000 consists of a scan unit and a data display. The scan unit contains an infrared channel focused on the test structure to collect thermal radiation, and a visual channel used to set up the scan area and interrogate the stress display. Stress data is produced by detecting minute temperature changes, down to one-thousandth of a degree Centigrade, resulting from the application to the structure of dynamic loading. The electronic data processing system correlates the temperature changes with a reference signal to determine stress level.

  12. Protein domain definition should allow for conditional disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yegambaram, Kavestri; Bulloch, Esther MM; Kingston, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Proteins are often classified in a binary fashion as either structured or disordered. However this approach has several deficits. Firstly, protein folding is always conditional on the physiochemical environment. A protein which is structured in some circumstances will be disordered in others. Secondly, it hides a fundamental asymmetry in behavior. While all structured proteins can be unfolded through a change in environment, not all disordered proteins have the capacity for folding. Failure to accommodate these complexities confuses the definition of both protein structural domains and intrinsically disordered regions. We illustrate these points with an experimental study of a family of small binding domains, drawn from the RNA polymerase of mumps virus and its closest relatives. Assessed at face value the domains fall on a structural continuum, with folded, partially folded, and near unstructured members. Yet the disorder present in the family is conditional, and these closely related polypeptides can access the same folded state under appropriate conditions. Any heuristic definition of the protein domain emphasizing conformational stability divides this domain family in two, in a way that makes no biological sense. Structural domains would be better defined by their ability to adopt a specific tertiary structure: a structure that may or may not be realized, dependent on the circumstances. This explicitly allows for the conditional nature of protein folding, and more clearly demarcates structural domains from intrinsically disordered regions that may function without folding. PMID:23963781

  13. ASVCP guidelines: allowable total error guidelines for biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Harr, Kendal E; Flatland, Bente; Nabity, Mary; Freeman, Kathleen P

    2013-12-01

    As all laboratory equipment ages and contains components that may degrade with time, initial and periodically scheduled performance assessment is required to verify accurate and precise results over the life of the instrument. As veterinary patients may present to general practitioners and then to referral hospitals (both of which may each perform in-clinic laboratory analyses using different instruments), and given that general practitioners may send samples to reference laboratories, there is a need for comparability of results across instruments and methods. Allowable total error (TEa ) is a simple comparative quality concept used to define acceptable analytical performance. These guidelines are recommendations for determination and interpretation of TEa for commonly measured biochemical analytes in cats, dogs, and horses for equipment commonly used in veterinary diagnostic medicine. TEa values recommended herein are aimed at all veterinary settings, both private in-clinic laboratories using point-of-care analyzers and larger reference laboratories using more complex equipment. They represent the largest TEa possible without generating laboratory variation that would impact clinical decision making. TEa can be used for (1) assessment of an individual instrument's analytical performance, which is of benefit if one uses this information during instrument selection or assessment of in-clinic instrument performance, (2) Quality Control validation, and (3) as a measure of agreement or comparability of results from different laboratories (eg, between the in-clinic analyzer and the reference laboratory). These guidelines define a straightforward approach to assessment of instrument analytical performance. PMID:24320779

  14. Common Enzymological Experiments Allow Free Energy Profile Determination

    PubMed Central

    Toney, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    The determination of a complete set of rate constants (free energy profiles; FEPs) for a complex kinetic mechanism is challenging. Enzymologists have devised a variety of informative steady-state kinetic experiments (e.g., Michaelis-Menten kinetics, viscosity dependence of kinetic parameters, KIEs, etc.) that each provide distinct information regarding a particular kinetic system. A simple method for combining steady-state experiments in a single analysis is presented here, which allows microscopic rate constants and intrinsic kinetic isotope effects to be determined. It is first shown that Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters (kcat and KM values), kinetic isotope efffets, solvent viscosity effects, and intermediate partitioning measurements are sufficient to define the rate constants for a reversible uni-uni mechanism with an intermediate, EZ, between the ES and EP complexes. Global optimization provides the framework to combine the independent experimental measurements, and the search for rate constants is performed using algorithms implemented in the biochemical software COPASI. This method is applied to the determination of FEPs for both alanine racemase and triosephosphate isomerase. The FEPs obtained from global optimization agree with those in the literature, with important exceptions. The method opens the door to routine and large-scale determination of FEPs for enzymes. PMID:23906433

  15. Assessment of cold stress.

    PubMed

    Holmér, I

    1991-01-01

    Cold stress may be present in terms of a risk for skin surface cooling (wind chill), extremity cooling and whole body cooling. Measures of cold stress differ for the various situations. The most common approach, however, has been to apply more or less complex formulas for heat balance calculations. The combined effect of several climatic factors (air temperature, mean radiant temperature, humidity and air velocity) and the activity level determines the cooling power of the environment. The cooling power can be easily converted into a required insulation value, that applies both to parts of the body and to the body as a whole. The value provides information about cold stress in two ways; (a) by specifying necessary behavioural adjustments in terms of required activity level and clothing insulation level, and (b) by quantifying the thermal imbalance and tolerance time, when protection worn does not provide sufficient insulation.

  16. 9 CFR 56.9 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.9 Claims not allowed. (a) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the...

  17. 9 CFR 56.9 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.9 Claims not allowed. (a) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the...

  18. 9 CFR 56.9 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.9 Claims not allowed. (a) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the...

  19. 9 CFR 56.9 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.9 Claims not allowed. (a) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the...

  20. 9 CFR 56.9 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.9 Claims not allowed. (a) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the...

  1. 48 CFR 752.7028 - Differential and allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... water. The temporary lodging allowance and the living quarters allowance are never both payable to an... compensation to an employee in a foreign area where civil insurrection, civil war, terrorism or...

  2. 45 CFR 1801.43 - Allowance for books.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowance for books. 1801.43 Section 1801.43... HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Payments to Finalists and Scholars § 1801.43 Allowance for books. The cost allowance for a Scholar's books is $1000 per year, or such higher amount published on...

  3. 45 CFR 1801.43 - Allowance for books.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowance for books. 1801.43 Section 1801.43... HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Payments to Finalists and Scholars § 1801.43 Allowance for books. The cost allowance for a Scholar's books is $1000 per year, or such higher amount published on...

  4. 45 CFR 1801.43 - Allowance for books.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowance for books. 1801.43 Section 1801.43... HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Payments to Finalists and Scholars § 1801.43 Allowance for books. The cost allowance for a Scholar's books is $1000 per year, or such higher amount published on...

  5. 45 CFR 1801.43 - Allowance for books.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowance for books. 1801.43 Section 1801.43... HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Payments to Finalists and Scholars § 1801.43 Allowance for books. The cost allowance for a Scholar's books is $1000 per year, or such higher amount published on...

  6. 20 CFR 606.2 - Total credits allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total credits allowable. 606.2 Section 606.2 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TAX CREDITS UNDER THE... credits allowable. The total credits allowed to an employer subject to the tax imposed by section 3301...

  7. 41 CFR 101-27.503 - Allowable credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Allowable credit. 101-27...-Return of GSA Stock Items § 101-27.503 Allowable credit. Allowable credit for activities returning... condition of the material received. (a) Credit will be granted at the rate of 80 percent of the current...

  8. 40 CFR 72.95 - Allowance deduction formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowance deduction formula. 72.95... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Compliance Certification § 72.95 Allowance deduction formula. The following formula shall be used to determine the total number of allowances to be deducted for the calendar...

  9. 41 CFR 101-27.503 - Allowable credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable credit. 101-27...-Return of GSA Stock Items § 101-27.503 Allowable credit. Allowable credit for activities returning... condition of the material received. (a) Credit will be granted at the rate of 80 percent of the current...

  10. 41 CFR 101-27.503 - Allowable credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Allowable credit. 101-27...-Return of GSA Stock Items § 101-27.503 Allowable credit. Allowable credit for activities returning... condition of the material received. (a) Credit will be granted at the rate of 80 percent of the current...

  11. 20 CFR 606.2 - Total credits allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Total credits allowable. 606.2 Section 606.2 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TAX CREDITS UNDER THE... credits allowable. The total credits allowed to an employer subject to the tax imposed by section 3301...

  12. 20 CFR 606.2 - Total credits allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Total credits allowable. 606.2 Section 606.2 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TAX CREDITS UNDER THE... credits allowable. The total credits allowed to an employer subject to the tax imposed by section 3301...

  13. 41 CFR 101-27.503 - Allowable credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Allowable credit. 101-27...-Return of GSA Stock Items § 101-27.503 Allowable credit. Allowable credit for activities returning... condition of the material received. (a) Credit will be granted at the rate of 80 percent of the current...

  14. 40 CFR 97.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recordation of NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 97.53 Recordation of NOX allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will record the...

  15. 40 CFR 97.60 - Submission of NOX allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Submission of NOX allowance transfers... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Transfers § 97.60 Submission of NOX allowance transfers. The NOX authorized account representatives...

  16. 40 CFR 97.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 97.50 NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. (a) Nature and function of...

  17. 40 CFR 97.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recordation of NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 97.53 Recordation of NOX allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will record the...

  18. 40 CFR 97.142 - CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false CAIR NOX allowance allocations. 97.142... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.142 CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used...

  19. 40 CFR 97.60 - Submission of NOX allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Submission of NOX allowance transfers... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Transfers § 97.60 Submission of NOX allowance transfers. The NOX authorized account representatives...

  20. 40 CFR 96.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO 2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.50 NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. (a) Nature...

  1. 40 CFR 96.60 - Submission of NOX allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Submission of NOX allowance transfers... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO 2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Transfers § 96.60 Submission of NOX allowance transfers. The NOX...

  2. 40 CFR 96.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 96.42... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.42 NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The heat input (in mmBtu) used...

  3. 40 CFR 97.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 97.42... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.42 NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The heat input (in mmBtu) used for calculating...

  4. 40 CFR 97.60 - Submission of NOX allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Submission of NOX allowance transfers... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Transfers § 97.60 Submission of NOX allowance transfers. The NOX authorized account representatives...

  5. 40 CFR 97.60 - Submission of NOX allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Submission of NOX allowance transfers... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Transfers § 97.60 Submission of NOX allowance transfers. The NOX authorized account representatives...

  6. 40 CFR 96.60 - Submission of NOX allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Submission of NOX allowance transfers... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Transfers § 96.60 Submission of NOX allowance transfers. The NOX...

  7. 40 CFR 96.60 - Submission of NOX allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Submission of NOX allowance transfers... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Transfers § 96.60 Submission of NOX allowance transfers. The NOX...

  8. 40 CFR 96.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recordation of NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.53 Recordation of NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  9. 40 CFR 96.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recordation of NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.53 Recordation of NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  10. 40 CFR 96.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.50 NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. (a) Nature...

  11. 40 CFR 96.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.50 NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. (a) Nature...

  12. 40 CFR 97.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recordation of NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 97.53 Recordation of NOX allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will record the...

  13. 40 CFR 97.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 97.50 NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. (a) Nature and function of...

  14. 40 CFR 97.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recordation of NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 97.53 Recordation of NOX allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will record the...

  15. 40 CFR 96.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.50 NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. (a) Nature...

  16. 40 CFR 96.142 - CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false CAIR NOX allowance allocations. 96.142... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.142 CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat...

  17. 40 CFR 97.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 97.50 NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. (a) Nature and function of...

  18. 40 CFR 97.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 97.50 NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. (a) Nature and function of...

  19. 40 CFR 96.60 - Submission of NOX allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Submission of NOX allowance transfers... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Transfers § 96.60 Submission of NOX allowance transfers. The NOX...

  20. 48 CFR 52.216-7 - Allowable Cost and Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... change any monetary ceiling, contract obligation, or specific cost allowance or disallowance provided for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable Cost and Payment....216-7 Allowable Cost and Payment. As prescribed in 16.307(a), insert the following clause:...