Science.gov

Sample records for allowable stress values

  1. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for...

  2. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for...

  3. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for...

  4. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for...

  5. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for...

  6. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  7. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  8. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  9. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  10. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  11. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  12. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  13. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  14. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  15. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  16. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  17. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  18. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  19. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  20. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  1. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  2. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  3. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  4. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  5. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  6. Allowable stresses in FRP marine vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visuri, Manuri

    The publication consists of a literature survey of allowable stresses used in fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) structures, and a new method for the determination of allowable stresses is presented. In the literature survey, primary attention has been paid to the marine industry (including classification societies), the aerospace industry, and to pressure vessel and pipe standards. Generally the subject is only briefly discussed in the literature. This is a drawback, since the conservatism dominating the rules used today often means unnecessary weight penalties. High factors of safety (FoS), except in the aerospace industry, are used in most designs. The short experience of structures in service, wide variety of material combinations and the rather complicated mechanical behavior are the most important factors in this regard. The presented determination method for allowable stresses aims at introducing a more rational way for dimensioning. The method is based on the partial factors of safety concept. A statistical analysis can be included for better accuracy. This requires enough data of material and load behavior. The method is flexible and can be tailored to various needs. One major drawback is the lack of information concerning material behavior under long-term loads. The method is aimed to be expanded in the future.

  7. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  8. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  9. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  10. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  11. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  12. 46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or less of the minimum yield stress of the framework...

  13. 46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or less of the minimum yield stress of the framework...

  14. 46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or less of the minimum yield stress of the framework...

  15. 46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or less of the minimum yield stress of the framework...

  16. 46 CFR 64.15 - Allowable stress; framework.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress; framework. 64.15 Section 64.15... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.15 Allowable stress; framework. The calculated stress for the framework must be 80 percent or less of the minimum yield stress of the framework...

  17. A Review & Assessment of Current Operating Conditions Allowable Stresses in ASME Section III Subsection NH

    SciTech Connect

    R. W. Swindeman

    2009-12-14

    The current operating condition allowable stresses provided in ASME Section III, Subsection NH were reviewed for consistency with the criteria used to establish the stress allowables and with the allowable stresses provided in ASME Section II, Part D. It was found that the S{sub o} values in ASME III-NH were consistent with the S values in ASME IID for the five materials of interest. However, it was found that 0.80 S{sub r} was less than S{sub o} for some temperatures for four of the materials. Only values for alloy 800H appeared to be consistent with the criteria on which S{sub o} values are established. With the intent of undertaking a more detailed evaluation of issues related to the allowable stresses in ASME III-NH, the availabilities of databases for the five materials were reviewed and augmented databases were assembled.

  18. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  19. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  20. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  1. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  2. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  3. On the allowed values for the triclinic unit-cell angles.

    PubMed

    Foadi, James; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2011-01-01

    This short article questions and investigates the possible range of values for the three angles of a unit cell in the triclinic system. Although no constraints are reported in manuals and tables for crystallography, the three angles are not really independent; the range of allowed values is calculated and presented in this paper.

  4. 30 CFR 206.109 - When may I take a transportation allowance in determining value?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may I take a transportation allowance in determining value? 206.109 Section 206.109 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 206.109 When may I take...

  5. 30 CFR 1206.109 - When may I take a transportation allowance in determining value?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When may I take a transportation allowance in determining value? 1206.109 Section 1206.109 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 1206.109 When may I take...

  6. 30 CFR 1206.109 - When may I take a transportation allowance in determining value?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When may I take a transportation allowance in determining value? 1206.109 Section 1206.109 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 1206.109 When may I take...

  7. 30 CFR 1206.109 - When may I take a transportation allowance in determining value?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When may I take a transportation allowance in determining value? 1206.109 Section 1206.109 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 1206.109 When may I take...

  8. Control of the process of cooling of ceramic products with allowance for the constraints on thermal stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozkin, N. D.; Tkachev, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    A three-dimensional problem on the control of furnace temperature during cooling of ceramic products of arbitrary shape with allowance for the constraints on thermal stresses is analyzed. An algorithm for calculating a temperature regime making it possible to avoid the occurrence of fracture and irreversible deformation in the products being cooled is proposed. With the example of cooling of a ceramic holder for a spiral wire, a computational experiment is performed. A temperature regime in which the cooling of the product accomplishes in a certain time without exceeding the admissible values of thermal stresses is identified.

  9. Effects of shearing at housing, grass silage feed value and extended grazing herbage allowance on ewe and subsequent lamb performance.

    PubMed

    Keady, T W J; Hanrahan, J P

    2009-01-01

    shearing ewes at housing increased lamb birth weight due to increased silage intake probably associated with cold stress immediately post shearing and reduced heat stress in late pregnancy. Based on differences in lamb weight at weaning 0.8 kg of grass silage DM intake had the same feed value as a daily extended herbage DM allowance of 1.8 kg per ewe throughout the study. Neither silage feed value nor herbage allowance in mid-pregnancy affected lamb birth weight or subsequent growth rate.

  10. Affirmation of personal values buffers neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses.

    PubMed

    Creswell, J David; Welch, William T; Taylor, Shelley E; Sherman, David K; Gruenewald, Tara L; Mann, Traci

    2005-11-01

    Stress is implicated in the development and progression of a broad array of mental and physical health disorders. Theory and research on the self suggest that self-affirming activities may buffer these adverse effects. This study experimentally investigated whether affirmations of personal values attenuate physiological and psychological stress responses. Eighty-five participants completed either a value-affirmation task or a control task prior to participating in a laboratory stress challenge. Participants who affirmed their values had significantly lower cortisol responses to stress, compared with control participants. Dispositional self-resources (e.g., trait self-esteem and optimism) moderated the relation between value affirmation and psychological stress responses, such that participants who had high self-resources and had affirmed personal values reported the least stress. These findings suggest that reflecting on personal values can keep neuroendocrine and psychological responses to stress at low levels. Implications for research on the self, stress processes, health, and interventions are discussed.

  11. Maximum allowable values of the heavy metals in recycled water for household laundry.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Bandita; Pham, Thi Thu Nga; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2013-05-01

    Household laundry as a new end use of recycled water in dual reticulation systems has a great potential as the significant amount of potable water from urban households can be saved. However, there is still no sufficient evidence and supporting recycled water quality guidelines for this particular use. A key gap in knowledge is the impact of heavy metals in recycled water on clothes and washing machines. Thus, this study aims to determine the maximum allowable values (MAVs) of the heavy metals iron (Fe), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn) in recycled water for washing clothes in washing machines. Six different concentrations of each targeted metals were prepared in tap water for the washing machine experiments. The tearing/tensile strength tests were used for the assessment of cloth durability. MINITAB 16 as a statistical tool was used and ANOVA one way test was applied for the significance analysis (Turkey's test p<0.05). The results show that the MAVs of the heavy metals Fe, Pb, Zn, Cu and Mn were found to be 1 mg/l, 1 mg/l, 10 mg/l, 5 mg/l and 1 mg/l respectively in terms of cloth durability.

  12. Snail reprograms glucose metabolism by repressing phosphofructokinase PFKP allowing cancer cell survival under metabolic stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Hee; Cha, Yong Hoon; Lee, Jueun; Lee, Seon-Hyeong; Yang, Ji Hye; Yun, Jun Seop; Cho, Eunae Sandra; Zhang, Xianglan; Nam, Miso; Kim, Nami; Yuk, Young-Su; Cha, So Young; Lee, Yoonmi; Ryu, Joo Kyung; Park, Sunghyouk; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Kang, Sang Won; Kim, Soo-Youl; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Yook, Jong In; Kim, Hyun Sil

    2017-02-08

    Dynamic regulation of glucose flux between aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is not well-understood. Here we show that Snail (SNAI1), a key transcriptional repressor of EMT, regulates glucose flux toward PPP, allowing cancer cell survival under metabolic stress. Mechanistically, Snail regulates glycolytic activity via repression of phosphofructokinase, platelet (PFKP), a major isoform of cancer-specific phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), an enzyme involving the first rate-limiting step of glycolysis. The suppression of PFKP switches the glucose flux towards PPP, generating NADPH with increased metabolites of oxidative PPP. Functionally, dynamic regulation of PFKP significantly potentiates cancer cell survival under metabolic stress and increases metastatic capacities in vivo. Further, knockdown of PFKP rescues metabolic reprogramming and cell death induced by loss of Snail. Thus, the Snail-PFKP axis plays an important role in cancer cell survival via regulation of glucose flux between glycolysis and PPP.

  13. Snail reprograms glucose metabolism by repressing phosphofructokinase PFKP allowing cancer cell survival under metabolic stress

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Hee; Cha, Yong Hoon; Lee, Jueun; Lee, Seon-Hyeong; Yang, Ji Hye; Yun, Jun Seop; Cho, Eunae Sandra; Zhang, Xianglan; Nam, Miso; Kim, Nami; Yuk, Young-Su; Cha, So Young; Lee, Yoonmi; Ryu, Joo Kyung; Park, Sunghyouk; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Kang, Sang Won; Kim, Soo-Youl; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Yook, Jong In; Kim, Hyun Sil

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic regulation of glucose flux between aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) during epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is not well-understood. Here we show that Snail (SNAI1), a key transcriptional repressor of EMT, regulates glucose flux toward PPP, allowing cancer cell survival under metabolic stress. Mechanistically, Snail regulates glycolytic activity via repression of phosphofructokinase, platelet (PFKP), a major isoform of cancer-specific phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), an enzyme involving the first rate-limiting step of glycolysis. The suppression of PFKP switches the glucose flux towards PPP, generating NADPH with increased metabolites of oxidative PPP. Functionally, dynamic regulation of PFKP significantly potentiates cancer cell survival under metabolic stress and increases metastatic capacities in vivo. Further, knockdown of PFKP rescues metabolic reprogramming and cell death induced by loss of Snail. Thus, the Snail-PFKP axis plays an important role in cancer cell survival via regulation of glucose flux between glycolysis and PPP. PMID:28176759

  14. Verification of Allowable Stresses In ASME Section III Subsection NH For Grade 91 Steel & Alloy 800H

    SciTech Connect

    R. W. Swindeman; M. J. Swindeman; B. W. Roberts; B. E. Thurgood; D. L. Marriott

    2007-11-30

    The database for the creep-rupture of 9Cr-1Mo-V (Grade 91) steel was collected and reviewed to determine if it met the needs for recommending time-dependent strength values, S{sub t}, for coverage in ASME Section III Subsection NH (ASME III-NH) to 650 C (1200 F) and 600,000 hours. The accumulated database included over 300 tests for 1% total strain, nearly 400 tests for tertiary creep, and nearly 1700 tests to rupture. Procedures for analyzing creep and rupture data for ASME III-NH were reviewed and compared to the procedures used to develop the current allowable stress values for Gr 91 for ASME II-D. The criteria in ASME III-NH for estimating S{sub t} included the average strength for 1% total strain for times to 600,000 hours, 80% of the minimum strength for tertiary creep for times to 600,000 hours, and 67% of the minimum rupture strength values for times to 600,000 hours. Time-temperature-stress parametric formulations were selected to correlate the data and make predictions of the long-time strength. It was found that the stress corresponding to 1% total strain and the initiation of tertiary creep were not the controlling criteria over the temperature-time range of concern. It was found that small adjustments to the current values in III-NH could be introduced but that the existing values were conservative and could be retained. The existing database was found to be adequate to extend the coverage to 600,000 hours for temperatures below 650 C (1200 F).

  15. Teacher Stress and Personal Values. An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachkirova, Tatiana

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the first stage of a small-scale research project into the relationship between teacher stress and personal values. It starts by outlining the problem of teacher stress and an overview of the literature investigating the sources of it. A particular combination of factors related to personal values that may increase…

  16. Student Achievement in Undergraduate Statistics: The Potential Value of Allowing Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrandino, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    This article details what resulted when I re-designed my undergraduate statistics course to allow failure as a learning strategy and focused on achievement rather than performance. A variety of within and between sample t-tests are utilized to determine the impact of unlimited test and quiz opportunities on student learning on both quizzes and…

  17. Cold acclimation allows Drosophila flies to maintain mitochondrial functioning under cold stress.

    PubMed

    Colinet, Hervé; Renault, David; Roussel, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Environmental stress generally disturbs cellular homeostasis. Researchers have hypothesized that chilling injury is linked to a shortage of ATP. However, previous studies conducted on insects exposed to nonfreezing low temperatures presented conflicting results. In this study, we investigated the mitochondrial bioenergetics of Drosophila melanogaster flies exposed to chronic cold stress (4 °C). We assessed mitochondrial oxygen consumption while monitoring the rate of ATP synthesis at various times (0, 1, 2, and 3 days) during prolonged cold stress and at two assay temperatures (25 and 4 °C). We compared organelle responses between cold-susceptible and cold-acclimated phenotypes. Continuous exposure to low temperature provoked temporal declines in the rates of mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis. Respiratory control ratios (RCRs) suggested that mitochondria were not critically uncoupled. Nevertheless, after 3 days of continuous cold stress, a sharp decline in the mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate was observed in control flies when they were assayed at low temperature. This change was associated with reduced survival capacity in control flies. In contrast, cold-acclimated flies exhibited high survival and maintained higher rates of mitochondrial ATP synthesis and coupling (i.e., higher RCRs). Adaptive changes due to cold acclimation observed in the whole organism were thus manifested in isolated mitochondria. Our observations suggest that cold tolerance is linked to the ability to maintain bioenergetics capacity under cold stress.

  18. Health-based cyanotoxin guideline values allow for cyanotoxin-based monitoring and efficient public health response to cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Farrer, David; Counter, Marina; Hillwig, Rebecca; Cude, Curtis

    2015-02-05

    Human health risks from cyanobacterial blooms are primarily related to cyanotoxins that some cyanobacteria produce. Not all species of cyanobacteria can produce toxins. Those that do often do not produce toxins at levels harmful to human health. Monitoring programs that use identification of cyanobacteria genus and species and enumeration of cyanobacterial cells as a surrogate for cyanotoxin presence can overestimate risk and lead to unnecessary health advisories. In the absence of federal criteria for cyanotoxins in recreational water, the Oregon Health Authority (OHA) developed guideline values for the four most common cyanotoxins in Oregon's fresh waters (anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, microcystins, and saxitoxins). OHA developed three guideline values for each of the cyanotoxins found in Oregon. Each of the guideline values is for a specific use of cyanobacteria-affected water: drinking water, human recreational exposure and dog recreational exposure. Having cyanotoxin guidelines allows OHA to promote toxin-based monitoring (TBM) programs, which reduce the number of health advisories and focus advisories on times and places where actual, rather than potential, risks to health exist. TBM allows OHA to more efficiently protect public health while reducing burdens on local economies that depend on water recreation-related tourism.

  19. Health-Based Cyanotoxin Guideline Values Allow for Cyanotoxin-Based Monitoring and Efficient Public Health Response to Cyanobacterial Blooms

    PubMed Central

    Farrer, David; Counter, Marina; Hillwig, Rebecca; Cude, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Human health risks from cyanobacterial blooms are primarily related to cyanotoxins that some cyanobacteria produce. Not all species of cyanobacteria can produce toxins. Those that do often do not produce toxins at levels harmful to human health. Monitoring programs that use identification of cyanobacteria genus and species and enumeration of cyanobacterial cells as a surrogate for cyanotoxin presence can overestimate risk and lead to unnecessary health advisories. In the absence of federal criteria for cyanotoxins in recreational water, the Oregon Health Authority (OHA) developed guideline values for the four most common cyanotoxins in Oregon’s fresh waters (anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, microcystins, and saxitoxins). OHA developed three guideline values for each of the cyanotoxins found in Oregon. Each of the guideline values is for a specific use of cyanobacteria-affected water: drinking water, human recreational exposure and dog recreational exposure. Having cyanotoxin guidelines allows OHA to promote toxin-based monitoring (TBM) programs, which reduce the number of health advisories and focus advisories on times and places where actual, rather than potential, risks to health exist. TBM allows OHA to more efficiently protect public health while reducing burdens on local economies that depend on water recreation-related tourism. PMID:25664510

  20. Increasing the Oxidative Stress Response Allows Escherichia coli To Overcome Inhibitory Effects of Condensed Tannins

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Alexandra H.; Imlay, James A.; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2003-01-01

    Tannins are plant-derived polyphenols with antimicrobial effects. The mechanism of tannin toxicity towards Escherichia coli was determined by using an extract from Acacia mearnsii (Black wattle) as a source of condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins). E. coli growth was inhibited by tannins only when tannins were exposed to oxygen. Tannins auto-oxidize, and substantial hydrogen peroxide was generated when they were added to aerobic media. The addition of exogenous catalase permitted growth in tannin medium. E. coli mutants that lacked HPI, the major catalase, were especially sensitive to tannins, while oxyR mutants that constitutively overexpress antioxidant enzymes were resistant. A tannin-resistant mutant was isolated in which a promoter-region point mutation increased the level of HPI by 10-fold. Our results indicate that wattle condensed tannins are toxic to E. coli in aerobic medium primarily because they generate H2O2. The oxidative stress response helps E. coli strains to overcome their inhibitory effect. PMID:12788743

  1. Re-programming of translation following cell stress allows IRES-mediated translation to predominate.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Keith A; Stoneley, Mark; Bushell, Martin; Willis, Anne E

    2008-01-01

    There is now an overwhelming body of evidence to suggest that internal ribosome entry is required to maintain the expression of specific proteins during patho-physiological situations when cap-dependent translation is compromised, for example, following heat shock or during mitosis, hypoxia, differentiation and apoptosis. Translational profiling has been used by several groups to assess the extent to which alternative mechanisms of translation initiation selectively recruit mRNAs to polysomes during cell stress. The data from these studies have shown that under each condition 3-5% of coding mRNAs remain associated with the polysomes. Importantly, the genes identified in each of these studies do not show a significant amount of overlap, suggesting that 10-15% of all mRNAs have the capability for their initiation to occur via alternative mechanism(s).

  2. Modulation of oxidative stress and subsequent induction of apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress allows citral to decrease cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, Arvinder; Felder, Mildred; Fass, Lucas; Kaur, Justanjot; Czarnecki, Austin; Rathi, Kavya; Zeng, San; Osowski, Kathryn Kalady; Howell, Colin; Xiong, May P.; Whelan, Rebecca J.; Patankar, Manish S.

    2016-01-01

    The monoterpenoid, citral, when delivered through PEG-b-PCL nanoparticles inhibits in vivo growth of 4T1 breast tumors. Here, we show that citral inhibits proliferation of multiple human cancer cell lines. In p53 expressing ECC-1 and OVCAR-3 but not in p53-deficient SKOV-3 cells, citral induces G1/S cell cycle arrest and apoptosis as determined by Annexin V staining and increased cleaved caspase3 and Bax and decreased Bcl-2. In SKOV-3 cells, citral induces the ER stress markers CHOP, GADD45, EDEM, ATF4, Hsp90, ATG5, and phospho-eIF2α. The molecular chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid attenuates citral activity in SKOV-3 but not in ECC-1 and OVCAR-3 cells. In p53-expressing cells, citral increases phosphorylation of serine-15 of p53. Activation of p53 increases Bax, PUMA, and NOXA expression. Inhibition of p53 by pifithrin-α, attenuates citral-mediated apoptosis. Citral increases intracellular oxygen radicals and this leads to activation of p53. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis by L-buthionine sulfoxamine increases potency of citral. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine decreases phosphorylation of p53 in citral-treated ECC-1 and OVCAR-3. These results define a p53-dependent, and in the absence of p53, ER stress-dependent mode of action of citral. This study indicates that citral in PEG-b-PCL nanoparticle formulation should be considered for treatment of breast and other tumors. PMID:27270209

  3. The effect of values affirmation on psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Czech, Stephanie J; Katz, Aviva M; Orsillo, Susan M

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence for the efficacy of acceptance-based behavioral therapies, which aim to increase acceptance of internal experiences and values-consistent action. Further, experimental studies have demonstrated that acceptance decreases distress and increases willingness to engage in challenging tasks (e.g. Levitt, Brown, Orsillo, & Barlow, 2004). However, research demonstrating the positive effects of values articulation on psychological functioning is needed. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a brief intervention in reducing anxiety related to a stressful speech task. Contrary to predictions, engagement in values writing did not reduce anticipatory or posttask anxiety relative to engagement in a neutral writing task. However, self-esteem significantly predicted anxious response to the task. Experiential avoidance and valued living were also associated with anxious response to the task, although the contribution of these predictors was not statistically significant.

  4. SPASE "allowed values" ontology - Semantic Web based glue for the connection of EU-ESPAS and Japanese IUGONET projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritschel, B.; Neher, G.; Borchert, F.

    2012-12-01

    Both the European Union project ESPAS (2011-2015) and the Japanese IUGONET project (2009-2014) have the same scientific objects: the design, implementation, and provision of an e-science infrastructure for the retrieval and access to space weather relevant data, information and value added services. Despite similarity of the data model, basic system ideas, and techniques the physical implementation of the system backend and web portal are different. The IUGONET system, which is already operating since 2011, is based on DSPACE's metadata registering, retrieving, providing and harvesting capabilities, whereas the ESPAS system software (still in development) is based on OGC compatible standards and components. IUGONET uses an extension of the SPASE data model, both for the structure and for the values of metadata. ESPAS plans to use an enhanced version of the SPASE based context related values. This means, from a semantic point of view, the used keyword vocabulary for the description of context information of information objects, such as e.g. data files, is almost the same in both projects. Modeling the controlled SPASE keyword vocabulary ("allowed values") in the SPASE standard as SKOS based ontology enables the use and reuse of a common and standardized keyword vocabulary in the space weather domain. This vocabulary can be reused in related projects like the GFZ ISDC ontology network that uses a semantic web based approach and related implications such as linked data integration and inference based reasoning. This paper describes a first modeling approach of the SPASE keyword ontology based on SPASE version 2.2.2 and the connection with other keyword vocabularies. Another aspect is the demonstration of the integration of the SPASE keyword ontology into the SPACE software and the description of the planned integration into the ESPAS software.

  5. 30 CFR 206.112 - What adjustments and transportation allowances apply when I value oil production from my lease...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (b) of this section, also adjust the NYMEX price or ANS spot price for quality based on premiums or... apply when I value oil production from my lease using NYMEX prices or ANS spot prices? 206.112 Section... I value oil production from my lease using NYMEX prices or ANS spot prices? This section...

  6. 30 CFR 1206.112 - What adjustments and transportation allowances apply when I value oil production from my lease...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1206.112 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 1206.112 What adjustments and transportation allowances... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What adjustments and transportation...

  7. 30 CFR 1206.112 - What adjustments and transportation allowances apply when I value oil production from my lease...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1206.112 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 1206.112 What adjustments and transportation allowances... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What adjustments and transportation...

  8. 30 CFR 1206.112 - What adjustments and transportation allowances apply when I value oil production from my lease...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1206.112 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 1206.112 What adjustments and transportation allowances... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What adjustments and transportation...

  9. Allowing Physicians to Choose the Value of Compensation for Participation in a Web-Based Survey: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Cristi L; Lau, Bryan; Halpern, Scott D; Needham, Dale M

    2015-01-01

    Background Survey response rates among physicians are declining, and determining an appropriate level of compensation to motivate participation poses a major challenge. Objective To estimate the effect of permitting intensive care physicians to select their preferred level of compensation for completing a short Web-based survey on physician (1) response rate, (2) survey completion rate, (3) time to response, and (4) time spent completing the survey. Methods A total of 1850 US intensivists from an existing database were randomized to receive a survey invitation email with or without an Amazon.com incentive available to the first 100 respondents. The incentive could be instantly redeemed for an amount chosen by the respondent, up to a maximum of US $50. Results The overall response rate was 35.90% (630/1755). Among the 35.4% (111/314) of eligible participants choosing the incentive, 80.2% (89/111) selected the maximum value. Among intensivists offered an incentive, the response was 6.0% higher (95% CI 1.5-10.5, P=.01), survey completion was marginally greater (807/859, 94.0% vs 892/991, 90.0%; P=.06), and the median number of days to survey response was shorter (0.8, interquartile range [IQR] 0.2-14.4 vs 6.6, IQR 0.3-22.3; P=.001), with no difference in time spent completing the survey. Conclusions Permitting intensive care physicians to determine compensation level for completing a short Web-based survey modestly increased response rate and substantially decreased response time without decreasing the time spent on survey completion. PMID:26223821

  10. Transcriptional Profiling of Chondrodysplasia Growth Plate Cartilage Reveals Adaptive ER-Stress Networks That Allow Survival but Disrupt Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Trevor L.; Bell, Katrina M.; Tatarczuch, Liliana; Mackie, Eleanor J.; Rajpar, M. Helen; McDermott, Ben T.; Boot-Handford, Raymond P.; Bateman, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, Schmid type (MCDS) is characterized by mild short stature and growth plate hypertrophic zone expansion, and caused by collagen X mutations. We recently demonstrated the central importance of ER stress in the pathology of MCDS by recapitulating the disease phenotype by expressing misfolding forms of collagen X (Schmid) or thyroglobulin (Cog) in the hypertrophic zone. Here we characterize the Schmid and Cog ER stress signaling networks by transcriptional profiling of microdissected mutant and wildtype hypertrophic zones. Both models displayed similar unfolded protein responses (UPRs), involving activation of canonical ER stress sensors and upregulation of their downstream targets, including molecular chaperones, foldases, and ER-associated degradation machinery. Also upregulated were the emerging UPR regulators Wfs1 and Syvn1, recently identified UPR components including Armet and Creld2, and genes not previously implicated in ER stress such as Steap1 and Fgf21. Despite upregulation of the Chop/Cebpb pathway, apoptosis was not increased in mutant hypertrophic zones. Ultrastructural analysis of mutant growth plates revealed ER stress and disrupted chondrocyte maturation throughout mutant hypertrophic zones. This disruption was defined by profiling the expression of wildtype growth plate zone gene signatures in the mutant hypertrophic zones. Hypertrophic zone gene upregulation and proliferative zone gene downregulation were both inhibited in Schmid hypertrophic zones, resulting in the persistence of a proliferative chondrocyte-like expression profile in ER-stressed Schmid chondrocytes. Our findings provide a transcriptional map of two chondrocyte UPR gene networks in vivo, and define the consequences of UPR activation for the adaptation, differentiation, and survival of chondrocytes experiencing ER stress during hypertrophy. Thus they provide important insights into ER stress signaling and its impact on cartilage pathophysiology. PMID

  11. Transcriptional profiling of chondrodysplasia growth plate cartilage reveals adaptive ER-stress networks that allow survival but disrupt hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Trevor L; Bell, Katrina M; Tatarczuch, Liliana; Mackie, Eleanor J; Rajpar, M Helen; McDermott, Ben T; Boot-Handford, Raymond P; Bateman, John F

    2011-01-01

    Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, Schmid type (MCDS) is characterized by mild short stature and growth plate hypertrophic zone expansion, and caused by collagen X mutations. We recently demonstrated the central importance of ER stress in the pathology of MCDS by recapitulating the disease phenotype by expressing misfolding forms of collagen X (Schmid) or thyroglobulin (Cog) in the hypertrophic zone. Here we characterize the Schmid and Cog ER stress signaling networks by transcriptional profiling of microdissected mutant and wildtype hypertrophic zones. Both models displayed similar unfolded protein responses (UPRs), involving activation of canonical ER stress sensors and upregulation of their downstream targets, including molecular chaperones, foldases, and ER-associated degradation machinery. Also upregulated were the emerging UPR regulators Wfs1 and Syvn1, recently identified UPR components including Armet and Creld2, and genes not previously implicated in ER stress such as Steap1 and Fgf21. Despite upregulation of the Chop/Cebpb pathway, apoptosis was not increased in mutant hypertrophic zones. Ultrastructural analysis of mutant growth plates revealed ER stress and disrupted chondrocyte maturation throughout mutant hypertrophic zones. This disruption was defined by profiling the expression of wildtype growth plate zone gene signatures in the mutant hypertrophic zones. Hypertrophic zone gene upregulation and proliferative zone gene downregulation were both inhibited in Schmid hypertrophic zones, resulting in the persistence of a proliferative chondrocyte-like expression profile in ER-stressed Schmid chondrocytes. Our findings provide a transcriptional map of two chondrocyte UPR gene networks in vivo, and define the consequences of UPR activation for the adaptation, differentiation, and survival of chondrocytes experiencing ER stress during hypertrophy. Thus they provide important insights into ER stress signaling and its impact on cartilage pathophysiology.

  12. Determining Baseline Stress-Related Hormone Values in Large Cetaceans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    stress hormone cortisol (N=1; 12 growth layers (GL)). This earplug was extracted from a shipstrike animal in 2007 (>1980s) and housed at the Santa...levels will be transformative for our understanding of the extent of exposure and the potential effect on the health of these animals and offers... exponential research opportunities that simply does not exist with traditional matrices such as blood and blubber and is ideally suited for examining

  13. Compassionate Allowances

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to content Social Security Search Menu Languages Sign in / up Compassionate Allowances Featured Items Compassionate Allowances Conditions CAL conditions are selected using information received ...

  14. Upregulation of the mitochondrial Lon Protease allows adaptation to acute oxidative stress but dysregulation is associated with chronic stress, disease, and aging.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Jenny K; Pomatto, Laura C D; Davies, Kelvin J A

    2013-02-09

    The elimination of oxidatively modified proteins is a crucial process in maintaining cellular homeostasis, especially during stress. Mitochondria are protein-dense, high traffic compartments, whose polypeptides are constantly exposed to superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and other reactive species, generated by 'electron leakage' from the respiratory chain. The level of oxidative stress to mitochondrial proteins is not constant, but instead varies greatly with numerous metabolic and environmental factors. Oxidized mitochondrial proteins must be removed rapidly (by proteolytic degradation) or they will aggregate, cross-link, and cause toxicity. The Lon Protease is a key enzyme in the degradation of oxidized proteins within the mitochondrial matrix. Under conditions of acute stress Lon is highly inducible, possibly with the oxidant acting as the signal inducer, thereby providing increased protection. It seems that under chronic stress conditions, however, Lon levels actually decline. Lon levels also decline with age and with senescence, and senescent cells even lose the ability to induce Lon during acute stress. We propose that the regulation of Lon is biphasic, in that it is up-regulated during transient stress and down-regulated during chronic stress and aging, and we suggest that the loss of Lon responsiveness may be a significant factor in aging, and in age-related diseases.

  15. Ultraviolet and photosynthetically active radiation can both induce photoprotective capacity allowing barley to overcome high radiation stress.

    PubMed

    Klem, Karel; Holub, Petr; Štroch, Michal; Nezval, Jakub; Špunda, Vladimír; Tříska, Jan; Jansen, Marcel A K; Robson, T Matthew; Urban, Otmar

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of acclimation to ultraviolet (UV) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on photoprotective mechanisms in barley leaves. Barley plants were acclimated for 7 days under three combinations of high or low UV and PAR treatments ([UV-PAR-], [UV-PAR+], [UV+PAR+]). Subsequently, plants were exposed to short-term high radiation stress (HRS; defined by high intensities of PAR - 1000 μmol m(-2) s(-1), UV-A - 10 W m(-2) and UV-B 2 W m(-2) for 4 h), to test their photoprotective capacity. The barley variety sensitive to photooxidative stress (Barke) had low constitutive flavonoid content compared to the resistant variety (Bonus) under low UV and PAR intensities. The accumulation of lutonarin and 3-feruloylquinic acid, but not of saponarin, was greatly enhanced by high PAR and further increased by UV exposure. Acclimation of plants to both high UV and PAR intensities also increased the total pool of xanthophyll-cycle pigments (VAZ). Subsequent exposure to HRS revealed that prior acclimation to UV and PAR was able to ameliorate the negative consequences of HRS on photosynthesis. Both total contents of epidermal flavonols and the total pool of VAZ were closely correlated with small reductions in light-saturated CO2 assimilation rate and maximum quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry caused by HRS. Based on these results, we conclude that growth under high PAR can substantially increase the photoprotective capacity of barley plants compared with plants grown under low PAR. However, additional UV radiation is necessary to fully induce photoprotective mechanisms in the variety Barke. This study demonstrates that UV-exposure can lead to enhanced photoprotective capacity and can contribute to the induction of tolerance to high radiation stress in barley.

  16. Effects of group size and floor space allowance on grouped sows: aggression, stress, skin injuries, and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, P H; Rice, M; Nash, J; Giri, K; Butler, K L; Tilbrook, A J; Morrison, R S

    2013-10-01

    A total of 3,120 sows, in 4 time replicates, were used to determine the effects of group size and floor space on sow welfare using behavioral, physiological, health, and fitness variables. Within 1 to 7 d postinsemination, sows were assigned randomly to treatments of a 3 by 6 factorial arrangement, with 3 group sizes (10, 30, or 80 sows/pen) and 6 floor space allowances (1.4, 1.8, 2.0, 2.2, 2.4, or 3.0 m(2)/sow). Sows were housed on partially slatted concrete floors, and overhead feeders delivered 4 times/day to provide a total of 2.5 kg of feed/sow. As pen space increased from 1.4 to 3.0 m(2)/sow, aggression at feeding decreased from about 9 to 7 bouts/sow (linear, P = 0.029) and plasma cortisol concentrations decreased from about 28 to 21 ng/mL (linear, P = 0.0089) at 2 d. Although the results are in accord with a linear decline from 1.4 to 3 m(2)/sow, the results are also in accord with a decline in these measurements from 1.4 to 1.8 m(2)/sow and no further decline greater than 1.8 m(2)/sow. Farrowing rate (percentage of inseminated sows that farrowed) also increased from about 60 to 75% as space increased from 1.4 to 3.0 m(2)/sow (linear, P = 0.012). Group size was related to skin injuries on d 9 (P = 0.0017), 23 (P = 0.0046), and 51 (P = 0.0006), with groups of 10 consistently having the lowest number of total injuries over this period. Based on the aggression and cortisol results, it is credible to judge that, within the range of floor space allowances studied, sow welfare improves with increased space. However, from a sow welfare perspective, the experiment had insufficient precision to determine what is an adequate space allowance for sows. Thus, although the results definitely support a space allowance of 1.4 m(2)/sow being too small, it is not possible to give guidance on an actual space allowance at mixing that is adequate.

  17. Psychological stress impairs the local CD8+ T cell response to mucosal HSV-1 infection and allows for increased pathogenicity via a glucocorticoid receptor-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ashcraft, Kathleen A; Hunzeker, John; Bonneau, Robert H

    2008-08-01

    Psychological stress and its associated increases in corticosterone are generally immunosuppressive and contribute to increased herpes simplex virus (HSV)-associated pathogenicity. However, the impact of stress on local control of the initial mucosal-based HSV infection has not been elucidated, nor have the ramifications of such failures of the immune response in terms of viral spread. To address these gaps in knowledge, the studies described herein sought to determine how psychological stress and associated increases in corticosterone may increase susceptibility to HSV encephalitis by allowing for increased viral titers at the site of initial infection. We have shown that in mice intranasally infected with HSV-1, a cell-mediated immune response occurs in the nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN), and superficial cervical lymph nodes (CLN). However, psychological stress induced by restraint decreased the number of lymphocytes in these tissues in HSV-infected mice. Surprisingly, the effects of this restraint stress on HSV-specific CTL function varied by immune tissue. Increased viral titers were found in the nasal cavity of stressed mice, an observation which correlated with an increased CD8+ cell response in the CLN. These findings led us to extend our studies to also determine the ramifications of decreased numbers of locally derived lymphocytes on viral titers following infection. Using an approach in which the NALT was surgically removed prior to infection, we confirmed that decreased numbers of NALT-derived lymphocytes at the time of infection allows for increased viral replication. We conclude that the increased viral titers observed in mice experiencing psychological stress are the consequence of a glucocorticoid-mediated reduction in the numbers of lymphocytes responsible for resolving the initial infection.

  18. Racial-ethnic disparities in maternal parenting stress: the role of structural disadvantages and parenting values.

    PubMed

    Nomaguchi, Kei; House, Amanda N

    2013-01-01

    Although researchers contend that racial-ethnic minorities experience more stress than whites, knowledge of racial-ethnic disparities in parenting stress is limited. Using a pooled time-series analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (n = 11,324), we examine racial-ethnic differences in maternal parenting stress, with a focus on structural and cultural explanations and variations by nativity and child age. In kindergarten, black mothers, albeit U.S.-born only, report more parenting stress than white mothers due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian parenting values. The black-white gap increases from kindergarten to third grade, and in third grade, U.S.-born black mothers' higher stress than white mothers' persists after controlling for structural and parenting factors. Hispanic and Asian mothers, albeit foreign-born only, report more stress than white mothers at both ages due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian values. Despite structural disadvantages, American Indian mothers report less stress.

  19. Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Maternal Parenting Stress: The Role of Structural Disadvantages and Parenting Values

    PubMed Central

    Nomaguchi, Kei; House, Amanda N.

    2013-01-01

    Although researchers contend that racial-ethnic minorities experience more stress than whites, knowledge of racial-ethnic disparities in parenting stress is limited. Using a pooled time-series analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–99 (n = 11,324), we examine racial-ethnic differences in maternal parenting stress, with a focus on structural and cultural explanations and variations by nativity and child age. In kindergarten, black mothers, albeit U.S.-born only, report more parenting stress than white mothers due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian parenting values. The black-white gap increases from kindergarten to third grade, and in third grade, U.S.-born black mothers’ higher stress than white mothers’ persists after controlling for structural and parenting factors. Hispanic and Asian mothers, albeit foreign-born only, report more stress than white mothers at both ages due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian values. Despite structural disadvantages, American Indian mothers report less stress. PMID:24026535

  20. Diagnostic value and clinical significance of stress hormones in patients with tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Kee; Chung, Dae Young; Bae, Seung Chun; Park, Kyoung-Ho; Yeo, Sang Won; Park, Shi-Nae

    2014-11-01

    Tinnitus has been found to be modulated by stress and is also closely related to the emotional state and the limbic system. In the present study, we evaluated the diagnostic and clinical values of several stress hormones in a large number of tinnitus patients. This study included 344 patients with sensorineural tinnitus and 87 normal controls. A questionnaire about tinnitus was administered to the participants, and blood levels of norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (Epi), a metabolite of serotonin (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-HIAA) and cortisol were compared between groups. In results, the mean values of Beck's depression inventory (BDI), Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument (BEPSI), NE, and 5-HIAA levels were higher in the tinnitus group, although there was no statistical significance. But, the proportion of participants with elevated 5-HIAA was significantly higher in the tinnitus group (21.8 vs. 8.0 %, P < 0.05), and the 5-HIAA level significantly correlated with the duration of tinnitus, NE and cortisol. Elevated stress-related hormones, as well as hearing loss, BDI, and BEPSI were the most related factors with tinnitus in multiple regression test with age adjustment. However, levels of stress-related hormones did not correlate with subjective measures including BDI, BEPSI and severity of tinnitus. In conclusion, blood stress hormones seemed to have some diagnostic and clinical value in patients with tinnitus, and serotonin is supposed to be the most important hormone in tinnitus. Further studies about the values of stress and stress hormones in tinnitus patients may lead to new approaches regarding diagnosis and clinical management of the disease.

  1. Microalgae for high-value compounds and biofuels production: a review with focus on cultivation under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Markou, Giorgos; Nerantzis, Elias

    2013-12-01

    Microalgal biomass as feedstock for biofuel production is an attracting alternative to terrestrial plant utilization for biofuels production. However, today the microalgal cultivation systems for energy production purposes seem not yet to be economically feasible. Microalgae, though cultivated under stress conditions, such as nutrient starvation, high salinity, high temperature etc. accumulate considerable amounts (up to 60-65% of dry weight) of lipids or carbohydrates along with several secondary metabolites. Especially some of the latter are valuable compounds with an enormous range of industrial applications. The simultaneous production of lipids or carbohydrates for biofuel production and of secondary metabolites in a biorefinery concept might allow the microalgal production to be economically feasible. This paper aims to provide a review on the available literature about the cultivation of microalgae for the accumulation of high-value compounds along with lipids or carbohydrates focusing on stress cultivation conditions.

  2. Prognostic value of normal adenosine-stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Pilz, Guenter; Jeske, Andrea; Klos, Markus; Ali, Eman; Hoefling, Berthold; Scheck, Roland; Bernhardt, Peter

    2008-05-15

    We investigated the prognostic value of normal adenosine stress cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Prospectively enrolled in the study were 218 patients with suspected CAD, no stress hypoperfusion, and no delayed enhancement in CMR, and consecutively deferred coronary angiography. The primary end point was a 12-month rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACE; cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, revascularization, hospitalization due to cardiovascular event). CMR indication was symptomatic angina (Canadian Cardiovascular Society II in 42% and III in 7%) or evaluation of myocardial ischemia in patients with arrhythmia, syncope, and/or equivocal stress tests and cardiovascular risk factors (51%). As the main result, the 12-month MACE rate was 2/218 (1 stent implantation, 1 bypass surgery) and CMR negative predictive value 99.1%. There was no cardiac death or myocardial infarction. In conclusion, normal adenosine stress CMR predicts a very low MACE rate and an excellent 1-year prognosis in patients with suspected CAD. Our results provide clinical reassurance that patients at risk for CAD-associated MACE were not missed by CMR. Hence, CMR may serve as a reliable noninvasive gatekeeper to reduce the number of redundant coronary angiographies.

  3. On the transition thermal discomfort to heat stress as a function of the PMV value.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Palella, Boris Igor; Riccio, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    ISO 15265 Standard - Ergonomics of the thermal environment - Risk assessment strategy for the prevention of stress or discomfort in thermal working conditions - can be considered as a key document for helping responsible for the health protection and prevention of working situations. According to the SOBANE strategy, this standard provides a three-step protocol aimed to the prevention, elimination or reduction of risks affecting the workplaces. Although both methods and procedures suggested by ISO 15265 appear very clear, this standard could bring in confusion both beginners and not specialists in occupational health concerning Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) threshold values consistent with comfort - hot discomfort and the discomfort - hot stress transitions. In this work such matter has been extensively discussed showing a certain difficulty in the definition of an unambiguous PMV threshold value for each working situation in any microclimate.

  4. Review of family relational stress and pediatric asthma: the value of biopsychosocial systemic models.

    PubMed

    Wood, Beatrice L; Miller, Bruce D; Lehman, Heather K

    2015-06-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children. Despite dramatic advances in pharmacological treatments, asthma remains a leading public health problem, especially in socially disadvantaged minority populations. Some experts believe that this health gap is due to the failure to address the impact of stress on the disease. Asthma is a complex disease that is influenced by multilevel factors, but the nature of these factors and their interrelations are not well understood. This paper aims to integrate social, psychological, and biological literatures on relations between family/parental stress and pediatric asthma, and to illustrate the utility of multilevel systemic models for guiding treatment and stimulating future research. We used electronic database searches and conducted an integrated analysis of selected epidemiological, longitudinal, and empirical studies. Evidence is substantial for the effects of family/parental stress on asthma mediated by both disease management and psychobiological stress pathways. However, integrative models containing specific pathways are scarce. We present two multilevel models, with supporting data, as potential prototypes for other such models. We conclude that these multilevel systems models may be of substantial heuristic value in organizing investigations of, and clinical approaches to, the complex social-biological aspects of family stress in pediatric asthma. However, additional systemic models are needed, and the models presented herein could serve as prototypes for model development.

  5. Profiling nurses' job satisfaction, acculturation, work environment, stress, cultural values and coping abilities: A cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Goh, Yong-Shian; Lee, Alice; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Chan, Moon Fai

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to determine whether definable profiles existed in a cohort of nursing staff with regard to demographic characteristics, job satisfaction, acculturation, work environment, stress, cultural values and coping abilities. A survey was conducted in one hospital in Singapore from June to July 2012, and 814 full-time staff nurses completed a self-report questionnaire (89% response rate). Demographic characteristics, job satisfaction, acculturation, work environment, perceived stress, cultural values, ways of coping and intention to leave current workplace were assessed as outcomes. The two-step cluster analysis revealed three clusters. Nurses in cluster 1 (n = 222) had lower acculturation scores than nurses in cluster 3. Cluster 2 (n = 362) was a group of younger nurses who reported higher intention to leave (22.4%), stress level and job dissatisfaction than the other two clusters. Nurses in cluster 3 (n = 230) were mostly Singaporean and reported the lowest intention to leave (13.0%). Resources should be allocated to specifically address the needs of younger nurses and hopefully retain them in the profession. Management should focus their retention strategies on junior nurses and provide a work environment that helps to strengthen their intention to remain in nursing by increasing their job satisfaction.

  6. Analytical Singular Value Decomposition of infrared image sequences: microcrack detection on ceramic composites under mechanical stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamford, Matthieu; Batsale, Jean Christophe

    2008-05-01

    In this Note, infrared image sequences of a SiC f/SiC composite excited with a uniform heat pulse are processed using a modal approach. A new analytical integral transform (called analytical SVD or ASVD) inspired by the classical Singular Value Decomposition is developed and implemented on the raw experimental data. The second resulting spatial mode (out of a thousand) yielded by the ASVD provides, without further processing, a 2D mapping of the normalized local transverse diffusivity variations around a nominal value. Such mapping yields information on the inner structure of the material, and can be used to reveal the presence of voids inside the medium. This method is thus implemented on a tensile testing machine, to detect microcracks in a SiC f/SiC composite sample under mechanical stress in almost real time. To cite this article: M. Bamford, J.C. Batsale, C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  7. A New Calibrated Bayesian Internal Goodness-of-Fit Method: Sampled Posterior p-Values as Simple and General p-Values That Allow Double Use of the Data

    PubMed Central

    Gosselin, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent approaches mixing frequentist principles with Bayesian inference propose internal goodness-of-fit (GOF) p-values that might be valuable for critical analysis of Bayesian statistical models. However, GOF p-values developed to date only have known probability distributions under restrictive conditions. As a result, no known GOF p-value has a known probability distribution for any discrepancy function. Methodology/Principal Findings We show mathematically that a new GOF p-value, called the sampled posterior p-value (SPP), asymptotically has a uniform probability distribution whatever the discrepancy function. In a moderate finite sample context, simulations also showed that the SPP appears stable to relatively uninformative misspecifications of the prior distribution. Conclusions/Significance These reasons, together with its numerical simplicity, make the SPP a better canonical GOF p-value than existing GOF p-values. PMID:21445246

  8. Self-perception and value system as possible predictors of stress.

    PubMed

    Sivberg, B

    1998-03-01

    This study was directed towards personality-related, value system and sociodemographic variables of nursing students in a situation of change, using a longitudinal perspective to measure their improvement in principle-based moral judgement (Kohlberg; Rest) as possible predictors of stress. Three subgroups of students were included from the commencement of the first three-year academic nursing programme in 1993. The students came from the colleges of health at Jönköping, Växjö and Kristianstad in the south of Sweden. A principal component factor analysis (varimax) was performed using data obtained from the students in the spring of 1994 (n = 122) and in the spring of 1996 (n = 112). There were 23 variables, of which two were sociodemographic, eight represented self-image, six were self-values, six were interpersonal values, and one was principle-based moral judgement. The analysis of data from students in the first year of a three-year programme demonstrated eight factors that explained 68.8% of the variance. The most important factors were: (1) ascendant decisive disorderly sociability and nonpractical mindedness (18.1% of the variance); (2) original vigour person-related trust (13.3%) of the variance); (3) orderly nonvigour achievement (8.9% of the variance) and (4) independent leadership (7.9% of the variance). (The term 'ascendancy' refers to self-confidence, and 'vigour' denotes responding well to challenges and coping with stress.) The analysis in 1996 demonstrated nine factors, of which the most important were: (1) ascendant original sociability with decisive nonconformist leadership (18.2% of the variance); (2) cautious person-related responsibility (12.6% of the variance); (3) orderly nonvariety achievement (8.4% of the variance); and (4) nonsupportive benevolent conformity (7.2% of the variance). A comparison of the two most prominent factors in 1994 and 1996 showed the process of change to be stronger for 18.2% and weaker for 30% of the variance

  9. Genome Wide Analysis of the Apple MYB Transcription Factor Family Allows the Identification of MdoMYB121 Gene Confering Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong-Kai; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors (TFs) in plants. Although several MYB genes have been characterized to play roles in secondary metabolism, the MYB family has not yet been identified in apple. In this study, 229 apple MYB genes were identified through a genome-wide analysis and divided into 45 subgroups. A computational analysis was conducted using the apple genomic database to yield a complete overview of the MYB family, including the intron-exon organizations, the sequence features of the MYB DNA-binding domains, the carboxy-terminal motifs, and the chromosomal locations. Subsequently, the expression of 18 MYB genes, including 12 were chosen from stress-related subgroups, while another 6 ones from other subgroups, in response to various abiotic stresses was examined. It was found that several of these MYB genes, particularly MdoMYB121, were induced by multiple stresses. The MdoMYB121 was then further functionally characterized. Its predicted protein was found to be localized in the nucleus. A transgenic analysis indicated that the overexpression of the MdoMYB121 gene remarkably enhanced the tolerance to high salinity, drought, and cold stresses in transgenic tomato and apple plants. Our results indicate that the MYB genes are highly conserved in plant species and that MdoMYB121 can be used as a target gene in genetic engineering approaches to improve the tolerance of plants to multiple abiotic stresses. PMID:23950843

  10. A phase-field approach to nonequilibrium phase transformations in elastic solids via an intermediate phase (melt) allowing for interface stresses.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Kasra; Levitas, Valery I

    2016-04-28

    A phase-field approach for phase transformations (PTs) between three different phases at nonequilibrium temperatures is developed. It includes advanced mechanics, thermodynamically consistent interfacial stresses, and interface interactions. A thermodynamic Landau-Ginzburg potential developed in terms of polar order parameters satisfies the desired instability and equilibrium conditions for homogeneous phases. The interfacial stresses were introduced with some terms from large-strain formulation even though the small-strain assumption was utilized. The developed model is applied to study the PTs between two solid phases via a highly disordered intermediate phase (IP) or an intermediate melt (IM) hundreds of degrees below the melting temperature. In particular, the β ↔ δ PTs in HMX energetic crystals via IM are analyzed. The effects of various parameters (temperature, ratios of widths and energies of solid-solid (SS) to solid-melt (SM) interfaces, elastic energy, and interfacial stresses) on the formation, stability, and structure of the IM within a propagating SS interface are studied. Interfacial and elastic stresses within a SS interphase and their relaxation and redistribution with the appearance of a partial or complete IM are analyzed. The energy and structure of the critical nucleus (CN) of the IM are studied as well. In particular, the interfacial stresses increase the aspect-ratio of the CN. Although including elastic energy can drastically reduce the energy of the CN of the IM, the activation energy of the CN of the IM within the SS interface increases when interfacial tension is taken into account. The developed thermodynamic potential can also be modified to model other multiphase physical phenomena, such as multi-variant martensitic PTs, grain boundary and surface-induced pre-melting and PTs, as well as developing phase diagrams for IPs.

  11. The effects of allowance and frequency of allocation of deferred herbage, and grass silage feed value, when offered to ewes in mid-gestation on ewe and lamb performance and subsequent herbage yield.

    PubMed

    Keady, T W J; Hanrahan, J P

    2009-06-01

    The effects of (i) herbage allowance, (ii) frequency of allocation and (iii) grass silage feed value on ewe and lamb performance were studied in mid-gestation ewes. Furthermore, the effects of (i) herbage allowance, (ii) frequency of allocation and (iii) grazing date and their interactions on subsequent herbage yield and feed value were also evaluated. Swards, which had a cut of silage removed on 6 September, received fertiliser nitrogen (34 kg/ha) for extended (deferred) grazing between 6 December and 1 February. Two grass silages differing in feed value were ensiled either precision chopped or in big bales from predominantly perennial ryegrass swards, respectively. In experiment 1, a completely randomised study involving 120 crossbred mid-gestation ewes (Belclare × Scottish Blackface) that had been mated in October was undertaken to evaluate the effects of extended grazed herbage allowance (1.0 and 1.8 kg dry matter (DM)/day), frequency of herbage allocation (daily and twice weekly) and grass silage feed value (low and medium) on ewe and subsequent lamb performance. The six diets were offered from days 63 to 120 of gestation. From day 120 of gestation to parturition all ewes were housed and offered the medium feed value silage ad libitum. All ewes received 19 kg concentrate prior to lambing. Increasing herbage allowance increased forage intake (P < 0.05), lamb birth weight (P < 0.01), weaning weight (P < 0.05) and growth rate from birth to weaning (P < 0.05), decreased herbage utilisation (P < 0.05) and tended to increase ewe condition score at lambing (P = 0.06). Frequency of herbage allocation or grass silage feed value did not alter (P > 0.05) ewe or subsequent lamb performance. In experiment 2, the effect of extended grazed herbage allowance (1.0 and 1.8 kg DM/ewe daily), frequency of allocation (daily and twice weekly) and grazing date (6 to 12 December, 27 December to 3 January and 17 to 23 January) on herbage yield at two harvest dates (27 April and 25

  12. Environmental Stresses of Field Growth Allow Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Deficient Nicotiana attenuata Plants to Compensate for their Structural Deficiencies1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harleen; Shaker, Kamel; Heinzel, Nicolas; Ralph, John; Gális, Ivan; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2012-01-01

    The organized lignocellulosic assemblies of cell walls provide the structural integrity required for the large statures of terrestrial plants. Silencing two CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD) genes in Nicotiana attenuata produced plants (ir-CAD) with thin, red-pigmented stems, low CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity, low lignin contents, and rubbery, structurally unstable stems when grown in the glasshouse (GH). However, when planted into their native desert habitat, ir-CAD plants produced robust stems that survived wind storms as well as the wild-type plants. Despite efficient silencing of NaCAD transcripts and enzymatic activity, field-grown ir-CAD plants had delayed and restricted spread of red stem pigmentation, a color change reflecting blocked lignification by CAD silencing, and attained wild-type-comparable total lignin contents. The rubbery GH phenotype was largely restored when field-grown ir-CAD plants were protected from wind, herbivore attack, and ultraviolet B exposure and grown in restricted rooting volumes; conversely, it was lost when ir-CAD plants were experimentally exposed to wind, ultraviolet B, and grown in large pots in growth chambers. Transcript and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight analysis revealed that these environmental stresses enhanced the accumulation of various phenylpropanoids in stems of field-grown plants; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that the lignin of field-grown ir-CAD plants had GH-grown comparable levels of sinapaldehyde and syringaldehyde cross-linked into their lignins. Additionally, field-grown ir-CAD plants had short, thick stems with normal xylem element traits, which collectively enabled field-grown ir-CAD plants to compensate for the structural deficiencies associated with CAD silencing. Environmental stresses play an essential role in regulating lignin biosynthesis in lignin-deficient plants. PMID:22645069

  13. Parenting Values and Parenting Stress among Impoverished Village and Middle-Class Small City Mothers in the Dominican Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foucault, Darlene C.; Schneider, Barry H.

    2009-01-01

    Poverty is known to influence parenting values, parenting stress, psychological adjustment, and social support according to North American research. The purpose of this study was to determine whether poverty might work in similar ways in a collectivistic Latin culture. The participants were primary caregivers in two distinct communities in the…

  14. Prognostic value of stress echocardiography in women with high (⩾80%) probability of coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Davar, J; Roberts, E; Coghlan, J; Evans, T; Lipkin, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the prognostic significance of stress echocardiography in women with a high probability of coronary artery disease (CAD).
SETTING—Secondary and tertiary cardiology unit at a university teaching hospital.
PARTICIPANTS—A total of 135 women (mean (SD) age 63 (9) years) with pre-test probability of CAD ⩾80% were selected from a database of patients investigated by treadmill or dobutamine stress echocardiography between 1995 and 1998.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Patients were followed up for occurrence of subsequent cardiac events (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, admission with unstable angina, and revascularisation) using a structured telephone interview and case note review.
RESULTS—Each patient had between two and seven (mean 3.5) CAD risk factors and pre-test probability of CAD ⩾80%. Ninety three patients (68.9%) had negative stress echocardiography. Mean (SD) follow up was 20.1 (8.5) months. There were six events in the positive stress echocardiography group (two cardiac deaths, one unstable angina, three revascularisations), and one event in the negative stress echocardiography group. Cox regression analysis showed positive stress echocardiography (p=0.02) and age (p=0.03) to be the only univariate predictors and positive stress echocardiography to be the only independent predictor of future cardiac events (relative risk 8.9, confidence interval 1.0 to 76.5, p=0.04). Cumulative event free survival to 38 months was 98% in the negative stress echocardiography and 50.7% in the positive stress echocardiography groups.
CONCLUSION—In women with high pre-test likelihood of CAD: (1) negative stress echocardiography identifies a subgroup with low risk of cardiac events who do not require further invasive investigation and (2) positive stress echocardiography identifies a subgroup with increased risk of subsequent cardiac events.


Keywords: coronary artery disease; women; stress echocardiography PMID:11524515

  15. Adaptive Value of Phenological Traits in Stressful Environments: Predictions Based on Seed Production and Laboratory Natural Selection

    PubMed Central

    Glorieux, Cédric; Cuguen, Joel; Roux, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    Phenological traits often show variation within and among natural populations of annual plants. Nevertheless, the adaptive value of post-anthesis traits is seldom tested. In this study, we estimated the adaptive values of pre- and post-anthesis traits in two stressful environments (water stress and interspecific competition), using the selfing annual species Arabidopsis thaliana. By estimating seed production and by performing laboratory natural selection (LNS), we assessed the strength and nature (directional, disruptive and stabilizing) of selection acting on phenological traits in A. thaliana under the two tested stress conditions, each with four intensities. Both the type of stress and its intensity affected the strength and nature of selection, as did genetic constraints among phenological traits. Under water stress, both experimental approaches demonstrated directional selection for a shorter life cycle, although bolting time imposes a genetic constraint on the length of the interval between bolting and anthesis. Under interspecific competition, results from the two experimental approaches showed discrepancies. Estimation of seed production predicted directional selection toward early pre-anthesis traits and long post-anthesis periods. In contrast, the LNS approach suggested neutrality for all phenological traits. This study opens questions on adaptation in complex natural environment where many selective pressures act simultaneously. PMID:22403624

  16. 46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, together with the effect of any combination of... operating temperature, using for each temperature the applicable allowable stress value. Note: Table...

  17. Molt-associated changes in hematologic and plasma biochemical values and stress hormone levels in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Mazzaro, Lisa M; Meegan, Jenny; Sarran, Delphine; Romano, Tracy A; Bonato, Vinicius; Deng, Shibing; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2013-12-01

    Handling, including blood collection, has often been discouraged in molting penguins because it is considered an additional stress imposed on birds already experiencing major physiologic stress associated with molting. To evaluate the degree of physiologic stress posed by molting, we compared the hematologic and plasma biochemical values and hormone levels of molting and nonmolting African penguins, Spheniscus demersus. Five male and 5 female penguins randomly chosen were given complete physical examinations, were weighed, and blood samples were taken at 7 time points before, during, and after the molt. Data were analyzed by linear mixed-model analysis of variance. Throughout the study, behavior and appetite remained normal. Catecholamine levels were highly variable within and among subjects, whereas mean corticosterone levels were significantly different between baseline, molt, and postmolt values. Significant differences from baseline values were observed in many of the hematologic analytes; however, only decreases in hematocrit and red blood cell count values were considered clinically significant. Anemia due to experimentally induced blood loss as a possible cause of the significant hematologic changes was ruled out based on results of a follow-up control study during the nonmolt season, which showed no significant changes in hematocrit level or total red blood cell counts when using similar sampling protocols, which indicates that these changes were associated with molt.

  18. Value of rest-stress myocardial positron tomography using nitrogen-13 ammonia for the preoperative prediction of reversible asynergy

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaki, N.; Yonekura, Y.; Yamashita, K.; Senda, M.; Saji, H.; Konishi, Y.; Hirata, K.; Ban, T.; Konishi, J. )

    1989-08-01

    To determine the predictive value of stress (13N)ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) for reversible ischemia, 31 patients with coronary artery disease underwent rest-stress (13N)ammonia PET before and after coronary artery bypass surgery. The circumferential profile analysis was applied to determine the presence of transient defect (TD) and persistent defect (PD) preoperatively, and the fate of perfusion abnormality and asynergy after the surgery was assessed. Preoperative PET demonstrated 100 segments with perfusion abnormalities, including 69 TD and 31 PD. Fifty-six of the 69 TD (81%) improved in regional perfusion, while only four of 31 PD (13%) improved in perfusion postoperatively (p less than 0.001). Of 75 segments showing regional asynergy on contrast or radionuclide ventriculography preoperatively, 34 of 48 segments with TD (71%) improved in asynergy, while only five of 27 segments with PD (19%) improved in asynergy postoperatively (p less than 0.001). Stress-delayed 201TI tomography was performed in 22 of them. The predictive values for improvement in perfusion (77%) and asynergy (65%) were similar as those by (13N)ammonia PET (81% and 71%, respectively). However, the predictive values for no improvement in perfusion and asynergy by 201TI tended to be low (66% and 58%, respectively), as compared to those in 13N ammonia PET (87%; p less than 0.05 and 81%; p = 0.09, respectively). We conclude that an accurate prediction of reversible ischemia and asynergy can be achieved with rest-stress (13N)ammonia PET. Particularly, it can identify irreversible areas more accurately than the commonly performed stress-delayed 201TI imaging.

  19. Academic stress and positive affect: Asian value and self-worth contingency as moderators among Chinese international students.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Wei, Meifen

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical model proposed by Berry and colleagues (Berry, 1997; Berry, Kim, Minde, & Mok, 1987) highlights the importance of identifying moderators in the acculturation process. Accordingly, the current study examined the Asian cultural value of family recognition through achievement (FRTA) and contingency of self-worth on academic competence (CSW-AC) as moderators in the association between academic stress and positive affect among Chinese international students. A total of 370 Chinese international students completed online surveys. Results from a hierarchical regression indicated that while academic stress was negatively associated with positive affect, FRTA was positively associated with positive affect. In other words, those with high academic stress reported a lower level of positive affect. However, individuals who endorsed high levels of FRTA reported a higher level of positive affect. In addition, results also revealed a significant interaction between academic stress and CSW-AC on positive affect. Thus, the study's finding supported the moderator role of CSW-AC. Simple effect analyses were conducted to examine the significant interaction. The results showed that higher levels of CSW-AC strengthened the negative association between academic stress and positive affect but lower levels of CSW-AC did not. Future research directions and implications are discussed.

  20. Value of Community Partnership for Understanding Stress and Coping in Rural Yup’ik Communities: The CANHR Study

    PubMed Central

    Rivkin, Inna D.; Lopez, Ellen; Quaintance, Tonie M.; Trimble, Joseph; Hopkins, Scarlett; Fleming, Candace; Orr, Eliza; Mohatt, Gerald V.

    2011-01-01

    Stress and trauma can compromise physical and mental health. Rural Alaska Native communities have voiced concern about stressful and traumatic events and their effects on health. The goal of the Yup’ik Experiences of Stress and Coping Project is to develop an in-depth understanding of experiences of stress and ways of coping in Yup’ik communities. The long-range goal is to use project findings to develop and implement a community-informed and culturally grounded intervention to reduce stress and promote physical and mental health in rural Alaska Native communities. This paper introduces a long-standing partnership between the Yukon-Kuskokwim Regional Health Corporation, rural communities it serves, and the Center for Alaska Native Health Research at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. Within the context of the Stress and Coping project, we then discuss the value and challenges of taking a CBPR approach to advance science and address a priority community concern, and share strategies to respond to challenges. Focus groups were conducted to culturally adapt an existing structured interview and daily diary protocol to better fit Yup’ik ways of knowing. As modified, these interviews increased understanding of stress and coping particular to two Yup’ik communities. Challenges included the geographical nature of Yup’ik communities, communication barriers, competing priorities, and confidentiality issues. Community participation was central in the development of the study protocol, helped ensure that the research was culturally appropriate and relevant to the community, and facilitated access to participant knowledge and rich data to inform intervention development. PMID:23914339

  1. Tamarix arborea var. arborea and Tamarix parviflora: Two species valued for their adaptability to stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Grisafi, Francesca; Oddo, Elisabetta; Gargano, Maria Letizia; Inzerillo, Simone; Russo, Gianni; Venturella, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The choice of stress resistant and highly adaptable species is a fundamental step for landscaping and ornamental purposes in arid and coastal environments such as those in the Mediterranean basin. The genus Tamarix L. includes about 90 species with a high endurance of adversity. We investigated the water relations and photosynthetic response of Tamarix arborea (Sieb. ex Ehrenb.) Bge. var. arborea and T. parviflora DC. growing in an urban environment. Both species showed no evidence of drought or salt stress in summer, and appeared to follow two strategies with T. arborea var. arborea investing in high carbon gain at the beginning of the summer, and then reducing photosynthetic activity at the end of the season, and T. parviflora showing lower but constant levels of photosynthetic activity throughout the vegetative season. For landscaping and ornamental purposes, we suggest T. arborea var. arborea when a fast-growing, high-cover species is necessary, and T. parviflora when less-invasive species are required.

  2. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: (1) For tank web frames, stringers, or girders of carbon manganese steel or aluminum alloys, meet σB... in appendix A of this part. (c) Tank plating must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's deep...

  3. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: (1) For tank web frames, stringers, or girders of carbon manganese steel or aluminum alloys, meet σB... in appendix A of this part. (c) Tank plating must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's deep...

  4. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: (1) For tank web frames, stringers, or girders of carbon manganese steel or aluminum alloys, meet σB... in Appendix A of this part. (c) Tank plating must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's deep...

  5. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: (1) For tank web frames, stringers, or girders of carbon manganese steel or aluminum alloys, meet σB... in appendix A of this part. (c) Tank plating must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's deep...

  6. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: (1) For tank web frames, stringers, or girders of carbon manganese steel or aluminum alloys, meet σB... in Appendix A of this part. (c) Tank plating must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's deep...

  7. The Impact of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, Asian Values and Race-Related Stress on Asian Americans and Asian International College Students’ Psychological Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liu, William Ming

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian values and Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Belonging were significant predictors of well-being. Asian values, Dissonance and Conformity were found to moderate the relationship between race-related stress on well-being. Specifically, individuals in low race-related stress conditions who had low Asian values, high Conformity and low Dissonance attitudes started high on well being but decreased as race-related stress increased. These findings underscore the importance of how racial identity statuses, Asian values and ethnic identity jointly and uniquely explain and moderate the effects of race-related stress on positive well-being. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:20396592

  8. Value added phytoremediation of metal stressed soils using phosphate solubilizing microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pratishtha; Kumar, Vipin

    2017-01-01

    The presence of heavy metals in the soil is a matter of growing concern due to their toxic and non-biodegradable nature. Lack of effectiveness of various conventional methods due to economic and technical constraints resulted in the search for an eco-friendly and cost-effective biological techniques for heavy metal removal from the environment. Until now, phytoremediation has emerged as an innovative technique to address the problem. However, the efficiency of phytoremediation process is hindered under the high metal concentration conditions. Hence, phosphate solubilizing microbes (PSM) assisted phytoremediation technique is gaining more insight as it can reduce the contamination load even under elevated metal stressed conditions. These microbes convert heavy metals into soluble and bioavailable forms, which consequently facilitate phytoremediation. Several studies have reported that the use of microbial consortium for remediation is considered more effective as compared to single strain pure culture. Therefore, this review paper focuses on the current trends in research related to PSM mediated uptake of heavy metal by plants. The efficiency of PSM consortia in enhancing the phytoremediation process has also been reviewed. Moreover, the role of phosphatase enzymes in the mineralization of organic forms of phosphate in soil is further discussed. Biosurfactant mediated bioremediation of metal polluted soils is a matter of extensive research nowadays. Hence, the recent advancement of using biosurfactants in enhanced phytoremediation of metal stressed soils is also described.

  9. Functional value of elytra under various stresses in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Linz, David M.; Hu, Alan W.; Sitvarin, Michael I.; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Coleoptera (beetles) is a massively successful order of insects, distinguished by their evolutionarily modified forewings called elytra. These structures are often presumed to have been a major driving force for the successful radiation of this taxon, by providing beetles with protection against a variety of harsh environmental factors. However, few studies have directly demonstrated the functional significance of the elytra against diverse environmental challenges. Here, we sought to empirically test the function of the elytra using Tribolium castaneum (the red flour beetle) as a model. We tested four categories of stress on the beetles: physical damage to hindwings, predation, desiccation, and cold shock. We found that, in all categories, the presence of elytra conferred a significant advantage compared to those beetles with their elytra experimentally removed. This work provides compelling quantitative evidence supporting the importance of beetle forewings in tolerating a variety of environmental stresses, and gives insight into how the evolution of elytra have facilitated the remarkable success of beetle radiation. PMID:27708390

  10. Mapping b-value for 2009 Harrat Lunayyir earthquake swarm, western Saudi Arabia and Coulomb stress for its mainshock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelfattah, Ali K.; Mogren, Saad; Mukhopadhyay, Manoj

    2017-01-01

    The Harrat Lunayyir (HL) earthquake swarm of 2009 originated in the HL volcanic field and attracted global attention mainly due to three factors: (i) its relatively short life span that ushered a large frequency of the swarm population (30,000 events in < 2 years), (ii) the swarm epicenter zone was contained within a small crustal volume under the HL and (iii) the migratory nature of the swarm following the tectonic trend of a normal fault zone beneath HL. The HL belongs to the Large Igneous Province of Saudi Arabia (LIP-SA) where it correlates to the Great Dikes locally. Our aim in this study is to describe the spatial distribution of the hypocenters, b-value character, and Coulomb stress failure (CSF) in an attempt to analyze the underlying geodynamic process that caused the swarm. We utilize the relocated hypocenters monitored by local networks to examine the b-value characteristics for the swarm. This is best represented in a cross section showing two domains of higher b-value anomalies: two patches occurring at shallow depth and at the deeper crust to the SE from the mainshock originated at the shallower depth northwestward. Consistently positive ΔCFF pattern with a large percentage of aftershocks imply how the mainshock rupture controlled the aftershocks activity. This implies that the failure along the NNW fault trend is due to the prevailing ambient stress field imparted to the swarm. We model this by CSF associated with the mainshock for three time dependent situations: (a) foreshock and aftershock epicenters, (b) foreshock hypocenters, and (c) aftershock hypocenters. In actuality, multiple factors might have controlled the aftershock activity as we speculate that positive Coulomb stress was associated in an area where the higher b-value prevails. The CSF produced by the mainshock illustrates how the stress dissipated along the NNW normal fault zone that interrupts the Great Dykes along the Red Sea coast. These results further suggest that the crustal

  11. Productivity and food value of Amaranthus cruentus under non-lethal salt stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macler, Bruce A.; Macelroy, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to analyze the effects of increasing salinity stress on growth, photosynthesis, and carbon allocation in the crop plant Amaranthus. Plants were germinated and grown in Hoagland's solution with NaCl concentrations of 0 to 1.0 percent. The limits of total salinity in the plant growth medium are investigated. For Amaranthus cruentus, germination, vegetative growth, flowering, seed development and yield were normal at salinities from 0 to 0.2 percent. Inhibition of these phases increased from o.2 to 0.4 percent salinity and was total above 0.5 percent with 1 percent salinity was lethal to all developmental phases. Onset of growth phases were not affected by salinity. Plants could not be adapted by gradually increasing salinity over days or weeks. Water uptake increased, while photosynthetic CO2 uptake decreased with increasing salinity on a dry weight basis during vegetative growth. Protein levels were unchanged with increasing salinity. Leaf starch levels were lower at salinities of 0.5 percent and above, while stem starch levels were not affected by these salinities. The evidence supports salt inhibition arising frm changes in primary biochemical processes rather than from effects on water relations. While not addressing the toxic effects of specific ions, it suggests that moderate salinity per se need not be a problem in space systems.

  12. [Effects of lead stress on net photosynthetic rate, SPAD value and ginsenoside production in Ginseng (Panax ginseng)].

    PubMed

    Liang, Yao; Jiang, Xiao-Li; Yang, Fen-Tuan; Cao, Qing-Jun; Li, Gang

    2014-08-01

    The paper aimed to evaluate the effects of lead stress on photosynthetic performance and ginsenoside content in ginseng (Panax ginseng). To accomplish this, three years old ginseng were cultivated in pot and in phytotron with different concentrations of lead, ranging from 0 to 1000 mg x kg(-1) soil for a whole growth period (about 150 days). The photosynthetic parameters in leaves and ginsenoside content in roots of ginseng were determined in green fruit stage and before withering stage, respectively. In comparison with the control, net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value in ginseng leaves cultivated with 100 and 250 mg x kg(-1) of lead changed insignificantly, however, ginseng supplied with 500 and 1 000 mg x kg(-1) of lead showed a noticeably decline in the net rate of photosynthesis and SPAD value (P < 0.05), the lowest net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value showed in the treatment supplied with 1 000 mg x kg(-1) of lead, with decline of 57.8%,11.0%, respectively. Total content of ginsenoside in ginseng roots cultivated with 100 mg x kg(-1) of lead showed insignificantly change compared to the control, but the content increased remarkably in treatments supplied with 250, 500, 1 000 mg x kg(-1) of lead (P < 0.05), and highest content appeared in these ginsengs exposed to 1000 mg x kg(-1) of lead. The net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value in leaves of ginseng both showed significantly negative linear correlations with lead stress level (P < 0.01), and significant positive linear correlations between total content of ginsenoside and lead concentration was also observed (P < 0.05). These results strongly indicate that exposing to high level of lead negatively affects photosynthetic performance in ginseng leaves, but benefits for accumulation of secondary metabolism (total content of ginsenoside) in ginseng root.

  13. Secretion of byssal threads in Mytilus galloprovincialis: quantitative and qualitative values after spawning stress.

    PubMed

    Babarro, Jose M F; Reiriz, María José Fernández

    2010-01-01

    The effect of spawning events of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis on both quantitative and qualitative values of byssus secretion and its associated attachment force was investigated. Byssogenesis rates and absorption efficiency values were significantly reduced after spawning of individuals. However, the maintenance of individuals under sub-optimal conditions (lack of microalgae in the diet) for a week caused no effect on thread's number. Surprisingly, the attachment force varied within a narrow range of values (1.7-1.9 N) with the exception of a significant drop in the experimental group spawned and kept unfed (1.0 N; P < 0.001), most likely due to a similar pattern of the thread's thickness variability. Qualitative analysis concerned to the amino acid composition of the byssus highlighted a higher presence of the basic residues histidine and lysine in threads secreted by spawned individuals. The presence of both histidine and lysine residues in the byssal collagen is associated to the formation of cross-links and specifically histidine has a functionality with a pronounced effect on metal chelation to stabilise the integrity of the byssus. Results reported here evidence the necessity to integrate all components that eventually determines the attachment strength of the mussels to get more insight to the plasticity of such secretion. Morphology of the byssus (thickness) secreted under different endogenous conditions of mussels was the major parameter to explain variability in the attachment force. Moreover, aminoacidic composition as quality term of the byssus secreted may also contribute to understand the plasticity of this secretion and needs to be extended in further surveys.

  14. Progress Report on Alloy 617 Time Dependent Allowables

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Julie Knibloe

    2015-06-01

    Time dependent allowable stresses are required in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for design of components in the temperature range where time dependent deformation (i.e., creep) is expected to become significant. There are time dependent allowable stresses in Section IID of the Code for use in the non-nuclear construction codes, however, there are additional criteria that must be considered in developing time dependent allowables for nuclear components. These criteria are specified in Section III NH. St is defined as the lesser of three quantities: 100% of the average stress required to obtain a total (elastic, plastic, primary and secondary creep) strain of 1%; 67% of the minimum stress to cause rupture; and 80% of the minimum stress to cause the initiation of tertiary creep. The values are reported for a range of temperatures and for time increments up to 100,000 hours. These values are determined from uniaxial creep tests, which involve the elevated temperature application of a constant load which is relatively small, resulting in deformation over a long time period prior to rupture. The stress which is the minimum resulting from these criteria is the time dependent allowable stress St. In this report data from a large number of creep and creep-rupture tests on Alloy 617 are analyzed using the ASME Section III NH criteria. Data which are used in the analysis are from the ongoing DOE sponsored high temperature materials program, form Korea Atomic Energy Institute through the Generation IV VHTR Materials Program and historical data from previous HTR research and vendor data generated in developing the alloy. It is found that the tertiary creep criterion determines St at highest temperatures, while the stress to cause 1% total strain controls at low temperatures. The ASME Section III Working Group on Allowable Stress Criteria has recommended that the uncertainties associated with determining the onset of tertiary creep and the lack of significant

  15. Clinical utility and prognostic value of appropriateness criteria in stress echocardiography for the evaluation of valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sanjeev; Kamperidis, Vasilis; Shah, Benoy Nalin; Roussin, Isabelle; Chahal, Navtej; Li, Wei; Khattar, Rajdeep; Senior, Roxy

    2013-09-01

    We examined the prognostic value of stress echocardiography appropriateness criteria for evaluation of valvular heart disease in 100 consecutive patients. Of the studies, 49%, 36%, and 15% were classified as appropriate, uncertain, and inappropriate, respectively. Over a median of 12.6 months, 24 events (12 deaths and 12 heart failure admissions) occurred. The 12-month event-free survival was significantly reduced in patients with appropriate or uncertain studies compared with patients with inappropriate studies (p = 0.04 and p = 0.005, respectively). There was no survival difference between patients with an appropriate or uncertain indication (p = 0.1). The only independent predictors of events were a positive stress echocardiogram (hazard ratio: 15.5, p < 0.0001) and left ventricular ejection fraction (hazard ratio: 0.95, p = 0.02). The appropriateness criteria for evaluation of valvular heart disease provide the ability to differentiate between patients at high- (appropriate group) and low- (inappropriate group) risk of cardiac events. Reclassification of the uncertain group may improve the differential value of these criteria.

  16. Productivity and food value of Amaranthus cruentus under non-lethal salt stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macler, Bruce A.; MacElroy, Robert D.

    Stress effects from the accumulation of metal salts may pose a problem for plants in closed biological systems such as spacecraft. This work examined the effects of salinity on growth, photosynthesis and carbon allocation in the crop plant, Amaranthus. Plants were germinated and grown in modified Hoagland's solution with NaCl concentrations of 0 to 1.0%. Plants received salt treatments at various times in development to assess effects on particular life history phases. For Amaranthus cruentus, germination, vegetative growth, flowering, seed development and yield were normal at salinities from 0 to 0.2%. Inhibition of these phases increased from 0.2 to 0.4% salinity and was total above 0.5%. 1.0% salinity was lethal to all developmental phases. Onset of growth phases were not affected by salinity. Plants could not be adapted by gradually increasing salinity over days or weeks. Water uptake increased, while photosynthetic CO2 uptake decreased with increasing salinity on a dry weight basis during vegetative growth. Respiration was not affected by salinity. After flowering, respiration and photosynthesis decreased markedly, such that 1.0% NaCl inhibited photosynthesis completely. Protein levels were unchanged with increasing salinity. Leaf starch levels were lower at salinities of 0.5% and above, while stem starch levels were not affected by these salinities. The evidence supports salt inhibition arising from changes in primary biochemical processes rather than from effects on water relations. While not addressing the toxic effects of specific ions, it suggests that moderate salinity per se need not be a problem in space systems.

  17. Deformation of Cases in High Capacitance Value Wet Tantalum Capacitors under Environmental Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Internal gas pressure in hermetic wet tantalum capacitors is created by air, electrolyte vapor, and gas generated by electrochemical reactions at the electrodes. This pressure increases substantially with temperature and time of operation due to excessive leakage currents. Deformation of the case occurs when the internal pressure exceeds pressure of the environments and can raise significantly when a part operates in space. Contrary to the cylinder case wet tantalum capacitors that have external sealing by welding and internal sealing provided by the Teflon bushing and crimping of the case, no reliable internal sealing exists in the button case capacitors. Single seal design capacitors are used for high capacitance value wet tantalum capacitors manufactured per DLA L&M drawings #04003, 04005, and 10011, and require additional analysis to assure their reliable application in space systems. In this work, leakage currents and case deformation of button case capacitors were measured during different environmental test conditions. Recommendations for derating, screening and qualification testing are given. This work is a continuation of a series of NEPP reports related to quality and reliability of wet tantalum capacitors.

  18. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Airborne Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2008-01-01

    The enclosed table lists official spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs), which are guideline values set by the NASA/JSC Toxicology Group in cooperation with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRCCOT). These values should not be used for situations other than human space flight without careful consideration of the criteria used to set each value. The SMACs take into account a number of unique factors such as the effect of space-flight stress on human physiology, the uniform good health of the astronauts, and the absence of pregnant or very young individuals. Documentation of the values is given in a 5 volume series of books entitled "Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants" published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. These books can be viewed electronically at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9786&page=3. Short-term (1 and 24 hour) SMACs are set to manage accidental releases aboard a spacecraft and permit risk of minor, reversible effects such as mild mucosal irritation. In contrast, the long-term SMACs are set to fully protect healthy crewmembers from adverse effects resulting from continuous exposure to specific air pollutants for up to 1000 days. Crewmembers with allergies or unusual sensitivity to trace pollutants may not be afforded complete protection, even when long-term SMACs are not exceeded. Crewmember exposures involve a mixture of contaminants, each at a specific concentration (C(sub n)). These contaminants could interact to elicit symptoms of toxicity even though individual contaminants do not exceed their respective SMACs. The air quality is considered acceptable when the toxicity index (T(sub grp)) for each toxicological group of compounds is less than 1, where T(sub grp), is calculated as follows: T(sub grp) = C(sub 1)/SMAC(sub 1) + C(sub 2/SMAC(sub 2) + ...+C(sub n)/SMAC(sub n).

  19. Transthoracic measurement of left coronary artery flow reserve improves the diagnostic value of routine dipyridamole-atropine stress echocardiogram

    PubMed Central

    Wejner-Mik, Paulina; Nouri, Aria; Szymczyk, Ewa; Krzemińska-Pakuła, Maria; Lipiec, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that coronary flow reserve (CFR) in the left anterior descending artery (LAD) can be effectively measured during an accelerated dipyridamole-atropine stress echocardiography (DASE) protocol to improve the diagnostic performance of the test. Material and methods In 64 patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease scheduled for coronary angiography DASE with concomitant CFR measurement in LAD was performed. Results Coronary flow reserve measurement and calculation were feasible in 83% of patients. The positive predictive value of undetectable LAD flow was 81% for severe LAD disease. Measured values of CFR were in the range 1.3–4.1 (mean: 2.2 ±0.7). Significantly lower CFR was found in patients with LAD disease (1.97 ±0.62 vs. 2.55 ±0.57, p = 0.0015). The optimal cutoff for detecting ≥ 50% stenosis was CFR ≤ 2.1 (ROC AUC 0.776), corresponding with 68% sensitivity and 84% specificity. In patients with negative DASE results 67% of patients with LAD disease had abnormal CFR, whereas in patients with a positive DASE result 92% of patients with normal LAD had normal CFR. The DASE diagnostic accuracy for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) increased from 75% to 85% when CFR measurement was added to wall motion abnormality (WMA) analysis. No test with both abnormalities was false positive for the detection of coronary disease. Conclusions Incorporation of CFR measurement into WMA-based stress echocardiography is feasible even in an accelerated DASE protocol and can be translated into an approximate gain of 10% in overall test accuracy. PMID:24273560

  20. Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... flu shot, are less effective for them. Some people cope with stress more effectively than others. It's important to know your limits when it comes to stress, so you can avoid more serious health effects. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  1. Modulation of the adrenocortical response to acute stress with respect to brood value, reproductive success and survival in the Eurasian hoopoe.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Baptiste; Tam-Dafond, Laura; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Schaub, Michael; Jenni, Lukas

    2013-09-01

    Reproducing parents face the difficult challenge of trading-off investment in current reproduction against presumed future survival and reproduction. Glucocorticoids are supposed to mediate this trade-off because the adrenocortical response to stress disrupts normal reproductive behaviour in favour of self-maintenance and own survival. According to the brood-value hypothesis, individuals with a low survival probability until the next reproductive season have to invest in current reproduction, a process driven by a down-regulation of their adrenocortical response. If the adrenocortical response to stress effectively mediates the trade-off between current reproduction versus future survival and reproduction, we expect a negative relationship with reproductive success and a positive correlation of the adrenocortical stress response with survival. We studied the relationship between corticosterone secretion in parents and their current brood value, reproductive success and survival in a short-lived multi-brooded bird, the Eurasian hoopoe Upupa epops. The adrenocortical response to acute handling stress was correlated with the brood value within the individual (first and second broods of the year) and between individuals. Birds breeding late in the season mounted a lower total corticosterone response to acute stress than birds breeding earlier, while females showed lower levels than males. We observed a negative relationship between the adrenocortical stress response and rearing success or fledging success in females, as predicted by the brood-value hypothesis. However, we could not evidence a clear link between the adrenocortical stress response and survival. Future research testing the brood-value hypothesis and trade-offs between current reproduction and future survival should also measure free corticosterone and carefully differentiate between cross-sectional (i.e. between-individual) and individual-based experimental studies.

  2. Long-term strength and allowable stresses of grade 10Kh9MFB and X10CrMoVNb9-1 (T91/P91) chromium heat-resistant steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorobogatykh, V. N.; Danyushevskiy, I. A.; Schenkova, I. A.; Prudnikov, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    Currently, grade X10CrMoVNb9-1 (T91, P91) and 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh) chromium steels are widely applied in equipment manufacturing for thermal power plants in Russia and abroad. Compilation and comparison of tensile, impact, and long-term strength tests results accumulated for many years of investigations of foreign grade X10CrMoVNb9-1, T91, P91, and domestic grade 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh) steels is carried out. The property identity of metals investigated is established. High strength and plastic properties of steels, from which pipes and other products are made, for operation under creep conditions are confirmed. Design characteristics of long-term strength on the basis of tests with more than one million of hour-samples are determined ( and at temperatures of 500-650°C). The table of recommended allowable stresses for grade 10Kh9MFB, 10Kh9MFB-SH, X10CrMoVNb9-1, T91, and P91 steels is developed. The long-time properties of pipe welded joints of grade 10Kh9MFB+10Kh9MFB, 10Kh9MFB-Sh+10Kh9MFB-Sh, X10CrMoVNb9-1+X10CrMoVNb9-1, P91+P91, T91+T91, 10Kh9MFB (10Kh9MFB-Sh)+X10CrMoVNb9-1(T/P91) steels is researched. The welded joint reduction factor is experimentally determined.

  3. The Impact of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, Asian Values, and Race-Related Stress on Asian Americans and Asian International College Students' Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liu, William Ming

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian…

  4. Most oxidative stress response in water samples comes from unknown chemicals: the need for effect-based water quality trigger values.

    PubMed

    Escher, Beate I; van Daele, Charlotte; Dutt, Mriga; Tang, Janet Y M; Altenburger, Rolf

    2013-07-02

    The induction of adaptive stress response pathways is an early and sensitive indicator of the presence of chemical and non-chemical stressors in cells. An important stress response is the Nrf-2 mediated oxidative stress response pathway where electrophilic chemicals or chemicals that cause the formation of reactive oxygen species initiate the production of antioxidants and metabolic detoxification enzymes. The AREc32 cell line is sensitive to chemicals inducing oxidative stress and has been previously applied for water quality monitoring of organic micropollutants and disinfection byproducts. Here we propose an algorithm for the derivation of effect-based water quality trigger values for this end point that is based on the combined effects of mixtures of regulated chemicals. Mixture experiments agreed with predictions by the mixture toxicity concept of concentration addition. The responses in the AREc32 and the concentrations of 269 individual chemicals were quantified in nine environmental samples, ranging from treated effluent, recycled water, stormwater to drinking water. The effects of the detected chemicals could explain less than 0.1% of the observed induction of the oxidative stress response in the sample, affirming the need to use effect-based trigger values that account for all chemicals present.

  5. The predictive value of chronic kidney disease for assessing cardiovascular events under consideration of pretest probability for coronary artery disease in patients who underwent stress myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Furuhashi, Tatsuhiko; Moroi, Masao; Joki, Nobuhiko; Hase, Hiroki; Masai, Hirofumi; Kunimasa, Taeko; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Sugi, Kaoru

    2013-02-01

    Pretest probability of coronary artery disease (CAD) facilitates diagnosis and risk stratification of CAD. Stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are established major predictors of cardiovascular events. However, the role of CKD to assess pretest probability of CAD has been unclear. This study evaluates the role of CKD to assess the predictive value of cardiovascular events under consideration of pretest probability in patients who underwent stress MPI. Patients with no history of CAD underwent stress MPI (n = 310; male = 166; age = 70; CKD = 111; low/intermediate/high pretest probability = 17/194/99) and were followed for 24 months. Cardiovascular events included cardiac death and nonfatal acute coronary syndrome. Cardiovascular events occurred in 15 of the 310 patients (4.8 %), but not in those with low pretest probability which included 2 CKD patients. In patients with intermediate to high pretest probability (n = 293), multivariate Cox regression analysis identified only CKD [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.88; P = 0.022) and summed stress score of stress MPI (HR = 1.50; P < 0.001) as independent and significant predictors of cardiovascular events. Cardiovascular events were not observed in patients with low pretest probability. In patients with intermediate to high pretest probability, CKD and stress MPI are independent predictors of cardiovascular events considering the pretest probability of CAD in patients with no history of CAD. In assessing pretest probability of CAD, CKD might be an important factor for assessing future cardiovascular prognosis.

  6. Regularities of the effect of the value of initial bending stresses on their relaxation under the annealing of amorphous magnetically soft alloys of various classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kekalo, I. B.; Mogil'nikov, P. S.

    2017-02-01

    It has been shown that, in some amorphous alloys, the value of initial bending stresses σm can influence the development of the relaxation of these stresses during the annealing of the alloys. These alloys include Co69Fe3.7Cr3.8Si12.5B11, with a nearly zero saturation magnetostriction (λs < 10-7) and the Fe78Ni1Si8B13 alloy with λs = 25 × 10-6. In the iron-based Fe81Si4B13C2 and Fe57Co31Si2.9B9.1 alloys, no effect of the initial bending stresses on their relaxation has been observed. No this effect has also been observed in the metalloid-free alloys Co80Mo10Zr10 and Co80Mo8Ni2Zr10 with a nearly zero saturation magnetostriction λs. When this effect manifests itself, the activation energy U of the given process becomes a function of two factors; i.e., this energy depends on both the composition of the alloy (that is, interatomic forces) and the value of the initial bending stresses. In this case, the activation energy U cannot be considered to be characteristic of the material.

  7. Effects of Escherichia coli Challenge and Transport Stress on Hematology and Serum Chemistry Values of Three Genetic Lines of Turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Males and females from 3 genetic lines of turkeys were compared for their response to an Escherichia coli airsac challenge followed by transport stress (Transport). The turkey lines were a slow growing line selected for increased egg production (Egg line), a fast growing line selected for increased...

  8. Urban heat island effects human heat-stress values in Portland (OR) during the July 2006 heat wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornstein, R. D.; Melford, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Heat Index (HI), a measure of the effective temperature felt by the human body, is based on both 2-m air temperature and relative humidity (RH) values. This NWS index, however, is generally calculated by use of only airport data. It thus cannot account for urban heat island (UHI) effects, which would raise the temperature values used in its calculation, create greater HI values, and thus more accurate estimates of the danger to human populations. The current study thus uses 12 mesoscale sites around Portland, Oregon to map the UHI and resulting HI fields during the heat wave of 20-24 July 2006. Past studies have observed UHIs in the area, but temperatures during this heat wave were unusually high due to a combination of synoptic influences, i.e., high temperatures aloft, nocturnal cloud cover, and a surface high pressure area. The associated surface southerly flow of moist air also produced high RH values during both daytime (which raised HI values) and nighttime (which kept min temperatures high). Results showed two separate Portland midday UHI centers (of up to 16 F), divided by the Willamette River that flows through the city. The UHI produced significant differences in the HI values across the city, with the highest variability during the 22nd of July. HI values from the airport NWS site were much lower (up to 20 F) than those from the center of the UHI. An urbanized HI needs to thus be considered (either from mesoscale observations, statistical extrapolation, or mesoscale modeling) when forecasting HI values in urban areas.

  9. Reproductive value and the cost of reproduction in Daphnia carinata and Echinisca triserialis (crustacea:cladocera) exposed to food and cadmium stress

    SciTech Connect

    Chandini, T. )

    1991-07-01

    Organisms vary in terms of stopping growth and starting to breed. This is an important criterion for fitness. In the struggle for existence, advantage rests with those organisms which are most efficient in utilizing available energy for reproduction. The Reproductive Value (RV) of any organism can be partitioned into reproduction occurring at the present age (m{sub x}) and that occurring in all subsequent classes which is the Residual Reproductive Value (RRV). Under optimal conditions, the reproductive value will be maximized and any deviations from normal reproductive patterns result in energy expenditure by the organisms, reducing their RV. The present study is a laboratory investigation on the effects of food and cadmium stress on the RV and the RRV of the two cladocerans Echinisca triserialis and Daphnia carinata. The present study also attempts to test the cost of reproduction hypothesis' on whether the energy invested by organisms at a particular time in reproduction could affect their future survival and reproduction.

  10. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility planning in accordance with appendix B of this subpart. (b) Advance of allowance to potential grant... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right...

  11. Effect of pH Value on the Electrochemical and Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of X70 Pipeline Steel in the Dilute Bicarbonate Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Z. Y.; Liu, Z. Y.; Wang, L. W.; Ma, H. C.; Du, C. W.; Li, X. G.; Wang, X.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, effects of pH value on the electrochemical and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of X70 pipeline steel in the dilute bicarbonate solutions were investigated using electrochemical measurements, slow strain rate tensile tests and surface analysis techniques. Decrease of the solution pH from 6.8 to 6.0 promotes the anodic dissolution and cathodic reduction simultaneously. Further decrease of the pH value mainly accelerates the cathodic reduction of X70 pipeline steel. As a result, when the solution pH decreases form 6.8 to 5.5, SCC susceptibility decreases because of the enhancement of the anodic dissolution. When the solution pH decreases from 5.5 to 4.0, SCC susceptibility increases gradually because of the acceleration of cathodic reactions.

  12. Diagnostic, Prognostic, and Therapeutic Value of Circulating miRNAs in Heart Failure Patients Associated with Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ali Sheikh, Md Sayed; Salma, Umme; Zhang, Baohai; Chen, Jimei; Zhuang, Jian; Ping, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure is a major public health problem especially in the aging population (≥65 years old), affecting nearly 5 million Americans and 15 million European people. Effective management of heart failure (HF) depends on a correct and rapid diagnosis. Presently, BNP (brain natriuretic peptide) or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) assay is generally accepted by the international community for diagnostic evaluation and risk stratification of patients with HF. However, regardless of its widespread clinical use, BNP is still encumbered by reduced specificity. As a result, diagnosis of heart failure remains challenging. Although significant improvement happened in the clinical management of HF over the last 2 decades, traditional treatments are ultimately ineffective in many patients who progress to advanced HF. Therefore, a novel diagnostic, prognostic biomarker and new therapeutic approach are required for clinical management of HF patients. Circulating miRNAs seem to be the right choice for novel noninvasive biomarkers as well as new treatment strategies for HF. In this review, we briefly discuss the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic role of circulating miRNAs in heart failure patients. We also mentioned our own technique of extraction of RNA and detection of circulating miRNAs from human plasma and oxidative stress associated miRNAs with HF. PMID:27379177

  13. Preventive or potential therapeutic value of nutraceuticals against ionizing radiation-induced oxidative stress in exposed subjects and frequent fliers.

    PubMed

    Giardi, Maria Teresa; Touloupakis, Eleftherios; Bertolotto, Delfina; Mascetti, Gabriele

    2013-08-20

    Humans are constantly exposed to ionizing radiation deriving from outer space sources or activities related to medical care. Absorption of ionizing radiation doses over a prolonged period of time can result in oxidative damage and cellular dysfunction inducing several diseases, especially in ageing subjects. In this report, we analyze the effects of ionizing radiation, particularly at low doses, in relation to a variety of human pathologies, including cancer, and cardiovascular and retinal diseases. We discuss scientific data in support of protection strategies by safe antioxidant formulations that can provide preventive or potential therapeutic value in response to long-term diseases that may develop following exposure.

  14. Preventive or Potential Therapeutic Value of Nutraceuticals against Ionizing Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Exposed Subjects and Frequent Fliers

    PubMed Central

    Giardi, Maria Teresa; Touloupakis, Eleftherios; Bertolotto, Delfina; Mascetti, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Humans are constantly exposed to ionizing radiation deriving from outer space sources or activities related to medical care. Absorption of ionizing radiation doses over a prolonged period of time can result in oxidative damage and cellular dysfunction inducing several diseases, especially in ageing subjects. In this report, we analyze the effects of ionizing radiation, particularly at low doses, in relation to a variety of human pathologies, including cancer, and cardiovascular and retinal diseases. We discuss scientific data in support of protection strategies by safe antioxidant formulations that can provide preventive or potential therapeutic value in response to long-term diseases that may develop following exposure. PMID:23965979

  15. A multidisciplinary approach to assess the welfare of weaned pigs during transport at three space allowances.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Mhairi A; Bryer, Pamela J; Davis, Brittany L; McGlone, John J

    2010-01-01

    Transport can be a stressful experience for pigs, especially in pigs simultaneously experiencing weaning stress. The objective of this study was to use a multidisciplinary approach to assess the welfare of weaned pigs during transport at 3 space allowances. A commercial semitrailer, fitted with compartments, provided 0.05, 0.06, and 0.07 m(2)/pig. The study recorded frequency of standing, lying, sitting, and standing-rearing on another pig during the entire duration of transport. Blood samples, body weights, and lesion scores were collected from a subset of pigs (n = 48 per space allowance) in each experimental compartment. Transport time for the pigs was 148.0 +/- 10.0 min to the wean-to-finishing site. Total white blood cell counts, cortisol, and several blood chemistry values increased (p < .05) after transport regardless of space allowance. Glucose and body weight decreased (p < .05) after transport regardless of space allowance. Space allowance influenced stand-rearing, sitting, standing, and lying behaviors in pigs. Combining behavioral and physiological measures of stress provides a robust picture of piglet welfare during transport at different space allowances.

  16. Effect of starvation and hibernation on the values of five biomarkers of general and specific stress using the land snail Eobania vermiculata.

    PubMed

    Moschovaki-Filippidou, F; Itziou, A; Dimitriadis, V K

    2013-08-01

    Values of five biomarkers related to cell stress or pollution were evaluated in tissues of the land snail Eobania vermiculata under starvation or hibernation conditions. The biomarkers applied were lysosomal membrane stability in digestive gland cells (LMS) or in haemocytes (neutral red retention assay (NRR)), acetylcholinesterase activity (AchE; EC 3.1.1.7), metallothionein content (MTs), and cyclic AMP content (cAMP). Three groups of snails were studied that were kept under starvation, hibernation and normal conditions, respectively. The results indicated statistically lower values of LMS and NRR in snails kept under starvation or hibernation compared to control ones. Higher values of AChE activity were measured in snails under hibernation compared to controls. MT contents were statistically higher in snails under starvation compared to controls. Measurement of cAMP contents showed no significant differences among the tested groups. The values of the first four biomarkers may be affected by factors other than pollution, such as starvation or hibernation. Therefore, these factors should be taken into consideration when biomonitoring studies are performed in time intervals of hibernation or starvation.

  17. 30 CFR 1206.56 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (a) Where the value of oil has been determined under § 1206.52 or § 1206.53 of this subpart at a point (e.g., sales point or point of value determination) off the lease, ONNR shall allow a deduction... allowance deduction on the basis of a sales type code may not exceed 50 percent of the value of the oil...

  18. Thermographic characterization of stress during crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. E.; Dawicke, David S.; Welch, Christopher S.

    1992-01-01

    A full-field-thermographic technique for imaging stress patterns in dynamically loaded structures using general purpose IR imaging and image processing hardware is described. The inspection technique is based on the thermoelastic effect. A simple geometry is examined, and the experimentally determined values for the stress invariant are shown to be consistent with theoretical and numerical calculations. The application of full-field-thermographic measurement would ensure that the observed stress field has a common sampling period, thus allowing the observation of rapidly occurring stress anomalies such as the propagation of a fatigue crack. Fatigue crack propagation in two consecutive thermoelastic stress images from an aluminum sample is shown.

  19. Relation of gender to physician use of test results and to the prognostic value of stress technetium 99m sestamibi myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Travin, M I; Duca, M D; Kline, G M; Herman, S D; Demus, D D; Heller, G V

    1997-07-01

    We analyzed potential gender differences in the use and prognostic value of stress technetium 99m sestamibi tomography, image results, and cardiac event rates over a period of 15 +/- 8 months in 1226 men and 1151 women. Men had more abnormal tomographic images, but referral for catheterization and revascularization similarly increased in relation to the number of defects. Men and women with abnormal images had similar event rates, 19.6% and 18.2%, respectively, although men more often had myocardial infarction or cardiac death (7.6% vs 4.1 %, p < 0.05), whereas women had an increased likelihood of unstable angina or congestive heart failure (11.5% vs 7.6%, p < 0.05). Normal images predicted a low yearly rate of myocardial infarction or death: 1.7% for men and 0.8% for women. Image findings, particularly defect extent, were independent predictors of events in both groups. Thus, after stress Tc-99m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography perfusion imaging, there was no gender bias in referral for invasive procedures, and for both men and women image findings were strongly associated with prognostic outcome.

  20. Prognostic value of dobutamine stress myocardial perfusion echocardiography in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease and normal left ventricular function

    PubMed Central

    Mattoso, Angele A. A.; Tsutsui, Jeane M.; Kowatsch, Ingrid; Cruz, Vitória Y. L.; Sbano, João C. N.; Ribeiro, Henrique B.; Kalil Filho, Roberto; Porter, Thomas R.; Mathias, Wilson

    2017-01-01

    Objective We sought to determine the prognostic value of qualitative and quantitative analysis obtained by real-time myocardial perfusion echocardiography (RTMPE) in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Background Quantification of myocardial blood flow reserve (MBFR) in patients with CAD using RTMPE has been demonstrated to further improve accuracy over the analysis of wall motion (WM) and qualitative analysis of myocardial perfusion (QMP). Methods From March 2003 to December 2008, we prospectively studied 168 patients with normal left ventricular function (LVF) who underwent dobutamine stress RTMPE. The replenishment velocity reserve (β) and MBFR were derived from RTMPE. Acute coronary events were: cardiac death, myocardial infarction and unstable angina with need for urgent coronary revascularization. Results During a median follow-up of 34 months (5 days to 6.9 years), 17 acute coronary events occurred. Abnormal β reserve in ≥2 coronary territories was the only independent predictor of events hazard ratio (HR) = 21, 95% CI = 4.5–99; p<0.001). Both, abnormal β reserve and MBFR added significant incremental value in predicting events over qualitative analysis of WM and MP (χ2 = 6.6 and χ2 = 24.6, respectively; p = 0.001 and χ2 = 6.6 and χ2 = 15.5, respectively; p = 0.012, respectively). When coronary angiographic data was added to the multivariate analysis model, β reserve remained the only predictor of events with HR of 21.0 (95% CI = 4.5–99); p<0.001. Conclusion Quantitative dobutamine stress RTMPE provides incremental prognostic information over clinical variables, qualitative analysis of WM and MP, and coronary angiography in predicting acute coronary events. PMID:28234978

  1. The influence of transition metal solutes on the dislocation core structure and values of the Peierls stress and barrier in tungsten.

    PubMed

    Samolyuk, G D; Osetsky, Y N; Stoller, R E

    2013-01-16

    Several transition metals were examined to evaluate their potential for improving the ductility of tungsten. The dislocation core structure and Peierls stress and barrier of 1/2<111> screw dislocations in binary tungsten-transition metal alloys (W(1-x)TM(x)) were investigated using density functional theory calculations. The periodic quadrupole approach was applied to model the structure of the 1/2<111> dislocation. Alloying with transition metals was modeled using the virtual crystal approximation and the applicability of this approach was assessed by calculating the equilibrium lattice parameter and elastic constants of the tungsten alloys. Reasonable agreement was obtained with experimental data and with results obtained from the conventional supercell approach. Increasing the concentration of a transition metal from the VIIIA group, i.e. the elements in columns headed by Fe, Co and Ni, leads to reduction of the C' elastic constant and increase of the elastic anisotropy A = C(44)/C'. Alloying W with a group VIIIA transition metal changes the structure of the dislocation core from symmetric to asymmetric, similarly to results obtained for W(1-x)Re(x) alloys in the earlier work of Romaner et al (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 195503). In addition to a change in the core symmetry, the values of the Peierls stress and barrier are reduced. The latter effect could lead to increased ductility in a tungsten-based alloy. Our results demonstrate that alloying with any of the transition metals from the VIIIA group should have a similar effect to alloying with Re.

  2. Maslow and Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rodney

    1978-01-01

    Identifies major value bases which have been used to teach values in the classroom and outlines a values education program which stresses teaching about values without indoctrination. Based upon the hierarchy of human needs developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow, the program is based upon universal values, basic human needs, and recognition of…

  3. Complementary Prognostic Values of Stress Myocardial Perfusion and Late Gadolinium Enhancement Imaging by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance in Patients with Known or Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Steel, Kevin; Broderick, Ryan; Gandla, Vijay; Larose, Eric; Resnic, Frederick; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Brown, Kenneth A.; Kwong, Raymond Y.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent studies have demonstrated the significant prognostic value of stress CMR myocardial perfusion imaging (CMRMPI). Apart from characterizing reversible perfusion defect (RevPD) from flow-limiting coronary stenosis, CMR late enhancement imaging (LGE) is currently the most sensitive method in detecting subendocardial infarction (MI). We therefore tested the hypothesis that, characterization of these 2 processes from coronary artery disease (CAD) by CMR can provide complementary prognostic values. Methods and Results We performed CMRMPI followed by LGE imaging on 254 patients referred with symptoms of myocardial ischemia. At a median follow up of 17 months, 49 cardiac events (MACE) occurred including 12 cardiac deaths, 16 acute myocardial infarction (MI), and 21 cardiac hospitalizations. RevPD and LGE both maintained a > 3-fold association with cardiac death or acute MI (Death/MI) when adjusted to each other and to the effects of patient age and gender (adjusted HR 3.31, P=0.02 and 3.43, P=0.01, respectively). In patients without a history of MI who had negative RevPD, LGE presence was associated with >11-fold hazards increase to Death/MI. Patients with neither RevPD nor LGE had a 98.1% negative annual event rate for Death/MI. For association with MACE, RevPD was the strongest multivariable variable in the best overall model (HR 10.92, P<0.0001). Conclusions CMR imaging provides robust risk-stratification of patients who presents with symptoms of ischemia. Characterization of RevPD and LGE by CMR provides strong and complementary prognostic implication towards cardiac death or acute MI. PMID:19770399

  4. Vietnam recommended dietary allowances 2007.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Hoan, Pham Van

    2008-01-01

    It has been well acknowledged that Vietnam is undergoing a nutrition transition. With a rapid change in the country's reform and economic growth, food supply at the macronutrient level has improved. Changes of the Vietnamese diet include significantly more foods of animal origin, and an increase of fat/oils, and ripe fruits. Consequently, nutritional problems in Vietnam now include not only malnutrition but also overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases related to nutrition and lifestyles. The recognition of these shifts, which is also associated with morbidity and mortality, was a major factor in the need to review and update the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for the Vietnamese population. This revised RDA established an important science-based tool for evaluation of nutrition adequacy, for teaching, and for scientific communications within Vietnam. It is expected that the 2007 Vietnam RDA and its conversion to food-based dietary guidelines will facilitate education to the public, as well as the policy implementation of programs for prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases and addressing the double burden of both under and over nutrition.

  5. Stress-mediated adaptive response leading to genetic diversity and instability in metabolite contents of high medicinal value: an overview on Podophyllum hexandrum.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manju Lata; Dutta, Ajaswrata

    2011-12-01

    Podophyllum hexandrum, known for its diversified clinical importance particularly for antineoplastic activity and valuable source for biological protection against high doses of radiation, has its unique position in the plant kingdom. Detailed understanding of mechanism and opportunity of chemical manipulations has amplified the scope of its bioactivity. Podophyllotoxin, the major active principle of this plant, has passed through various structural deviations with the basic aim of making the end product clinically more effective with minimal toxicity. However, over exploitation and limited growth has categorized this plant under endangered species. Depending upon the geographical variations, different species and subspecies of this plant have been explored. Morphological variations and quantitative differences in active principles are the major concern of its unstable medicinal value in whole and semifractionated preparations. The current review has addressed the issues related to the genetic diversity of P. hexandrum, extrinsic and intrinsic stresses responsible for its diversified nature, chemical modifications to enhance its multitasking bioactivity, and efforts for its cultivation and production of important metabolites to avoid collection of wild species due to its critically endangered nature.

  6. 19 CFR 148.103 - Family grouping of allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family grouping of allowances. 148.103 Section 148... Value § 148.103 Family grouping of allowances. (a) Generally. When members of a family residing in one... grouped and allowed without regard to which member of the family is the owner of the articles. A...

  7. 19 CFR 148.103 - Family grouping of allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family grouping of allowances. 148.103 Section 148... Value § 148.103 Family grouping of allowances. (a) Generally. When members of a family residing in one... grouped and allowed without regard to which member of the family is the owner of the articles. A...

  8. Integral flange design program. [procedure for computing stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    An automated interactive flange design program utilizing an electronic desk top calculator is presented. The program calculates the operating and seating stresses for circular flanges of the integral or optional type subjected to internal pressure. The required input information is documented. The program provides an automated procedure for computing stresses in selected flange geometries for comparison to the allowable code values.

  9. Pacing stress echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Gligorova, Suzana; Agrusta, Marco

    2005-01-01

    initial up- sloping followed by a later down-sloping trend, or flat or negative when peak stress pacing systolic pressure/end-systolic volume index is equal or lower than baseline stress values. This approach is certainly highly feasible and allows a conceptually immaculate definition of contractility with prognostic usefulness, but its therapeutic implications remains to be established. Bowditch treppe, assessed with pacing stress, can be used to assess the optimal stimulation frequency and to optimise the patient's chronotropic response in programming rate-adaptive pacemakers. PMID:16336679

  10. Effects of sulphur, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and water stress on dietary fibre fractions, starch, amino acids and on the biological value of potato protein.

    PubMed

    Eppendorfer, W H; Eggum, B O

    1994-06-01

    In pot experiments with greatly differing rates of N, P, K, and S, and 3 levels of water, dry matter (DM) yields of tubers varied from 28 to 454 g/pot. Especially P-, K- and S-deficiency reduced the starch content of boiled potatoes, from P from 74 to 59% in DM. S-deficiency increased soluble, insoluble and total digestible fibre (TDF) from about 9 to 12.4% TDF in DM of boiled potatoes. Lignin content of fresh potato DM was increased from 0.7 to 2.0 and from 0.8 to 3.7% by P- and K-deficiency. P-deficiency considerably increased arabinose, galactose, and uronic acid, and decreased glucose content. N-application and P-, K- and S-deficiency increased total- and NO3-N concentrations which varied from 1.32 to 3.67% and from 17 to 400 ppm in DM. Water stress slightly decreased total-N content. Increasing N in DM, due to high N-rates or P- or K-deficiency, decreased concentrations in crude protein (CP) of all essential amino acids, whereas aspartic acid (asparagine) increased. S-deficiency caused particularly strong decreases in concentrations of essential amino acids from 1.28 to 0.49, 1.62 to 1.10, 5.24 to 3.68, and 5.59 to 2.57 g/16 g N of cystine, methionine, lysine and leucine, respectively. Glutamic acid (glutamine) content was increased from 15.7 to 27.6 g/16 g N by S-deficiency. Expressed as g amino acid/kg DM, all amino acid concentrations increased with increasing % N in DM. In N-balance trials with rats, increasing crude protein concentrations in DM of boiled potatoes increased the true digestibility (TD) of the protein from 72 to 90 but decreased the biological value (BV) from 89 to 65. S-deficiency caused a further reduction of the BV to 45. Excluding S-deficiency treatments, linear regression equations between CP concentrations and BV and TD gave correlation coefficients r of -0.94*** and 0.82***, respectively. There was close agreement between changes of BV and concentrations of first limiting amino acids (chemical score), with r = 0.96***.

  11. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  12. The influence of constitutive law choice used to characterise atherosclerotic tissue material properties on computing stress values in human carotid plaques.

    PubMed

    Teng, Zhongzhao; Yuan, Jianmin; Feng, Jiaxuan; Zhang, Yongxue; Brown, Adam J; Wang, Shuo; Lu, Qingsheng; Gillard, Jonathan H

    2015-11-05

    Calculating high stress concentration within carotid atherosclerotic plaques has been shown to be complementary to anatomical features in assessing vulnerability. Reliability of stress calculation may depend on the constitutive laws/strain energy density functions (SEDFs) used to characterize tissue material properties. Different SEDFs, including neo-Hookean, one-/two-term Ogden, Yeoh, 5-parameter Mooney-Rivlin, Demiray and modified Mooney-Rivlin, have been used to describe atherosclerotic tissue behavior. However, the capacity of SEDFs to fit experimental data and the difference in the stress calculation remains unexplored. In this study, seven SEDFs were used to fit the stress-stretch data points of media, fibrous cap, lipid and intraplaque hemorrhage/thrombus obtained from 21 human carotid plaques. Semi-analytic solution, 2D structure-only and 3D fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analyses were used to quantify stress using different SEDFs and the related material stability examined. Results show that, except for neo-Hookean, all other six SEDFs fitted the experimental points well, with vessel stress distribution in the circumferential and radial directions being similar. 2D structural-only analysis was successful for all seven SEDFs, but 3D FSI were only possible with neo-Hookean, Demiray and modified Mooney-Rivlin models. Stresses calculated using Demiray and modified Mooney-Rivlin models were nearly identical. Further analyses indicated that the energy contours of one-/two-term Ogden and 5-parameter Mooney-Rivlin models were not strictly convex and the material stability indictors under homogeneous deformations were not always positive. In conclusion, considering the capacity in characterizing material properties and stabilities, Demiray and modified Mooney-Rivlin SEDF appear practical choices for mechanical analyses to predict the critical mechanical conditions within carotid atherosclerotic plaques.

  13. 30 CFR 1206.460 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 1206.460 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... section, allow a deduction in determining value for royalty purposes for the reasonable, actual costs... transportation costs shall not be included in the transportation allowance. (b) Under no circumstances will...

  14. 30 CFR 1206.261 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 1206.261 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... section, allow a deduction in determining value for royalty purposes for the reasonable, actual costs... transportation costs shall not be included in the transportation allowance. (b) Under no circumstances will...

  15. The influence of constitutive law choice used to characterise atherosclerotic tissue material properties on computing stress values in human carotid plaques

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Zhongzhao; Yuan, Jianmin; Feng, Jiaxuan; Zhang, Yongxue; Brown, Adam J.; Wang, Shuo; Lu, Qingsheng; Gillard, Jonathan H.

    2015-01-01

    Calculating high stress concentration within carotid atherosclerotic plaques has been shown to be complementary to anatomical features in assessing vulnerability. Reliability of stress calculation may depend on the constitutive laws/strain energy density functions (SEDFs) used to characterize tissue material properties. Different SEDFs, including neo-Hookean, one-/two-term Ogden, Yeoh, 5-parameter Mooney–Rivlin, Demiray and modified Mooney–Rivlin, have been used to describe atherosclerotic tissue behavior. However, the capacity of SEDFs to fit experimental data and the difference in the stress calculation remains unexplored. In this study, seven SEDFs were used to fit the stress–stretch data points of media, fibrous cap, lipid and intraplaque hemorrhage/thrombus obtained from 21 human carotid plaques. Semi-analytic solution, 2D structure-only and 3D fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analyses were used to quantify stress using different SEDFs and the related material stability examined. Results show that, except for neo-Hookean, all other six SEDFs fitted the experimental points well, with vessel stress distribution in the circumferential and radial directions being similar. 2D structural-only analysis was successful for all seven SEDFs, but 3D FSI were only possible with neo-Hookean, Demiray and modified Mooney–Rivlin models. Stresses calculated using Demiray and modified Mooney–Rivlin models were nearly identical. Further analyses indicated that the energy contours of one-/two-term Ogden and 5-parameter Mooney–Rivlin models were not strictly convex and the material stability indictors under homogeneous deformations were not always positive. In conclusion, considering the capacity in characterizing material properties and stabilities, Demiray and modified Mooney–Rivlin SEDF appear practical choices for mechanical analyses to predict the critical mechanical conditions within carotid atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:26472305

  16. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 1210.27... Management § 1210.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost...

  17. 45 CFR 1183.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1183.22 Section 1183.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  18. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 74.27 Section 74.27 Public... Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a particular set of Federal principles that applies in determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with...

  19. 45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1157.22 Section 1157.22 Public... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form...

  20. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  1. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education... allowable expenditures by projects funded under the program: (a) Cost of attendance, as defined in Title...

  2. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 74.27 Section 74.27 Education Office... and Program Management § 74.27 Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a set of cost principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs are determined in accordance with the...

  3. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education... allowable expenditures by projects funded under the program: (a) Cost of attendance, as defined in Title...

  4. 45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1174.22 Section 1174.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  5. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 602.22 Section 602.22 Public... Requirements § 602.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable...

  6. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form...

  7. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84....27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost principles...

  8. 15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 24.22 Section 24.22... Administration § 24.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  9. 49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 266.11 Section 266.11... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.11 Allowable costs. Allowable costs include only the following costs which are properly allocable to the work performed: Planning and program operation costs which are allowed under...

  10. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form...

  11. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 14.27 Section 14.27... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs...

  12. 2 CFR 215.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 215.27 Section 215.27... § 215.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost...

  13. 7 CFR 3019.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 3019.27 Section 3019.27 Agriculture... Management § 3019.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost...

  14. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2543.27 Section 2543.27 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability...

  15. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84....27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost principles...

  16. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  17. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  18. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  19. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  20. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  1. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clothing allowance. 3.810..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.810 Clothing allowance. (a) Except... therefor, to an annual clothing allowance as specified in 38 U.S.C. 1162. The annual clothing allowance...

  2. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Moving allowance. 617.47 Section 617.47... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.47 Moving allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of a moving allowance payable under § 617.45(a)(2) shall be 90 percent of the total...

  3. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Moving allowance. 617.47 Section 617.47... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.47 Moving allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of a moving allowance payable under § 617.45(a)(2) shall be 90 percent of the total...

  4. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Moving allowance. 617.47 Section 617.47... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.47 Moving allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of a moving allowance payable under § 617.45(a)(2) shall be 90 percent of the total...

  5. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Moving allowance. 617.47 Section 617.47... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.47 Moving allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of a moving allowance payable under § 617.45(a)(2) shall be 90 percent of the total...

  6. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Moving allowance. 617.47 Section 617.47... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.47 Moving allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of a moving allowance payable under § 617.45(a)(2) shall be 90 percent of the total...

  7. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  8. Relation of midwall circumferential systolic stress to equatorial midwall fibre shortening in chronic aortic regurgitation. Value as a predictor of postoperative outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, P; Córdoba, M; Goicolea, J; Hernández Antolín, R; Rico, L A; Rey, M; Rábago, P; Rábago, G

    1984-01-01

    Nineteen patients with chronic aortic regurgitation and a large increase in heart size were studied before aortic valve replacement. By relating midwall circumferential systolic stress to midwall circumferential fibre shortening (Cs/Cd) before operation the patients could be divided into two well defined groups. Twelve patients (group 1) had a pronounced decrease in heart size as measured by the cardiothoracic ratio and an excellent clinical outcome six months after operation. Seven patients (group 2) had no significant decrease in heart size and a less good clinical outcome. The ratio of midwall circumferential systolic stress to end systolic volume index was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2. Group 2 had more severe left ventricular hypertrophy determined by the ratio of the wall thickness to the minor internal radius of the left ventricle (h:r ratio), total left ventricular mass, and left ventricular mass to end diastolic volume ratio. There were no significant differences in any other haemodynamic or angiographic indices between the two groups. Thus the relation of midwall circumferential systolic stress to fibre shortening is useful in determining the prognosis in individual patients with chronic aortic regurgitation undergoing aortic valve replacement. PMID:6235830

  9. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs...

  10. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 92.22 Section 92.22 Public... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors,...

  11. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs...

  12. 29 CFR 1470.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 1470.22 Section 1470.22 Labor Regulations... Financial Administration § 1470.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors,...

  13. 50 CFR 85.41 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 85.41 Section 85.41... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.41 Allowable costs. (a) Allowable grant costs are limited to those costs... applicable Federal cost principles in 43 CFR 12.60(b). Purchase of informational signs, program signs,...

  14. 7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 3016.22 Section 3016.22 Agriculture... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees...

  15. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education... costs. (a)(1) Allowable and unallowable costs. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, costs reasonably related to carrying out the programs described in § 675.32 are allowable. (2)...

  16. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1180.56 Section 1180.56 Public... by a Grantee General Administrative Responsibilities § 1180.56 Allowable costs. (a) Determination of costs allowable under a grant is made in accordance with government-wide cost principles in...

  17. 45 CFR 2541.220 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2541.220 Section 2541.220 Public... Post-Award Requirements § 2541.220 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for— (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type...

  18. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that are proper...

  19. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the...

  20. 43 CFR 12.927 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 12.927 Section 12.927... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Agreements... Requirements § 12.927 Allowable costs. Federal awarding agencies shall determine allowable costs in...

  1. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the...

  2. 38 CFR 49.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 49.27... costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

  3. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 632.37 Section 632.37... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Administrative Standards and Procedures § 632.37 Allowable costs. (a) General. To be allowable, a cost must be necessary and reasonable for proper and efficient...

  4. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 1207.22... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1207.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees...

  5. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 43.22... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type...

  6. 20 CFR 633.303 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 633.303 Section 633.303... FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Program Design and Administrative Procedures § 633.303 Allowable costs. (a) General. To be allowable, a cost must be necessary and reasonable for proper and efficient administration of...

  7. 42 CFR 405.2468 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 405.2468 Section 405.2468 Public... Allowable costs. (a) Applicability of general Medicare principles. In determining whether and to what extent a specific type or item of cost is allowable, such as interest, depreciation, bad debts and...

  8. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.228 Section 206.228 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR...

  9. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.228 Section 206.228 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR...

  10. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 206.228 Section 206.228 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR...

  11. 5 CFR 591.305 - Allowance rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Allowance Based on Duty at Remote Worksites § 591.305 Allowance rates. (a) General. An allowance rate may... remote under § 591.304, and shall be terminated or adjusted as warranted. In determining the amount of... commuting to the remote post of duty as compared to transportation expenses (including cost of...

  12. 5 CFR 591.305 - Allowance rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Allowance Based on Duty at Remote Worksites § 591.305 Allowance rates. (a) General. An allowance rate may... remote under § 591.304, and shall be terminated or adjusted as warranted. In determining the amount of... commuting to the remote post of duty as compared to transportation expenses (including cost of...

  13. Effects of Manufacturing Processes on Structural Allowables

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    stress ratio (R) for all fatigue tests was 0.1. r .A 4 "v q -II. . -% It% 15 - 5PH (H1025) PRECIPITATION HARDENING STAINLESS STEEL PLATE Background...Stress Strain Curve in Compression at Room Temperature for 15 - 5PH (H 1025). 29 S-,=- Jc°•"-•."•"° ."- ."• - - _ •L•_’’’ =-U...381) (.508) (cm) BEARING DEFORMATION, inches Figure 8. Typical Stress - Deflection Curve in Bearing for 15 - 5PH (if 1025), (e/D = 1.5, D = 0.251

  14. The pacing stress test: thallium-201 myocardial imaging after atrial pacing. Diagnostic value in detecting coronary artery disease compared with exercise testing

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, G.V.; Aroesty, J.M.; Parker, J.A.; McKay, R.G.; Silverman, K.J.; Als, A.V.; Come, P.C.; Kolodny, G.M.; Grossman, W.

    1984-05-01

    Many patients suspected of having coronary artery disease are unable to undergo adequate exercise testing. An alternate stress, pacing tachycardia, has been shown to produce electrocardiographic changes that are as sensitive and specific as those observed during exercise testing. To compare thallium-201 imaging after atrial pacing stress with thallium imaging after exercise stress, 22 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization were studied with both standard exercise thallium imaging and pacing thallium imaging. Positive ischemic electrocardiographic changes (greater than 1 mm ST segment depression) were noted in 11 of 16 patients with coronary artery disease during exercise, and in 15 of the 16 patients during atrial pacing. One of six patients with normal or trivial coronary artery disease had a positive electrocardiogram with each test. Exercise thallium imaging was positive in 13 of 16 patients with coronary artery disease compared with 15 of 16 patients during atrial pacing. Three of six patients without coronary artery disease had a positive scan with exercise testing, and two of these same patients developed a positive scan with atrial pacing. Of those patients with coronary artery disease and an abnormal scan, 85% showed redistribution with exercise testing compared with 87% during atrial pacing. Segment by segment comparison of thallium imaging after either atrial pacing or exercise showed that there was a good correlation of the location and severity of the thallium defects (r . 0.83, p . 0.0001, Spearman rank correlation). It is concluded that the location and presence of both fixed and transient thallium defects after atrial pacing are closely correlated with the findings after exercise testing.

  15. Stress distribution in a semi-infinite body symmetrically loaded over a circular area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcginness, H.

    1980-01-01

    Algorithms are developed for computing stresses in a semi-infinite body when loaded by a uniform pressure acting over a circular area. The algorithm allows easy determination of any stress component in a semi-infinite body having a known Poisson's ratio. Example curves are plotted for Portland cement grout and metal representative values.

  16. 43 CFR 12.62 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 12.62 Section 12.62... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements to State and Local Governments Post-Award Requirements § 12.62 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation...

  17. 15 CFR 921.81 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 921.81 Section 921.81... costs. (a) Allowable costs will be determined in accordance with applicable OMB Circulars and guidance... Department of Commerce and NOAA directives. The term “costs” applies to both the Federal and...

  18. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FIRE MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAM Grant Administration § 204.63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44...

  19. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  20. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  1. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  2. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  3. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  4. 30 CFR 725.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 725.21 Section 725.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.21 Allowable costs. (a) The Director or his authorized...

  5. 30 CFR 735.24 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 735.24 Section 735.24 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT... AND ENFORCEMENT § 735.24 Allowable costs. The Director or his authorized designee shall...

  6. 30 CFR 725.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 725.21 Section 725.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.21 Allowable costs. (a) The Director or his authorized...

  7. 30 CFR 735.24 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 735.24 Section 735.24 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT... AND ENFORCEMENT § 735.24 Allowable costs. The Director or his authorized designee shall...

  8. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  9. 30 CFR 206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating allowances. 206.160 Section 206.160 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any other provisions...

  10. 20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable activities. 632.258 Section 632.258 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable...

  11. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs incurred by...

  12. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs incurred by...

  13. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  14. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs incurred by...

  15. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs incurred by...

  16. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  17. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  18. 28 CFR 100.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 100.11 Section 100.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.11 Allowable costs. (a) Costs that are eligible...

  19. Moral Appraisals Affect Doing/Allowing Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Fiery; Knobe, Joshua; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2008-01-01

    An extensive body of research suggests that the distinction between doing and allowing plays a critical role in shaping moral appraisals. Here, we report evidence from a pair of experiments suggesting that the converse is also true: moral appraisals affect doing/allowing judgments. Specifically, morally bad behavior is more likely to be construed…

  20. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other... of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs....

  1. 13 CFR 143.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including... cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set...

  2. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other... of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs....

  3. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors...) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles...

  4. 15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors...) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles...

  5. 32 CFR 33.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of...

  6. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors... profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is...

  7. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors...) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles...

  8. 40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors... profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or sub-grantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is...

  9. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including... cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set...

  10. 14 CFR 1273.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type.... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal...

  11. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  12. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  13. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any other provisions in these regulations, an operating allowance may be used for the purpose of computing...

  14. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any other provisions in these regulations, an operating allowance may be used for the purpose of computing...

  15. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food... EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory... registered manufacturer shall be allowed as a part of the quota an amount sufficient to maintain an...

  16. 21 CFR 1303.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1303.24 Section 1303.24 Food... Quotas § 1303.24 Inventory allowance. (a) For the purpose of determining individual manufacturing quotas... sufficient to maintain an inventory equal to, (1) For current manufacturers, 50 percent of his...

  17. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food... EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory... registered manufacturer shall be allowed as a part of the quota an amount sufficient to maintain an...

  18. 21 CFR 1303.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1303.24 Section 1303.24 Food... Quotas § 1303.24 Inventory allowance. (a) For the purpose of determining individual manufacturing quotas... sufficient to maintain an inventory equal to, (1) For current manufacturers, 50 percent of his...

  19. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  20. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  1. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  2. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  3. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  4. Allocation of Allowances and Associated Family Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, M. Kaye; Cheadle, Tannis

    This study gathered information on general family practices concerning allowances given to children, parental reasons for the provision of allowances, the bases for their administration, and the frequency of conflicts generated around them. The subjects were 81 parents of elementary school children in a midwest Canadian city. Subjects completed…

  5. 10 CFR 600.222 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allowable costs. 600.222 Section 600.222 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform Administrative....222 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  6. 10 CFR 600.222 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 600.222 Section 600.222 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform Administrative....222 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  7. Family Allowances and Fertility: Socioeconomic Differences

    PubMed Central

    SCHELLEKENS, JONA

    2009-01-01

    This article explores socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances on fertility. Although several studies have examined the relationship between cash benefits and fertility, few studies have addressed the possible differential effects of cash benefits on families of different income or education levels. I reconstructed the birth histories of women in the past two Israeli censuses of 1983 and 1995 to study socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances up to the seventh parity. The results indicate that family allowances have a significant effect at every parity. Using female education as an indicator of socioeconomic status, I find that socioeconomic status is a significant modifier of the effect of family allowances. Family allowances seem to have a relatively large impact on more-educated women. PMID:19771939

  8. Added value of stress related gene inductions in HepG2 cells as effect measurement in monitoring of air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobels, Ingrid; Vanparys, Caroline; Van den Heuvel, Rosette; Vercauteren, Jordy; Blust, Ronny

    2012-08-01

    In this study we studied the effects of particulate matter samples (PM) through gene expression analysis in a routine air quality monitoring campaign by the Flemish Environment Agency (VMM, Belgium). We selected a human hepatoma (HepG2) multiple endpoint reporter assay for targeted stress related endpoint screening. Organic extracts of air samples (total suspended particles, TSP) were collected during one year in an industrial, urban and background location in Flanders, Belgium. Simultaneously, meteorological conditions (temperature, wind speed and precipitation) and particulate matter size ≤ 10 μM (PM10), organic (OC), elemental (EC) and total (TC) carbon were monitored and air samples were collected for chemical analysis (11 PAHs). Correlations between the induction of the different stress genes and the chemical pollutants were analysed. Exposure of HepG2 cells to daily air equivalents (20 m3) of organic TSP extracts revealed the dominant induction of the xenobiotic response element (Xre) and phase I (Cyp1A1) and phase II (GstYa) biotransformation enzymes. Additional effects were the induction of c-Fos, a proto-oncogen and Gadd45, a marker for cell cycle disturbance and responsive to genotoxic compounds. Inductions of other relevant pathways, such as sequestration of heavy metals, retinoids response, protein misfolding and increased cAMP levels were measured occasionally. A significant correlation was found between the genes Cyp1A1 (a typical marker for presence of PAHs and dioxin like compounds), c-Fos, Gadd45, (responsive to DNA damaging compounds) and the amount of PM10 and elemental carbon (EC) whereas no correlation was found between these genes and total PAHs content. This may suggest that the observed induction of Cyp1A1 and DNA damage related genes was provoked (partially) by other particle bound compounds (e.g. pesticides, PCBs, brominated flame retardants, dioxins, …), than PAHs. The contribution of particle bound compounds, other than PAHs might

  9. 30 CFR 1206.358 - What are byproduct transportation allowances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Geothermal Resources § 1206.358 What... the geothermal lease, unit, or participating area, you are allowed a deduction in determining value... participating area, or from a geothermal use facility to a byproduct recovery facility when that...

  10. 30 CFR 206.358 - What are byproduct transportation allowances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Geothermal Resources § 206.358 What are byproduct transportation allowances? (a) When you determine the value of byproducts at a point off the geothermal lease... geothermal use facility to a byproduct recovery facility when that byproduct recovery facility is off...

  11. 30 CFR 1206.258 - Washing allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... leases. (d) No cost normally associated with mining operations and which are necessary for placing coal... 1206.258 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., allow a deduction in determining value for royalty purposes for the reasonable, actual costs incurred...

  12. 30 CFR 1206.457 - Washing allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... leases. (d) No cost normally associated with mining operations and which are necessary for placing coal... 1206.457 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., allow a deduction in determining value for royalty purposes for the reasonable, actual costs incurred...

  13. 30 CFR 206.156 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation allowances-general. 206.156 Section 206.156 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 206.156 Transportation allowances—general. (a) Where the value...

  14. 30 CFR 206.158 - Processing allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Processing allowances-general. 206.158 Section 206.158 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 206.158 Processing allowances—general. (a) Where the value of...

  15. 30 CFR 206.56 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation allowances-general. 206.56 Section 206.56 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Oil § 206.56 Transportation allowances—general. (a) Where the value...

  16. Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory contains measured data on holdings and transactions of allowances under the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), a market-based cap and trade program created to reduce the regional transport of NOx emissions from power plants and other large combustion sources that contribute to ozone nonattainment.The statutory authority leading to the collection of this information comes from Title V of the Clean Air Act. Sustance classes include SO2 and NOx. Data of allowance holdings and transfers are made available in real time.

  17. b values and ω−γ seismic source models: Implications for tectonic stress variations along active crustal fault zones and the estimation of high-frequency strong ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanks, Thomas C.

    1979-01-01

    In this study the tectonic stress along active crustal fault zones is taken to be of the form , where  is the average tectonic stress at depth y and Δσp(x, y) is a seismologically observable, essentially random function of both fault plane coordinates; the stress differences arising in the course of crustal faulting are derived from Δσp(x, y). Empirically known frequency of occurrence statistics, moment-magnitude relationships, and the constancy of earthquake stress drops may be used to infer that the number of earthquakes N of dimension ≥r is of the form N ∼ 1/r2 and that the spectral composition of Δσp(x, y) is of the form , where  is the two-dimensional Fourier transform of Δσp(x, y) expressed in radial wave number k. The γ = 2 model of the far-field shear wave displacement spectrum is consistent with the spectral composition , provided that the number of contributions to the spectral representation of the radiated field at frequency ƒ goes as (k/k0)2, consistent with the quasi-static frequency of occurrence relation N ∼ 1/r2;k0 is a reference wave number associated with the reciprocal source dimension. Separately, a variety of seismologic observations suggests that the γ = 2 model is the one generally, although certainly not always, applicable to the high-frequency spectral decay of the far-field radiation of earthquakes. In this framework, then, b values near 1, the general validity of the γ = 2 model, and the constancy of earthquake stress drops independent of size are all related to the average spectral composition of. Should one of these change as a result of premonitory effects leading to failure, as has been specifically proposed for b values, it seems likely that one or all of the other characteristics will change as well from their normative values. Irrespective of these associations, the far-field, high-frequency shear radiation for the γ = 2 model in the presence of anelastic attenuation may be interpreted as

  18. Effects of free air carbon dioxide enrichment and drought stress on the feed value of maize silage fed to sheep at different thermal regimes.

    PubMed

    Lohölter, Malte; Meyer, Ulrich; Manderscheid, Remy; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Erbs, Martin; Flachowsky, Gerhard; Dänicke, Sven

    2012-08-01

    Information about the effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and drought on the feed value of maize silage and interactions with the thermal environment during feeding is limited. A free air carbon dioxide enrichment facility was operated in a maize field to generate an elevated CO2 concentration of 550 ppm. Drought was induced by the exclusion of precipitation in one half of all experimental plots. Plants were harvested, chopped and ensiled. In a balance experiment on sheep, the nutrient digestibility was determined for three climatic treatments (temperate, temperature humidity index (THI) 57-63; mild heat, THI 68-71; severe heat, THI 75-80). The CO2 concentration and drought did not alter the crude nutrient content of silage dry matter (DM) or nutrient and organic matter (OM) digestibility. Drought increased the concentration of deoxynivalenol (DON, p < 0.001). The drought-associated increase of DON was reduced by CO2 enrichment (p = 0.003). The lowest digestibility of acid detergent fibre (p = 0.024) and neutral detergent fibre (p = 0.005) was observed during the coldest climate. OM digestibility increased during mild heat (p = 0.023). This study did not indicate considerable alterations of the feed value of maize silage due to increased atmospheric CO2 and drought. Enriched CO2 may decrease DON contaminations during drought. The thermal environment during the balance experiment did not interact with feeding maize silage grown under elevated CO2, but may affect cell wall and OM digestibility.

  19. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a wheelchair) because of such disability and such disability is the loss or loss of use of a hand or... wheelchair. (b) Effective August 1, 1972, the initial lump sum clothing allowance is due and payable...

  20. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL... Organizations.” (c) Allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined...

  1. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... organization is determined as follows: (i) Institutions of higher education. Allowability is determined in... prior approval of the contracting officer, DOE may pay those costs incurred within the ninety...

  2. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... organization is determined as follows: (i) Institutions of higher education. Allowability is determined in... prior approval of the contracting officer, DOE may pay those costs incurred within the ninety...

  3. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... organization is determined as follows: (i) Institutions of higher education. Allowability is determined in... prior approval of the contracting officer, DOE may pay those costs incurred within the ninety...

  4. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... organization is determined as follows: (i) Institutions of higher education. Allowability is determined in... prior approval of the contracting officer, DOE may pay those costs incurred within the ninety...

  5. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Administrative Standards and Procedures § 632.37 Allowable costs. (a... or consortium administrative entity for the purpose of carrying out programs under the Act....

  6. Selenium and topiramate modulates brain microsomal oxidative stress values, Ca2+-ATPase activity, and EEG records in pentylentetrazol-induced seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Naziroğlu, Mustafa; Kutluhan, Süleyman; Yilmaz, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that oxidative stress products play an important role in the etiology of epilepsy. We investigated the effects of selenium (Se) administration on topiramate (TPM)- and pentylentetrazol (PTZ)-induced brain toxicity in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into five equal groups. The first and second groups were used as the control and PTZ groups, respectively. TPM, 50 mg, and Se, 0.3 mg, were administered to rats constituting the third and fourth groups, respectively, for 7 days. The combination of 50 mg TPM and Se was given to animals in the fifth group for 7 days. At the end of 7 days all groups except the first received a single dose of PTZ. Brain cortex samples were taken at 3 h of PTZ administration. PTZ resulted in a significant increase in brain cortex and microsomal lipid peroxidation (LP) levels, number of spikes, and epileptiform discharges on the EEG, although brain cortex vitamin E, brain cortex and microsomal reduced glutathione (GSH), and microsomal calcium (Ca) levels, Ca(2+)-ATPase activities, and latency to first spike on the EEG were decreased by PTZ. LP, GSH, vitamin E, and Ca levels and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities were increased by both Se and TPM, although vitamin A and C concentrations were increased by Se only. There were no effects of TPM and Se on brain cortex and microsomal glutathione peroxidase, brain cortex nitric oxide, or beta-carotene levels. In conclusion, TPM and selenium caused protective effects on PTZ-induced brain injury by inhibiting free radical production, regulating calcium-dependent processes, and supporting the antioxidant redox system.

  7. 17 CFR 240.17i-7 - Calculations of allowable capital and risk allowances or alternative capital assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... subordinated debt is unsecured and subordinated in right of payment to all senior indebtedness of the holding... historical data to support a Value at Risk model, the measure obtained by computing the allowance for market... the counterparty's positions with the member of the affiliate group, after applying netting...

  8. 17 CFR 240.17i-7 - Calculations of allowable capital and risk allowances or alternative capital assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... subordinated debt is unsecured and subordinated in right of payment to all senior indebtedness of the holding... historical data to support a Value at Risk model, the measure obtained by computing the allowance for market... the counterparty's positions with the member of the affiliate group, after applying netting...

  9. 17 CFR 240.17i-7 - Calculations of allowable capital and risk allowances or alternative capital assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... subordinated debt is unsecured and subordinated in right of payment to all senior indebtedness of the holding... historical data to support a Value at Risk model, the measure obtained by computing the allowance for market... the counterparty's positions with the member of the affiliate group, after applying netting...

  10. 17 CFR 240.17i-7 - Calculations of allowable capital and risk allowances or alternative capital assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... subordinated debt is unsecured and subordinated in right of payment to all senior indebtedness of the holding... historical data to support a Value at Risk model, the measure obtained by computing the allowance for market... the counterparty's positions with the member of the affiliate group, after applying netting...

  11. Regulatory treatment of allowances and compliance costs

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.

    1993-07-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) established a national emission allowance trading system, a market-based form of environmental regulation designed to reduce and limit sulfur dioxide emissions. However, the allowance trading system is being applied primarily to an economically regulated electric utility industry. The combining of the new form of environmental regulation and economic regulation of electric utilities has raised a number of questions including what the role should be of the federal and state utility regulating commissions and how those actions will affect the decision making process of the utilities and the allowance market. There are several dimensions to the regulatory problems that commissions face. Allowances and utility compliance expenditures have implications for least-cost/IPR (integrated resource planning), prudence review procedures, holding company and multistate utility regulation and ratemaking treatment. The focus of this paper is on the ratemaking treatment. The following topics are covered: ratemaking treatment of allowances and compliance costs; Traditional cost-recovery mechanisms; limitations to the traditional approach; traditional approach and the allowance trading market; market-based cost recovery mechanisms; methods of determining the benchmark; determining the split between ratepayers and the utility; other regulatory approaches; limitations of incentive mechanisms.

  12. Stress Management: Job Stress

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Job stress can be all-consuming — but it doesn't have to be. Address your triggers, keep perspective and know when ... effects of stress at work. Effectively coping with job stress can benefit both your professional and personal ...

  13. Determination of allowable fluid temperature during start-up operation of outlet header under the assumption of constant and temperature-dependent material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rząsa, Dariusz; Duda, Piotr

    2013-09-01

    Modern supercritical power plants operate at very high temperatures and pressures. Thus the construction elements are subjected to both high thermal and mechanical loads. As a result high stresses in those components are created. In order to operate safely, it is important to monitor stresses, especially during start-up and shut-down processes. The maximum stresses in the construction elements should not exceed the allowable stresses that are defined according to boiler regulations. It is important to find optimum operating parameters, that can assure safe heating and cooling processes. The optimum parameters define temperature and pressure histories that can keep the highest stresses within allowable limit and reduce operation time as much as possible. In this paper a new numerical method for determining optimum working fluid parameters is presented. In this method, properties of steel can be assumed as constant or temperature dependent. The constant value is taken usually at the average temperature of the operation cycle. For both cases optimal parameters are determined. Based on these parameters start-up operations for both cases are conducted. During entire processes stresses in the heated element are monitored. The results obtained are compared with German boiler regulations - Technische Regeln fur Dampfkessel 301.

  14. Kinetics of stress fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachowiak, Matthew R.; O'Shaughnessy, Ben

    2008-02-01

    Stress fibers are contractile cytoskeletal structures, tensile actomyosin bundles which allow sensing and production of force, provide cells with adjustable rigidity and participate in various processes such as wound healing. The stress fiber is possibly the best characterized and most accessible multiprotein cellular contractile machine. Here we develop a quantitative model of the structure and relaxation kinetics of stress fibers. The principal experimentally known features are incorporated. The fiber has a periodic sarcomeric structure similar to muscle fibers with myosin motor proteins exerting contractile force by pulling on actin filaments. In addition the fiber contains the giant spring-like protein titin. Actin is continuously renewed by exchange with the cytosol leading to a turnover time of several minutes. In order that steady state be possible, turnover must be regulated. Our model invokes simple turnover and regulation mechanisms: actin association and dissociation occur at filament ends, while actin filament overlap above a certain threshold in the myosin-containing regions augments depolymerization rates. We use the model to study stress fiber relaxation kinetics after stimulation, as observed in a recent experimental study where some fiber regions were contractile and others expansive. We find that two distinct episodes ensue after stimulation: the turnover-overlap system relaxes rapidly in seconds, followed by the slow relaxation of sarcomere lengths in minutes. For parameter values as they have been characterized experimentally, we find the long time relaxation of sarcomere length is set by the rate at which actin filaments can grow or shrink in response to the forces exerted by the elastic and contractile elements. Consequently, the stress fiber relaxation time scales inversely with both titin spring constant and the intrinsic actin turnover rate. The model's predicted sarcomere velocities and contraction-expansion kinetics are in good

  15. Friction Stir Weld Restart+Reweld Repair Allowables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifton, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    A friction stir weld (FSW) repair method has been developed and successfully implemented on Al 2195 plate material for the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank (ET). The method includes restarting the friction stir weld in the termination hole of the original weld followed by two reweld passes. Room temperature and cryogenic temperature mechanical properties exceeded minimum FSW design strength and compared well with the development data. Simulated service test results also compared closely to historical data for initial FSW, confirming no change to the critical flaw size or inspection requirements for the repaired weld. Testing of VPPA fusion/FSW intersection weld specimens exhibited acceptable strength and exceeded the minimum design value. Porosity, when present at the intersection was on the root side toe of the fusion weld, the "worst case" being 0.7 inch long. While such porosity may be removed by sanding, this "worst case" porosity condition was tested "as is" and demonstrated that porosity did not negatively affect the strength of the intersection weld. Large, 15-inch "wide panels" FSW repair welds were tested to demonstrate strength and evaluate residual stresses using photo stress analysis. All results exceeded design minimums, and photo stress analysis showed no significant stress gradients due to the presence of the restart and multi-pass FSW repair weld.

  16. Value, Value, Where Is the Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Discusses measurement in performance improvement, including the Kirkpatrick four-level model of evaluation for training, and adding value. Highlights include adding value at all levels of organizational performance, for the clients and society; other models of performance improvement; the major focus of HPT (human performance technology); and…

  17. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  18. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  19. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235 Section 136.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  20. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  1. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  2. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  3. 38 CFR 49.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research...

  4. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants...

  5. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair) which tends to wear or tear... appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair) which tends to wear or tear clothing; or (B) A... allowance for each prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair)...

  6. 44 CFR 208.41 - Administrative allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative allowance. 208.41 Section 208.41 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM...

  7. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Job Location and Development Program § 675.33...

  8. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Job Location and Development Program § 675.33...

  9. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Job Location and Development Program § 675.33...

  10. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... sets out in this subpart. (d) Indirect costs. Indirect costs beyond the administrative and...

  11. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of 10... directly to FEMA is eligible for management costs consisting of a maximum of 10 percent of grants...

  12. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of 10... directly to FEMA is eligible for management costs consisting of a maximum of 10 percent of grants...

  13. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.439 Section 206.439 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... section. (b) Administrative and management costs for major disasters will be paid in accordance with...

  14. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of 10... directly to FEMA is eligible for management costs consisting of a maximum of 10 percent of grants...

  15. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.228 Section 206.228 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF.... (3) Administrative and management costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid...

  16. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.439 Section 206.439 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... section. (b) Administrative and management costs for major disasters will be paid in accordance with...

  17. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of 10... directly to FEMA is eligible for management costs consisting of a maximum of 10 percent of grants...

  18. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... sets out in this subpart. (d) Indirect costs. Indirect costs beyond the administrative and...

  19. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.439 Section 206.439 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... section. (b) Administrative and management costs for major disasters will be paid in accordance with...

  20. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.228 Section 206.228 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF.... (3) Administrative and management costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid...

  1. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of 10... directly to FEMA is eligible for management costs consisting of a maximum of 10 percent of grants...

  2. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... sets out in this subpart. (d) Indirect costs. Indirect costs beyond the administrative and...

  3. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... sets out in this subpart. (d) Indirect costs. Indirect costs beyond the administrative and...

  4. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... sets out in this subpart. (d) Indirect costs. Indirect costs beyond the administrative and...

  5. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 206.439 Section 206.439 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... section. (b) Administrative and management costs for major disasters will be paid in accordance with...

  6. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.439 Section 206.439 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... section. (b) Administrative and management costs for major disasters will be paid in accordance with...

  7. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is..., however, pay consultants more than this amount.) This limitation applies to consultation services...

  8. 21 CFR 1303.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... estimated net disposal for the current calendar year and the last preceding calendar year; or (2) For new manufacturers, 50 percent of his reasonably estimated net disposal for the next calendar year as determined by the Administrator. (b) During each calendar year each registered manufacturer shall be allowed...

  9. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... typical “provider” costs, and costs (such as marketing, enrollment, membership, and operation of the HMO... principles applicable to provider costs, as set forth in § 417.536. (2) The allowability of other costs is determined in accordance with principles set forth in §§ 417.538 through 417.550. (3) Costs for...

  10. 20 CFR 633.303 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., or committee for section 402 program purposes, and reimbursement of actual expenses connected with... grantee per quarter. (2) Allowances and loss of wages. Any individual or family member who is a member of... family income does not exceed either 70 percent of the lower living standard income level or the...

  11. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SERVICE OBLIGATIONS UNDER SPECIAL...

  12. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SERVICE OBLIGATIONS UNDER SPECIAL...

  13. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SERVICE OBLIGATIONS UNDER SPECIAL...

  14. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... the applicable cost principles. For the costs of a— Use the principles in— State, local or...

  15. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... the applicable cost principles. For the costs of a— Use the principles in— State, local or...

  16. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial...— Private nonprofit organization other than (1) An institution of higher education; (2) a hospital; or (3... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 74.27 Section 74.27 Education...

  17. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial...— Private nonprofit organization other than (1) An institution of higher education; (2) a hospital; or (3... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 74.27 Section 74.27 Education...

  18. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs incurred by commercial... with their normal travel reimbursement practices. Contracts with firms for services which are awarded... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE...

  19. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84.27 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management §...

  20. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84.27 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management §...

  1. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84.27 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management §...

  2. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.223...

  3. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.217...

  4. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241 Section 136.241 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.241...

  5. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235 Section 136.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.235...

  6. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205...

  7. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.229...

  8. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211...

  9. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements...

  10. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements...

  11. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements...

  12. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements...

  13. 29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... service with the Department and: (l) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent... the other provisions of this subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss, of personal property incident... authorized places. Claims may be allowable for damage to, or loss of, property arising from fire,...

  14. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met... OMB circulars. (b) No costs shall be allowed for the purchase of any object to be included in the collection of a museum, except library, literary, or archival material specifically required for a...

  15. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met... OMB circulars. (b) No costs shall be allowed for the purchase of any object to be included in the collection of a museum, except library, literary, or archival material specifically required for a...

  16. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met... OMB circulars. (b) No costs shall be allowed for the purchase of any object to be included in the collection of a museum, except library, literary, or archival material specifically required for a...

  17. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met... OMB circulars. (b) No costs shall be allowed for the purchase of any object to be included in the collection of a museum, except library, literary, or archival material specifically required for a...

  18. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 632.37 Section 632.37 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN... applicable State and local law, rules or regulations as determined by the Native American grantee. (b)...

  19. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....16(f). (b) Other types of organizations. Allowability of costs incurred by other types of... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements... accordance with the cost principles applicable to the type of entity incurring the costs, as follows: (a)...

  20. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit... principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining...

  1. 15 CFR 921.81 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable costs. 921.81 Section 921.81 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC... program in either the current or a prior award period. (d) General guidelines for the non-Federal...

  2. 29 CFR 15.41 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Arising Out of the Operation of the Job Corps § 15.41 Allowable claims. (a)(1) A claim for damage to persons or property arising out of an act or omission of a student enrolled in the Job Corps may...

  3. 50 CFR 80.15 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.15 Allowable costs. (a) What are... designed to include purposes other than those eligible under either the Dingell-Johnson Sport...

  4. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  5. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  6. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 30.27 Section 30.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  7. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 30.27 Section 30.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  8. 32 CFR 32.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 32.27 Allowable... subrecipients or contractors under awards subject to this part is determined in accordance with the provisions... awards, is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A-122, “Cost Principles for...

  9. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  10. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  11. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  12. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241 Section 136.241 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  13. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  14. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  15. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  16. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  17. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  18. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  19. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  20. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  1. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241 Section 136.241 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  2. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235 Section 136.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  3. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241 Section 136.241 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  4. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  5. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  6. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241 Section 136.241 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  7. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  8. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  9. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235 Section 136.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  10. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235 Section 136.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  11. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  12. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  13. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  14. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-12-31

    The use of the SO{sub 2} allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO{sub 2} emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO{sub 2} for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO{sub x} emission averaging, the utility would average NO{sub x} emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  15. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the SO[sub 2] allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO[sub 2] emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO[sub 2] for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO[sub x] emission averaging, the utility would average NO[sub x] emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  16. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy... expenditures. (a) Except as adjusted, the expenditure of financial assistance provided under this part for... adjusted in paragraph (c) of this section. (b) The expenditure of financial assistance provided under...

  17. 5 CFR 180.104 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable claims. 180.104 Section 180.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYEES' PERSONAL PROPERTY... are payable: (i) Where personal funds were accepted by responsible Government personnel with...

  18. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Job Location and Development Program § 675.33...

  19. Changing Values & Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagschal, Harry; Beagle, Robert

    A transcript of a two-member panel discussion on changing values and higher education is presented. The transcript includes two speeches and members' responses to the questions of the moderator and audience. The first paper, presented by Robert Beagle (Assistant to the President, Edinboro State College, Pennsylvania) stresses that the key to…

  20. 40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... critical use allowances. 82.8 Section 82.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 82.8 Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances. (a) Effective January 1, 1996...). There is no amount specified for this exemption. (c) Effective January 1, 2005, critical use...

  1. Establish a rapport that allows clear communication.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The population in the UK is now more diverse than ever before. It is vital that healthcare services are equally sensitive to the beliefs of those who come from minority ethnic groups. The primary theme gathered from the study was the ability of families to balance traditional and Western values into their lifestyles.

  2. 38 CFR 21.260 - Subsistence allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Subsistence allowance. 21... $374.93 $465.08 $548.05 $39.95 3/4 time 281.71 349.32 409.76 30.73 1/2 time 188.49 233.56 274.54 20.49... 374.93 465.08 548.05 39.95 Nonpay or nominal pay work experience in a Federal, State, or local...

  3. 49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of maximum allowable operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding to the established... locations. The corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 72 percent of the SMYS of the pipe in Class 2... pressure per § 192.620, the corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 80 percent of the SMYS of the pipe...

  4. 49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of maximum allowable operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding to the established... locations. The corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 72 percent of the SMYS of the pipe in Class 2... pressure per § 192.620, the corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 80 percent of the SMYS of the pipe...

  5. Morphology of residually stressed tubular tissues: Beyond the elastic multiplicative decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarletta, P.; Destrade, M.; Gower, A. L.; Taffetani, M.

    2016-05-01

    Many interesting shapes appearing in the biological world are formed by the onset of mechanical instability. In this work we consider how the build-up of residual stress can cause a solid to buckle. In all past studies a fictitious (virtual) stress-free state was required to calculate the residual stress. In contrast, we use a model which is simple and allows the prescription of any residual stress field. We specialize the analysis to an elastic tube subject to a two-dimensional residual stress, and find that incremental wrinkles can appear on its inner or its outer face, depending on the location of the highest value of the residual hoop stress. We further validate the predictions of the incremental theory with finite element simulations, which allow us to go beyond this threshold and predict the shape, number and amplitude of the resulting creases.

  6. Measuring Nursing Care Value.

    PubMed

    Welton, John M; Harper, Ellen M

    2016-01-01

    The value of nursing care as well as the contribution of individual nurses to clinical outcomes has been difficult to measure and evaluate. Existing health care financial models hide the contribution of nurses; therefore, the link between the cost and quality o nursing care is unknown. New data and methods are needed to articulate the added value of nurses to patient care. The final results and recommendations of an expert workgroup tasked with defining and measuring nursing care value, including a data model to allow extraction of key information from electronic health records to measure nursing care value, are described. A set of new analytic metrics are proposed.

  7. COMPARING THE RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCE TO TOXICITY VALUES FOR ZN, SE, MN, AND MB

    EPA Science Inventory

    Certain essential nutrients can be toxic when ingested at dosages higher than the daily nutritional requirement. Research data for the essential trace elements, zinc, selenium, manganese and molybdenum have been reviewed by various government agencies for both their nutritional n...

  8. Strong connectedness within Norwegian Cheviot and Fur Sheep ram circles allows reliable estimation of breeding values.

    PubMed

    Eikje, L S; Lewis, R M

    2015-07-01

    Breeding programs for sheep in Norway are based on cooperatives of ram circles (RC). The key features of RC are selection of rams across member flocks and their rotation among RC flocks during the mating season. Genetic gains are disseminated to flocks outside RC (ORC). In both groups, natural service and AI are practiced. The objectives were to investigate 1) connectedness within and across RC and across RC and ORC, which impacts bias in genetic comparisons across flocks, and 2) opportunities to improve accuracy by including data from ORC flocks in genetic evaluation of RC flocks. Weaning weights in Cheviot and Fur Sheep from 1990 to 2010 were used. In Cheviot, in the last year of data (2010), there were 4 RC with 49 flocks and 1,824 ewes. Seventy-seven ORC flocks, with 1,246 ewes, also were recorded that year. In total, 214,391 pedigree and 131,012 performance records in Cheviot were available. For Fur Sheep, there was 1 RC with 8 flocks and 468 ewes in 2010 and 134 ORC flocks with 1,932 ewes. In total, 198,339 pedigree and 110,955 performance records in Fur Sheep were available. Unbiased comparison of EBV requires that genetic means of flock founders are similar or that flocks are genetically connected. The latter requires that rams sire enough progeny across flocks. In RC in both breeds and in 28.6% of Cheviot and 20% of Fur Sheep ORC flocks, the average prediction error correlation of flock mean EBV (flock rij) exceeded a threshold (0.10) for strong connectedness. These flocks also had similar genetic means: the variance between means of flock founders (genetic groups) was 1.05 (Cheviot) and 0.51 (Fur Sheep) times that of the additive variance for weaning weight. With less connected flocks included (flock rij ≤ 0.10), the between genetic group variance increased to 1.6 times the additive variance. When weaning weights from connected ORC flocks were included in the genetic evaluation of RC flocks, the size of the data increased by 1.07 times in Cheviot and by 3.6 times in Fur Sheep. However, the increase in accuracy of EBV of animals in RC flocks was trivial. Because founder animals of RC flocks had similar genetic means and were strongly connected, flock owners can comfortably focus on other aspects of their breeding program. Opportunities for closer cooperation between RC and connected ORC flocks exist and could be explored to accelerate genetic improvement within the Norwegian Cheviot and Fur Sheep breeds.

  9. 76 FR 32340 - Federal Travel Regulation; Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION 41 CFR Parts 301-11, 302-2, 302-3, and 302-17 RIN 3090-AI95 Federal Travel Regulation; Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances (Taxes) AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide... amend the Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) by incorporating recommendations of the...

  10. 78 FR 26637 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowance-Relocation Income Tax (RIT) Allowable Tables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowance--Relocation Income Tax (RIT) Allowable... tables would be available on a GSA Web site. The purpose of this notice is to inform agencies that...

  11. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  12. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  13. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  14. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  15. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  16. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  17. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  18. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  19. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  20. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  1. Stress reduction in tungsten films using nanostructured compliant layers

    SciTech Connect

    Karabacak, Tansel; Picu, Catalin R.; Senkevich, Jay J.; Wang, G.-C.; Lu, T.-M.

    2004-11-15

    The residual stress in thin films is a major limiting factor for obtaining high quality films. We present a strategy for stress reduction in sputter deposited films by using a nanostructured compliant layer obtained by the oblique angle deposition technique, sandwiched between the film and the substrate. The technique is all in situ, does not require any lithography steps, and the nanostructured layer is made from the same material as the deposited thin film. By using this approach we were able to reduce stress values by approximately one order of magnitude in sputter deposited tungsten films. These lower stress thin films also exhibit stronger adhesion to the substrate, which retards delamination buckling. This technique allows the growth of much thicker films and has enhanced structural stability. A model is developed to explain the stress relief mechanism and the stronger adhesion associated with the presence of the nanostructured compliant layer.

  2. Reducing stress-induced birefringence in optical fiber ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Várallyay, Z.; Arashitani, Y.; Varga, G.

    2011-01-01

    Coated and ribboned optical fibers are liable to external stress of the coating materials which may induce additional birefringence in the fiber glass. This residual stress in the coating may increase the polarization mode dispersion (PMD) of the fibers with a value well above allowed in modern, optical telecommunication systems. We report our numerical efforts on reducing the stress caused birefringence in fiber ribbons optimizing the geometry as well as the material parameters of the coating materials. We found that changing the cross-sectional geometry of the fiber ribbon such as edge shape or the ratio of primary and secondary coatings may lead to significant stress and constitutively PMD reduction in optical fibers. Changing the stiffness or the glass transition temperature (GTT) of the different components may also yield optimal conditions for stress reduction according to our finite element analyzes.

  3. Prolonging life and allowing death: infants.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A G; McHaffie, H E

    1995-12-01

    Dilemmas about resuscitation and life-prolonging treatment for severely compromised infants have become increasingly complex as skills in neonatal care have developed. Quality of life and resource issues necessarily influence management. Our Institute of Medical Ethics working party, on whose behalf this paper is written, recognises that the ultimate responsibility for the final decision rests with the doctor in clinical charge of the infant. However, we advocate a team approach to decision-making, emphasising the important role of parents and nurses in the process. Assessing the relative burdens and benefits can be troubling, but doctors and parents need to retain a measure of discretion; legislation which would determine action in all cases is inappropriate. Caution should be exercised in involving committees in decision-making and, where they exist, their remit should remain to advise rather than to decide. Support for families who bear the consequences of their decisions is often inadequate, and facilitating access to such services is part of the wider responsibilities of the intensive care team. The authors believe that allowing death by withholding or withdrawing treatment is legitimate, where those closely involved in the care of the infant together deem the burdens to be unacceptable without compensating benefits for the infant. As part of the process accurate and careful recording is essential.

  4. Serial FBG sensor network allowing overlapping spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbenseth, S.; Lochmann, S.; Ahrens, A.; Rehm, B.

    2016-05-01

    For structure or material monitoring low impact serial fiber Bragg grating (FBG) networks have attracted increasing research interest. Common sensor networks using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) for FBG interrogation are limited in their efficiency by the spectral width of their light source, the FBG tuning range and the spectral guard bands. Overlapping spectra are strictly forbidden in this case. Applying time division multiplexing (TDM) or active resonator schemes may overcome these restrictions. However, they introduce other substantial disadvantages like signal roundtrip dependency or sophisticated control of active resonating structures. Code division multiplexing (CDM) as a means of FBG interrogation by simple autocorrelation of appropriate codes has been shown to be superior in this respect. However, it came at the cost of a second spectrometer introducing additional equalization efforts. We demonstrate a new serial FBG sensor network utilizing CDM signal processing for efficient sensor interrogation without the need of a second spectrometer and additional state of polarization (SOP) controlling components. It allows overlapping spectra even when all sensing FBGs are positioned at the same centre wavelength and it shows a high degree of insensitivity to SOP. Sequence inversed keyed (SIK) serial signal processing utilizing quasi-orthogonal balanced codes ensures simple and quick sensor interrogation with high signal-to-interference/noise ratio.

  5. Cluster approach allows budgeting, planning with DRGs.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, P L

    1984-01-01

    Measuring costs and revenues on a diagnosis related group (DRG) basis allows health care managers to define product lines, identify market shares, and examine the effects of case mix and physician behavior on profitability. It also enables public agencies to predict bed needs and evaluate certificate-of-need applications. The large number of DRGs, however, and other managerial considerations may discourage the use of DRG-based budgeting and planning. To save time and enhance data usefulness, financial officers may consolidate the DRGs into fewer groups. Revenue, for example, can be estimated by grouping the DRGs into 23 major diagnostic categories or by clustering them according to cost weight or into one group. Comparisons of payment rates and costs will identify the DRGs that lose money and will determine whether departmental costs are excessive. Strategic planning units formed from the 468 DRGs will help health care managers analyze and project performance. Product lines for this purpose may be clustered according to major diagnostic category, physician specialty, or clinical department. Since a potentially enormous amount of DRG-based clinical and financial information could be generated, hospitals should create data committees to ensure that managers receive only the information they need.

  6. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher,…

  7. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was <3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be

  8. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was < 3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be < rmax. Further, the ratio of desired harvest rate to 0.5 x rmax may be a useful metric for ascertaining the applicability of specific requirements of the National Environmental Protection Act.

  9. Serum chemical values in hypothermic and rewarmed young calves.

    PubMed

    Olson, D P; South, P J; Hendrix, K

    1983-04-01

    Serum chemical values were determined in cold-stressed Holstein bull calves ranging from 1 to 7 days of age. The animals were anesthetized and cold-stressed until their core body temperature (colonic) was lowered 10 C. Animals were then rewarmed in warm water, with heat pads or heat lamps, or were allowed to recover naturally (unassisted) at room temperature. Blood samples were collected at selected intervals during cooling and recovery. Increases (P less than 0.05) were observed in the concentrations of glucose, calcium, phosphorus, iron, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, albumin, total globulin, serum urea nitrogen, uric acid, total bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, and cholesterol in the cold-stressed calves during cooling. Concentrations of chloride and insulin decreased (P less than 0.05) during the same period. Changes observed in many of the serum chemical values during rewarming were generally the reverse of the respective changes that occurred during cooling, although insulin values became exceedingly high in some cases midway or near the end of recovery. Serum enzyme values also remained high during most of recovery. Data did not indicate a clear advantage of one method of rewarming over the other methods used in terms of return of the serum chemical values to normal.

  10. Core Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Tim

    2016-01-01

    In this article, two lessons are introduced in which students examine Arctic lake sediments from Lake El'gygytgyn in Russia and discover a climate signal in a lake or pond near their own school. The lessons allow students to experience fieldwork, understand lab procedure, practice basic measurement and observation skills, and learn how to…

  11. 76 FR 16629 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    .... FTR Bulletin 11-05 and all other FTR Bulletins can be found at http://www.gsa.gov/ftrbulletin . The RIT allowance tables are located at http://www.gsa.gov/relocationpolicy . DATES: This notice is... http://www.gsa.gov/relocationpolicy . Dated: March 21, 2011. Janet Dobbs, Director, Office of...

  12. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  13. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, M. Roy

    2015-01-01

    With more than a thousand honors programs or colleges in the United States and that number growing every year, defining the value of honors is a significant undertaking. Honors seems to have become an obligatory upgrade that no college or university president can afford to be without, but there is more than institutional trending to be considered,…

  14. Redeeming Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitwell, Stuart C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an essay on organizational transformation and the way successful marketing transformations redeem a sense of value. Focuses on challenges faced by not-for-profit institutions, current changes in the library profession, and implications of the American Library Association's Goal 2000. A sidebar summarizes an interview with the director of…

  15. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Matt

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles retiring values teacher Gene Doxey and describes his foundational contributions to the students of California's Ramona Unified School District. Every one of the Ramona Unified School District's 7,200 students is eventually funneled through Doxey's Contemporary Issues class, a required rite of passage between elementary school…

  16. Nuclear stress test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  17. Computational modelling of bone cement polymerization: temperature and residual stresses.

    PubMed

    Pérez, M A; Nuño, N; Madrala, A; García-Aznar, J M; Doblaré, M

    2009-09-01

    The two major concerns associated with the use of bone cement are the generation of residual stresses and possible thermal necrosis of surrounding bone. An accurate modelling of these two factors could be a helpful tool to improve cemented hip designs. Therefore, a computational methodology based on previous published works is presented in this paper combining a kinetic and an energy balance equation. New assumptions are that both the elasticity modulus and the thermal expansion coefficient depend on the bone cement polymerization fraction. This model allows to estimate the thermal distribution in the cement which is later used to predict the stress-locking effect, and to also estimate the cement residual stresses. In order to validate the model, computational results are compared with experiments performed on an idealized cemented femoral implant. It will be shown that the use of the standard finite element approach cannot predict the exact temporal evolution of the temperature nor the residual stresses, underestimating and overestimating their value, respectively. However, this standard approach can estimate the peak and long-term values of temperature and residual stresses within acceptable limits of measured values. Therefore, this approach is adequate to evaluate residual stresses for the mechanical design of cemented implants. In conclusion, new numerical techniques should be proposed in order to achieve accurate simulations of the problem involved in cemented hip replacements.

  18. Stress Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    Stress fractures Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by ... up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of a ...

  19. Allowing for heterogeneity in monetary subjective well-being valuations.

    PubMed

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil

    2011-03-01

    Recent research on 'happiness' regression equations has shown how monetary values can be put on the well-being effects of many life events (like health problems, marriage or the death of a spouse). Potentially, such work has practical implications for policy-makers and the courts. However, this article argues that we need to be careful in such work to use the appropriate statistical method. It goes beyond previous research and allows for heterogeneity in the subjective well-being scales. Using less restrictive models than the current literature, the article argues that standard linear or ordered response models seem consistently to overstate valuations. With data from the UK, it provides new monetary estimates of the well-being consequences of a number of health problems, social capital indicators, marital status changes and social relationships.

  20. How and when do personal values guide our attitudes and sociality? Explaining cross-cultural variability in attitude-value linkages.

    PubMed

    Boer, Diana; Fischer, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    This article examines how and when personal values relate to social attitudes. Considering values as motivational orientations, we propose an attitude-value taxonomy based on Moral Foundation Theory (Haidt & Joseph, 2007) and Schwartz's (1992) basic human values theory allowing predictions of (a) how social attitudes are related to personal values, and (b) when macro-contextual factors have an impact on attitude-value links. In a meta-analysis based on the Schwartz Value Survey (Schwartz, 1992) and the Portrait Value Questionnaire (Schwartz et al., 2001; k = 91, N = 30,357 from 31 countries), we found that self-transcendence (vs. self-enhancement) values relate positively to fairness/proenvironmental and care/prosocial attitudes, and conservation (vs. openness-to-change) values relate to purity/religious and authority/political attitudes, whereas ingroup/identity attitudes are not consistently associated with value dimensions. Additionally, we hypothesize that the ecological, economic, and cultural context moderates the extent to which values guide social attitudes. Results of the multi-level meta-analysis show that ecological and cultural factors inhibit or foster attitude-value associations: Disease stress is associated with lower attitude-value associations for conservation (vs. openness-to-change) values; collectivism is associated with stronger attitude-value links for conservation values; individualism is associated with stronger attitude-value links for self-transcendence (vs. self-enhancement) values; and uncertainty avoidance is associated with stronger attitude-values links, particularly for conservation values. These findings challenge universalistic claims about context-independent attitude-value relations and contribute to refined future value and social attitude theories.

  1. The Value of Addressing Patient Preferences.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jeff D; Stewart, Mark D; Roberts, Samantha A; Sigal, Ellen V

    2017-02-01

    Recent scientific progress is, in some cases, leading to transformative new medicines for diseases that previously had marginal or even no treatment options. This offers great promise for people affected by these diseases, but it has also placed stress on the health care system in terms of the growing cost associated with some new interventions. Effort has been taken to create tools to help patients and health care providers assess the value of new medical innovations. These tools may also provide the basis for assessing the price associated with new medical products. Given the growing expenditures in health care, value frameworks present an opportunity to evaluate new therapeutic options in the context of other treatments and potentially lead to a more economically sustainable health care system. In summary, the contribution to meaningful improvements in health outcomes is the primary focus of any assessment of the value of a new intervention. A component of such evaluations, however, should factor in timely access to new products that address an unmet medical need, as well as the magnitude of that beneficial impact. To achieve these goals, value assessment tools should allow for flexibility in clinical end points and trial designs, incorporate patient preferences, and continually evolve as new evidence, practice patterns, and medical progress advance.

  2. Thermal stresses investigation of a gas turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowreesh, S.; Pravin, V. K.; Rajagopal, K.; Veena, P. H.

    2012-06-01

    The analysis of structural and thermal stress values that are produced while the turbine is operating are the key factors of study while designing the next generation gas turbines. The present study examines structural, thermal, modal analysis of the first stage rotor blade of a two stage gas turbine. The design features of the turbine segment of the gas turbine have been taken from the preliminary design of a power turbine for maximization of an existing turbojet engine with optimized dump gap of the combustion chamber, since the allowable temperature on the turbine blade dependents on the hot gas temperatures from the combustion chamber. In the present paper simplified 3-D Finite Element models are developed with governing boundary conditions and solved using the commercial FEA software ANSYS. As the temperature has a significant effect on the overall stress on the rotor blades, a detail study on mechanical and thermal stresses are estimated and evaluated with the experimental values.

  3. Planning Value vs Earned Value

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    20 196 10 98 7 Postmortem 4 200 2 100 Les Dupaix - 17Earned Value Duration Charts Gantt (Bar) Chart Si lmp e Can show dependencies Tracking planned vs...7 7 4 2 Identify Requirements 78 86 39 43 4 6 96 103 43 3 Match Requirements 20 106 10 53 5 7 24 127 53 to Phases 4 Identify Risk Areas 20 126 10 63

  4. 17 CFR 190.07 - Calculation of allowed net equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calculation of allowed net... BANKRUPTCY § 190.07 Calculation of allowed net equity. Allowed net equity shall be computed as follows: (a) Allowed claim. The allowed net equity claim of a customer shall be equal to the aggregate of the...

  5. The endocannabinoid system in guarding against fear, anxiety and stress.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Beat; Marsicano, Giovanni; Maldonado, Rafael; Hillard, Cecilia J

    2015-12-01

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system has emerged as a central integrator linking the perception of external and internal stimuli to distinct neurophysiological and behavioural outcomes (such as fear reaction, anxiety and stress-coping), thus allowing an organism to adapt to its changing environment. eCB signalling seems to determine the value of fear-evoking stimuli and to tune appropriate behavioural responses, which are essential for the organism's long-term viability, homeostasis and stress resilience; and dysregulation of eCB signalling can lead to psychiatric disorders. An understanding of the underlying neural cell populations and cellular processes enables the development of therapeutic strategies to mitigate behavioural maladaptation.

  6. Valuing hope.

    PubMed

    McMillan, John; Walker, Simon; Hope, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that hope is of value in clinical ethics and that it can be important for clinicians to be sensitive to both the risks of false hope and the importance of retaining hope. However, this sensitivity requires an understanding of the complexity of hope and how it bears on different aspects of a well-functioning doctor-patient relationship. We discuss hopefulness and distinguish it, from three different kinds of hope, or 'hopes for', and then relate these distinctions back to differing accounts of autonomy. This analysis matters because it shows how an overly narrow view of the ethical obligations of a clinician to their patient, and autonomy, might lead to scenarios where patients regret the choices they make.

  7. Valuing Stillbirths

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this paper we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women’s reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  8. Forecasting the Value of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basarab, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The Predictive Evaluation (PE) model is a training and evaluation approach with the element of prediction. PE allows trainers and business leaders to predict the results, value, intention, adoption, and impact of training, allowing them to make smarter, more strategic training and evaluation investments. PE is invaluable for companies that…

  9. Valuing vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  10. 26 CFR 403.45 - Re-appraisal of property involved in an allowed petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of... extent of the relief to be afforded a petitioner pursuant to § 403.44 the value of the property with respect to which the petition has been allowed is the value of such property as determined by...

  11. 30 CFR 1206.179 - What general requirements regarding processing allowances apply to me?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas Processing... separate processing allowance for each gas plant product and processing plant relationship. Natural gas... value any gas plant product under § 1206.174, you may deduct from value the reasonable actual costs...

  12. Reliability Value of Fast State Estimation on Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu

    2012-05-07

    Monitoring the state of a power system under stress is key to achieving reliable operation. State estimation and timely measurements become more important when applying and designing corrective control actions (manual and automatic) to arrest or mitigate cascading blackouts. The execution time of each process, including state estimation, should be as short as possible to allow for timely action. In this paper, we provide a methodology for estimating one of the components of value of faster and more frequent state estimation: the reliability value of state estimation to assist corrective control actions for arresting or mitigating cascading blackouts. We present a new algorithm for estimating the time between successive line trips in a cascading failure. The algorithm combines power flow calculations with characteristics of the protection system to estimate the time between successive equipment trips. Using this algorithm, we illustrate the value of fast state estimation by calculating the time remaining for automatic or manual corrective actions after state estimation is finalized.

  13. Modeling the increase in aerodynamic efficiency for a thick (37.5% chord) airfoil with slot suction in vortex cells with allowance for the compressibility effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, S. A.; Baranov, P. A.; Sudakov, A. G.; Ermakov, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Reynolds equations closed using the Menter shear-stress-transfer model modified with allowance for the curvature of flow lines have been numerically solved using multiblock computational technologies. The obtained solution has been used to analyze subsonic flow past a thick (37.5% chord) airfoil with slot suction in circular vortex cells intended for the Ecology and Progress (Ekologiya i Progress, EKIP) aircraft project in comparison to a distributed (from the central body surface) suction at fixed values of the total volume flow rate (0.02121) and Reynolds number (105) in a range of Mach numbers from 0 to 0.4. This analysis revealed a significant (up to tenfold) decrease in the bow drag (determined with allowance for the energy losses) and a large (by an order of magnitude) increase in the aerodynamic efficiency of the thick airfoil containing vortex cells with slot suction, which reached up to 160.

  14. 38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...; Educational Assistance Allowance § 21.4145 Work-study allowance. (a) Eligibility. (1) A veteran or reservist... rate of three-quarter time or full time is eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An...

  15. 7 CFR 52.810 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Allowances for Quality Factors § 52.810 Allowances for quality factors. Table I—Allowances for Quality Factors... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowances for quality factors. 52.810 Section...

  16. 7 CFR 52.810 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Allowances for Quality Factors § 52.810 Allowances for quality factors. Table I—Allowances for Quality Factors... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowances for quality factors. 52.810 Section...

  17. 38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...; Educational Assistance Allowance § 21.4145 Work-study allowance. (a) Eligibility. (1) A veteran or reservist... rate of three-quarter time or full time is eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An...

  18. Valuing charity.

    PubMed

    Kronick, R

    2001-10-01

    hospitals in providing care to the uninsured poor. Largely independent of Medicare and Medicaid, the increasing importance of pharmaceuticals and other services delivered outside of the hospital further strengthened the connection between treatment choices and ability to pay, and the growth of capitated payment systems made this connection salient to many insured patients and their physicians. In part, then, the AMA was correct: Medicare and Medicaid have contributed to the erosion of trust in physicians as incorruptible agents for patients. Some of this trust undoubtedly was misplaced, even in 1965, and trust alone was not sufficient to guarantee widespread access to medical care or to assure that treatment provided would take true social benefits and costs into account. Medicare and Medicaid, as well as the growth of prepayment insurance plans, represent institutional responses to the failure of the 1963 norms to accomplish societal goals. Still, as we have seen, these responses create their own challenges, and we continue to search for institutions that will allow widespread insurance to coexist with the physician-patient trust that Arrow correctly identified as an important response to uncertainties and information asymmetries in the medical care market.

  19. Consequences of Stress for Public School Superintendents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Kathy J.

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: This study is a quantitative study of Oklahoma Public School Superintendents. The data was collected by surveys using an online format. Data was analyzed to determine correlation and predictive values of the four specific stress factors: conflict mediating stress, boundary spanning stress, task based stress and role…

  20. Measuring wind and stress under tropical cyclones with scatterometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. Timothy

    2016-07-01

    Ocean surface stress, the turbulent transport of momentum, is largely derived from wind through a drag coefficient. In tropical cyclones (TC), scatterometers have difficulty in measuring strong wind and there is large uncertainty in the drag coefficient. We postulate that the microwave backscatter from ocean surface roughness, which is in equilibrium with local stress, does not distinguish weather systems. The reduced sensitivity of scatterometer wind retrieval algorithm under the strong wind is an air-sea interaction problem that is caused by a change in the behavior of the drag coefficient and not a sensor problem. Under this assumption, we applied a stress retrieval algorithm developed over a moderate wind range to retrieve stress under the strong winds of TCs. Over a moderate wind range, the abundant wind measurements and more established drag coefficient value allow sufficient stress data to be computed from wind to develop a stress retrieval algorithm for the scatterometer. Using unprecedented large amount of stress retrieved from the scatterometer coincident with strong winds in TC, we showed that the drag coefficient decreases with wind speed at a much steeper rate than previously revealed, for wind speeds over 25 m/s. The result implies that the ocean applies less drag to inhibit TC intensification and the TC causes less ocean mixing and surface cooling than previous studies indicated. With continuous and extensive coverage from constellations of scatterometers for several decades, the impact of tropical cyclones on the ocean and the feedback from the ocean are examined.

  1. Oscillator strengths for allowed transitions in neutral oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayal, S. S.

    2009-01-01

    The B-spline box-based R-matrix method in the Breit-Pauli formulation has been used to calculate oscillator strengths for allowed transitions among the n=2-4 levels and from the n=2 levels to higher excited levels up to the n=11 in neutral oxygen. The close-coupling configuration-interaction wavefunctions are generated to accurately represent the inner-core and core-valence correlation effects. The term dependence of wavefunctions has been accounted for by non-orthogonal sets of one-electron radial functions. The relativistic corrections are included through the one-body mass correction, Darwin and spin-orbit operators in the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. The accuracy of our oscillator strengths is evaluated by comparing present results with other available reliable calculations and experiments for the low-lying transitions. A very good agreement with available other theoretical and experimental results is generally noted. There is also a good agreement between the length and velocity values of oscillator strengths.

  2. Protein domain definition should allow for conditional disorder.

    PubMed

    Yegambaram, Kavestri; Bulloch, Esther M M; Kingston, Richard L

    2013-11-01

    Proteins are often classified in a binary fashion as either structured or disordered. However this approach has several deficits. Firstly, protein folding is always conditional on the physiochemical environment. A protein which is structured in some circumstances will be disordered in others. Secondly, it hides a fundamental asymmetry in behavior. While all structured proteins can be unfolded through a change in environment, not all disordered proteins have the capacity for folding. Failure to accommodate these complexities confuses the definition of both protein structural domains and intrinsically disordered regions. We illustrate these points with an experimental study of a family of small binding domains, drawn from the RNA polymerase of mumps virus and its closest relatives. Assessed at face value the domains fall on a structural continuum, with folded, partially folded, and near unstructured members. Yet the disorder present in the family is conditional, and these closely related polypeptides can access the same folded state under appropriate conditions. Any heuristic definition of the protein domain emphasizing conformational stability divides this domain family in two, in a way that makes no biological sense. Structural domains would be better defined by their ability to adopt a specific tertiary structure: a structure that may or may not be realized, dependent on the circumstances. This explicitly allows for the conditional nature of protein folding, and more clearly demarcates structural domains from intrinsically disordered regions that may function without folding.

  3. Stress Intervention Using Cognitive Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaret, Kathe

    This document describes "Coping with Stress: A Cognitive Intervention Program for Children," a six-session program that was designed to expand children's awareness of how their thoughts and feelings affect the process of coping with stress. The first three sessions concentrate on skill building; the last three sessions allow participants to apply…

  4. Cold Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  5. 7 CFR 52.782 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Allowances for Quality Factors § 52.782 Allowances for quality factors... 1 per 20 ozs. Defects: 100 cherries Total—multilated, plus minor blemished plus blemished. 10 15...

  6. 40 CFR 96.60 - Submission of NOX allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Transfers § 96.60 Submission of NOX allowance transfers. The NOX...

  7. 40 CFR 96.60 - Submission of NOX allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Transfers § 96.60 Submission of NOX allowance transfers. The NOX...

  8. 9 CFR 56.9 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.9 Claims not allowed. (a) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the...

  9. 9 CFR 56.9 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.9 Claims not allowed. (a) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the...

  10. 9 CFR 56.9 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.9 Claims not allowed. (a) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the...

  11. 9 CFR 56.9 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.9 Claims not allowed. (a) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the...

  12. 9 CFR 56.9 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.9 Claims not allowed. (a) The Department will not allow claims arising out of the...

  13. The Influence of Academic Values and Belongingness Concerns on Achievement Goals, Self-Efficacy, and Perceived Stress in First Quarter Freshmen: Relationships to Academic Performance and the Mediating Role of Procrastination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the influence of student values on long-term self-regulatory decisions defined in terms of a tendency to procrastinate and how these values, indirectly through procrastination, but also directly, affect important motivational, affective, social and behavioral academic outcomes of first quarter freshmen. Results of a structural…

  14. Earned Value-Added

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Earned value management [EVM] ...either you swear by it, or swear at it. Either way, there s no getting around the fact that EVM can be one of the most efficient and insightful methods of synthesizing cost, schedule, and technical status information into a single set of program health metrics. Is there a way of implementing EVM that allows a program to reap its early warning benefits while avoiding the pitfalls that make it infamous to its detractors? That s the question recently faced by the International Space Station [ISS] program.

  15. 40 CFR 35.940-3 - Costs allowable, if approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Costs allowable, if approved. 35.940-3... Costs allowable, if approved. Certain direct costs are sometimes necessary for the construction of a treatment works. The following costs are allowable if reasonable and if the Regional Administrator...

  16. 40 CFR 35.940-3 - Costs allowable, if approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Costs allowable, if approved. 35.940-3... Costs allowable, if approved. Certain direct costs are sometimes necessary for the construction of a treatment works. The following costs are allowable if reasonable and if the Regional Administrator...

  17. 30 CFR 1206.259 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... allowance by reporting it as a separate line entry on the Form MMS-4430. (2) In conducting reviews and... washing allowance by reporting it as a separate line entry on the Form MMS-4430. When necessary or...) which are an integral part of the wash plant. (i) Allowable operating expenses include:...

  18. 30 CFR 1206.259 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... claim a washing allowance by reporting it as a separate line entry on the Form MMS-4430. (2) In... must claim a washing allowance by reporting it as a separate line entry on the Form MMS-4430. When... installation of capital equipment) which are an integral part of the wash plant. (i) Allowable...

  19. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  20. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  1. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  2. 48 CFR 2152.231-70 - Accounting and allowable cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accounting and allowable... PRECONTRACT PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2152.231-70 Accounting and allowable cost. As prescribed in 2131.270, insert the following clause: Accounting and Allowable Cost...

  3. 48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accounting and Allowable... of FEHBP Clauses 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost. As prescribed in section 1616.7002, the...). Accounting and Allowable Cost (FEHBAR 1652.216-71) (JAN 2003) (a) Annual Accounting Statements. (1)...

  4. 48 CFR 2152.231-70 - Accounting and allowable cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accounting and allowable... PRECONTRACT PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2152.231-70 Accounting and allowable cost. As prescribed in 2131.270, insert the following clause: Accounting and Allowable Cost...

  5. 48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accounting and Allowable... of FEHBP Clauses 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost. As prescribed in section 1616.7002, the...). Accounting and Allowable Cost (FEHBAR 1652.216-71) (JAN 2003) (a) Annual Accounting Statements. (1)...

  6. 38 CFR 21.9670 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...-study allowance. An eligible individual pursuing a program of education under 38 U.S.C. chapter 33 at a rate of pursuit of at least 75 percent may receive a work-study allowance in accordance with...

  7. 38 CFR 21.9670 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...-study allowance. An eligible individual pursuing a program of education under 38 U.S.C. chapter 33 at a rate of pursuit of at least 75 percent may receive a work-study allowance in accordance with...

  8. 38 CFR 21.9670 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...-study allowance. An eligible individual pursuing a program of education under 38 U.S.C. chapter 33 at a rate of pursuit of at least 75 percent may receive a work-study allowance in accordance with...

  9. 38 CFR 21.9670 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...-study allowance. An eligible individual pursuing a program of education under 38 U.S.C. chapter 33 at a rate of pursuit of at least 75 percent may receive a work-study allowance in accordance with...

  10. 40 CFR 96.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.53 Recordation of NOX allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will record the NOX allowances for 2003 in the NOX Budget units' compliance accounts and...

  11. 40 CFR 96.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.53 Recordation of NOX allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will record the NOX allowances for 2003 in the NOX Budget units' compliance accounts and...

  12. 7 CFR 52.782 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allowances for quality factors. 52.782 Section 52.782 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... for Quality Factors § 52.782 Allowances for quality factors. Table IV—Allowances for Quality...

  13. 7 CFR 52.782 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowances for quality factors. 52.782 Section 52.782 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... for Quality Factors § 52.782 Allowances for quality factors. Table IV—Allowances for Quality...

  14. 7 CFR 52.810 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allowances for quality factors. 52.810 Section 52.810 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... for Quality Factors § 52.810 Allowances for quality factors. Table I—Allowances for Quality...

  15. 30 CFR 1206.460 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) When coal transported from a mine to a wash plant is eligible for a transportation allowance in... authorized for the total production which is transported. Transportation allowances shall be expressed as a... transportation allowance shall be authorized for the total production which is transported....

  16. 30 CFR 1206.460 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) When coal transported from a mine to a wash plant is eligible for a transportation allowance in... authorized for the total production which is transported. Transportation allowances shall be expressed as a... transportation allowance shall be authorized for the total production which is transported....

  17. 30 CFR 1206.261 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) When coal transported from a mine to a wash plant is eligible for a transportation allowance in... authorized for the total production which is transported. Transportation allowances shall be expressed as a... transportation allowance shall be authorized for the total production which is transported....

  18. 30 CFR 206.261 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) When coal transported from a mine to a wash plant is eligible for a transportation allowance in... authorized for the total production which is transported. Transportation allowances shall be expressed as a... transportation allowance shall be authorized for the total production which is transported....

  19. 30 CFR 1206.460 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) When coal transported from a mine to a wash plant is eligible for a transportation allowance in... authorized for the total production which is transported. Transportation allowances shall be expressed as a... transportation allowance shall be authorized for the total production which is transported....

  20. 30 CFR 206.460 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) When coal transported from a mine to a wash plant is eligible for a transportation allowance in... authorized for the total production which is transported. Transportation allowances shall be expressed as a... transportation allowance shall be authorized for the total production which is transported....