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Sample records for allowed outage times

  1. Optimization approach for evaluation of allowed outage times in nuclear-safety systems. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Farahzad, P.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop and demonstrate an approach for determining allowed outage times (AOTs) of nuclear systems based on linear programming techniques. Presently nuclear power plants are operated within the constraints of technical specifications defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These specifications, among other things, define the time a safety system component may be allowed to be serviced for repair without bringing the plant to hot shutdown condition. The time the component is allowed to be serviced is commonly known as the allowed outage time and the determination of such times is presently based on engineering judgements. Over the last few years, efforts were made to develop allowed outage times for safety system components based on probabilistic considerations. The method given here is based on linear programming and it provides a tool for simultaneous consideration and evaluation of any number of linear constraints imposed on the problem.

  2. Risk-based evaluation of Allowed Outage Times (AOTs) considering risk of shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Mankamo, T. ); Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K. )

    1992-01-01

    When safety systems fail during power operation, Technical Specifications (TS) usually limit the repair within Allowed Outage Time (AOT). If the repair cannot be completed within the AOT, or no AOT is allowed, the plant is required to be shut down for the repair. However, if the capability to remove decay heat is degraded, shutting down the plant with the need to operate the affected decay-heat removal systems may impose a substantial risk compared to continued power operation over a usual repair time. Thus, defining a proper AOT in such situations can be considered as a risk-comparison between the repair in frill power state with a temporarily increased level of risk, and the altemative of shutting down the plant for the repair in zero power state with a specific associated risk. The methodology of the risk-comparison approach, with a due consideration of the shutdown risk, has been further developed and applied to the AOT considerations of residual heat removal and standby service water systems of a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant. Based on the completed work, several improvements to the TS requirements for the systems studied can be suggested.

  3. Risk-based evaluation of Allowed Outage Times (AOTs) considering risk of shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Mankamo, T.; Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.

    1992-12-31

    When safety systems fail during power operation, Technical Specifications (TS) usually limit the repair within Allowed Outage Time (AOT). If the repair cannot be completed within the AOT, or no AOT is allowed, the plant is required to be shut down for the repair. However, if the capability to remove decay heat is degraded, shutting down the plant with the need to operate the affected decay-heat removal systems may impose a substantial risk compared to continued power operation over a usual repair time. Thus, defining a proper AOT in such situations can be considered as a risk-comparison between the repair in frill power state with a temporarily increased level of risk, and the altemative of shutting down the plant for the repair in zero power state with a specific associated risk. The methodology of the risk-comparison approach, with a due consideration of the shutdown risk, has been further developed and applied to the AOT considerations of residual heat removal and standby service water systems of a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant. Based on the completed work, several improvements to the TS requirements for the systems studied can be suggested.

  4. Outage probability of a relay strategy allowing intra-link errors utilizing Slepian-Wolf theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Meng; Anwar, Khoirul; Matsumoto, Tad

    2013-12-01

    In conventional decode-and-forward (DF) one-way relay systems, a data block received at the relay node is discarded, if the information part is found to have errors after decoding. Such errors are referred to as intra-link errors in this article. However, in a setup where the relay forwards data blocks despite possible intra-link errors, the two data blocks, one from the source node and the other from the relay node, are highly correlated because they were transmitted from the same source. In this article, we focus on the outage probability analysis of such a relay transmission system, where source-destination and relay-destination links, Link 1 and Link 2, respectively, are assumed to suffer from the correlated fading variation due to block Rayleigh fading. The intra-link is assumed to be represented by a simple bit-flipping model, where some of the information bits recovered at the relay node are the flipped version of their corresponding original information bits at the source. The correlated bit streams are encoded separately by the source and relay nodes, and transmitted block-by-block to a common destination using different time slots, where the information sequence transmitted over Link 2 may be a noise-corrupted interleaved version of the original sequence. The joint decoding takes place at the destination by exploiting the correlation knowledge of the intra-link (source-relay link). It is shown that the outage probability of the proposed transmission technique can be expressed by a set of double integrals over the admissible rate range, given by the Slepian-Wolf theorem, with respect to the probability density function ( pdf) of the instantaneous signal-to-noise power ratios (SNR) of Link 1 and Link 2. It is found that, with the Slepian-Wolf relay technique, so far as the correlation ρ of the complex fading variation is | ρ|<1, the 2nd order diversity can be achieved only if the two bit streams are fully correlated. This indicates that the diversity

  5. Automatic scheduling of outages of nuclear power plants with time windows. Final report, January-December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, C.

    1996-10-01

    This report describes a successful project for transference of advanced AI technology into the domain of planning of outages of nuclear power plants as part of DOD`s dual-use program. ROMAN (Rome Lab Outage Manager) is the prototype system that was developed as a result of this project. ROMAN`s main innovation compared to the current state-of-the-art of outage management tools is its capability to automatically enforce safety constraints during the planning and scheduling phase. Another innovative aspect of ROMAN is the generation of more robust schedules that are feasible over time windows. In other words, ROMAN generates a family of schedules by assigning time intervals as start times to activities rather than single start times, without affecting the overall duration of the project. ROMAN uses a constraint satisfaction paradigm combining a global search tactic with constraint propagation. The derivation of very specialized representations for the constraints to perform efficient propagation is a key aspect for the generation of very fast schedules - constraints are compiled into the code, which is a novel aspect of our work using an automatic programming system, KIDS.

  6. Technology Integration Initiative In Support of Outage Management

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Weatherby; David Gertman

    2012-07-01

    Plant outage management is a high priority concern for the nuclear industry from cost and safety perspectives. Often, command and control during outages is maintained in the outage control center where many of the underlying technologies supporting outage control are the same as those used in the 1980’s. This research reports on the use of advanced integrating software technologies and hand held mobile devices as a means by which to reduce cycle time, improve accuracy, and enhance transparency among outage team members. This paper reports on the first phase of research supported by the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program that is performed in close collaboration with industry to examine the introduction of newly available technology allowing for safe and efficient outage performance. It is thought that this research will result in: improved resource management among various plant stakeholder groups, reduced paper work, and enhanced overall situation awareness for the outage control center management team. A description of field data collection methods, including personnel interview data, success factors, end-user evaluation and integration of hand held devices in achieving an integrated design are also evaluated. Finally, the necessity of obtaining operations cooperation support in field studies and technology evaluation is acknowledged.

  7. Progress Report on Alloy 617 Time Dependent Allowables

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Julie Knibloe

    2015-06-01

    Time dependent allowable stresses are required in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for design of components in the temperature range where time dependent deformation (i.e., creep) is expected to become significant. There are time dependent allowable stresses in Section IID of the Code for use in the non-nuclear construction codes, however, there are additional criteria that must be considered in developing time dependent allowables for nuclear components. These criteria are specified in Section III NH. St is defined as the lesser of three quantities: 100% of the average stress required to obtain a total (elastic, plastic, primary and secondary creep) strain of 1%; 67% of the minimum stress to cause rupture; and 80% of the minimum stress to cause the initiation of tertiary creep. The values are reported for a range of temperatures and for time increments up to 100,000 hours. These values are determined from uniaxial creep tests, which involve the elevated temperature application of a constant load which is relatively small, resulting in deformation over a long time period prior to rupture. The stress which is the minimum resulting from these criteria is the time dependent allowable stress St. In this report data from a large number of creep and creep-rupture tests on Alloy 617 are analyzed using the ASME Section III NH criteria. Data which are used in the analysis are from the ongoing DOE sponsored high temperature materials program, form Korea Atomic Energy Institute through the Generation IV VHTR Materials Program and historical data from previous HTR research and vendor data generated in developing the alloy. It is found that the tertiary creep criterion determines St at highest temperatures, while the stress to cause 1% total strain controls at low temperatures. The ASME Section III Working Group on Allowable Stress Criteria has recommended that the uncertainties associated with determining the onset of tertiary creep and the lack of significant

  8. Detecting Power Outages with the VIIRS DNB Images - potentials and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, C.; Uprety, S.; Shao, X.

    2012-12-01

    Power outages after a major storm or hurricane affect millions of people. The launch of the Suomi NPP with the VIIRS significantly enhances our capability to monitor and detect power outages on a daily basis with the Day Night Band (DNB) which outperforms the traditional OSL on DMSP satellites in both spatial and radiometric resolutions. This study explores the use of the DNB for detecting power outages in the Washington DC metropolitan area in June 2012, which was the largest non-hurricane power outage in history for the region with millions of people lost power, and state of emergency declared in some states such as Virginia. The DNB data were analyzed for the period one week before and after the storm. The light loss is estimated through image differencing techniques for spatial patterns, as well as total radiance and irradiance changes as a time series. The effects of cloud absorption and scattering are evaluated using the cloud masks from VIIRS products, and the long wave thermal infrared images are also used to assist the assessment. The results show that the DNB data are very useful for both spatial and radiometric detection of light loss, but also with some challenges due to clouds and the known terminator straylight effect of the instrument for the region during summer solstice. It is expected that further refinements in the methodology will significantly reduce the uncertainties. A VIIRS Data Robotics system is also being developed which will allow the routine detection of power outages for any given location worldwide.

  9. Development of Improved Graphical Displays for an Advanced Outage Control Center, Employing Human Factors Principles for Outage Schedule Management

    SciTech Connect

    St Germain, Shawn Walter; Farris, Ronald Keith; Thomas, Kenneth David

    2015-09-01

    The long-term viability of existing nuclear power plants in the United States (U.S.) is dependent upon a number of factors, including maintaining high capacity factors, maintaining nuclear safety, and reducing operating costs, particularly those associated with refueling outages. Refueling outages typically take 20-30 days, and for existing light water NPPs in the U.S., the reactor cannot be in operation during the outage. Furthermore, given that many NPPs generate between $1-1.5 million/day in revenue when in operation, there is considerable interest in shortening the length of refueling outages. Yet refueling outages are highly complex operations, involving multiple concurrent and dependent activities that are somewhat challenging to coordinate; therefore, finding ways to improve refueling outage performance, while maintaining nuclear safety has proven to be difficult. The Advanced Outage Control Center (AOCC) project is a research and development (R&D) demonstration activity under the LWRS Program. LWRS is an R&D program that works closely with industry R&D programs to establish technical foundations for the licensing and managing of long-term, safe, and economical operation of current fleet of NPPs. As such, the LWRS Advanced Outage Control Center project has the goal of improving the management of commercial NPP refueling outages. To accomplish this goal, INL is developing an advanced outage control center (OCC) that is specifically designed to maximize the usefulness of communication and collaboration technologies for outage coordination and problem resolution activities. The overall focus is on developing an AOCC with the following capabilities that enables plant and OCC staff to; Collaborate in real-time to address emergent issues; Effectively communicate outage status to all workers involved in the outage; Effectively communicate discovered conditions in the field to the OCC; Provide real-time work status; Provide automatic pending support notifications

  10. 40 CFR 264.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Administrator may allow an owner or operator to receive only non-hazardous wastes in a landfill, land treatment... corrective action program, compile all ground-water monitoring data, and evaluate the effect of the...

  11. 40 CFR 265.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regional Administrator may allow an owner or operator to receive non-hazardous wastes in a landfill, land... corrective action program, compile all ground-water monitoring data, and evaluate the effect of the...

  12. 40 CFR 265.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regional Administrator may allow an owner or operator to receive non-hazardous wastes in a landfill, land... corrective action program, compile all ground-water monitoring data, and evaluate the effect of the...

  13. 40 CFR 265.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regional Administrator may allow an owner or operator to receive non-hazardous wastes in a landfill, land... corrective action program, compile all ground-water monitoring data, and evaluate the effect of the...

  14. 40 CFR 264.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Administrator may allow an owner or operator to receive only non-hazardous wastes in a landfill, land treatment... corrective action program, compile all ground-water monitoring data, and evaluate the effect of the...

  15. 40 CFR 264.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Administrator may allow an owner or operator to receive only non-hazardous wastes in a landfill, land treatment... corrective action program, compile all ground-water monitoring data, and evaluate the effect of the...

  16. 40 CFR 264.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Administrator may allow an owner or operator to receive only non-hazardous wastes in a landfill, land treatment... corrective action program, compile all ground-water monitoring data, and evaluate the effect of the...

  17. How individual traces and interactive timelines could support outage execution - Toward an outage historian concept

    SciTech Connect

    Parfouru, S.; De-Beler, N.

    2012-07-01

    In the context of a project that is designing innovative ICT-based solutions for the organizational concept of outage management, we focus on the informational process of the OCR (Outage Control Room) underlying the execution of the outages. Informational process are based on structured and unstructured documents that have a key role in the collaborative processes and management of the outage. We especially track the structured and unstructured documents, electronically or not, from creation to sharing. Our analysis allows us to consider that the individual traces produced by an individual participant with a specific role could be multi-purpose and support sharing between participants without creating duplication of work. The ultimate goal is to be able to generate an outage historian, that is not just focused on highly structured information, which could be useful to improve the continuity of information between participants. We study the implementation of this approach through web technologies and social media tools to address this issue. We also investigate the issue of data access through interactive visualization timelines coupled with other modality's to assist users in the navigation and exploration of the proposed historian. (authors)

  18. Evaluation of Distribution Network Customer Outage Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemīte, Laila; Gerhards, Jānis

    2009-01-01

    Customer outage cost criteria are considered, collected and analyzed outage costs in Latvia distribution network, as well as distribution network outage elimination structure, the most common outage causes, are proposed outage costs estimation model. Finally the discussion of results of expected customer outage costs and interrupted energy assessment rate calculation results in Latvia distribution network in 2007 are presented, based on customers' mean value of incomes, outcomes and profitability.

  19. FPL's Christmas 1991 transmission outages

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, J.T.; Busch, D.W.; Renowden, J.D. . Transmission Line Dept.)

    1993-10-01

    A record number of contamination related outages occurred on FPL transmission lines during Christmas of 1991 and resulted in an investigation of inservice insulator performance. The field investigation process used was enhanced by recent improvements in outage data recording. Also used in the analysis were weather information, the results of recently completed accelerated aging tests of polymers, and specially conducted tests on the effects of weathering steel stain on porcelain insulators. Specific insulator problems were identified and actions taken to reduce the possibility of recurrence.

  20. Refinery Outages: First Half 2015

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    This report examines refinery outages planned for the first half of 2015 and the potential implications for available refinery capacity, petroleum product markets and supply of gasoline, diesel fuel, and heating oil. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) believes that dissemination of such analyses can be beneficial to market participants that may otherwise be unable to access such information.

  1. 40 CFR 96.41 - Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.41 Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 96.41 - Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.41 Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  3. Minimizing forced outage risk in generator bidding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Dibyendu

    Competition in power markets has exposed the participating companies to physical and financial uncertainties. Generator companies bid to supply power in a day-ahead market. Once their bids are accepted by the ISO they are bound to supply power. A random outage after acceptance of bids forces a generator to buy power from the expensive real-time hourly spot market and sell to the ISO at the set day-ahead market clearing price, incurring losses. A risk management technique is developed to assess this financial risk associated with forced outages of generators and then minimize it. This work presents a risk assessment module which measures the financial risk of generators bidding in an open market for different bidding scenarios. The day-ahead power market auction is modeled using a Unit Commitment algorithm and a combination of Normal and Cauchy distributions generate the real time hourly spot market. Risk profiles are derived and VaRs are calculated at 98 percent confidence level as a measure of financial risk. Risk Profiles and VaRs help the generators to analyze the forced outage risk and different factors affecting it. The VaRs and the estimated total earning for different bidding scenarios are used to develop a risk minimization module. This module will develop a bidding strategy of the generator company such that its estimated total earning is maximized keeping the VaR below a tolerable limit. This general framework of a risk management technique for the generating companies bidding in competitive day-ahead market can also help them in decisions related to building new generators.

  4. Development of Methodologies for Technology Deployment for Advanced Outage Control Centers that Improve Outage Coordination, Problem Resolution and Outage Risk Management

    SciTech Connect

    Shawn St. Germain; Ronald Farris; Heather Medeman

    2013-09-01

    schedule depends upon the performance of the outage management organization. During an outage, the outage control center (OCC) is the temporary command center for outage managers and provides several critical functions for the successful execution of the outage schedule. Essentially, the OCC functions to facilitate information inflow, assist outage management in processing information and to facilitate the dissemination of information to stakeholders. Currently, outage management activities primarily rely on telephone communication, face to face reports of status and periodic briefings in the OCC. Much of the information displayed in OCCs is static and out of date requiring an evaluation to determine if it is still valid. Several advanced communication and collaboration technologies have shown promise for facilitating the information flow into, across and out of the OCC. Additionally, advances in the areas of mobile worker technologies, computer based procedures and electronic work packages can be leveraged to improve the availability of real time status to outage managers.

  5. Analysis of the effects of communication and surveillance facility service outages on traffic separations.

    PubMed

    Borener, Sherry S; Guzhva, Vitaly S

    2014-09-01

    This study examines air traffic separations in the service volumes of communication and surveillance facilities that experienced service outages. The data sample consists of 338 unscheduled service outages that happened in 2010 and 2011 at facilities located in the vicinity of 15 major traffic hubs. For each outage, radar track data were collected and used to calculate traffic separations during the period of 30 minutes before to 30 minutes after an outage. Then, the separation index, which indicates the percentage of horizontal separation retained between two aircraft at the same altitude, was estimated. The separation index and loss of separation events were analyzed using lognormal and negative binomial regression models. The results suggest that the count of separation events peaks during the 15 minutes after an outage. In addition, traffic collision avoidance system resolution advisory (TCAS RA) encounters and Category A separation events are 1.31 times more likely during the 30 minutes following the beginning of a service outage, as compared to the 30 minutes before the outage, for both types of facilities. Also, the separation index values are 19% lower following a surveillance facility outage and 4% lower following a communication facility service loss. This study provides evidence that unscheduled service outages of air traffic management facilities are associated with lost or reduced traffic separations and thus can be considered precursors to hazardous loss of separation events.

  6. 77 FR 25088 - Extension of the Commission's Rules Regarding Outage Reporting to Interconnected Voice Over...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... significant trend upward in the number of outages. Depending on the type of outage, the Commission may request... period in the 2008-2009 time frame, the Commission worked with the NRSC to reverse the trend in an... has argued that this type of reporting would be unduly burdensome. The reporting obligation we...

  7. Reduce power outages

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, R.; Ramirez, R.

    1995-06-01

    A case history shows the cost-effectiveness of doing a reliability study on a new, grassroots refinery constructed in Venezuela. Constructing grassroots refineries in developing countries pose many challenges, especially when considering electrical power and steam supplies. Without dependable electrical and steam sources, the refinery will not operate according to design expectations. Consequently, utility systems are critical and expensive challenges that must be considered early in design. Because of tighter operating budgets, refiners are equally interested in cutting out system overdesign. Redundant backup systems are damaging in capital and operating expenditures. Using reliability analysis techniques, designers can evaluate the reliability, availability and maintainability of operating systems. In the following example, a Venezuelan operating company used a reliability analysis to: assess onstream factors for the refinery`s power plant; identify critical equipment that have the greatest impact on available electrical and steam sources; and achieve a cost-effective equipment configuration that eliminates redundant backup systems. Results from the study allowed decision-makers to initiate objective plans and created an equipment-failure database that will service the refinery for its useful life.

  8. Use of VIIRS DNB Data to Monitor Power Outages and Restoration for Significant Weather Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary; Molthan, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    NASA fs Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) project operates from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The team provides unique satellite data to the National Weather Service (NWS) and other agencies and organizations for weather analysis. While much of its work is focused on improving short-term weather forecasting, the SPoRT team supported damage assessment and response to Hurricane Superstorm Sandy by providing imagery that highlighted regions without power. The team used data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite. The VIIRS low-light sensor, known as the day-night-band (DNB), can detect nighttime light from wildfires, urban and rural communities, and other human activity which emits light. It can also detect moonlight reflected from clouds and surface features. Using real time VIIRS data collected by our collaborative partner at the Space Science and Engineering Center of the University of Wisconsin, the SPoRT team created composite imagery to help detect power outages and restoration. This blackout imagery allowed emergency response teams from a variety of agencies to better plan and marshal resources for recovery efforts. The blackout product identified large-scale outages, offering a comprehensive perspective beyond a patchwork GIS mapping of outages that utility companies provide based on customer complaints. To support the relief efforts, the team provided its imagery to the USGS data portal, which the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and other agencies used in their relief efforts. The team fs product helped FEMA, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and U.S. Army monitor regions without power as part of their disaster response activities. Disaster responders used the images to identify possible outages and effectively distribute relief resources. An enhanced product is being developed and integrated into a web

  9. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will determine by order the CAIR NOX...

  10. 40 CFR 97.511 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.511 Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are allocated, for the...

  11. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting...

  12. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will determine by order the CAIR NOX...

  13. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting...

  14. 40 CFR 97.511 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.511 Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are allocated, for the...

  15. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting...

  16. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will determine by order the CAIR NOX...

  17. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will determine by order the CAIR NOX...

  18. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will determine by order the CAIR NOX...

  19. 40 CFR 97.511 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.511 Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are allocated, for the...

  20. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting...

  1. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting...

  2. Use of collaboration software to improve nuclear power plant outage management

    SciTech Connect

    Germain, Shawn

    2015-02-01

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) refueling outages create some of the most challenging activities the utilities face in both tracking and coordinating thousands of activities in a short period of time. Other challenges, including nuclear safety concerns arising from atypical system configurations and resource allocation issues, can create delays and schedule overruns, driving up outage costs. Today the majority of the outage communication is done using processes that do not take advantage of advances in modern technologies that enable enhanced communication, collaboration and information sharing. Some of the common practices include: runners that deliver paper-based requests for approval, radios, telephones, desktop computers, daily schedule printouts, and static whiteboards that are used to display information. Many gains have been made to reduce the challenges facing outage coordinators; however; new opportunities can be realized by utilizing modern technological advancements in communication and information tools that can enhance the collective situational awareness of plant personnel leading to improved decision-making. Ongoing research as part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRS) has been targeting NPP outage improvement. As part of this research, various applications of collaborative software have been demonstrated through pilot project utility partnerships. Collaboration software can be utilized as part of the larger concept of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Collaborative software can be used for emergent issue resolution, Outage Control Center (OCC) displays, and schedule monitoring. Use of collaboration software enables outage staff and subject matter experts (SMEs) to view and update critical outage information from any location on site or off.

  3. Seasonal and Local Characteristics of Lightning Outages of Power Distribution Lines in Hokuriku Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Hitoshi; Shimasaki, Katsuhiko

    The proportion of the lightning outages in all outages on Japanese 6.6kV distribution lines is high with approximately 20 percent, and then lightning protections are very important for supply reliability of 6.6kV lines. It is effective for the lightning performance to apply countermeasures in order of the area where a large number of the lightning outages occur. Winter lightning occurs in Hokuriku area, therefore it is also important to understand the seasonal characteristics of the lightning outages. In summer 70 percent of the lightning outages on distribution lines in Hokuriku area were due to sparkover, such as power wire breakings and failures of pole-mounted transformers. However, in winter almost half of lightning-damaged equipments were surge arrester failures. The number of the lightning outages per lightning strokes detected by the lightning location system (LLS) in winter was 4.4 times larger than that in summer. The authors have presumed the occurrence of lightning outages from lightning stroke density, 50% value of lightning current and installation rate of lightning protection equipments and overhead ground wire by multiple regression analysis. The presumed results suggest the local difference in the lightning outages.

  4. 40 CFR 96.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.141 Timing requirements for CAIR...

  5. 40 CFR 96.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.141 Timing requirements for CAIR...

  6. 30 CFR 203.66 - What happens if MMS does not act in the time allowed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Expansion Projects § 203.66 What happens if MMS does not act in the time allowed? If we do not act within.... (b) An expansion project You get a royalty suspension for the first year of production Abide...

  7. 30 CFR 203.66 - What happens if BSEE does not act in the time allowed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What happens if BSEE does not act in the time allowed? 203.66 Section 203.66 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas,...

  8. 30 CFR 203.66 - What happens if BSEE does not act in the time allowed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What happens if BSEE does not act in the time allowed? 203.66 Section 203.66 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas,...

  9. 30 CFR 203.66 - What happens if BSEE does not act in the time allowed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What happens if BSEE does not act in the time allowed? 203.66 Section 203.66 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas,...

  10. A framework and review of customer outage costs: Integration and analysis of electric utility outage cost surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Leora; Sullivan, Michael; Van Liere, Kent; Katz, Aaron; Eto, Joseph

    2003-11-01

    A clear understanding of the monetary value that customers place on reliability and the factors that give rise to higher and lower values is an essential tool in determining investment in the grid. The recent National Transmission Grid Study recognizes the need for this information as one of growing importance for both public and private decision makers. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy has undertaken this study, as a first step toward addressing the current absence of consistent data needed to support better estimates of the economic value of electricity reliability. Twenty-four studies, conducted by eight electric utilities between 1989 and 2002 representing residential and commercial/industrial (small, medium and large) customer groups, were chosen for analysis. The studies cover virtually all of the Southeast, most of the western United States, including California, rural Washington and Oregon, and the Midwest south and east of Chicago. All variables were standardized to a consistent metric and dollar amounts were adjusted to the 2002 CPI. The data were then incorporated into a meta-database in which each outage scenario (e.g., the lost of electric service for one hour on a weekday summer afternoon) is treated as an independent case or record both to permit comparisons between outage characteristics and to increase the statistical power of analysis results. Unadjusted average outage costs and Tobit models that estimate customer damage functions are presented. The customer damage functions express customer outage costs for a given outage scenario and customer class as a function of location, time of day, consumption, and business type. One can use the damage functions to calculate outage costs for specific customer types. For example, using the customer damage functions, the cost experienced by an ''average'' customer resulting from a 1 hour summer afternoon outage is estimated to be approximately $3 for a residential customer, $1,200 for small

  11. Wooden hutch space allowance influences male Holstein calf health, performance, daily lying time, and respiratory immunity.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Lorenzo, M S; Hulbert, L E; Fowler, A L; Louie, A; Gershwin, L J; Pinkerton, K E; Ballou, M A; Klasing, K C; Mitloehner, F M

    2016-06-01

    Dairy calves in the western United States are commonly raised individually in wooden hutches with a space allowance of 1.23m(2)/calf. Recent legislative initiatives in California and across the United States were passed regarding concern over space allowance for farm animals. The objective of this study was to determine if rearing male Holstein calves in wooden hutches modified to increase space allowance would influence measures of performance, lying time per day, health, and respiratory immunocompetence. At 4d of age, 60 calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3housing treatments: (1) conventional housing (CONV; 1.23m(2)/calf), (2) 1.5 × CONV (MOD; 1.85m(2)/calf), or (3) 3 × CONV (MAX; 3.71m(2)/calf). Intakes of milk and solid feed were recorded daily and body weight was measured at 0, 3, 6, 10, and 12 wk of age. For the first 3 wk of the trial, calves were scored daily for fecal consistency, hydration, and hide cleanliness. In addition, calves were scored for respiratory health (i.e., nasal and eye discharge, ear position) until 7 wk of age. The total lying duration per day was recorded using data loggers at 3, 6, and 10 wk of age. Eight clinically healthy calves from each treatment were sensitized with subcutaneous ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with aerosolized OVA to assess calf respiratory immunity at 11 wk of age. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected 4d after the OVA challenge and analyzed for leukocyte differentials and OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, IgA, and IgE. Calf average daily gain and body weight were positively associated with space allowance at approximately 3 wk before weaning and throughout postweaning, respectively. A greater space allowance decreased lying time after 46d. Space allowance did not influence fecal consistency, but there was a tendency for MAX calves to take 1d longer to recover from loose feces than MOD calves. The MAX calves had the fewest (%) observations with feces on their body compared with CONV or MOD. At 3 wk of

  12. Status Report on the Development of Micro-Scheduling Software for the Advanced Outage Control Center Project

    SciTech Connect

    Germain, Shawn St.; Thomas, Kenneth; Farris, Ronald; Joe, Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    The long-term viability of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States (U.S.) is dependent upon a number of factors, including maintaining high capacity factors, maintaining nuclear safety, and reducing operating costs, particularly those associated with refueling outages. Refueling outages typically take 20-30 days, and for existing light water NPPs in the U.S., the reactor cannot be in operation during the outage. Furthermore, given that many NPPs generate between $1-1.5 million/day in revenue when in operation, there is considerable interest in shortening the length of refueling outages. Yet, refueling outages are highly complex operations, involving multiple concurrent and dependent activities that are difficult to coordinate. Finding ways to improve refueling outage performance while maintaining nuclear safety has proven to be difficult. The Advanced Outage Control Center project is a research and development (R&D) demonstration activity under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program. LWRS is a R&D program which works with industry R&D programs to establish technical foundations for the licensing and managing of long-term, safe, and economical operation of current NPPs. The Advanced Outage Control Center project has the goal of improving the management of commercial NPP refueling outages. To accomplish this goal, this INL R&D project is developing an advanced outage control center (OCC) that is specifically designed to maximize the usefulness of communication and collaboration technologies for outage coordination and problem resolution activities. This report describes specific recent efforts to develop a capability called outage Micro-Scheduling. Micro-Scheduling is the ability to allocate and schedule outage support task resources on a sub-hour basis. Micro-Scheduling is the real-time fine-tuning of the outage schedule to react to the actual progress of the primary outage activities to ensure that support task resources are

  13. Comparison and validation of statistical methods for predicting power outage durations in the event of hurricanes.

    PubMed

    Nateghi, Roshanak; Guikema, Seth D; Quiring, Steven M

    2011-12-01

    This article compares statistical methods for modeling power outage durations during hurricanes and examines the predictive accuracy of these methods. Being able to make accurate predictions of power outage durations is valuable because the information can be used by utility companies to plan their restoration efforts more efficiently. This information can also help inform customers and public agencies of the expected outage times, enabling better collective response planning, and coordination of restoration efforts for other critical infrastructures that depend on electricity. In the long run, outage duration estimates for future storm scenarios may help utilities and public agencies better allocate risk management resources to balance the disruption from hurricanes with the cost of hardening power systems. We compare the out-of-sample predictive accuracy of five distinct statistical models for estimating power outage duration times caused by Hurricane Ivan in 2004. The methods compared include both regression models (accelerated failure time (AFT) and Cox proportional hazard models (Cox PH)) and data mining techniques (regression trees, Bayesian additive regression trees (BART), and multivariate additive regression splines). We then validate our models against two other hurricanes. Our results indicate that BART yields the best prediction accuracy and that it is possible to predict outage durations with reasonable accuracy.

  14. Contingency Analysis of Cascading Line Outage Events

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L Baldwin; Magdy S Tawfik; Miles McQueen

    2011-03-01

    As the US power systems continue to increase in size and complexity, including the growth of smart grids, larger blackouts due to cascading outages become more likely. Grid congestion is often associated with a cascading collapse leading to a major blackout. Such a collapse is characterized by a self-sustaining sequence of line outages followed by a topology breakup of the network. This paper addresses the implementation and testing of a process for N-k contingency analysis and sequential cascading outage simulation in order to identify potential cascading modes. A modeling approach described in this paper offers a unique capability to identify initiating events that may lead to cascading outages. It predicts the development of cascading events by identifying and visualizing potential cascading tiers. The proposed approach was implemented using a 328-bus simplified SERC power system network. The results of the study indicate that initiating events and possible cascading chains may be identified, ranked and visualized. This approach may be used to improve the reliability of a transmission grid and reduce its vulnerability to cascading outages.

  15. Are elderly pedestrians allowed enough time at pedestrian crossings in Cape Town, South Africa?

    PubMed

    Amosun, S L; Burgess, T; Groeneveldt, L; Hodgson, T

    2007-01-01

    A descriptive, cross-sectional analytical study was conducted to determine whether the recommended walking speed of 1.2 ms(-1) would allow elderly pedestrians to safely clear pedestrian crossings in Cape Town, South Africa. Male and female volunteers (n = 47), aged 65-93 years and resident in four homes for older persons, were recruited. Pedestrian clearance intervals at 40 traffic lights within 5-km radius of the selected homes were measured. The mean walking speed required at these traffic lights was 0.86 +/- 0.32 ms(1). The maximal walking speed over 12 m was measured without carrying any load and when carrying a predetermined weight of an average shopping bag. Participants' emotions associated with pedestrian road safety were also assessed through an interview. The mean maximal unloaded and loaded walking speeds were 1.36 +/- 0.31 ms(-1) (0.73-2.03 ms(-1)), and 1.36 +/- 0.33 ms(-1) (0.58-2.12 ms(-1)), respectively. Over 30% of the participants walked slower than the recommended walking speed of 1.2 ms(-1). Participants felt that traffic lights did not allow for sufficient time to cross roads (51.1%) and reported emotions of apprehension (44.7%), anxiety (17.0%), and fear (10.6%) when crossing. A review of traffic planning and public policy is recommended to ensure older pedestrians safely clear pedestrian crossings.

  16. Time-Gated Optical Projection Tomography Allows Visualization of Adult Zebrafish Internal Structures

    PubMed Central

    Foglia, Efrem Alessandro; Pistocchi, Anna; D'Andrea, Cosimo; Valentini, Gianluca; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; De Silvestri, Sandro; Cerullo, Giulio; Cotelli, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Optical imaging through biological samples is compromised by tissue scattering and currently various approaches aim to overcome this limitation. In this paper we demonstrate that an all optical technique, based on non-linear upconversion of infrared ultrashort laser pulses and on multiple view acquisition, allows the reduction of scattering effects in tomographic imaging. This technique, namely Time-Gated Optical Projection Tomography (TGOPT), is used to reconstruct three dimensionally the internal structure of adult zebrafish without staining or clearing agents. This method extends the use of Optical Projection Tomography to optically diffusive samples yielding reconstructions with reduced artifacts, increased contrast and improved resolution with respect to those obtained with non-gated techniques. The paper shows that TGOPT is particularly suited for imaging the skeletal system and nervous structures of adult zebrafish. PMID:23185643

  17. Benchmark Report on Key Outage Attributes: An Analysis of Outage Improvement Opportunities and Priorities

    SciTech Connect

    Germain, Shawn St.; Farris, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    Advanced Outage Control Center (AOCC), is a multi-year pilot project targeted at Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) outage improvement. The purpose of this pilot project is to improve management of NPP outages through the development of an AOCC that is specifically designed to maximize the usefulness of communication and collaboration technologies for outage coordination and problem resolution activities. This report documents the results of a benchmarking effort to evaluate the transferability of technologies demonstrated at Idaho National Laboratory and the primary pilot project partner, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The initial assumption for this pilot project was that NPPs generally do not take advantage of advanced technology to support outage management activities. Several researchers involved in this pilot project have commercial NPP experience and believed that very little technology has been applied towards outage communication and collaboration. To verify that the technology options researched and demonstrated through this pilot project would in fact have broad application for the US commercial nuclear fleet, and to look for additional outage management best practices, LWRS program researchers visited several additional nuclear facilities.

  18. Outage managment and health physics issue, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2008-05-15

    The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles include: Outage optimization initiatives, by George B. Beam, AREVA NP, Inc.; New plant based on excellent track records, by Jim Scarola, Progress Energy; Meeting customer needs and providing environmental benefits, by Peter S. Hastings, Duke Energy; Plants with 3-D design, by Jack A. Bailey, Tennessee Valley Authority; and Highest quality with exceptional planning, by Jason A. Walls, Duke Energy. Industry innovation articles include: Integrated exposure reduction plan, by Ed Wolfe, Exelon; Performance-based radiation worker training, by Joe Giuffre and Timothy Vriezerma, American Electric Power.

  19. Guidelines for Implementation of an Advanced Outage Control Center to Improve Outage Coordination, Problem Resolution, and Outage Risk Management

    SciTech Connect

    St. Germain, Shawn W.; Farris, Ronald K.; Whaley, April M.; Medema, Heather D.; Gertman, David I.

    2014-09-01

    This research effort is a part of the Light-Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, which is a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by Department of Energy (DOE) and performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs that provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRS program serves to help the U.S. nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. The purpose of this research is to improve management of nuclear power plant (NPP) outages through the development of an advanced outage control center (AOCC) that is specifically designed to maximize the usefulness of communication and collaboration technologies for outage coordination and problem resolution activities. This technical report for industry implementation outlines methods and considerations for the establishment of an AOCC. This report provides a process for implementation of a change management plan, evaluation of current outage processes, the selection of technology, and guidance for the implementation of the selected technology. Methods are presented for both adoption of technologies within an existing OCC and for a complete OCC replacement, including human factors considerations for OCC design and setup.

  20. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy allows contactless monitoring of grapevine water status

    PubMed Central

    Santesteban, Luis G.; Palacios, Inés; Miranda, Carlos; Iriarte, Juan C.; Royo, José B.; Gonzalo, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is the sector with the greatest water consumption, since food production is frequently based on crop irrigation. Proper irrigation management requires reliable information on plant water status, but all the plant-based methods to determine it suffer from several inconveniences, mainly caused by the necessity of destructive sampling or of alteration of the plant organ due to contact installation. The aim of this work is to test if terahertz (THz) time domain reflectance measurements made on the grapevine trunk allows contactless monitoring of plant status. The experiments were performed on a potted 14-years-old plant, using a general purpose THz emitter receiver head. Trunk THz time-domain reflection signal proved to be very sensitive to changes in plant water availability, as its pattern follows the trend of soil water content and trunk growth variations. Therefore, it could be used to contactless monitor plant water status. Apart from that, THz reflection signal was observed to respond to light conditions which, according to a specifically designed girdling experiment, was caused by changes in the phloem. This latter results opens a promising field of research for contactless monitoring of phloem activity. PMID:26082791

  1. Fluorescently labeled adrenomedullin allows real-time monitoring of adrenomedullin receptor trafficking in living cells.

    PubMed

    Schönauer, Ria; Kaiser, Anette; Holze, Cathleen; Babilon, Stefanie; Köbberling, Johannes; Riedl, Bernd; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2015-12-01

    The human adrenomedullin (ADM) is a 52 amino acid peptide hormone belonging to the calcitonin family of peptides, which plays a major role in the development and regulation of cardiovascular and lymphatic systems. For potential use in clinical applications, we aimed to investigate the fate of the peptide ligand after binding and activation of the adrenomedullin receptor (AM1), a heterodimer consisting of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), a G protein-coupled receptor, associated with the receptor activity-modifying protein 2 (RAMP2). Full length and N-terminally shortened ADM peptides were synthesized using Fmoc/tBu solid phase peptide synthesis and site-specifically labeled with the fluorophore carboxytetramethylrhodamine (Tam) either by amide bond formation or copper(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition. For the first time, Tam-labeled ligands allowed the observation of co-internalization of the whole ligand-receptor complex in living cells co-transfected with fluorescent fusion proteins of CLR and RAMP2. Application of a fluorescent probe to track lysosomal compartments revealed that ADM together with the CLR/RAMP2-complex is routed to the degradative pathway. Moreover, we found that the N-terminus of ADM is not a crucial component of the peptide sequence in terms of AM1 internalization behavior.

  2. Sample Results from MCU Solids Outage

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Oji, L.; Coleman, C.; Poirier, M.

    2014-09-22

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has received several solid and liquid samples from MCU in an effort to understand and recover from the system outage starting on April 6, 2014. SRNL concludes that the presence of solids in the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) is the likely root cause for the outage, based upon the following discoveries: A solids sample from the extraction contactor #1 proved to be mostly sodium oxalate; A solids sample from the scrub contactor#1 proved to be mostly sodium oxalate; A solids sample from the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) proved to be mostly sodium oxalate; An archived sample from Tank 49H taken last year was shown to contain a fine precipitate of sodium oxalate; A solids sample from ; A liquid sample from the SSFT was shown to have elevated levels of oxalate anion compared to the expected concentration in the feed. Visual inspection of the SSFT indicated the presence of precipitated or transferred solids, which were likely also in the Salt Solution Receipt Tank (SSRT). The presence of the solids coupled with agitation performed to maintain feed temperature resulted in oxalate solids migration through the MCU system and caused hydraulic issues that resulted in unplanned phase carryover from the extraction into the scrub, and ultimately the strip contactors. Not only did this carryover result in the Strip Effluent (SE) being pushed out of waste acceptance specification, but it resulted in the deposition of solids into several of the contactors. At the same time, extensive deposits of aluminosilicates were found in the drain tube in the extraction contactor #1. However it is not known at this time how the aluminosilicate solids are related to the oxalate solids. The solids were successfully cleaned out of the MCU system. However, future consideration must be given to the exclusion of oxalate solids into the MCU system. There were 53 recommendations for improving operations recently identified. Some additional considerations or

  3. OTRA-THS MAC to reduce Power Outage Data Collection Latency in a smart meter network

    SciTech Connect

    Garlapati, Shravan K; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Buehrer, Richard M; Reed, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    The deployment of advanced metering infrastructure by the electric utilities poses unique communication challenges, particularly as the number of meters per aggregator increases. During a power outage, a smart meter tries to report it instantaneously to the electric utility. In a densely populated residential/industrial locality, it is possible that a large number of smart meters simultaneously try to get access to the communication network to report the power outage. If the number of smart meters is very high of the order of tens of thousands (metropolitan areas), the power outage data flooding can lead to Random Access CHannel (RACH) congestion. Several utilities are considering the use of cellular network for smart meter communications. In 3G/4G cellular networks, RACH congestion not only leads to collisions, retransmissions and increased RACH delays, but also has the potential to disrupt the dedicated traffic flow by increasing the interference levels (3G CDMA). In order to overcome this problem, in this paper we propose a Time Hierarchical Scheme (THS) that reduces the intensity of power outage data flooding and power outage reporting delay by 6/7th, and 17/18th when compared to their respective values without THS. Also, we propose an Optimum Transmission Rate Adaptive (OTRA) MAC to optimize the latency in power outage data collection. The analysis and simulation results presented in this paper show that both the OTRA and THS features of the proposed MAC results in a Power Outage Data Collection Latency (PODCL) that is 1/10th of the 4G LTE PODCL.

  4. Power outages, power externalities, and baby booms.

    PubMed

    Burlando, Alfredo

    2014-08-01

    Determining whether power outages have significant fertility effects is an important policy question in developing countries, where blackouts are common and modern forms of family planning are scarce. Using birth records from Zanzibar, this study shows that a month-long blackout in 2008 caused a significant increase in the number of births 8 to 10 months later. The increase was similar across villages that had electricity, regardless of the level of electrification; villages with no electricity connections saw no changes in birth numbers. The large fertility increase in communities with very low levels of electricity suggests that the outage affected the fertility of households not connected to the grid through some spillover effect. Whether the baby boom is likely to translate to a permanent increase in the population remains unclear, but this article highlights an important hidden consequence of power instability in developing countries. It also suggests that electricity imposes significant externality effects on rural populations that have little exposure to it.

  5. Nuclear cost control focuses on refueling outages

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, S.D.

    1995-12-01

    Extending operating cycles and shortening refueling outages are the mainstays of utility efforts to improve the economics of nuclear generation. Here are key management approaches that have contributed to recent successes. Improving operating efficiency remains the byword of nuclear power producers, as they intensify their drive to reduce operation and maintenance (O and M) costs and survive--even thrive--in a competitive environment. Because replacement-power and other costs can incur penalties of $0.5-million or more for each that a nuclear unit is inoperative--and almost $3-million/day, for one utility--refueling outages are an obvious focal point for such efforts, By the same token, the impact on the bottom line is greater and more dramatic here than for other cost-saving activities.

  6. Outage management and health physics issue, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2006-05-15

    The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles/reports in this issue include: A design with experience for the U.S., by Michael J. Wallace, Constellation Generation Group; Hope to be among the first, by Randy Hutchinson, Entergy Nuclear; Plans to file COLs in 2008, by Garry Miller, Progress Energy; Evolution of ICRP's recommendations, by Lars-Erik Holm, ICRP; European network on education and training in radiological protection, by Michele Coeck, SCK-CEN, Belgium; Outage managment: an important tool for improving nuclear power plant performance, by Thomas Mazour and Jiri Mandula, IAEA, Austria; and Plant profile: Exploring new paths to excellence, by Anne Thomas, Exelon Nuclear.

  7. Distributed Power-Line Outage Detection Based on Wide Area Measurement System

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang; Song, Wen-Zhan

    2014-01-01

    In modern power grids, the fast and reliable detection of power-line outages is an important functionality, which prevents cascading failures and facilitates an accurate state estimation to monitor the real-time conditions of the grids. However, most of the existing approaches for outage detection suffer from two drawbacks, namely: (i) high computational complexity; and (ii) relying on a centralized means of implementation. The high computational complexity limits the practical usage of outage detection only for the case of single-line or double-line outages. Meanwhile, the centralized means of implementation raises security and privacy issues. Considering these drawbacks, the present paper proposes a distributed framework, which carries out in-network information processing and only shares estimates on boundaries with the neighboring control areas. This novel framework relies on a convex-relaxed formulation of the line outage detection problem and leverages the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) for its distributed solution. The proposed framework invokes a low computational complexity, requiring only linear and simple matrix-vector operations. We also extend this framework to incorporate the sparse property of the measurement matrix and employ the LSQRalgorithm to enable a warm start, which further accelerates the algorithm. Analysis and simulation tests validate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approaches. PMID:25051035

  8. Distributed power-line outage detection based on wide area measurement system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Song, Wen-Zhan

    2014-07-21

    In modern power grids, the fast and reliable detection of power-line outages is an important functionality, which prevents cascading failures and facilitates an accurate state estimation to monitor the real-time conditions of the grids. However, most of the existing approaches for outage detection suffer from two drawbacks, namely: (i) high computational complexity; and (ii) relying on a centralized means of implementation. The high computational complexity limits the practical usage of outage detection only for the case of single-line or double-line outages. Meanwhile, the centralized means of implementation raises security and privacy issues. Considering these drawbacks, the present paper proposes a distributed framework, which carries out in-network information processing and only shares estimates on boundaries with the neighboring control areas. This novel framework relies on a convex-relaxed formulation of the line outage detection problem and leverages the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) for its distributed solution. The proposed framework invokes a low computational complexity, requiring only linear and simple matrix-vector operations. We also extend this framework to incorporate the sparse property of the measurement matrix and employ the LSQRalgorithm to enable a warm start, which further accelerates the algorithm. Analysis and simulation tests validate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  9. Advanced Outage and Control Center: Strategies for Nuclear Plant Outage Work Status Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Weatherby

    2012-05-01

    The research effort is a part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program. LWRS is a research and development program sponsored by the Department of Energy, performed in close collaboration with industry to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRS Program serves to help the US nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. The Outage Control Center (OCC) Pilot Project was directed at carrying out the applied research for development and pilot of technology designed to enhance safe outage and maintenance operations, improve human performance and reliability, increase overall operational efficiency, and improve plant status control. Plant outage management is a high priority concern for the nuclear industry from cost and safety perspectives. Unfortunately, many of the underlying technologies supporting outage control are the same as those used in the 1980’s. They depend heavily upon large teams of staff, multiple work and coordination locations, and manual administrative actions that require large amounts of paper. Previous work in human reliability analysis suggests that many repetitive tasks, including paper work tasks, may have a failure rate of 1.0E-3 or higher (Gertman, 1996). With between 10,000 and 45,000 subtasks being performed during an outage (Gomes, 1996), the opportunity for human error of some consequence is a realistic concern. Although a number of factors exist that can make these errors recoverable, reducing and effectively coordinating the sheer number of tasks to be performed, particularly those that are error prone, has the potential to enhance outage efficiency and safety. Additionally, outage management requires precise coordination of work groups that do not always share similar objectives. Outage

  10. Design Concepts for an Outage Control Center Information Dashboard

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo, Jacques Victor; St Germain, Shawn Walter; Thompson, Cheradan Jo; Whitesides, McKenzie Jo; Farris, Ronald Keith

    2015-12-01

    The nuclear industry, and the business world in general, is facing a rapidly increasing amount of data to be dealt with on a daily basis. In the last two decades, the steady improvement of data storage devices and means to create and collect data along the way influenced the manner in which we deal with information. Most data is still stored without filtering and refinement for later use. Many functions at a nuclear power plant generate vast amounts of data, with scheduled and unscheduled outages being a prime example of a source of some of the most complex data sets at the plant. To make matters worse, modern information and communications technology is making it possible to collect and store data faster than our ability to use it for making decisions. However, in most applications, especially outages, raw data has no value in itself; instead, managers, engineers and other specialists want to extract the information contained in it. The complexity and sheer volume of data could lead to information overload, resulting in getting lost in data that may be irrelevant to the task at hand, processed in an inappropriate way, or presented in an ineffective way. To prevent information overload, many data sources are ignored so production opportunities are lost because utilities lack the ability to deal with the enormous data volumes properly. Decision-makers are often confronted with large amounts of disparate, conflicting and dynamic information, which are available from multiple heterogeneous sources. Information and communication technologies alone will not solve this problem. Utilities need effective methods to exploit and use the hidden opportunities and knowledge residing in unexplored data resources. Superior performance before, during and after outages depends upon the right information being available at the right time to the right people. Acquisition of raw data is the easy part; instead, it is the ability to use advanced analytical, data processing and data

  11. The detection, prevention and mitigation of cascading outages in the power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hongbiao

    This dissertation studies the causes and mechanism of power system cascading outages and develops new methods and new tools to help detect, prevent and mitigate the outages. Three effective solutions: a steady state control scheme, a transient stability control scheme, and an interactive system-wide and local scheme have been proposed using those new methods and tools. A steady state control scheme can help detect and prevent the possible cascading outage at its initial slow steady state progress stage. It uses new methods and new tools to solve the line overload, congestion or bus high/low voltage problems. New methods, such as vulnerability index (VI), margin index (MI), network contribution factor (NCF), topology processing and selected minimum load shedding (SMLS), and new tools, such as transmission network control based on a network contribution factor (NCF) method, generator control based on a generator distribution factor (GDF) method, and load control based on a load distribution factor (LDF) method have been proposed and developed. A transient stability control scheme can help prevent and mitigate the possible cascading outage at its transient progress stage if there is enough time to take action. It uses one Lyapunov direct method, potential energy boundary surface (PEBS) method, and sensitivity analysis of transient energy margin for fast stabilizing control. The results are verified by the accurate time-domain transient stability analysis method. The interactive scheme takes advantage of accurate system-wide and local information and analysis results, uses some techniques from both steady state control and transient stability control, works at both the system-wide level and local substation level, monitors the system all the time, and takes actions when needed to help detect, prevent and mitigate the possible cascading outage. Comprehensive simulation studies have been implemented using the IEEE 14-bus, 24-bus, 39-bus and 118-bus systems and promising

  12. Cost Benefit Analysis of the Power Storage System Considering Outage Cost in the Deregulated Power Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuru, Hirokazu; Fujii, Yasumasa

    In this paper, the authors propose the mathematical model which derives the optimal operation strategies of an on-site power storage system through the use of stochastic dynamic programming technique. The model takes account of the variations and uncertainties of electricity market prices as well as the outage costs of power grid failures. The market price fluctuation is modeled with stochastic differential equation. The stochastic state transitions between normal and failed systems are modeled with exponential density functions. The derived optimal operation indicates that the economic value of the storage system may be increased substantially, if the avoided outage costs are explicitly taken into account. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that the most influential parameters are the magnitude of outage cost and the mean time to failure of power grid.

  13. Prediction of the outage performance of a microwave multiple-hop network due to rain attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanellopoulos, John D.; Gakis, Lampros

    1987-10-01

    In the design of tandem links using frequencies above 10 GHz, it is necessary to estimate outage time occurrence probability due to rain attenuation. Subject of this paper is the theoretical analysis of simultaneous probability of rain attenuation for tendem links by studying the joint distribution of correlated lognormal variables. This analysis is appropriate to locations where the point rainrate distribution approximates the lognormal function. The theoretical predictions for the outage performance of the multiple-hop network have been compared with existing experimental data for tandem links located in France, USA and Japan. The agreement has been found to be encouraging.

  14. 36 CFR 1120.33 - Time allowed for initial action on requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Information Officer. (c) There is excluded from the period of 10 working days (or any extension) any time... a reasonable identification. (d) There is excluded from the period of 10 working days (or any... circumstances require the extension: (i) There is a need to search for and collect the requested records...

  15. Piloted simulator study of allowable time delays in large-airplane response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, William D.; Bert T.?aetingas, Stephen A.dings with ran; Bert T.?aetingas, Stephen A.dings with ran

    1987-01-01

    A piloted simulation was performed to determine the permissible time delay and phase shift in the flight control system of a specific large transport-type airplane. The study was conducted with a six degree of freedom ground-based simulator and a math model similar to an advanced wide-body jet transport. Time delays in discrete and lagged form were incorporated into the longitudinal, lateral, and directional control systems of the airplane. Three experienced pilots flew simulated approaches and landings with random localizer and glide slope offsets during instrument tracking as their principal evaluation task. Results of the present study suggest a level 1 (satisfactory) handling qualities limit for the effective time delay of 0.15 sec in both the pitch and roll axes, as opposed to a 0.10-sec limit of the present specification (MIL-F-8785C) for both axes. Also, the present results suggest a level 2 (acceptable but unsatisfactory) handling qualities limit for an effective time delay of 0.82 sec and 0.57 sec for the pitch and roll axes, respectively, as opposed to 0.20 sec of the present specifications for both axes. In the area of phase shift between cockpit input and control surface deflection,the results of this study, flown in turbulent air, suggest less severe phase shift limitations for the approach and landing task-approximately 50 deg. in pitch and 40 deg. in roll - as opposed to 15 deg. of the present specifications for both axes.

  16. Time Gating of Chloroplast Autofluorescence Allows Clearer Fluorescence Imaging In Planta

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast, an organelle facilitating photosynthesis, exhibits strong autofluorescence, which is an undesired background signal that restricts imaging experiments with exogenous fluorophore in plants. In this study, the autofluorescence was characterized in planta under confocal laser microscopy, and it was found that the time-gated imaging technique completely eliminates the autofluorescence. As a demonstration of the technique, a clearer signal of fluorescent protein-tagged phototropin, a blue-light photoreceptor localized at the chloroplast periphery, was visualized in planta. PMID:27027881

  17. Cherenkov Video Imaging Allows for the First Visualization of Radiation Therapy in Real Time

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, Lesley A.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Gladstone, David J.; Jiang, Shudong; Hitchcock, Whitney; Friedman, Oscar D.; Glaser, Adam K.; Jermyn, Michael; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To determine whether Cherenkov light imaging can visualize radiation therapy in real time during breast radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: An intensified charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was synchronized to the 3.25-μs radiation pulses of the clinical linear accelerator with the intensifier set × 100. Cherenkov images were acquired continuously (2.8 frames/s) during fractionated whole breast irradiation with each frame an accumulation of 100 radiation pulses (approximately 5 monitor units). Results: The first patient images ever created are used to illustrate that Cherenkov emission can be visualized as a video during conditions typical for breast radiation therapy, even with complex treatment plans, mixed energies, and modulated treatment fields. Images were generated correlating to the superficial dose received by the patient and potentially the location of the resulting skin reactions. Major blood vessels are visible in the image, providing the potential to use these as biological landmarks for improved geometric accuracy. The potential for this system to detect radiation therapy misadministrations, which can result from hardware malfunction or patient positioning setup errors during individual fractions, is shown. Conclusions: Cherenkoscopy is a unique method for visualizing surface dose resulting in real-time quality control. We propose that this system could detect radiation therapy errors in everyday clinical practice at a time when these errors can be corrected to result in improved safety and quality of radiation therapy.

  18. Component outage data analysis methods. Volume 2: Basic statistical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. A.; Mazumdar, M.; McCutchan, D. A.

    1981-08-01

    Statistical methods for analyzing outage data on major power system components such as generating units, transmission lines, and transformers are identified. The analysis methods produce outage statistics from component failure and repair data that help in understanding the failure causes and failure modes of various types of components. Methods for forecasting outage statistics for those components used in the evaluation of system reliability are emphasized.

  19. Laser speckle imaging allows real-time intraoperative blood flow assessment during neurosurgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Nils; Woitzik, Johannes; König, Susanne; Horn, Peter; Vajkoczy, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Currently, there is no adequate technique for intraoperative monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF). To evaluate laser speckle imaging (LSI) for assessment of relative CBF, LSI was performed in 30 patients who underwent direct surgical revascularization for treatment of arteriosclerotic cerebrovascular disease (ACVD), Moyamoya disease (MMD), or giant aneurysms, and in 8 control patients who underwent intracranial surgery for reasons other than hemodynamic compromise. The applicability and sensitivity of LSI was investigated through baseline perfusion and CO2 reactivity testing. The dynamics of LSI were assessed during bypass test occlusion and flow initiation procedures. Laser speckle imaging permitted robust (pseudo-) quantitative assessment of relative microcirculatory flow and standard bypass grafting resulted in significantly higher postoperative baseline perfusion values in ACVD and MMD. The applicability and sensitivity of LSI was shown by a significantly reduced CO2 reactivity in ACVD (9.6±9%) and MMD (8.5±8%) compared with control (31.2±5%; P<0.0001). In high- and intermediate-flow bypass patients, LSI was characterized by a dynamic real-time response to acute perfusion changes and ultimately confirmed a sufficient flow substitution through the bypass graft. Thus, LSI can be used for sensitive and continuous, non-invasive real-time visualization and measurement of relative cortical CBF in excellent spatial-temporal resolution.

  20. Service outages in GPS associated with satellite failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalafus, R. M.

    The planned NAVSTAR/GPS satellite constellation of 18 satellites plus 3 active spares will provide excellent coverage over the CONUS if all are operating properly. This report examines the coverage under conditions of one satellite failure. It turns out that the failure of any satellie results in service outages of up to half an hour somewhere in the CONUS. While altimeter aiding eliminates most of these outages, there still remain 14 outage events each day. Furthermore, 'coasting' the navigation solution with a stable clock is not effective in handling these outages. The one technique that does appear effective is using a mask angle of 5 degrees or less.

  1. Real-time simulation of the retina allowing visualization of each processing stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teeters, Jeffrey L.; Werblin, Frank S.

    1991-08-01

    The retina computes to let us see, but can we see the retina compute? Until now, the answer has been no, because the unconscious nature of the processing hides it from our view. Here the authors describe a method of seeing computations performed throughout the retina. This is achieved by using neurophysiological data to construct a model of the retina, and using a special-purpose image processing computer (PIPE) to implement the model in real time. Processing in the model is organized into stages corresponding to computations performed by each retinal cell type. The final stage is the transient (change detecting) ganglion cell. A CCD camera forms the input image, and the activity of a selected retinal cell type is the output which is displayed on a TV monitor. By changing the retina cell driving the monitor, the progressive transformations of the image by the retina can be observed. These simulations demonstrate the ubiquitous presence of temporal and spatial variations in the patterns of activity generated by the retina which are fed into the brain. The dynamical aspects make these patterns very different from those generated by the common DOG (Difference of Gaussian) model of receptive field. Because the retina is so successful in biological vision systems, the processing described here may be useful in machine vision.

  2. Real time simulation of the retina allowing visualization of each processing stage

    SciTech Connect

    Teeters, J.L.; Werblin, F.

    1990-03-01

    Our retina computes to let us see, but can we see our retina compute? Until now, the answer has been `no` because the unconscious nature of the processing hides it from our view. Here we overcome the barrier of our closeness and describe what (to our knowledge) is the first method of seeing computations performed throughout the retina. This is achieved by using neurophysical data to construct a model of the retina, and using a special purpose image processing computer (PIPE) to implement the model in real time. Processing in the model is organized into stages corresponding to computations performed by each retinal cell type. The final stage is the formation of the transient (change detecting) ganglion cell response. A CCD camera forms the input image and the activity of any retinal cell type layer is the output which is displayed on a TV monitor. By changing the retina cell type driving the monitor, the progressive transformations of the image occurring in each stage of retina processing can be observed. The simulations demonstrate several phenomena including the slight blurring of the image caused by coupling between receptors, the relatively slow response to change and further blurring of the image by horizontal cells, the enhancement of moving edges by the bipolar cells, the separation of information flow into On and Off components, change detection in amacrine cells and the lateral inhibition to ganglion cells. Because the retina is the first stage of all biological vision systems, this processing may be useful for machine vision.

  3. Real time simulation of the retina allowing visualization of each processing stage

    SciTech Connect

    Teeters, J.L. ); Werblin, F. )

    1990-03-01

    Our retina computes to let us see, but can we see our retina compute Until now, the answer has been no' because the unconscious nature of the processing hides it from our view. Here we overcome the barrier of our closeness and describe what (to our knowledge) is the first method of seeing computations performed throughout the retina. This is achieved by using neurophysical data to construct a model of the retina, and using a special purpose image processing computer (PIPE) to implement the model in real time. Processing in the model is organized into stages corresponding to computations performed by each retinal cell type. The final stage is the formation of the transient (change detecting) ganglion cell response. A CCD camera forms the input image and the activity of any retinal cell type layer is the output which is displayed on a TV monitor. By changing the retina cell type driving the monitor, the progressive transformations of the image occurring in each stage of retina processing can be observed. The simulations demonstrate several phenomena including the slight blurring of the image caused by coupling between receptors, the relatively slow response to change and further blurring of the image by horizontal cells, the enhancement of moving edges by the bipolar cells, the separation of information flow into On and Off components, change detection in amacrine cells and the lateral inhibition to ganglion cells. Because the retina is the first stage of all biological vision systems, this processing may be useful for machine vision.

  4. Improved outage management techniques for better plant availability

    SciTech Connect

    Bemer, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    To maintain high availability of nuclear generating units is one of the most important management objectives. The duration of outages-whether planned or unplanned-is the main parameter impacting on plant availability, but the planned outages, and essentially the refueling outages, are the most important in this respect, and they also have a heavy impact on the economics of plant operation. The following factors influence the duration of the outages: (1) modifications; (2) preventive maintenance operations; and (3) corrective maintenance operations of generic faults. In this paper, the authors examine how the outage management organization of Electricite de France (EdF) plants is tending to optimize the solutions to the above-mentioned points.

  5. Piloted simulator study of allowable time delay in pitch flight control system of a transport airplane with negative static stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, William D.; Smith, Paul M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Meyer, Robert T.; Tingas, Stephen A.

    1987-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted to determine the permissible time delay in the flight control system of a 10-percent statically unstable transport airplane during cruise flight conditions. The math model used for the simulation was a derivative Lockheed L-1011 wide-body jet transport. Data were collected and analyzed from a total of 137 cruising flights in both calm- and turbulent-air conditions. Results of this piloted simulation study verify previous findings that show present military specifications for allowable control-system time delay may be too stringent when applied to transport-size airplanes. Also, the degree of handling-qualities degradation due to time delay is shown to be strongly dependent on the source of the time delay in an advanced flight control system. Maximum allowable time delay for each source of time delay in the control system, in addition to a less stringent overall maximum level of time delay, should be considered for large aircraft. Preliminary results also suggest that adverse effects of control-system time delay may be at least partially offset by variations in control gearing. It is recommended that the data base include different airplane baselines, control systems, and piloting tasks with many pilots participating, so that a reasonable set of limits for control-system time delay can be established to replace the military specification limits currently being used.

  6. Outage Analysis of Dual-hop Cognitive Networks with Relay Selection over Nakagami-m Fading Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zongsheng; Pi, Xurong

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the outage performance of decode-and-forward cognitive relay networks for Nakagami-m fading channels, with considering both best relay selection and interference constraints. Focusing on the relay selection and making use of the underlay cognitive approach, an exact closed-form outage probability expression is derived in an independent, non-identical distributed Nakagami-m environment. The closed-form outage probability provides an efficient means to evaluate the effects of the maximum allowable interference power, number of cognitive relays, and channel conditions between the primary user and cognitive users. Finally, we present numerical results to validate the theory analysis. Moreover, from the simulation results, we obtain that the system can obtain the full diversity.

  7. Compassionate Allowances

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to content Social Security Search Menu Languages Sign in / up Compassionate Allowances Featured Items Compassionate Allowances Conditions CAL conditions are selected using information received ...

  8. Allowance for the phase of Jupiter when determining the contact times in some phenomena of its Galilean satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalchuk, V. V.

    2007-12-01

    We suggest a new method for predicting the phenomena observed in Jovian system of Galilean satellites that takes into account the planet’s phase effect. The method allows one to determine the geocentric times of the contacts of the satellite and its shadow with the illuminated part of the planet’s visible disk that occur near its inferior geocentric and inferior heliocentric conjunctions, respectively. The calculation is performed in the orthographic approximation for the geometric center of the satellite and its shadow by taking into account the curvature of the satellite’s orbit and the visible flattening of Jovian disk. The correction for the phase to the satellite’s contact time is determined from the phase shift of the center of the planet’s disk.

  9. Forecasting New Hampshire Power Outages through the Analysis of Weather Station Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fessenden, Ross T.

    Eversource Energy, formerly Public Service of New Hampshire (PSNH), has worked closely with Plymouth State University (PSU) in the past, and present, to better predict weather-related power outage events and maximize the efficiency with which Eversource responds to them. This research paired weather data from thirteen stations throughout New Hampshire, Vermont, and Massachusetts with Eversource Trouble Report and Unsatisfactory Performance of Equipment Report (TRUPER) data in an effort to quantify weather situations that lead to power outages. The ultimate goal involved developing a predictive model that uses weather data to forecast the magnitude of power outages. The study focused on the Eversource Western/Central service territory and utilized data from 2006-2010. The first four years, 2006-2009, were analyzed using Classification and Regression Tree (CART) statistical analysis. The results of this CART analysis trained a predictive model, while the fifth year, 2010, served as the testing set for the predictive model. To conduct the statistical analysis, a database was created pairing TRUPER reports with the closest available hourly weather observations. The database included nine weather variables matched with three variables from the TRUPER data: 1) customers, 2) customer minutes, and 3) outage duration. While the entire Eversource service territory saw 91,286 TRUPERs from 2006-2010, the Western/Central service territory, the focus of this study, accounted for 29,430. Before conducting the CART analysis, correlations between single weather variables and TRUPER data were calculated and, in general, proved xi weak. In addition to analyzing the complete four-year training data set, many portions/variations of the data set were analyzed. The analyses included a yearly analysis, time lag analysis, cold/warm-season analysis, and a single-station analysis. Although individual years and smaller data sets showed moderately higher correlations between weather and outage

  10. Innovation on Energy Power Technology (15)Great Advances in Power System Stabilizing Technology triggered by the Wide-area Outage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egawa, Masanao

    On July 23, 1987, a very hot day, the largest wide-area power outage occurred in Kanto-Area, Japan. The cause was a voltage collapse on the bulk power network of Tokyo Electric Power Company, due to the abnormal rate of demand rising following resume after lunch break. Aggressive studies on voltage collapse throughout industry and university have led to great advances in power system stability. This essay describes the detail record of the outage, the applied countermeasures, and the inside story when the multiple voltage solutions of power flow on actual power system were found out for the first time.

  11. Oscillation-Driven Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity Allows Multiple Overlapping Pattern Recognition in Inhibitory Interneuron Networks.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Jesús A; Luque, Niceto R; Tolu, Silvia; D'Angelo, Egidio

    2016-08-01

    The majority of operations carried out by the brain require learning complex signal patterns for future recognition, retrieval and reuse. Although learning is thought to depend on multiple forms of long-term synaptic plasticity, the way this latter contributes to pattern recognition is still poorly understood. Here, we have used a simple model of afferent excitatory neurons and interneurons with lateral inhibition, reproducing a network topology found in many brain areas from the cerebellum to cortical columns. When endowed with spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) at the excitatory input synapses and at the inhibitory interneuron-interneuron synapses, the interneurons rapidly learned complex input patterns. Interestingly, induction of plasticity required that the network be entrained into theta-frequency band oscillations, setting the internal phase-reference required to drive STDP. Inhibitory plasticity effectively distributed multiple patterns among available interneurons, thus allowing the simultaneous detection of multiple overlapping patterns. The addition of plasticity in intrinsic excitability made the system more robust allowing self-adjustment and rescaling in response to a broad range of input patterns. The combination of plasticity in lateral inhibitory connections and homeostatic mechanisms in the inhibitory interneurons optimized mutual information (MI) transfer. The storage of multiple complex patterns in plastic interneuron networks could be critical for the generation of sparse representations of information in excitatory neuron populations falling under their control.

  12. Organ donor screening using parallel nucleic acid testing allows assessment of transmission risk and assay results in real time.

    PubMed

    Baleriola, C; Tu, E; Johal, H; Gillis, J; Ison, M G; Law, M; Coghlan, P; Rawlinson, W D

    2012-06-01

    Expansion of the donor pool may lead to utilization of donors with risk factors for viral infections. Donor laboratory screening relies on serological and nucleic acid testing (NAT). The increased sensitivity of NAT in low prevalence populations may result in false-positive results (FPR) and may cause unnecessary discard of organs.We developed a screening algorithm to deal, in real time, with potential FPR. Three NAT assays: COBAS AmpliScreen assay (CAS), AmpliPrep Total Nucleic Acid Isolation/CAS, and AmpliPrep/TaqMan assays, were validated and used in parallel for prospective screening of increased-risk donors (IRD), and the probability of FPR was calculated. The lower limit of detection of this algorithm was 9.79, 21.02, and 4.31 IU/mL for human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus, respectively, with an average turn-around-time of 7.67 h from sample receipt to result reporting. The probability that a donor is potentially infectious with two NAT concordant results was >90%. NAT screening of 35 IRD within 18 months resulted in transplantation of 102 additional organs that without screening would either not be used or used with restrictions in Australia. Using a parallel testing algorithm, real-time confirmation of seropositive donors allows use of organs from IRD and safer expansion of the donor pool.

  13. Aid for health in times of political unrest in Mali: does donors' way of intervening allow protecting people's health?

    PubMed

    Paul, Elisabeth; Samaké, Salif; Berthé, Issa; Huijts, Ini; Balique, Hubert; Dujardin, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    Mali has long been a leader in francophone Africa in developing systems aimed at improving aid effectiveness, especially in the health sector. But following the invasion of the Northern regions of the country by terrorist groups and a coup in March 2012, donors suspended official development assistance, except for support to NGOs and humanitarian assistance. They resumed aid after transfer of power to a civil government, but this was not done in a harmonized framework. This article describes and analyses how donors in the health sector reacted to the political unrest in Mali. It shows that despite its long sector-wide approach experience and international agreements to respect aid effectiveness principles, donors have not been able to intervene in view of safeguarding the investments of co-operation in the past decade, and of protecting the health system's functioning. They reacted to the political unrest on a bilateral basis, stopped working with their ministerial partners, interrupted support to the health system which was still expected to serve populations' needs and took months before organizing alternative and only partial solutions to resume aid to the health sector. The Malian example leads to a worrying conclusion: while protecting the health system's achievements and functioning for the population should be a priority, and while harmonizing donors' interventions seems the most appropriate way for that purpose, donors' management practices do not allow for reacting adequately in times of unrest. The article concludes by a number of recommendations.

  14. Differential timing of antibody-mediated phagocytosis and cell-free killing of invasive African Salmonella allows immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Siggins, Matthew K; O'Shaughnessy, Colette M; Pravin, John; Cunningham, Adam F; Henderson, Ian R; Drayson, Mark T; MacLennan, Calman A

    2014-04-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonellae commonly cause fatal bacteraemia in African children lacking anti-Salmonella antibodies. These are facultative intracellular bacteria capable of cell-free and intracellular survival within macrophages. To better understand the relationship between extracellular and intracellular infection in blood and general mechanisms of Ab-related protection against Salmonella, we used human blood and sera to measure kinetics of Ab and complement deposition, serum-mediated bactericidal killing and phagocytosis of invasive African Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium D23580. Binding of antibodies peaked by 30 s, but C3 deposition lagged behind, peaking after 2-4 min. C5b-9 deposition was undetectable until between 2 and 6 min and peaked after 10 min, after which time an increase in serum-mediated killing occurred. In contrast, intracellular, opsonized Salmonellae were readily detectable within 5 min. By 10 min, around half of monocytes and most neutrophils contained bacteria. The same kinetics of serum-mediated killing and phagocytosis were observed with S. enterica Typhimurium laboratory strain SL1344, and the S. enterica Enteritidis African invasive isolate D24954 and laboratory strain PT4. The differential kinetics between cell-free killing and phagocytosis of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella allows these bacteria to escape the blood and establish intracellular infection before they are killed by the membrane attack complex.

  15. Using Predictive Analytics to Predict Power Outages from Severe Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanik, D. W.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Hartman, B.; Frediani, M. E.; Astitha, M.

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of reliable power is essential to businesses, public services, and our daily lives. With the growing abundance of data being collected and created by industry (i.e. outage data), government agencies (i.e. land cover), and academia (i.e. weather forecasts), we can begin to tackle problems that previously seemed too complex to solve. In this session, we will present newly developed tools to aid decision-support challenges at electric distribution utilities that must mitigate, prepare for, respond to and recover from severe weather. We will show a performance evaluation of outage predictive models built for Eversource Energy (formerly Connecticut Light & Power) for storms of all types (i.e. blizzards, thunderstorms and hurricanes) and magnitudes (from 20 to >15,000 outages). High resolution weather simulations (simulated with the Weather and Research Forecast Model) were joined with utility outage data to calibrate four types of models: a decision tree (DT), random forest (RF), boosted gradient tree (BT) and an ensemble (ENS) decision tree regression that combined predictions from DT, RF and BT. The study shows that the ENS model forced with weather, infrastructure and land cover data was superior to the other models we evaluated, especially in terms of predicting the spatial distribution of outages. This research has the potential to be used for other critical infrastructure systems (such as telecommunications, drinking water and gas distribution networks), and can be readily expanded to the entire New England region to facilitate better planning and coordination among decision-makers when severe weather strikes.

  16. A class of latent Markov models for capture-recapture data allowing for time, heterogeneity, and behavior effects.

    PubMed

    Bartolucci, Francesco; Pennoni, Fulvia

    2007-06-01

    We propose an extension of the latent class model for the analysis of capture-recapture data which allows us to take into account the effect of a capture on the behavior of a subject with respect to future captures. The approach is based on the assumption that the variable indexing the latent class of a subject follows a Markov chain with transition probabilities depending on the previous capture history. Several constraints are allowed on these transition probabilities and on the parameters of the conditional distribution of the capture configuration given the latent process. We also allow for the presence of discrete explanatory variables, which may affect the parameters of the latent process. To estimate the resulting models, we rely on the conditional maximum likelihood approach and for this aim we outline an EM algorithm. We also give some simple rules for point and interval estimation of the population size. The approach is illustrated by applying it to two data sets concerning small mammal populations.

  17. Hurricane Isaac: A Longitudinal Analysis of Storm Characteristics and Power Outage Risk.

    PubMed

    Tonn, Gina L; Guikema, Seth D; Ferreira, Celso M; Quiring, Steven M

    2016-10-01

    In August 2012, Hurricane Isaac, a Category 1 hurricane at landfall, caused extensive power outages in Louisiana. The storm brought high winds, storm surge, and flooding to Louisiana, and power outages were widespread and prolonged. Hourly power outage data for the state of Louisiana were collected during the storm and analyzed. This analysis included correlation of hourly power outage figures by zip code with storm conditions including wind, rainfall, and storm surge using a nonparametric ensemble data mining approach. Results were analyzed to understand how correlation of power outages with storm conditions differed geographically within the state. This analysis provided insight on how rainfall and storm surge, along with wind, contribute to power outages in hurricanes. By conducting a longitudinal study of outages at the zip code level, we were able to gain insight into the causal drivers of power outages during hurricanes. Our analysis showed that the statistical importance of storm characteristic covariates to power outages varies geographically. For Hurricane Isaac, wind speed, precipitation, and previous outages generally had high importance, whereas storm surge had lower importance, even in zip codes that experienced significant surge. The results of this analysis can inform the development of power outage forecasting models, which often focus strictly on wind-related covariates. Our study of Hurricane Isaac indicates that inclusion of other covariates, particularly precipitation, may improve model accuracy and robustness across a range of storm conditions and geography.

  18. Generalized shot noise model for time-reversal in multiple-scattering media allowing for arbitrary inputs and windowing

    PubMed Central

    Haworth, Kevin J.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.; Kripfgans, Oliver D.

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical shot noise model to describe the output of a time-reversal experiment in a multiple-scattering medium is developed. This (non-wave equation based) model describes the following process. An arbitrary waveform is transmitted through a high-order multiple-scattering environment and recorded. The recorded signal is arbitrarily windowed and then time-reversed. The processed signal is retransmitted into the environment and the resulting signal recorded. The temporal and spatial signal and noise of this process is predicted statistically. It is found that the time when the noise is largest depends on the arbitrary windowing and this noise peak can occur at times outside the main lobe. To determine further trends, a common set of parameters is applied to the general result. It is seen that as the duration of the input function increases, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decreases (independent of signal bandwidth). It is also seen that longer persisting impulse responses result in increased main lobe amplitudes and SNR. Assumptions underpinning the generalized shot noise model are compared to an experimental realization of a multiple-scattering medium (a time-reversal chaotic cavity). Results from the model are compared to random number numerical simulation. PMID:19425655

  19. Single particle optical extinction and scattering allows real time quantitative characterization of drug payload and degradation of polymeric nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potenza, M. A. C.; Sanvito, T.; Argentiere, S.; Cella, C.; Paroli, B.; Lenardi, C.; Milani, P.

    2015-12-01

    The behavior of nanoparticles in biological systems is determined by their dimensions, size distribution, shape, surface chemistry, density, drug loading and stability; the characterization of these parameters in realistic conditions and the possibility to follow their evolution in vitro and in vivo are, in most of the cases, far from the capabilities of the standard characterization technologies. Optical techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS) are, in principle, well suited for in line characterization of nanoparticle, however their fail in characterizing the evolution of nanoparticle in solution where change in particle dimension and density is present. Here we present an in-line optical technique based on single particle extinction and scattering (SPES) overcoming the limitations typical of DLS and allowing for the efficient characterization of nanoparticle polydispersity, index of refraction and degradation dynamics in solution. Using SPES, we characterized the evolution of PLGA nanoparticles with different structures and drug payloads in solution and we compared the results with DLS. Our results suggest that SPES could be used as a process analytical technology for pharmaceutical nanoparticle production.

  20. Key Issues for the control of refueling outage duration and costs in PWR Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Degrave, Claude

    2002-07-01

    For several years, EDF, within the framework of the CIDEM1 project and in collaboration with some German Utilities, has undertaken a detailed review of the operating experience both of its own NPP and of foreign units, in order to improve the performances of future units under design, particularly the French-German European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) project. This review made it possible to identify the key issues allowing to decrease the duration of refueling and maintenance outages. These key issues can be classified in 3 categories Design, Maintenance and Logistic Support, Outage Management. Most of the key issues in the design field and some in the logistic support field have been studied and could be integrated into the design of any future PWR unit, as for the EPR project. Some of them could also be adapted to current plants, provided they are feasible and profitable. The organization must be tailored to each country, utility or period: it widely depends on the power production environment, particularly in a deregulation context. (author)

  1. Distortion outage minimization in Nakagami fading using limited feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chih-Hong; Dey, Subhrakanti

    2011-12-01

    We focus on a decentralized estimation problem via a clustered wireless sensor network measuring a random Gaussian source where the clusterheads amplify and forward their received signals (from the intra-cluster sensors) over orthogonal independent stationary Nakagami fading channels to a remote fusion center that reconstructs an estimate of the original source. The objective of this paper is to design clusterhead transmit power allocation policies to minimize the distortion outage probability at the fusion center, subject to an expected sum transmit power constraint. In the case when full channel state information (CSI) is available at the clusterhead transmitters, the optimization problem can be shown to be convex and is solved exactly. When only rate-limited channel feedback is available, we design a number of computationally efficient sub-optimal power allocation algorithms to solve the associated non-convex optimization problem. We also derive an approximation for the diversity order of the distortion outage probability in the limit when the average transmission power goes to infinity. Numerical results illustrate that the sub-optimal power allocation algorithms perform very well and can close the outage probability gap between the constant power allocation (no CSI) and full CSI-based optimal power allocation with only 3-4 bits of channel feedback.

  2. Survey of tools for risk assessment of cascading outages

    SciTech Connect

    Papic, Milorad; Bell, Keith; Chen, Yousu; Dobson, Ian; Fonte, Louis; Haq, Enamul; Hines, Paul; Kirschen, Daniel; Luo, Xiaochuan; Miller, Stephen; Samaan, Nader A.; Vaiman, Marianna; Varghese, Matthew; Zhang, Pei

    2011-10-01

    Abstract-This paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by Understanding, Prediction, Mitigation and Restoration of Cascading Failures Task Force under IEEE Computer Analytical Methods Subcommittee (CAMS). The task force's previous papers [1, 2] are focused on general aspects of cascading outages such as understanding, prediction, prevention and restoration from cascading failures. This is the second of two new papers, which extend this previous work to summarize the state of the art in cascading failure risk analysis methodologies and modeling tools. The first paper reviews the state of the art in methodologies for performing risk assessment of potential cascading outages [3]. This paper describes the state of the art in cascading failure modeling tools, documenting the view of experts representing utilities, universities and consulting companies. The paper is intended to constitute a valid source of information and references about presently available tools that deal with prediction of cascading failure events. This effort involves reviewing published literature and other documentation from vendors, universities and research institutions. The assessment of cascading outages risk evaluation is in continuous evolution. Investigations to gain even better understanding and identification of cascading events are the subject of several research programs underway aimed at solving the complexity of these events that electrical utilities face today. Assessing the risk of cascading failure events in planning and operation for power transmission systems require adequate mathematical tools/software.

  3. Risk Assessment of Cascading Outages: Methodologies and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Vaiman, Marianna; Bell, Keith; Chen, Yousu; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Hines, Paul; Papic, Milorad; Miller, Stephen; Zhang, Pei

    2012-05-31

    Abstract- This paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by Understanding, Prediction, Mitigation and Restoration of Cascading Failures Task Force under IEEE Computer Analytical Methods Subcommittee (CAMS). The task force's previous papers are focused on general aspects of cascading outages such as understanding, prediction, prevention and restoration from cascading failures. This is the first of two new papers, which extend this previous work to summarize the state of the art in cascading failure risk analysis methodologies and modeling tools. This paper is intended to be a reference document to summarize the state of the art in the methodologies for performing risk assessment of cascading outages caused by some initiating event(s). A risk assessment should cover the entire potential chain of cascades starting with the initiating event(s) and ending with some final condition(s). However, this is a difficult task and heuristic approaches and approximations have been suggested. This paper discusses different approaches to this and suggests directions for future development of methodologies. The second paper summarizes the state of the art in modeling tools for risk assessment of cascading outages.

  4. Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage as solution to electrical grid outages in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdoulaye, D.; Koalaga, Z.; Zougmore, F.

    2012-02-01

    This paper deals with a key solution for power outages problem experienced by many African countries and this through grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage. African grids are characterized by an insufficient power supply and frequent interruptions. Due to this fact, users who especially use classical grid-connected photovoltaic systems are unable to profit from their installation even if there is sun. In this study, we suggest the using of a grid-connected photovoltaic system with batteries storage as a solution to these problems. This photovoltaic system works by injecting the surplus of electricity production into grid and can also deliver electricity as a stand-alone system with all security needed. To achieve our study objectives, firstly we conducted a survey of a real situation of one African electrical grid, the case of Burkina Faso (SONABEL: National Electricity Company of Burkina). Secondly, as study case, we undertake a sizing, a modeling and a simulation of a grid-connected PV system with batteries storage for the LAME laboratory at the University of Ouagadougou. The simulation shows that the proposed grid-connected system allows users to profit from their photovoltaic installation at any time even if the public electrical grid has some failures either during the day or at night.

  5. 41 CFR 302-2.110 - Are there time factors that we must consider for allowing an employee to complete all aspects of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are there time factors... 302-2.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-EMPLOYEES ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS Agency Responsibilities Time Limits §...

  6. 41 CFR 302-2.110 - Are there time factors that we must consider for allowing an employee to complete all aspects of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Are there time factors... 302-2.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-EMPLOYEES ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS Agency Responsibilities Time Limits §...

  7. 41 CFR 302-2.110 - Are there time factors that we must consider for allowing an employee to complete all aspects of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are there time factors... 302-2.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-EMPLOYEES ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS Agency Responsibilities Time Limits §...

  8. 41 CFR 302-2.110 - Are there time factors that we must consider for allowing an employee to complete all aspects of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Are there time factors... 302-2.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-EMPLOYEES ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS Agency Responsibilities Time Limits §...

  9. 41 CFR 302-2.110 - Are there time factors that we must consider for allowing an employee to complete all aspects of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are there time factors... 302-2.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-EMPLOYEES ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS Agency Responsibilities Time Limits §...

  10. Coevolution between Hispaniolan crossbills and pine: does more time allow for greater phenotypic escalation at lower latitude?

    PubMed

    Parchman, Thomas L; Benkman, Craig W; Mezquida, Eduardo T

    2007-09-01

    Crossbills (Aves: Loxia) and several conifers have coevolved in predator-prey arms races over the last 10,000 years. However, the extent to which coevolutionary arms races have contributed to the adaptive radiation of crossbills or to any other adaptive radiation is largely unknown. Here we extend our previous studies of geographically structured coevolution by considering a crossbill-conifer interaction that has persisted for a much longer time period and involves a conifer with more variable annual seed production. We examined geographic variation in the cone and seed traits of two sister species of pines, Pinus occidentalis and P. cubensis, on the islands of Hispaniola and Cuba, respectively. We also compared the Hispaniolan crossbill (Loxia megaplaga) to its sister taxa the North American white-winged crossbill (Loxia leucoptera leucoptera). The Hispaniolan crossbill is endemic to Hispaniola whereas Cuba lacks crossbills. In addition and in contrast to previous studies, the variation in selection experienced by these pines due to crossbills is not confounded by the occurrence of selection by tree squirrels (Tamiasciurus and Sciurus). As predicted if P. occidentalis has evolved defenses in response to selection exerted by crossbills, cones of P. occidentalis have scales that are 53% thicker than those of P. cubensis. Cones of P. occidentalis, but not P. cubensis, also have well-developed spines, a known defense against vertebrate seed predators. Consistent with patterns of divergence seen in crossbills coevolving locally with other conifers, the Hispaniolan crossbill has evolved a bill that is 25% deeper than the white-winged crossbill. Together with phylogenetic analyses, our results suggest that predator-prey coevolution between Hispaniolan crossbills and P. occidentalis over approximately 600,000 years has caused substantial morphological evolution in both the crossbill and pine. This also indicates that cone crop fluctuations do not prevent crossbills and

  11. Hybrid Model for Cascading Outage in a Power System: A Numerical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susuki, Yoshihiko; Takatsuji, Yu; Hikihara, Takashi

    Analysis of cascading outages in power systems is important for understanding why large blackouts emerge and how to prevent them. Cascading outages are complex dynamics of power systems, and one cause of them is the interaction between swing dynamics of synchronous machines and protection operation of relays and circuit breakers. This paper uses hybrid dynamical systems as a mathematical model for cascading outages caused by the interaction. Hybrid dynamical systems can combine families of flows describing swing dynamics with switching rules that are based on protection operation. This paper refers to data on a cascading outage in the September 2003 blackout in Italy and shows a hybrid dynamical system by which propagation of outages reproduced is consistent with the data. This result suggests that hybrid dynamical systems can provide an effective model for the analysis of cascading outages in power systems.

  12. Satellite Observations Monitor Outages From Superstorm Sandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molthan, Andrew; Jedlovec, Gary

    2013-01-01

    In late October 2012, Hurricane Sandy traveled across Jamaica, Cuba, and the Bahamas, then progressed northward along the eastern seaboard of the United States, resulting in numerous tropical storm warnings along the coasts of Florida and North Carolina. As the storm approached the Mid-Atlantic region, interaction with an upper-level low drew the cyclone inland, with the center passing just north of Atlantic City, N. J. In what media reports dubbed a "superstorm," Sandy produced hurricane-force winds, significant coastal storm surge, torrential rain, inland flooding, and extensive damage over a vast area. Further west of the cyclone center, strong winds increased wave activity throughout the Great Lakes, and heavy snowfall occurred across portions of Tennessee, Kentucky, and West Virginia. As of early November, more than 100 fatalities had been attributed to Sandy in the northeastern United States, with total economic losses of up to $50 billion [New York Times, 2012, and Walsh and Schwartz, 2012].

  13. Coordinate Update Algorithms for Robust Power Loading for the MU-MISO Downlink With Outage Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, Foad; Davidson, Timothy N.

    2016-06-01

    We consider the problem of power allocation for the single-cell multi-user (MU) multiple-input single-output (MISO) downlink with quality-of-service (QoS) constraints. The base station acquires an estimate of the channels and, for a given beamforming structure, designs the power allocation so as to minimize the total transmission power required to ensure that target signal-to-interference-and-noise ratios at the receivers are met, subject to a specified outage probability. We consider scenarios in which the errors in the base station's channel estimates can be modelled as being zero-mean and Gaussian. Such a model is particularly suitable for time division duplex (TDD) systems with quasi-static channels, in which the base station estimates the channel during the uplink phase. Under that model, we employ a precise deterministic characterization of the outage probability to transform the chance-constrained formulation to a deterministic one. Although that deterministic formulation is not convex, we develop a coordinate descent algorithm that can be shown to converge to a globally optimal solution when the starting point is feasible. Insight into the structure of the deterministic formulation yields approximations that result in coordinate update algorithms with good performance and significantly lower computational cost. The proposed algorithms provide better performance than existing robust power loading algorithms that are based on tractable conservative approximations, and can even provide better performance than robust precoding algorithms based on such approximations.

  14. LIDAR and Ins Fusion in Periods of GPS Outages for Mobile Laser Scanning Mapping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, I.; Filin, S.

    2011-09-01

    Mobile laser scanning systems are becoming an increasingly popular means to obtain 3D coverage on a large scale. To perform the mapping, the exact position of the vehicle must be known throughout the trajectory. Exact position is achieved via integration of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Inertial Navigation Systems (INS). Yet, in urban environments, cases of complete or even partial GPS outages may occur leaving the navigation solution to rely only on the INS. The INS navigation solution degrades with time as the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) measurements contains noise, which permeates into the navigation equations. Degradation of the position determination leads to loss of data in such segments. To circumvent such drift and its effects, we propose fusing INS with lidar data by using building edges. This detection of edges is then translated into position data, which is used as an aiding to the INS. It thereby enables the determination of the vehicle position with a satisfactory level accuracy, sufficient to perform the laser-scanning based mapping in those outage periods.

  15. Synthesis of power plant outage schedules. Final technical report, April 1995-January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.R.

    1997-07-01

    This document provides a report on the creation of domain theories in the power plant outage domain. These were developed in conjunction with the creation of a demonstration system of advanced scheduling technology for the outage problem. In 1994 personnel from Rome Laboratory (RL), Kaman Science (KS), Kestrel Institute, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) began a joint project to develop scheduling tools for power plant outage activities. This report describes our support for this joint effort. The project uses KIDS (Kestrel Interactive Development System) to generate schedulers from formal specifications of the power plant domain outage activities.

  16. Simultaneous Effects of Allowed Time, Teaching Method, Ability, and Student Assessment of Treatment on Achievement in a High School Biology Course (ISIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkman, Ernest; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined effects of teaching method (self-directed, group-directed, teacher-directed), academic ability, student assessment of treatment, and allowed time on achievement in three Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) biology minicourses. Results, among others, indicated that individualized instruction favored high-ability students and…

  17. "I Have to Rest All the Time Because You Are Not Allowed to Play": Exploring Children's Perceptions of Autonomy during Sleep-Time in Long Day Care Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nothard, Michaela; Irvine, Susan; Theobald, Maryanne; Staton, Sally; Pattinson, Cassandra; Thorpe, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Daytime sleep is a significant part of the daily routine for children attending early childhood education and care (ECEC) services in Australia and many other countries. The practice of sleep-time can account for a substantial portion of the day in ECEC and often involves a mandated sleep/rest period for all children, including older…

  18. Risk Assessment of Cascading Outages: Part I - Overview of Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Vaiman, Marianna; Bell, Keith; Chen, Yousu; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Hines, Paul; Papic, Milorad; Miller, Stephen; Zhang, Pei

    2011-07-31

    This paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by Understanding, Prediction, Mitigation and Restoration of Cascading Failures Task Force under IEEE Computer Analytical Methods Subcommittee (CAMS). The task force's previous papers are focused on general aspects of cascading outages such as understanding, prediction, prevention and restoration from cascading failures. This is the first of two new papers, which will extend this previous work to summarize the state of the art in cascading failure risk analysis methodologies and modeling tools. This paper is intended to be a reference document to summarize the state of the art in the methodologies for performing risk assessment of cascading outages caused by some initiating event(s). A risk assessment should cover the entire potential chain of cascades starting with the initiating event(s) and ending with some final condition(s). However, this is a difficult task and heuristic approaches and approximations have been suggested. This paper discusses diffeent approaches to this and suggests directions for future development of methodologies.

  19. 47 CFR 4.9 - Outage reporting requirements-threshold criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outage reporting requirements-threshold criteria. 4.9 Section 4.9 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS Reporting Requirements for Disruptions to Communications § 4.9 Outage reporting...

  20. 47 CFR 4.5 - Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... facilities, and 911 special facilities. 4.5 Section 4.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities. (a) Outage is defined as a... government facilities.” 911 special facilities are addressed separately in paragraph (e) of this section....

  1. Home Use Devices: How to Prepare for and Handle Power Outages for Medical Devices That Require Electricity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Handle Power Outages for Medical Devices that Require Electricity Center for De CDRH vices and Rad lth ... Handle Power Outages for Medical Devices that Require Electricity As a home medical device user, it is ...

  2. Estimating Power Outage Cost based on a Survey for Industrial Customers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Yoshikuni; Matsuhashi, Ryuji

    A survey was conducted on power outage cost for industrial customers. 5139 factories, which are designated energy management factories in Japan, answered their power consumption and the loss of production value due to the power outage in an hour in summer weekday. The median of unit cost of power outage of whole sectors is estimated as 672 yen/kWh. The sector of services for amusement and hobbies and the sector of manufacture of information and communication electronics equipment relatively have higher unit cost of power outage. Direct damage cost from power outage in whole sectors reaches 77 billion yen. Then utilizing input-output analysis, we estimated indirect damage cost that is caused by the repercussion of production halt. Indirect damage cost in whole sectors reaches 91 billion yen. The sector of wholesale and retail trade has the largest direct damage cost. The sector of manufacture of transportation equipment has the largest indirect damage cost.

  3. Balancing outage performance of primary user and secondary user by relay-assisted primary transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng; Sun, Xiangqi; Chen, Hongbin; Bie, Rongfang

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a cooperative transmission protocol for cognitive radio systems is proposed. In this protocol, the primary system comprises a transmitter (PT), a receiver (PR), and a decode-and-forward relay (Relay), while the secondary system comprises a transmitter (ST) and a receiver (SR). Both the ST and the Relay assist the transmissions of the primary users together. The outage probabilities of the primary system and the secondary system are analyzed and verified through simulations. In order to decrease outage probability of the secondary system, power allocation is performed at the ST. However, it will lead to deterioration of outage performance of the primary system. In order to guarantee outage performance of the primary system, a Relay is employed. Compared with two existing protocols, one without cooperation and the other with cooperation of the secondary system only, the proposed protocol is able to better balance outage performances of the primary system and the secondary system.

  4. Braess's paradox in oscillator networks, desynchronization and power outage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witthaut, Dirk; Timme, Marc

    2012-08-01

    Robust synchronization is essential to ensure the stable operation of many complex networked systems such as electric power grids. Increasing energy demands and more strongly distributing power sources raise the question of where to add new connection lines to the already existing grid. Here we study how the addition of individual links impacts the emergence of synchrony in oscillator networks that model power grids on coarse scales. We reveal that adding new links may not only promote but also destroy synchrony and link this counter-intuitive phenomenon to Braess's paradox known for traffic networks. We analytically uncover its underlying mechanism in an elementary grid example, trace its origin to geometric frustration in phase oscillators, and show that it generically occurs across a wide range of systems. As an important consequence, upgrading the grid requires particular care when adding new connections because some may destabilize the synchronization of the grid—and thus induce power outages.

  5. Power Outages, Extreme Events and Health: a Systematic Review of the Literature from 2011-2012

    PubMed Central

    Klinger, Chaamala; Landeg, Owen; Murray, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Background Extreme events (e.g. flooding) threaten critical infrastructure including power supplies. Many interlinked systems in the modern world depend on a reliable power supply to function effectively. The health sector is no exception, but the impact of power outages on health is poorly understood. Greater understanding is essential so that adverse health impacts can be prevented and/or mitigated. Methods We searched Medline, CINAHL and Scopus for papers about the health impacts of power outages during extreme events published in 2011-2012. A thematic analysis was undertaken on the extracted information. The Public Health England Extreme Events Bulletins between 01/01/2013 - 31/03/2013 were used to identify extreme events that led to power outages during this three-month period. Results We identified 20 relevant articles. Power outages were found to impact health at many levels within diverse settings. Recurrent themes included the difficulties of accessing healthcare, maintaining frontline services and the challenges of community healthcare. We identified 52 power outages in 19 countries that were the direct consequence of extreme events during the first three months of 2013. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first review of the health impacts of power outages. We found the current evidence and knowledge base to be poor. With scientific consensus predicting an increase in the frequency and magnitude of extreme events due to climate change, the gaps in knowledge need to be addressed in order to mitigate the impact of power outages on global health. PMID:24459613

  6. Power outages, extreme events and health: a systematic review of the literature from 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Chaamala; Landeg, Owen; Murray, Virginia

    2014-01-02

    Background Extreme events (e.g. flooding) threaten critical infrastructure including power supplies. Many interlinked systems in the modern world depend on a reliable power supply to function effectively. The health sector is no exception, but the impact of power outages on health is poorly understood. Greater understanding is essential so that adverse health impacts can be prevented and/or mitigated. Methods We searched Medline, CINAHL and Scopus for papers about the health impacts of power outages during extreme events published in 2011-2012. A thematic analysis was undertaken on the extracted information. The Public Health England Extreme Events Bulletins between 01/01/2013 - 31/03/2013 were used to identify extreme events that led to power outages during this three-month period. Results We identified 20 relevant articles. Power outages were found to impact health at many levels within diverse settings. Recurrent themes included the difficulties of accessing healthcare, maintaining frontline services and the challenges of community healthcare. We identified 52 power outages in 19 countries that were the direct consequence of extreme events during the first three months of 2013. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first review of the health impacts of power outages. We found the current evidence and knowledge base to be poor. With scientific consensus predicting an increase in the frequency and magnitude of extreme events due to climate change, the gaps in knowledge need to be addressed in order to mitigate the impact of power outages on global health.

  7. Heterologous Matrix Metalloproteinase Gene Promoter Activity Allows In Vivo Real-time Imaging of Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Transiently Transgenized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stellari, Fabio Franco; Ruscitti, Francesca; Pompilio, Daniela; Ravanetti, Francesca; Tebaldi, Giulia; Macchi, Francesca; Verna, Andrea Elizabeth; Villetti, Gino; Donofrio, Gaetano

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a very common interstitial lung disease derived from chronic inflammatory insults, characterized by massive scar tissue deposition that causes the progressive loss of lung function and subsequent death for respiratory failure. Bleomycin is used as the standard agent to induce experimental pulmonary fibrosis in animal models for the study of its pathogenesis. However, to visualize the establishment of lung fibrosis after treatment, the animal sacrifice is necessary. Thus, the aim of this study was to avoid this limitation by using an innovative approach based on a double bleomycin treatment protocol, along with the in vivo images analysis of bleomycin-treated mice. A reporter gene construct, containing the luciferase open reading frame under the matrix metalloproteinase-1 promoter control region, was tested on double bleomycin-treated mice to investigate, in real time, the correlation between bleomycin treatment, inflammation, tissue remodeling and fibrosis. Bioluminescence emitted by the lungs of bleomycin-treated mice, corroborated by fluorescent molecular tomography, successfully allowed real time monitoring of fibrosis establishment. The reporter gene technology experienced in this work could represent an advanced functional approach for real time non-invasive assessment of disease evolution during therapy, in a reliable and translational living animal model. PMID:28298912

  8. Power outage estimation for tropical cyclones: improved accuracy with simpler models.

    PubMed

    Nateghi, Roshanak; Guikema, Seth; Quiring, Steven M

    2014-06-01

    In this article, we discuss an outage-forecasting model that we have developed. This model uses very few input variables to estimate hurricane-induced outages prior to landfall with great predictive accuracy. We also show the results for a series of simpler models that use only publicly available data and can still estimate outages with reasonable accuracy. The intended users of these models are emergency response planners within power utilities and related government agencies. We developed our models based on the method of random forest, using data from a power distribution system serving two states in the Gulf Coast region of the United States. We also show that estimates of system reliability based on wind speed alone are not sufficient for adequately capturing the reliability of system components. We demonstrate that a multivariate approach can produce more accurate power outage predictions.

  9. 78 FR 6216 - Extension of the Commission's Rules Regarding Outage Reporting to Interconnected Voice Over...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 4 Extension of the Commission's Rules Regarding Outage Reporting to Interconnected Voice Over Internet Protocol Service Providers and Broadband Internet Service Providers AGENCY:...

  10. 77 FR 63757 - Extension of the Commission's Rules Regarding Outage Reporting to Interconnected Voice Over...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... Voice Over Internet Protocol Service Providers and Broadband Internet Service Providers AGENCY: Federal... Extension of the Commission's Rules Regarding Outage Reporting to Interconnected Voice Over Internet Protocol Service Providers and Broadband Internet Service Providers Report and Order (Order). This...

  11. Outage Capacity Analysis of TAS/MRC Systems over Arbitrary Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Chia-Chun; Chiang, Ching-Tai; Lin, Shyh-Neng; Wu, Rong-Ching

    A simple closed-form approximation for the outage capacity of Transmit Antenna Selection/Maximal-Ratio Combining (TAS/MRC) systems over independent and identically distributed (i.i.d) Nakagami-m fading channels is derived while the fading index is a positive integer. When the Nakagami-m fading index is not an integer, the approximate outage capacity is derived as a single infinite series of Gamma function. Computer simulations verify the accuracy of the approximate results.

  12. Pichia pastoris secretes recombinant proteins less efficiently than Chinese hamster ovary cells but allows higher space-time yields for less complex proteins.

    PubMed

    Maccani, Andreas; Landes, Nils; Stadlmayr, Gerhard; Maresch, Daniel; Leitner, Christian; Maurer, Michael; Gasser, Brigitte; Ernst, Wolfgang; Kunert, Renate; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2014-04-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are currently the workhorse of the biopharmaceutical industry. However, yeasts such as Pichia pastoris are about to enter this field. To compare their capability for recombinant protein secretion, P. pastoris strains and CHO cell lines producing human serum albumin (HSA) and the 3D6 single chain Fv-Fc anti-HIV-1 antibody (3D6scFv-Fc) were cultivated in comparable fed batch processes. In P. pastoris, the mean biomass-specific secretion rate (qp ) was 40-fold lower for 3D6scFv-Fc compared to HSA. On the contrary, qp was similar for both proteins in CHO cells. When comparing both organisms, the mean qp of the CHO cell lines was 1011-fold higher for 3D6scFv-Fc and 26-fold higher for HSA. Due to the low qp of the 3D6scFv-Fc producing strain, the space-time yield (STY) was 9.6-fold lower for P. pastoris. In contrast, the STY of the HSA producer was 9.2-fold higher compared to CHO cells because of the shorter process time and higher biomass density. The results indicate that the protein secretion machinery of P. pastoris is much less efficient and the secretion rate strongly depends on the complexity of the recombinant protein. However, process efficiency of the yeast system allows higher STYs for less complex proteins.

  13. Recording and analyzing the July 2 cascading outage

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.W.; Erickson, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    On July 2, 1996, a short circuit on a 345-kV line in Wyoming started a chain of events leading to a breakup of the western North America power system. Five islands formed with controlled and uncontrolled load shedding, uncontrolled generation tripping, and with a blackout in southern Idaho. The western power system is operated by power companies belonging to the Western Systems Coordinating Council (WSCC), which had a peak 1996 summer load of around 118,000 MW. July 2 was the third and, until the August 10 large-scale power failure, the most disruptive of a series of western system breakups. The first was caused by the January 17, 1994, Northridge California earthquake. The second breakup occurred in the early morning hours of December 14, 1994, and, like July 2, originated in southern Idaho and Wyoming. Modern computer and communication technologies greatly facilitated dissemination of information, analysis, report writing, and event simulation for the July 2 cascading outage. This article analyzes the breakup, relying heavily on recordings from BPA`s Portable Power System Monitors (PPSM), which are installed at key locations and serve as primary components of a wide-area measurement system (WAMS) project initiated by BPA.

  14. Outage Probability Minimization for Energy Harvesting Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Jing, Tao; Huo, Yan; Jiang, Kaiwei

    2017-01-01

    The incorporation of cognitive radio (CR) capability in wireless sensor networks yields a promising network paradigm known as CR sensor networks (CRSNs), which is able to provide spectrum efficient data communication. However, due to the high energy consumption results from spectrum sensing, as well as subsequent data transmission, the energy supply for the conventional sensor nodes powered by batteries is regarded as a severe bottleneck for sustainable operation. The energy harvesting technique, which gathers energy from the ambient environment, is regarded as a promising solution to perpetually power-up energy-limited devices with a continual source of energy. Therefore, applying the energy harvesting (EH) technique in CRSNs is able to facilitate the self-sustainability of the energy-limited sensors. The primary concern of this study is to design sensing-transmission policies to minimize the long-term outage probability of EH-powered CR sensor nodes. We formulate this problem as an infinite-horizon discounted Markov decision process and propose an ϵ-optimal sensing-transmission (ST) policy through using the value iteration algorithm. ϵ is the error bound between the ST policy and the optimal policy, which can be pre-defined according to the actual need. Moreover, for a special case that the signal-to-noise (SNR) power ratio is sufficiently high, we present an efficient transmission (ET) policy and prove that the ET policy achieves the same performance with the ST policy. Finally, extensive simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed policies and the impaction of various network parameters. PMID:28125023

  15. Outage Probability Minimization for Energy Harvesting Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Jing, Tao; Huo, Yan; Jiang, Kaiwei

    2017-01-24

    The incorporation of cognitive radio (CR) capability in wireless sensor networks yields a promising network paradigm known as CR sensor networks (CRSNs), which is able to provide spectrum efficient data communication. However, due to the high energy consumption results from spectrum sensing, as well as subsequent data transmission, the energy supply for the conventional sensor nodes powered by batteries is regarded as a severe bottleneck for sustainable operation. The energy harvesting technique, which gathers energy from the ambient environment, is regarded as a promising solution to perpetually power-up energy-limited devices with a continual source of energy. Therefore, applying the energy harvesting (EH) technique in CRSNs is able to facilitate the self-sustainability of the energy-limited sensors. The primary concern of this study is to design sensing-transmission policies to minimize the long-term outage probability of EH-powered CR sensor nodes. We formulate this problem as an infinite-horizon discounted Markov decision process and propose an ϵ-optimal sensing-transmission (ST) policy through using the value iteration algorithm. ϵ is the error bound between the ST policy and the optimal policy, which can be pre-defined according to the actual need. Moreover, for a special case that the signal-to-noise (SNR) power ratio is sufficiently high, we present an efficient transmission (ET) policy and prove that the ET policy achieves the same performance with the ST policy. Finally, extensive simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed policies and the impaction of various network parameters.

  16. Study of electrical power facilities and measures for planned outages in Japanese hemodialysis clinics after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kai; Sawa, Manami; Fujiwara, Kousaku; Hirose, Minoru; Tsuruta, Harukazu; Takeuchi, Akihiro; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2013-02-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 caused major damage in northeastern Japan. The Kanto region experienced a massive electrical power shortage in the summer of 2011. A questionnaire was submitted to 354 hemodialysis clinics in Kanagawa prefecture and the Tokyo metropolitan area, excluding isolated islands, and 176 responses were analyzed (49.7%). The questions included evaluation of the availability of a private electricity generator, countermeasures in case of a planned outage, awareness of saving electricity, and improvement of safety of medical devices or electrical facilities after the earthquake. Only 12% of the clinics had private electricity generators and many clinics had no plans to introduce this facility. However, 96% of the clinics had established countermeasures to deal with a planned outage. Many clinics planned to provide dialysis on a different day or at a different time. All clinics had tried hard to establish procedures to save electricity in the summer of 2011, and 84% of the clinics had reconsidered and improved the safety of medical devices or electricity facilities after the earthquake. These results show that the awareness of crisis management was greatly improved in the wake of the earthquake.

  17. 47 CFR 4.11 - Notification and initial and final communications outage reports that must be filed by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS Reporting Requirements for Disruptions to Communications § 4.11 Notification and initial and final communications outage reports...

  18. Improving Hurricane Power Outage Prediction Models Through the Inclusion of Local Environmental Factors.

    PubMed

    McRoberts, D Brent; Quiring, Steven M; Guikema, Seth D

    2016-10-25

    Tropical cyclones can significantly damage the electrical power system, so an accurate spatiotemporal forecast of outages prior to landfall can help utilities to optimize the power restoration process. The purpose of this article is to enhance the predictive accuracy of the Spatially Generalized Hurricane Outage Prediction Model (SGHOPM) developed by Guikema et al. (2014). In this version of the SGHOPM, we introduce a new two-step prediction procedure and increase the number of predictor variables. The first model step predicts whether or not outages will occur in each location and the second step predicts the number of outages. The SGHOPM environmental variables of Guikema et al. (2014) were limited to the wind characteristics (speed and duration of strong winds) of the tropical cyclones. This version of the model adds elevation, land cover, soil, precipitation, and vegetation characteristics in each location. Our results demonstrate that the use of a new two-step outage prediction model and the inclusion of these additional environmental variables increase the overall accuracy of the SGHOPM by approximately 17%.

  19. Evaluation of power outages in Connecticut during hypothetical future Hurricane Sandy scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanik, D. W.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Astitha, M.; Frediani, M. E.; Yang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Reliable electric power is a staple of our modern society.The purpose of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of power outages under more intense, future Hurricane Sandy simulations in Connecticut. In addition, we also evaluated how many crews would be necessary to restore power in 7 days, and how different vegetation scenarios might contribute to a decrease in outages. We trained five pairwise models on each current Sandy runs (2012) as training using the random forest model (each validated using 10-fold cross-validation), and used each future Sandy run as an independent test. We predict that a future Sandy would have 2.5x as many outages as current Sandy, which would require 3.23x as many crews as current Sandy to restore power in 7 days. We also found that increased vegetation management might decrease outages, which has implications for both fair-weather and storm days of all types (i.e. blizzards, thunderstorms, ice storms). Although we have only evaluated outages for electric distribution networks, there are many other types (water supply, wastewater, telecommunications) that would likely benefit from an analysis of this type. In addition, given that we have the weather simulations already processed within our 2-km weather simulation domain, we would like to expand our vulnerability analyses to surrounding utilities in New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, Massachusetts and New Hampshire to facilitate regional coordination among electric distribution networks.

  20. [Responding to patients with home mechanical ventilation after the Great East Japan Earthquake and during the planned power outages. How should we be prepared for a future disaster ?].

    PubMed

    Takechi, Yukako

    2011-12-01

    The unprecedented earthquake(magnitude-9 in the Japanese seismic intensity scale)hit off the east coast of Japan on March 11, 2011. Consequently, there were planned power outages in the area nearby Tokyo to avoid massive blackouts caused by a stoppage of Fukushima nuclear plants.Our clinic located in Kawasaki city was also hit by the earthquake(magnitude- 5).During the period of two months(March and April 2011), we had a total of 52 patients with home respiratory care (5-TPPV, 11-NPPV and 36-HOT)at that time.Two out of three 24 hour-TPPV users had no external battery.After the earthquake, there was a 7-hour electricity failure in some areas, and a patient with ASV(adaptive servo ventilator)was living there.Moreover, 3-hour/day power outages were carried out from March 14 to March 28, affecting people's everyday lives. However, the patient had no harmful influences from the power failure because a ventilation company lent us an external battery(4-9 hour life capacity)for the patients, and we were able to avoid an emergency situation caused by the power failure.In conclusion, we ought to be prepared for patients with home mechanical ventilation in the future toward unforeseen large scale power outages.

  1. Plasma Outages in Pulsed, High-Power RF Hydrogen Ion Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockli, Martin; Han, Baoxi; Murray, Syd; Pennisi, Terry; Piller, Chip; Santana, Manuel; Welton, Robert

    2011-04-01

    Pulsed, high-power RF ion sources are needed to produce copious amounts of negative H-ions for high-power accelerators with charge-changing injection schemes. When increasing the RF power, the plasma inductance changes the RF resonance, which drifts away from the low-power resonance. When the RF circuit is tuned to maximize the (pulsed) plasma power, the (off-resonance) power at the beginning of the pulse is reduced. If the induced electric fields fall below the breakdown strength of the hydrogen gas, the plasma fails to develop. This can be avoided with a compromise tune and/or by increasing the inductance of the resonant circuit. However, the breakdown strength of the hydrogen gas increases with time due to the gradual decrease of the electron-rich plasma impurities, which causes plasma outages after weeks of reliable operation. In this paper we discuss the success of different mitigations that were tested and implemented to overcome this fundamental problem of pulsed, high-power RF hydrogen ion sources.

  2. Imputed outage costs under a proposed curtailable rate program in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, G.J.Y. ); Chang, P.L.; Chen, T.Y. )

    1991-01-01

    The implementation of a curtailable rate program through an appropriately designed menu, mainly determined by the customer's outage costs, is one feasibly solution to a power shortage problem. In Taiwan, this issue is particularly important because currently Taiwan is facing a shortage of power generation supply in the summer peak period. In this paper, the authors conducted a survey to examine the market acceptance for the proposed curtailable rate menu and investigated customers' imputed outage costs in relation to their attributes. The survey results show that the imputed outage costs range from $2.25/KW to $3.14/KW and a potentiality of 5.6% to 18.1% of high-tension power peak load supply of the surveyed customers could be curtailed. The economic implications of the research results are presented and further research is recommended.

  3. Outage Capacity Optimization for Free-Space Optical Links With Pointing Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farid, Ahmed A.; Hranilovic, Steve

    2007-07-01

    We investigate the performance and design of free-space optical (FSO) communication links over slow fading channels from an information theory perspective. A statistical model for the optical intensity fluctuation at the receiver due to the combined effects of atmospheric turbulence and pointing errors is derived. Unlike earlier work, our model considers the effect of beam width, detector size, and jitter variance explicitly. Expressions for the outage probability are derived for a variety of atmospheric conditions. For given weather and misalignment conditions, the beam width is optimized to maximize the channel capacity subject to outage. Large gains in achievable rate are realized versus using a nominal beam width. In light fog, by optimizing the beam width, the achievable rate is increased by 80% over the nominal beam width at an outage probability of 10-5. Well-known error control codes are then applied to the channel and shown to realize much of the achievable gains.

  4. 10 CFR 501.191 - Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated equipment outages and emergencies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated... Natural Gas or Petroleum for Emergency and Unanticipated Equipment Outage Purposes § 501.191 Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated equipment outages and emergencies defined in...

  5. 10 CFR 501.191 - Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated equipment outages and emergencies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated... Natural Gas or Petroleum for Emergency and Unanticipated Equipment Outage Purposes § 501.191 Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated equipment outages and emergencies defined in...

  6. 10 CFR 501.191 - Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated equipment outages and emergencies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated... Natural Gas or Petroleum for Emergency and Unanticipated Equipment Outage Purposes § 501.191 Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated equipment outages and emergencies defined in...

  7. 10 CFR 501.191 - Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated equipment outages and emergencies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated... Natural Gas or Petroleum for Emergency and Unanticipated Equipment Outage Purposes § 501.191 Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated equipment outages and emergencies defined in...

  8. 10 CFR 501.191 - Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated equipment outages and emergencies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated... Natural Gas or Petroleum for Emergency and Unanticipated Equipment Outage Purposes § 501.191 Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated equipment outages and emergencies defined in...

  9. Fluorescent function-spacer-lipid construct labelling allows for real-time in vivo imaging of cell migration and behaviour in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Lan, Chuan-Ching; Blake, Deborah; Henry, Stephen; Love, Donald R

    2012-07-01

    Real-time in vivo imaging of cell migration and behavior has advanced our understanding of physiological processes in situ, especially in the field of immunology. We carried out the transplantation of a mixed population of blood cells from adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 2 day old embryos. The blood cells were treated ex vivo with Function-Spacer-Lipid constructs (FSL) incorporating either fluorescein or Atto488 fluorophores (FSL-FLRO4-I or -II). Excellent labeling efficiency was demonstrated by epifluorescence microscopy and FACScan analysis. Real-time video imaging of the recipient fish showed that the functionality of these cells was retained and not affected by the labeling. The usefulness of FSL-FLRO4-I as a contrast agent in microangiography was explored. Overall, we found both FSL-FLRO4-I and-II promising labeling dyes for real-time in vivo imaging in zebrafish.

  10. Wearable Devices for Sports: New Integrated Technologies Allow Coaches, Physicians, and Trainers to Better Understand the Physical Demands of Athletes in Real time.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, Dhruv R; Drummond, Colin; Craker, John; Rowbottom, James R; Voos, James E

    2017-01-01

    Elite-level athletes and professional sports teams are continually searching for opportunities to improve athletic performance and gain a competitive advantage on the field. Advances in technology have provided new avenues to maximize player health and safety. Over the last decade, time?motion analysis systems, such as video recording and computer digitization, have been used to measure human locomotion and improve sports performance. While these techniques were state of the art at the time, their usefulness is inhibited by the questionable validity of the acquired data, the labor-intensive nature of collecting data with manual hand-notation techniques, and their inability to track athlete position, movement, displacement, and velocity.

  11. Application of Hybrid Geo-Spatially Granular Fragility Curves to Improve Power Outage Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Steven J; Allen, Melissa R; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Walker, Kimberly A

    2014-01-01

    Fragility curves depict the relationship between a weather variable (wind speed, gust speed, ice accumulation, precipitation rate) and the observed outages for a targeted infrastructure network. This paper describes an empirical study of the county by county distribution of power outages and one minute weather variables during Hurricane Irene with the objective of comparing 1) as built fragility curves (statistical approach) to engineering as designed (bottom up) fragility curves for skill in forecasting outages during future hurricanes; 2) county specific fragility curves to find examples of significant deviation from average behavior; and 3) the engineering practices of outlier counties to suggest future engineering studies of robustness. Outages in more than 90% of the impacted counties could be anticipated through an average or generic fragility curve. The remaining counties could be identified and handled as exceptions through geographic data sets. The counties with increased or decreased robustness were characterized by terrain more or less susceptible to persistent flooding in areas where above ground poles located their foundations. Land use characteristics of the area served by the power distribution system can suggest trends in the as built power grid vulnerabilities to extreme weather events that would be subjects for site specific studies.

  12. 76 FR 33686 - Proposed Extension of Part 4 of the Commission's Rules Regarding Outage Reporting to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... Committee (NRSC) to reduce wireline outages. As a result of the conclusions drawn and the additional work of... service by wire or radio that is able to support interconnected VoIP service as defined in our E11 rules... retail service by wire or radio that provides the capability to transmit data to and receive data...

  13. 47 CFR 4.5 - Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities. 4.5 Section 4.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS Reporting Requirements for Disruptions to Communications §...

  14. The effect of power outages on in-facility mortality in healthcare facilities: Evidence from Ghana.

    PubMed

    Apenteng, Bettye A; Opoku, Samuel T; Ansong, Daniel; Akowuah, Emmanuel A; Afriyie-Gyawu, Evans

    2016-08-17

    The World Bank estimates that at least 25 countries in the Sub-Saharan region of Africa experience chronic power outages. However, the implications of power shortages are often discussed within the context of industrial and economic disruptions, with little attention given to the health impact. Using a nationally representative data of healthcare facilities from the 2012 Ghana Access, Bottlenecks, Cost and Equity (ABCE) Health Facility Survey, this study aims to assess the impact of power outages on in-healthcare facility mortality in Ghana, a country that has experienced worsening energy crises in the last few decades. Findings revealed a positive association between the frequency of power outages and in-facility mortality, with the risk for mortality estimated to increase by 43% for each day the power was out for over 2 h. Further, when compared to an urban healthcare facility experiencing the same frequency of power outages, the risk of mortality was found to be lower in the rural facility. These findings call for a concerted effort among all stakeholders to ensure the availability of consistent power supply in healthcare facilities, in order to provide the necessary environment for the successful provision of healthcare for the citizens of Ghana.

  15. 5'-MGB probes allow rapid identification of methanogens and sulfate reducers in cold marine sediments by real-time PCR and melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Afonina, Irina; Savvichev, Alexander; Ankoudinova, Irina; Mahoney, Walt

    2009-09-01

    The analysis of microorganism communities in uncultured environmental samples requires laborious and cumbersome techniques such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplicons generated with 16S rRNA generic primers with subsequent fragment sequencing. We have developed a simple method for genus identification of methanogen archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria based on a real-time PCR hybridization probe melting curve analysis. The method takes advantage of a recent explosion of microorganism sequencing data conveniently packaged in the Ribosomal Database Project. Specificity of detection is based on a genus-specific real-time PCR fluorescent 5'-MGB-probe melt. As the probes are designed to have destabilizing mismatches with undesired genera, only samples with a proper melting temperature are called positive.

  16. Conventional and real-time PCRs for detection of Erwinia piriflorinigrans allow its distinction from the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Barbé, Silvia; Bertolini, Edson; Roselló, Montserrat; Llop, Pablo; López, María M

    2014-04-01

    Erwinia piriflorinigrans is a new pathogenic species of the bacterial genus Erwinia that has been described recently in Spain. Accurate detection and identification of E. piriflorinigrans are challenging because its symptoms on pear blossoms are similar to those caused by Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Moreover, these two species share phenotypic and molecular characteristics. Two specific and sensitive conventional and real-time PCR protocols were developed to identify and detect E. piriflorinigrans and to differentiate it from E. amylovora and other species of this genus. These protocols were based on sequences from plasmid pEPIR37, which is present in all strains of E. piriflorinigrans analyzed. After the stability of the plasmid was demonstrated, the specificities of the protocols were confirmed by the amplification of all E. piriflorinigrans strains tested, whereas 304 closely related pathogenic and nonpathogenic Erwinia strains and microbiota from pear trees were not amplified. In sensitivity assays, 10(3) cells/ml extract were detected in spiked plant material by conventional or real-time PCR, and 10(2) cells/ml were detected in DNA extracted from spiked plant material by real-time PCR. The protocols developed here succeeded in detecting E. piriflorinigrans in 102 out of 564 symptomatic and asymptomatic naturally infected pear samples (flowers, cortex stem tissue, leaves, shoots, and fruitlets), in necrotic Pyracantha sp. blossoms, and in necrotic pear and apple tissues infected with both E. amylovora and E. piriflorinigrans. Therefore, these new tools can be used in epidemiological studies that will enhance our understanding of the life cycle of E. piriflorinigrans in different hosts and plant tissues and its interaction with E. amylovora.

  17. Conventional and Real-Time PCRs for Detection of Erwinia piriflorinigrans Allow Its Distinction from the Fire Blight Pathogen, Erwinia amylovora

    PubMed Central

    Barbé, Silvia; Bertolini, Edson; Roselló, Montserrat; Llop, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Erwinia piriflorinigrans is a new pathogenic species of the bacterial genus Erwinia that has been described recently in Spain. Accurate detection and identification of E. piriflorinigrans are challenging because its symptoms on pear blossoms are similar to those caused by Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Moreover, these two species share phenotypic and molecular characteristics. Two specific and sensitive conventional and real-time PCR protocols were developed to identify and detect E. piriflorinigrans and to differentiate it from E. amylovora and other species of this genus. These protocols were based on sequences from plasmid pEPIR37, which is present in all strains of E. piriflorinigrans analyzed. After the stability of the plasmid was demonstrated, the specificities of the protocols were confirmed by the amplification of all E. piriflorinigrans strains tested, whereas 304 closely related pathogenic and nonpathogenic Erwinia strains and microbiota from pear trees were not amplified. In sensitivity assays, 103 cells/ml extract were detected in spiked plant material by conventional or real-time PCR, and 102 cells/ml were detected in DNA extracted from spiked plant material by real-time PCR. The protocols developed here succeeded in detecting E. piriflorinigrans in 102 out of 564 symptomatic and asymptomatic naturally infected pear samples (flowers, cortex stem tissue, leaves, shoots, and fruitlets), in necrotic Pyracantha sp. blossoms, and in necrotic pear and apple tissues infected with both E. amylovora and E. piriflorinigrans. Therefore, these new tools can be used in epidemiological studies that will enhance our understanding of the life cycle of E. piriflorinigrans in different hosts and plant tissues and its interaction with E. amylovora. PMID:24509928

  18. Real-time PCR assay allows detection of the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1)-encoding gene in France.

    PubMed

    Diene, Seydina M; Bruder, Nicolas; Raoult, Didier; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we report the development of a rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with TaqMan probe to detect the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1)-encoding gene directly from bacterial isolates. The specificity of the assay was verified in silico as well as with a large panel of 84 clinically relevant bacteria, including the Klebsiella pneumoniae NCTC 13443 NDM-1-positive reference strain. Using this assay retrospectively on a local series of 44 K. pneumoniae isolates from Marseille Hospitals (France), it was possible to detect and identify an NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae strain isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage in April 2010 from a French patient repatriated from India after a motorbike accident. Standard PCR amplification and sequencing of the entire NDM-1 gene from this isolate was also performed and the amino acid sequence showed 100% homology with the NDM-1 protein from the K. pneumoniae reference strain. We believe that this real-time PCR assay would be a powerful tool that could be added to other molecular detection assays such as detection of KPC- or OXA-encoding genes for rapid screening and/or identification of carbapenem-resistant bacterial isolates from patients returning from the Asian continent that could be implemented in a point-of-care strategy.

  19. Plasticity in food assimilation, retention time and coprophagy allow herbivorous cavies (Microcavia australis) to cope with low food quality in the Monte desert.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Paola L; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Anton, Rosa; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2010-03-01

    Energy balance depends on the efficiency with which organisms make use of their trophic resources, and has direct impact on their fitness. There are environmental variations that affect the availability as well as the quality of such resources; energy extraction also depends on the design of the digestive tract. It is expected that features associated with food utilization will be subjected to selective pressures and show some adjustment to the variability of the environment. Since energetic constraints challenge animals to display digestive compensatory mechanisms, the objective of this study is to determine the physiological and behavioral responses to spatial and seasonal heterogeneity in food quality. We investigated digestive strategies (digestive efficiency and coprophagy) in cavies inhabiting two different populations, and hence naturally experiencing different levels of diet quality. Cavies under experimentally different quality diets showed changes in dry matter digestibility and intake, digesta retention time and coprophagy. Our results partially support the expectations from theory and also reveal interpopulation differences in the ability to cope with changes in food quality, and may explain the capability of Microcavia australis to colonize extreme habitats.

  20. Case report: Remote monitoring using Spectrum Medical Live Vue allows improved response time and improved quality of care for patients on cardiopulmonary support.

    PubMed

    Fung, K; Beck, J R; Lopez, H C; Mongero, L B

    2013-11-01

    Clinician rounding on bedside extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a common coverage practice at many centers across the USA. Occasionally, clinical issues or concerns may go unnoticed for a considerable period of time during the intervals of clinician rounds. We report a case utilizing the LiveVue (Spectrum Medical, Fort Mill, SC) remote monitoring for care of a patient on ECMO. A patient was placed on veno-arterial (VA) ECMO in our intensive care unit, using a Rotaflow centrifugal pump and a Quadrox D polymethylpentene (PMP) fiber oxygenator (both Maquet, Fairfield, NJ). Following ECMO initiation and stabilization, a two-hour rounding schedule was established for the covering perfusionist. On day two, shortly after the perfusionist had rounded, the ECMO flow began fluctuating between 0.1 and 2.1 L/min. A compliance alert (i.e. red flashing notification) was recognized by the perfusion team on a large screen monitor installed in the perfusion pump room. Immediate response from the perfusion team identified venous inflow obstruction due to cannula malposition. The pump revolutions per minute (rpm) and, thus, the resulting flow were temporarily reduced to prevent vessel intimal damage and the surgical team was summoned to reposition the venous cannula. Later in that ECMO run, a steady rise in pre-oxygenator pressure was noted by the perfusionist. This increasingly concerning event was able to be trended and monitored with the LiveVue from a remote location. After a few hours, a compliance alert was noticed again on the LiveVue screen in the pump room. The pre-oxygenator pressure increased by 150 mmHg and the circuit flow decreased by half. Again, the perfusionist response was immediate and an oxygenator change-out ensued. Once more, a potentially dangerous clinical scenario was avoided with continuous critical parameter remote monitoring using the LiveVue system.

  1. Outage performance of multihop free-space optical communication system over exponentiated Weibull fading channels with nonzero boresight pointing errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-xia; Wang, Ping; Cao, Tian

    2016-09-01

    The outage performance of the multihop free-space optical (FSO) communication system with decode-and-forward (DF) protocol is studied by considering the joint effects of nonzero boresight pointing errors and atmospheric turbulence modeled by exponentiated Weibull (EW) distribution. The closed-form analytical expression of outage probability is derived, and the results are validated through Monte Carlo simulation. Furthermore, the detailed analysis is provided to evaluate the impacts of turbulence strength, receiver aperture size, boresight displacement, beamwidth and number of relays on the outage performance for the studied system.

  2. Effects of the April 1st, 2014 GLONASS Outage on GNSS Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, F.; Berglund, H. T.; Romero, I.; D'Anastasio, E.

    2014-12-01

    The use of multi-constellation GNSS receivers has been assumed as a way to increase system integrity both by increased coverage during normal operations and failover redundancy in the event of a constellation failure. At approximately 21:00 UTC on April 1st the entire GLONASS constellation was disrupted as illegal ephemeris uploaded to each satellite took effect simultaneously. The outage continued for more than 10 hours. While ephemeris were incorrect, pseudoranges were correctly broadcast on both L1 and L2 and carrier phases were not affected; in the best case, GNSS receivers could be expected to continue to track all signals including GLONASS and at the worst to continue to track GPS and other constellations. It became clear to operators of the GeoNet network in New Zealand that the majority of their 79 GLONASS-enabled receivers experienced total tracking failures. Further detailed analysis of data from these and 315 additional GLONASS-enabled stations worldwide showed that receiver tracking behavior was affected for most receiver brands and models, both for GLONASS and GPS. Findings regarding the impacts of the GLONASS outage on receiver behavior will be highlighted. We use data recorded by GLONASS enabled global sites for the days during, preceding and following the outage to evaluate the impact of the outage on tracking and positioning performance. We observe that for some receiver types the onboard receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) failed to ignore the incorrect messages, resulting in degraded GLONASS and GPS tracking and in some cases complete tracking failures and significant data loss. In addition, many of the receivers with clock steering enabled showed outliers in their receiver clock bias estimates that also coincided with the outage. Our results show in detail how different brands, configurations, and distributions of receivers were affected to varying extents, but no common factors are apparent. This event shows that many manufacturers

  3. Outage Probability of Interference-limited Switch and Stay Diversity System over Gamma Shadowed Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevic, Goran T.; Antic, Dragan

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the outage performance of a dual-branch switch and stay combining (SSC) diversity receiver operating over composite multipath Nakagami-m fading/gamma shadowing channels in the presence of a co-channel interference is determined. For a single channel composite fading environment, we derive the new analytical expressions for the probability density function and cumulative distribution function of the instantaneous signal-to-interference (SIR) ratio that can be used as alternatives to the previously published results. In the case of non-identically distributed and power unbalanced SSC branches with arbitrary fading parameters, the outage performance is determined. The choice of optimal switching threshold in minimum outage probability sense is discussed. The results show the outage probability dependence on simultaneous effects of the SIR unbalancing, as well as multipath fading and shadowing severities. The analytical results are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations.

  4. Method for estimating power outages and restoration during natural and man-made events

    SciTech Connect

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A.; Fernandez, Steven J.

    2016-01-05

    A method of modeling electric supply and demand with a data processor in combination with a recordable medium, and for estimating spatial distribution of electric power outages and affected populations. A geographic area is divided into cells to form a matrix. Within the matrix, supply cells are identified as containing electric substations and demand cells are identified as including electricity customers. Demand cells of the matrix are associated with the supply cells as a function of the capacity of each of the supply cells and the proximity and/or electricity demand of each of the demand cells. The method includes estimating a power outage by applying disaster event prediction information to the matrix, and estimating power restoration using the supply and demand cell information of the matrix and standardized and historical restoration information.

  5. Analysis of electrical power system disturbance and outage in Garland and Greenville, Texas, June 26, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    On June 26, 1980, the municipal electric systems of Garland and Greenville, Texas, both experienced total system outages which lasted from 2:01 p.m. until 10:15 p.m. that evening. In order to understand more fully the causes of this disturbance, a technical analysis was initiated to consider: the status of each of the involved utility systems prior to initiation of the disturbance; the sequence of events which occurred between the initial event precipitating the interruption and the total system outages; the restorative procedures implemented by the involved systems; and any procedural changes or facility modifications that should be considered by the involved systems. Each of these items is discussed, and recommendations are made for developing an emergency operation plan, for isolating the two distribution systems when a significant system frequency excursion occurs, and for developing power pool operating criteria and contingency plans. (LCL)

  6. Recent performance of and plasma outage studies with the SNS H- source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockli, M. P.; Han, B.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Welton, R.

    2016-02-01

    Spallation Neutron Source ramps to higher power levels that can be sustained with high availability. The goal is 1.4 MW despite a compromised radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), which requires higher radio frequency power than design levels to approach the nominal beam transmission. Unfortunately at higher power the RFQ often loses its thermal stability, a problem apparently enhanced by beam losses and high influxes of hydrogen. Delivering as much H- beam as possible with the least amount of hydrogen led to plasma outages. The root cause is the dense 1-ms long ˜55-kW 2-MHz plasma pulses reflecting ˜90% of the continuous ˜300 W, 13-MHz power, which was mitigated with a 4-ms filter for the reflected power signal and an outage resistant, slightly detuned 13-MHz match. Lowering the H2 gas also increased the H- beam current to ˜55 mA and increased the RFQ transmission by ˜7% (relative).

  7. Recent performance of and plasma outage studies with the SNS H⁻ source.

    PubMed

    Stockli, M P; Han, B; Murray, S N; Pennisi, T R; Piller, C; Santana, M; Welton, R

    2016-02-01

    Spallation Neutron Source ramps to higher power levels that can be sustained with high availability. The goal is 1.4 MW despite a compromised radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), which requires higher radio frequency power than design levels to approach the nominal beam transmission. Unfortunately at higher power the RFQ often loses its thermal stability, a problem apparently enhanced by beam losses and high influxes of hydrogen. Delivering as much H(-) beam as possible with the least amount of hydrogen led to plasma outages. The root cause is the dense 1-ms long ∼55-kW 2-MHz plasma pulses reflecting ∼90% of the continuous ∼300 W, 13-MHz power, which was mitigated with a 4-ms filter for the reflected power signal and an outage resistant, slightly detuned 13-MHz match. Lowering the H2 gas also increased the H(-) beam current to ∼55 mA and increased the RFQ transmission by ∼7% (relative).

  8. A RLS-SVM Aided Fusion Methodology for INS during GPS Outages

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yiqing; Xu, Xiaosu

    2017-01-01

    In order to maintain a relatively high accuracy of navigation performance during global positioning system (GPS) outages, a novel robust least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM)-aided fusion methodology is explored to provide the pseudo-GPS position information for the inertial navigation system (INS). The relationship between the yaw, specific force, velocity, and the position increment is modeled. Rather than share the same weight in the traditional LS-SVM, the proposed algorithm allocates various weights for different data, which makes the system immune to the outliers. Field test data was collected to evaluate the proposed algorithm. The comparison results indicate that the proposed algorithm can effectively provide position corrections for standalone INS during the 300 s GPS outage, which outperforms the traditional LS-SVM method. Historical information is also involved to better represent the vehicle dynamics. PMID:28245549

  9. Testing branching process estimators of cascading failure with data from a simulation of transmission line outages.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Ian; Kim, Janghoon; Wierzbicki, Kevin R

    2010-04-01

    We suggest a statistical estimator to quantify the propagation of cascading transmission line failures in large blackouts of electric power systems. We use a Galton-Watson branching process model of cascading failure and the standard Harris estimator of the mean propagation modified to work when the process saturates at a maximum number of components. If the mean number of initial failures and the mean propagation are estimated, then the branching process model predicts the distribution of the total number of failures. We initially test this prediction on failure data generated by a simulation of cascading transmission line outages on two standard test systems. We discuss the effectiveness of the estimator in terms of how many cascades need to be simulated to predict the distribution of the total number of line outages accurately.

  10. Recent Performance of and Plasma Outage Studies with the SNS H- Source

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Martin P; Han, Baoxi; Murray Jr, S N; Pennisi, Terry R; Piller, Chip; Santana, Manuel; Welton, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    SNS ramps to higher power levels that can be sustained with high availability. The goal is 1.4 MW despite a compromised RFQ, which requires higher RF power than design levels to approach the nominal beam transmission. Unfortunately at higher power the RFQ often loses its thermal stability, a problem apparently enhanced by beam losses and high influxes of hydrogen. Delivering as much H- beam as possible with the least amount of hydrogen led to plasma outages. The root cause is the dense 1-ms long ~55-kW 2-MHz plasma pulses reflecting ~90% of the continuous ~300W, 13-MHz power, which was mitigated with a 4-ms filter for the reflected power signal and an outage resistant, slightly-detuned 13-MHz match. Lowering the H2 also increased the H- beam current to ~55 mA, and increased the transmission by ~7%.

  11. A RLS-SVM Aided Fusion Methodology for INS during GPS Outages.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yiqing; Xu, Xiaosu

    2017-02-24

    In order to maintain a relatively high accuracy of navigation performance during global positioning system (GPS) outages, a novel robust least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM)-aided fusion methodology is explored to provide the pseudo-GPS position information for the inertial navigation system (INS). The relationship between the yaw, specific force, velocity, and the position increment is modeled. Rather than share the same weight in the traditional LS-SVM, the proposed algorithm allocates various weights for different data, which makes the system immune to the outliers. Field test data was collected to evaluate the proposed algorithm. The comparison results indicate that the proposed algorithm can effectively provide position corrections for standalone INS during the 300 s GPS outage, which outperforms the traditional LS-SVM method. Historical information is also involved to better represent the vehicle dynamics.

  12. An Efficient Radio Resource Allocation Scheme for Minimum Outage Probability Using Cooperation in OFDMA Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Junwoo; Park, Hyungwon; Lim, Jae-Sung

    Cooperation can increase the system performance by obtaining the spatial diversity. While most of the present works concentrate on the analysis of the cooperation based on the inter-user channel response and developing a scheme for higher cooperative diversity, in this paper, we focus on practical resource allocation in OFDMA systems. Since the user who uses the same center frequency can not receive the signal when transmitting, this constraint should be considered to apply the cooperation to OFDMA systems. In this paper, we propose the pair-based OFDMA frame structure that overcomes this constraint. Also in this frame structure to achieve the minimum outage probability of system, we select the best partner among the candidate neighbors and allocate the suitable subchannels to bandwidth requested users through a cooperative subchannel allocation (CSA) algorithm. In order to evaluate the proposed resource allocation scheme, we carry out simulations based on IEEE 802.16e. The simulation results show that our proposed algorithm offers smaller outage probability than one based on non-cooperative communications and we get the minimum outage probability when a threshold for selection of candidate neighbors is 10dB. We analyze that these results can be achieved by helping users located around the edge of the cell.

  13. Improving the predictive accuracy of hurricane power outage forecasts using generalized additive models.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung-Ryong; Guikema, Seth D; Quiring, Steven M

    2009-10-01

    Electric power is a critical infrastructure service after hurricanes, and rapid restoration of electric power is important in order to minimize losses in the impacted areas. However, rapid restoration of electric power after a hurricane depends on obtaining the necessary resources, primarily repair crews and materials, before the hurricane makes landfall and then appropriately deploying these resources as soon as possible after the hurricane. This, in turn, depends on having sound estimates of both the overall severity of the storm and the relative risk of power outages in different areas. Past studies have developed statistical, regression-based approaches for estimating the number of power outages in advance of an approaching hurricane. However, these approaches have either not been applicable for future events or have had lower predictive accuracy than desired. This article shows that a different type of regression model, a generalized additive model (GAM), can outperform the types of models used previously. This is done by developing and validating a GAM based on power outage data during past hurricanes in the Gulf Coast region and comparing the results from this model to the previously used generalized linear models.

  14. A novel fusion methodology to bridge GPS outages for land vehicle positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Xu; Song, Xiang; Li, Bin; Song, Xianghui; Xu, Qimin

    2015-07-01

    Many intelligent transportation system applications require accurate, reliable, and continuous vehicle position information whether in open-sky environments or in Global Positioning System (GPS) denied environments. However, there remains a challenging task for land vehicles to achieve such positioning performance using low-cost sensors, especially microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensors. In this paper, a novel and cost-effective fusion methodology to bridge GPS outages is proposed and applied in the Inertial Navigation System (INS)/GPS/ compass integrated positioning system. In the implementation of the proposed methodology, a key data preprocessing algorithm is first developed to eliminate the noise in inertial sensors in order to provide more accurate information for subsequent modeling. Then, a novel hybrid strategy incorporating the designed autoregressive model (AR model)-based forward estimator (ARFE) with Kalman filter (KF) is presented to predict the INS position errors during GPS outages. To verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methodology, real road tests with various scenarios were performed. The proposed methodology illustrates significant improvement in positioning accuracy during GPS outages.

  15. Outage performance of MIMO FSO links over strong turbulence and misalignment fading channels.

    PubMed

    García-Zambrana, Antonio; Castillo-Vázquez, Carmen; Castillo-Vázquez, Beatriz

    2011-07-04

    Atmospheric turbulence produces fluctuations in the irradiance of the transmitted optical beam, which is known as atmospheric scintillation, severely degrading the performance over free-space optical (FSO) links. Additionally, since FSO systems are usually installed on high buildings, building sway causes vibrations in the transmitted beam, leading to an unsuitable alignment between transmitter and receiver and, hence, a greater deterioration in performance. In this paper, the outage probability as a performance measure for multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) FSO communication systems with intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) over strong atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors is analyzed. Novel closed-form expressions for the outage probability as well as their corresponding asymptotic expressions are presented when the irradiance of the transmitted optical beam is susceptible to either strong turbulence conditions, following a negative exponential distribution, and pointing error effects, following a misalignment fading model where the effect of beam width, detector size and jitter variance is considered. Obtained results show that the diversity order is independent of the pointing error when the equivalent beam radius at the receiver is at least twice the value of the pointing error displacement standard deviation at the receiver. Simulation results are further demonstrated to confirm the analytical results. Additionally, since proper FSO transmission requires transmitters with accurate control of their beamwidth, asymptotic expressions here obtained for different diversity techniques are used to find the optimum beamwidth that minimizes the outage performance.

  16. Outages of electric power supply resulting from cable failures Boston Edison Company system

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    Factual data are provided regarding 5 electric power supply interruptions that occurred in the Boston Metropolitan area during April to June, 1979. Common to all of these outages was the failure of an underground cable as the initiating event, followed by multiple equipment failures. There was significant variation in the voltage ratings and types of cables which failed. The investigation was unable to delineate a single specific Boston Edison design operating or maintenance practice that could be cited as the cause of the outages. After reviewing the investigative report the following actions were recommended: the development and implementation of a plan to eliminate the direct current cable network; develop a network outage restoration plan; regroup primary feeder cables wherever possible to minimize the number of circuits in manholes, and to separate feeders to high load density areas; develop a program to detect incipient cable faults; evaluate the separation of the north and south sections of Back Bay network into separate networks; and, as a minimum, install the necessary facilities to make it possible to re-energize one section without interfering with the other; and re-evaluate the cathodic protection scheme where necessary. (LCL)

  17. Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-21

    Rasmussen, W. J. Burke, and M. A. Abdu ( 1991 ), Equatorial density depletions observed at 840 km during the great mag- netic storm of March 1989, J...Decreases in the Equatorial Ionosphere 5 C/NOFS observations of plasma density and electric field irregularities at post-midnight local...times 11 Assimilative modeling of equatorial plasma depletions observed by C/NOFS 17 C/NOFS observations of deep plasma

  18. Economic costs of electrical system instability and power outages caused by snakes on the Island of Guam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritts, T.H.

    2002-01-01

    The Brown Tree Snake, Boiga irregularis, is an introduced species on Guam where it causes frequent electrical power outages. The snake's high abundance, its propensity for climbing, and use of disturbed habitats all contribute to interruption of Guam's electrical service and the activities that depend on electrical power. Snakes have caused more than 1600 power outages in the 20-yr period of 1978-1997 and most recently nearly 200 outages per year. Single outages spanning the entire island and lasting 8 or more hours are estimated to cost in excess of $3,000,000 in lost productivity, but the costs of outages that involve only parts of the island or those of shorter durations are more difficult to quantify. Costs to the island's economy have exceeded $4.5 M per year over a 7-yr period without considering repair costs, damage to electrical equipment, and lost revenues. Snakes pose the greatest problem on high voltage transmission lines, on transformers, and inside electrical substations.

  19. Outage Probability of SINR for Underlay Cognitive Radio Systems in Nakagami Fading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrouj, Jiana; Blagojevic, Vesna; Ivanis, Predrag

    2014-11-01

    In this paper underlay cognitive radio system is analyzed in Nakagami fading environment, for the case when the available channel state information (CSI) of the link from the secondary transmitter to the primary receiver is outdated. We considered the case when both interference and transmit power constraints are applied. The impact of the co-channel interference that originates from the primary user is analyzed in details. The exact closed-form expressions for probability density function, outage probability, and the moments of signal-to-interference and noise ratio (SINR) at the secondary user's receiver are derived. The analytical expressions are verified by using independent Monte Carlo simulation method.

  20. Adaptive control of satellite EIRP to reduce outage caused by fading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakken, P. M.; Maseng, T.

    1983-05-01

    The effectiveness of dynamic satellite EIRP allocation in reducing the effects of up and downlink fading is assessed. Analytical methods using numerical convolution performed by fast Fourier transforms are used to evaluate the performance of allocation techniques in terms of the probability distribution of the satellite link quality obtained from the link fading statistics at the terminal sites. The results are presented in the form of outage statistics for particular systems and allocation methods. They represent the entire range of performance which can be envisaged, ranging from CTP to ASEIRP.

  1. Utah Governor blacks out data on state-wide energy outage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The Governor of Utah squelched information linking a six-hour blackout on January 8 to a trash fire and explosion at the Utah State Prison. Ionizing gases from the explosion allegedly caused a phase fault on the penitentiary grounds that triggered the nearly state-wide outage. The Attorney General recommended a freeze on public information on the grounds that further discussion would be detrimental in the event of lawsuits and evidence from an independent investigation would be more admissable. The Public Service Commission disagreed with efforts to prevent an internal investigation. (DCK)

  2. Feasibility Study for the K-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pit (643-1G)

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.R.

    1997-05-01

    The K-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pit (KBPOP) is one of four BPOP areas at Savannah River Site (SRS), collectively referred to as the BPOP waste unit group. This Feasibility Study (FS) of Remedial Alternatives serves as the lead FS for the BPOP waste unit group. This section identifies the purpose and scope of the FS and presents site background information summarized from the Final Remedial Investigation Report with Baseline Risk Assessment (RI/BRA) WSRC-RP- 95-1555, Rev. 1.2 (WSRC 1997).

  3. Methodology to predict the number of forced outages due to creep failure

    SciTech Connect

    Palermo, J.V. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    All alloy metals at a temperature above 950 degrees Fahrenheit experience creep damage. Creep failures in boiler tubes usually begin after 25 to 40 years of operation. Since creep damage is irreversible, the only remedy is to replace the tube sections. By predicting the number of failures per year, the utility can make the best economic decision concerning tube replacement. This paper describes a methodology to calculate the number of forced outages per yea due to creep failures. This methodology is particularly useful to utilities that have boilers that have at least 25 years of operation.

  4. Proposed plan for the K-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pit (643-1G)

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    1997-06-01

    This Proposed Plan is issued by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), which functions as the lead agency for SRS remedial activities, and with concurrence by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The purpose of this Proposed Plan is to describe the preferred remedial alternative for addressing the K-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pit (643-1G) (K BPOP) located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina and to solicit public comments on the preferred alternative.

  5. Power Outages

    MedlinePlus

    ... surge protectors. If you are considering purchasing a generator for your home, consult an electrician or engineer before purchasing and installing. Only use generators away from your home and NEVER run a ...

  6. Outage Capacity of Spectrum Sharing Cognitive Radio with Channel Estimation Errors and Feedback Delay in Rayleigh Fading Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, D.; Feng, Z.; Zhang, P.

    2013-04-01

    This paper considers a spectrum sharing cognitive radio (CR) network consisting of one secondary user (SU) and one primary user (PU) in Rayleigh fading environments. The channel state information (CSI) between the secondary transmitter (STx) and the primary receiver (PRx) is assumed to be imperfect. Particularly, this CSI is assumed to be not only having channel estimation errors but also outdated due to feedback delay, which is different from existing work. We derive the closed-form expression for the outage capacity of the SU with this imperfect CSI under the average interference power constraint at the PU. Analytical results confirmed by simulations are presented to show the effect of the imperfect CSI. Particularly, it is shown that the outage capacity of the SU is robust to the channel estimation errors and feedback delay for low outage probability and high channel estimation errors and feedback delay.

  7. Outage Performance of Cooperative Relay Selection with Multiple Source and Destination Antennas over Dissimilar Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wooju; Yoon, Dongweon

    Cooperative relay selection, in which one of multiple relays is selected to retransmit the source signal to the destination, has received considerable attention in recent years, because it is a simple way to obtain cooperative diversity in wireless networks. The exact expression of outage probability for a decode-and-forward cooperative relay selection with multiple source and destination antennas over Rayleigh fading channels was recently derived in [9]. In this letter, we derive the exact expressions of outage probability and diversity-multiplexing tradeoff over independent and non-identically distributed Nakagami-m fading channels as an extension of [9]. We then analyze the effects of various parameters such as fading conditions, number of relays, and number of source and destination antennas on the outage probability.

  8. Performance of Trellis Coded 256 QAM super-multicarrier modem VLSI's for SDH interface outage-free digital microwave radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikawa, Satoru; Nakamura, Yasuhisa; Takanashi, Hitoshi

    1994-02-01

    This paper describes the performance of an outage free SXH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) interface 256 QAM modem. An outage free DMR (Digital Microwave Radio) is achieved by a high coding gain trellis coded SPORT QAM and Super Multicarrier modem. A new frame format and its associated circuits connect the outage free modem to the SDH interface. The newly designed VLSI's are key devices for developing the modem. As an overall modem performance, BER (bit error rate) characteristics and equipment signatures are presented. A coding gain of 4.7 dB (at a BER of 10(exp -4)) is obtained using SPORT 256 QAM and Viterbi decoding. This coding gain is realized by trellis coding as well as by increasing of transmission rate. Roll-off factor is decreased to maintain the same frequency occupation and modulation level as ordinary SDH 256 QAM modern.

  9. Exploiting Outage and Error Probability of Cooperative Incremental Relaying in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Hina; Javaid, Nadeem; Sher, Muhammad; Qasim, Umar; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Alrajeh, Nabil; Niaz, Iftikhar Azim

    2016-01-01

    This paper embeds a bi-fold contribution for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs); performance analysis of incremental relaying in terms of outage and error probability, and based on the analysis proposition of two new cooperative routing protocols. Subject to the first contribution, a three step procedure is carried out; a system model is presented, the number of available relays are determined, and based on cooperative incremental retransmission methodology, closed-form expressions for outage and error probability are derived. Subject to the second contribution, Adaptive Cooperation in Energy (ACE) efficient depth based routing and Enhanced-ACE (E-ACE) are presented. In the proposed model, feedback mechanism indicates success or failure of data transmission. If direct transmission is successful, there is no need for relaying by cooperative relay nodes. In case of failure, all the available relays retransmit the data one by one till the desired signal quality is achieved at destination. Simulation results show that the ACE and E-ACE significantly improves network performance, i.e., throughput, when compared with other incremental relaying protocols like Cooperative Automatic Repeat reQuest (CARQ). E-ACE and ACE achieve 69% and 63% more throughput respectively as compared to CARQ in hard underwater environment. PMID:27420061

  10. Recent performance of and plasma outage studies with the SNS H{sup −} source

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, M. P. Han, B.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Welton, R.

    2016-02-15

    Spallation Neutron Source ramps to higher power levels that can be sustained with high availability. The goal is 1.4 MW despite a compromised radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), which requires higher radio frequency power than design levels to approach the nominal beam transmission. Unfortunately at higher power the RFQ often loses its thermal stability, a problem apparently enhanced by beam losses and high influxes of hydrogen. Delivering as much H{sup −} beam as possible with the least amount of hydrogen led to plasma outages. The root cause is the dense 1-ms long ∼55-kW 2-MHz plasma pulses reflecting ∼90% of the continuous ∼300 W, 13-MHz power, which was mitigated with a 4-ms filter for the reflected power signal and an outage resistant, slightly detuned 13-MHz match. Lowering the H{sub 2} gas also increased the H{sup −} beam current to ∼55 mA and increased the RFQ transmission by ∼7% (relative)

  11. Exploiting Outage and Error Probability of Cooperative Incremental Relaying in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Hina; Javaid, Nadeem; Sher, Muhammad; Qasim, Umar; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Alrajeh, Nabil; Niaz, Iftikhar Azim

    2016-07-12

    This paper embeds a bi-fold contribution for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs); performance analysis of incremental relaying in terms of outage and error probability, and based on the analysis proposition of two new cooperative routing protocols. Subject to the first contribution, a three step procedure is carried out; a system model is presented, the number of available relays are determined, and based on cooperative incremental retransmission methodology, closed-form expressions for outage and error probability are derived. Subject to the second contribution, Adaptive Cooperation in Energy (ACE) efficient depth based routing and Enhanced-ACE (E-ACE) are presented. In the proposed model, feedback mechanism indicates success or failure of data transmission. If direct transmission is successful, there is no need for relaying by cooperative relay nodes. In case of failure, all the available relays retransmit the data one by one till the desired signal quality is achieved at destination. Simulation results show that the ACE and E-ACE significantly improves network performance, i.e., throughput, when compared with other incremental relaying protocols like Cooperative Automatic Repeat reQuest (CARQ). E-ACE and ACE achieve 69% and 63% more throughput respectively as compared to CARQ in hard underwater environment.

  12. Emergency preparedness for power outages and wi-fi loss: tips for students and educators of online courses.

    PubMed

    Heithaus, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Severe weather can impact online education due to a loss of power and Internet access that can last hours or weeks. Planning for such losses is essential to enable participation in the online classroom. This article discusses measures that can be used to maintain an online presence in the event of a power outage or loss of Wi-Fi.

  13. 47 CFR 4.11 - Notification and initial and final communications outage reports that must be filed by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Commission. “Submitted electronically” refers to submission of the information using Commission-approved Web-based outage report templates. If there are technical impediments to using the Web-based system during... Commission, The Office of Secretary, Attention: Chief, Public Safety & Homeland Security Bureau....

  14. 47 CFR 4.7 - Definitions of metrics used to determine the general outage-reporting threshold criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions of metrics used to determine the general outage-reporting threshold criteria. 4.7 Section 4.7 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS Reporting Requirements for Disruptions to Communications §...

  15. 47 CFR 4.7 - Definitions of metrics used to determine the general outage-reporting threshold criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Assigned numbers are defined as the telephone numbers working in the Public Switched Telephone Network... paging networks in which each individual user is assigned a telephone number; (2) The mathematical result... potentially affected by the outage, for all other forms of communications. For wireless service providers...

  16. 47 CFR 4.7 - Definitions of metrics used to determine the general outage-reporting threshold criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Assigned numbers are defined as the telephone numbers working in the Public Switched Telephone Network... paging networks in which each individual user is assigned a telephone number; (2) The mathematical result... potentially affected by the outage, for all other forms of communications. For wireless service providers...

  17. 47 CFR 4.7 - Definitions of metrics used to determine the general outage-reporting threshold criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Assigned numbers are defined as the telephone numbers working in the Public Switched Telephone Network... paging networks in which each individual user is assigned a telephone number; (2) The mathematical result... potentially affected by the outage, for all other forms of communications. For wireless service providers...

  18. Are Older Adults Prepared to Ensure Food Safety during Extended Power Outages and Other Emergencies?: Findings from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosa, Katherine M.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Karns, Shawn; Godwin, Sandria L.; Coppings, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters and other emergencies can cause an increased risk of foodborne illness. We conducted a nationally representative survey to understand consumers' knowledge and use of recommended practices during/after extended power outages and other emergencies. Because older adults are at an increased risk for foodborne illness, this paper…

  19. Analysis of 12 electric power system outages/disturbances impacting the Florida Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    Between January 3 and August 3, 1979, there were 12 occasions on which electric power was curtailed or public appeals were made to customers to reduce their load in Peninsular Florida due to bulk electric power supply problems. The Economic Regulatory Administration (ERA) of the US DOE, pursuant to its electric power supply adequacy and reliability responsibilities, initiated a twofold analysis of the bulk power supply situation in Florida. The first phase of the analysis evaluated the technical and engineering aspects of the overall Florida bulk power supply system with special attention given to the City of Jacksonville's electric system. The second phase evaluated the socioeconomic impacts of the bulk power supply outages on residential customers in Jacksonville. The 12 disturbances are described and a comparative analysis of the causes is presented. (LCL)

  20. Outage Probability and Ergodic Capacity of Spectrum-Sharing Systems with MRC Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrouj, Jiana; Blagojevic, Vesna; Ivanis, Predrag

    2016-03-01

    The spectrum sharing system employing maximum ratio combining (MRC) is analyzed in Nakagami fading environment, for the case when the interference from the primary user is present at the input of the secondary user receiver. The closed-form expressions for the probability density function of the signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio, the outage probability and the ergodic capacity of the SU link are derived under both peak interference and maximal transmit power constraints. Asymptotical expressions are provided for the important region where peak interference power constraint dominates and the case when the interference from the primary user's is dominant compared to the noise at the secondary user's receiver. The obtained expressions are presented for both cases of outdated and mean-value based power allocation and verified by using Monte Carlo simulation method.

  1. A A field test for extremity dose assessment during outages at Korean nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young

    2013-05-01

    During maintenance on the water chamber of a steam generator, the pressuriser heater and the pressure tube feeder in nuclear power plants, workers are likely to receive high radiation doses due to the severe workplace conditions. In particular, it is expected that workers' hands would receive the highest radiation doses because of their contact with the radioactive materials. In this study, field tests for extremity dose assessments in radiation workers undertaking contact tasks with high radiation doses were conducted during outages at pressurised water reactors and pressurised heavy water reactors in Korea. In the test, the radiation workers were required to wear additional thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) on their backs and wrists and an extremity dosemeter on the finger, as well as a main TLD on the chest while performing the maintenance tasks.

  2. Characteristics and trends in a National Study of Consumer Outage Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Leora; Eto, Joseph H.; Katz, Aaron; Sullivan, Michael

    2003-04-01

    Ensuring reliability has and will continue to be a priority for electricity industry restructuring. Assessing the balance between public and private actions to ensure reliability should be guided in part by an understanding of the value of reliability to the nations' residential, commercial and industrial customers. Yet, there is no comprehensive body of information on this topic. This paper begins to address this information gap by analyzing studies conducted by electric utilities over the past 15 years to assess the value of electric service to their customers. Outage cost measurements prepared by 7 electric utilities through 20 studies are assembled and standardized into a national database of customer interruption costs. The database is used to describe trends in interruption costs, and regional (geographic) differences, differences in interruption costs by customer type. It can also be used to estimate customer damage functions. Results from the study are intended to contribute to an improved understanding of the importance of electricity reliability to the nation.

  3. Development of a Real-Time PCR for a Sensitive One-Step Coprodiagnosis Allowing both the Identification of Carnivore Feces and the Detection of Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis

    PubMed Central

    Umhang, Gérald; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Millon, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Studying the environmental occurrence of parasites of concern for humans and animals based on coprosamples is an expanding field of work in epidemiology and the ecology of health. Detecting and quantifying Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis, two predominant zoonotic helminths circulating in European carnivores, in feces may help to better target measures for prevention. A rapid, sensitive, and one-step quantitative PCR (qPCR) allowing detection of E. multilocularis and Toxocara spp. was developed in the present study, combined with a host fecal test based on the identification of three carnivores (red fox, dog, and cat) involved in the life cycles of these parasites. A total of 68 coprosamples were collected from identified specimens from Vulpes vulpes, Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus, Felis silvestris catus, Meles meles, Martes foina, and Martes martes. With DNA coprosamples, real-time PCR was performed in duplex with a qPCR inhibitor control specifically designed for this study. All the coprosample host identifications were confirmed by qPCR combined with sequencing, and parasites were detected and confirmed (E. multilocularis in red foxes and Toxocara cati in cats; 16% of samples presented inhibition). By combining parasite detection and quantification, the host fecal test, and a new qPCR inhibitor control, we created a technique with a high sensitivity that may considerably improve environmental studies of pathogens. PMID:26969697

  4. Development of a Real-Time PCR for a Sensitive One-Step Coprodiagnosis Allowing both the Identification of Carnivore Feces and the Detection of Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Jenny; Umhang, Gérald; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Millon, Laurence

    2016-05-15

    Studying the environmental occurrence of parasites of concern for humans and animals based on coprosamples is an expanding field of work in epidemiology and the ecology of health. Detecting and quantifying Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis, two predominant zoonotic helminths circulating in European carnivores, in feces may help to better target measures for prevention. A rapid, sensitive, and one-step quantitative PCR (qPCR) allowing detection of E. multilocularis and Toxocara spp. was developed in the present study, combined with a host fecal test based on the identification of three carnivores (red fox, dog, and cat) involved in the life cycles of these parasites. A total of 68 coprosamples were collected from identified specimens from Vulpes vulpes, Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus, Felis silvestris catus, Meles meles, Martes foina, and Martes martes With DNA coprosamples, real-time PCR was performed in duplex with a qPCR inhibitor control specifically designed for this study. All the coprosample host identifications were confirmed by qPCR combined with sequencing, and parasites were detected and confirmed (E. multilocularis in red foxes and Toxocara cati in cats; 16% of samples presented inhibition). By combining parasite detection and quantification, the host fecal test, and a new qPCR inhibitor control, we created a technique with a high sensitivity that may considerably improve environmental studies of pathogens.

  5. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility planning in accordance with appendix B of this subpart. (b) Advance of allowance to potential grant... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right...

  6. Outage Performance Analysis of Relay Selection Schemes in Wireless Energy Harvesting Cooperative Networks over Non-Identical Rayleigh Fading Channels.

    PubMed

    Do, Nhu Tri; Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc; An, Beongku

    2016-02-26

    In this paper, we study relay selection in decode-and-forward wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks. In contrast to conventional cooperative networks, the relays harvest energy from the source's radio-frequency radiation and then use that energy to forward the source information. Considering power splitting receiver architecture used at relays to harvest energy, we are concerned with the performance of two popular relay selection schemes, namely, partial relay selection (PRS) scheme and optimal relay selection (ORS) scheme. In particular, we analyze the system performance in terms of outage probability (OP) over independent and non-identical (i.n.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels. We derive the closed-form approximations for the system outage probabilities of both schemes and validate the analysis by the Monte-Carlo simulation. The numerical results provide comprehensive performance comparison between the PRS and ORS schemes and reveal the effect of wireless energy harvesting on the outage performances of both schemes. Additionally, we also show the advantages and drawbacks of the wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks and compare to the conventional cooperative networks.

  7. Method for Evaluation of Outage Probability on Random Access Channel in Mobile Communication Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollár, Martin

    2012-05-01

    In order to access the cell in all mobile communication technologies a so called random-access procedure is used. For example in GSM this is represented by sending the CHANNEL REQUEST message from Mobile Station (MS) to Base Transceiver Station (BTS) which is consequently forwarded as an CHANNEL REQUIRED message to the Base Station Controller (BSC). If the BTS decodes some noise on the Random Access Channel (RACH) as random access by mistake (so- called ‘phantom RACH') then it is a question of pure coincidence which èstablishment cause’ the BTS thinks to have recognized. A typical invalid channel access request or phantom RACH is characterized by an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT procedure (assignment of an SDCCH or TCH) which is not followed by sending an ESTABLISH INDICATION from MS to BTS. In this paper a mathematical model for evaluation of the Power RACH Busy Threshold (RACHBT) in order to guaranty in advance determined outage probability on RACH is described and discussed as well. It focuses on Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) however the obtained results can be generalized on remaining mobile technologies (ie WCDMA and LTE).

  8. Outage Probability of MRC for κ-μ Shadowed Fading Channels under Co-Channel Interference

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Changfang; Shu, Minglei; Wang, Yinglong; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Chongqing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, exact closed-form expressions are derived for the outage probability (OP) of the maximal ratio combining (MRC) scheme in the κ-μ shadowed fading channels, in which both the independent and correlated shadowing components are considered. The scenario assumes the received desired signals are corrupted by the independent Rayleigh-faded co-channel interference (CCI) and background white Gaussian noise. To this end, first, the probability density function (PDF) of the κ-μ shadowed fading distribution is obtained in the form of a power series. Then the incomplete generalized moment-generating function (IG-MGF) of the received signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) is derived in the closed form. By using the IG-MGF results, closed-form expressions for the OP of MRC scheme are obtained over the κ-μ shadowed fading channels. Simulation results are included to validate the correctness of the analytical derivations. These new statistical results can be applied to the modeling and analysis of several wireless communication systems, such as body centric communications. PMID:27851817

  9. Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory contains measured data on holdings and transactions of allowances under the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), a market-based cap and trade program created to reduce the regional transport of NOx emissions from power plants and other large combustion sources that contribute to ozone nonattainment.The statutory authority leading to the collection of this information comes from Title V of the Clean Air Act. Sustance classes include SO2 and NOx. Data of allowance holdings and transfers are made available in real time.

  10. Down-select ion specific media (ISM) utilization in upset and outage conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, Mark S.; Bostick, William D.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a process that has been used to help nuclear power plant (NPP) clients resolve some of their more challenging waste water processing issues. These treatment issues may become even more evident during outage conditions, due (in part) to associated decontamination activities that may cause off-normal chemical conditions, which may subsequently change both the peak levels of activities for radionuclides introduced into the collected waste water and also the chemical forms in which they may exist (e.g., formation of colloids or soluble chelates). In one NPP waste processing example, a large proportion of soluble Co-58, which is normally present as a soluble cationic species or an uncharged colloidal solid, was found to behave like an anion; formation of an anionic chelation complex was implicated, possibly due to suspect EDTA, or similar additive, in a proprietary decontamination soap formulation. Antimony 125 (Sb{sup 125}), normally present as a weakly anionic (Sb(OH){sub 6}{sup -}) or even neutral (Sb(OH){sub 3}{sup 0}) species, was being displaced from previously-loaded media by other, more strongly bound species, causing an unacceptable peak activity in water intended for discharge. A quick resolution of the existing waste processing limitations was required, due to limited waste water holding capacity. Samples of the authentic NPP waste water containing the recalcitrant radionuclides were sent to our licensed off-site laboratory (MCLinc), where small-scale batch-equilibrium testing was used to down-select, from a large number (36) of candidate media (both commercially available and developed internally), those that were relatively effective and economical for use in achieving the required discharge criteria. Batch equilibrium testing is very efficient for use in screening the relative effectiveness of contaminant removal by candidate media in a select waste water composition, and can also provide an estimate of the ultimate contaminant loading

  11. 38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...; Educational Assistance Allowance § 21.4145 Work-study allowance. (a) Eligibility. (1) A veteran or reservist... rate of three-quarter time or full time is eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An...

  12. 38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...; Educational Assistance Allowance § 21.4145 Work-study allowance. (a) Eligibility. (1) A veteran or reservist... rate of three-quarter time or full time is eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An...

  13. Proxies to GNSS signal outages from irregularity dynamics around the northern crest of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Tanmay; Paul, Ashik

    proportion of local post-sunset to midnight hours during equinoctial months. After the unusually prolonged bottom of the solar cycle spanning 2006-2010, scintillation activity dramatically picked up during the equinoxes of 2011. While the autumnal equinox of 2010 witnessed only a few cases of intense VHF scintillations, 47 cases of intense (S4>0.6) were recorded at VHF during the vernal equinox of 2011 and 38 cases of intense (S4>0.6) L band scintillations. Dual-frequency GPS data at recorded at Calcutta and another station, Siliguri (26.72°N, 88.39°E geographic lat; 40°N magnetic dip), situated beyond the northern crest of the EIA have been used. For the analysis, GPS satellites observed from Calcutta with 350-km subionospheric points lying within latitude swath of 20.12°-22.12°N and longitude 86.25°-88.25°E were selected around that of FSC. It was found that periods of intense L-band scintillations corresponded to low decorrelation times at VHF and abrupt fluctuations in PDOP indicating significant compromise of navigational accuracy. A causal understanding behind GNSS tracking errors are being attempted using VHF measurements, and efforts are being made to identify a threshold decorrelation time which results in GNSS signal outages exceeding the specifications of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

  14. Does the real-time thermal damage estimate allow for estimation of tumor control after MRI-guided laser-induced thermal therapy? Initial experience with recurrent intracranial ependymomas.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nitesh V; Jethwa, Pinakin R; Shetty, Anil; Danish, Shabbar F

    2015-04-01

    OBJECT Although control of intracranial ependymomas is highly correlated with degree of resection, it is unknown if the same is true for MRI-guided laser-induced thermal therapy (MRgLITT). The authors report their experience with MRgLITT for ependymoma and examine the utility of the real-time thermal damage estimate (TDE), a recent software advance, with respect to completeness of ablation and impact on tumor control. To the authors' knowledge, this is the largest single-center experience utilizing MRgLITT for recurrent ependymomas. METHODS Five tumors in 4 patients were treated with the Visualase Thermal Therapy System. Two tumors were treated similarly on recurrence. Ablation was performed using a 980-nm diode laser with a real-time image acquisition system. Single-plane TDEs were calculated and compared with the original lesion area to compute percentage area ablated (PAA). Volumetric analysis was performed, and percentage volume ablated (PVA) was estimated and correlated with the TDE. Tumor control was correlated with the TDE and volumetric data during treatment. RESULTS Nine ablations were performed on 5 tumors, 2 of which had multiple recurrences. The average pretreatment lesion volume was 8.4 ± 6.3 cm(3), and the average largest 2D area was 5.3 ± 2.7 cm(2). The averaged TDE was 3.9 ± 2.1 cm(2), average PAA was 80.1% ± 34.3%, and average PVA was 64.4% ± 23.5%. For subtotal ablations, average recurrence time was 4.4 ± 5.3 months; 1 adult case remains recurrence-free at 40 months. Using TDEs, the correlation between recurrence time and PAA was r = 0.93 (p = 0.01), and for PVA was r = 0.88 (p = 0.02). Furthermore, PVA and PAA were strongly correlated (r = 0.88, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS Through using the PAA, the real-time TDE correlated with the volume of ablation in this initial investigation. Furthermore, the TDE and volumetric data corresponded to the level of tumor control, with time to recurrence dependent on ablation completeness. MRgLITT may have a

  15. Vietnam recommended dietary allowances 2007.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Hoan, Pham Van

    2008-01-01

    It has been well acknowledged that Vietnam is undergoing a nutrition transition. With a rapid change in the country's reform and economic growth, food supply at the macronutrient level has improved. Changes of the Vietnamese diet include significantly more foods of animal origin, and an increase of fat/oils, and ripe fruits. Consequently, nutritional problems in Vietnam now include not only malnutrition but also overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases related to nutrition and lifestyles. The recognition of these shifts, which is also associated with morbidity and mortality, was a major factor in the need to review and update the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for the Vietnamese population. This revised RDA established an important science-based tool for evaluation of nutrition adequacy, for teaching, and for scientific communications within Vietnam. It is expected that the 2007 Vietnam RDA and its conversion to food-based dietary guidelines will facilitate education to the public, as well as the policy implementation of programs for prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases and addressing the double burden of both under and over nutrition.

  16. High-Rate Communications Outage Recorder Operations for Optimal Payload and Science Telemetry Management Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shell, Michael T.; McElyea, Richard M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    All International Space Station (ISS) Ku-band telemetry transmits through the High-Rate Communications Outage Recorder (HCOR). The HCOR provides the recording and playback capability for all payload, science, and International Partner data streams transmitting through NASA's Ku-band antenna system. The HCOR is a solid-state memory recorder that provides recording capability to record all eight ISS high-rate data during ISS Loss-of-Signal periods. NASA payloads in the Destiny module are prime users of the HCOR; however, NASDA and ESA will also utilize the HCOR for data capture and playback of their high data rate links from the Kibo and Columbus modules. Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center manages the HCOR for nominal functions, including system configurations and playback operations. The purpose of this paper is to present the nominal operations plan for the HCOR and the plans for handling contingency operations affecting payload operations. In addition, the paper will address HCOR operation limitations and the expected effects on payload operations. The HCOR is manifested for ISS delivery on flight 9A with the HCOR backup manifested on flight 11A. The HCOR replaces the Medium-Rate Communications Outage Recorder (MCOR), which has supported payloads since flight 5A.1.

  17. 38 CFR 21.260 - Subsistence allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Subsistence allowance. 21... $374.93 $465.08 $548.05 $39.95 3/4 time 281.71 349.32 409.76 30.73 1/2 time 188.49 233.56 274.54 20.49... 374.93 465.08 548.05 39.95 Nonpay or nominal pay work experience in a Federal, State, or local...

  18. Evaluation of the resilience of a full-scale down-flow hanging sponge reactor to long-term outages at a sewage treatment plant in India.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Takashi; Takayama, Daisuke; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Uemura, Shigeki; Harada, Hideki

    2016-10-01

    Resilience to process outages is an essential requirement for sustainable wastewater treatment systems in developing countries. In this study, we evaluated the ability of a full-scale down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor to recover after a 10-day outage. The DHS tested in this study uses polyurethane sponge as packing material. This full-scale DHS reactor has been tested over a period of about 4 years in India with a flow rate of 500 m(3)/day. Water was not supplied to the DHS reactor that was subjected to the 10-day outage; however, the biomass did not dry out because the sponge was able to retain enough water. Soon after the reactor was restarted, a small quantity of biomass, amounting to only 0.1% of the total retained biomass, was eluted. The DHS effluent achieved satisfactory removal of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, and ammonium nitrogen within 90, 45, and 90 min, respectively. Conversely, fecal coliforms in the DHS effluent did not reach satisfactory levels within 540 min; instead, the normal levels of fecal coliforms were achieved within 3 days. Overall, the tests demonstrated that the DHS reactor was sufficiently robust to withstand long-term outages and achieved steady state soon after restart. This reinforces the suitability of this technology for developing countries.

  19. Outage Performance and Average Symbol Error Rate of M-QAM for Maximum Ratio Combining with Multiple Interferers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Kyung Seung

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of maximum ratio combining (MRC) in the presence of multiple cochannel interferences over a flat Rayleigh fading channel. Closed-form expressions of signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINK), outage probability, and average symbol error rate (SER) of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) with Mary signaling are obtained for unequal-power interference-to-noise ratio (INR). We also provide an upper-bound for the average SER using moment generating function (MGF) of the SINR. Moreover, we quantify the array gain loss between pure MRC (MRC system in the absence of CCI) and MRC system in the presence of CCI. Finally, we verify our analytical results by numerical simulations.

  20. The Fixed-bias Langmuir Probe on the Communication-navigation Outage Forecast System Satellite: Calibration and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klenzing, Jeffrey H.; Rowland, Douglas E.

    2012-01-01

    A fixed-bias spherical Langmuir probe is included as part of the Vector Electric Field Instrument (VEFI) suite on the Communication Navigation Outage Forecast System (CNOFS) satellite.CNOFS gathers data in the equatorial ionosphere between 400 and 860 km, where the primary constituent ions are H+ and O+. The ion current collected by the probe surface per unit plasmadensity is found to be a strong function of ion composition. The calibration of the collected current to an absolute density is discussed, and the performance of the spherical probe is compared to other in situ instruments on board the CNOFS satellite. The application of the calibration is discussed with respect to future xed-bias probes; in particular, it is demonstrated that some density fluctuations will be suppressed in the collected current if the plasma composition rapidly changes along with density. This is illustrated in the observation of plasma density enhancements on CNOFS.

  1. The Fixed-Bias Langmuir Probe on the Communication-Navigation Outage Forecast System Satellite: Calibration and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klenzing, J.; Rowland, D.

    2012-01-01

    A fixed-bias spherical Langmuir probe is included as part of the Vector Electric Field Instrument (VEFI) suite on the Communication Navigation Outage Forecast System (CNOFS) satellite.CNOFS gathers data in the equatorial ionosphere between 400 and 860 km, where the primary constituent ions are H+ and O+. The ion current collected by the probe surface per unit plasma density is found to be a strong function of ion composition. The calibration of the collected current to an absolute density is discussed, and the performance of the spherical probe is compared to other in situ instruments on board the CNOFS satellite. The application of the calibration is discussed with respect to future fixed-bias probes; in particular, it is demonstrated that some density fluctuations will be suppressed in the collected current if the plasma composition rapidly changes along with density. This is illustrated in the observation of plasma density enhancements on CNOFS.

  2. Lightning-Generated Whistler Waves Observed by Probes On The Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System Satellite at Low Latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzworth, R. H.; McCarthy, M. P.; Pfaff, R. F.; Jacobson, A. R.; Willcockson, W. L.; Rowland, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    Direct evidence is presented for a causal relationship between lightning and strong electric field transients inside equatorial ionospheric density depletions. In fact, these whistler mode plasma waves may be the dominant electric field signal within such depletions. Optical lightning data from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite and global lightning location information from the World Wide Lightning Location Network are presented as independent verification that these electric field transients are caused by lightning. The electric field instrument on C/NOFS routinely measures lightning ]related electric field wave packets or sferics, associated with simultaneous measurements of optical flashes at all altitudes encountered by the satellite (401.867 km). Lightning ]generated whistler waves have abundant access to the topside ionosphere, even close to the magnetic equator.

  3. The fixed-bias Langmuir probe on the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System satellite: calibration and validation.

    PubMed

    Klenzing, J; Rowland, D

    2012-11-01

    A fixed-bias spherical Langmuir probe is included as part of the Vector Electric Field Instrument (VEFI) suite on the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite. C/NOFS gathers data in the equatorial ionosphere between 400 and 860 km, where the primary constituent ions are H(+) and O(+). The ion current collected by the probe surface per unit plasma density is found to be a strong function of ion composition. The calibration of the collected current to an absolute density is discussed, and the performance of the spherical probe is compared to other in situ instruments on board the C/NOFS satellite. The application of the calibration is discussed with respect to future fixed-bias probes; in particular, it is demonstrated that some density fluctuations will be suppressed in the collected current if the plasma composition rapidly changes along with density. This is illustrated in the observation of plasma density enhancements on C/NOFS.

  4. 40 CFR 265.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section, at a hazardous waste management unit or facility, or within 90 days after approval of the closure...) The hazardous waste management unit or facility has the capacity to receive additional hazardous... another person will recommence operation of the hazardous waste management unit or the facility within...

  5. 40 CFR 264.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous waste management unit or facility, the owner or operator must treat, remove from the unit or...) The hazardous waste management unit or facility has the capacity to receive additional hazardous... will recommence operation of the hazardous waste management unit or the facility within one year;...

  6. 40 CFR 265.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... section, at a hazardous waste management unit or facility, or within 90 days after approval of the closure...) The hazardous waste management unit or facility has the capacity to receive additional hazardous... another person will recommence operation of the hazardous waste management unit or the facility within...

  7. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 1210.27... Management § 1210.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost...

  8. 45 CFR 1183.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1183.22 Section 1183.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  9. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 74.27 Section 74.27 Public... Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a particular set of Federal principles that applies in determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with...

  10. 45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1157.22 Section 1157.22 Public... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form...

  11. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  12. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education... allowable expenditures by projects funded under the program: (a) Cost of attendance, as defined in Title...

  13. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 74.27 Section 74.27 Education Office... and Program Management § 74.27 Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a set of cost principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs are determined in accordance with the...

  14. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education... allowable expenditures by projects funded under the program: (a) Cost of attendance, as defined in Title...

  15. 45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1174.22 Section 1174.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  16. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 602.22 Section 602.22 Public... Requirements § 602.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable...

  17. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form...

  18. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84....27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost principles...

  19. 15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 24.22 Section 24.22... Administration § 24.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  20. 49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 266.11 Section 266.11... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.11 Allowable costs. Allowable costs include only the following costs which are properly allocable to the work performed: Planning and program operation costs which are allowed under...

  1. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form...

  2. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 14.27 Section 14.27... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs...

  3. 2 CFR 215.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 215.27 Section 215.27... § 215.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost...

  4. 7 CFR 3019.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 3019.27 Section 3019.27 Agriculture... Management § 3019.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost...

  5. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2543.27 Section 2543.27 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability...

  6. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84....27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost principles...

  7. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  8. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  9. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  10. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  11. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section 617.46... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.46 Travel allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of travel allowance (including lodging and meals) payable under § 617.45(a)(1)...

  12. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clothing allowance. 3.810..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.810 Clothing allowance. (a) Except... therefor, to an annual clothing allowance as specified in 38 U.S.C. 1162. The annual clothing allowance...

  13. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Moving allowance. 617.47 Section 617.47... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.47 Moving allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of a moving allowance payable under § 617.45(a)(2) shall be 90 percent of the total...

  14. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Moving allowance. 617.47 Section 617.47... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.47 Moving allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of a moving allowance payable under § 617.45(a)(2) shall be 90 percent of the total...

  15. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Moving allowance. 617.47 Section 617.47... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.47 Moving allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of a moving allowance payable under § 617.45(a)(2) shall be 90 percent of the total...

  16. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Moving allowance. 617.47 Section 617.47... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.47 Moving allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of a moving allowance payable under § 617.45(a)(2) shall be 90 percent of the total...

  17. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Moving allowance. 617.47 Section 617.47... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.47 Moving allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of a moving allowance payable under § 617.45(a)(2) shall be 90 percent of the total...

  18. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  19. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  20. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  1. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  2. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  3. Maximum Utilization of On-Base Emergency Generation after Sustained Utility Outage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-27

    defined as an intentional electrical island comprised of generation and load [3]. Each microgrid shall have the capability to supply its specified loads...performed by EasyPower used a nodal admittance network and sparse vector solutions [4]. The software allows all analyses and database entries to be...protection scheme may become invalid as a result of adding distributed generators. Special considerations should be made when identifying microgrids and

  4. Ergodic capacity and outage capacity analysis for multiple-input single-output free-space optical communications over composite channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin-Yuan; Wang, Jun-Bo; Chen, Ming; Huang, Nuo; Jia, Lin-Qiong; Guan, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Free-space optical (FSO) communications have attracted significant attention recently. The ergodic capacity and outage capacity of a multiple-input single-output FSO communication system are investigated. Initially, a composite channel model including distance-dependant atmospheric loss, pointing error, and atmospheric turbulence is derived. To show different weather conditions, both the weak and strong atmospheric turbulence conditions are taken into account. Moreover, the statistical characteristics of two composite channels (i.e., weak turbulence composite channels and strong turbulence composite channels) are provided. Furthermore, approximated expressions of the ergodic capacity and closed-form expressions of the outage capacity are derived under the two composite channels, respectively. Numerical results finally substantiate that the derived theoretical expressions can provide a very good approximation to the simulation results.

  5. Outage Performance Analysis of Relay Selection Schemes in Wireless Energy Harvesting Cooperative Networks over Non-Identical Rayleigh Fading Channels †

    PubMed Central

    Do, Nhu Tri; Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc; An, Beongku

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study relay selection in decode-and-forward wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks. In contrast to conventional cooperative networks, the relays harvest energy from the source’s radio-frequency radiation and then use that energy to forward the source information. Considering power splitting receiver architecture used at relays to harvest energy, we are concerned with the performance of two popular relay selection schemes, namely, partial relay selection (PRS) scheme and optimal relay selection (ORS) scheme. In particular, we analyze the system performance in terms of outage probability (OP) over independent and non-identical (i.n.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels. We derive the closed-form approximations for the system outage probabilities of both schemes and validate the analysis by the Monte-Carlo simulation. The numerical results provide comprehensive performance comparison between the PRS and ORS schemes and reveal the effect of wireless energy harvesting on the outage performances of both schemes. Additionally, we also show the advantages and drawbacks of the wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks and compare to the conventional cooperative networks. PMID:26927119

  6. An Overview of Scientific and Space Weather Results from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; de la Beaujardiere, O.; Hunton, D.; Heelis, R.; Earle, G.; Strauss, P.; Bernhardt, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) Mission of the Air Force Research Laboratory is described. C/NOFS science objectives may be organized into three categories: (1) to understand physical processes active in the background ionosphere and thermosphere in which plasma instabilities grow; (2) to identify mechanisms that trigger or quench the plasma irregularities responsible for signal degradation; and (3) to determine how the plasma irregularities affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves. The satellite was launched in April, 2008 into a low inclination (13 deg), elliptical (400 x 850 km) orbit. The satellite sensors measure the following parameters in situ: ambient and fluctuating electron densities, AC and DC electric and magnetic fields, ion drifts and large scale ion composition, ion and electron temperatures, and neutral winds. C/NOFS is also equipped with a GPS occultation receiver and a radio beacon. In addition to the satellite sensors, complementary ground-based measurements, theory, and advanced modeling techniques are also important parts of the mission. We report scientific and space weather highlights of the mission after nearly four years in orbit

  7. Use of carbon monoxide alarms to prevent poisonings during a power outage--North Carolina, December 2002.

    PubMed

    2004-03-12

    Each year in the United States, approximately 500 persons die from unintentional carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, often during electric power outages caused by severe storms. Use of residential CO alarms has been recommended to reduce the incidence of CO poisoning. In September 2000, Mecklenburg County, North Carolina (2002 population: 722,367), adopted a public health ordinance requiring a CO alarm in the majority of residences; all-electric residences without attached garages (35.4% of all homes) were exempt. The ordinance also permitted use of alarms without battery back-up. On December 4, 2002, an ice storm caused 78.9% of county households to lose power. During the next 9 days, 124 cases of symptomatic CO poisoning were reported. To characterize these poisonings and the effectiveness of the CO alarm ordinance, local emergency physicians, fire department authorities, and CDC conducted an investigation. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which determined that 96.2% of the severe poisonings occurred in homes with no reported functioning CO alarm. As a result of these findings, on October 8, 2003, Mecklenburg County officials amended the ordinance to require alarms with battery back-ups in all residences. Officials in other communities should consider enacting such alarm ordinances to prevent CO poisonings.

  8. Exact outage analysis of the effect of co-channel interference on secured multi-hop relaying networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quang Nguyen, Sang; Kong, Hyung Yun

    2016-11-01

    In this article, the presence of multi-hop relaying, eavesdropper and co-channel interference (CCI) in the same system model is investigated. Specifically, the effect of CCI on a secured multi-hop relaying network is studied, in which the source communicates with the destination via multi-relay-hopping under the presence of an eavesdropper and CCI at each node. The optimal relay at each cluster is selected to help forward the message from the source to the destination. We apply two relay selection approaches to such a system model, i.e. the optimal relay is chosen based on (1) the maximum channel gain from the transmitter to all relays in the desired cluster and (2) the minimum channel gain from the eavesdropper to all relays in each cluster. For the performance evaluation and comparison, we derived the exact closed form of the secrecy outage probability of the two approaches. That analysis is verified by Monte Carlo simulation. Finally, the effects of the number of hops, the transmit power at the source, relays and the external sources, the distance between the external sources and each node in the system, and the location of the eavesdropper are presented and discussed.

  9. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs...

  10. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 92.22 Section 92.22 Public... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors,...

  11. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs...

  12. 29 CFR 1470.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 1470.22 Section 1470.22 Labor Regulations... Financial Administration § 1470.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors,...

  13. 50 CFR 85.41 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 85.41 Section 85.41... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.41 Allowable costs. (a) Allowable grant costs are limited to those costs... applicable Federal cost principles in 43 CFR 12.60(b). Purchase of informational signs, program signs,...

  14. 7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 3016.22 Section 3016.22 Agriculture... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees...

  15. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education... costs. (a)(1) Allowable and unallowable costs. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, costs reasonably related to carrying out the programs described in § 675.32 are allowable. (2)...

  16. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1180.56 Section 1180.56 Public... by a Grantee General Administrative Responsibilities § 1180.56 Allowable costs. (a) Determination of costs allowable under a grant is made in accordance with government-wide cost principles in...

  17. 45 CFR 2541.220 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2541.220 Section 2541.220 Public... Post-Award Requirements § 2541.220 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for— (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type...

  18. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that are proper...

  19. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the...

  20. 43 CFR 12.927 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 12.927 Section 12.927... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Agreements... Requirements § 12.927 Allowable costs. Federal awarding agencies shall determine allowable costs in...

  1. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the...

  2. 38 CFR 49.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 49.27... costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

  3. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 632.37 Section 632.37... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Administrative Standards and Procedures § 632.37 Allowable costs. (a) General. To be allowable, a cost must be necessary and reasonable for proper and efficient...

  4. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 1207.22... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1207.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees...

  5. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 43.22... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type...

  6. 20 CFR 633.303 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 633.303 Section 633.303... FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Program Design and Administrative Procedures § 633.303 Allowable costs. (a) General. To be allowable, a cost must be necessary and reasonable for proper and efficient administration of...

  7. 42 CFR 405.2468 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 405.2468 Section 405.2468 Public... Allowable costs. (a) Applicability of general Medicare principles. In determining whether and to what extent a specific type or item of cost is allowable, such as interest, depreciation, bad debts and...

  8. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.228 Section 206.228 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR...

  9. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.228 Section 206.228 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR...

  10. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 206.228 Section 206.228 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR...

  11. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  12. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  13. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  14. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  15. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  16. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  17. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  18. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  19. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  20. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  1. 5 CFR 591.305 - Allowance rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Allowance Based on Duty at Remote Worksites § 591.305 Allowance rates. (a) General. An allowance rate may... remote under § 591.304, and shall be terminated or adjusted as warranted. In determining the amount of... commuting to the remote post of duty as compared to transportation expenses (including cost of...

  2. 5 CFR 591.305 - Allowance rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Allowance Based on Duty at Remote Worksites § 591.305 Allowance rates. (a) General. An allowance rate may... remote under § 591.304, and shall be terminated or adjusted as warranted. In determining the amount of... commuting to the remote post of duty as compared to transportation expenses (including cost of...

  3. 47 CFR 4.9 - Outage reporting requirements-threshold criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... surrogate for 90,000 real-time blocked calls, or 167,000 lost MTP messages on a historical basis as a surrogate for 30,000 lost calls based on historic carried loads. Historic carried load data or the number...

  4. 47 CFR 4.9 - Outage reporting requirements-threshold criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 7. Signaling System 7 (SS7) providers shall submit electronically a Notification to the Commission... based on historic carried loads. In cases where a third-party SS7 provider cannot directly estimate the number of blocked calls, the third-party SS7 provider shall use 500,000 real-time lost MTP messages as...

  5. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, Steven A.

    2015-05-01

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a “white” (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant’s insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of interest, only

  6. Serial FBG sensor network allowing overlapping spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbenseth, S.; Lochmann, S.; Ahrens, A.; Rehm, B.

    2016-05-01

    For structure or material monitoring low impact serial fiber Bragg grating (FBG) networks have attracted increasing research interest. Common sensor networks using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) for FBG interrogation are limited in their efficiency by the spectral width of their light source, the FBG tuning range and the spectral guard bands. Overlapping spectra are strictly forbidden in this case. Applying time division multiplexing (TDM) or active resonator schemes may overcome these restrictions. However, they introduce other substantial disadvantages like signal roundtrip dependency or sophisticated control of active resonating structures. Code division multiplexing (CDM) as a means of FBG interrogation by simple autocorrelation of appropriate codes has been shown to be superior in this respect. However, it came at the cost of a second spectrometer introducing additional equalization efforts. We demonstrate a new serial FBG sensor network utilizing CDM signal processing for efficient sensor interrogation without the need of a second spectrometer and additional state of polarization (SOP) controlling components. It allows overlapping spectra even when all sensing FBGs are positioned at the same centre wavelength and it shows a high degree of insensitivity to SOP. Sequence inversed keyed (SIK) serial signal processing utilizing quasi-orthogonal balanced codes ensures simple and quick sensor interrogation with high signal-to-interference/noise ratio.

  7. Cluster approach allows budgeting, planning with DRGs.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, P L

    1984-01-01

    Measuring costs and revenues on a diagnosis related group (DRG) basis allows health care managers to define product lines, identify market shares, and examine the effects of case mix and physician behavior on profitability. It also enables public agencies to predict bed needs and evaluate certificate-of-need applications. The large number of DRGs, however, and other managerial considerations may discourage the use of DRG-based budgeting and planning. To save time and enhance data usefulness, financial officers may consolidate the DRGs into fewer groups. Revenue, for example, can be estimated by grouping the DRGs into 23 major diagnostic categories or by clustering them according to cost weight or into one group. Comparisons of payment rates and costs will identify the DRGs that lose money and will determine whether departmental costs are excessive. Strategic planning units formed from the 468 DRGs will help health care managers analyze and project performance. Product lines for this purpose may be clustered according to major diagnostic category, physician specialty, or clinical department. Since a potentially enormous amount of DRG-based clinical and financial information could be generated, hospitals should create data committees to ensure that managers receive only the information they need.

  8. 9. DREDGE ARRANGEMENT ALLOWS FOR TWO DREDGE BASKETS TO BE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DREDGE ARRANGEMENT ALLOWS FOR TWO DREDGE BASKETS TO BE OUT AT ALTERNATING TIMES. WHILE STARBOARD IS HAULED IN, PORT IS RELEASED OUT TO DREDGE. - KATHRYN-Two-sail Bateau "Skipjack", Dogwood Harbor, Chesapeake Bay, Tilghman, Talbot County, MD

  9. 9 CFR 51.32 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.32 Claims not allowed. Claims for indemnity for goats, sheep..., authorized, or certified at the time of the test; (c) Testing of goats, sheep, and horses in the herd...

  10. 9 CFR 51.32 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.32 Claims not allowed. Claims for indemnity for goats, sheep..., authorized, or certified at the time of the test; (c) Testing of goats, sheep, and horses in the herd...

  11. 43 CFR 12.62 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 12.62 Section 12.62... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements to State and Local Governments Post-Award Requirements § 12.62 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation...

  12. 15 CFR 921.81 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 921.81 Section 921.81... costs. (a) Allowable costs will be determined in accordance with applicable OMB Circulars and guidance... Department of Commerce and NOAA directives. The term “costs” applies to both the Federal and...

  13. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FIRE MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAM Grant Administration § 204.63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44...

  14. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  15. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  16. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  17. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  18. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  19. 30 CFR 725.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 725.21 Section 725.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.21 Allowable costs. (a) The Director or his authorized...

  20. 30 CFR 735.24 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 735.24 Section 735.24 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT... AND ENFORCEMENT § 735.24 Allowable costs. The Director or his authorized designee shall...

  1. 30 CFR 725.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 725.21 Section 725.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.21 Allowable costs. (a) The Director or his authorized...

  2. 30 CFR 735.24 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 735.24 Section 735.24 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT... AND ENFORCEMENT § 735.24 Allowable costs. The Director or his authorized designee shall...

  3. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  4. 30 CFR 206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating allowances. 206.160 Section 206.160 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any other provisions...

  5. 20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable activities. 632.258 Section 632.258 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable...

  6. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs incurred by...

  7. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs incurred by...

  8. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  9. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs incurred by...

  10. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs incurred by...

  11. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  12. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  13. 28 CFR 100.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 100.11 Section 100.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.11 Allowable costs. (a) Costs that are eligible...

  14. Moral Appraisals Affect Doing/Allowing Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Fiery; Knobe, Joshua; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2008-01-01

    An extensive body of research suggests that the distinction between doing and allowing plays a critical role in shaping moral appraisals. Here, we report evidence from a pair of experiments suggesting that the converse is also true: moral appraisals affect doing/allowing judgments. Specifically, morally bad behavior is more likely to be construed…

  15. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other... of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs....

  16. 13 CFR 143.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including... cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set...

  17. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other... of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs....

  18. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors...) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles...

  19. 15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors...) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles...

  20. 32 CFR 33.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of...

  1. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors... profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is...

  2. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors...) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles...

  3. 40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors... profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or sub-grantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is...

  4. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including... cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or other increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set...

  5. 14 CFR 1273.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type.... (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal...

  6. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  7. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  8. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any other provisions in these regulations, an operating allowance may be used for the purpose of computing...

  9. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any other provisions in these regulations, an operating allowance may be used for the purpose of computing...

  10. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food... EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory... registered manufacturer shall be allowed as a part of the quota an amount sufficient to maintain an...

  11. 21 CFR 1303.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1303.24 Section 1303.24 Food... Quotas § 1303.24 Inventory allowance. (a) For the purpose of determining individual manufacturing quotas... sufficient to maintain an inventory equal to, (1) For current manufacturers, 50 percent of his...

  12. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food... EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory... registered manufacturer shall be allowed as a part of the quota an amount sufficient to maintain an...

  13. 21 CFR 1303.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1303.24 Section 1303.24 Food... Quotas § 1303.24 Inventory allowance. (a) For the purpose of determining individual manufacturing quotas... sufficient to maintain an inventory equal to, (1) For current manufacturers, 50 percent of his...

  14. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  15. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  16. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  17. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  18. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  19. Allocation of Allowances and Associated Family Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, M. Kaye; Cheadle, Tannis

    This study gathered information on general family practices concerning allowances given to children, parental reasons for the provision of allowances, the bases for their administration, and the frequency of conflicts generated around them. The subjects were 81 parents of elementary school children in a midwest Canadian city. Subjects completed…

  20. 10 CFR 600.222 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allowable costs. 600.222 Section 600.222 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform Administrative....222 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  1. 10 CFR 600.222 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 600.222 Section 600.222 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform Administrative....222 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  2. Family Allowances and Fertility: Socioeconomic Differences

    PubMed Central

    SCHELLEKENS, JONA

    2009-01-01

    This article explores socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances on fertility. Although several studies have examined the relationship between cash benefits and fertility, few studies have addressed the possible differential effects of cash benefits on families of different income or education levels. I reconstructed the birth histories of women in the past two Israeli censuses of 1983 and 1995 to study socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances up to the seventh parity. The results indicate that family allowances have a significant effect at every parity. Using female education as an indicator of socioeconomic status, I find that socioeconomic status is a significant modifier of the effect of family allowances. Family allowances seem to have a relatively large impact on more-educated women. PMID:19771939

  3. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a wheelchair) because of such disability and such disability is the loss or loss of use of a hand or... wheelchair. (b) Effective August 1, 1972, the initial lump sum clothing allowance is due and payable...

  4. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL... Organizations.” (c) Allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined...

  5. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... organization is determined as follows: (i) Institutions of higher education. Allowability is determined in... prior approval of the contracting officer, DOE may pay those costs incurred within the ninety...

  6. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... organization is determined as follows: (i) Institutions of higher education. Allowability is determined in... prior approval of the contracting officer, DOE may pay those costs incurred within the ninety...

  7. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... organization is determined as follows: (i) Institutions of higher education. Allowability is determined in... prior approval of the contracting officer, DOE may pay those costs incurred within the ninety...

  8. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... organization is determined as follows: (i) Institutions of higher education. Allowability is determined in... prior approval of the contracting officer, DOE may pay those costs incurred within the ninety...

  9. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Administrative Standards and Procedures § 632.37 Allowable costs. (a... or consortium administrative entity for the purpose of carrying out programs under the Act....

  10. Regulatory treatment of allowances and compliance costs

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.

    1993-07-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) established a national emission allowance trading system, a market-based form of environmental regulation designed to reduce and limit sulfur dioxide emissions. However, the allowance trading system is being applied primarily to an economically regulated electric utility industry. The combining of the new form of environmental regulation and economic regulation of electric utilities has raised a number of questions including what the role should be of the federal and state utility regulating commissions and how those actions will affect the decision making process of the utilities and the allowance market. There are several dimensions to the regulatory problems that commissions face. Allowances and utility compliance expenditures have implications for least-cost/IPR (integrated resource planning), prudence review procedures, holding company and multistate utility regulation and ratemaking treatment. The focus of this paper is on the ratemaking treatment. The following topics are covered: ratemaking treatment of allowances and compliance costs; Traditional cost-recovery mechanisms; limitations to the traditional approach; traditional approach and the allowance trading market; market-based cost recovery mechanisms; methods of determining the benchmark; determining the split between ratepayers and the utility; other regulatory approaches; limitations of incentive mechanisms.

  11. Lyondell outage spikes prices

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-07

    Methanol spot markets in the US Gulf Coast cooled a bit late last week from their Monday spike in the wake of a pipeline rupture and fire that shut down Lyondell Petrochemical`s Channelview, TX complex and its 248-million gal/year methanol plant. The unit resumed production last week and was expected to return to full service by August 3. Offering prices shot up at least 10% over the pre-accident level of about 50 cts/gal fob. No actual business could be confirmed at a price of more than 52 cts-53 cts/gal, however.

  12. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  13. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  14. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235 Section 136.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  15. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  16. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  17. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  18. 38 CFR 49.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research...

  19. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants...

  20. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair) which tends to wear or tear... appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair) which tends to wear or tear clothing; or (B) A... allowance for each prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair)...

  1. 44 CFR 208.41 - Administrative allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative allowance. 208.41 Section 208.41 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM...

  2. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Job Location and Development Program § 675.33...

  3. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Job Location and Development Program § 675.33...

  4. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Job Location and Development Program § 675.33...

  5. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... sets out in this subpart. (d) Indirect costs. Indirect costs beyond the administrative and...

  6. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of 10... directly to FEMA is eligible for management costs consisting of a maximum of 10 percent of grants...

  7. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of 10... directly to FEMA is eligible for management costs consisting of a maximum of 10 percent of grants...

  8. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.439 Section 206.439 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... section. (b) Administrative and management costs for major disasters will be paid in accordance with...

  9. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of 10... directly to FEMA is eligible for management costs consisting of a maximum of 10 percent of grants...

  10. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.228 Section 206.228 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF.... (3) Administrative and management costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid...

  11. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.439 Section 206.439 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... section. (b) Administrative and management costs for major disasters will be paid in accordance with...

  12. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of 10... directly to FEMA is eligible for management costs consisting of a maximum of 10 percent of grants...

  13. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... sets out in this subpart. (d) Indirect costs. Indirect costs beyond the administrative and...

  14. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.439 Section 206.439 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... section. (b) Administrative and management costs for major disasters will be paid in accordance with...

  15. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.228 Section 206.228 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF.... (3) Administrative and management costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid...

  16. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of 10... directly to FEMA is eligible for management costs consisting of a maximum of 10 percent of grants...

  17. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... sets out in this subpart. (d) Indirect costs. Indirect costs beyond the administrative and...

  18. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... sets out in this subpart. (d) Indirect costs. Indirect costs beyond the administrative and...

  19. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... sets out in this subpart. (d) Indirect costs. Indirect costs beyond the administrative and...

  20. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 206.439 Section 206.439 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... section. (b) Administrative and management costs for major disasters will be paid in accordance with...

  1. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.439 Section 206.439 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... section. (b) Administrative and management costs for major disasters will be paid in accordance with...

  2. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is..., however, pay consultants more than this amount.) This limitation applies to consultation services...

  3. 21 CFR 1303.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... estimated net disposal for the current calendar year and the last preceding calendar year; or (2) For new manufacturers, 50 percent of his reasonably estimated net disposal for the next calendar year as determined by the Administrator. (b) During each calendar year each registered manufacturer shall be allowed...

  4. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... typical “provider” costs, and costs (such as marketing, enrollment, membership, and operation of the HMO... principles applicable to provider costs, as set forth in § 417.536. (2) The allowability of other costs is determined in accordance with principles set forth in §§ 417.538 through 417.550. (3) Costs for...

  5. 20 CFR 633.303 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., or committee for section 402 program purposes, and reimbursement of actual expenses connected with... grantee per quarter. (2) Allowances and loss of wages. Any individual or family member who is a member of... family income does not exceed either 70 percent of the lower living standard income level or the...

  6. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SERVICE OBLIGATIONS UNDER SPECIAL...

  7. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SERVICE OBLIGATIONS UNDER SPECIAL...

  8. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SERVICE OBLIGATIONS UNDER SPECIAL...

  9. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... the applicable cost principles. For the costs of a— Use the principles in— State, local or...

  10. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... the applicable cost principles. For the costs of a— Use the principles in— State, local or...

  11. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial...— Private nonprofit organization other than (1) An institution of higher education; (2) a hospital; or (3... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 74.27 Section 74.27 Education...

  12. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial...— Private nonprofit organization other than (1) An institution of higher education; (2) a hospital; or (3... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 74.27 Section 74.27 Education...

  13. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs incurred by commercial... with their normal travel reimbursement practices. Contracts with firms for services which are awarded... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE...

  14. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84.27 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management §...

  15. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84.27 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management §...

  16. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84.27 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management §...

  17. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.223...

  18. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.217...

  19. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241 Section 136.241 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.241...

  20. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235 Section 136.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.235...

  1. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205...

  2. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.229...

  3. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211...

  4. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements...

  5. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements...

  6. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements...

  7. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements...

  8. 29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... service with the Department and: (l) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent... the other provisions of this subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss, of personal property incident... authorized places. Claims may be allowable for damage to, or loss of, property arising from fire,...

  9. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met... OMB circulars. (b) No costs shall be allowed for the purchase of any object to be included in the collection of a museum, except library, literary, or archival material specifically required for a...

  10. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met... OMB circulars. (b) No costs shall be allowed for the purchase of any object to be included in the collection of a museum, except library, literary, or archival material specifically required for a...

  11. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met... OMB circulars. (b) No costs shall be allowed for the purchase of any object to be included in the collection of a museum, except library, literary, or archival material specifically required for a...

  12. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met... OMB circulars. (b) No costs shall be allowed for the purchase of any object to be included in the collection of a museum, except library, literary, or archival material specifically required for a...

  13. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 632.37 Section 632.37 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN... applicable State and local law, rules or regulations as determined by the Native American grantee. (b)...

  14. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....16(f). (b) Other types of organizations. Allowability of costs incurred by other types of... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements... accordance with the cost principles applicable to the type of entity incurring the costs, as follows: (a)...

  15. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit... principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining...

  16. 15 CFR 921.81 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable costs. 921.81 Section 921.81 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC... program in either the current or a prior award period. (d) General guidelines for the non-Federal...

  17. 29 CFR 15.41 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Arising Out of the Operation of the Job Corps § 15.41 Allowable claims. (a)(1) A claim for damage to persons or property arising out of an act or omission of a student enrolled in the Job Corps may...

  18. 50 CFR 80.15 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.15 Allowable costs. (a) What are... designed to include purposes other than those eligible under either the Dingell-Johnson Sport...

  19. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  20. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  1. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 30.27 Section 30.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  2. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 30.27 Section 30.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  3. 32 CFR 32.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 32.27 Allowable... subrecipients or contractors under awards subject to this part is determined in accordance with the provisions... awards, is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A-122, “Cost Principles for...

  4. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  5. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  6. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  7. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241 Section 136.241 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  8. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  9. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  10. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  11. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  12. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  13. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  14. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  15. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  16. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241 Section 136.241 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  17. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235 Section 136.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  18. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241 Section 136.241 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  19. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  20. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  1. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241 Section 136.241 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  2. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  3. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  4. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235 Section 136.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  5. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235 Section 136.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  6. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  7. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  8. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  9. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-12-31

    The use of the SO{sub 2} allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO{sub 2} emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO{sub 2} for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO{sub x} emission averaging, the utility would average NO{sub x} emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  10. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the SO[sub 2] allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO[sub 2] emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO[sub 2] for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO[sub x] emission averaging, the utility would average NO[sub x] emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  11. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy... expenditures. (a) Except as adjusted, the expenditure of financial assistance provided under this part for... adjusted in paragraph (c) of this section. (b) The expenditure of financial assistance provided under...

  12. 5 CFR 180.104 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable claims. 180.104 Section 180.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYEES' PERSONAL PROPERTY... are payable: (i) Where personal funds were accepted by responsible Government personnel with...

  13. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Job Location and Development Program § 675.33...

  14. 40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... critical use allowances. 82.8 Section 82.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 82.8 Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances. (a) Effective January 1, 1996...). There is no amount specified for this exemption. (c) Effective January 1, 2005, critical use...

  15. 38 CFR 21.260 - Subsistence allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....71 349.32 409.76 30.73 1/2 time 188.49 233.56 274.54 20.49 Farm cooperative, apprenticeship, or other... time 327.81 396.44 456.88 29.71 Non-farm cooperative (Full-time only): Institutional 374.93 465.08 548... 548.05 39.95 3/4 time 281.71 349.32 409.76 30.73 1/2 time 188.49 233.56 274.54 20.49 Farm...

  16. 38 CFR 21.260 - Subsistence allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....71 349.32 409.76 30.73 1/2 time 188.49 233.56 274.54 20.49 Farm cooperative, apprenticeship, or other... time 327.81 396.44 456.88 29.71 Non-farm cooperative (Full-time only): Institutional 374.93 465.08 548... 548.05 39.95 3/4 time 281.71 349.32 409.76 30.73 1/2 time 188.49 233.56 274.54 20.49 Farm...

  17. 38 CFR 21.260 - Subsistence allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....71 349.32 409.76 30.73 1/2 time 188.49 233.56 274.54 20.49 Farm cooperative, apprenticeship, or other... time 327.81 396.44 456.88 29.71 Non-farm cooperative (Full-time only): Institutional 374.93 465.08 548... 548.05 39.95 3/4 time 281.71 349.32 409.76 30.73 1/2 time 188.49 233.56 274.54 20.49 Farm...

  18. Allowable stresses in FRP marine vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visuri, Manuri

    The publication consists of a literature survey of allowable stresses used in fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) structures, and a new method for the determination of allowable stresses is presented. In the literature survey, primary attention has been paid to the marine industry (including classification societies), the aerospace industry, and to pressure vessel and pipe standards. Generally the subject is only briefly discussed in the literature. This is a drawback, since the conservatism dominating the rules used today often means unnecessary weight penalties. High factors of safety (FoS), except in the aerospace industry, are used in most designs. The short experience of structures in service, wide variety of material combinations and the rather complicated mechanical behavior are the most important factors in this regard. The presented determination method for allowable stresses aims at introducing a more rational way for dimensioning. The method is based on the partial factors of safety concept. A statistical analysis can be included for better accuracy. This requires enough data of material and load behavior. The method is flexible and can be tailored to various needs. One major drawback is the lack of information concerning material behavior under long-term loads. The method is aimed to be expanded in the future.

  19. 38 CFR 21.260 - Subsistence allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1/4 time 3 99.59 123.41 145.06 10.82 1 For measurement of rate of pursuit, see §§ 21.4270 through 21....25 $595.39 $43.40 3/4 time 306.05 379.50 445.14 33.38 1/2 time 204.78 253.73 298.25 22.26 Nonpay or... 595.39 43.40 3/4 time 306.05 379.50 445.14 33.38 1/2 time 204.78 253.73 298.25 22.26 Farm...

  20. The Impact of Education Maintenance Allowances. LSDA Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mick; Clay, Sara

    The Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA) program was developed and offered in 3-year pilot projects that were designed to test whether extra funds would encourage more of England's young people from low-income families to participate in full-time education and training, stay on course for the duration of the program, and achieve their…

  1. Education Maintenance Allowances: The Impact on Further Education. FEDA Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mick

    In September 1999, a pilot program of Education Maintenance Allowances (EMAs) was introduced in 15 local education authorities (LEAs) in England to provide payments to students aged 16-19 who are from low-income families and who are attending full-time courses in schools and colleges. Participants are entitled to 2 years' support and must be…

  2. 14 CFR § 1261.104 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... allowed only if: (1) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent or wrongful act... of the claimant at the time of the damage or loss, or solely because the claimant was not the legal... this subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss of, personal property incident to service with NASA...

  3. 26 CFR 1.6425-3 - Allowance of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....6425-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Abatements, Credits, and Refunds § 1.6425-3 Allowance of adjustments. (a) Limitation... income tax liability for the taxable year, and (2) at least $500. (b) Time prescribed. The...

  4. Family Policy in Canada: The Case of Mothers' Allowances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepworth, H. Philip

    Allowances for mothers in the prairie provinces of Canada originated when long-term trends converged at a time of unprecedented social, economic, and political crisis for the state. One crisis condition, World War I, afforded an opportunity for the proponents of both female emancipation and prohibition to combine and force concessions from the…

  5. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Airborne Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2008-01-01

    The enclosed table lists official spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs), which are guideline values set by the NASA/JSC Toxicology Group in cooperation with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRCCOT). These values should not be used for situations other than human space flight without careful consideration of the criteria used to set each value. The SMACs take into account a number of unique factors such as the effect of space-flight stress on human physiology, the uniform good health of the astronauts, and the absence of pregnant or very young individuals. Documentation of the values is given in a 5 volume series of books entitled "Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants" published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. These books can be viewed electronically at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9786&page=3. Short-term (1 and 24 hour) SMACs are set to manage accidental releases aboard a spacecraft and permit risk of minor, reversible effects such as mild mucosal irritation. In contrast, the long-term SMACs are set to fully protect healthy crewmembers from adverse effects resulting from continuous exposure to specific air pollutants for up to 1000 days. Crewmembers with allergies or unusual sensitivity to trace pollutants may not be afforded complete protection, even when long-term SMACs are not exceeded. Crewmember exposures involve a mixture of contaminants, each at a specific concentration (C(sub n)). These contaminants could interact to elicit symptoms of toxicity even though individual contaminants do not exceed their respective SMACs. The air quality is considered acceptable when the toxicity index (T(sub grp)) for each toxicological group of compounds is less than 1, where T(sub grp), is calculated as follows: T(sub grp) = C(sub 1)/SMAC(sub 1) + C(sub 2/SMAC(sub 2) + ...+C(sub n)/SMAC(sub n).

  6. 76 FR 32340 - Federal Travel Regulation; Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION 41 CFR Parts 301-11, 302-2, 302-3, and 302-17 RIN 3090-AI95 Federal Travel Regulation; Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances (Taxes) AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide... amend the Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) by incorporating recommendations of the...

  7. 78 FR 26637 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowance-Relocation Income Tax (RIT) Allowable Tables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowance--Relocation Income Tax (RIT) Allowable... tables would be available on a GSA Web site. The purpose of this notice is to inform agencies that...

  8. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  9. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  10. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  11. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  12. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  13. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  14. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  15. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  16. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  17. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  18. 14 CFR 1261.104 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent or wrongful act of the claimant, the... time of the damage or loss, or solely because the claimant was not the legal owner of the property for... for damage to, or loss of, personal property incident to service with NASA may be considered...

  19. 14 CFR 1261.104 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent or wrongful act of the claimant, the... time of the damage or loss, or solely because the claimant was not the legal owner of the property for... for damage to, or loss of, personal property incident to service with NASA may be considered...

  20. Allowing "Artistic Agency" in the Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rufo, David

    2011-01-01

    The author was interested in seeing what would happen if children were given more latitude when making art in school. In January 2009, he began by setting up environments in his classroom wherein he hoped his students would feel free to create self-initiated forms of artmaking. Two times each week an hour was set aside for an activity called Open…