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Sample records for alloy production scale-up

  1. Scale up of NiTi shape memory alloy production by EBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otubo, J.; Rigo, O. D.; Moura Neto, C.; Kaufman, M. J.; Mei, P. R.

    2003-10-01

    The usual process to produce NiTi shape memory alloy is by vacuum induction melting (VIM) using a graphite crucible, which causes contamination of the melt with carbon. Contamination with oxygen originates from the residual oxygen inside the melting chamber. An alternative process to produce NiTi alloys is by electron beam melting (EBM) using a water-cooled copper crucible that eliminates carbon contamination, and the oxygen contamination would be minimal due to operation in a vacuum of better than 10^{-2} Pa. In a previous work, it was demonstrated that the technique is feasible for button shaped samples weighing around 30g. The present work presents the results on the scale up program that enables the production of larger samples/ingots. The results are very promising in terms of chemical composition homogeneity as well as in terms of carbon contamination, the latter being four to ten times lower than the commercially-produced VIM products, and in terms of final oxygen content which is shown to depend primarily on the starting raw materials.

  2. Solid state recycling of aluminium alloys via a porthole die hot extrusion process: Scaling up to production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraskevas, Dimos; Kellens, Karel; Deng, Yelin; Dewulf, Wim; Kampen, Carlos; Duflou, Joost R.

    2017-10-01

    Whereas industrial symbiosis has led to increased energy and resource efficiency in process industries, this concept has not yet been applied in discrete product manufacturing. Metal scrap is first conventionally recycled, for which substantial energy and resource efficiency losses have been reported. Recent research has however proven the feasibility of `meltless' recycling of light metal scrap, yielding a first glimpse of potential industrial symbiosis. Various solid state recycling techniques (such as recycling via hot extrusion or Spark Plasma Sintering) have been proposed for scrap consolidation directly into bulk products or semis by physical disruption and dispersion of the oxide surface film by imposing significant plastic and shear strain. Solid State Recycling (SSR) methods can omit substantial material losses as they bypass the metallurgical recycling step. In this context the case of direct production of bulk aluminium profiles via hot extrusion at industrial scale is demonstrated within this paper. The extrusion tests were performed directly into the production line, highlighting the scaling up potentials and the industrial relevance of this research. A significant amount of machining chips were collected, chemically cleaned and cold compacted into chip based billets with ˜80% relative density. Afterwards the scrap consolidation was achieved by imposing significant plastic and shear deformation into the material during hot extrusion through a modified 2-porthole extrusion die-set. The production process sequence along with microstructural investigations and mechanical properties comparison of the cast based profile used as reference versus the chip based profile are presented.

  3. Production of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN): scaling up feasibilities.

    PubMed

    Dingler, A; Gohla, S

    2002-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN/Lipopearls) are widely discussed as a new colloidal drug carrier system. In contrast to polymeric systems, such as Polylactic copolyol microcapsules, these systems show with a good biocompatibility, if applied parenterally. The solid lipid matrices can be comprised of fats or waxes, and allow protection of incorporated active ingredients against chemical and physical degradation. The SLN can either be produced by 'hot homogenization' of melted lipids at elevated temperatures or by a 'cold homogenization' process. This paper deals with production technologies for SLN formulations, based on non-ethoxylated fat components for topical application and high pressure homogenization. Based on the chosen fat components, a novel and easy manufacturing and scaling-up method was developed to maintain chemical and physical integrity of the encapsulated active ingredients in the carrier.

  4. Biological hydrogen production by dark fermentation: challenges and prospects towards scaled-up production.

    PubMed

    RenNanqi; GuoWanqian; LiuBingfeng; CaoGuangli; DingJie

    2011-06-01

    Among different technologies of hydrogen production, bio-hydrogen production exhibits perhaps the greatest potential to replace fossil fuels. Based on recent research on dark fermentative hydrogen production, this article reviews the following aspects towards scaled-up application of this technology: bioreactor development and parameter optimization, process modeling and simulation, exploitation of cheaper raw materials and combining dark-fermentation with photo-fermentation. Bioreactors are necessary for dark-fermentation hydrogen production, so the design of reactor type and optimization of parameters are essential. Process modeling and simulation can help engineers design and optimize large-scale systems and operations. Use of cheaper raw materials will surely accelerate the pace of scaled-up production of biological hydrogen. And finally, combining dark-fermentation with photo-fermentation holds considerable promise, and has successfully achieved maximum overall hydrogen yield from a single substrate. Future development of bio-hydrogen production will also be discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Radio-isotope production scale-up at the University of Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Nickles, Robert Jerome

    Our intent has been to scale up our production capacity for a subset of the NSAC-I list of radioisotopes in jeopardy, so as to make a significant impact on the projected national needs for Cu-64, Zr-89, Y-86, Ga-66, Br-76, I-124 and other radioisotopes that offer promise as PET synthons. The work-flow and milestones in this project have been compressed into a single year (Aug 1, 2012- July 31, 2013). The grant budget was virtually dominated by the purchase of a pair of dual-mini-cells that have made the scale-up possible, now permitting the Curie-level processing of Cu-64 and Zr-89 with greatlymore » reduced radiation exposure. Mile stones: 1. We doubled our production of Cu-64 and Zr-89 during the grant period, both for local use and out-bound distribution to ≈ 30 labs nationwide. This involved the dove-tailing of beam schedules of both our PETtrace and legacy RDS cyclotron. 2. Implemented improved chemical separation of Zr-89, Ga-66, Y-86 and Sc-44, with remote, semi-automated dissolution, trap-and-release separation under LabView control in the two dual-mini-cells provided by this DOE grant. A key advance was to fit the chemical stream with miniature radiation detectors to confirm the transfer operations. 3. Implemented improved shipping of radioisotopes (Cu-64, Zr-89, Tc-95m, and Ho-163) with approved DOT 7A boxes, with a much-improved FedEx shipping success compared to our previous steel drums. 4. Implemented broad range quantitative trace metal analysis, employing a new microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometer (Agilent 4200) capable of ppb sensitivity across the periodic table. This new instrument will prove essential in bringing our radiometals into FDA compliance needing CoA’s for translational research in clinical trials. 5. Expanded our capabilities in target fabrication, with the purchase of a programmable 1600 oC inert gas tube furnace for the smelting of binary alloy target materials. A similar effort makes use of our RF induction furnace

  6. Optimization of insect cell based protein production processes - online monitoring, expression systems, scale up.

    PubMed

    Druzinec, Damir; Salzig, Denise; Brix, Alexander; Kraume, Matthias; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Kollewe, Christian; Czermak, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Due to the increasing use of insect cell based expression systems in research and industrial recombinant protein production, the development of efficient and reproducible production processes remains a challenging task. In this context, the application of online monitoring techniques is intended to ensure high and reproducible product qualities already during the early phases of process development. In the following chapter, the most common transient and stable insect cell based expression systems are briefly introduced. Novel applications of insect cell based expression systems for the production of insect derived antimicrobial peptides/proteins (AMPs) are discussed using the example of G. mellonella derived gloverin. Suitable in situ sensor techniques for insect cell culture monitoring in disposable and common bioreactor systems are outlined with respect to optical and capacitive sensor concepts. Since scale up of production processes is one of the most critical steps in process development, a conclusive overview is given about scale up aspects for industrial insect cell culture processes.

  7. Scale-up of recombinant Opc protein production in Escherichia coli for a meningococcal vaccine.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Raúl Espinosa; Lasa, Alexis Musacchio; Rodríguez, Ricardo Silva; Menéndez, Evelin Caballero; Suárez, José García; Balaguer, Héctor Díaz

    2006-12-15

    Opc is an outer membrane protein from Neisseria meningitidis present in meningococcal vaccine preparations. The opc gene, codifying for this protein, was cloned in to Escherichia coli and the Opc protein was expressed under the control of a tryptophan promoter. The recombinant strain was grown in batch cultures. Opc was expressed as inclusion bodies at about 32% of the total cellular protein. We examined the scale-up culture conditions for the production of the recombinant Opc. The scale-up process was performed from 1.5 l to 50 l culture, using first, the constant power per unit of volume (P/V) as main scaling criteria, and then the oxygen mass transfer coefficient (K(L)a) scaling criteria to adjust the optimal aeration conditions. A final productivity of 52 mgl(-1)h(-1) was obtained at the 50l culture scale compared with the 49 mgl(-1)h(-1) productivity at 1.5l laboratory scale.

  8. Scale-up and economic analysis of biodiesel production from municipal primary sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Olkiewicz, Magdalena; Torres, Carmen M; Jiménez, Laureano; Font, Josep; Bengoa, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    Municipal wastewater sludge is a promising lipid feedstock for biodiesel production, but the need to eliminate the high water content before lipid extraction is the main limitation for scaling up. This study evaluates the economic feasibility of biodiesel production directly from liquid primary sludge based on experimental data at laboratory scale. Computational tools were used for the modelling of the process scale-up and the different configurations of lipid extraction to optimise this step, as it is the most expensive. The operational variables with a major influence in the cost were the extraction time and the amount of solvent. The optimised extraction process had a break-even price of biodiesel of 1232 $/t, being economically competitive with the current cost of fossil diesel. The proposed biodiesel production process from waste sludge eliminates the expensive step of sludge drying, lowering the biodiesel price. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biohydrogen production from microalgal biomass: energy requirement, CO2 emissions and scale-up scenarios.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana F; Ortigueira, Joana; Alves, Luís; Gouveia, Luísa; Moura, Patrícia; Silva, Carla

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a life cycle inventory of biohydrogen production by Clostridium butyricum through the fermentation of the whole Scenedesmus obliquus biomass. The main purpose of this work was to determine the energy consumption and CO2 emissions during the production of hydrogen. This was accomplished through the fermentation of the microalgal biomass cultivated in an outdoor raceway pond and the preparation of the inoculum and culture media. The scale-up scenarios are discussed aiming for a potential application to a fuel cell hybrid taxi fleet. The H2 yield obtained was 7.3 g H2/kg of S. obliquus dried biomass. The results show that the production of biohydrogen required 71-100 MJ/MJ(H2) and emitted about 5-6 kg CO2/MJ(H2). Other studies and production technologies were taken into account to discuss an eventual process scale-up. Increased production rates of microalgal biomass and biohydrogen are necessary for bioH2 to become competitive with conventional production pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Scale-up of hydrophobin-assisted recombinant protein production in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Lauri J; Bailey, Michael J; Joensuu, Jussi J; Ritala, Anneli

    2014-05-01

    Plant suspension cell cultures are emerging as an alternative to mammalian cells for production of complex recombinant proteins. Plant cell cultures provide low production cost, intrinsic safety and adherence to current regulations, but low yields and costly purification technology hinder their commercialization. Fungal hydrophobins have been utilized as fusion tags to improve yields and facilitate efficient low-cost purification by surfactant-based aqueous two-phase separation (ATPS) in plant, fungal and insect cells. In this work, we report the utilization of hydrophobin fusion technology in tobacco bright yellow 2 (BY-2) suspension cell platform and the establishment of pilot-scale propagation and downstream processing including first-step purification by ATPS. Green fluorescent protein-hydrophobin fusion (GFP-HFBI) induced the formation of protein bodies in tobacco suspension cells, thus encapsulating the fusion protein into discrete compartments. Cultivation of the BY-2 suspension cells was scaled up in standard stirred tank bioreactors up to 600 L production volume, with no apparent change in growth kinetics. Subsequently, ATPS was applied to selectively capture the GFP-HFBI product from crude cell lysate, resulting in threefold concentration, good purity and up to 60% recovery. The ATPS was scaled up to 20 L volume, without loss off efficiency. This study provides the first proof of concept for large-scale hydrophobin-assisted production of recombinant proteins in tobacco BY-2 cell suspensions. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Pretreatment optimization of Sorghum pioneer biomass for bioethanol production and its scale-up.

    PubMed

    Koradiya, Manoj; Duggirala, Srinivas; Tipre, Devayani; Dave, Shailesh

    2016-01-01

    Based on one parameter at a time, saccharification of delignified sorghum biomass by 4% and 70% v/v sulfuric acid resulted in maximum 30.8 and 33.8 g% sugar production from biomass respectively. The Box Behnken Design was applied for further optimization of acid hydrolysis. As a result of the designed experiment 36.3g% sugar production was achieved when 3% v/v H2SO4 treatment given for 60 min at 180°C. The process was scaled-up to treat 2 kg of biomass. During the screening of yeast cultures, isolate C, MK-I and N were found to be potent ethanol producers from sorghum hydrolyzate. Culture MK-I was the best so used for scale up of ethanol production up to 25 L capacity, which gave a yield of 0.49 g ethanol/g sugar from hydrolyzate obtained from 2 kg of sorghum biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Scaling-up vaccine production: implementation aspects of a biomass growth observer and controller.

    PubMed

    Soons, Zita I T A; van den IJssel, Jan; van der Pol, Leo A; van Straten, Gerrit; van Boxtel, Anton J B

    2009-04-01

    This study considers two aspects of the implementation of a biomass growth observer and specific growth rate controller in scale-up from small- to pilot-scale bioreactors towards a feasible bulk production process for whole-cell vaccine against whooping cough. The first is the calculation of the oxygen uptake rate, the starting point for online monitoring and control of biomass growth, taking into account the dynamics in the gas-phase. Mixing effects and delays are caused by amongst others the headspace and tubing to the analyzer. These gas phase dynamics are modelled using knowledge of the system in order to reconstruct oxygen consumption. The second aspect is to evaluate performance of the monitoring and control system with the required modifications of the oxygen consumption calculation on pilot-scale. In pilot-scale fed-batch cultivation good monitoring and control performance is obtained enabling a doubled concentration of bulk vaccine compared to standard batch production.

  13. Edge electrospinning: a facile needle-less approach to realize scaled up production of quality nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochinski, J. R.; Curtis, C.; Roman, M. P.; Clarke, L. I.; Wang, Q.; Thoppey, N. M.; Gorga, R. E.

    2014-03-01

    Utilizing unconfined polymer fluids (e.g., from solution or melt), edge electrospinning provides a straightforward approach for scaled up production of high quality nanofibers through the formation of many parallel jets. From simple geometries (using solution contained within a sharp-edged bowl or on a flat plate), jets form and spontaneously re-arrange on the fluid surface near the edge. Using appropriate control of the electric field induced feed rate, comparable per jet fabrication as traditional single-needle electrospinning can be realized, resulting in nanofibers with similar diameters, diameter distribution, and collected mat porosity. The presence of multiple jets proportionally enhances the production rate of the system, with minimal experimental complexity and without the possibility of clogging. Extending this needle-less approach to commercial polyethylene polymers, micron scale fibers can be melt electrospun using a similar apparatus. Support from National Science Foundation (CMMI-0800237).

  14. Scale up of fuel ethanol production from sugar beet juice using loofa sponge immobilized bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ogbonna, J C; Mashima, H; Tanaka, H

    2001-01-01

    Production of fuel ethanol from sugar beet juice, using cells immobilized on loofa sponge was investigated. Based on ethanol productivity and ease of cell immobilization, a flocculating yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae IR2 was selected for ethanol production from sugar beet juice. It was found that raw sugar beet juice was an optimal substrate for ethanol production, requiring neither pH adjustment nor nitrogen source supplement. When compared with a 2 l bubble column bioreactor, mixing was not sufficient in an 8 l bioreactor containing a bed of sliced loofa sponges and consequently, the immobilized cells were not uniformly distributed within the bed. Most of the cells were immobilized in the lower part of the bed and this resulted in decreased ethanol productivity. By using an external loop bioreactor, constructing the fixed bed with cylindrical loofa sponges, dividing the bed into upper, middle and lower sections with approximately 1 cm spaces between them and circulating the broth through the loop during the immobilization, uniform cell distribution within the bed was achieved. Using this method, the system was scaled up to 50 l and when compared with the 2 l bubble column bioreactor, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in ethanol productivity and yield. By using external loop bioreactor to immobilize the cells uniformly on the loofa sponge beds, efficient large scale ethanol production systems can be constructed.

  15. Colour bio-factories: Towards scale-up production of anthocyanins in plant cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Appelhagen, Ingo; Wulff-Vester, Anders Keim; Wendell, Micael; Hvoslef-Eide, Anne-Kathrine; Russell, Julia; Oertel, Anne; Martens, Stefan; Mock, Hans-Peter; Martin, Cathie; Matros, Andrea

    2018-06-08

    Anthocyanins are widely distributed, glycosylated, water-soluble plant pigments, which give many fruits and flowers their red, purple or blue colouration. Their beneficial effects in a dietary context have encouraged increasing use of anthocyanins as natural colourants in the food and cosmetic industries. However, the limited availability and diversity of anthocyanins commercially have initiated searches for alternative sources of these natural colourants. In plants, high-level production of secondary metabolites, such as anthocyanins, can be achieved by engineering of regulatory genes as well as genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes. We have used tobacco lines which constitutively produce high levels of cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside or a novel anthocyanin, acylated cyanidin 3-O-(coumaroyl) rutinoside to generate cell suspension cultures. The cell lines are stable in their production rates and superior to conventional plant cell cultures. Scale-up of anthocyanin production in small scale fermenters has been demonstrated. The cell cultures have also proven to be a suitable system for production of 13 C-labelled anthocyanins. Our method for anthocyanin production is transferable to other plant species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, demonstrating the potential of this approach for making a wide range of highly-decorated anthocyanins. The tobacco cell cultures represent a customisable and sustainable alternative to conventional anthocyanin production platforms and have considerable potential for use in industrial and medical applications of anthocyanins. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Processing parameters associated with scale-up of balloon film production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, D. M.; Harrison, I. R.

    1993-01-01

    A method is set forth for assessing strain-rate profiles that can be used to develop a scale-up theory for blown-film extrusion. Strain rates are evaluated by placing four ink dots on the stalk of an extruded bubble to follow the displacements of the dots as a function of time. The instantaneous Hencky strain is obtained with the displacement data and plotted for analysis. Specific attention is given to potential sources of error in the distance measurements and corrections for these complex bubble geometries. The method is shown to be effective for deriving strain-rate data related to different processing parameters for the production of balloon film. The strain rates can be compared to frostline height, blow-up ratio, and take-up ratio to optimize these processing variables.

  17. Scaling-Up Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolysis Technology for Magnesium Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pati, Soobhankar; Powell, Adam; Tucker, Steve; Derezinski, Steve

    Metal Oxygen Separation Technologies, Inc. (MOxST) is actively developing Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) electrolysis technology for production of magnesium directly from its oxide. The vital component of this technology is the oxygen ion-conducting solid zirconia electrolyte separating the molten flux (a mixture of salts and oxide) and the inert anode. The zirconia not only protects the anode from the flux but also prevents anode gas back-reaction, increasing the efficiency. This makes it possible to produce low-cost high-purity magnesium and high-purity oxygen as a byproduct with no direct greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper we discuss the design modifications made to address the scaling-up challenges, particularly for producing magnesium in liquid form. The key accomplishment to date is the successful development of a prototype capable of producing few kilograms of magnesium per day. We will also describe the prerequisite properties of an inert anode and suitable materials for the same.

  18. Scaling up feasibility of the production of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN).

    PubMed

    Gohla, S H; Dingler, A

    2001-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN/Lipopearls) are widely discussed as colloidal drug carrier system. In contrast to polymeric systems, such as polylactic copolyol capsules, these systems show up with a good biocompatibility, if applied parenterally. The solid lipid matrices can be comprised of fats or waxes and allow protection of incorporated active ingredients against chemical and physical degradation. The SLN can either be produced by "hot homogenisation" of melted lipids at elevated temperatures or a "cold homogenization" process. This paper deals with production technologies for SLN formulations, based on non-ethoxylated fat components for topical application and high pressure homogenization (APV Deutschland GmbH, D-Lübeck). Based on the chosen fat components, a novel and easy manufacturing and scaling up method was developed to maintain chemical and physical integrity of encapsulated active and carrier.

  19. Prelude to rational scale-up of penicillin production: a scale-down study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guan; Chu, Ju; Noorman, Henk; Xia, Jianye; Tang, Wenjun; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2014-03-01

    Penicillin is one of the best known pharmaceuticals and is also an important member of the β-lactam antibiotics. Over the years, ambitious yields, titers, productivities, and low costs in the production of the β-lactam antibiotics have been stepwise realized through successive rounds of strain improvement and process optimization. Penicillium chrysogenum was proven to be an ideal cell factory for the production of penicillin, and successful approaches were exploited to elevate the production titer. However, the industrial production of penicillin faces the serious challenge that environmental gradients, which are caused by insufficient mixing and mass transfer limitations, exert a considerably negative impact on the ultimate productivity and yield. Scale-down studies regarding diverse environmental gradients have been carried out on bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi as well as animal cells. In accordance, a variety of scale-down devices combined with fast sampling and quenching protocols have been established to acquire the true snapshots of the perturbed cellular conditions. The perturbed metabolome information stemming from scale-down studies contributed to the comprehension of the production process and the identification of improvement approaches. However, little is known about the influence of the flow field and the mechanisms of intracellular metabolism. Consequently, it is still rather difficult to realize a fully rational scale-up. In the future, developing a computer framework to simulate the flow field of the large-scale fermenters is highly recommended. Furthermore, a metabolically structured kinetic model directly related to the production of penicillin will be further coupled to the fluid flow dynamics. A mathematical model including the information from both computational fluid dynamics and chemical reaction dynamics will then be established for the prediction of detailed information over the entire period of the fermentation process and

  20. Scaled-up production of poacic acid, a plant-derived antifungal agent

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Fengxia; Gao, Ruili; Piotrowski, Jeff S.; ...

    2017-09-01

    Poacic acid, a decarboxylated product from 8–5-diferulic acid that is commonly found in monocot lignocellulosic hydrolysates, has been identified as a natural antifungal agent against economically significant fungi and oomycete plant pathogens. Starting from commercially available or monocot-derivable ferulic acid, a three-step synthetic procedure has been developed for the production of poacic acid needed for field testing in a controlled agricultural setting. First, ferulic acid was esterified to produce ethyl ferulate in 92% yield. Second, peroxidase-catalyzed free radical dehydrodimerization of ethyl ferulate produced crude diferulates, mainly 8–5-diferulate, in 91% yield. Finally, crystalline poacic acid was obtained in 25% yield viamore » alkaline hydrolysis of the crude diferulates after purification by flash-column chromatography. Thus, this new procedure offers two key improvements relevant to large-scale production: 1) bubbling air through the reaction mixture in the second step to remove acetone greatly improves the recovery efficiency of the crude diferulates; and 2) telescoping minor impurities directly into the alkaline hydrolysis step eliminates the need for additional column purifications, thus reducing the overall cost of production and removing a major impediment to process scale-up.« less

  1. Scaled-up production of poacic acid, a plant-derived antifungal agent

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Fengxia; Gao, Ruili; Piotrowski, Jeff S.

    Poacic acid, a decarboxylated product from 8–5-diferulic acid that is commonly found in monocot lignocellulosic hydrolysates, has been identified as a natural antifungal agent against economically significant fungi and oomycete plant pathogens. Starting from commercially available or monocot-derivable ferulic acid, a three-step synthetic procedure has been developed for the production of poacic acid needed for field testing in a controlled agricultural setting. First, ferulic acid was esterified to produce ethyl ferulate in 92% yield. Second, peroxidase-catalyzed free radical dehydrodimerization of ethyl ferulate produced crude diferulates, mainly 8–5-diferulate, in 91% yield. Finally, crystalline poacic acid was obtained in 25% yield viamore » alkaline hydrolysis of the crude diferulates after purification by flash-column chromatography. Thus, this new procedure offers two key improvements relevant to large-scale production: 1) bubbling air through the reaction mixture in the second step to remove acetone greatly improves the recovery efficiency of the crude diferulates; and 2) telescoping minor impurities directly into the alkaline hydrolysis step eliminates the need for additional column purifications, thus reducing the overall cost of production and removing a major impediment to process scale-up.« less

  2. Scale-up potential of cultivating Chlorella zofingiensis in piggery wastewater for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhenhong; Wang, Zhongming; Takala, Josu; Hiltunen, Erkki; Qin, Lei; Xu, Zhongbin; Qin, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Liandong

    2013-06-01

    Scale-up potential of cultivating Chlorella zofingiensis in piggery wastewater for simultaneous wastewater treatment and biodiesel production was tested. The cultivation of C. zofingiensis with autoclaved wastewater and NaClO-pretreated wastewater, cultivation of algae indoors and outdoors, and stability of semi-continuous feeding operation were examined. The results showed that C. zofingiensis cultivated in piggery wastewater pretreated by autoclaving and NaClO had no evident difference in the performance of nutrient removal, algal growth and biodiesel production. The outdoor cultivation experiments indicated that C. zofingiensis was able to adapt and grow well outdoors. The semi-continuous feeding operation by replacing 50% of algae culture with fresh wastewater every 1.5 days could provide a stable net biomass productivity of 1.314 g L(-1) day(-1). These findings in this study can prove that it is greatly possible to amplify the cultivation of C. zofingiensis in piggery wastewater for nutrient removal and biodiesel production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Scaling up as Catachresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The metaphor of scaling up is the wrong one to use for describing and prescribing educational change. Many of the strategies being employed to achieve scaling up are counter-productive: they conceive of practitioners as delivery agents or consumers, rather than as co-constructors of change. An approach to educational innovation based on the…

  4. Optimization and scale up of microfluidic nanolipomer production method for preclinical and potential clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Gdowski, Andrew; Johnson, Kaitlyn; Shah, Sunil; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Vishwanatha, Jamboor; Ranjan, Amalendu

    2018-02-12

    synthesized and easily scaled up through a high flow microfluidic system with optimal characteristics. The process of developing nanolipomers using this methodology is significant as the same optimized parameters used for small batches could be translated into manufacturing large scale batches for clinical trials through parallel flow systems.

  5. Theoretical and Practical Issues That Are Relevant When Scaling Up hMSC Microcarrier Production Processes

    PubMed Central

    Jossen, Valentin; Schirmer, Cedric; Mostafa Sindi, Dolman; Eibl, Regine; Kraume, Matthias; Pörtner, Ralf; Eibl, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The potential of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) for allogeneic cell therapies has created a large amount of interest. However, this presupposes the availability of efficient scale-up procedures. Promising results have been reported for stirred bioreactors that operate with microcarriers. Recent publications focusing on microcarrier-based stirred bioreactors have demonstrated the successful use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and suspension criteria (N S1u, N S1) for rapidly scaling up hMSC expansions from mL- to pilot scale. Nevertheless, one obstacle may be the formation of large microcarrier-cell-aggregates, which may result in mass transfer limitations and inhomogeneous distributions of stem cells in the culture broth. The dependence of microcarrier-cell-aggregate formation on impeller speed and shear stress levels was investigated for human adipose derived stromal/stem cells (hASCs) at the spinner scale by recording the Sauter mean diameter (d 32) versus time. Cultivation at the suspension criteria provided d 32 values between 0.2 and 0.7 mm, the highest cell densities (1.25 × 106 cells mL−1 hASCs), and the highest expansion factors (117.0 ± 4.7 on day 7), while maintaining the expression of specific surface markers. Furthermore, suitability of the suspension criterion N S1u was investigated for scaling up microcarrier-based processes in wave-mixed bioreactors for the first time. PMID:26981131

  6. Scaled-Up Production and Transport Applications of Graphitic Carbon Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saviers, Kimberly R.

    Graphitic carbon nanomaterials enhance the performance of engineered systems for energy harvesting and storage. However, commercial availability remains largely cost-prohibitive due to technical barriers to mass production. This thesis examines both the scaled-up production and energy transport applications of graphitic materials. Cost driven-production of graphitic petals is developed, carbon nanotube array thermal interface materials enhance waste heat energy harvesting, and microsupercapacitors are visually examined using a new electroreflectance measurement method. Graphitic materials have previously been synthesized using batch-style processing methods with small sample sizes, limiting their commercial viability. In order to increase production throughput, a roll-to-roll radio-frequency plasma chemical vapor deposition method is employed to continuously deposit graphitic petals on carbon fiber tow. In consideration of a full production framework, efficient and informative characterization methods in the form of electrical resistance and electrochemical capacitance are highlighted. To co-optimize the functional characteristics of the material, the processing conditions are comprehensively varied using a data-driven predictive design of experiments method. Repeatable and reliable production of graphitic materials will enable a host of creative graphene-based devices to emerge into the marketplace. Two such applications are discussed in the remaining chapters. Waste heat is most efficiently harvested at high temperatures, such as vehicle exhaust systems near 600°C. However, the resistance to heat flux at the interfaces between the harvesting device and its surroundings is detrimental to the system-level performance. To study the performance of thermal interface materials up to 700°C, a reference bar measurement method was designed. Design considerations are discussed and compared to past implementations, particularly regarding radiation heat flux and thermal

  7. Microalgal biohydrogen production considering light energy and mixing time as the two key features for scale-up.

    PubMed

    Oncel, S; Sabankay, M

    2012-10-01

    This study focuses on a scale-up procedure considering two vital parameters light energy and mixing for microalgae cultivation, taking Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as the model microorganism. Applying two stage hydrogen production protocol to 1L flat type and 2.5L tank type photobioreactors hydrogen production was investigated with constant light energy and mixing time. The conditions that provide the shortest transfer time to anaerobic culture (light energy; 2.96 kJ s(-1)m(-3) and mixing time; 1 min) and highest hydrogen production rate (light energy; 1.22 kJ s(-1)m(-3) and mixing time; 2.5 min) are applied to 5L photobioreactor. The final hydrogen production for 5L system after 192 h was measured as 195 ± 10 mL that is comparable with the other systems is a good validation for the scale-up procedure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of ethanol production from corncob using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS 6054 by volumetric scale-up

    Treesearch

    Jae-Won Lee; J.Y. Zhu; Danilo Scordia; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2011-01-01

    In scale-up, the potential of ethanol production by dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment using corncob was investigated. Pretreatments were performed at 170 °C with various acid concentrations ranging from 0% to 1.656% based on oven dry weight. Following pretreatment, pretreated biomass yield ranged from 59% to 67%. More than 90% of xylan was removed at 0.828% of sulfuric...

  9. Formulation and development of tablets based on Ludipress and scale-up from laboratory to production scale.

    PubMed

    Heinz, R; Wolf, H; Schuchmann, H; End, L; Kolter, K

    2000-05-01

    In spite of the wealth of experience available in the pharmaceutical industry, tablet formulations are still largely developed on an empirical basis, and the scale-up from laboratory to production is a time-consuming and costly process. Using Ludipress greatly simplifies formulation development and the manufacturing process because only the active ingredient Ludipress and a lubricant need to be mixed briefly before being compressed into tablets. The studies described here were designed to investigate the scale-up of Ludipress-based formulations from laboratory to production scale, and to predict changes in tablet properties due to changes in format, compaction pressure, and the use of different tablet presses. It was found that the tensile strength of tablets made of Ludipress increased linearly with compaction pressures up to 300 MPa. It was also independent of the geometry of the tablets (diameter, thickness, shape). It is therefore possible to give an equation with which the compaction pressure required to achieve a given hardness can be calculated for a given tablet form. The equation has to be modified slightly to convert from a single-punch press to a rotary tableting machine. Tablets produced in the rotary machine at the same pressure have a slightly higher tensile strength. The rate of increase in pressure, and therefore the throughput, has no effect on the tensile strength of Ludipress tablets. It is thought that a certain minimum dwell time is responsible for this difference. The production of tablets based on Ludipress can be scaled up from one rotary press to another without problem if the powder mixtures are prepared with the same mixing energy. The tensile strength curve determined for tablets made with Ludipress alone can also be applied to tablets with a small quantity (< 10%) of an active ingredient.

  10. Application of twin screw extrusion to the manufacture of cocrystals: scale-up of AMG 517-sorbic acid cocrystal production.

    PubMed

    Daurio, Dominick; Nagapudi, Karthik; Li, Lan; Quan, Peter; Nunez, Fernando-Alvarez

    2014-01-01

    The application of twin screw extrusion (TSE) in the scale-up of cocrystal production was investigated by using AMG 517-sorbic acid as a model system. Extrusion parameters that influenced conversion to the cocrystal such as temperature, feed rate and screw speed were investigated. Extent of conversion to the cocrystal was found to have a strong dependence on temperature and a moderate dependence on feed rate and screw speed. Cocrystals made by the TSE process were found to have superior mechanical properties than solution grown cocrystals. Additionally, moving to a TSE process eliminated the need for solvent.

  11. Fabrication of a multiplexed microfluidic system for scaled up production of cross-linked biocatalytic microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbanjwa, Mesuli B.; Chen, Hao; Fourie, Louis; Ngwenya, Sibusiso; Land, Kevin

    2014-06-01

    Multiplexed or parallelised droplet microfluidic systems allow for increased throughput in the production of emulsions and microparticles, while maintaining a small footprint and utilising minimal ancillary equipment. The current paper demonstrates the design and fabrication of a multiplexed microfluidic system for producing biocatalytic microspheres. The microfluidic system consists of an array of 10 parallel microfluidic circuits, for simultaneous operation to demonstrate increased production throughput. The flow distribution was achieved using a principle of reservoirs supplying individual microfluidic circuits. The microfluidic devices were fabricated in poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) using soft lithography techniques. The consistency of the flow distribution was determined by measuring the size variations of the microspheres produced. The coefficient of variation of the particles was determined to be 9%, an indication of consistent particle formation and good flow distribution between the 10 microfluidic circuits.

  12. Cuprous Oxide Scale up: Gram Production via Bulk Synthesis using Classic Solvents at Low Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, A.; Han, T. Y.

    Cuprous oxide is a p-type semiconducting material that has been highly researched for its interesting properties. Many small-scale syntheses have exhibited excellent control over size and morphology. As the demand for cuprous oxide grows, the synthesis method need to evolve to facilitate large-scale production. This paper supplies a facile bulk synthesis method for Cu₂O on average, 1-liter reaction volume can produce 1 gram of particles. In order to study the shape and size control mechanisms on such a scale, the reaction volume was diminished to 250 mL producing on average 0.3 grams of nanoparticles per batch. Well-shaped nanoparticles have beenmore » synthesized using an aqueous solution of CuCl₂, NaOH, SDS surfactant, and NH₂OH-HCl at mild temperatures. The time allotted between the addition of NaOH and NH₂OH-HCl was determined to be critical for Cu(OH)2 production, an important precursor to the final produce The effects of stirring rates on a large scale was also analyzed during reagent addition and post reagent addition. A morphological change from rhombic dodecahedra to spheres occurred as the stirring speed was increased. The effects of NH₂OH-HCl concentration were also studied to control the etching effects of the final product.« less

  13. Scaling up food production in the Upper Mississippi river basin: modeling impacts on water quality and nutrient cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, E. E.; Martin, P. A.; Schuble, T. J.; Yan, E.; Demissie, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Agricultural production imposes significant environmental stress on the landscape, both in the intensity and extent of agricultural activities. Among the most significant impacts, agriculture dominates the natural reactive nitrogen cycle, with excess reactive nitrogen leading to the degraded quality of inland and coastal waters. In the U.S., policymakers and stakeholders nationwide continue to debate strategies for decreasing environmental degradation from agricultural lands. Such strategies aim to optimize the balance among competing demands for food, fuel and ecosystem services. One such strategy increasingly discussed in the national debate is that of localizing food production around urban areas, developing what some have recently called “foodsheds”. However, the environmental impacts of localizing food production around population centers are not well-understood given the hard-to-generalize variety seen in management practices currently employed among local farms marketing food crops directly to consumers. As a first, landscape level study of potential impacts from scaling up this type of agriculture, we use the USDA Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to quantify environmental impacts from developing foodsheds for all population centers in the Upper Mississippi river basin. Specifically, we focus on nutrient cycling and water quality impacts determining direct greenhouse gas emissions and changes to nutrient runoff from increased food production in this watershed. We investigate a variety of scenarios in which food production is scaled up to the regional level using different types of farm management practices, ranging from conventional production of fruits and vegetables, to production of these products from small-scale, diversified systems integrating conservation easements. In addition to impacts on nutrient cycling and water quality, we also characterize relative levels of productivity in conjunction with overall demand for food associated

  14. Scale-up laccase production from Trametes versicolor stimulated by vanillic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke-Feng; Hu, Jian-Hua; Guo, Chen; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2016-07-01

    An efficient strategy for laccase production in Trametes versicolor cultures was developed using vanillic acid as the inducer. The optimized vanillic acid treatment strategy consisted of exposing 2-day-old mycelia cultures to 80 mg/L vanillic acid. After 4 days, laccase activity of 588.84 U/L was achieved in flasks which represented a 1.79-fold increase compared to the control. In 200-L airlift bioreactor, the maximal laccase activity reached up to 785.12 U/L using the optimized vanillic acid treatment strategy. The zymograms of culture supernatants revealed three bands with laccase activity, among which Lac1 and Lac2 were abundant laccase isoforms constitutively expressed, and Lac3 was an inducible isozyme by vanillic acid. The results of real-time quantitative PCR showed that the transcription level of lcc in T. versicolor cultures grown with vanillic acid for 7 days was about 5.64-fold greater than that without vanillic acid in flasks. In 200-L airlift bioreactor cultures of T. versicolor with addition of vanillic acid, the transcript level of lcc at day 7 was 2.62-fold higher than that in flasks with vanillic acid due to the good mass transfer and oxygen supply in the bioreactor system. This study provides a basis for understanding the induction mechanism of vanillic acid for laccase production and has good potential for industrial applications.

  15. Scaling up ATLAS Event Service to production levels on opportunistic computing platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, D.; Caballero, J.; Ernst, M.; Guan, W.; Hover, J.; Lesny, D.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Tsulaia, V.; van Gemmeren, P.; Vaniachine, A.; Wang, F.; Wenaus, T.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    Continued growth in public cloud and HPC resources is on track to exceed the dedicated resources available for ATLAS on the WLCG. Examples of such platforms are Amazon AWS EC2 Spot Instances, Edison Cray XC30 supercomputer, backfill at Tier 2 and Tier 3 sites, opportunistic resources at the Open Science Grid (OSG), and ATLAS High Level Trigger farm between the data taking periods. Because of specific aspects of opportunistic resources such as preemptive job scheduling and data I/O, their efficient usage requires workflow innovations provided by the ATLAS Event Service. Thanks to the finer granularity of the Event Service data processing workflow, the opportunistic resources are used more efficiently. We report on our progress in scaling opportunistic resource usage to double-digit levels in ATLAS production.

  16. Chapter 1.1 Process Scale-Up of Cellulose Nanocrystal Production to 25 kg per Batch at the Forest Products Laboratory

    Treesearch

    Richard S. Reiner; Alan W. Rudie

    2013-01-01

    The Fiber and Chemical Sciences Research Work Unit at the Forest Products Laboratory began working out the preparation of cellulose nanocrystals in 2006, using the method of Dong, Revol, and Gray. Initial samples were provided to several scientists within the Forest Service. Continued requests for this material forced scale-up from the initial 20 g scale to kg...

  17. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Scale-Up in Nyanza, Kenya: Evaluating Technical Efficiency and Productivity of Service Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Omondi Aduda, Dickens S.; Ouma, Collins; Onyango, Rosebella; Onyango, Mathews; Bertrand, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) service delivery is complex and resource-intensive. In Kenya’s context there is still paucity of information on resource use vis-à-vis outputs as programs scale up. Knowledge of technical efficiency, productivity and potential sources of constraints is desirable to improve decision-making. Objective To evaluate technical efficiency and productivity of VMMC service delivery in Nyanza in 2011/2012 using data envelopment analysis. Design Comparative process evaluation of facilities providing VMMC in Nyanza in 2011/2012 using output orientated data envelopment analysis. Results Twenty one facilities were evaluated. Only 1 of 7 variables considered (total elapsed operation time) significantly improved from 32.8 minutes (SD 8.8) in 2011 to 30 minutes (SD 6.6) in 2012 (95%CI = 0.0350–5.2488; p = 0.047). Mean scale technical efficiency significantly improved from 91% (SD 19.8) in 2011 to 99% (SD 4.0) in 2012 particularly among outreach compared to fixed service delivery facilities (CI -31.47959–4.698508; p = 0.005). Increase in mean VRS technical efficiency from 84% (SD 25.3) in 2011 and 89% (SD 25.1) in 2012 was not statistically significant. Benchmark facilities were #119 and #125 in 2011 and #103 in 2012. Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) at fixed facilities declined by 2.5% but gained by 4.9% at outreach ones by 2012. Total factor productivity improved by 83% (p = 0.032) in 2012, largely due to progress in technological efficiency by 79% (p = 0.008). Conclusions Significant improvement in scale technical efficiency among outreach facilities in 2012 was attributable to accelerated activities. However, ongoing pure technical inefficiency requires concerted attention. Technological progress was the key driver of service productivity growth in Nyanza. Incorporating service-quality dimensions and using stepwise-multiple criteria in performance evaluation enhances comprehensiveness and validity. These findings

  18. Voluntary medical male circumcision scale-up in Nyanza, Kenya: evaluating technical efficiency and productivity of service delivery.

    PubMed

    Omondi Aduda, Dickens S; Ouma, Collins; Onyango, Rosebella; Onyango, Mathews; Bertrand, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) service delivery is complex and resource-intensive. In Kenya's context there is still paucity of information on resource use vis-à-vis outputs as programs scale up. Knowledge of technical efficiency, productivity and potential sources of constraints is desirable to improve decision-making. To evaluate technical efficiency and productivity of VMMC service delivery in Nyanza in 2011/2012 using data envelopment analysis. Comparative process evaluation of facilities providing VMMC in Nyanza in 2011/2012 using output orientated data envelopment analysis. Twenty one facilities were evaluated. Only 1 of 7 variables considered (total elapsed operation time) significantly improved from 32.8 minutes (SD 8.8) in 2011 to 30 minutes (SD 6.6) in 2012 (95%CI = 0.0350-5.2488; p = 0.047). Mean scale technical efficiency significantly improved from 91% (SD 19.8) in 2011 to 99% (SD 4.0) in 2012 particularly among outreach compared to fixed service delivery facilities (CI -31.47959-4.698508; p = 0.005). Increase in mean VRS technical efficiency from 84% (SD 25.3) in 2011 and 89% (SD 25.1) in 2012 was not statistically significant. Benchmark facilities were #119 and #125 in 2011 and #103 in 2012. Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) at fixed facilities declined by 2.5% but gained by 4.9% at outreach ones by 2012. Total factor productivity improved by 83% (p = 0.032) in 2012, largely due to progress in technological efficiency by 79% (p = 0.008). Significant improvement in scale technical efficiency among outreach facilities in 2012 was attributable to accelerated activities. However, ongoing pure technical inefficiency requires concerted attention. Technological progress was the key driver of service productivity growth in Nyanza. Incorporating service-quality dimensions and using stepwise-multiple criteria in performance evaluation enhances comprehensiveness and validity. These findings highlight site-level resource use and sources of

  19. Scale-up of industrial biodiesel production to 40 m(3) using a liquid lipase formulation.

    PubMed

    Price, Jason; Nordblad, Mathias; Martel, Hannah H; Chrabas, Brent; Wang, Huali; Nielsen, Per Munk; Woodley, John M

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the scale-up from an 80 L fed-batch scale to 40 m(3) along with the design of a 4 m(3) continuous process for enzymatic biodiesel production catalyzed by NS-40116 (a liquid formulation of a modified Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase). Based on the analysis of actual pilot plant data for the transesterification of used cooking oil and brown grease, we propose a method applying first order integral analysis to fed-batch data based on either the bound glycerol or free fatty acid content in the oil. This method greatly simplifies the modeling process and gives an indication of the effect of mixing at the various scales (80 L to 40 m(3) ) along with the prediction of the residence time needed to reach a desired conversion in a CSTR. Suitable process metrics reflecting commercial performance such as the reaction time, enzyme efficiency, and reactor productivity were evaluated for both the fed-batch and CSTR cases. Given similar operating conditions, the CSTR operation on average, has a reaction time which is 1.3 times greater than the fed-batch operation. We also showed how the process metrics can be used to quickly estimate the selling price of the enzyme. Assuming a biodiesel selling price of 0.6 USD/kg and a one-time use of the enzyme (0.1% (w/woil ) enzyme dosage); the enzyme can then be sold for 30 USD/kg which ensures that that the enzyme cost is not more than 5% of the biodiesel revenue. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1719-1728. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Gross primary productivity of the true steppe in central Asia in relation to NDVI: scaling up CO2 fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmanov, Tagir G.; Johnson, Douglas A.; Saliendra, Nicanor Z.; Akshalov, Kanat; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2004-01-01

    Compared to other characteristics of CO2 exchange, gross primary productivity (P g ) is most directly related to photosynthetic activity. Until recently, it was considered difficult to obtain measurement-based P g . The objective of our study was to evaluate if P g can be estimated from continuous CO2 flux measurements using nonlinear identification of the nonrectangular hyperbolic model of ecosystem-scale, light-response curves. Estimates of P g and ecosystem respiration (R e ) were obtained using Bowen ratio– energy-balance measurements of CO2 exchange in a true-steppe ecosystem in northern Kazakhstan during four growing seasons (1998–2001). The maximum mean weekly apparent quantum yield (αmax) was 0.0388 mol CO2 mol photons and the maximum mean weekly P g was 28 g CO2/m2/day in July 2000. The highest mean weekly R e max (20 g CO2m2/day) was observed in July of both 1999 and 2000. Nighttime respiration calculated from daily respiration corrected for length of the dark period and temperature (using Q 10 = 2) was closely associated with measured nighttime respiration (R 2 = 0.67 to 0.93). The 4-year average annual gross primary production (GPP) was 1617 g CO2/m2/ year (range = 1308–1957). Ten-day normalized difference vegetation index corrected for the start of the season (NDVIsos) was closely associated with 10-day average P g (R 2 = 0.66 to 0.83), which was higher than R 2 values for regressions of mean 10-day net daytime fluxes on NDVIsos (0.55–0.72). This demonstrates the advantage of usingP g in scaling up flux-tower measurements compared to other characteristics (net daytime flux or net 24-h flux).

  1. Scaling up Psycholinguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation contains several projects, each addressing different questions with different techniques. In chapter 1, I argue that they are unified thematically by their goal of "scaling up psycholinguistics"; they are all aimed at analyzing large data-sets using tools that reveal patterns to propose and test mechanism-neutral hypotheses about…

  2. Scaling up Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Jon D. H.; Richards, Evan; Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The SCALE-UP (Student-Centered Activities for Large Enrollment for Undergraduate Programs) project was developed to implement reforms designed for small classes into large physics classes. Over 50 schools across the country, ranging from Wake Technical Community College to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have adopted it for classes of…

  3. Scale-up and process integration of sugar production by acidolysis of municipal solid waste/corn stover blends in ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chenlin; Liang, Ling; Sun, Ning

    The study presents the successful scale-up demonstration of the acid-assisted IL deconstruction on feedstock blends of municipal solid wastes and agricultural residues (corn stover) by 30-fold, relative to the bench scale (6L vs 0.2L), at 10% solid loading. By integrating IL pretreatment and acid hydrolysis with subsequent centrifugation and extraction, the sugar and lignin products can be further recovered efficiently. This scale-up development at Advanced Biofuels/Bioproducts Process Demonstration Unit (ABPDU) will leverage the opportunity and synergistic efforts towards developing a cost-effective IL based deconstruction technology by drastically eliminating enzyme, reducing water usage, and simplifying the downstream sugar/lignin recovery and ILmore » recycling. Results indicate that MSW blends are viable and valuable resource to consider when assessing biomass availability and affordability for lignocellulosic biorefineries. This scale-up evaluation demonstrates that the acid-assisted IL deconstruction technology can be effectively scaled up to larger operations and the current study established the baseline of scaling parameters for this process.« less

  4. Scale-up and process integration of sugar production by acidolysis of municipal solid waste/corn stover blends in ionic liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Chenlin; Liang, Ling; Sun, Ning; ...

    2017-01-05

    The study presents the successful scale-up demonstration of the acid-assisted IL deconstruction on feedstock blends of municipal solid wastes and agricultural residues (corn stover) by 30-fold, relative to the bench scale (6L vs 0.2L), at 10% solid loading. By integrating IL pretreatment and acid hydrolysis with subsequent centrifugation and extraction, the sugar and lignin products can be further recovered efficiently. This scale-up development at Advanced Biofuels/Bioproducts Process Demonstration Unit (ABPDU) will leverage the opportunity and synergistic efforts towards developing a cost-effective IL based deconstruction technology by drastically eliminating enzyme, reducing water usage, and simplifying the downstream sugar/lignin recovery and ILmore » recycling. Results indicate that MSW blends are viable and valuable resource to consider when assessing biomass availability and affordability for lignocellulosic biorefineries. This scale-up evaluation demonstrates that the acid-assisted IL deconstruction technology can be effectively scaled up to larger operations and the current study established the baseline of scaling parameters for this process.« less

  5. Ready-to-use foods for management of moderate acute malnutrition: considerations for scaling up production and use in programs.

    PubMed

    Osendarp, Saskia; Rogers, Beatrice; Ryan, Kelsey; Manary, Mark; Akomo, Peter; Bahwere, Paluku; Belete, Hilina; Zeilani, Mamane; Islam, Munirul; Dibari, Filippo; De Pee, Saskia

    2015-03-01

    Ready-to-use foods are one of the available strategies for the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM), but challenges remain in the use of these products in programs at scale. This paper focuses on two challenges: the need for cheaper formulations using locally available ingredients that are processed in a safe, reliable, and financially sustainable local production facility; and the effective use of these products in large-scale community-based programs. Linear programming tools can be used successfully to design local compositions that are in line with international guidelines, low in cost, and acceptable, and the efficacy of these local formulations in the treatment of MAM was recently demonstrated in Malawi. The production of local formulations for programs at scale relies on the existence of a reliable and efficient local production facility. Technical assistance may be required in the development of sustainable business models at an early stage in the process, taking into account the stringent product quality and safety criteria and the required investments. The use of ready-to-use products, as of any food supplement, in programs at scale will be affected by the practice of household sharing and diversion of these products for other uses. Additional measures can be considered to account for sharing. These products designed for the treatment and prevention of MAM are to be used in community-based programs and should therefore be used in conjunction with other interventions and designed so that they do not replace the intake of other foods and breastmilk. Remaining challenges and implications for the (operations) research agenda are discussed.

  6. Scale-up and process integration of sugar production by acidolysis of municipal solid waste/corn stover blends in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenlin; Liang, Ling; Sun, Ning; Thompson, Vicki S; Xu, Feng; Narani, Akash; He, Qian; Tanjore, Deepti; Pray, Todd R; Simmons, Blake A; Singh, Seema

    2017-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biorefineries have tonnage and throughput requirements that must be met year round and there is no single feedstock available in any given region that is capable of meeting the price and availability demands of the biorefineries scheduled for deployment. Significant attention has been historically given to agriculturally derived feedstocks; however, a diverse range of wastes, including municipal solid wastes (MSW), also have the potential to serve as feedstocks for the production of advanced biofuels and have not been extensively studied. In addition, ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment with certain ILs is receiving great interest as a potential process that enables fractionation of a wide range of feedstocks. Acid catalysts have been used previously to hydrolyze polysaccharides into fermentable sugars following IL pretreatment, which could potentially provide a means of liberating fermentable sugars from lignocellulose without the use of costly enzymes. However, successful optimization and scale-up of the one-pot acid-assisted IL deconstruction for further commercialization involve challenges such as reactor compatibility, mixing at high solid loading, sugar recovery, and IL recycling, which have not been effectively resolved during the development stages at bench scale. Here, we present the successful scale-up demonstration of the acid-assisted IL deconstruction on feedstock blends of municipal solid wastes and agricultural residues (corn stover) by 30-fold, relative to the bench scale (6 vs 0.2 L), at 10% solid loading. By integrating IL pretreatment and acid hydrolysis with subsequent centrifugation and extraction, the sugar and lignin products can be further recovered efficiently. This scale-up development at Advanced Biofuels/Bioproducts Process Demonstration Unit (ABPDU) will leverage the opportunity and synergistic efforts toward developing a cost-effective IL-based deconstruction technology by drastically eliminating enzyme, reducing water

  7. Low-Cost and Scaled-Up Production of Fluorine-Free, Substrate-Independent, Large-Area Superhydrophobic Coatings Based on Hydroxyapatite Nanowire Bundles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei-Fei; Yang, Zi-Yue; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Xiong, Zhi-Chao; Dong, Li-Ying; Lu, Bing-Qiang; Wu, Jin; Yang, Ri-Long

    2018-01-09

    To date, the scaled-up production and large-area applications of superhydrophobic coatings are limited because of complicated procedures, environmentally harmful fluorinated compounds, restrictive substrates, expensive equipment, and raw materials usually involved in the fabrication process. Herein, the facile, low-cost, and green production of superhydrophobic coatings based on hydroxyapatite nanowire bundles (HNBs) is reported. Hydrophobic HNBs are synthesised by using a one-step solvothermal method with oleic acid as the structure-directing and hydrophobic agent. During the reaction process, highly hydrophobic C-H groups of oleic acid molecules can be attached in situ to the surface of HNBs through the chelate interaction between Ca 2+ ions and carboxylic groups. This facile synthetic method allows the scaled-up production of HNBs up to about 8 L, which is the largest production scale of superhydrophobic paint based on HNBs ever reported. In addition, the design of the 100 L reaction system is also shown. The HNBs can be coated on any substrate with an arbitrary shape by the spray-coating technique. The self-cleaning ability in air and oil, high-temperature stability, and excellent mechanical durability of the as-prepared superhydrophobic coatings are demonstrated. More importantly, the HNBs are coated on large-sized practical objects to form large-area superhydrophobic coatings. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Ready-to-use foods for management of moderate acute malnutrition: Considerations for scaling up production and use in programs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ready-to-use foods are one of the available strategies for the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM), but challenges remain in the use of these products in programs at scale. This paper focuses on two challenges: the need for cheaper formulations using locally available ingredients that are...

  9. Scale-up study of oxalic acid pretreatment of agricultural lignocellulosic biomass for the production of bioethanol

    Treesearch

    Jae-Won Lee; Carl J. Houtman; Hye-Yun Kim; In-Gyu Choi; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2011-01-01

    Building on our laboratory-scale optimization, oxalic acid was used to pretreat corncobs on the pilotscale. The hydrolysate obtained after washing the pretreated biomass contained 32.55 g/l of xylose, 2.74 g/l of glucose and low concentrations of inhibitors. Ethanol production, using Scheffersomyces stipitis, from this hydrolysate was 10.3 g/l, which approached the...

  10. Scale-up bioprocess development for production of the antibiotic valinomycin in Escherichia coli based on consistent fed-batch cultivations.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Jaitzig, Jennifer; Lu, Ping; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Neubauer, Peter

    2015-06-12

    Heterologous production of natural products in Escherichia coli has emerged as an attractive strategy to obtain molecules of interest. Although technically feasible most of them are still constrained to laboratory scale production. Therefore, it is necessary to develop reasonable scale-up strategies for bioprocesses aiming at the overproduction of targeted natural products under industrial scale conditions. To this end, we used the production of the antibiotic valinomycin in E. coli as a model system for scalable bioprocess development based on consistent fed-batch cultivations. In this work, the glucose limited fed-batch strategy based on pure mineral salt medium was used throughout all scales for valinomycin production. The optimal glucose feed rate was initially detected by the use of a biocatalytically controlled glucose release (EnBase® technology) in parallel cultivations in 24-well plates with continuous monitoring of pH and dissolved oxygen. These results were confirmed in shake flasks, where the accumulation of valinomycin was highest when the specific growth rate decreased below 0.1 h(-1). This correlation was also observed for high cell density fed-batch cultivations in a lab-scale bioreactor. The bioreactor fermentation produced valinomycin with titers of more than 2 mg L(-1) based on the feeding of a concentrated glucose solution. Valinomycin production was not affected by oscillating conditions (i.e. glucose and oxygen) in a scale-down two-compartment reactor, which could mimic similar situations in industrial bioreactors, suggesting that the process is very robust and a scaling of the process to a larger industrial scale appears a realistic scenario. Valinomycin production was scaled up from mL volumes to 10 L with consistent use of the fed-batch technology. This work presents a robust and reliable approach for scalable bioprocess development and represents an example for the consistent development of a process for a heterologously expressed natural

  11. Scaling up the diversity-resilience relationship with trait databases and remote sensing data: the recovery of productivity after wildfire.

    PubMed

    Spasojevic, Marko J; Bahlai, Christie A; Bradley, Bethany A; Butterfield, Bradley J; Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Sistla, Seeta; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Suding, Katharine N

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying ecosystem resilience - why some systems have an irreversible response to disturbances while others recover - is critical for conserving biodiversity and ecosystem function in the face of global change. Despite the widespread acceptance of a positive relationship between biodiversity and resilience, empirical evidence for this relationship remains fairly limited in scope and localized in scale. Assessing resilience at the large landscape and regional scales most relevant to land management and conservation practices has been limited by the ability to measure both diversity and resilience over large spatial scales. Here, we combined tools used in large-scale studies of biodiversity (remote sensing and trait databases) with theoretical advances developed from small-scale experiments to ask whether the functional diversity within a range of woodland and forest ecosystems influences the recovery of productivity after wildfires across the four-corner region of the United States. We additionally asked how environmental variation (topography, macroclimate) across this geographic region influences such resilience, either directly or indirectly via changes in functional diversity. Using path analysis, we found that functional diversity in regeneration traits (fire tolerance, fire resistance, resprout ability) was a stronger predictor of the recovery of productivity after wildfire than the functional diversity of seed mass or species richness. Moreover, slope, elevation, and aspect either directly or indirectly influenced the recovery of productivity, likely via their effect on microclimate, while macroclimate had no direct or indirect effects. Our study provides some of the first direct empirical evidence for functional diversity increasing resilience at large spatial scales. Our approach highlights the power of combining theory based on local-scale studies with tools used in studies at large spatial scales and trait databases to

  12. Scaling up of renewable chemicals.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Karl; Chotani, Gopal; Danielson, Nathan; Zahn, James A

    2016-04-01

    The transition of promising technologies for production of renewable chemicals from a laboratory scale to commercial scale is often difficult and expensive. As a result the timeframe estimated for commercialization is typically underestimated resulting in much slower penetration of these promising new methods and products into the chemical industries. The theme of 'sugar is the next oil' connects biological, chemical, and thermochemical conversions of renewable feedstocks to products that are drop-in replacements for petroleum derived chemicals or are new to market chemicals/materials. The latter typically offer a functionality advantage and can command higher prices that result in less severe scale-up challenges. However, for drop-in replacements, price is of paramount importance and competitive capital and operating expenditures are a prerequisite for success. Hence, scale-up of relevant technologies must be interfaced with effective and efficient management of both cell and steel factories. Details involved in all aspects of manufacturing, such as utilities, sterility, product recovery and purification, regulatory requirements, and emissions must be managed successfully. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Industrial scale-up of pH-controlled liquid hot water pretreatment of corn fiber for fuel ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Mosier, Nathan S; Hendrickson, Richard; Brewer, Mark; Ho, Nancy; Sedlak, Miroslav; Dreshel, Richard; Welch, Gary; Dien, Bruce S; Aden, Andy; Ladisch, Michael R

    2005-05-01

    The pretreatment of cellulose in corn fiber by liquid hot water at 160 degrees C and a pH above 4.0 dissolved 50% of the fiber in 20 min. The pretreatment also enabled the subsequent complete enzymatic hydrolysis of the remaining polysaccharides to monosaccharides. The carbohydrates dissolved by the pretreatment were 80% soluble oligosaccharides and 20% monosaccharides with <1% of the carbohydrates lost to degradation products. Only a minimal amount of protein was dissolved, thus enriching the protein content of the undissolved material. Replication of laboratory results in an industrial trial at 43 gallons per minute (163 L/min) of fiber slurry with a residence time of 20 min illustrates the utility and practicality of this approach for pretreating corn fiber. The added costs owing to pretreatment, fiber, and hydrolysis are equivalent to less than 0.84 dollars/gal of ethanol produced from the fiber. Minimizing monosaccharide formation during pretreatment minimized the formation of degradation products; hence, the resulting sugars were readily fermentable to ethanol by the recombinant hexose and by pentose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A(LNH-ST) and ethanologenic Escherichia coli at yields >90% of theoretical based on the starting fiber. This cooperative effort and first successful trial opens the door for examining the robustness of the pretreatment system under extended run conditions as well as pretreatment of other cellulose-containing materials using water at controlled pH.

  14. Scale-Up of GRCop: From Laboratory to Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.

    2016-01-01

    GRCop is a high temperature, high thermal conductivity copper-based series of alloys designed primarily for use in regeneratively cooled rocket engine liners. It began with laboratory-level production of a few grams of ribbon produced by chill block melt spinning and has grown to commercial-scale production of large-scale rocket engine liners. Along the way, a variety of methods of consolidating and working the alloy were examined, a database of properties was developed and a variety of commercial and government applications were considered. This talk will briefly address the basic material properties used for selection of compositions to scale up, the methods used to go from simple ribbon to rocket engines, the need to develop a suitable database, and the issues related to getting the alloy into a rocket engine or other application.

  15. Spatial Variation of Pressure in the Lyophilization Product Chamber Part 2: Experimental Measurements and Implications for Scale-up and Batch Uniformity.

    PubMed

    Sane, Pooja; Varma, Nikhil; Ganguly, Arnab; Pikal, Michael; Alexeenko, Alina; Bogner, Robin H

    2017-02-01

    Product temperature during the primary drying step of freeze-drying is controlled by a set point chamber pressure and shelf temperature. However, recent computational modeling suggests a possible variation in local chamber pressure. The current work presents an experimental verification of the local chamber pressure gradients in a lab-scale freeze-dryer. Pressure differences between the center and the edges of a lab-scale freeze-dryer shelf were measured as a function of sublimation flux and clearance between the sublimation front and the shelf above. A modest 3-mTorr difference in pressure was observed as the sublimation flux was doubled from 0.5 to 1.0 kg·h -1 ·m -2 at a clearance of 2.6 cm. Further, at a constant sublimation flux of 1.0 kg·h -1 ·m -2 , an 8-fold increase in the pressure drop was observed across the shelf as the clearance was decreased from 4 to 1.6 cm. Scale-up of the pressure variation from lab- to a manufacturing-scale freeze-dryer predicted an increased uniformity in drying rates across the batch for two frequently used pharmaceutical excipients (mannitol and sucrose at 5% w/w). However, at an atypical condition of shelf temperature of +10°C and chamber pressure of 50 mTorr, the product temperature in the center vials was calculated to be a degree higher than the edge vial for a low resistance product, thus reversing the typical edge and center vial behavior. Thus, the effect of local pressure variation is more significant at the manufacturing-scale than at a lab-scale and accounting for the contribution of variations in the local chamber pressures can improve success in scale-up.

  16. Valorization of crude glycerol and eggshell biowaste as media components for hydrogen production: A scale-up study using co-culture system.

    PubMed

    Pachapur, Vinayak Laxman; Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Le Bihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo

    2017-02-01

    The properties of eggshells (EGS) as neutralizing and immobilizing agent were investigated for hydrogen (H 2 ) production using crude glycerol (CG) by co-culture system. Eggshells of different sizes and concentrations were used during batch and repeated-batch fermentation. For batch and repeated-batch fermentation, the maximum H 2 production (36.53±0.53 and 41.16±0.95mmol/L, respectively) was obtained with the EGS size of 33μmproduction increased with the decreasing size of EGS. Eggshells maintained the fermentation pH (6.00-6.30) and provided immobilization support as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. As media components, the EGS concentration of 0.25% (w/v) was found to be optimum for maximum H 2 production (31.66±0.55mmol/L) and the production profile was comparable to H 2 production (32.07±0.92mmol/L) obtained with all media components. In scale-up study with semi-continuous bioreactor (7.5L), almost 1.5-fold increase (in comparison to mono-culture) i.e. 312.12mmol-H 2 /L-of medium with 86.65% glycerol utilization was obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Informing the scale-up of Kenya’s nursing workforce: a mixed methods study of factors affecting pre-service training capacity and production

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the global nursing shortage and investments to scale-up the workforce, this study evaluated trends in annual student nurse enrolment, pre-service attrition between enrolment and registration, and factors that influence nurse production in Kenya. Methods This study used a mixed methods approach with data from the Regulatory Human Resources Information System (tracks initial student enrolment through registration) and the Kenya Health Workforce Information System (tracks deployment and demographic information on licensed nurses) for the quantitative analyses and qualitative data from key informant interviews with nurse training institution educators and/or administrators. Trends in annual student nurse enrolment from 1999 to 2010 were analyzed using regulatory and demographic data. To assess pre-service attrition between training enrolment and registration with the nursing council, data for a cohort that enrolled in training from 1999 to 2004 and completed training by 2010 was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to test for factors that significantly affected attrition. To assess the capacity of nurse training institutions for scale-up, qualitative data was obtained through key informant interviews. Results From 1999 to 2010, 23,350 students enrolled in nurse training in Kenya. While annual new student enrolment doubled between 1999 (1,493) and 2010 (3,030), training institutions reported challenges in their capacity to accommodate the increased numbers. Key factors identified by the nursing faculty included congestion at clinical placement sites, limited clinical mentorship by qualified nurses, challenges with faculty recruitment and retention, and inadequate student housing, transportation and classroom space. Pre-service attrition among the cohort that enrolled between 1999 and 2004 and completed training by 2010 was found to be low (6%). Conclusion To scale-up the nursing workforce in Kenya, concurrent investments in expanding the

  18. Optimization and scale-up of cell culture and purification processes for production of an adenovirus-vectored tuberculosis vaccine candidate.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chun Fang; Jacob, Danielle; Zhu, Tao; Bernier, Alice; Shao, Zhongqi; Yu, Xuefeng; Patel, Mehul; Lanthier, Stephane; Kamen, Amine

    2016-06-17

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the second leading cause of death by infectious disease worldwide. The only available TB vaccine is the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG). However, parenterally administered Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine confers only limited immune protection from pulmonary tuberculosis in humans. There is a need for developing effective boosting vaccination strategies. AdAg85A, an adenoviral vector expressing the mycobacterial protein Ag85A, is a new tuberculosis vaccine candidate, and has shown promising results in pre-clinical studies and phase I trial. This adenovirus vectored vaccine is produced using HEK 293 cell culture. Here we report on the optimization of cell culture conditions, scale-up of production and purification of the AdAg85A at different scales. Four commercial serum-free media were evaluated under various conditions for supporting the growth of HEK293 cell and production of AdAg85A. A culturing strategy was employed to take advantages of two culture media with respective strengths in supporting the cell growth and virus production, which enabled to maintain virus productivity at higher cell densities and resulted in more than two folds of increases in culture titer. The production of AdAg85A was successfully scaled up and validated at 60L bioreactor under the optimal conditions. The AdAg85A generated from the 3L and 60L bioreactor runs was purified through several purification steps. More than 98% of total cellular proteins was removed, over 60% of viral particles was recovered after the purification process, and purity of AdAg85A was similar to that of the ATCC VR-1516 Ad5 standard. Vaccination of mice with the purified AdAg85A demonstrated a very good level of Ag85A-specific antibody responses. The optimized production and purification conditions were transferred to a GMP facility for manufacturing of AdAg85A for generation of clinical grade material to support clinical trials. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  19. Optimizing antiretroviral product selection: a sample approach to improving patient outcomes, saving money, and scaling-up health services in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Amole, Carolyn D; Brisebois, Catherine; Essajee, Shaffiq; Koehler, Erin; Levin, Andrew D; Moore, Meredith C; Brown Ripin, David H; Sickler, Joanna J; Singh, Inder R

    2011-08-01

    Over the last decade, increased funding to support HIV treatment programs has enabled millions of new patients in developing countries to access the medications they need. Today, although demand for antiretrovirals continues to grow, the financial crisis has severely constrained funding leaving countries with difficult choices on program prioritization. Product optimization is one solution countries can pursue to continue to improve patient care while also uncovering savings that can be used for further scale up or other health system needs. Program managers can make procurement decisions that actually reduce program costs by considering additional factors beyond World Health Organization guidelines when making procurement decisions. These include in-country product availability, convenience, price, and logistics such as supply chain implications and laboratory testing requirements. Three immediate product selection opportunities in the HIV space include using boosted atazanavir in place of lopinovir for second-line therapy, lamivudine instead of emtricitabine in both first-line and second-line therapy, and tenofovir + lamivudine over abacavir + didanosine in second-line therapy. If these 3 opportunities were broadly implemented in sub-Saharan Africa and India today, approximately $300 million of savings would be realized over the next 5 years, enabling hundreds of thousands of additional patients to be treated. Although the discussion herein is specific to antriretrovirals, the principles of product selection are generalizable to diseases with multiple treatment options and fungible commodity procurement. Identifying and implementing approaches to overcome health system inefficiencies will help sustain and may expand quality care in resource-limited settings.

  20. Scale-up of high specific activity 186gRe production using graphite-encased thick 186W targets and demonstration of an efficient target recycling process

    DOE PAGES

    Balkin, Ethan R.; Gagnon, Katherine; Dorman, Eric; ...

    2017-08-18

    Production of high specific activity 186gRe is of interest for development of theranostic radiopharmaceuticals. Previous studies have shown that high specific activity 186gRe can be obtained by cyclotron irradiation of enriched 186W via the 186W(d,2n) 186gRe reaction, but most irradiations were conducted at low beam currents and for short durations. In this paper, enriched 186W metal targets were irradiated at high incident deuteron beam currents to demonstrate production rates and contaminants produced when using thick targets. Full-stopping thick targets, as determined using SRIM, were prepared by uniaxial pressing of powdered natural abundance W metal or 96.86% enriched 186W metal encasedmore » between two layers of graphite flakes for target material stabilization. An assessment of structural integrity was made on each target preparation. To assess the performance of graphite-encased thick 186W metal targets, along with the impact of encasing on the separation chemistry, targets were first irradiated using a 22 MeV deuteron beam for 10 min at 10, 20, and 27 μA, with an estimated nominal deuteron energy of 18.7 MeV on the 186W target material (after energy degradation correction from top graphite layer). Gamma-ray spectrometry was performed post EOB on all targets to assess production yields and radionuclidic byproducts. The investigation also evaluated a method to recover and recycle enriched target material from a column isolation procedure. Material composition analyses of target materials, pass-through/wash solutions and recycling process isolates were conducted with SEM, FTIR, XRD, EDS and ICP-MS spectrometry. Finally, to demonstrate scaled-up production, a graphite-encased 186W target made from recycled 186W was irradiated for ~2 h with 18.7 MeV deuterons at a beam current of 27 μA to provide 0.90 GBq (24.3 mCi) of 186gRe, decay-corrected to the end of bombardment. ICP-MS analysis of the isolated 186gRe solution provided data that indicated the

  1. Scale-up of high specific activity 186gRe production using graphite-encased thick 186W targets and demonstration of an efficient target recycling process

    SciTech Connect

    Balkin, Ethan R.; Gagnon, Katherine; Dorman, Eric

    Production of high specific activity 186gRe is of interest for development of theranostic radiopharmaceuticals. Previous studies have shown that high specific activity 186gRe can be obtained by cyclotron irradiation of enriched 186W via the 186W(d,2n) 186gRe reaction, but most irradiations were conducted at low beam currents and for short durations. In this paper, enriched 186W metal targets were irradiated at high incident deuteron beam currents to demonstrate production rates and contaminants produced when using thick targets. Full-stopping thick targets, as determined using SRIM, were prepared by uniaxial pressing of powdered natural abundance W metal or 96.86% enriched 186W metal encasedmore » between two layers of graphite flakes for target material stabilization. An assessment of structural integrity was made on each target preparation. To assess the performance of graphite-encased thick 186W metal targets, along with the impact of encasing on the separation chemistry, targets were first irradiated using a 22 MeV deuteron beam for 10 min at 10, 20, and 27 μA, with an estimated nominal deuteron energy of 18.7 MeV on the 186W target material (after energy degradation correction from top graphite layer). Gamma-ray spectrometry was performed post EOB on all targets to assess production yields and radionuclidic byproducts. The investigation also evaluated a method to recover and recycle enriched target material from a column isolation procedure. Material composition analyses of target materials, pass-through/wash solutions and recycling process isolates were conducted with SEM, FTIR, XRD, EDS and ICP-MS spectrometry. Finally, to demonstrate scaled-up production, a graphite-encased 186W target made from recycled 186W was irradiated for ~2 h with 18.7 MeV deuterons at a beam current of 27 μA to provide 0.90 GBq (24.3 mCi) of 186gRe, decay-corrected to the end of bombardment. ICP-MS analysis of the isolated 186gRe solution provided data that indicated the

  2. Scale-up and evaluation of hydrothermal pretreatment in isothermal and non-isothermal regimen for bioethanol production using agave bagasse.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Daniela L; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M; Zanuso, Elisa; de Rodríguez, Diana Jasso; Amaya-Delgado, Lorena; Sanchez, Arturo; Ruiz, Héctor A

    2018-04-30

    The production of tequila in Mexico generates a large amount of agave bagasse per year. However, this biomass can be considered as a potential source for biofuel production. In this study, it is described how the hydrothermal pretreatment was scaled in a bench scale, considering the severity index as a strategy. The best condition was at 180 °C in isothermal regime for 20 min with 65.87% of cellulose content and high concentration of xylooligosaccharides (15.31 g/L). This condition was scaled up (using severity factor: [logR 0 ] = 4.11), in order to obtain a rich pretreated solid in cellulose to perform the enzymatic hydrolysis, obtaining saccharification yields of 98.5 and 99.5% at high-solids loading (10 and 15%, respectively). The pre-saccharification and fermentation strategy was used in the bioethanol production at 10 and 15% of total pretreated solids, obtaining 38.39 and 55.02 g/L of ethanol concentration, corresponding to 90.84% and 87.56% of ethanol yield, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Scale-up and large-scale production of Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 (Chlorophyta) for CO2 mitigation: from an agar plate to 100-m3 industrial photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Hugo; Páramo, Jaime; Silva, Joana; Marques, Ana; Barros, Ana; Maurício, Dinis; Santos, Tamára; Schulze, Peter; Barros, Raúl; Gouveia, Luísa; Barreira, Luísa; Varela, João

    2018-03-23

    Industrial production of novel microalgal isolates is key to improving the current portfolio of available strains that are able to grow in large-scale production systems for different biotechnological applications, including carbon mitigation. In this context, Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 was successfully scaled up from an agar plate to 35- and 100-m 3 industrial scale tubular photobioreactors (PBR). Growth was performed semi-continuously for 60 days in the autumn-winter season (17 th October - 14 th December). Optimisation of tubular PBR operations showed that improved productivities were obtained at a culture velocity of 0.65-1.35 m s -1 and a pH set-point for CO 2 injection of 8.0. Highest volumetric (0.08 ± 0.01 g L -1 d -1 ) and areal (20.3 ± 3.2 g m -2 d -1 ) biomass productivities were attained in the 100-m 3 PBR compared to those of the 35-m 3 PBR (0.05 ± 0.02 g L -1 d -1 and 13.5 ± 4.3 g m -2 d -1 , respectively). Lipid contents were similar in both PBRs (9-10% of ash free dry weight). CO 2 sequestration was followed in the 100-m 3 PBR, revealing a mean CO 2 mitigation efficiency of 65% and a biomass to carbon ratio of 1.80. Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 is thus a robust candidate for industrial-scale production with promising biomass productivities and photosynthetic efficiencies up to 3.5% of total solar irradiance.

  4. Fermented Nut-Based Vegan Food: Characterization of a Home made Product and Scale-Up to an Industrial Pilot-Scale Production.

    PubMed

    Tabanelli, Giulia; Pasini, Federica; Riciputi, Ylenia; Vannini, Lucia; Gozzi, Giorgia; Balestra, Federica; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Gardini, Fausto; Montanari, Chiara

    2018-03-01

    Because of the impossibility to consume food of animal origin, vegan consumers are looking for substitutes that could enrich their diet. Among many substitutes, fermented nut products are made from different nut types and obtained after soaking, grinding, and fermentation. Although other fermented vegetable products have been deeply investigated, there are few data about the fermentative processes of nut-based products and the microbial consortia able to colonize these products are not yet studied. This study characterized a hand-made vegan product obtained from cashew nut. Lactic acid bacteria responsible for fermentation were identified, revealing a succession of hetero- and homo-fermentative species during process. Successively, some lactic acid bacteria isolates from the home-made vegan product were used for a pilot-scale fermentation. The products obtained were characterized and showed features similar to the home-made one, although the microbiological hazards have been prevented through proper and rapid acidification, enhancing their safety features. Spontaneous fermented products are valuable sources of microorganisms that can be used in many food processes as starter cultures. The lactic acid bacteria isolated in this research can be exploited by industries to develop new foods and therefore to enter new markets. The use of selected starter cultures guarantees good organoleptic characteristics and food safety (no growth of pathogens). © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. The SCALE-UP Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichner, Robert

    2015-03-01

    The Student Centered Active Learning Environment with Upside-down Pedagogies (SCALE-UP) project was developed nearly 20 years ago as an economical way to provide collaborative, interactive instruction even for large enrollment classes. Nearly all research-based pedagogies have been designed with fairly high faculty-student ratios. The economics of introductory courses at large universities often precludes that situation, so SCALE-UP was created as a way to facilitate highly collaborative active learning with large numbers of students served by only a few faculty and assistants. It enables those students to learn and succeed not only in acquiring content, but also to practice important 21st century skills like problem solving, communication, and teamsmanship. The approach was initially targeted at undergraduate science and engineering students taking introductory physics courses in large enrollment sections. It has since expanded to multiple content areas, including chemistry, math, engineering, biology, business, nursing, and even the humanities. Class sizes range from 24 to over 600. Data collected from multiple sites around the world indicates highly successful implementation at more than 250 institutions. NSF support was critical for initial development and dissemination efforts. Generously supported by NSF (9752313, 9981107) and FIPSE (P116B971905, P116B000659).

  6. Scale-up from shake flasks to bioreactor, based on power input and Streptomyces lividans morphology, for the production of recombinant APA (45/47 kDa protein) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Suasnavart, Ramsés A; Marín-Palacio, Luz D; Martínez-Sotelo, José A; Espitia, Clara; Servín-González, Luis; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A

    2013-08-01

    Culture conditions in shake flasks affect filamentous Streptomyces lividans morphology, as well the productivity and O-mannosylation of recombinant Ala-Pro-rich O-glycoprotein (known as the 45/47 kDa or APA antigen) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In order to scale up from previous reported shake flasks to bioreactor, data from the literature on the effect of agitation on morphology of Streptomyces strains were used to obtain gassed volumetric power input values that can be used to obtain a morphology of S. lividans in bioreactor similar to the morphology previously reported in coiled/baffled shake flasks by our group. Morphology of S. lividans was successfully scaled-up, obtaining similar mycelial sizes in both scales with diameters of 0.21 ± 0.09 mm in baffled and coiled shake flasks, and 0.15 ± 0.01 mm in the bioreactor. Moreover, the specific growth rate was successfully scaled up (0.09 ± 0.02 and 0.12 ± 0.01 h(-1), for bioreactors and flasks, respectively), and the recombinant protein productivity measured by densitometry, as well. More interestingly, the quality of the recombinant glycoprotein measured as the amount of mannoses attached to the C-terminal of APA was also scaled- up; with up to five mannose residues in cultures carried out in shake flasks; and six in the bioreactor. However, final biomass concentration was not similar, indicating that although the process can be scaled-up using the power input, others factors like oxygen transfer rate, tip speed or energy dissipation/circulation function can be an influence on bacterial metabolism.

  7. Evaluation of indigenous microalgal isolate Chlorella sp. FC2 IITG as a cell factory for biodiesel production and scale up in outdoor conditions.

    PubMed

    Muthuraj, Muthusivaramapandian; Kumar, Vikram; Palabhanvi, Basavaraj; Das, Debasish

    2014-03-01

    The present study reports evaluation of an indigenous microalgal isolate Chlorella sp. FC2 IITG as a potential candidate for biodiesel production. Characterization of the strain was performed under photoautotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic cultivation conditions. Further, an open-pond cultivation of the strain under outdoor conditions was demonstrated to evaluate growth performance and lipid productivity under fluctuating environmental parameters and in the presence of potential contaminants. The key findings were: (1) the difference in cultivation conditions resulted in significant variation in the biomass productivity (73-114 mg l⁻¹ day⁻¹) and total lipid productivity (35.02-50.42 mg l⁻¹ day⁻¹) of the strain; (2) nitrate and phosphate starvation were found to be the triggers for lipid accumulation in the cell mass; (3) open-pond cultivation of the strain under outdoor conditions resulted in biomass productivity of 44 mg l⁻¹ day⁻¹ and total lipid productivity of 10.7 mg l⁻¹ day⁻¹; (4) a maximum detectable bacterial contamination of 7 % of the total number of cells was recorded in an open-pond system; and (5) fatty acid profiling revealed abundance of palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2), which are considered to be the key elements for suitable quality biodiesel.

  8. Microscale to Manufacturing Scale-up of Cell-Free Cytokine Production—A New Approach for Shortening Protein Production Development Timelines

    PubMed Central

    Zawada, James F; Yin, Gang; Steiner, Alexander R; Yang, Junhao; Naresh, Alpana; Roy, Sushmita M; Gold, Daniel S; Heinsohn, Henry G; Murray, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    Engineering robust protein production and purification of correctly folded biotherapeutic proteins in cell-based systems is often challenging due to the requirements for maintaining complex cellular networks for cell viability and the need to develop associated downstream processes that reproducibly yield biopharmaceutical products with high product quality. Here, we present an alternative Escherichia coli-based open cell-free synthesis (OCFS) system that is optimized for predictable high-yield protein synthesis and folding at any scale with straightforward downstream purification processes. We describe how the linear scalability of OCFS allows rapid process optimization of parameters affecting extract activation, gene sequence optimization, and redox folding conditions for disulfide bond formation at microliter scales. Efficient and predictable high-level protein production can then be achieved using batch processes in standard bioreactors. We show how a fully bioactive protein produced by OCFS from optimized frozen extract can be purified directly using a streamlined purification process that yields a biologically active cytokine, human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, produced at titers of 700 mg/L in 10 h. These results represent a milestone for in vitro protein synthesis, with potential for the cGMP production of disulfide-bonded biotherapeutic proteins. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2011; 108:1570–1578. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:21337337

  9. Efficient production of L-asparaginase from Bacillus licheniformis with low-glutaminase activity: optimization, scale up and acrylamide degradation studies.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Richi V; Saran, Saurabh; Kameswaran, Karthikeya; Kumar, Vinod; Saxena, R K

    2012-12-01

    L-Asparaginase has potential as an anti-cancer drug and for prevention of acrylamide formation in fried and baked foods. Production of the enzyme by Bacillus licheniformis (RAM-8) was optimized by process engineering using a statistical modeling approach and a maximum yield of 32.26 IU/ml was achieved. The L-asparaginase exhibited glutaminase activity of only 0.8 IU/ml and would therefore be less prone to cause the side effects associated with asparaginase therapy compared to enzyme preparations with higher glutaminase activities. When production was carried out in a 30-L bioreactor, enzyme production reached 29.94 IU/ml in 15 h. The enzyme inhibited poly-acrylamide formation in 10% acrylamide solution and reduced acrylamide formation in fried potatoes by 80%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Scale-up of ethanol production from winter barley by the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic) process in fermentors up to 300 liters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A fermentation process, which was designated the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic) process, has recently been developed for barley ethanol production. In the EDGE process, in addition to the enzymes normally required for starch hydrolysis, commercial Beta-glucanases were used to hydrolyze (1,3)(1,...

  11. Pectinase production by Aspergillus giganteus in solid-state fermentation: optimization, scale-up, biochemical characterization and its application in olive-oil extraction.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Gastón E; Ponce-Mora, María C; Noseda, Diego G; Cazabat, Gabriela; Saravalli, Celina; López, María C; Gil, Guillermo P; Blasco, Martín; Albertó, Edgardo O

    2017-02-01

    The application of pectinases in industrial olive-oil processes is restricted by its production cost. Consequently, new fungal strains able to produce higher pectinase titers are required. The aim of this work was to study the capability of Aspergillus giganteus NRRL10 to produce pectinolytic enzymes by SSF and evaluate the application of these in olive-oil extraction. A. giganteus was selected among 12 strains on the basis of high pectinolytic activity and stability. A mixture composed by wheat bran, orange, and lemon peels was selected as the best substrate for enzyme production. Statistical analyses of the experimental design indicated that pH, temperature, and CaCl 2 are the main factors that affect the production. Subsequently, different aeration flows were tested in a tray reactor; the highest activity was achieved at 20 L min -1 per kilogram of dry substrate (kgds). Finally, the pectinolytic enzymes from A. giganteus improved the oil yield and rheological characteristics without affecting oil chemical properties.

  12. Scale-Up of Agrobacterium rhizogenes-Mediated Hairy Root Cultures of Rauwolfia serpentina: A Persuasive Approach for Stable Reserpine Production.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Shakti; Srivastava, Vikas; Goel, Manoj K; Kukreja, Arun K

    2016-01-01

    Roots of Rauwolfia serpentina, also known as "Sarpagandha" possess high pharmaceutical value due to the presence of reserpine and other medicinally important terpene indole alkaloids. Ever increasing commercial demand of R. serpentina roots is the major reason behind the unsystematic harvesting and fast decline of the species from its natural environment. Considering Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy root cultures as an alternative source for the production of plant-based secondary metabolites, the present optimized protocol offers a commercially feasible method for the production of reserpine, the most potent alkaloid from R. serpentina roots. This end-to-end protocol presents the establishment of hairy root culture from the leaf explants of R. serpentina through the infection of A. rhizogenes strain A4 in liquid B5 culture medium and its up-scaling in a 5 L bench top, mechanically agitated bioreactor. The transformed nature of roots was confirmed through PCR-based rol A gene amplification in genomic DNA of putative hairy roots. The extraction and quantification of reserpine in bioreactor grown roots has been done using monolithic reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  13. Scaling up Effects in the Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Anna; Lindstrom, Ulf M.

    2004-01-01

    A simple and effective way of exposing chemistry students to some of the effects of scaling up an organic reaction is described. It gives the student an experience that may encounter in an industrial setting.

  14. Pathways for scaling up public health interventions.

    PubMed

    Indig, Devon; Lee, Karen; Grunseit, Anne; Milat, Andrew; Bauman, Adrian

    2017-08-01

    To achieve population-wide health improvement, public health interventions found effective in selected samples need to be 'scaled up' and implemented more widely. The pathways through which interventions are scaled up are not well characterised. The aim of this paper is to identify examples of public health interventions which have been scaled up and to develop a conceptual framework which quantifies and describes this process. A multi-stage international literature search was undertaken to identify examples of public health interventions in high income countries that have been scaled up or implemented at scale. Initial abstract review identified articles which met all the criteria of being a: 1) public health intervention; 2) chronic disease prevention focus; 3) program delivered at a wide geographical scale (state, national or international). Interventions were reviewed and coded into a conceptual framework pathway to document their scaling up process. For each program, an in-depth review of the identified articles was undertaken along with a broad internet based search to determine the outcomes of the dissemination process. A conceptual framework of scaling up pathways was developed that involved four stages (development, efficacy testing, real world trial and dissemination) to which the 40 programs were mapped. The search identified 40 public health interventions that showed evidence of being scaled up. Four pathways were identified to capture the different scaling up trajectories taken which included: 'Type I - Comprehensive' (55%) which passed through all four stages, 'Type II - Efficacy omitters' (5%) which did not conduct efficacy testing, 'Type III - Trial omitters' (25%) which did not conduct a real world trial, and 'Type IV - At scale dissemination' (15%) which skipped both efficacy testing and a real world trial. This is the first study to classify and quantify the potential pathways through which public health interventions in high income countries are

  15. Lessons Learned on "Scaling Up" of Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2007-01-01

    Having developed a technology-based teaching unit on weather that appeared to work well for middle school students, Nancy Butler Songer and her colleagues at the University of Michigan decided in the late 1990s to take the next logical step in their research program: They scaled up. This article discusses lessons learned by several faculty…

  16. "Scaling Up" Good Practices in Girls' Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subrahmanian, Ramya

    2005-01-01

    This publication focuses on strategies for meeting international targets and national goals for universalizing girls' access to, retention in and completion of quality education. This will be done through "scaling up" successful interventions, or components of interventions that can be replicated. UNESCO published this book within the…

  17. Powder and particulate production of metallic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, N. J.

    1982-01-01

    Developments of particulate metallurgy of alloyed materials where the final products is a fully dense body are discussed. Particulates are defined as powders, flakes, foils, silvers, ribbons and strip. Because rapid solidification is an important factor in particulate metallurgy, all of the particulates must have at least one dimension which is very fine, sometimes as fine as 10 to 50 microns, but move typically up to several hundred microns, provided that the dimension permits a minimum solidification rate of at least 100 K/s.

  18. Non-Heat Treatable Alloy Sheet Products

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, H.W.; Barthold, G.W.; Das, S.K.

    ALCAR is an innovative approach for conducting multi-company, pre-competitive research and development programs. ALCAR has been formed to crate a partnership of aluminum producers, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Center for Research and Technology Development (ASME/CRTD), the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), three USDOE National Laboratories, and a Technical Advisory Committee for conducting cooperative, pre-competitive research on the development of flower-cost, non-heat treated (NHT) aluminum alloys for automotive sheet applications with strength, formability and surface appearance similar to current heat treated (HT) aluminum alloys under consideration. The effort has been supported by the USDOE, Office of Transportation Technologymore » (OTT) through a three-year program with 50/50 cost share at a total program cost of $3 million. The program has led to the development of new and modified 5000 series aluminum ally compositions. Pilot production-size ingots have bee n melted, cast, hot rolled and cold rolled. Stamping trials on samples of rolled product for demonstrating production of typical automotive components have been successful.« less

  19. REGENERATION OF FISSION-PRODUCT-CONTAINING MAGNESIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Chiotti, P.

    1964-02-01

    A process of regenerating a magnesium-thorium alloy contaminated with fission products, protactinium, and uranium is presented. A molten mixture of KCl--LiCl-MgCl/sub 2/ is added to the molten alloy whereby the alkali, alkaline parth, and rare earth fission products (including yttrium) and some of the thorium and uranium are chlorinated and

  20. Scale up of large ALON® and spinel windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Kashalikar, Uday; Ramisetty, Mohan; Jha, Santosh; Sastri, Suri

    2017-05-01

    Aluminum Oxynitride (ALON® Transparent Ceramic) and Magnesia Aluminate Spinel (Spinel) combine broadband transparency with excellent mechanical properties. Their cubic structure means that they are transparent in their polycrystalline form, allowing them to be manufactured by conventional powder processing techniques. Surmet has scaled up its ALON® production capability to produce and deliver windows as large as 4.4 sq ft. We have also produced our first 6 sq ft window. We are in the process of producing 7 sq ft ALON® window blanks for armor applications; and scale up to even larger, high optical quality blanks for Recce window applications is underway. Surmet also produces spinel for customers that require superior transmission at the longer wavelengths in the mid wave infra-red (MWIR). Spinel windows have been limited to smaller sizes than have been achieved with ALON. To date the largest spinel window produced is 11x18-in, and windows 14x20-in size are currently in process. Surmet is now scaling up its spinel processing capability to produce high quality window blanks as large as 19x27-in for sensor applications.

  1. Production and processing of Cu-Cr-Nb alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.; Michal, Gary M.; Orth, Norman W.

    1990-01-01

    A new Cu-based alloy possessing high strength, high conductivity, and good stability at elevated temperatures was recently produced. This paper details the melting of the master alloys, production of rapidly solidified ribbon, and processing of the ribbon to sheet by hot pressing and hot rolling.

  2. Rough titanium alloys regulate osteoblast production of angiogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Navarrete, Rene; Hyzy, Sharon L; Gittens, Rolando A; Schneider, Jennifer M; Haithcock, David A; Ullrich, Peter F; Slosar, Paul J; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D

    2013-11-01

    Polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) and titanium-aluminum-vanadium (titanium alloy) are used frequently in lumbar spine interbody fusion. Osteoblasts cultured on microstructured titanium generate an environment characterized by increased angiogenic factors and factors that inhibit osteoclast activity mediated by integrin α2β1 signaling. It is not known if this is also true of osteoblasts on titanium alloy or PEEK. The purpose of this study was to determine if osteoblasts generate an environment that supports angiogenesis and reduces osteoclastic activity when grown on smooth titanium alloy, rough titanium alloy, or PEEK. This in vitro study compared angiogenic factor production and integrin gene expression of human osteoblast-like MG63 cells cultured on PEEK or titanium-aluminum-vanadium (titanium alloy). MG63 cells were grown on PEEK, smooth titanium alloy, or rough titanium alloy. Osteogenic microenvironment was characterized by secretion of osteoprotegerin and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), which inhibit osteoclast activity and angiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), and angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1). Expression of integrins, transmembrane extracellular matrix recognition proteins, was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Culture on titanium alloy stimulated osteoprotegerin, TGF-β1, VEGF-A, FGF-2, and angiopoietin-1 production, and levels were greater on rough titanium alloy than on smooth titanium alloy. All factors measured were significantly lower on PEEK than on smooth or rough titanium alloy. Culture on titanium alloy stimulated expression of messenger RNA for integrins that recognize Type I collagen in comparison with PEEK. Rough titanium alloy stimulated cells to create an osteogenic-angiogenic microenvironment. The osteogenic-angiogenic responses to titanium alloy were greater than PEEK and greater on rough titanium alloy than on smooth titanium alloy. Surface

  3. Some Problems of Industrial Scale-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, A. T.

    1985-01-01

    Scientific ideas of the biological laboratory are turned into economic realities in industry only after several problems are solved. Economics of scale, agitation, heat transfer, sterilization of medium and air, product recovery, waste disposal, and future developments are discussed using aerobic respiration as the example in the scale-up…

  4. Quality Assessment of Physical and Organoleptic Instant Corn Rice on Scale-Up Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumalasari, R.; Ekafitri, R.; Indrianti, N.

    2017-12-01

    Development of instant corn rice product has been successfully conducted on a laboratory scale. Corn has high carbohydrate content but low in fiber. The addition of fiber in instant corn rice, intended to improve the functioning of the product, and replace fiber loss during the process. Scale up process of Instant corn rice required to increase the production capacity. Scale up was the process to get identic output on a larger scale based on predetermined production scale. This study aimed to assess the changes and differences in the quality of instant corn rice during scale up. Instant corn rice scale up was done on production capacity 3 kg, 4 kg and 5 kg. Results showed that scale up of instant corn rice producing products with rehydration ratio ranges between 514% - 570%, the absorption rate ranged between 414% - 470%, swelling rate ranging between 119% - 134%, bulk density ranged from 0.3661 to 0.4745 (g/ml) and porosity ranging between 30-37%. The physical quality of instant corn rice on scale up were stable from the ones at laboratory scale on swelling rate, rehydration ratio, and absorption rate but not stable on bulk density and porosity. Organoleptic qualities were stable at increased scale compared on a laboratory scale. Bulk density was higher than those at laboratory scale, and the porosity was lower than those at laboratory scale.

  5. Compound scale-up at the discovery-development interface.

    PubMed

    Nikitenko, Antonia A

    2006-11-01

    As a result of an economically challenging environment within the pharmaceutical industry, pharmaceutical companies and their departments must increase productivity and cut costs to stay in line with the market. Discovery-led departments such as the medicinal chemistry and lead optimization groups focus on synthesizing large varieties of compounds in minimal amounts, while the chemical development groups must then deliver a few chosen leads employing an optimized synthesis method and using multi-kilogram quantities of material. A research group at the discovery-development interface has the task of medium-scale synthesis which is important in the lead selection stage. The primary objective of this group is the initial scale-up of promising leads for extensive physicochemical and biological testing. The challenge of the interface group involves overcoming synthetic issues within the rigid, accelerated timelines.

  6. Microbial bioelectrosynthesis of hydrogen: Current challenges and scale-up.

    PubMed

    Kitching, Michael; Butler, Robin; Marsili, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable energy supplies are needed to supplement and eventually replace fossil fuels. Molecular hydrogen H 2 is a clean burning, high-energy fuel that is also used as reducing gas in industrial processes. H 2 is mainly synthesized by steam reforming of natural gas, a non-renewable fuel. There are biosynthetic strategies for H 2 production; however, they are associated with poor yield and have high cost. The application of an electrochemical driving force in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) improves the yield of biological reactions. The performance of the MEC is influenced by experimental parameters such as the electrode material, reactor design, microbial consortia and the substrate. In this review, factors that affect the performance of MECs are discussed and critically analysed. The potential for scale-up of H 2 bioelectrosynthesis is also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Scaling up in international health: what are the key issues?

    PubMed

    Mangham, Lindsay J; Hanson, Kara

    2010-03-01

    The term 'scaling up' is now widely used in the international health literature, though it lacks an agreed definition. We review what is meant by scaling up in the context of changes in international health and development over the last decade. We argue that the notion of scaling up is primarily used to describe the ambition or process of expanding the coverage of health interventions, though the term has also referred to increasing the financial, human and capital resources required to expand coverage. We discuss four pertinent issues in scaling up the coverage of health interventions: the costs of scaling up coverage; constraints to scaling up; equity and quality concerns; and key service delivery issues when scaling up. We then review recent progress in scaling up the coverage of health interventions. This includes a considerable increase in the volume of aid, accompanied by numerous new health initiatives and financing mechanisms. There have also been improvements in health outcomes and some examples of successful large-scale programmes. Finally, we reflect on the importance of obtaining a better understanding of how to deliver priority health interventions at scale, the current emphasis on health system strengthening and the challenges of sustaining scaling up in the prevailing global economic environment.

  8. Scale Up in Education. Volume 1: Ideas in Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Barbara Ed.; McDonald, Sarah-Kathryn Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Scale Up in Education, Volume 1: Ideas in Principle" examines the challenges of "scaling up" from a multidisciplinary perspective. It brings together contributions from disciplines that routinely take promising innovations to scale, including medicine, business, engineering, computing, and education. Together the contributors explore appropriate…

  9. Multisite Studies and Scaling up in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A scale-up study in education typically expands the sample of students, schools, districts, and/or practices or materials used in smaller studies in ways that build in heterogeneity. Yet surprisingly little is known about the factors that promote successful scaling up efforts in education, in large part due to the absence of empirically supported…

  10. Model-based optimization and scale-up of multi-feed simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of steam pre-treated lignocellulose enables high gravity ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruifei; Unrean, Pornkamol; Franzén, Carl Johan

    2016-01-01

    High content of water-insoluble solids (WIS) is required for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) operations to reach the high ethanol concentrations that meet the techno-economic requirements of industrial-scale production. The fundamental challenges of such processes are related to the high viscosity and inhibitor contents of the medium. Poor mass transfer and inhibition of the yeast lead to decreased ethanol yield, titre and productivity. In the present work, high-solid SSCF of pre-treated wheat straw was carried out by multi-feed SSCF which is a fed-batch process with additions of substrate, enzymes and cells, integrated with yeast propagation and adaptation on the pre-treatment liquor. The combined feeding strategies were systematically compared and optimized using experiments and simulations. For high-solid SSCF process of SO2-catalyzed steam pre-treated wheat straw, the boosted solubilisation of WIS achieved by having all enzyme loaded at the beginning of the process is crucial for increased rates of both enzymatic hydrolysis and SSCF. A kinetic model was adapted to simulate the release of sugars during separate hydrolysis as well as during SSCF. Feeding of solid substrate to reach the instantaneous WIS content of 13 % (w/w) was carried out when 60 % of the cellulose was hydrolysed, according to simulation results. With this approach, accumulated WIS additions reached more than 20 % (w/w) without encountering mixing problems in a standard bioreactor. Feeding fresh cells to the SSCF reactor maintained the fermentation activity, which otherwise ceased when the ethanol concentration reached 40-45 g L(-1). In lab scale, the optimized multi-feed SSCF produced 57 g L(-1) ethanol in 72 h. The process was reproducible and resulted in 52 g L(-1) ethanol in 10 m(3) scale at the SP Biorefinery Demo Plant. SSCF of WIS content up to 22 % (w/w) is reproducible and scalable with the multi-feed SSCF configuration and model-aided process

  11. Fungal biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles: mechanism and scale up.

    PubMed

    Kitching, Michael; Ramani, Meghana; Marsili, Enrico

    2015-11-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a widespread research tool because of their oxidation resistance, biocompatibility and stability. Chemical methods for AuNP synthesis often produce toxic residues that raise environmental concern. On the other hand, the biological synthesis of AuNPs in viable microorganisms and their cell-free extracts is an environmentally friendly and low-cost process. In general, fungi tolerate higher metal concentrations than bacteria and secrete abundant extracellular redox proteins to reduce soluble metal ions to their insoluble form and eventually to nanocrystals. Fungi harbour untapped biological diversity and may provide novel metal reductases for metal detoxification and bioreduction. A thorough understanding of the biosynthetic mechanism of AuNPs in fungi is needed to reduce the time of biosynthesis and to scale up the AuNP production process. In this review, we describe the known mechanisms for AuNP biosynthesis in viable fungi and fungal protein extracts and discuss the most suitable bioreactors for industrial AuNP biosynthesis. © 2014 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Fungal biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles: mechanism and scale up

    PubMed Central

    Kitching, Michael; Ramani, Meghana; Marsili, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a widespread research tool because of their oxidation resistance, biocompatibility and stability. Chemical methods for AuNP synthesis often produce toxic residues that raise environmental concern. On the other hand, the biological synthesis of AuNPs in viable microorganisms and their cell-free extracts is an environmentally friendly and low-cost process. In general, fungi tolerate higher metal concentrations than bacteria and secrete abundant extracellular redox proteins to reduce soluble metal ions to their insoluble form and eventually to nanocrystals. Fungi harbour untapped biological diversity and may provide novel metal reductases for metal detoxification and bioreduction. A thorough understanding of the biosynthetic mechanism of AuNPs in fungi is needed to reduce the time of biosynthesis and to scale up the AuNP production process. In this review, we describe the known mechanisms for AuNP biosynthesis in viable fungi and fungal protein extracts and discuss the most suitable bioreactors for industrial AuNP biosynthesis. PMID:25154648

  13. A quality by design approach to scale-up of high-shear wet granulation process.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Preetanshu; Badawy, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    High-shear wet granulation is a complex process that in turn makes scale-up a challenging task. Scale-up of high-shear wet granulation process has been studied extensively in the past with various different methodologies being proposed in the literature. This review article discusses existing scale-up principles and categorizes the various approaches into two main scale-up strategies - parameter-based and attribute-based. With the advent of quality by design (QbD) principle in drug product development process, an increased emphasis toward the latter approach may be needed to ensure product robustness. In practice, a combination of both scale-up strategies is often utilized. In a QbD paradigm, there is also a need for an increased fundamental and mechanistic understanding of the process. This can be achieved either by increased experimentation that comes at higher costs, or by using modeling techniques, that are also discussed as part of this review.

  14. Charter Operators Spell Out Barriers to "Scaling Up"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    The pace at which the highest-performing charter-management organizations (CMOs) are "scaling up" is being determined largely by how rapidly they can develop and hire strong leaders and acquire physical space, and by the level of support they receive for growth from city or state policies, say leaders from some charter organizations…

  15. Three Collaborative Models for Scaling Up Evidence-Based Practices

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Rosemarie; Jones, Helen; Marsenich, Lynne; Sosna, Todd; Price, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    The current paper describes three models of research-practice collaboration to scale-up evidence-based practices (EBP): (1) the Rolling Cohort model in England, (2) the Cascading Dissemination model in San Diego County, and (3) the Community Development Team model in 53 California and Ohio counties. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) and KEEP are the focal evidence-based practices that are designed to improve outcomes for children and families in the child welfare, juvenile justice, and mental health systems. The three scale-up models each originated from collaboration between community partners and researchers with the shared goal of wide-spread implementation and sustainability of MTFC/KEEP. The three models were implemented in a variety of contexts; Rolling Cohort was implemented nationally, Cascading Dissemination was implemented within one county, and Community Development Team was targeted at the state level. The current paper presents an overview of the development of each model, the policy frameworks in which they are embedded, system challenges encountered during scale-up, and lessons learned. Common elements of successful scale-up efforts, barriers to success, factors relating to enduring practice relationships, and future research directions are discussed. PMID:21484449

  16. Scale-Up Method for the Shock Compaction of Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, E. P.; Stuivinga, M.

    2004-07-01

    Shock wave compaction in the cylindrical configuration lends itself to be scaled-up for small-scale industrial applications. While scaling up in the axial direction is easy, scaling up in the lateral direction is less straightforward and may lead to cracks in the center. A different scale up method is presented here; aluminum tubes are filled with the powder to be compacted and placed in a circle inside a large metal tube, with a metal shock wave reflector in the center. The space in between is filled with an inert powder medium: alumina, salt or sand. It is found that salt is the best medium for the integrity of the aluminum tube and for the ease of removal of the aluminum tube out of the (densified) powder medium. Experimental results of (slightly ellipsoidal) shock compacted tubes that are produced this way are shown as an example. In the case of B4C, after infiltration with the aluminum of the tube, fully dense cermet compacts without any cracks are thus produced, batch by batch.

  17. Pathways To Scaling-Up in Community Based Rehabilitation Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, W.; Johnston, C.; Thomas, M.; Enns, H.; Naidu, D. M.; Tjandrakusuma, H.

    1997-01-01

    Scaling-up (the expansion or development of organizational activities of nongovernmental agencies to achieve greater impact) in community-based rehabilitation is described by using case study materials from industrialized and less-developed countries (India, Canada, and Indonesia) and focusing on differences in structural characteristics of…

  18. Scaling-Up Successfully: Pathways to Replication for Educational NGOs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jowett, Alice; Dyer, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Non-government organisations (NGOs) are big players in international development, critical to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and constantly under pressure to "achieve more". Scaling-up their initiatives successfully and sustainably can be an efficient and cost effective way for NGOs to increase their impact across a…

  19. Scaling up Education Reform: Addressing the Politics of Disparity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Russell; O'Sullivan, Dominic; Berryman, Mere

    2010-01-01

    What is school reform? What makes it sustainable? Who needs to be involved? How is scaling up achieved? This book is about the need for educational reforms that have built into them, from the outset, those elements that will see them sustained in the original sites and spread to others. Using the Te Kotahitanga Project as a model the authors…

  20. New tuberculosis technologies: challenges for retooling and scale-up.

    PubMed

    Pai, M; Palamountain, K M

    2012-10-01

    The availability of new tools does not mean that they will be adopted, used correctly, scaled up or have public health impact. Experience to date with new diagnostics suggests that many national tuberculosis programmes (NTPs) in high-burden countries are reluctant to adopt and scale up new tools, even when these are backed by evidence and global policy recommendations. We suggest that there are several common barriers to effective national adoption and scale-up of new technologies: global policy recommendations that do not provide sufficient information for scale-up, complex decision-making processes and weak political commitment at the country level, limited engagement of and support to NTP managers, high cost of tools and poor fit with user needs, unregulated markets and inadequate business models, limited capacity for laboratory strengthening and implementation research, and insufficient advocacy and donor support. Overcoming these barriers will require enhanced country-level advocacy, resources, technical assistance and political commitment. Some of the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) countries are emerging as early adopters of policies and technologies, and are increasing their investments in TB control. They may provide the first opportunities to fully assess the public health impact of new tools.

  1. Sustaining and Scaling up the Impact of Professional Development Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehetmeier, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with a crucial topic: which factors influence the sustainability and scale-up of a professional development programme's impact? Theoretical models and empirical findings from impact research (e.g. Zehetmeier and Krainer, "ZDM Int J Math" 43(6/7):875-887, 2011) and innovation research (e.g. Cobb and Smith,…

  2. Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jenny Perlman; Winthrop, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    "Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries" tells the story of where and how quality education has scaled in low- and middle-income countries. The story emerges from wide-ranging research on scaling and learning, including 14 in-depth case studies from around the globe. Ultimately, "Millions…

  3. Production of intergranular attack of alloy 600, alloy 690, and alloy 800 tubing in tubesheet crevices: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.B.; Glaves, C.L.,

    1987-07-01

    Three model boilers, manufactured to simulate full-size tube sheet crevices, were tested with various secondary side environments. The first was faulted with organics representative of the decomposition of humic acid. The second was faulted with sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide, while the third was faulted with sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide. Each model contained seven tubes, which included Alloy 600 in the mill-annealed (MA) and thermally-treated (TT) conditions and Alloy 690 in the thermally-treated condition. Two models contained Alloy 800 tubes in the mill-annealed condition and one had Alloy 800 in the mill-annealed/cold-worked/glass-bead-peened condition. Two different sizes of tubesheet crevicesmore » were used in all model boilers. In the organics-faulted boiler, tubes of Alloy 600MA, Alloy 690TT and Alloy 800MA experienced no significant intergranular attack (IGA); however, the Alloy 600TT had intergranular attack (IGA) three to four grains deep. The carbonate-caustic faulted boiler experienced throughwall stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in all tubes of Alloy 600 MA and Alloy 800 MA. Eddy current indications were present in Alloy 690TT, Alloy 600TT and Alloy 800 in the mill-annealed/cold worked/glass-bead-peened condition. Metallographic examination of tubes from the third model boiler, faulted with sodium sulfate and caustic, revealed IGA in the mill-annealed Alloy 600 tubes. The IGA was more extensive in an Alloy 600 tube annealed at 1700/sup 0/F than an Alloy 600 tube annealed at 1875/sup 0/F.« less

  4. Freeze-Drying Process Development and Scale-Up: Scale-Up of Edge Vial Versus Center Vial Heat Transfer Coefficients, Kv.

    PubMed

    Pikal, Michael J; Bogner, Robin; Mudhivarthi, Vamsi; Sharma, Puneet; Sane, Pooja

    2016-11-01

    This report presents calculations of the difference between the vial heat transfer coefficient of the "edge vial" and the "center vial" at all scales. The only scale-up adjustment for center vials is for the contribution of radiation from the shelf upon which the vial sits by replacing the emissivity of the laboratory dryer shelf with the emissivity of the production dryer shelf. With edge vials, scales-up adjustments are more complex. While convection is not important, heat transfer from the wall to the bands (surrounding the vial array) by radiation and directly from the band to the vials by both radiation and conduction is important; this radiation heat transfer depends on the emissivity of the vial and the bands and is nearly independent of the emissivity of the dryer walls. Differences in wall temperatures do impact the edge vial effect and scale-up, and estimates for wall temperatures are needed for both laboratory and manufacturing dryers. Auto-loading systems (no bands) may give different edge vial heat transfer coefficients than when operating with bands. Satisfactory agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental values of the edge vial effect indicate that results calculated from the theory are of useful accuracy. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Quality by design: scale-up of freeze-drying cycles in pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Pisano, Roberto; Fissore, Davide; Barresi, Antonello A; Rastelli, Massimo

    2013-09-01

    This paper shows the application of mathematical modeling to scale-up a cycle developed with lab-scale equipment on two different production units. The above method is based on a simplified model of the process parameterized with experimentally determined heat and mass transfer coefficients. In this study, the overall heat transfer coefficient between product and shelf was determined by using the gravimetric procedure, while the dried product resistance to vapor flow was determined through the pressure rise test technique. Once model parameters were determined, the freeze-drying cycle of a parenteral product was developed via dynamic design space for a lab-scale unit. Then, mathematical modeling was used to scale-up the above cycle in the production equipment. In this way, appropriate values were determined for processing conditions, which allow the replication, in the industrial unit, of the product dynamics observed in the small scale freeze-dryer. This study also showed how inter-vial variability, as well as model parameter uncertainty, can be taken into account during scale-up calculations.

  6. Testing The Scale-up Approach To Introductory Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kregenow, Julia M.; Keller, L.; Rogers, M.; Romero, D.

    2008-09-01

    Ithaca College physics department has begun transforming our general education astronomy courses into hands-on, active-learning courses from the previous lecture-based format. We are using the SCALE-UP model (Student Centered Activities for Large Enrollment University Programs) pioneered at North Carolina State University. Expanding on the successes of Studio Physics (developed at RPI), which exchanges traditionally separate lecture/recitation/ laboratory sessions for one dynamic, active-learning environment for approximately 40 students, SCALE-UP extends this model to accommodate 100+ students by using large round tables creating naturally smaller groups of students. Classes meet three times per week with each class blending lecture, hands-on activities, group problem solving, and the use of student polling devices. We are testing whether this mode of teaching astronomy will lead to a better understanding of astronomy and the nature of science. Applying this approach in both the SCALE-UP classroom (90 students) and a traditional lecture classroom (45 students) in spring 2008, we report on our early results and lessons learned after one semester. We also discuss some of our lingering implementation questions and issues, such as: whether to use the same or different instructor in two parallel sections, requiring textbook reading, reading quizzes, on-line homework and activities, how much math to include, development of hands-on activities, and culling the typically overpacked intro astronomy syllabus.

  7. Investing in the foundation of sustainable development: pathways to scale up for early childhood development.

    PubMed

    Richter, Linda M; Daelmans, Bernadette; Lombardi, Joan; Heymann, Jody; Boo, Florencia Lopez; Behrman, Jere R; Lu, Chunling; Lucas, Jane E; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Dua, Tarun; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Stenberg, Karin; Gertler, Paul; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2017-01-07

    Building on long-term benefits of early intervention (Paper 2 of this Series) and increasing commitment to early childhood development (Paper 1 of this Series), scaled up support for the youngest children is essential to improving health, human capital, and wellbeing across the life course. In this third paper, new analyses show that the burden of poor development is higher than estimated, taking into account additional risk factors. National programmes are needed. Greater political prioritisation is core to scale-up, as are policies that afford families time and financial resources to provide nurturing care for young children. Effective and feasible programmes to support early child development are now available. All sectors, particularly education, and social and child protection, must play a role to meet the holistic needs of young children. However, health provides a critical starting point for scaling up, given its reach to pregnant women, families, and young children. Starting at conception, interventions to promote nurturing care can feasibly build on existing health and nutrition services at limited additional cost. Failure to scale up has severe personal and social consequences. Children at elevated risk for compromised development due to stunting and poverty are likely to forgo about a quarter of average adult income per year, and the cost of inaction to gross domestic product can be double what some countries currently spend on health. Services and interventions to support early childhood development are essential to realising the vision of the Sustainable Development Goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Investing in the foundation of sustainable development: pathways to scale up for early childhood development

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Linda M; Daelmans, Bernadette; Lombardi, Joan; Heymann, Jody; Boo, Florencia Lopez; Behrman, Jere R; Lu, Chunling; Lucas, Jane E; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Dua, Tarun; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Stenberg, Karin; Gertler, Paul; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2018-01-01

    Building on long-term benefits of early intervention (Paper 2 of this Series) and increasing commitment to early childhood development (Paper 1 of this Series), scaled up support for the youngest children is essential to improving health, human capital, and wellbeing across the life course. In this third paper, new analyses show that the burden of poor development is higher than estimated, taking into account additional risk factors. National programmes are needed. Greater political prioritisation is core to scale-up, as are policies that afford families time and financial resources to provide nurturing care for young children. Effective and feasible programmes to support early child development are now available. All sectors, particularly education, and social and child protection, must play a role to meet the holistic needs of young children. However, health provides a critical starting point for scaling up, given its reach to pregnant women, families, and young children. Starting at conception, interventions to promote nurturing care can feasibly build on existing health and nutrition services at limited additional cost. Failure to scale up has severe personal and social consequences. Children at elevated risk for compromised development due to stunting and poverty are likely to forgo about a quarter of average adult income per year, and the cost of inaction to gross domestic product can be double what some countries currently spend on health. Services and interventions to support early childhood development are essential to realising the vision of the Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:27717610

  9. Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Hayden, H.W. Jr.; Horton, J.A.; Elliott, G.R.B.

    1995-06-06

    A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl{sub 4}), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation. 4 figs.

  10. Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Hayden, Jr., Howard W.; Horton, James A.; Elliott, Guy R. B.

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO.sub.3), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO.sub.2). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl.sub.4), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation.

  11. Scale-Up: Improving Large Enrollment Physics Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichner, Robert

    1999-11-01

    The Student-Centered Activities for Large Enrollment University Physics (SCALE-UP) project is working to establish a learning environment that will promote increased conceptual understanding, improved problem-solving performance, and greater student satisfaction, while still maintaining class sizes of approximately 100. We are also addressing the new ABET engineering accreditation requirements for inquiry-based learning along with communication and team-oriented skills development. Results of studies of our latest classroom design, plans for future classroom space, and the current iteration of instructional materials will be discussed.

  12. Scaling-up treatment of depression and anxiety: a global return on investment analysis.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Dan; Sweeny, Kim; Sheehan, Peter; Rasmussen, Bruce; Smit, Filip; Cuijpers, Pim; Saxena, Shekhar

    2016-05-01

    Depression and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and disabling disorders, which result not only in an enormous amount of human misery and lost health, but also lost economic output. Here we propose a global investment case for a scaled-up response to the public health and economic burden of depression and anxiety disorders. In this global return on investment analysis, we used the mental health module of the OneHealth tool to calculate treatment costs and health outcomes in 36 countries between 2016 and 2030. We assumed a linear increase in treatment coverage. We factored in a modest improvement of 5% in both the ability to work and productivity at work as a result of treatment, subsequently mapped to the prevailing rates of labour participation and gross domestic product (GDP) per worker in each country. The net present value of investment needed over the period 2016-30 to substantially scale up effective treatment coverage for depression and anxiety disorders is estimated to be US$147 billion. The expected returns to this investment are also substantial. In terms of health impact, scaled-up treatment leads to 43 million extra years of healthy life over the scale-up period. Placing an economic value on these healthy life-years produces a net present value of $310 billion. As well as these intrinsic benefits associated with improved health, scaled-up treatment of common mental disorders also leads to large economic productivity gains (a net present value of $230 billion for scaled-up depression treatment and $169 billion for anxiety disorders). Across country income groups, resulting benefit to cost ratios amount to 2·3-3·0 to 1 when economic benefits only are considered, and 3·3-5·7 to 1 when the value of health returns is also included. Return on investment analysis of the kind reported here can contribute strongly to a balanced investment case for enhanced action to address the large and growing burden of common mental disorders worldwide. Grand

  13. Tissue strands as "bioink" for scale-up organ printing.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yin; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2014-01-01

    Organ printing, takes tissue spheroids as building blocks together with additive manufacturing technique to engineer tissue or organ replacement parts. Although a wide array of cell aggregation techniques has been investigated, and gained noticeable success, the application of tissue spheroids for scale-up tissue fabrication is still worth investigation. In this paper, we introduce a new micro-fabrication technique to create tissue strands at the scale of 500-700μm as a "bioink" for future robotic tissue printing. Printable alginate micro-conduits are used as semi-permeable capsules for tissue strand fabrication. Mouse insulinoma beta TC3 cell tissue strands were formed upon 4 days post fabrication with reasonable mechanical strength, high cell viability close to 90%, and tissue specific markers expression. Fusion was readily observed between strands when placing them together as early as 24h. Also, tissue strands were deposited with human umbilical vein smooth muscle cells (HUVSMCs) vascular conduits together to fabricated miniature pancreatic tissue analog. Our study provided a novel technique using tissue strands as "bioink" for scale-up bioprinting of tissues or organs.

  14. Atomic scale modelling of hexagonal structured metallic fission product alloys

    PubMed Central

    Middleburgh, S. C.; King, D. M.; Lumpkin, G. R.

    2015-01-01

    Noble metal particles in the Mo-Pd-Rh-Ru-Tc system have been simulated on the atomic scale using density functional theory techniques for the first time. The composition and behaviour of the epsilon phases are consistent with high-entropy alloys (or multi-principal component alloys)—making the epsilon phase the only hexagonally close packed high-entropy alloy currently described. Configurational entropy effects were considered to predict the stability of the alloys with increasing temperatures. The variation of Mo content was modelled to understand the change in alloy structure and behaviour with fuel burnup (Mo molar content decreases in these alloys as burnup increases). The predicted structures compare extremely well with experimentally ascertained values. Vacancy formation energies and the behaviour of extrinsic defects (including iodine and xenon) in the epsilon phase were also investigated to further understand the impact that the metallic precipitates have on fuel performance. PMID:26064629

  15. Production of FR Tubing from Advanced ODS Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Maloy, Stuart Andrew; Lavender, Curt; Omberg, Ron

    2016-10-25

    Significant research is underway to develop LWR nuclear fuels with improved accident tolerance. One of the leading candidate materials for cladding are the FeCrAl alloys. New alloys produced at ORNL called Gen I and Gen II FeCrAl alloys possess excellent oxidation resistance in steam up to 1400°C and in parallel methods are being developed to produce tubing from these alloys. Century tubing continues to produce excellent tubing from FeCrAl alloys. This memo reports receipt of ~21 feet of Gen I FeCrAl alloy tubing. This tubing will be used for future tests including burst testing, mechanical testing and irradiation testing.

  16. Scaled-up dual anode/cathode microbial fuel cell stack for actual ethanolamine wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    An, Byung-Min; Heo, Yoon; Maitlo, Hubdar-Ali; Park, Joo-Yang

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to develop the scale-up microbial fuel cell technology for actual ethanolamine wastewater treatment, dual anode/cathode MFC stacks connected in series to achieve any desired current, treatment capacity, and volume capacity. However, after feeding actual wastewater into the MFC, maximum power density decreased while the corresponding internal resistance increased. With continuous electricity production, a stack of eight MFCs in series achieved 96.05% of COD removal and 97.30% of ammonia removal at a flow rate of 15.98L/d (HRT 12h). The scaled-up dual anode/cathode MFC stack system in this research was demonstrated to treat actual ETA wastewater with the added benefit of harvesting electricity energy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermal Exposure Effects on Properties of Al-Li Alloy Plate Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Sandeep; Wells, Douglas; Wagner, John; Babel, Henry

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this viewgraph representation is to evaluate the effects of thermal exposure on the mechanical properties of both production mature and developmental Al-Li alloys. The researchers find for these alloys, the data clearly shows that there is no deficit in mechanical properties at lower exposure temperatures in some cases, and a signficant deficit in mechanical properties at higher exposure temperatures in all cases. Topics considered include: Al-Li alloys composition, key characteristics of Al-Li alloys and thermal exposure matrix.

  18. TA Beliefs in a SCALE-UP Style Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBeck, George; Settelmeyer, Sam; Li, Sissi; Demaree, Dedra

    2010-10-01

    In Spring 2010, the Oregon State University physics department instituted a SCALE-UP (Student-Centered Active Learning Environment for Undergraduate Programs) style studio classroom in the introductory, calculus-based physics series. In our initial implementation, comprised of two hours lecture, two hours of studio, and two hours lab work, the studio session was lead by a faculty member and either 2 GTAs or 1 GTA and 1 LA. We plan to move to a model where senior GTAs can lead studio sections after co-teaching with the faculty member. It is critical that we know how to prepare and support the instructional team in facilitating student learning in this setting. We examine GTA and LA pedagogical beliefs through reflective journaling, interviews, and personal experience of the authors. In particular, we examine how these beliefs changed over their first quarter of instruction, as well as the resources used to adapt to the new classroom environment.

  19. Scaling up digital circuit computation with DNA strand displacement cascades.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lulu; Winfree, Erik

    2011-06-03

    To construct sophisticated biochemical circuits from scratch, one needs to understand how simple the building blocks can be and how robustly such circuits can scale up. Using a simple DNA reaction mechanism based on a reversible strand displacement process, we experimentally demonstrated several digital logic circuits, culminating in a four-bit square-root circuit that comprises 130 DNA strands. These multilayer circuits include thresholding and catalysis within every logical operation to perform digital signal restoration, which enables fast and reliable function in large circuits with roughly constant switching time and linear signal propagation delays. The design naturally incorporates other crucial elements for large-scale circuitry, such as general debugging tools, parallel circuit preparation, and an abstraction hierarchy supported by an automated circuit compiler.

  20. Scaling Up Family Therapy in Fragile, Conflict-Affected States.

    PubMed

    Charlés, Laurie L

    2015-09-01

    This article discusses the design and delivery of two international family therapy-focused mental health and psychosocial support training projects, one in a fragile state and one in a post-conflict state. The training projects took place in Southeast Asia and the Middle East/North Africa. Each was funded, supported, and implemented by local, regional, and international stakeholders, and delivered as part of a broader humanitarian agenda to develop human resource capacity to work with families affected by atrocities. The two examples illustrate how task-shifting/task-sharing and transitional justice approaches were used to inform the scaling-up of professionals involved in each project. They also exemplify how state-citizen phenomena in each location affected the project design and delivery. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  1. Scaling Up Decision Theoretic Planning to Planetary Rover Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuleau, Nicolas; Dearden, Richard; Washington, Rich

    2004-01-01

    Because of communication limits, planetary rovers must operate autonomously during consequent durations. The ability to plan under uncertainty is one of the main components of autonomy. Previous approaches to planning under uncertainty in NASA applications are not able to address the challenges of future missions, because of several apparent limits. On another side, decision theory provides a solid principle framework for reasoning about uncertainty and rewards. Unfortunately, there are several obstacles to a direct application of decision-theoretic techniques to the rover domain. This paper focuses on the issues of structure and concurrency, and continuous state variables. We describes two techniques currently under development that address specifically these issues and allow scaling-up decision theoretic solution techniques to planetary rover planning problems involving a small number of goals.

  2. Accounting for the cost of scaling-up health interventions.

    PubMed

    Johns, Benjamin; Baltussen, Rob

    2004-11-01

    Recent studies such as the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health have highlighted the need for expanding the coverage of services for HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, immunisations and other diseases. In order for policy makers to plan for these changes, they need to analyse the change in costs when interventions are 'scaled-up' to cover greater percentages of the population. Previous studies suggest that applying current unit costs to an entire population can misconstrue the true costs of an intervention. This study presents the methodology used in WHO-CHOICE's generalised cost effectiveness analysis, which includes non-linear cost functions for health centres, transportation and supervision costs, as well as the presence of fixed costs of establishing a health infrastructure. Results show changing marginal costs as predicted by economic theory. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Bioprinting scale-up tissue and organ constructs for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2015-07-01

    Bioprinting is an emerging field that is having a revolutionary impact on the medical sciences. It offers great precision for the spatial placement of cells, proteins, genes, drugs, and biologically active particles to better guide tissue generation and formation. This emerging biotechnology appears to be promising for advancing tissue engineering toward functional tissue and organ fabrication for transplantation, drug testing, research investigations, and cancer or disease modeling, and has recently attracted growing interest worldwide among researchers and the general public. In this Opinion, I highlight possibilities for the bioprinting scale-up of functional tissue and organ constructs for transplantation and provide the reader with alternative approaches, their limitations, and promising directions for new research prospects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Formation of the structure of thin-sheet rolled product from a high-strength sparingly alloyed aluminum alloy ``nikalin''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shurkin, P. K.; Belov, N. A.; Akopyan, T. K.; Alabin, A. N.; Aleshchenko, A. S.; Avxentieva, N. N.

    2017-09-01

    The regime of thermomechanical treatment of flat ingots of a high-strength sparingly alloyed alloy based on the Al-Zn-Mg-Ni-Fe system upon the production of thin-sheet rolled products with a reduction of more than 97% has been substantiated. Using experimental and calculated methods, the structure and phase composition of the experimental alloy in the as cast and deformed state and after heat treatment including quenching with subsequent aging have been studied. It has been found that the structure of the wrought semi-finished products after aging according to T and T1 regimes consists of the precipitation-hardened aluminum matrix and uniformly distributed isolated particles of Al9FeNi with a size of 1-2 μm, which provides a combination of high strength and satisfactory plasticity at the level of standard high-strength aluminum alloys of the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu system. The fractographic analysis confirmed that the tested samples underwent a ductile fracture.

  5. Plate-shaped transformation products in zirconium-base alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, S.; Dey, G. K.; Srivastava, D.; Ranganathan, S.

    1997-11-01

    Plate-shaped products resulting from martensitic, diffusional, and mixed mode transformations in zirconium-base alloys are compared in the present study. These alloys are particularly suitable for the comparison in view of the fact that the lattice correspondence between the parent β (bcc) and the product α (hcp) or γ-hydride (fct) phases are remarkably similar for different types of transformations. Crystallographic features such as orientation relations, habit planes, and interface structures associated with these transformations have been compared, with a view toward examining whether the transformation mechanisms have characteristic imprints on these experimental observables. Martensites exhibiting dislocated lath, internally twinned plate, and self-accommodating three-plate cluster morphologies have been encountered in Zr-2.5Nb alloy. Habit planes corresponding to all these morphologies have been found to be consistent with the predictions based on the invariant plane strain (IPS) criterion. Different morphologies have been found to reflect the manner in which the neighboring martensite variants are assembled. Lattice-invariant shears (LISs) for all these cases have been identified to be either {10 bar 11} α < bar 1123> α slip or twinning on {10 bar 11} α planes. Widmanstätten α precipitates, forming in a step-quenching treatment, have been shown to have a lath morphology, the α/β interface being decorated with a periodic array of < c + a> dislocations at a spacing of 8 to 10 nm. The line vectors of these dislocations are nearly parallel to the invariant lines. The α precipitates, forming in the retained β phase on aging, exhibit an internally twinned structure with a zigzag habit plane. Average habit planes for the morphologies have been found to lie near the {103} β — {113} β poles, which are close to the specific variant of the {112} β plane, which transforms into a prismatic plane of the type {1 bar 100} α . The crystallography of the

  6. Effects of different production technologies on mechanical and metallurgical properties of precious metal denture alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, Paolo; Battaglia, Eleonora; Capuzzi, Stefano; Berto, Filippo

    2017-12-01

    Precious metal alloys can be supplied in traditional plate form or innovative drop form with high degree of purity. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the influence of precious metal alloy form on metallurgical and mechanical properties of the final dental products with particular reference to metal-ceramic bond strength and casting defects. A widely used alloy for denture was selected; its nominal composition was close to 55 wt% Pd - 34 wt% Ag - 6 wt% In - 3 wt% Sn. Specimens were produced starting from the alloy in both plate and drop forms. A specific test method was developed to obtain results that could be representative of the real conditions of use. In order to achieve further information about the adhesion behaviour and resistance, the fracture surfaces of the samples were observed using `Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)'. Moreover, material defects caused by the moulding process were studied. The form of the alloy before casting does not significantly influence the shear bond strength between the metal and the ceramic material (p-value=0,976); however, according to SEM images, products from drop form alloy show less solidification defects compared to products obtained with plate form alloy. This was attributed to the absence of polluting additives used in the production of drop form alloy. This study shows that the use of precious metal denture alloys supplied in drop form does not affect the metal-ceramic bond strength compared to alloys supplied in the traditional plate form. However, compared to the plate form, the drop form is found free of solidification defects, less expensive to produce and characterized by minor environmental impacts.

  7. Process for making a martensitic steel alloy fuel cladding product

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Gerald D.; Lobsinger, Ralph J.; Hamilton, Margaret L.; Gelles, David S.

    1990-01-01

    This is a very narrowly defined martensitic steel alloy fuel cladding material for liquid metal cooled reactors, and a process for making such a martensitic steel alloy material. The alloy contains about 10.6 wt. % chromium, about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, about 0.85 wt. % manganese, about 0.2 wt. % niobium, about 0.37 wt. % silicon, about 0.2 wt. % carbon, about 0.2 wt. % vanadium, 0.05 maximum wt. % nickel, about 0.015 wt. % nitrogen, about 0.015 wt. % sulfur, about 0.05 wt. % copper, about 0.007 wt. % boron, about 0.007 wt. % phosphorous, and with the remainder being essentially iron. The process utilizes preparing such an alloy and homogenizing said alloy at about 1000.degree. C. for 16 hours; annealing said homogenized alloy at 1150.degree. C. for 15 minutes; and tempering said annealed alloy at 700.degree. C. for 2 hours. The material exhibits good high temperature strength (especially long stress rupture life) at elevated temperature (500.degree.-760.degree. C.).

  8. Electroerosion micro- and nanopowders for the production of hard alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latypov, R. A.; Ageeva, E. V.; Kruglyakov, O. V.; Latypova, G. R.

    2016-06-01

    The shape and the surface morphology of the powder particles fabricated by the electroerosion dispersion of tungsten-containing wastes in illuminating oil are studied. The hard alloy fabricated from these powder particles is analyzed by electron-probe microanalysis. The powder synthesized by the electroerosion dispersion of the wastes of sintered hard alloys is found to consist of particles of a spherical or elliptical shape, an irregular shape (conglomerates), and a fragment shape. It is shown that W, Ti, and Co are the main elements in the hard alloy fabricated from the powder synthesized by electroerosion dispersion in illuminating oil.

  9. Chile Crece Contigo: Implementation, results, and scaling-up lessons.

    PubMed

    Torres, A; Lopez Boo, F; Parra, V; Vazquez, C; Segura-Pérez, S; Cetin, Z; Pérez-Escamilla, R

    2018-01-01

    Chile Crece Contigo (ChCC) is defined as a comprehensive, intersectoral, and multicomponent policy that aims to help all children reach their full potential for development, regardless of their socio-economic status. This case study was developed on the basis of grey literature review and key informants' interviews. ChCC behaves as a complex adaptive system that combines universal and targeted benefits for the more vulnerable starting since gestation and until the children are 4 years old. Three key ministries are involved in ChCC management: health, education, and social development. Studies show adequate programme implementation and positive effects of ChCC on child development. In addition, it was found that the more families use ChCC benefits and the longer the subsystem has been operating in the commune, the greater the positive effects. Strong political support based on principles of equity and child rights combined with strong evidence and funding commitment from government has been central to emergence, scaling up, and sustainability of ChCC. Further sustainability of ChCC will rely on firmly establishing a well-trained and compensated cadre of early child development professionals and paraprofessionals as well as an improved management and evaluation decentralized system. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Progesterone lipid nanoparticles: Scaling up and in vivo human study.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Elisabetta; Sguizzato, Maddalena; Drechsler, Markus; Mariani, Paolo; Carducci, Federica; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Cortesi, Rita

    2017-10-01

    This investigation describes a scaling up study aimed at producing progesterone containing nanoparticles in a pilot scale. Particularly hot homogenization techniques based on ultrasound homogenization or high pressure homogenization have been employed to produce lipid nanoparticles constituted of tristearin or tristearin in association with caprylic-capric triglyceride. It was found that the high pressure homogenization method enabled to obtain nanoparticles without agglomerates and smaller mean diameters with respect to ultrasound homogenization method. X-ray characterization suggested a lamellar structural organization of both type of nanoparticles. Progesterone encapsulation efficiency was almost 100% in the case of high pressure homogenization method. Shelf life study indicated a double fold stability of progesterone when encapsulated in nanoparticles produced by the high pressure homogenization method. Dialysis and Franz cell methods were performed to mimic subcutaneous and skin administration. Nanoparticles constituted of tristearin in mixture with caprylic/capric triglyceride display a slower release of progesterone with respect to nanoparticles constituted of pure tristearin. Franz cell evidenced a higher progesterone skin uptake in the case of pure tristearin nanoparticles. A human in vivo study, based on tape stripping, was conducted to investigate the performance of nanoparticles as progesterone skin delivery systems. Tape stripping results indicated a decrease of progesterone concentration in stratum corneum within six hours, suggesting an interaction between nanoparticle material and skin lipids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Challenges and Opportunities in Scaling-Up Nutrition in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Darnton-Hill, Ian; Samman, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare continues to be in a state of flux; conventionally, this provides opportunities and challenges. The opportunities include technological breakthroughs, improved economies and increasing availability of healthcare. On the other hand, economic disparities are increasing and leading to differing accessibility to healthcare, including within affluent countries. Nutrition has received an increase in attention and resources in recent decades, a lot of it stimulated by the rise in obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. An increase in ageing populations also has meant increased interest in nutrition-related chronic diseases. In many middle-income countries, there has been an increase in the double burden of malnutrition with undernourished children and overweight/obese parents and adolescents. In low-income countries, an increased evidence base has allowed scaling-up of interventions to address under-nutrition, both nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions. Immediate barriers (institutional, structural and biological) and longer-term barriers (staffing shortages where most needed and environmental impacts on health) are discussed. Significant barriers remain for the near universal access to healthcare, especially for those who are socio-economically disadvantaged, geographically isolated, living in war zones or where environmental damage has taken place. However, these barriers are increasingly being recognized, and efforts are being made to address them. The paper aims to take a broad view that identifies and then comments on the many social, political and scientific factors affecting the achievement of improved nutrition through healthcare. PMID:27417744

  12. Scaling up the use of remote patient monitoring in Canada.

    PubMed

    Gheorghiu, Bobby; Ratchford, Fraser

    2015-01-01

    Evidence supporting the use of remote patient monitoring (RPM) as a cost-effective means of keeping patients from being re-admitted to hospitals or making repeated emergency department visits is growing, especially for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and congestive heart failure (CHF). A recent study funded by Canada Health Infoway, titled Connecting Patients with Providers: A Pan-Canadian Study on Remote Patient Monitoring, aimed to assess the current state of RPM solutions; to examine the evidence for patient and health system benefits achieved both in Canada and internationally; and to determine the critical success factors needed to support further investment and scaling-up of RPM solutions across the Canadian health care system. Break-even analysis of four different implementations reviewed in this study demonstrated that RPM programs can be viable and sustainable for large and small jurisdictions; however, more evidence is needed with regards to a number of potential applications for RPM beyond the management of COPD and CHF.

  13. Sintered rare earth-iron Laves phase magnetostrictive alloy product and preparation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Malekzadeh, Manoochehr; Pickus, Milton R.

    1979-01-01

    A sintered rare earth-iron Laves phase magnetostrictive alloy product characterized by a grain oriented morphology. The grain oriented morphology is obtained by magnetically aligning powder particles of the magnetostrictive alloy prior to sintering. Specifically disclosed are grain oriented sintered compacts of Tb.sub.x Dy.sub.1-x Fe.sub.2 and their method of preparation. The present sintered products have enhanced magnetostrictive properties.

  14. Modelling and scale-up of chemical flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, G.A.; Lake, L.W.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1990-03-01

    The objective of this research is to develop, validate, and apply a comprehensive chemical flooding simulator for chemical recovery processes involving surfactants, polymers, and alkaline chemicals in various combinations. This integrated program includes components of laboratory experiments, physical property modelling, scale-up theory, and numerical analysis as necessary and integral components of the simulation activity. We have continued to develop, test, and apply our chemical flooding simulator (UTCHEM) to a wide variety of laboratory and reservoir problems involving tracers, polymers, polymer gels, surfactants, and alkaline agents. Part I is an update on the Application of Higher-Order Methods in Chemical Flooding Simulation.more » This update focuses on the comparison of grid orientation effects for four different numerical methods implemented in UTCHEM. Part II is on Simulation Design Studies and is a continuation of Saad's Big Muddy surfactant pilot simulation study reported last year. Part III reports on the Simulation of Gravity Effects under conditions similar to those of some of the oil reservoirs in the North Sea. Part IV is on Determining Oil Saturation from Interwell Tracers UTCHEM is used for large-scale interwell tracer tests. A systematic procedure for estimating oil saturation from interwell tracer data is developed and a specific example based on the actual field data provided by Sun E P Co. is given. Part V reports on the Application of Vectorization and Microtasking for Reservoir Simulation. Part VI reports on Alkaline Simulation. The alkaline/surfactant/polymer flood compositional simulator (UTCHEM) reported last year is further extended to include reactions involving chemical species containing magnesium, aluminium and silicon as constituent elements. Part VII reports on permeability and trapping of microemulsion.« less

  15. The design and scale-up of spray dried particle delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Al-Khattawi, Ali; Bayly, Andrew; Phillips, Andrew; Wilson, David

    2018-01-01

    The rising demand for pharmaceutical particles with tailored physicochemical properties has opened new markets for spray drying especially for solubility enhancement, improving inhalation medicines and stabilization of biopharmaceuticals. Despite this, the spray drying literature is scattered and often does not address the principles underpinning robust development of pharmaceuticals. It is therefore necessary to present clearer picture of the field and highlight the factors influencing particle design and scale-up. Areas covered: The review presents a systematic analysis of the trends in development of particle delivery systems using spray drying. This is followed by exploring the mechanisms governing particle formation in the process stages. Particle design factors including those of equipment configurations and feed/process attributes were highlighted. Finally, the review summarises the current industrial approaches for upscaling pharmaceutical spray drying. Expert opinion: Spray drying provides the ability to design particles of the desired functionality. This greatly benefits the pharmaceutical sector especially as product specifications are becoming more encompassing and exacting. One of the biggest barriers to product translation remains one of scale-up/scale-down. A shift from trial and error approaches to model-based particle design helps to enhance control over product properties. To this end, process innovations and advanced manufacturing technologies are particularly welcomed.

  16. Production and fabrication of vanadium alloys for the radiative divertor program of DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.R.; Smith, J.P.; Trester, P.W.

    1997-04-01

    V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been selected for use in the manufacture of a portion of the DIII-D Radiative Divertor upgrade. The production of a 1200-kg ingot of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy, and processing into final sheet and rod product forms suitable for components of the DIII-D Radiative Divertor structure, has been completed at Wah Chang (formerly Teledyne Wah Chang) of Albany, Oregon (WCA). Joining of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been identified as the most critical fabrication issue for its use in the RD Program, and research into several joining methods for fabrication of the RD components, including resistance seam, friction, and electron beam welding,more » is continuing. Preliminary trials have been successful in the joining of V-alloy to itself by electron beam, resistance, and friction welding processes, and to Inconel 625 by friction welding. An effort to investigate the explosive bonding of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy to Inconel 625 has also been initiated, and results have been encouraging. In addition, preliminary tests have been completed to evaluate the susceptibility of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy to stress corrosion cracking in DIII-D cooling water, and the effects of exposure to DIII-D bakeout conditions on the tensile and fracture behavior of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy.« less

  17. 'Time is costly': modelling the macroeconomic impact of scaling-up antiretroviral treatment in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Ventelou, Bruno; Moatti, Jean-Paul; Videau, Yann; Kazatchkine, Michel

    2008-01-02

    Macroeconomic policy requirements may limit the capacity of national and international policy-makers to allocate sufficient resources for scaling-up access to HIV care and treatment in developing countries. An endogenous growth model, which takes into account the evolution of society's human capital, was used to assess the macroeconomic impact of policies aimed at scaling-up access to HIV/AIDS treatment in six African countries (Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ivory Coast and Zimbabwe). The model results showed that scaling-up access to treatment in the affected population would limit gross domestic product losses due to AIDS although differently from country to country. In our simulated scenarios of access to antiretroviral therapy, only 10.3% of the AIDS shock is counterbalanced in Zimbabwe, against 85.2% in Angola and even 100.0% in Benin (a total recovery). For four out of the six countries (Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Ivory Coast), the macro-economic gains of scaling-up would become potentially superior to its associated costs in 2010. Despite the variability of HIV prevalence rates between countries, macro-economic estimates strongly suggest that a massive investment in scaling-up access to HIV treatment may efficiently counteract the detrimental long-term impact of the HIV pandemic on economic growth, to the extent that the AIDS shock has not already driven the economy beyond an irreversible 'no-development epidemiological trap'.

  18. Increasing the reliability and quality of important cast products made of chemically active metals and alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varfolomeev, M. S.; Moiseev, V. S.; Shcherbakova, G. I.

    2017-01-01

    A technology is developed to produce highly thermoresistant ceramic monoxide corundum molds using investment casting and an aluminum-organic binder. This technology is a promising trend in creating ceramic molds for precision complex-shape casting of important ingots made of high-alloy steels, high-temperature and titanium alloys, and refractory metals. The use of the casting molds that have a high thermal and chemical resistance to chemically active metals and alloys under high-temperature casting minimizes the physicochemical interaction and substantially decreases the depth of the hard-to-remove metal oxide layer on important products, which increases their service properties.

  19. Predictive models of lyophilization process for development, scale-up/tech transfer and manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tong; Moussa, Ehab M; Witting, Madeleine; Zhou, Deliang; Sinha, Kushal; Hirth, Mario; Gastens, Martin; Shang, Sherwin; Nere, Nandkishor; Somashekar, Shubha Chetan; Alexeenko, Alina; Jameel, Feroz

    2018-07-01

    Scale-up and technology transfer of lyophilization processes remains a challenge that requires thorough characterization of the laboratory and larger scale lyophilizers. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was employed to develop computer-based models of both laboratory and manufacturing scale lyophilizers in order to understand the differences in equipment performance arising from distinct designs. CFD coupled with steady state heat and mass transfer modeling of the vial were then utilized to study and predict independent variables such as shelf temperature and chamber pressure, and response variables such as product resistance, product temperature and primary drying time for a given formulation. The models were then verified experimentally for the different lyophilizers. Additionally, the models were applied to create and evaluate a design space for a lyophilized product in order to provide justification for the flexibility to operate within a certain range of process parameters without the need for validation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. High pressure generation using scaled-up Kawai-cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatskiy, A.; Katsura, T.; Litasov, K. D.; Shcherbakova, A. V.; Borzdov, Y. M.; Yamazaki, D.; Yoneda, A.; Ohtani, E.; Ito, E.

    2011-11-01

    A scaled-up version of a 6-8 Kawai-type multianvil apparatus equipped with 47-mm WC anvils has been developed at the Institute for the Study of the Earth's Interior for operation over pressure ranging up to 19 and 24 GPa using the conventional system with larger compressional volumes between 1.2 and 0.4 cm 3, respectively. This system is used under uniaxial compression along cube diagonal of the Kawai-cell up to the press load of 19 MN. Experiments are performed using octahedral pressure media (PM) made of MgO- and ZrO 2-based semi-sintered ceramics and unfired pyrophyllite gaskets. In this study we used "Toshiba-F" grade WC anvils allowing pressure generation up to 24 GPa. We perform pressure calibrations at room and high temperatures, with octahedron/anvil truncation edge-length ratios ( a0/ b, mm) of 12.2/6, 14/6, 14/7, 16/7, 18/7, 18/9, and 18/10. Different configurations show that an increase in edge-length ratio of a0/b permits the achievement of higher pressure, which agrees with the results of Frost at al. (Frost, D.J., Poe, B.T., Tronnes, R.G., Liebske, C., Duba, A., Rubie, D.C., 2004. A new large-volume multianvil system. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 143, 507). However, it also shifts the pressure maximum to higher press loads, in some cases exceeding the capacity of a press. Our and Frost et al. (2004) data reveal that the 14/6, 18/8, and 18/10 assemblies are the most suitable in generating pressures of up to 19-24 GPa at 19 MN press load limits. The assemblies with a low a0/ b ratio have a lower upper pressure limit; however, they exhibit a systematically higher efficiency in pressure generation at low press loads. Consequently, assemblages with high and low a0/ b ratios should be used in high and low pressure experiments, respectively. For example, the 18/12 assembly is suitable for 5-11 GPa pressure range (Stoyanov, E., Haussermann, U., Leinenweber, K., 2010. Large-volume multianvil cells designed for chemical synthesis at high pressures. High Pressure

  1. A numerical investigation of the scale-up effects on flow, heat transfer, and kinetics processes of FCC units.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S. L.

    1998-08-25

    Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) technology is the most important process used by the refinery industry to convert crude oil to valuable lighter products such as gasoline. Process development is generally very time consuming especially when a small pilot unit is being scaled-up to a large commercial unit because of the lack of information to aide in the design of scaled-up units. Such information can now be obtained by analysis based on the pilot scale measurements and computer simulation that includes controlling physics of the FCC system. A Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code, ICRKFLO, has been developed at Argonne National Laboratorymore » (ANL) and has been successfully applied to the simulation of catalytic petroleum cracking risers. It employs hybrid hydrodynamic-chemical kinetic coupling techniques, enabling the analysis of an FCC unit with complex chemical reaction sets containing tens or hundreds of subspecies. The code has been continuously validated based on pilot-scale experimental data. It is now being used to investigate the effects of scaled-up FCC units. Among FCC operating conditions, the feed injection conditions are found to have a strong impact on the product yields of scaled-up FCC units. The feed injection conditions appear to affect flow and heat transfer patterns and the interaction of hydrodynamics and cracking kinetics causes the product yields to change accordingly.« less

  2. [Using Raman spectrum analysis to research corrosive productions occurring in alloy of ancient bronze wares].

    PubMed

    Jia, La-jiang; Jin, Pu-jun

    2015-01-01

    The present paper analyzes the interior rust that occurred in bronze alloy sample from 24 pieces of Early Qin bronze wares. Firstly, samples were processed by grinding, polishing and ultrasonic cleaning-to make a mirror surface. Then, a confocal micro-Raman spectrometer was employed to carry out spectroscopic study on the inclusions in samples. The conclusion indicated that corrosive phases are PbCO3 , PbO and Cu2O, which are common rusting production on bronze alloy. The light-colored circular or massive irregular areas in metallographic structure of samples are proved as Cu2O, showing that bronze wares are not only easy to be covered with red Cu2O rusting layer, but also their alloy is easy to be eroded by atomic oxygen. In other words, the rust Cu2O takes place in both the interior and exterior parts of the bronze alloy. In addition, Raman spectrum analysis shows that the dark grey materials are lead corrosive products--PbCO3 and PbO, showing the corroding process of lead element as Pb -->PbO-->PbCO3. In the texture of cast state of bronze alloy, lead is usually distributed as independent particles between the different alloy phases. The lead particles in bronze alloy would have oxidation reaction and generate PbO when buried in the soil, and then have chemical reaction with CO3(2-) dissolved in the underground water to generate PbCO3, which is a rather stable lead corrosive production. A conclusion can be drawn that the external corrosive factors (water, dissolved oxygen and carbonate, etc) can enter the bronze ware interior through the passageway between different phases and make the alloy to corrode gradually.

  3. Scale-Up of a Titanium Carbonitride Coating System for Titanium Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    Ti-Cote C on JT12 Compressor 7th-Stage Airfoil -Optical Photomicrograph Porosity in Ti-Cote C Titanium 6AI- 4V Substrate - -- Mag: 1000OX FD 171506...30 21 TiCN Coating on Titanium 6A1- 4V ...indication of any corrosive damage to the titanium 6A1- 4V . This had been a matter of concern due to the corrosive nature of the reactive gases and

  4. Scaling-up and ionic liquid-based extraction of pectinases from Aspergillus flavipes cultures.

    PubMed

    Wolf-Márquez, Vicente E; Martínez-Trujillo, M Aurora; Aguilar Osorio, Guillermo; Patiño, Faustino; Álvarez, María S; Rodríguez, Ana; Sanromán, M Ángeles; Deive, Francisco J

    2017-02-01

    The viability of the scaling-up of pectinases production by Aspergillus flavipes at 5L-bioreactor scale has been demonstrated by keeping constant the power input, and a drastic increase in the endo- and exopectinolytic enzyme production was recorded (7- and 40-fold, respectively). The main process variables were modelled by means of logistic and Gompertz equations. In order to overcome the limitations of the conventional downstream strategies, a novel extraction strategy was proposed on the basis of the adequate salting-out potential of two biocompatible cholinium-based ionic liquids (N 1112OH Cl and N 1112OH H 2 PO 4 ) in aqueous solutions of Tergitol, reaching more than 90% of extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Process engineering and scale-up of autotrophic Clostridium strain P11 syngas fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundiyana, Dimple Kumar Aiyanna

    Scope and Method of Study. Biomass gasification followed by fermentation of syngas to ethanol is a potential process to produce bioenergy. The process is currently being researched under laboratory- and pilot-scale in an effort to optimize the process conditions and make the process feasible for commercial production of ethanol and other biofuels such as butanol and propanol. The broad research objectives for the research were to improve ethanol yields during syngas fermentation and to design a economical fermentation process. The research included four statistically designed experimental studies in serum bottles, bench-scale and pilot-scale fermentors to screen alternate fermentation media components, to determine the effect of process parameters such as pH, temperature and buffer on syngas fermentation, to determine the effect of key limiting nutrients of the acetyl-CoA pathway in a continuous series reactor design, and to scale-up the syngas fermentation in a 100-L pilot scale fermentor. Findings and Conclusions. The first experimental study identified cotton seed extract (CSE) as a feasible medium for Clostridium strain P11 fermentation. The study showed that CSE at 0.5 g L-1 can potentially replace all the standard Clostridium strain P11 fermentation media components while using a media buffer did not significantly improve the ethanol production when used in fermentation with CSE. Scale-up of the CSE fermentation in 2-L and 5-L stirred tank fermentors showed 25% increase in ethanol yield. The second experimental study showed that syngas fermentation at 32°C without buffer was associated with higher ethanol concentration and reduced lag time in switching to solventogenesis. Conducting fermentation at 40°C or by lowering incubation pH to 5.0 resulted in reduced cell growth and no production of ethanol or acetic acid. The third experiment studied the effect of three limiting nutrients, calcium pantothenate, vitamin B12 and CoCl2 on syngas fermentation. Results

  6. Scaled-up remediation of CCA-treated wood

    Treesearch

    Carol A. Clausen; William R. Kenealy

    2004-01-01

    Bioremediation is a novel approach to recycling waste wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). Remediating CCA-treated waste wood diverts this fiber source from our landfills and provides tangible secondary products from the cleaned fiber. On a laboratory scale, this method, which utilizes oxalic acid extraction and bioleaching with a metal- tolerant...

  7. Scaling up microbial fuel cells and other bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Logan, Bruce E

    2010-02-01

    Scientific research has advanced on different microbial fuel cell (MFC) technologies in the laboratory at an amazing pace, with power densities having reached over 1 kW/m(3) (reactor volume) and to 6.9 W/m(2) (anode area) under optimal conditions. The main challenge is to bring these technologies out of the laboratory and engineer practical systems for bioenergy production at larger scales. Recent advances in new types of electrodes, a better understanding of the impact of membranes and separators on performance of these systems, and results from several new pilot-scale tests are all good indicators that commercialization of the technology could be possible within a few years. Some of the newest advances and future challenges are reviewed here with respect to practical applications of these MFCs for renewable energy production and other applications.

  8. DFT study of hydrogen production from formic acid decomposition on Pd-Au alloy nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Gao, Z. Y.; Wang, X. C.; Zeng, J.; Li, Y. M.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, it has been reported that the hydrogen production rate of formic acid decomposition can be significantly increased using Pd-Au binary alloy nano-catalysts [Wang et al. J. Mater. Chem. A 1 (2013) 12721-12725]. To explain the reaction mechanism of this alloy catalysis method, formic acid decomposition reactions on pure Pd and Pd-Au alloy nanoclusters are studied via density functional theory simulations. The simulation results indicate that the addition of inert element Au would not influence formic acid decomposition on Pd surface sites of Pd-Au alloy nanoclusters. On the other hand, the existence of Au surface sites brings relative weak hydrogen atom adsorption. On Pd-Au alloy nanoclusters, the dissociated hydrogen atoms from formic acid are easier to combine as hydrogen molecules than that on pure Pd clusters. Via the synergetic effect between Pd and Au, both formic acid decomposition and hydrogen production are events with large probability, which eventually results in high hydrogen production rate.

  9. Manufacturing process scale-up of optical grade transparent spinel ceramic at ArmorLine Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilman, Joseph; Voyles, John; Nick, Joseph; Shaffer, Lawrence

    2013-06-01

    While transparent Spinel ceramic's mechanical and optical characteristics are ideal for many Ultraviolet (UV), visible, Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR), Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR), and multispectral sensor window applications, commercial adoption of the material has been hampered because the material has historically been available in relatively small sizes (one square foot per window or less), low volumes, unreliable supply, and with unreliable quality. Recent efforts, most notably by Technology Assessment and Transfer (TA and T), have scaled-up manufacturing processes and demonstrated the capability to produce larger windows on the order of two square feet, but with limited output not suitable for production type programs. ArmorLine Corporation licensed the hot-pressed Spinel manufacturing know-how of TA and T in 2009 with the goal of building the world's first dedicated full-scale Spinel production facility, enabling the supply of a reliable and sufficient volume of large Transparent Armor and Optical Grade Spinel plates. With over $20 million of private investment by J.F. Lehman and Company, ArmorLine has installed and commissioned the largest vacuum hot press in the world, the largest high-temperature/high-pressure hot isostatic press in the world, and supporting manufacturing processes within 75,000 square feet of manufacturing space. ArmorLine's equipment is capable of producing window blanks as large as 50" x 30" and the facility is capable of producing substantial volumes of material with its Lean configuration and 24/7 operation. Initial production capability was achieved in 2012. ArmorLine will discuss the challenges that were encountered during scale-up of the manufacturing processes, ArmorLine Optical Grade Spinel optical performance, and provide an overview of the facility and its capabilities.

  10. Emulsified systems based on glyceryl monostearate and potassium cetyl phosphate: scale-up and characterization of physical properties.

    PubMed

    Baby, André Rolim; Santoro, Diego Monegatto; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Dos Reis Serra, Cristina Helena

    2008-09-01

    Introducing a pharmaceutical product on the market involves several stages of research. The scale-up stage comprises the integration of previous phases of development and their integration. This phase is extremely important since many process limitations which do not appear on the small scale become significant on the transposition to a large one. Since scientific literature presents only a few reports about the characterization of emulsified systems involving their scaling-up, this research work aimed at evaluating physical properties of non-ionic and anionic emulsions during their manufacturing phases: laboratory stage and scale-up. Prototype non-ionic (glyceryl monostearate) and anionic (potassium cetyl phosphate) emulsified systems had the physical properties by the determination of the droplet size (D[4,3], mum) and rheology profile. Transposition occurred from a batch of 500-50,000g. Semi-industrial manufacturing involved distinct conditions: intensity of agitation and homogenization. Comparing the non-ionic and anionic systems, it was observed that anionic emulsifiers generated systems with smaller droplet size and higher viscosity in laboratory scale. Besides that, for the concentrations tested, augmentation of the glyceryl monostearate emulsifier content provided formulations with better physical characteristics. For systems with potassium cetyl phosphate, droplet size increased with the elevation of the emulsifier concentration, suggesting inadequate stability. The scale-up provoked more significant alterations on the rheological profile and droplet size on the anionic systems than the non-ionic.

  11. Schinus terebinthifolius countercurrent chromatography (Part II): Intra-apparatus scale-up and inter-apparatus method transfer.

    PubMed

    Costa, Fernanda das Neves; Vieira, Mariana Neves; Garrard, Ian; Hewitson, Peter; Jerz, Gerold; Leitão, Gilda Guimarães; Ignatova, Svetlana

    2016-09-30

    Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is being widely used across the world for purification of various materials, especially in natural product research. The predictability of CCC scale-up has been successfully demonstrated using specially designed instruments of the same manufacturer. The reality is that the most of CCC users do not have access to such instruments and do not have enough experience to transfer methods from one CCC column to another. This unique study of three international teams is based on innovative approach to simplify the scale-up between different CCC machines using fractionation of Schinus terebinthifolius berries dichloromethane extract as a case study. The optimized separation methodology, recently developed by the authors (Part I), was repeatedly performed on CCC columns of different design available at most research laboratories across the world. Hexane - ethyl acetate - methanol - water (6:1:6:1, v/v/v/v) was used as solvent system with masticadienonic and 3β-masticadienolic acids as target compounds to monitor stationary phase retention and calculate peak resolution. It has been demonstrated that volumetric, linear and length scale-up transfer factors based on column characteristics can be directly applied to different i.d., volume and length columns independently on instrument make in an intra-apparatus scale-up and inter-apparatus method transfer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evidence and AIDS activism: HIV scale-up and the contemporary politics of knowledge in global public health

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The HIV epidemic is widely recognised as having prompted one of the most remarkable intersections ever of illness, science and activism. The production, circulation, use and evaluation of empirical scientific ‘evidence’ played a central part in activists’ engagement with AIDS science. Previous activist engagement with evidence focused on the social and biomedical responses to HIV in the global North as well as challenges around ensuring antiretroviral treatment (ART) was available in the global South. More recently, however, with the roll-out and scale-up of large public-sector ART programmes and new multi-dimensional prevention efforts, the relationships between evidence and activism have been changing. Scale-up of these large-scale treatment and prevention programmes represents an exciting new opportunity while bringing with it a host of new challenges. This paper examines what new forms of evidence and activism will be required to address the challenges of the scaling-up era of HIV treatment and prevention. It reviews some recent controversies around evidence and HIV scale-up and describes the different forms of evidence and activist strategies that will be necessary for a robust response to these new challenges. PMID:24498918

  13. A Scale-up Approach for Film Coating Process Based on Surface Roughness as the Critical Quality Attribute.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Hara, Yuko; Dohi, Masafumi; Yamashita, Kazunari; Hakomori, Tadashi; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru

    2018-04-01

    Scale-up approaches for film coating process have been established for each type of film coating equipment from thermodynamic and mechanical analyses for several decades. The objective of the present study was to establish a versatile scale-up approach for film coating process applicable to commercial production that is based on critical quality attribute (CQA) using the Quality by Design (QbD) approach and is independent of the equipment used. Experiments on a pilot scale using the Design of Experiment (DoE) approach were performed to find a suitable CQA from surface roughness, contact angle, color difference, and coating film properties by terahertz spectroscopy. Surface roughness was determined to be a suitable CQA from a quantitative appearance evaluation. When surface roughness was fixed as the CQA, the water content of the film-coated tablets was determined to be the critical material attribute (CMA), a parameter that does not depend on scale or equipment. Finally, to verify the scale-up approach determined from the pilot scale, experiments on a commercial scale were performed. The good correlation between the surface roughness (CQA) and the water content (CMA) identified at the pilot scale was also retained at the commercial scale, indicating that our proposed method should be useful as a scale-up approach for film coating process.

  14. Scale-up of Carbon/Carbon Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect

    David P. Haack

    2009-04-08

    This project was focused upon developing a unique material technology for use in PEM fuel cell bipolar plates. The carbon/carbon composite material developed in this program is uniquely suited for use in fuel cell systems, as it is lightweight, highly conductive and corrosion resistant. The project further focused upon developing the manufacturing methodology to cost-effectively produce this material for use in commercial fuel cell systems. United Technology Fuel Cells Corp., a leading fuel cell developer was a subcontractor to the project was interested in the performance and low-cost potential of the material. The accomplishments of the program included the developmentmore » and testing of a low-cost, fully molded, net-shape carbon-carbon bipolar plate. The process to cost-effectively manufacture these carbon-carbon bipolar plates was focused on extensively in this program. Key areas for cost-reduction that received attention in this program was net-shape molding of the detailed flow structures according to end-user design. Correlations between feature detail and process parameters were formed so that mold tooling could be accurately designed to meet a variety of flow field dimensions. A cost model was developed that predicted the cost of manufacture for the product in near-term volumes and long-term volumes (10+ million units per year). Because the roduct uses lowcost raw materials in quantities that are less than competitive tech, it was found that the cost of the product in high volume can be less than with other plate echnologies, and can meet the DOE goal of $4/kW for transportation applications. The excellent performance of the all-carbon plate in net shape was verified in fuel cell testing. Performance equivalent to much higher cost, fully machined graphite plates was found.« less

  15. Cerium-based, intermetallic-strengthened aluminum casting alloy: High-volume co-product development

    DOE PAGES

    Sims, Zachary C.; Weiss, David; McCall, S. K.; ...

    2016-05-23

    Here, several rare earth elements are considered by-products to rare earth mining efforts. By using one of these by-product elements in a high-volume application such as aluminum casting alloys, the supply of more valuable rare earths can be globally stabilized. Stabilizing the global rare earth market will decrease the long-term criticality of other rare earth elements. The low demand for Ce, the most abundant rare earth, contributes to the instability of rare earth extraction. In this article, we discuss a series of intermetallic-strengthened Al alloys that exhibit the potential for new high-volume use of Ce. The castability, structure, and mechanicalmore » properties of binary, ternary, and quaternary Al-Ce based alloys are discussed. We have determined Al-Ce based alloys to be highly castable across a broad range of compositions. Nanoscale intermetallics dominate the microstructure and are the theorized source of the high ductility. In addition, room-temperature physical properties appear to be competitive with existing aluminum alloys with extended high-temperature stability of the nanostructured intermetallic.« less

  16. Protection of temperature sensitive biomedical products using molecular alloys as phase change material.

    PubMed

    Mondieig, Denise; Rajabalee, Fazil; Laprie, Alain; Oonk, Harry A J; Calvet, Thereza; Cuevas-Diarte, Miguel Angel

    2003-04-01

    In this paper we present an example of the application of molecular alloys for thermal protection of biomedical products during transport or storage. Particularly, thermal protection of blood elements have been considered at different temperatures. All steps from basic research to marketing have been addressed. The high latent heat of fusion of the components allows us to propose molecular alloys as materials for thermal energy storage and also for thermal protection over a large range of temperatures, which can be used in many industrial sectors.

  17. Modification of the surface of metal products with carbide coatings by electrospark alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshuro, Vladimir A.; Fomina, Marina A.; Fomin, Aleksandr A.

    2018-04-01

    Electrospark alloying (ESA) technology has existed for a long time (since the middle of the 20th century) but its potential has not been exhausted yet. In the present paper it is proposed to increase the mechanical properties of steel and titanium products by doping with a hard carbide alloy based on "WC-TiC-Co" system. As a result, the hardness of coatings obtained by ESA reaches at least 18-22 GPa with a layer thickness of up to 0.5 mm. The proposed solution can improve the functional qualities of various friction surfaces that are used in engineering, as well as in friction elements.

  18. Thermal Exposure Effects on Properties of Al-Li Alloy Plate Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Sandeep; Wells, Douglas; Wagner, John; Babel, Henry

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum-Lithium (AL-Li) alloys offer significant performance benefits for aerospace structural applications due to their higher specific properties compared with conventional aluminum alloys. For example, the application of an Al-Li alloy to the space shuttle external cryogenic fuel tank contributed to the weight savings that enabled successful deployment of International Space Station components. The composition and heat treatment of this alloy were optimized specifically for strength-toughness considerations for an expendable cryogenic tank. Time dependent properties related to reliability, such as thermal stability, fatigue, and corrosion, will be of significant interest when materials are evaluated for a reusable cryotank structure. As most aerospace structural hardware is weight sensitive, a reusable cryotank will be designed to the limits of the materials mechanical properties. Therefore, this effort was designed to establish the effects of thermal exposure on the mechanical properties and microstructure of one relatively production mature alloy and two developmental alloys C458 and L277. Tensile and fracture toughness behavior was evaluated after exposure to temperatures as high as 3oooF for up to IO00 hrs. Microstructural changes were also evaluated to correlate with the observed data trends. The ambient temperature parent metal data showed an increase in strength and reduction in elongation after exposure at lower temperatures. Strength reached a peak with intermediate temperature exposure followed by a decrease at highest exposure temperature. Characterizing the effect of thermal exposure on the properties of Al-Li alloys is important to defining a service limiting temperature, exposure time, and end-of-life properties.

  19. Scale-down/scale-up studies leading to improved commercial beer fermentation.

    PubMed

    Nienow, Alvin W; Nordkvist, Mikkel; Boulton, Christopher A

    2011-08-01

    Scale-up/scale-down techniques are vital for successful and safe commercial-scale bioprocess design and operation. An example is given in this review of recent studies related to beer production. Work at the bench scale shows that brewing yeast is not compromised by mechanical agitation up to 4.5 W/kg; and that compared with fermentations mixed by CO(2) evolution, agitation ≥ 0.04 W/kg is able to reduce fermentation time by about 20%. Work at the commercial scale in cylindroconical fermenters shows that, without mechanical agitation, most of the yeast sediments into the cone for about 50% of the fermentation time, leading to poor temperature control. Stirrer mixing overcomes these problems and leads to a similar reduction in batch time as the bench-scale tests and greatly reduces its variability, but is difficult to install in extant fermenters. The mixing characteristics of a new jet mixer, a rotary jet mixer, which overcomes these difficulties, are reported, based on pilot-scale studies. This change enables the advantages of stirring to be achieved at the commercial scale without the problems. In addition, more of the fermentable sugars are converted into ethanol. This review shows the effectiveness of scale-up/scale-down studies for improving commercial operations. Suggestions for further studies are made: one concerning the impact of homogenization on the removal of vicinal diketones and the other on the location of bubble formation at the commercial scale. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. School Processes That Can Drive Scaling-Up of an Innovation or Contribute to Its Abandonment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Denis; Zacamy, Jenna; Lazarev, Valeriy; Lin, Li

    2017-01-01

    This five-year study focused on school processes that promoted the scaling-up of a high school academic literacy framework, Reading Apprenticeship, developed by WestEd's Strategic Literacy Initiative (SLI). Implementing an innovative strategy for scaling-up involving school-based cross-disciplinary teacher teams, SLI brought the framework to 274…

  1. What Does It Take to Scale Up and Sustain Evidence-Based Practices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingner, Janette K.; Boardman, Alison G.; Mcmaster, Kristen L.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the strategic scaling up of evidence-based practices. The authors draw from the scholarly work of fellow special education researchers and from the field of learning sciences. The article defines scaling up as the process by which researchers or educators initially implement interventions on a small scale, validate them, and…

  2. Fundamental Issues Concerning the Sustainment and Scaling Up of Professional Development Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirosh, Dina; Tsamir, Pessia; Levenson, Esther

    2015-01-01

    The issue of sustaining and scaling up professional development for mathematics teachers raises several fundamental issues for researchers. This commentary addresses various definitions for sustainability and scaling up and how these definitions may affect the design of programs as well as the design of research. We consider four of the papers in…

  3. Estimate of the Potential Costs and Effectiveness of Scaling Up CRESST Assessment Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Herl, Howard E.; Klein, Davina C. D.; O'Neil, Harold F., Jr.; Schacter, John

    This report examines issues in the scale-up of assessment software from the Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST). "Scale-up" is used in a metaphorical sense, meaning adding new assessment tools to CRESST's assessment software. During the past several years, CRESST has been developing and evaluating a…

  4. Production of Magnesium and Aluminum-Magnesium Alloys from Recycled Secondary Aluminum Scrap Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesing, Adam J.; Das, Subodh K.; Loutfy, Raouf O.

    2016-02-01

    An experimental proof of concept was demonstrated for a patent-pending and trademark-pending RE12™ process for extracting a desired amount of Mg from recycled scrap secondary Al melts. Mg was extracted by electrorefining, producing a Mg product suitable as a Mg alloying hardener additive to primary-grade Al alloys. This efficient electrorefining process operates at high current efficiency, high Mg recovery and low energy consumption. The Mg electrorefining product can meet all the impurity specifications with subsequent melt treatment for removing alkali contaminants. All technical results obtained in the RE12™ project indicate that the electrorefining process for extraction of Mg from Al melt is technically feasible. A techno-economic analysis indicates high potential profitability for applications in Al foundry alloys as well as beverage—can and automotive—sheet alloys. The combination of technical feasibility and potential market profitability completes a successful proof of concept. This economical, environmentally-friendly and chlorine-free RE12™ process could be disruptive and transformational for the Mg production industry by enabling the recycling of 30,000 tonnes of primary-quality Mg annually.

  5. Process scale-up considerations for non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma synthesis of nanoparticles by homogenous nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Jonathan; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Tianqi; Liu, Chang-jun; Mohan Sankaran, R.

    2017-08-01

    Scale-up of non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma reactors for the synthesis of nanoparticles by homogeneous nucleation is challenging because the active volume is typically reduced to facilitate gas breakdown, enhance discharge stability, and limit particle size and agglomeration, but thus limits throughput. Here, we introduce a dielectric barrier discharge reactor consisting of a coaxial electrode geometry for nanoparticle production that enables a simple scale-up strategy whereby increasing the outer and inner electrode diameters, the plasma volume is increased approximately linearly, while maintaining a sufficiently small electrode gap to maintain the electric field strength. We show with two test reactors that for a given residence time, the nanoparticle production rate increases linearly with volume over a range of precursor concentrations, while having minimal effect on the shape of the particle size distribution. However, our study also reveals that increasing the total gas flow rate in a smaller volume reactor leads to an enhancement of precursor conversion and a comparable production rate to a larger volume reactor. These results suggest that scale-up requires better understanding of the influence of reactor geometry on particle growth dynamics and may not always be a simple function of reactor volume.

  6. An effective and simplified scale-up strategy for acarbose fermentation based on the carbon source control.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun-tai; Wie, Sai-jin; Huang, Lin; Cheng, Xin

    2012-02-01

    The scale-up strategy for acarbose fermentation by Actinoplanes sp. A56 was explored in this paper. The results obtained in shake-flask cultivation demonstrated that the ratio of maltose and glucose had significant effects on the biosynthesis of acarbose, and the feeding medium containing 3:1 (mass ratio) of maltose and glucose was favorable for acarbose production. Then the correlation of the carbon source concentration with acarbose production was further investigated in 100-l fermenter, and the results showed that 7.5-8.0 g of total sugar/100 ml and 4.0-4.5 g of reducing sugar/100 ml were optimal for acarbose production. Based on the results in 100-l fermenter, an effective and simplified scale-up strategy was successfully established for acarbose fermentation in a 30-m(3) fermenter, by using total sugar and reducing sugar as the scale-up parameter. As a result, 4,327 mg of acarbose/l was obtained at 168 h of fermentation.

  7. 'Scaling-up is a craft not a science': Catalysing scale-up of health innovations in Ethiopia, India and Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Neil; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Dimka, Ritgak; Fanta, Feleke; Mangham-Jefferies, Lindsay; Schellenberg, Joanna; Tamire-Woldemariam, Addis; Walt, Gill; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi

    2014-11-01

    Donors and other development partners commonly introduce innovative practices and technologies to improve health in low and middle income countries. Yet many innovations that are effective in improving health and survival are slow to be translated into policy and implemented at scale. Understanding the factors influencing scale-up is important. We conducted a qualitative study involving 150 semi-structured interviews with government, development partners, civil society organisations and externally funded implementers, professional associations and academic institutions in 2012/13 to explore scale-up of innovative interventions targeting mothers and newborns in Ethiopia, the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and the six states of northeast Nigeria, which are settings with high burdens of maternal and neonatal mortality. Interviews were analysed using a common analytic framework developed for cross-country comparison and themes were coded using Nvivo. We found that programme implementers across the three settings require multiple steps to catalyse scale-up. Advocating for government to adopt and finance health innovations requires: designing scalable innovations; embedding scale-up in programme design and allocating time and resources; building implementer capacity to catalyse scale-up; adopting effective approaches to advocacy; presenting strong evidence to support government decision making; involving government in programme design; invoking policy champions and networks; strengthening harmonisation among external programmes; aligning innovations with health systems and priorities. Other steps include: supporting government to develop policies and programmes and strengthening health systems and staff; promoting community uptake by involving media, community leaders, mobilisation teams and role models. We conclude that scale-up has no magic bullet solution - implementers must embrace multiple activities, and require substantial support from donors and governments in

  8. Scaling Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Michele; Dodson, Tiare

    2016-01-01

    Carbon is at the heart of many of today's environmental challenges. It is the central element responsible for the structure and function of living systems--taken up by plants through photosynthesis and moving from plants to other organisms, soil, and the ocean and into the atmosphere. The imbalance of these connected biogeochemical…

  9. Advances in development, scale-up and manufacturing of microbicide gels, films, and tablets.

    PubMed

    Garg, Sanjay; Goldman, David; Krumme, Markus; Rohan, Lisa C; Smoot, Stuart; Friend, David R

    2010-12-01

    Vaginal HIV microbicides are topical, self administered products designed to prevent or significantly reduce transmission of HIV infection in women. The earliest microbicide candidates developed have been formulated as coitally dependent (used around the time of sex) gels and creams. All microbicide candidates tested in Phase III clinical trials, so far, have been gel products with non-specific mechanisms of action. However, recently, research is focusing on compounds containing highly potent and specific anti-retrovirals. These specific anti-retrovirals are being formulated as primary dosage forms such as vaginal gels or in alternative dosage forms such as fast dissolve films and tablets. Recent innovations also include development of combination products of highly active antiviral drugs such as reverse transcriptase inhibitors and entry inhibitors, which would theoretically be more effective and would reduce the possibility of drug resistance. In this article, an overview of recent advances in the microbicide gel, film, and tablet formulations and issues pertaining to scale-up, formulation, and evaluation challenges and regulatory guidelines have been presented. This article forms part of a special supplement covering presentations on gels, tablets, and films from the symposium on "Recent Trends in Microbicide Formulations" held on 25 and 26 January 2010, Arlington, VA. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The production of fine grained magnesium alloys through thermomechanical processing for the optimization of microstructural and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, John Paul

    The low density and high strength to weight ratio of magnesium alloys makes them ideal candidates to replace many of the heavier steel and aluminum alloys currently used in the automotive and other industries. Although cast magnesium alloys components have a long history of use in the automotive industry, the integration of wrought magnesium alloys components has been hindered by a number of factors. Grain refinement through thermomechanical processing offers a possible solution to many of the inherent problems associated with magnesium alloys. This work explores the development of several thermomechanical processing techniques and investigates their impact on the microstructural and mechanical properties of magnesium alloys. In addition to traditional thermomechanical processing, this work includes the development of new severe plastic deformation techniques for the production of fine grain magnesium plate and pipe and develops a procedure by which the thermal microstructural stability of severely plastically deformed microstructures can be assessed.

  11. Metabolic Profiling of Geobacter sulfurreducens during Industrial Bioprocess Scale-Up.

    PubMed

    Muhamadali, Howbeer; Xu, Yun; Ellis, David I; Allwood, J William; Rattray, Nicholas J W; Correa, Elon; Alrabiah, Haitham; Lloyd, Jonathan R; Goodacre, Royston

    2015-05-15

    During the industrial scale-up of bioprocesses it is important to establish that the biological system has not changed significantly when moving from small laboratory-scale shake flasks or culturing bottles to an industrially relevant production level. Therefore, during upscaling of biomass production for a range of metal transformations, including the production of biogenic magnetite nanoparticles by Geobacter sulfurreducens, from 100-ml bench-scale to 5-liter fermentors, we applied Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as a metabolic fingerprinting approach followed by the analysis of bacterial cell extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for metabolic profiling. FTIR results clearly differentiated between the phenotypic changes associated with different growth phases as well as the two culturing conditions. Furthermore, the clustering patterns displayed by multivariate analysis were in agreement with the turbidimetric measurements, which displayed an extended lag phase for cells grown in a 5-liter bioreactor (24 h) compared to those grown in 100-ml serum bottles (6 h). GC-MS analysis of the cell extracts demonstrated an overall accumulation of fumarate during the lag phase under both culturing conditions, coinciding with the detected concentrations of oxaloacetate, pyruvate, nicotinamide, and glycerol-3-phosphate being at their lowest levels compared to other growth phases. These metabolites were overlaid onto a metabolic network of G. sulfurreducens, and taking into account the levels of these metabolites throughout the fermentation process, the limited availability of oxaloacetate and nicotinamide would seem to be the main metabolic bottleneck resulting from this scale-up process. Additional metabolite-feeding experiments were carried out to validate the above hypothesis. Nicotinamide supplementation (1 mM) did not display any significant effects on the lag phase of G. sulfurreducens cells grown in the 100-ml serum bottles. However

  12. Extruder scale-up assessment in the process of extrusion-spheronization: comparison of radial and axial systems by a design of experiments approach.

    PubMed

    Désiré, Amélie; Paillard, Bruno; Bougaret, Joël; Baron, Michel; Couarraze, Guy

    2013-02-01

    Scaling-up the extrusion-spheronization process involves the separate scale-up of each of the five process steps: dry mixing, granulation, extrusion, spheronization, and drying. The aim of the study was to compare two screw extrusion systems regarding their suitability for scaling-up. Two drug substances of high- and low-solubility in water were retained at different concentrations as formulation variables. Different spheronization times were tested. The productivity of the process was followed up using the extrusion rate and yield. Pellets were characterized by their size and shape, and by their structural and mechanical properties. A response surface design of experiments was built to evaluate the influence of the different variables and their interactions on each response, and to select the type of extrusion which provides the best results in terms of product quality, the one which shows less influence on the product after scale-up ("scalability") and when the formula used changes ("robustness"), and the one which allows the possibility to adjust pellet properties with spheronization variables ("flexibility"). Axial system showed the best characteristics in terms of product quality at lab and industrial scales, the best robustness at industrial scale, and the best scalability, by comparison with radial system. Axial system thus appeared as the easiest scaled-up system. Compared to lab scale, the conclusions observed at industrial scale were the same in terms of product quality, but different for robustness and flexibility, which confirmed the importance to test the systems at industrial scale before acquiring the equipment.

  13. Understanding pathways for scaling up health services through the lens of complex adaptive systems.

    PubMed

    Paina, Ligia; Peters, David H

    2012-08-01

    Despite increased prominence and funding of global health initiatives, efforts to scale up health services in developing countries are falling short of the expectations of the Millennium Development Goals. Arguing that the dominant assumptions for scaling up are inadequate, we propose that interpreting change in health systems through the lens of complex adaptive systems (CAS) provides better models of pathways for scaling up. Based on an understanding of CAS behaviours, we describe how phenomena such as path dependence, feedback loops, scale-free networks, emergent behaviour and phase transitions can uncover relevant lessons for the design and implementation of health policy and programmes in the context of scaling up health services. The implications include paying more attention to local context, incentives and institutions, as well as anticipating certain types of unintended consequences that can undermine scaling up efforts, and developing and implementing programmes that engage key actors through transparent use of data for ongoing problem-solving and adaptation. We propose that future efforts to scale up should adapt and apply the models and methodologies which have been used in other fields that study CAS, yet are underused in public health. This can help policy makers, planners, implementers and researchers to explore different and innovative approaches for reaching populations in need with effective, equitable and efficient health services. The old assumptions have led to disappointed expectations about how to scale up health services, and offer little insight on how to scale up effective interventions in the future. The alternative perspectives offered by CAS may better reflect the complex and changing nature of health systems, and create new opportunities for understanding and scaling up health services.

  14. Scaling up high throughput field phenotyping of corn and soy research plots using ground rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peshlov, Boyan; Nakarmi, Akash; Baldwin, Steven; Essner, Scott; French, Jasenka

    2017-05-01

    Crop improvement programs require large and meticulous selection processes that effectively and accurately collect and analyze data to generate quality plant products as efficiently as possible, develop superior cropping and/or crop improvement methods. Typically, data collection for such testing is performed by field teams using hand-held instruments or manually-controlled devices. Although steps are taken to reduce error, the data collected in such manner can be unreliable due to human error and fatigue, which reduces the ability to make accurate selection decisions. Monsanto engineering teams have developed a high-clearance mobile platform (Rover) as a step towards high throughput and high accuracy phenotyping at an industrial scale. The rovers are equipped with GPS navigation, multiple cameras and sensors and on-board computers to acquire data and compute plant vigor metrics per plot. The supporting IT systems enable automatic path planning, plot identification, image and point cloud data QA/QC and near real-time analysis where results are streamed to enterprise databases for additional statistical analysis and product advancement decisions. Since the rover program was launched in North America in 2013, the number of research plots we can analyze in a growing season has expanded dramatically. This work describes some of the successes and challenges in scaling up of the rover platform for automated phenotyping to enable science at scale.

  15. Optimization and Scale-up of Inulin Extraction from Taraxacum kok-saghyz roots.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Thomas; Klemm, Andrea; Ziesse, Patrick; Harms, Karsten; Wach, Wolfgang; Rupp, Steffen; Hirth, Thomas; Zibek, Susanne

    2016-05-01

    The optimization and scale-up of inulin extraction from Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin was successfully performed. Evaluating solubility investigations, the extraction temperature was fixed at 85 degrees C. The inulin stability regarding degradation or hydrolysis could be confirmed by extraction in the presence of model inulin. Confirming stability at the given conditions the isolation procedure was transferred from a 1 L- to a 1 m3-reactor. The Reynolds number was selected as the relevant dimensionless number that has to remain constant in both scales. The stirrer speed in the large scale was adjusted to 3.25 rpm regarding a 300 rpm stirrer speed in the 1 L-scale and relevant physical and process engineering parameters. Assumptions were confirmed by approximately homologous extraction kinetics in both scales. Since T. kok-saghyz is in the focus of research due to its rubber content side-product isolation from residual biomass it is of great economic interest. Inulin is one of these additional side-products that can be isolated in high quantity (- 35% of dry mass) and with a high average degree of polymerization (15.5) in large scale with a purity of 77%.

  16. Considerations for reducing food system energy demand while scaling up urban agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohareb, Eugene; Heller, Martin; Novak, Paige; Goldstein, Benjamin; Fonoll, Xavier; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2017-12-01

    There is an increasing global interest in scaling up urban agriculture (UA) in its various forms, from private gardens to sophisticated commercial operations. Much of this interest is in the spirit of environmental protection, with reduced waste and transportation energy highlighted as some of the proposed benefits of UA; however, explicit consideration of energy and resource requirements needs to be made in order to realize these anticipated environmental benefits. A literature review is undertaken here to provide new insight into the energy implications of scaling up UA in cities in high-income countries, considering UA classification, direct/indirect energy pressures, and interactions with other components of the food-energy-water nexus. This is followed by an exploration of ways in which these cities can plan for the exploitation of waste flows for resource-efficient UA. Given that it is estimated that the food system contributes nearly 15% of total US energy demand, optimization of resource use in food production, distribution, consumption, and waste systems may have a significant energy impact. There are limited data available that quantify resource demand implications directly associated with UA systems, highlighting that the literature is not yet sufficiently robust to make universal claims on benefits. This letter explores energy demand from conventional resource inputs, various production systems, water/energy trade-offs, alternative irrigation, packaging materials, and transportation/supply chains to shed light on UA-focused research needs. By analyzing data and cases from the existing literature, we propose that gains in energy efficiency could be realized through the co-location of UA operations with waste streams (e.g. heat, CO2, greywater, wastewater, compost), potentially increasing yields and offsetting life cycle energy demands relative to conventional approaches. This begs a number of energy-focused UA research questions that explore the

  17. Feasibility study of the production of biomedical Ti-6Al-4V alloy by powder metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Bolzoni, L; Ruiz-Navas, E M; Gordo, E

    2015-04-01

    Titanium and its alloys are characterized by an exceptional combination of properties like high strength, good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility which makes them suitable materials for biomedical prosthesis and devices. The wrought Ti-6Al-4V alloy is generally favored in comparison to other metallic biomaterials due to its relatively low elastic modulus and it has been long used to obtain products for biomedical applications. In this work an alternative route to fabricate biomedical implants made out of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy is investigated. Specifically, the feasibility of the conventional powder metallurgy route of cold uniaxial pressing and sintering is addressed by considering two types of powders (i.e. blended elemental and prealloyed). The characterization of physical properties, chemical analysis, mechanical behavior and microstructural analysis is carried out in-depth and the properties are correlated among them. On the base of the results found, the produced alloys are promising materials for biomedical applications as well as cheaper surgical devices and tools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental Study on Scale-Up of Solid-Liquid Stirred Tank with an Intermig Impeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongliang; Zhao, Xing; Zhang, Lifeng; Yin, Pan

    2017-02-01

    The scale-up of a solid-liquid stirred tank with an Intermig impeller was characterized via experiments. Solid concentration, impeller just-off-bottom speed and power consumption were measured in stirred tanks of different scales. The scale-up criteria for achieving the same effect of solid suspension in small-scale and large-scale vessels were evaluated. The solids distribution improves if the operating conditions are held constant as the tank is scaled-up. The results of impeller just-off-bottom speed gave X = 0.868 in the scale-up relationship ND X = constant. Based on this criterion, the stirring power per unit volume obviously decreased at N = N js, and the power number ( N P) was approximately equal to 0.3 when the solids are uniformly distributed in the vessels.

  19. Effective strategies for scaling up evidence-based practices in primary care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ben Charif, Ali; Zomahoun, Hervé Tchala Vignon; LeBlanc, Annie; Langlois, Léa; Wolfenden, Luke; Yoong, Sze Lin; Williams, Christopher M; Lépine, Roxanne; Légaré, France

    2017-11-22

    While an extensive array of existing evidence-based practices (EBPs) have the potential to improve patient outcomes, little is known about how to implement EBPs on a larger scale. Therefore, we sought to identify effective strategies for scaling up EBPs in primary care. We conducted a systematic review with the following inclusion criteria: (i) study design: randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, before-and-after (with/without control), and interrupted time series; (ii) participants: primary care-related units (e.g., clinical sites, patients); (iii) intervention: any strategy used to scale up an EBP; (iv) comparator: no restrictions; and (v) outcomes: no restrictions. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from database inception to August 2016 and consulted clinical trial registries and gray literature. Two reviewers independently selected eligible studies, then extracted and analyzed data following the Cochrane methodology. We extracted components of scaling-up strategies and classified them into five categories: infrastructure, policy/regulation, financial, human resources-related, and patient involvement. We extracted scaling-up process outcomes, such as coverage, and provider/patient outcomes. We validated data extraction with study authors. We included 14 studies. They were published since 2003 and primarily conducted in low-/middle-income countries (n = 11). Most were funded by governmental organizations (n = 8). The clinical area most represented was infectious diseases (HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria, n = 8), followed by newborn/child care (n = 4), depression (n = 1), and preventing seniors' falls (n = 1). Study designs were mostly before-and-after (without control, n = 8). The most frequently targeted unit of scaling up was the clinical site (n = 11). The component of a scaling-up strategy most frequently mentioned was human resource-related (n = 12). All

  20. Production Process of Biocompatible Magnesium Alloy Tubes Using Extrusion and Dieless Drawing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustra, Piotr; Milenin, Andrij; Płonka, Bartłomiej; Furushima, Tsuyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Development of technological production process of biocompatible magnesium tubes for medical applications is the subject of the present paper. The technology consists of two stages—extrusion and dieless drawing process, respectively. Mg alloys for medical applications such as MgCa0.8 are characterized by low technological plasticity during deformation that is why optimization of production parameters is necessary to obtain good quality product. Thus, authors developed yield stress and ductility model for the investigated Mg alloy and then used the numerical simulations to evaluate proper manufacturing conditions. Grid Extrusion3d software developed by authors was used to determine optimum process parameters for extrusion—billet temperature 400 °C and extrusion velocity 1 mm/s. Based on those parameters the tube with external diameter 5 mm without defects was manufactured. Then, commercial Abaqus software was used for modeling dieless drawing. It was shown that the reduction in the area of 60% can be realized for MgCa0.8 magnesium alloy. Tubes with the final diameter of 3 mm were selected as a case study, to present capabilities of proposed processes.

  1. SCALE UP OF CERAMIC WASTE FORMS FOR THE EBR-II SPENT FUEL TREATMENT PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew C. Morrison; Kenneth J. Bateman; Michael F. Simpson

    2010-11-01

    ABSTRACT SCALE UP OF CERAMIC WASTE FORMS FOR THE EBR-II SPENT FUEL TREATMENT PROCESS Matthew C. Morrison, Kenneth J. Bateman, Michael F. Simpson Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 The ceramic waste process is the intended method for disposing of waste salt electrolyte, which contains fission products from the fuel-processing electrorefiners (ER) at the INL. When mixed and processed with other materials, the waste salt can be stored in a durable ceramic waste form (CWF). The development of the CWF has recently progressed from small-scale testing and characterization to full-scale implementation and experimentation using surrogate materialsmore » in lieu of the ER electrolyte. Two full-scale (378 kg and 383 kg) CWF test runs have been successfully completed with final densities of 2.2 g/cm3 and 2.1 g/cm3, respectively. The purpose of the first CWF was to establish material preparation parameters. The emphasis of the second pre-qualification test run was to evaluate a preliminary multi-section CWF container design. Other considerations were to finalize material preparation parameters, measure the material height as it consolidates in the furnace, and identify when cracking occurs during the CWF cooldown process.« less

  2. Isolation, Preliminary Characterization and Preliminary Assessment of Scale-Up Potential of Photosynthetic Microalgae for the Production of Both Biofuels and Bio-Active Molecules in the U.S. and Canada: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-372

    SciTech Connect

    Pienkos, P.

    2012-09-01

    Combustion flue gases are a major contributor to carbon dioxide emissions into the Earth's atmosphere, a factor that has been linked to the possible global climate change. It is, therefore, critical to begin thinking seriously about ways to reduce this influx into the atmosphere. Using carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion as a feedstock for the growth, photosynthetic microorganisms can provide a large sink for carbon assimilation as well as a feedstock for the production of significant levels of biofuels. Combining microalgal farming with fossil fuel energy production has great potential to diminish carbon dioxide releases into the atmosphere, asmore » well as contribute to the production of biofuels (e.g., biodiesel, renewable diesel and gasoline and jet fuel) as well as valuable co-products such as animal feeds and green chemicals. CO2 capture may be a regulatory requirement in future new coal or natural gas power plants and will almost certainly become an opportunity for commerce, the results of such studies may provide industries in the US and Canada with both regulatory relief and business opportunities as well as the ability to meet environmental and regulatory requirements, and to produce large volumes of fuels and co-products.« less

  3. Review of the Methods for Production of Spherical Ti and Ti Alloy Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Pei; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Zhang, Ying; Xia, Yang

    2017-10-01

    Spherical titanium alloy powder is an important raw material for near-net-shape fabrication via a powder metallurgy (PM) manufacturing route, as well as feedstock for powder injection molding, and additive manufacturing (AM). Nevertheless, the cost of Ti powder including spherical Ti alloy has been a major hurdle that prevented PM Ti from being adopted for a wide range of applications. Especially with the increasing importance of powder-bed based AM technologies, the demand for spherical Ti powder has brought renewed attention on properties and cost, as well as on powder-producing processes. The performance of Ti components manufactured from powder has a strong dependence on the quality of powder, and it is therefore crucial to understand the properties and production methods of powder. This article aims to provide a cursory review of the basic techniques of commercial and emerging methods for making spherical Ti powder. The advantages as well as limitations of different methods are discussed.

  4. Disk Alloy Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Tim; Gayda, John; Telesman, Jack

    2001-01-01

    The advanced powder metallurgy disk alloy ME3 was designed using statistical screening and optimization of composition and processing variables in the NASA HSR/EPM disk program to have extended durability at 1150 to 1250 "Fin large disks. Scaled-up disks of this alloy were produced at the conclusion of this program to demonstrate these properties in realistic disk shapes. The objective of the UEET disk program was to assess the mechanical properties of these ME3 disks as functions of temperature, in order to estimate the maximum temperature capabilities of this advanced alloy. Scaled-up disks processed in the HSR/EPM Compressor / Turbine Disk program were sectioned, machined into specimens, and tested in tensile, creep, fatigue, and fatigue crack growth tests by NASA Glenn Research Center, in cooperation with General Electric Engine Company and Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Engines. Additional sub-scale disks and blanks were processed and tested to explore the effects of several processing variations on mechanical properties. Scaled-up disks of an advanced regional disk alloy, Alloy 10, were used to evaluate dual microstructure heat treatments. This allowed demonstration of an improved balance of properties in disks with higher strength and fatigue resistance in the bores and higher creep and dwell fatigue crack growth resistance in the rims. Results indicate the baseline ME3 alloy and process has 1300 to 1350 O F temperature capabilities, dependent on detailed disk and engine design property requirements. Chemistry and process enhancements show promise for further increasing temperature capabilities.

  5. Mg-Ca Alloys Produced by Reduction of CaO: Understanding of ECO-Mg Alloy Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, In-Ho; Lee, Jin Kyu; Kim, Shae K.

    2017-04-01

    There have been long debates about the environment conscious (ECO) Mg technology which utilizes CaO to produce Ca-containing Mg alloys. Two key process technologies of the ECO-Mg process are the chemical reduction of CaO by liquid Mg and the maintenance of melt cleanliness during the alloying of Ca. Thermodynamic calculations using FactSage software were performed to explain these two key issues. In addition, an experimental study was performed to compare the melt cleanliness of the Ca-containing Mg alloys produced by the conventional route with metallic Ca and the ECO-Mg route with CaO.

  6. Degradation of bioabsorbable Mg-based alloys: Assessment of the effects of insoluble corrosion products and joint effects of alloying components on mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Grillo, Claudia A; Alvarez, Florencia; Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, Mónica A

    2016-01-01

    This work is focused on the processes occurring at the bioabsorbable metallic biomaterial/cell interfaces that may lead to toxicity. A critical analysis of the results obtained when degradable metal disks (pure Mg and rare earth-containing alloys (ZEK100 alloys)) are in direct contact with cell culture and those obtained with indirect methods such as the use of metal salts and extracts was made. Viability was assessed by Acridine Orange dye, neutral red and clonogenic assays. The effects of concentration of corrosion products and possible joint effects of the binary and ternary combinations of La, Zn and Mg ions, as constituents of ZEK alloys, were evaluated on a mammalian cell culture. In all cases more detrimental effects were found for pure Mg than for the alloys. Experiments with disks showed that gradual alterations in pH and in the amount of corrosion products were better tolerated by cells and resulted in higher viability than abrupt changes. In addition, viability was dependent on the distance from the source of ions. Experiments with extracts showed that the effect of insoluble degradation products was highly detrimental. Indirect tests with Zn ions revealed that harmful effects may be found at concentrations ≥ 150 μM and at ≥ 100 μM in mixtures with Mg. These mixtures lead to more deleterious effects than single ions. Results highlight the need to develop a battery of tests to evaluate the biocompatibility of bioabsorbable biomaterials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Macrosorb Kieselguhr-agarose composite adsorbents. New tools for downstream process design and scale up. Scientific note.

    PubMed

    Bite, M G; Berezenko, S; Reed, F J; Derry, L

    1988-08-01

    Incompressible Macrosorb composite adsorbents, while retaining all the desirable properties of traditional agarose-based hydrogel media, overcome the operational limitations imposed by the use of soft hydrogels: They permit useful application of fast flow rates without restrictions on bed depth and they can be used in fluidized bed mode. Considerations which are important when contemplating scaled-up processing are discussed. A comparative cost estimate for a production process for extracting albumin from bovine serum in column equipment illustrates the various advantages which may be exploited when using a composite adsorbent in place of a conventional soft gel equivalent.

  8. Improving laboratory efficiencies to scale-up HIV viral load testing.

    PubMed

    Alemnji, George; Onyebujoh, Philip; Nkengasong, John N

    2017-03-01

    Viral load measurement is a key indicator that determines patients' response to treatment and risk for disease progression. Efforts are ongoing in different countries to scale-up access to viral load testing to meet the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS target of achieving 90% viral suppression among HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. However, the impact of these initiatives may be challenged by increased inefficiencies along the viral load testing spectrum. This will translate to increased costs and ineffectiveness of scale-up approaches. This review describes different parameters that could be addressed across the viral load testing spectrum aimed at improving efficiencies and utilizing test results for patient management. Though progress is being made in some countries to scale-up viral load, many others still face numerous challenges that may affect scale-up efficiencies: weak demand creation, ineffective supply chain management systems; poor specimen referral systems; inadequate data and quality management systems; and weak laboratory-clinical interface leading to diminished uptake of test results. In scaling up access to viral load testing, there should be a renewed focus to address efficiencies across the entire spectrum, including factors related to access, uptake, and impact of test results.

  9. Generalizing the Network Scale-Up Method: A New Estimator for the Size of Hidden Populations*

    PubMed Central

    Feehan, Dennis M.; Salganik, Matthew J.

    2018-01-01

    The network scale-up method enables researchers to estimate the size of hidden populations, such as drug injectors and sex workers, using sampled social network data. The basic scale-up estimator offers advantages over other size estimation techniques, but it depends on problematic modeling assumptions. We propose a new generalized scale-up estimator that can be used in settings with non-random social mixing and imperfect awareness about membership in the hidden population. Further, the new estimator can be used when data are collected via complex sample designs and from incomplete sampling frames. However, the generalized scale-up estimator also requires data from two samples: one from the frame population and one from the hidden population. In some situations these data from the hidden population can be collected by adding a small number of questions to already planned studies. For other situations, we develop interpretable adjustment factors that can be applied to the basic scale-up estimator. We conclude with practical recommendations for the design and analysis of future studies. PMID:29375167

  10. Study of strength properties of semi-finished products from economically alloyed high-strength aluminium-scandium alloys for application in automobile transport and shipbuilding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Vladimir; Sidelnikov, Sergey; Zenkin, Evgeny; Frolov, Viktor; Voroshilov, Denis; Yakivyuk, Olga; Konstantinov, Igor; Sokolov, Ruslan; Belokonova, Irina

    2018-04-01

    The results of a study on the strength of rolled products from aluminium alloys doped with scandium under various processing conditions of hot and cold rolling are presented. The regularities of metal flow and the level of strength of deformed semi-finished products from aluminum-scandium alloys are established, depending on the total degree of deformation and the various modes of single reduction during rolling. It is shown that when using one heating of a cast billet to obtain high-quality semi-finished products, the temperature during the rolling process should not be lower than 350-370°, and the total degree of deformation does not exceed 50-60%. It was found that the semi-finished products from alloys with a content of scandium in the range 0.11-0.12% in the deformed state had elevated values of ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of the metal, which allows them to be recommended for industrial production of sheet metal products.

  11. Bioprocess integration for human mesenchymal stem cells: From up to downstream processing scale-up to cell proteome characterization.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Bárbara; Aguiar, Tiago; Carvalho, Sofia B; Silva, Marta M; Gomes, Ricardo A; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Gomes-Alves, Patrícia; Peixoto, Cristina; Serra, Margarida; Alves, Paula M

    2017-04-20

    To deliver the required cell numbers and doses to therapy, scaling-up production and purification processes (at least to the liter-scale) while maintaining cells' characteristics is compulsory. Therefore, the aim of this work was to prove scalability of an integrated streamlined bioprocess compatible with current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) comprised by cell expansion, harvesting and volume reduction unit operations using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) isolated from bone marrow (BM-MSC) and adipose tissue (AT-MSC). BM-MSC and AT-MSC expansion and harvesting steps were scaled-up from spinner flasks to 2L scale stirred tank single-use bioreactor using synthetic microcarriers and xeno-free medium, ensuring high cellular volumetric productivities (50×10 6 cellL -1 day -1 ), expansion factors (14-16 fold) and cell recovery yields (80%). For the concentration step, flat sheet cassettes (FSC) and hollow fiber cartridges (HF) were compared showing a fairly linear scale-up, with a need to slightly decrease the permeate flux (30-50 LMH, respectively) to maximize cell recovery yield. Nonetheless, FSC allowed to recover 18% more cells after a volume reduction factor of 50. Overall, at the end of the entire bioprocess more than 65% of viable (>95%) hMSC could be recovered without compromising cell's critical quality attributes (CQA) of viability, identity and differentiation potential. Alongside the standard quality assays, a proteomics workflow based on mass spectrometry tools was established to characterize the impact of processing on hMSC's CQA; These analytical tools constitute a powerful tool to be used in process design and development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Inquiring Minds Want to Know: Progress Report on SCALE-UP Physics at Penn State Erie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Jonathan

    2008-03-01

    SCALE-UP (Student Centered Activities for Large Enrollment University Programs) is a ``studio'' approach to learning developed by Bob Beichner at North Carolina State University. SCALE-UP was adapted for teaching and learning in the introductory calculus-based mechanics course at Penn State Erie, The Behrend College, starting in Spring 2007. We are presently doing quantitative and qualitative research on using inquiry-based learning with first year college students, in particular how it effects female students and students from groups that are traditionally under-represented in STEM fields. Using field notes of observations of the classes, focus groups, and the collection of quantitative data, the feedback generated by the research is also being used to improve the delivery of the course, and in the planning of adopting SCALE-UP to the second semester course on electromagnetism in the Fall 2008 semester.

  13. Emerging freeze-drying process development and scale-up issues.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sajal Manubhai; Pikal, Michael J

    2011-03-01

    Although several guidelines do exist for freeze-drying process development and scale-up, there are still a number of issues that require additional attention. The objective of this review article is to discuss some emerging process development and scale-up issue with emphasis on effect of load condition and freeze-drying in novel container systems such as syringes, Lyoguard trays, ampoules, and 96-well plates. Understanding the heat and mass transfer under different load conditions and for freeze-drying in these novel container systems will help in developing a robust freeze-drying process which is also easier to scale-up. Further research and development needs in these emerging areas have also been addressed. © 2011 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists

  14. Optimization of color and antioxidant activity of peach and nectarine puree: scale-up study from pilot to industrial plant.

    PubMed

    Lavelli, Vera; Pompei, Carlo; Casadei, Maria Aurelia

    2008-08-27

    The effects of an innovative process for the manufacture of peach and nectarine purees on the main quality indices, namely, color, consistency, carotenoid and phenolic content, and antioxidant activity, were studied using a peach cultivar that is optimal for nectar processing (cv. Redhaven) and peach and nectarine varieties that undergo a faster browning degradation. The innovative process, operating the pulping/finishing step at room temperature, was compared to the traditional process of hot pulping/finishing. The study comprised initial trials on a pilot plant scale and scaling up to industrial production of the puree and nectar. The quality of products was analyzed at the time of production and as a function of storage of both the puree and the nectar. With respect to the traditional process, the new process, scaled up to industrial levels, improved the color of peach and nectarine products (by increasing the L* value and decreasing the a* value), whatever the variety studied; maintained almost the same levels of carotenoids, hydroxycinnamates, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols; and reduced the level of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside. The presence of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was correlated to an unstable and undesirable red hue of the products (even if its concentration was very low in all products), and the decreased level obtained by the innovative process was considered to be positive. On the basis of these results, new technology can be proposed for the processing of fruit varieties that are not suitable for puree production using traditional technology. This opens up two possibilities: (a) utilization of fresh market fruit surplus and (b) processing of selected fruit varieties that are rich in antioxidants but have a high browning potential, such as the Stark Red Gold nectarine. Furthermore, as the positive impact of the new technology is optimal at the beginning of storage, it is particularly suitable for fruit-based products with a short shelf life.

  15. Costs and Impacts of Scaling up Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Veena; Gold, Elizabeth; Godbole, Ramona; Castor, Delivette; Mahler, Hally; Forsythe, Steven; Ally, Mariam; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the proven effectiveness of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in preventing the spread of HIV, Tanzania is scaling up VMMC as an HIV prevention strategy. This study will inform policymakers about the potential costs and benefits of scaling up VMMC services in Tanzania. Methodology The analysis first assessed the unit costs of delivering VMMC at the facility level in three regions—Iringa, Kagera, and Mbeya—via three currently used VMMC service delivery models (routine, campaign, and mobile/island outreach). Subsequently, using these unit cost data estimates, the study used the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool (DMPPT) to estimate the costs and impact of a scaled-up VMMC program. Results Increasing VMMC could substantially reduce HIV infection. Scaling up adult VMMC to reach 87.9% coverage by 2015 would avert nearly 23,000 new adult HIV infections through 2015 and an additional 167,500 from 2016 through 2025—at an additional cost of US$253.7 million through 2015 and US$302.3 million from 2016 through 2025. Average cost per HIV infection averted would be US$11,300 during 2010–2015 and US$3,200 during 2010–2025. Scaling up VMMC in Tanzania will yield significant net benefits (benefits of treatment costs averted minus the cost of performing circumcisions) in the long run—around US$4,200 in net benefits for each infection averted. Conclusion VMMC could have an immediate impact on HIV transmission, but the full impact on prevalence and deaths will only be apparent in the longer term because VMMC averts infections some years into the future among people who have been circumcised. Given the health and economic benefits of investing in VMMC, the scale-up of services should continue to be a central component of the national HIV prevention strategy in Tanzania. PMID:24802022

  16. Enabling and challenging factors in institutional reform: The case of SCALE-UP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, Kathleen; Knaub, Alexis; Henderson, Charles; Dancy, Melissa; Beichner, Robert J.

    2016-06-01

    While many innovative teaching strategies exist, integration into undergraduate science teaching has been frustratingly slow. This study aims to understand the low uptake of research-based instructional innovations by studying 21 successful implementations of the Student Centered Active Learning with Upside-down Pedagogies (SCALE-UP) instructional reform. SCALE-UP significantly restructures the classroom environment and pedagogy to promote highly active and interactive instruction. Although originally designed for university introductory physics courses, SCALE-UP has spread to many other disciplines at hundreds of departments around the world. This study reports findings from in-depth, open-ended interviews with 21 key contact people involved with successful secondary implementations of SCALE-UP throughout the United States. We defined successful implementations as those who restructured their pedagogy and classroom and sustained and/or spread the change. Interviews were coded to identify the most common enabling and challenging factors during reform implementation and compared to the theoretical framework of Kotter's 8-step Change Model. The most common enabling influences that emerged are documenting and leveraging evidence of local success, administrative support, interaction with outside SCALE-UP user(s), and funding. Many challenges are linked to the lack of these enabling factors including difficulty finding funding, space, and administrative and/or faculty support for reform. Our focus on successful secondary implementations meant that most interviewees were able to overcome challenges. Presentation of results is illuminated with case studies, quotes, and examples that can help secondary implementers with SCALE-UP reform efforts specifically. We also discuss the implications for policy makers, researchers, and the higher education community concerned with initiating structural change.

  17. Gel compression considerations for chromatography scale-up for protein C purification.

    PubMed

    He, W; Bruley, D F; Drohan, W N

    1998-01-01

    This work is to establish theoretical and experimental relationships for the scale-up of Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography (IMAC) and Immuno Affinity Chromatography for the low cost production of large quantities of Protein C. The external customer requirements for this project have been established for Protein C deficient people with the goal of providing prophylactic patient treatment. Deep vein thrombosis is the major symptom for protein C deficiency creating the potential problem of embolism transport to important organs, such as, lung and brain. Gel matrices for protein C separation are being analyzed to determine the relationship between the material properties of the gel and the column collapse characteristics. The fluid flow rate and pressure drop is being examined to see how they influence column stability. Gel packing analysis includes two considerations; one is bulk compression due to flow rate, and the second is gel particle deformation due to fluid flow and pressure drop. Based on the assumption of creeping flow, Darcy's law is being applied to characterize the flow through the gel particles. Biot's mathematical description of three-dimensional consolidation in porous media is being used to develop a set of system equations. Finite difference methods are being utilized to obtain the equation solutions. In addition, special programs such as finite element approaches, ABAQUS, will be studied to determine their application to this particular problem. Experimental studies are being performed to determine flow rate and pressure drop correlation for the chromatographic columns with appropriate gels. Void fraction is being measured using pulse testing to allow Reynolds number calculations. Experimental yield stress is being measured to compare with the theoretical calculations. Total Quality Management (TQM) tools have been utilized to optimize this work. For instance, the "Scatter Diagram" has been used to evaluate and select the appropriate gels and

  18. Scaling up HIV treatment and prevention through national responses and innovative leadership.

    PubMed

    Kanki, Phyllis; Kakkattil, Pradeep; Simao, Mariangela

    2012-08-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an unprecedented global response to the AIDS epidemic. This infusion of new funding has led to a rapid scale-up of HIV treatment and prevention and consequently has saved millions of lives and transformed communities around the world. However, as clearly demonstrated by a review of national responses, successes have been due in large part to strong and innovative leadership from governments, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations. Examples from Brazil, Botswana, Nigeria, Uganda, and India illustrate the vital role played by bold and collaborative leadership in the global and local scale-up of HIV prevention and treatment.

  19. Production of Dense Compact Billet From Ti-Alloy Powder Using Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-06

    dry lubricant 2 175 RT 95.3 dry lubricant 3 262 RT 95.6 dry lubricant 4 21 100 95.4 dry lubricant 5 43 100 96 dry lubricant 6 175 100 96.2 dry...175 98.1 371 3 262 98.2 426 4 350 98.3 412 ECAE compaction with Al tubes 5 350 97.4 415 6 393 97.8 419 7 436 97.6 438 8* 480 98.6 431 ECAE...PRODUCTION OF DENSE COMPACT BILLET FROM Ti-ALLOY POWDER USING EQUAL CHANNEL ANGULAR EXTRUSION Final Report 4 /06/2007

  20. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feliu, S.; Llorente, I.

    2015-08-01

    This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS.

  1. A model for scale up of family health innovations in low-income and middle-income settings: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Curry, Leslie A; Taylor, Lauren A; Pallas, Sarah Wood; Talbert-Slagle, Kristina; Yuan, Christina; Fox, Ashley; Minhas, Dilpreet; Ciccone, Dana Karen; Berg, David; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Many family health innovations that have been shown to be both efficacious and cost-effective fail to scale up for widespread use particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC). Although individual cases of successful scale-up, in which widespread take up occurs, have been described, we lack an integrated and practical model of scale-up that may be applicable to a wide range of public health innovations in LMIC. To develop an integrated and practical model of scale-up that synthesises experiences of family health programmes in LMICs. We conducted a mixed methods study that included in-depth interviews with 33 key informants and a systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature from 11 electronic databases and 20 global health agency web sites. We included key informants and studies that reported on the scale up of several family health innovations including Depo-Provera as an example of a product innovation, exclusive breastfeeding as an example of a health behaviour innovation, community health workers (CHWs) as an example of an organisational innovation and social marketing as an example of a business model innovation. Key informants were drawn from non-governmental, government and international organisations using snowball sampling. An article was excluded if the article: did not meet the study's definition of the innovation; did not address dissemination, diffusion, scale up or sustainability of the innovation; did not address low-income or middle-income countries; was superficial in its discussion and/or did not provide empirical evidence about scale-up of the innovation; was not available online in full text; or was not available in English, French, Spanish or Portuguese, resulting in a final sample of 41 peer-reviewed articles and 30 grey literature sources. We used the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis to extract recurrent themes from the interviews, and we integrated these themes with findings from the

  2. Early College for All: Efforts to Scale up Early Colleges in Multiple Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Given the positive impacts of the small, stand-alone early college model and the desire to provide those benefits to more students, organizations have begun efforts to scale up the early college model in a variety of settings. These efforts have been supported by the federal government, particularly by the Investing in Innovation (i3) program.…

  3. Scaling Up: From Web-Enhanced Courses to a Web-Enhanced Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    In the past decade, the most important technological innovation in higher education has been the enhancement of academic courses with Web-based information and tools. Given the success and popularity of numerous Web-based innovations, the author and two colleagues wondered whether the benefits of technology use could be scaled up from the course…

  4. "Scaling Up" Educational Change: Some Musings on Misrecognition and Doxic Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Educational policy-makers around the world are strongly committed to the notion of "scaling up". This can mean anything from encouraging more teachers to take up a pedagogical innovation, all the way through to system-wide efforts to implement "what works" across all schools. In this paper, I use Bourdieu's notions of…

  5. Enabling and Challenging Factors in Institutional Reform: The Case of SCALE-UP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Kathleen; Knaub, Alexis; Henderson, Charles; Dancy, Melissa; Beichner, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    While many innovative teaching strategies exist, integration into undergraduate science teaching has been frustratingly slow. This study aims to understand the low uptake of research-based instructional innovations by studying 21 successful implementations of the Student Centered Active Learning with Upside-down Pedagogies (SCALE-UP) instructional…

  6. Scaling-Up Aid to Education: Is Absorptive Capacity a Constraint?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Pauline

    2009-01-01

    "Absorptive capacity" is a frequently used term amongst development practitioners in education. It is adopted by some as a reason for caution over scaling up aid. Others are of the view that absorptive capacity is an excuse by some donors for not delivering on their Education for All financing commitments. Drawing on interviews with…

  7. 77 FR 25152 - Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Scale-Up Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Scale- Up Grants Correction In notice document 2012-7362 appearing on pages 18216-18229 in the issue of Tuesday, March 27, 2012 make the following corrections: 1. On page 18225, in the second column, in the second...

  8. Cost-effectiveness of scaling up voluntary counselling and testing in West-Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Tromp, Noor; Siregar, Adiatma; Leuwol, Barnabas; Komarudin, Dindin; van der Ven, Andre; van Crevel, Reinout; Baltussen, Rob

    2013-01-01

    to evaluate the costs-effectiveness of scaling up community-based VCT in West-Java. the Asian epidemic model (AEM) and resource needs model (RNM) were used to calculate incremental costs per HIV infection averted and per disability-adjusted life years saved (DALYs). Locally monitored demographic, epidemiological behavior and cost data were used as model input. scaling up community-based VCT in West-Java will reduce the overall population prevalence by 36% in 2030 and costs US$248 per HIV infection averted and US$9.17 per DALY saved. Cost-effectiveness estimation were most sensitive to the impact of VCT on condom use and to the population size of clients of female sex workers (FSWs), but were overall robust. The total costs for scaling up community-based VCT range between US$1.3 and 3.8 million per year and require the number of VCT integrated clinics at public community health centers to increase from 73 in 2010 to 594 in 2030. scaling up community-based VCT seems both an effective and cost-effective intervention. However, in order to prioritize VCT in HIV/AIDS control in West-Java, issues of budget availability and organizational capacity should be addressed.

  9. Scaling up STEM Academies Statewide: Implementation, Network Supports, and Early Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Viki; House, Ann; Sherer, David; Singleton, Corinne; Wang, Haiwen; Klopfenstein, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents a case study of scaling up the T-STEM initiative in Texas. Data come from the four-year longitudinal evaluation of the Texas High School Project (THSP). The evaluation studied the implementation and impact of T-STEM and the other THSP reforms using a mixed-methods design, including qualitative case studies; principal,…

  10. Integrated Graduate and Continuing Education in Protein Chromatography for Bioprocess Development and Scale-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carta, Jungbauer

    2011-01-01

    We describe an intensive course that integrates graduate and continuing education focused on the development and scale-up of chromatography processes used for the recovery and purification of proteins with special emphasis on biotherapeutics. The course includes lectures, laboratories, teamwork, and a design exercise and offers a complete view of…

  11. Scaling-up of CO2 fluxes to assess carbon sequestration in rangelands of Central Asia

    Treesearch

    Bruce K. Wylie; Tagir G. Gilmanov; Douglas A. Johnson; Nicanor Z. Saliendra; Larry L. Tieszen; Ruth Anne F. Doyle; Emilio A. Laca

    2006-01-01

    Flux towers provide temporal quantification of local carbon dynamics at specific sites. The number and distribution of flux towers, however, are generally inadequate to quantify carbon fluxes across a landscape or ecoregion. Thus, scaling up of flux tower measurements through use of algorithms developed from remote sensing and GIS data is needed for spatial...

  12. The Pennsylvania Positive Behavior Support Network: Describing Our Scale-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Timothy J.; Longwill, Douglas A.; Staszkiewicz, Mark J.; Palmiero, James; Lawson, Tina M.

    2016-01-01

    Pennsylvania began scaling up high-fidelity implementation of SchoolWide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) in 2006-2007 due to converging regulatory, legal, ethical, and practical influences. The Pennsylvania Community of Practice on School-Based Behavioral Health adopted Algozzine et al.'s (2010) blueprint to describe and…

  13. Lessons from scaling up a depression treatment program in primary care in Chile.

    PubMed

    Araya, Ricardo; Alvarado, Rubén; Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Rojas, Graciela

    2012-09-01

    In Chile, the National Depression Detection and Treatment Program (Programa Nacional de Diagnóstico y Tratamiento de la Depresión, PNDTD) in primary care is a rare example of an evidence-based mental health program that was scaled up to the national level in a low- or middle-income country. This retrospective qualitative study aimed to better understand how policymakers made the decision to scale up mental health services to the national level, and to explore the elements, contexts, and processes that facilitated the decision to implement and sustain PNDTD. In-depth semistructured interviews with six key informants selected through intentional sampling were conducted in August-December 2008. Interviewees were senior officers at the Ministry of Health who were directly involved in the decision to scale up the program. Results yielded four elements pivotal to the decisionmaking process: scientific evidence, teamwork and leadership, strategic alliances, and program institutionalization. Each element contributed to building consensus, securing funding, attracting resources, and gaining lasting support from policymakers. Additionally, a review of available documentation led the authors to consider sociopolitical context and use of the media to be important factors. While research evidence for the effectiveness of mental health services in the primary care setting continues to accumulate, low- and middle-income countries should get started on the lengthy process of scaling up by incorporating the elements that led to decisionmaking and implementation of the PNDTD in Chile.

  14. Evaluating scale-up rules of a high-shear wet granulation process.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jing; Pandey, Preetanshu; Bindra, Dilbir S; Gao, Julia Z; Narang, Ajit S

    2015-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the commonly used scale-up rules for high-shear wet granulation process using a microcrystalline cellulose-lactose-based low drug loading formulation. Granule properties such as particle size, porosity, flow, and tabletability, and tablet dissolution were compared across scales using scale-up rules based on different impeller speed calculations or extended wet massing time. Constant tip speed rule was observed to produce slightly less granulated material at the larger scales. Longer wet massing time can be used to compensate for the lower shear experienced by the granules at the larger scales. Constant Froude number and constant empirical stress rules yielded granules that were more comparable across different scales in terms of compaction performance and tablet dissolution. Granule porosity was shown to correlate well with blend tabletability and tablet dissolution, indicating the importance of monitoring granule densification (porosity) during scale-up. It was shown that different routes can be chosen during scale-up to achieve comparable granule growth and densification by altering one of the three parameters: water amount, impeller speed, and wet massing time. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  15. Scaling Up Success: Lessons Learned from Technology-Based Educational Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Chris, Ed.; Honan, James P., Ed.; Peters, Laurence C., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Drawing from the information presented at a conference sponsored by the Harvard Graduate School of Education and the Mid-Atlantic Regional Technology in Education Consortium, educators, researchers, and policymakers translate theory into practice to provide a hands-on resource that describes different models for scaling up success. This resource…

  16. Partnering for Improvement: Improvement Communities and Their Role in Scale Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannata, Marisa; Cohen-Vogel, Lora; Sorum, Michael

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing interest in researcher-practitioner partnerships, particularly those that take the form of a networked improvement community. In this paper, we describe the partnership between the National Center on Scaling Up Effective Schools and the Fort Worth Independent School District to build student ownership and responsibility. By…

  17. Scaling up Evidence-Based Practices: Strategies from Investing in Innovation (i3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWire, Tom; McKithen, Clarissa; Carey, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    What can the Investing in Innovation (i3) grantees tell us about scaling innovative educational practices? The newly released white paper "Scaling Up Evidence-Based Practices: Strategies from Investing in Innovation (i3)" captures the experiences of nine grantees whose projects collectively have reached over 1.2 million students across…

  18. Findings from a Multiyear Scale-Up Effectiveness Trial of Open Court Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaden-Kiernan, Michael; Borman, Geoffrey; Caverly, Sarah; Bell, Nance; Sullivan, Kate; Ruiz de Castilla, Veronica; Fleming, Grace; Rodriguez, Debra; Henry, Chad; Long, Tracy; Hughes Jones, Debra

    2018-01-01

    This multiyear scale-up effectiveness study of Open Court Reading (OCR) involved approximately 4,500 students and more than 1,000 teachers per year in Grades K-5 from 49 elementary schools in seven districts across the country. Using a school-level cluster randomized trial design, we assessed the implementation and effectiveness of Open Court…

  19. R&D issues in scale-up and manufacturing of amorphous silicon tandem modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arya, R. R.; Carlson, D. E.; Chen, L. F.; Ganguly, G.; He, M.; Lin, G.; Middya, R.; Wood, G.; Newton, J.; Bennett, M.; Jackson, F.; Willing, F.

    1999-03-01

    R & D on amorphous silicon based tandem junction devices has improved the throughtput, the material utilization, and the performance of devices on commercial tin oxide coated glass. The tandem junction technology has been scaled-up to produce 8.6 Ft2 monolithically integrated modules in manufacturing at the TF1 plant. Optimization of performance and stability of these modules is ongoing.

  20. An Experiment to Illustrate the Hazards of Exothermic Reaction Scale-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, William; Lei, Melinda; Kirichenko, Erika; Dickerson, Kellie; Prytko, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Exothermic reactions can present safety hazards and there is a recognized need for reaction safety education at the undergraduate level. We present an experiment that illustrates the pitfall of direct scale-up of an exothermic reaction that can lead to thermal runaway. The iodide-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide decomposition reaction yields…

  1. 77 FR 25469 - Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Scale-Up Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Scale- Up... Education published in the Federal Register (77 FR 18216) a notice inviting applications for new awards for... with disabilities can obtain this document and a copy of the application package in an accessible...

  2. Smallness, Autonomy, and Choice: Scaling Up. Statewide "Safe Places" for Distinctive Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    For those who would like to see Ron Wolk's vision of schools realized, the challenge of scaling up is the most daunting one faced. Skeptics like to say, "Oh well, that 'X' and 'Y' did something really special is irrelevant; they're exceptions." But the author's experience suggests that today's exceptions can become tomorrow's norms. If that is to…

  3. Scaling up Comprehensive Sexuality Education in Nigeria: From National Policy to Nationwide Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huaynoca, Silvia; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Yaqub, Nuhu, Jr.; Denno, Donna Marie

    2014-01-01

    Nigeria is one of few countries that reports having translated national policies on school-based comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) into near-nationwide implementation. We analysed data using the World Health Organization-ExpandNet framework, which provides a systematic structure for planning and managing the scaling up of health innovations.…

  4. Scaling Up Diarrhea Prevention and Treatment Interventions: A Lives Saved Tool Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Christa L. Fischer; Friberg, Ingrid K.; Binkin, Nancy; Young, Mark; Walker, Neff; Fontaine, Olivier; Weissman, Eva; Gupta, Akanksha; Black, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Diarrhea remains a leading cause of mortality among young children in low- and middle-income countries. Although the evidence for individual diarrhea prevention and treatment interventions is solid, the effect a comprehensive scale-up effort would have on diarrhea mortality has not been estimated. Methods and Findings We use the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate the potential lives saved if two scale-up scenarios for key diarrhea interventions (oral rehydration salts [ORS], zinc, antibiotics for dysentery, rotavirus vaccine, vitamin A supplementation, basic water, sanitation, hygiene, and breastfeeding) were implemented in the 68 high child mortality countries. We also conduct a simple costing exercise to estimate cost per capita and total costs for each scale-up scenario. Under the ambitious (feasible improvement in coverage of all interventions) and universal (assumes near 100% coverage of all interventions) scale-up scenarios, we demonstrate that diarrhea mortality can be reduced by 78% and 92%, respectively. With universal coverage nearly 5 million diarrheal deaths could be averted during the 5-year scale-up period for an additional cost of US$12.5 billion invested across 68 priority countries for individual-level prevention and treatment interventions, and an additional US$84.8 billion would be required for the addition of all water and sanitation interventions. Conclusion Using currently available interventions, we demonstrate that with improved coverage, diarrheal deaths can be drastically reduced. If delivery strategy bottlenecks can be overcome and the international community can collectively deliver on the key strategies outlined in these scenarios, we will be one step closer to achieving success for the United Nations' Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) by 2015. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21445330

  5. Public health nutrition capacity: assuring the quality of workforce preparation for scaling up nutrition programmes.

    PubMed

    Shrimpton, Roger; du Plessis, Lisanne M; Delisle, Hélène; Blaney, Sonia; Atwood, Stephen J; Sanders, David; Margetts, Barrie; Hughes, Roger

    2016-08-01

    To describe why and how capacity-building systems for scaling up nutrition programmes should be constructed in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Position paper with task force recommendations based on literature review and joint experience of global nutrition programmes, public health nutrition (PHN) workforce size, organization, and pre-service and in-service training. The review is global but the recommendations are made for LMIC scaling up multisectoral nutrition programmes. The multitude of PHN workers, be they in the health, agriculture, education, social welfare, or water and sanitation sector, as well as the community workers who ensure outreach and coverage of nutrition-specific and -sensitive interventions. Overnutrition and undernutrition problems affect at least half of the global population, especially those in LMIC. Programme guidance exists for undernutrition and overnutrition, and priority for scaling up multisectoral programmes for tackling undernutrition in LMIC is growing. Guidance on how to organize and scale up such programmes is scarce however, and estimates of existing PHN workforce numbers - although poor - suggest they are also inadequate. Pre-service nutrition training for a PHN workforce is mostly clinical and/or food science oriented and in-service nutrition training is largely restricted to infant and young child nutrition. Unless increased priority and funding is given to building capacity for scaling up nutrition programmes in LMIC, maternal and child undernutrition rates are likely to remain high and nutrition-related non-communicable diseases to escalate. A hybrid distance learning model for PHN workforce managers' in-service training is urgently needed in LMIC.

  6. Scaling-up NLP Pipelines to Process Large Corpora of Clinical Notes.

    PubMed

    Divita, G; Carter, M; Redd, A; Zeng, Q; Gupta, K; Trautner, B; Samore, M; Gundlapalli, A

    2015-01-01

    This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Big Data and Analytics in Healthcare". This paper describes the scale-up efforts at the VA Salt Lake City Health Care System to address processing large corpora of clinical notes through a natural language processing (NLP) pipeline. The use case described is a current project focused on detecting the presence of an indwelling urinary catheter in hospitalized patients and subsequent catheter-associated urinary tract infections. An NLP algorithm using v3NLP was developed to detect the presence of an indwelling urinary catheter in hospitalized patients. The algorithm was tested on a small corpus of notes on patients for whom the presence or absence of a catheter was already known (reference standard). In planning for a scale-up, we estimated that the original algorithm would have taken 2.4 days to run on a larger corpus of notes for this project (550,000 notes), and 27 days for a corpus of 6 million records representative of a national sample of notes. We approached scaling-up NLP pipelines through three techniques: pipeline replication via multi-threading, intra-annotator threading for tasks that can be further decomposed, and remote annotator services which enable annotator scale-out. The scale-up resulted in reducing the average time to process a record from 206 milliseconds to 17 milliseconds or a 12- fold increase in performance when applied to a corpus of 550,000 notes. Purposely simplistic in nature, these scale-up efforts are the straight forward evolution from small scale NLP processing to larger scale extraction without incurring associated complexities that are inherited by the use of the underlying UIMA framework. These efforts represent generalizable and widely applicable techniques that will aid other computationally complex NLP pipelines that are of need to be scaled out for processing and analyzing big data.

  7. Molecular dynamics simulations of high energy cascade in ordered alloys: Defect production and subcascade division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocombette, Jean-Paul; Van Brutzel, Laurent; Simeone, David; Luneville, Laurence

    2016-06-01

    Displacement cascades have been calculated in two ordered alloys (Ni3Al and UO2) in the molecular dynamics framework using the CMDC (Cell Molecular Dynamics for Cascade) code (J.-P. Crocombette and T. Jourdan, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 352, 9 (2015)) for energies ranking between 0.1 and 580 keV. The defect production has been compared to the prediction of the NRT (Norgett, Robinson and Torrens) standard. One observes a decrease with energy of the number of defects compared to the NRT prediction at intermediate energies but, unlike what is commonly observed in elemental solids, the number of produced defects does not always turn to a linear variation with ballistic energy at high energies. The fragmentation of the cascade into subcascades has been studied through the analysis of surviving defect pockets. It appears that the common knowledge equivalence of linearity of defect production and subcascades division does not hold in general for alloys. We calculate the average number of subcascades and average number of defects per subcascades as a function of ballistic energy. We find an unexpected variety of behaviors for these two average quantities above the threshold for subcascade formation.

  8. Trickle-bed root culture bioreactor design and scale-up: growth, fluid-dynamics, and oxygen mass transfer.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Divakar; Curtis, Wayne R

    2004-10-20

    Trickle-bed root culture reactors are shown to achieve tissue concentrations as high as 36 g DW/L (752 g FW/L) at a scale of 14 L. Root growth rate in a 1.6-L reactor configuration with improved operational conditions is shown to be indistinguishable from the laboratory-scale benchmark, the shaker flask (mu=0.33 day(-1)). These results demonstrate that trickle-bed reactor systems can sustain tissue concentrations, growth rates and volumetric biomass productivities substantially higher than other reported bioreactor configurations. Mass transfer and fluid dynamics are characterized in trickle-bed root reactors to identify appropriate operating conditions and scale-up criteria. Root tissue respiration goes through a minimum with increasing liquid flow, which is qualitatively consistent with traditional trickle-bed performance. However, liquid hold-up is much higher than traditional trickle-beds and alternative correlations based on liquid hold-up per unit tissue mass are required to account for large changes in biomass volume fraction. Bioreactor characterization is sufficient to carry out preliminary design calculations that indicate scale-up feasibility to at least 10,000 liters.

  9. Evidence-based adaptation and scale-up of a mobile phone health information service.

    PubMed

    L'Engle, Kelly; Plourde, Kate F; Zan, Trinity

    2017-01-01

    The research base recommending the use of mobile phone interventions for health improvement is growing at a rapid pace. The use of mobile phones to deliver health behavior change and maintenance interventions in particular is gaining a robust evidence base across geographies, populations, and health topics. However, research on best practices for successfully scaling mHealth interventions is not keeping pace, despite the availability of frameworks for adapting and scaling health programs. m4RH-Mobile for Reproductive Health-is an SMS, or text message-based, health information service that began in two countries and over a period of 7 years has been adapted and scaled to new population groups and new countries. Success can be attributed to following key principles for scaling up health programs, including continuous stakeholder engagement; ongoing monitoring, evaluation, and research including extensive content and usability testing with the target audience; strategic dissemination of results; and use of marketing and sustainability principles for social initiatives. This article investigates how these factors contributed to vertical, horizontal, and global scale-up of the m4RH program. Vertical scale of m4RH is demonstrated in Tanzania, where the early engagement of stakeholders including the Ministry of Health catalyzed expansion of m4RH content and national-level program reach. Ongoing data collection has provided real-time data for decision-making, information about the user base, and peer-reviewed publications, yielding government endorsement and partner hand-off for sustainability of the m4RH platform. Horizontal scale-up and adaptation of m4RH has occurred through expansion to new populations in Rwanda, Uganda, and Tanzania, where best practices for design and implementation of mHealth programs were followed to ensure the platform meets the needs of target populations. m4RH also has been modified and packaged for global scale-up through licensing and toolkit

  10. Scaling-up Fermentation of Pichia pastoris to demonstration-scale using new methanol-feeding strategy and increased air pressure instead of pure oxygen supplement

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wan-Cang; Gong, Ting; Wang, Qing-Hua; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Jing-Jing; Zhu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Scaling-up of high-cell-density fermentation (HCDF) of Pichia pastoris from the lab or pilot scale to the demonstration scale possesses great significance because the latter is the final technological hurdle in the decision to go commercial. However, related investigations have rarely been reported. In this paper, we study the scaling-up processes of a recombinant P. pastoris from the pilot (10 to 100-L) to the demonstration (1,000-L) scales, which can be used to convert 7-β-xylosyl-10-deacetyltaxol into 10-deacetyltaxol by the β-xylosidase for semi-synthesis of Taxol. We demonstrated that a pure oxygen supplement can be omitted from the HCDF if the super atmospheric pressure was increased from 0.05 to 0.10 ± 0.05 MPa, and we developed a new methanol feeding biomass-stat strategy (0.035 mL/g/h) with 1% dissolved oxygen and 100 g/L initial induction biomass (dry cell weight). The scaling-up was reproducible, and the best results were obtained from the 1,000-L scale, featuring a shorter induction time and the highest enzyme activities and productions, respectively. The specific growth and specific production rates were also determined. This study lays a solid foundation for the commercial preparation of 10-deacetyltaxol through the recombinant yeast. It also provides a successful paradigm for scaling-up HCDF of P. pastoris to the demonstration scale. PMID:26790977

  11. Production of High-Purity Anhydrous Nickel(II) Perrhenate for Tungsten-Based Sintered Heavy Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Leszczyńska-Sejda, Katarzyna; Benke, Grzegorz; Kopyto, Dorota; Majewski, Tomasz; Drzazga, Michał

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the production of high-purity anhydrous nickel(II) perrhenate. The method comprises sorption of nickel(II) ions from aqueous nickel(II) nitrate solutions, using strongly acidic C160 cation exchange resin, and subsequent elution of sorbed nickel(II) ions using concentrated perrhenic acid solutions. After the neutralization of the resulting rhenium-nickel solutions, hydrated nickel(II) perrhenate is then separated and then dried at 160 °C to obtain the anhydrous form. The resulting compound is reduced in an atmosphere of dissociated ammonia in order to produce a Re-Ni alloy powder. This study provides information on the selected properties of the resulting Re-Ni powder. This powder was used as a starting material for the production of 77W-20Re-3Ni heavy alloys. Microstructure examination results and selected properties of the produced sintered heavy alloys were compared to sintered alloys produced using elemental W, Re, and Ni powders. This study showed that the application of anhydrous nickel(II) perrhenate in the production of 77W-20Re-3Ni results in better properties of the sintered alloys compared to those made from elemental powders. PMID:28772808

  12. Allometric scaling of microbial fuel cells and stacks: The lifeform case for scale-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenman, John; Ieropoulos, Ioannis A.

    2017-07-01

    This case study reports for the first time on the comparison between allometric scaling of lifeforms and scale-up of microbial fuel cell entities; enlarging individual units in volume, footprint and electrode surface area but also multiplying a static size/footprint and electrode surface area to scale-up by stacking. A study published in 2010 by DeLong et al. showed for the first time that Kleiber's law does not apply uniformly to all lifeforms, and that in fact growth rate for prokaryotes is superlinear, for protists is linear and for metazoa is sublinear. The current study, which is utilising data from previous experiments, is showing for the first time that for individual MFC units, which are enlarged, growth rate/power is sublinear, whereas for stacks this is superlinear.

  13. From Project to Program: Tupange's Experience with Scaling Up Family Planning Interventions in Urban Kenya.

    PubMed

    Keyonzo, Nelson; Nyachae, Paul; Kagwe, Peter; Kilonzo, Margaret; Mumba, Feddis; Owino, Kenneth; Kichamu, George; Kigen, Bartilol; Fajans, Peter; Ghiron, Laura; Simmons, Ruth

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes how the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative in Kenya, the Tupange Project (2010-2015), successfully applied the ExpandNet approach to sustainably scale up family planning interventions, first in Machakos and Kakamega, and subsequently also in its three core cities, Nairobi, Kisumu and Mombasa. This new focus meant shifting from a "project" to a "program" approach, which required paying attention to government leadership and ownership, limiting external inputs, institutionalizing interventions in existing structures and emphasizing sustainability. The paper also highlights the project's efforts to prepare for the future scale up of Tupange's interventions in other counties to support continuing and improved access to family planning services in the new context of devolution (decentralization) in Kenya. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: the impact of speed on survival.

    PubMed

    Walensky, Rochelle P; Wood, Robin; Weinstein, Milton C; Martinson, Neil A; Losina, Elena; Fofana, Mariam O; Goldie, Sue J; Divi, Nomita; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Wang, Bingxia; Paltiel, A David; Freedberg, Kenneth A

    2008-05-01

    Only 33% of eligible human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in South Africa receive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We sought to estimate the impact of alternative ART scale-up scenarios on patient outcomes from 2007-2012. Using a simulation model of HIV infection with South African data, we projected HIV-associated mortality with and without effective ART for an adult cohort in need of therapy (2007) and for adults who became eligible for treatment (2008-2012). We compared 5 scale-up scenarios: (1) zero growth, with a total of 100,000 new treatment slots; (2) constant growth, with 600,000; (3) moderate growth, with 2.1 million; (4) rapid growth, with 2.4 million); and (5) full capacity, with 3.2 million. Our projections showed that by 2011, the rapid growth scenario fully met the South African need for ART; by 2012, the moderate scenario met 97% of the need, but the zero and constant growth scenarios met only 28% and 52% of the need, respectively. The latter scenarios resulted in 364,000 and 831,000 people alive and on ART in 2012. From 2007 to 2012, cumulative deaths in South Africa ranged from 2.5 million under the zero growth scenario to 1.2 million under the rapid growth scenario. Alternative ART scale-up scenarios in South Africa will lead to differences in the death rate that amount to more than 1.2 million deaths by 2012. More rapid scale-up remains critically important.

  15. Scale-up of national antiretroviral therapy programs: progress and challenges in the Asia Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Srikantiah, Padmini; Ghidinelli, Massimo; Bachani, Damodar; Chasombat, Sanchai; Daoni, Esorom; Mustikawati, Dyah E; Nhan, Do T; Pathak, Laxmi R; San, Khin O; Vun, Mean C; Zhang, Fujie; Lo, Ying-Ru; Narain, Jai P

    2010-09-01

    There has been tremendous scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) services in the Asia Pacific region, which is home to an estimated 4.7 million persons living with HIV/AIDS. We examined treatment scale-up, ART program practices, and clinical outcome data in the nine low-and-middle-income countries that share over 95% of the HIV burden in the region. Standardized indicators for ART scale-up and treatment outcomes were examined for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Thailand, and Vietnam using data submitted by each country to the WHO/The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)/UNICEF joint framework tool for monitoring the health sector response to HIV/AIDS. Data on ART program practices were abstracted from National HIV Treatment Guidelines for each country. At the end of 2009, over 700,000 HIV-infected persons were receiving ART in the nine focus countries. Treatment coverage varies widely in the region, ranging from 16 to 93%. All nine countries employ a public health approach to ART services and provide a standardized first-line nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen. Among patients initiated on first-line ART in these countries, 65-88% remain alive and on treatment 12 months later. Over 50% of mortality occurs in the first 6 months of therapy, and losses to follow-up range from 8 to 16% at 2 years. Impressive ART scale-up efforts in the region have resulted in significant improvements in survival among persons receiving therapy. Continued funding support and political commitment will be essential for further expansion of public sector ART services to those in need. To improve treatment outcomes, national programs should focus on earlier identification of persons requiring ART, decentralization of ART services, and the development of stronger healthcare systems to support the provision of a continuum of HIV care.

  16. Mainstreaming nutrition into maternal and child health programmes: scaling up of exclusive breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Nita; Kabir, A K M Iqbal; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2008-04-01

    Interventions to promote exclusive breastfeeding have been estimated to have the potential to prevent 13% of all under-5 deaths in developing countries and are the single most important preventive intervention against child mortality. According to World Health Organization and United Nations Children Funds (UNICEF), only 39% infants are exclusively breastfed for less than 4 months. This review examines programme efforts to scale up exclusive breastfeeding in different countries and draws lesson for successful scale-up. Opportunities and challenges in scaling up of exclusive breastfeeding into Maternal and Child Health programmes are identified. The key processes required for exclusive breastfeeding scale-up are: (1) an evidence-based policy and science-driven technical guidelines; and (2) an implementation strategy and plan for achieving high exclusive breastfeeding rates in all strata of society, on a sustainable basis. Factors related to success include political will, strong advocacy, enabling policies, well-defined short- and long-term programme strategy, sustained financial support, clear definition of roles of multiple stakeholders and emphasis on delivery at the community level. Effective use of antenatal, birth and post-natal contacts at homes and through community mobilization efforts is emphasized. Formative research to ensure appropriate intervention design and delivery is critical particularly in areas with high HIV prevalence. Strong communication strategy and support, quality trainers and training contributed significantly to programme success. Monitoring and evaluation with feedback systems that allow for periodic programme corrections and continued innovation are central to very high coverage. Legal framework must make it possible for mothers to exclusively breastfeed for at least 4 months. Sustained programme efforts are critical to achieve high coverage and this requires strong national- and state-level leadership.

  17. PSD-95 and PSD-93 Play Critical but Distinct Roles in Synaptic Scaling Up and Down

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qian; Turrigiano, Gina G.

    2011-01-01

    Synaptic scaling stabilizes neuronal firing through the homeostatic regulation of postsynaptic strength, but the mechanisms by which chronic changes in activity lead to bidirectional adjustments in synaptic AMPAR abundance are incompletely understood. Further, it remains unclear to what extent scaling up and scaling down utilize distinct molecular machinery. PSD-95 is a scaffold protein proposed to serve as a binding “slot” that determines synaptic AMPAR content, and synaptic PSD-95 abundance is regulated by activity, raising the possibility that activity-dependent changes in the synaptic abundance of PSD-95 or other MAGUKs drives the bidirectional changes in AMPAR accumulation during synaptic scaling. We found that synaptic PSD-95 and SAP102 (but not PSD-93) abundance were bidirectionally regulated by activity, but these changes were not sufficient to drive homeostatic changes in synaptic strength. Although not sufficient, the PSD-95-MAGUKs were necessary for synaptic scaling, but scaling up and down were differentially dependent on PSD-95 and PSD-93. Scaling down was completely blocked by reduced or enhanced PSD-95, through a mechanism that depended on the PDZ1/2 domains. In contrast scaling up could be supported by either PSD-95 or PSD-93 in a manner that depended on neuronal age, and was unaffected by a superabundance of PSD-95. Taken together, our data suggest that scaling up and down of quantal amplitude is not driven by changes in synaptic abundance of PSD-95-MAGUKs, but rather that the PSD-95 MAGUKs serve as critical synaptic organizers that utilize distinct protein-protein interactions to mediate homeostatic accumulation and loss of synaptic AMPAR. PMID:21543610

  18. Scaling up of HIV-TB collaborative activities: Achievements and challenges in India.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Rajesh; Shah, Amar; Sachdeva, K S; Sreenivas, A N; Gupta, R S; Khaparde, S D

    2016-01-01

    India has been implementing HIV/TB collaborative activities since 2001 with rapid scale-up of infrastructure across the country during past decade in National AIDS Control Programme and Revised National TB Control Programme. India has shown over 50% reduction in new infections and around 35% reduction in AIDS-related deaths, thereby being one of the success stories globally. Substantial progress in the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities has occurred in India and it is marching towards target set out in the Global Plan to Stop TB and endorsed by the UN General Assembly to halve HIV associated TB deaths by 2015. While the successful approaches have led to impressive gains in HIV/TB control in India, there are emerging challenges including newer pockets with rising HIV trends in North India, increasing drug resistance, high mortality among co-infected patients, low HIV testing rates among TB patients in northern and eastern states in India, treatment delays and drop-outs, stigma and discrimination, etc. In spite of these difficulties, established HIV/TB coordination mechanisms at different levels, rapid scale-up of facilities with decentralisation of treatment services, regular joint supervision and monitoring, newer initiatives like use of rapid diagnostics for early diagnosis of TB among people living with HIV, TB notification, etc. have led to success in combating the threat of HIV/TB in India. This article highlights the steps taken by India, one of the largest HIV/TB programmes in world, in scaling up of the joint HIV-TB collaborative activities, the achievements so far and discusses the emerging challenges which could provide important lessons for other countries in scaling up their programmes. Copyright © 2016 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Scaling up functional traits for ecosystem services with remote sensing: concepts and methods.

    PubMed

    Abelleira Martínez, Oscar J; Fremier, Alexander K; Günter, Sven; Ramos Bendaña, Zayra; Vierling, Lee; Galbraith, Sara M; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Ordoñez, Jenny C

    2016-07-01

    Ecosystem service-based management requires an accurate understanding of how human modification influences ecosystem processes and these relationships are most accurate when based on functional traits. Although trait variation is typically sampled at local scales, remote sensing methods can facilitate scaling up trait variation to regional scales needed for ecosystem service management. We review concepts and methods for scaling up plant and animal functional traits from local to regional spatial scales with the goal of assessing impacts of human modification on ecosystem processes and services. We focus our objectives on considerations and approaches for (1) conducting local plot-level sampling of trait variation and (2) scaling up trait variation to regional spatial scales using remotely sensed data. We show that sampling methods for scaling up traits need to account for the modification of trait variation due to land cover change and species introductions. Sampling intraspecific variation, stratification by land cover type or landscape context, or inference of traits from published sources may be necessary depending on the traits of interest. Passive and active remote sensing are useful for mapping plant phenological, chemical, and structural traits. Combining these methods can significantly improve their capacity for mapping plant trait variation. These methods can also be used to map landscape and vegetation structure in order to infer animal trait variation. Due to high context dependency, relationships between trait variation and remotely sensed data are not directly transferable across regions. We end our review with a brief synthesis of issues to consider and outlook for the development of these approaches. Research that relates typical functional trait metrics, such as the community-weighted mean, with remote sensing data and that relates variation in traits that cannot be remotely sensed to other proxies is needed. Our review narrows the gap between

  20. R&D issues in scale-up and manufacturing of amorphous silicon tandem modules

    SciTech Connect

    Arya, R.R.; Carlson, D.E.; Chen, L.F.

    1999-03-01

    R & D on amorphous silicon based tandem junction devices has improved the throughtput, the material utilization, and the performance of devices on commercial tin oxide coated glass. The tandem junction technology has been scaled-up to produce 8.6&hthinsp;Ft{sup 2} monolithically integrated modules in manufacturing at the TF1 plant. Optimization of performance and stability of these modules is ongoing. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Scaling up of High-Pressure Sliding (HPS) for Grain Refinement and Superplasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takizawa, Yoichi; Masuda, Takahiro; Fujimitsu, Kazushige; Kajita, Takahiro; Watanabe, Kyohei; Yumoto, Manabu; Otagiri, Yoshiharu; Horita, Zenji

    2016-09-01

    The process of high-pressure sliding (HPS) is a method of severe plastic deformation developed recently for grain refinement of metallic materials under high pressure. The sample for HPS is used with a form of sheet or rod. In this study, an HPS facility with capacities of 500 tonnes for vertical pressing and of 500 and 300 tonnes for horizontal forward and backward pressings, respectively, was newly built and applied for grain refinement of a Mg alloy as AZ61, Al alloys such as Al-Mg-Sc, A2024 and A7075 alloys, a Ti alloy as ASTM-F1295, and a Ni-based superalloy as Inconel 718. Sheet samples with dimensions of 10 to 30 mm width, 100 mm length, and 1 mm thickness were processed at room temperature and ultrafine grains with sizes of ~200 to 300 nm were successfully produced in the alloys. Tensile testing at elevated temperatures confirmed the advent of superplasticity with total elongations of more than 400 pct in all the alloys. It is demonstrated that the HPS can make all the alloys superplastic through processing at room temperature with a form of rectangular sheets.

  2. TANK 18-F AND 19-F TANK FILL GROUT SCALE UP TEST SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanko, D.; Langton, C.

    2012-01-03

    High-level waste (HLW) tanks 18-F and 19-F have been isolated from FTF facilities. To complete operational closure the tanks will be filled with grout for the purpose of: (1) physically stabilizing the tanks, (2) limiting/eliminating vertical pathways to residual waste, (3) entombing waste removal equipment, (4) discouraging future intrusion, and (5) providing an alkaline, chemical reducing environment within the closure boundary to control speciation and solubility of select radionuclides. This report documents the results of a four cubic yard bulk fill scale up test on the grout formulation recommended for filling Tanks 18-F and 19-F. Details of the scale upmore » test are provided in a Test Plan. The work was authorized under a Technical Task Request (TTR), HLE-TTR-2011-008, and was performed according to Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), SRNL-RP-2011-00587. The bulk fill scale up test described in this report was intended to demonstrate proportioning, mixing, and transportation, of material produced in a full scale ready mix concrete batch plant. In addition, the material produced for the scale up test was characterized with respect to fresh properties, thermal properties, and compressive strength as a function of curing time.« less

  3. Differences in antiretroviral scale up in three South African provinces: the role of implementation management

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background South Africa’s antiretroviral programme is governed by defined national plans, establishing treatment targets and providing funding through ring-fenced conditional grants. However, in terms of the country’s quasi-federal constitution, provincial governments bear the main responsibility for provision of health care, and have a certain amount of autonomy and therefore choice in the way their HIV/AIDS programmes are implemented. Methods The paper is a comparative case study of the early management of ART scale up in three South African provincial governments – Western Cape, Gauteng and Free State – focusing on both operational and strategic dimensions. Drawing on surveys of models of ART care and analyses of the policy process conducted in the three provinces between 2005 and 2007, as well as a considerable body of grey and indexed literature on ART scale up in South Africa, it draws links between implementation processes and variations in provincial ART coverage (low, medium and high) achieved in the three provinces. Results While they adopted similar chronic disease care approaches, the provinces differed with respect to political and managerial leadership of the programme, programme design, the balance between central standardisation and local flexibility, the effectiveness of monitoring and evaluation systems, and the nature and extent of external support and programme partnerships. Conclusions This case study points to the importance of sub-national programme processes and the influence of factors other than financing or human resource capacity, in understanding intervention scale up. PMID:20594370

  4. Housing and Child Welfare: Emerging Evidence and Implications for Scaling up Services

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Anne F.; Marcal, Katherine E.; Chung, Saras; Hovmand, Peter S.

    2018-01-01

    Inadequate housing threatens family stability in communities across the United States. This study reviews emerging evidence on housing interventions in the context of scale-up for the child welfare system. In child welfare, scale-up refers to the extent to which fully implemented interventions sustainably alleviate family separations associated with housing instability. It incorporates multiple aspects beyond traditional measures of effectiveness including costs, potential reach, local capacities for implementation, and fit within broader social services. The framework further encompasses everyday circumstances faced by service providers, program administrators, and policymakers who allocate resources under conditions of scarcity and uncertainty. The review of current housing interventions reveals a number of systemic constraints for scale-up in child welfare. Reliance on rental assistance programs limits capacity to address demand, while current practices that target the most vulnerable families may inadvertently diminish effectiveness of the intervention and increase overall demand. Alternative approaches that focus on homelessness prevention and early intervention must be tested in conjunction with community initiatives to increase accessibility of affordable housing. By examining system performance over time, the scalability framework provides an opportunity for more efficient coordination of housing services within and outside of the child welfare system. PMID:28815623

  5. Moving from a project to programmatic response: scaling up harm reduction in Asia.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Anindya; Sharma, Mukta

    2010-03-01

    The response to the HIV epidemics among people who inject drugs in Asia began to emerge in the early to mid 1990s, with the rather hesitant implementation of small-scale needle syringe programmes and community care initiatives aiming to support those who were already living with the virus. Since then Asia has seen a significant scaling up of harm reduction, despite very limited resources and difficult policy and legislative environments. One of the major reasons this has happened, is the utilisation of programme based approaches and the firm entrenchment of harm reduction thinking within national HIV/AIDS programmes and strategic plans--in most cases aided by multilateral and bilateral donors. Several models of scale up have been noted in Asia. The transition away from project based approaches, while on the whole positive, can also have a negative impact if the involvement of civil society and a client focussed approach is not protected. Also there are implications for which models of capacity building can be systematised for ongoing scale up. Most crucially, the tensions between drug policy, human rights and public health policies need to be resolved if harm reduction services are to be made available to the millions in Asia who are still unable to access these services. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Scale-up of nature's tissue weaving algorithms to engineer advanced functional materials.

    PubMed

    Ng, Joanna L; Knothe, Lillian E; Whan, Renee M; Knothe, Ulf; Tate, Melissa L Knothe

    2017-01-11

    We are literally the stuff from which our tissue fabrics and their fibers are woven and spun. The arrangement of collagen, elastin and other structural proteins in space and time embodies our tissues and organs with amazing resilience and multifunctional smart properties. For example, the periosteum, a soft tissue sleeve that envelops all nonarticular bony surfaces of the body, comprises an inherently "smart" material that gives hard bones added strength under high impact loads. Yet a paucity of scalable bottom-up approaches stymies the harnessing of smart tissues' biological, mechanical and organizational detail to create advanced functional materials. Here, a novel approach is established to scale up the multidimensional fiber patterns of natural soft tissue weaves for rapid prototyping of advanced functional materials. First second harmonic generation and two-photon excitation microscopy is used to map the microscopic three-dimensional (3D) alignment, composition and distribution of the collagen and elastin fibers of periosteum, the soft tissue sheath bounding all nonarticular bone surfaces in our bodies. Then, using engineering rendering software to scale up this natural tissue fabric, as well as multidimensional weaving algorithms, macroscopic tissue prototypes are created using a computer-controlled jacquard loom. The capacity to prototype scaled up architectures of natural fabrics provides a new avenue to create advanced functional materials.

  7. Scale-up of nature’s tissue weaving algorithms to engineer advanced functional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Joanna L.; Knothe, Lillian E.; Whan, Renee M.; Knothe, Ulf; Tate, Melissa L. Knothe

    2017-01-01

    We are literally the stuff from which our tissue fabrics and their fibers are woven and spun. The arrangement of collagen, elastin and other structural proteins in space and time embodies our tissues and organs with amazing resilience and multifunctional smart properties. For example, the periosteum, a soft tissue sleeve that envelops all nonarticular bony surfaces of the body, comprises an inherently “smart” material that gives hard bones added strength under high impact loads. Yet a paucity of scalable bottom-up approaches stymies the harnessing of smart tissues’ biological, mechanical and organizational detail to create advanced functional materials. Here, a novel approach is established to scale up the multidimensional fiber patterns of natural soft tissue weaves for rapid prototyping of advanced functional materials. First second harmonic generation and two-photon excitation microscopy is used to map the microscopic three-dimensional (3D) alignment, composition and distribution of the collagen and elastin fibers of periosteum, the soft tissue sheath bounding all nonarticular bone surfaces in our bodies. Then, using engineering rendering software to scale up this natural tissue fabric, as well as multidimensional weaving algorithms, macroscopic tissue prototypes are created using a computer-controlled jacquard loom. The capacity to prototype scaled up architectures of natural fabrics provides a new avenue to create advanced functional materials.

  8. Nurse Family Partnership: Comparing Costs per Family in Randomized Trials Versus Scale-Up.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ted R; Hendrie, Delia

    2015-12-01

    The literature that addresses cost differences between randomized trials and full-scale replications is quite sparse. This paper examines how costs differed among three randomized trials and six statewide scale-ups of nurse family partnership (NFP) intensive home visitation to low income first-time mothers. A literature review provided data on pertinent trials. At our request, six well-established programs reported their total expenditures. We adjusted the costs to national prices based on mean hourly wages for registered nurses and then inflated them to 2010 dollars. A centralized data system provided utilization. Replications had fewer home visits per family than trials (25 vs. 31, p = .05), lower costs per client ($8860 vs. $12,398, p = .01), and lower costs per visit ($354 vs. $400, p = .30). Sample size limited the significance of these differences. In this type of labor intensive program, costs probably were lower in scale-up than in randomized trials. Key cost drivers were attrition and the stable caseload size possible in an ongoing program. Our estimates reveal a wide variation in cost per visit across six state programs, which suggests that those planning replications should not expect a simple rule to guide cost estimations for scale-ups. Nevertheless, NFP replications probably achieved some economies of scale.

  9. Experimental cocrystal screening and solution based scale-up cocrystallization methods.

    PubMed

    Malamatari, Maria; Ross, Steven A; Douroumis, Dennis; Velaga, Sitaram P

    2017-08-01

    Cocrystals are crystalline single phase materials composed of two or more different molecular and/or ionic compounds generally in a stoichiometric ratio which are neither solvates nor simple salts. If one of the components is an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), the term pharmaceutical cocrystal is often used. There is a growing interest among drug development scientists in exploring cocrystals, as means to address physicochemical, biopharmaceutical and mechanical properties and expand solid form diversity of the API. Conventionally, coformers are selected based on crystal engineering principles, and the equimolar mixtures of API and coformers are subjected to solution-based crystallization that are commonly employed in polymorph and salt screening. However, the availability of new knowledge on cocrystal phase behaviour in solid state and solutions has spurred the development and implementation of more rational experimental cocrystal screening as well as scale-up methods. This review aims to provide overview of commonly employed solid form screening techniques in drug development with an emphasis on cocrystal screening methodologies. The latest developments in understanding and the use of cocrystal phase diagrams in both screening and solution based scale-up methods are also presented. Final section is devoted to reviewing the state of the art research covering solution based scale-up cocrystallization process for different cocrystals besides more recent continuous crystallization methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Scale-up of electrolytic and photoelectrolytic processes for water reclaiming: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Martín de Vidales, María J; Cotillas, Salvador; Perez-Serrano, José F; Llanos, Javier; Sáez, Cristina; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A

    2016-10-01

    This work focuses on the scale-up of electrochemical and photoelectrochemical oxidation processes with diamond anodes for the removal of organic pollutants and disinfection of treated urban wastewater, two of the most important parameters for the reclaiming of wastewater. The removal of organics was studied with actual biologically treated urban wastewater intensified with 100 mg dm(-3) of caffeine, added as a trace organic pollutant. The disinfection was also studied with biologically treated urban wastewater, and Escherichia coli was used to monitor the efficiency of the process. Results obtained with a single DiaCell® 101 were compared with those obtained with a single-stack DiaCell® 1001 and with a pilot plant made up of five of these stacks. Results obtained demonstrate that scale-up is not a simple but a very complex process, in which not only the electrode and the irradiation dose are important but also mass transfer conditions. Enhanced mass transport conditions have a determining and very positive effect on the removal of organics and a negative effect on the disinfection. Likewise, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation affects in a different way in the different setups used, having a great influence on the removal of complex organics and on the speciation of oxidants produced during disinfection. This works helps to understand the key differences observed in the scale-up, and it is a first approach for future works focused on the real application of conductive diamond electrochemical oxidation.

  11. HIV testing as prevention among MSM in China: the business of scaling-up.

    PubMed

    Fan, Elsa L

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the emergence of goumai fuwu, or contracting with social organisations to provide social services, in the HIV/AIDS sector in China. In particular, I interrogate the outsourcing of HIV testing to community-based organisations (CBOs) serving men who have sex with men (MSM) as a means of scaling-up testing in this population, and how the commodification of testing enables new forms of surveillance and citizenship to emerge. In turn, I tie the scaling-up of testing and its commodification to the sustainability of CBOs as they struggle to survive. In recent years, the HIV/AIDS response in China has shifted to expanding testing among MSM in order to reduce new infections. This response has been catalysed by the transition to sexual contact as the primary transmission route for HIV and the rising rates of infection among MSM, leading government institutions and international donors to mobilise CBOs to expand testing. These efforts to scale-up are as much about testing as they are about making visible this hidden population. CBOs, in facilitating testing, come to rely on outsourcing as a long-term funding base and in doing so, unintentionally extend the reach of the state into the everyday lives of MSM.

  12. Evaluation of particulate matter emissions from manganese alloy production using life-cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Davourie, Julia; Westfall, Luke; Ali, Mohammed; McGough, Doreen

    2017-01-01

    Life-cycle assessments (LCAs) provide a wealth of industry data to assist in evaluating the environmental impacts of industrial processes and product supply chains. In this investigation, data from a recent LCA covering global manganese alloy production was used to evaluate sources of particulate matter (PM) emissions associated with the manganese alloy supply chain. The analysis is aimed at providing an empirical, industry-averaged breakdown of the contribution that processes and emissions controls have on total emissions, manganese releases and occupational exposure. The assessment shows that 66% of PM emissions associated with manganese production occur beyond manganese facilities. Direct or on-site emissions represent 34% of total PM and occur predominantly as disperse sources during mineral extraction and hauling, and as primary furnace emissions. The largest contribution of manganese-bearing PM at ground-level is associated with fugitive emissions from metal and slag tapping, casting, crushing and screening. The evaluation provides a high-level ranking of emissions by process area, to assist in identifying priority areas for industry-wide initiatives to reduce emissions and occupational exposure of manganese. The range of PM emission levels in industry indicate that further enhancements in PM emissions can be achieved by sharing of best practices in emissions controls, limiting furnace conditions which lead to by-passing of emissions controls and application of secondary emission controls to capture fugitive emissions during tapping and casting. The LCA approach to evaluating PM emissions underscores the important role that process optimization and resource efficiency have on reducing PM emissions throughout the manganese supply chain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Gas-solid fluidized bed reactors: Scale-up, flow regimes identification and hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaid, Faraj Muftah

    This research studied the scale-up, flow regimes identification and hydrodynamics of fluidized beds using 6-inch and 18- inch diameter columns and different particles. One of the objectives was to advance the scale-up of gas-solid fluidized bed reactors by developing a new mechanistic methodology for hydrodynamic similarity based on matching the radial or diameter profile of gas phase holdup, since gas dynamics dictate the hydrodynamics of these reactors. This has been successfully achieved. However, the literature reported scale-up methodology based on matching selected dimensionless groups was examined and it was found that it was not easy to match the dimensionless groups and hence, there was some deviation in the hydrodynamics of the studied two different fluidized beds. A new technique based on gamma ray densitometry (GRD) was successfully developed and utilized to on-line monitor the implementation of scale-up, to identify the flow regime, and to measure the radial or diameter profiles of gas and solids holdups. CFD has been demonstrated as a valuable tool to enable the implementation of the newly developed scale-up methodology based on finding the conditions that provide similar or closer radial profile or cross sectional distribution of the gas holdup. As gas velocity increases, solids holdup in the center region of the column decreases in the fully developed region of both 6 inch and 18 inch diameter columns. Solids holdup increased with the increase in the particles size and density. Upflowing particles velocity increased with the gas velocity and became steeper at high superficial gas velocity at all axial heights where the center line velocity became higher than that in the wall region. Smaller particles size and lower density gave larger upflowing particles velocity. Minimum fluidization velocity and transition velocity from bubbly to churn turbulent flow regimes were found to be lower in 18 inch diameter column compared to those obtained in 6 inch

  14. Scaling up family planning in Sierra Leone: A prospective cost-benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Keen, Sarah; Begum, Hashina; Friedman, Howard S; James, Chris D

    2017-12-01

    Family planning is commonly regarded as a highly cost-effective health intervention with wider social and economic benefits. Yet use of family planning services in Sierra Leone is currently low and 25.0% of married women have an unmet need for contraception. This study aims to estimate the costs and benefits of scaling up family planning in Sierra Leone. Using the OneHealth Tool, two scenarios of scaling up family planning coverage to currently married women in Sierra Leone over 2013-2035 were assessed and compared to a 'no-change' counterfactual. Our costing included direct costs of drugs, supplies and personnel time, programme costs and a share of health facility overhead costs. To monetise the benefits, we projected the cost savings of the government providing five essential social services - primary education, child immunisation, malaria prevention, maternal health services and improved drinking water - in the scale-up scenarios compared to the counterfactual. The total population, estimated at 6.1 million in 2013, is projected to reach 8.3 million by 2035 in the high scenario compared to a counterfactual of 9.6 million. We estimate that by 2035, there will be 1400 fewer maternal deaths and 700 fewer infant deaths in the high scenario compared to the counterfactual. Our modelling suggests that total costs of the family planning programme in Sierra Leone will increase from US$4.2 million in 2013 to US$10.6 million a year by 2035 in the high scenario. For every dollar spent on family planning, Sierra Leone is estimated to save US$2.10 in expenditure on the five selected social sector services over the period. There is a strong investment case for scaling up family planning services in Sierra Leone. The ambitious scale-up scenarios have historical precedent in other sub-Saharan African countries, but the extent to which they will be achieved depends on a commitment from both the government and donors to strengthening Sierra Leone's health system post-Ebola.

  15. Development of Low Cost Gas Atomization of Precursor Powders for Simplified ODS Alloy Production

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver

    2014-08-05

    A novel gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) method was developed in this project to enable production (at our partner’s facility) a precursor Ni-Cr-Y-Ti powder with a surface oxide and an internal rare earth (RE) containing intermetallic compound (IMC) phase. Consolidation and heat-treatment experiments were performed at Ames Lab to promote the exchange of oxygen from the surface oxide to the RE intermetallic to form nano-metric oxide dispersoids. Alloy selection was aided by an internal oxidation and serial grinding experiments at Ames Lab and found that Hf-containing alloys may form more stable dispersoids than Ti-containing alloy, i.e., the Hf-containing system exhibitedmore » five different oxide phases and two different intermetallics compared to the two oxide phases and one intermetallic in the Ti-containing alloys. Since the simpler Ti-containing system was less complex to characterize, and make observations on the effects of processing parameters, the Ti-containing system was selected by Ames Lab for experimental atomization trials at our partner. An internal oxidation model was developed at Ames Lab and used to predict the heat treatment times necessary for dispersoid formation as a function of powder size and temperature. A new high-pressure gas atomization (HPGA) nozzle was developed at Ames Lab with the aim of promoting fine powder production at scales similar to that of the high gas-flow and melt-flow of industrial atomizers. The atomization nozzle was characterized using schlieren imaging and aspiration pressure testing at Ames Lab to determine the optimum melt delivery tip geometry and atomization pressure to promote enhanced secondary atomization mechanisms. Six atomization trials were performed at our partner to investigate the effects of: gas atomization pressure and reactive gas concentration on the particle size distribution (PSD) and the oxygen content of the resulting powder. Also, the effect on the rapidly solidified microstructure

  16. Scale Up of Malonic Acid Fermentation Process: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-16-612

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, Daniel J

    The goal of this work is to use the large fermentation vessels in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF) to scale-up Lygos' biological-based process for producing malonic acid and to generate performance data. Initially, work at the 1 L scale validated successful transfer of Lygos' fermentation protocols to NREL using a glucose substrate. Outside of the scope of the CRADA with NREL, Lygos tested their process on lignocellulosic sugars produced by NREL at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's (LBNL) Advanced Biofuels Process Development Unit (ABPDU). NREL produced these cellulosic sugar solutions from corn stover using amore » separate cellulose/hemicellulose process configuration. Finally, NREL performed fermentations using glucose in large fermentors (1,500- and 9,000-L vessels) to intermediate product and to demonstrate successful performance of Lygos' technology at larger scales.« less

  17. Scale-up of organic reactions in ball mills: process intensification with regard to energy efficiency and economy of scale.

    PubMed

    Stolle, Achim; Schmidt, Robert; Jacob, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    The scale-up of the Knoevenagel-condensation between vanillin and barbituric acid carried out in planetary ball mills is investigated from an engineering perspective. Generally, the reaction proceeded in the solid state without intermediate melting and afforded selectively only one product. The reaction has been used as a model to analyze the influence and relationship of different parameters related to operation in planetary ball mills. From the viewpoint of technological parameters the milling ball diameter, dMB, the filling degree with respect to the milling balls' packing, ΦMB,packing, and the filling degree of the substrates with respect to the void volume of the milling balls' packing, ΦGS, have been investigated at different reaction scales. It was found that milling balls with small dMB lead to higher yields within shorter reaction time, treaction, or lower rotation frequency, rpm. Thus, the lower limit is set considering the technology which is available for the separation of the milling balls from the product after the reaction. Regarding ΦMB,packing, results indicate that the optimal value is roughly 50% of the total milling beakers' volume, VB,total, independent of the reaction scale or reaction conditions. Thus, 30% of VB,total are taken by the milling balls. Increase of the initial batch sizes changes ΦGS significantly. However, within the investigated parameter range no negative influence on the yield was observed. Up to 50% of VB,total can be taken over by the substrates in addition to 30% for the total milling ball volume. Scale-up factors of 15 and 11 were realized considering the amount of substrates and the reactor volume, respectively. Beside technological parameters, variables which influence the process itself, treaction and rpm, were investigated also. Variation of those allowed to fine-tune the reaction conditions in order to maximize the yield and minimize the energy intensity.

  18. Development of materials and process technology for dual alloy disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marder, J. M.; Kortovich, C. S.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques for the preparation of dual alloy disks were developed and evaluated. Four material combinations were evaluated in the form of HIP consolidated and heat treated cylindrical and plate shapes in terms of elevated temperature tensile, stress rupture and low cycle fatigue properties. The process evaluation indicated that the pe-HIP AF-115 rim/loose powder Rene 95 hub combination offered the best overall range of mechanical properties for dual disk applications. The feasibility of this dual alloy concept for the production of more complex components was demonstrated by the scale up fabrication of a prototype CFM-56 disk made from this AF-115/Rene 95 combination. The hub alloy ultimate tensile strength was approximately 92 percent of the program goal of 1520 MPa (220 ksi) at 480 C (900 F) and the rim alloy stress rupture goal of 300 hours at 675 C (1250 F)/925 MPa (134 ksi) was exceeded by 200 hours. The low cycle fatigue properties were equivalent to those exhibited by HIP and heat treated alloys. There was an absence of rupture notch sensitivity in both alloys. The joint tensile properties were approximately 85 percent of the weaker of the two materials (Rene 95) and the stress rupture properties were equivalent to those of the weaker of the two materials (Rene 95).

  19. Development and in-line validation of a Process Analytical Technology to facilitate the scale up of coating processes.

    PubMed

    Wirges, M; Funke, A; Serno, P; Knop, K; Kleinebudde, P

    2013-05-05

    Incorporation of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) into the coating layer of film-coated tablets is a method mainly used to formulate fixed-dose combinations. Uniform and precise spray-coating of an API represents a substantial challenge, which could be overcome by applying Raman spectroscopy as process analytical tool. In pharmaceutical industry, Raman spectroscopy is still mainly used as a bench top laboratory analytical method and usually not implemented in the production process. Concerning the application in the production process, a lot of scientific approaches stop at the level of feasibility studies and do not manage the step to production scale and process applications. The present work puts the scale up of an active coating process into focus, which is a step of highest importance during the pharmaceutical development. Active coating experiments were performed at lab and production scale. Using partial least squares (PLS), a multivariate model was constructed by correlating in-line measured Raman spectral data with the coated amount of API. By transferring this model, being implemented for a lab scale process, to a production scale process, the robustness of this analytical method and thus its applicability as a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tool for the correct endpoint determination in pharmaceutical manufacturing could be shown. Finally, this method was validated according to the European Medicine Agency (EMA) guideline with respect to the special requirements of the applied in-line model development strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of Localized Filament Corrosion Products at the Anodic Head on a Model Mg-Zn-Zr Alloy Surface

    DOE PAGES

    Rossouw, David; Fu, Dong; Leonard, Donovan N.; ...

    2017-02-15

    In this study, localized filament corrosion products at the anodic head on a model Mg-1%Zn-0.4%Zr alloy surface were characterized by electron microscopy techniques of site-specific lamella prepared by focused ion beam milling. It is revealed that the anodic head propagates underneath a largely intact thin and dense MgO surface film and comprises dense aggregates of nano-crystalline MgO within a nano-porous Mg(OH) 2 network. In conclusion, the findings contribute new supportive direct imaging insight into the source of the enhanced H 2 evolution that accompanies anodic dissolution of Mg and its alloys.

  1. Characterization of Localized Filament Corrosion Products at the Anodic Head on a Model Mg-Zn-Zr Alloy Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Rossouw, David; Fu, Dong; Leonard, Donovan N.

    In this study, localized filament corrosion products at the anodic head on a model Mg-1%Zn-0.4%Zr alloy surface were characterized by electron microscopy techniques of site-specific lamella prepared by focused ion beam milling. It is revealed that the anodic head propagates underneath a largely intact thin and dense MgO surface film and comprises dense aggregates of nano-crystalline MgO within a nano-porous Mg(OH) 2 network. In conclusion, the findings contribute new supportive direct imaging insight into the source of the enhanced H 2 evolution that accompanies anodic dissolution of Mg and its alloys.

  2. Discrete element method based scale-up model for material synthesis using ball milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhanam, Priya Radhi

    Mechanical milling is a widely used technique for powder processing in various areas. In this work, a scale-up model for describing this ball milling process is developed. The thesis is a combination of experimental and modeling efforts. Initially, Discrete Element Model (DEM) is used to describe energy transfer from milling tools to the milled powder for shaker, planetary, and attritor mills. The rolling and static friction coefficients are determined experimentally. Computations predict a quasisteady rate of energy dissipation, E d, for each experimental configuration. It is proposed that the milling dose defined as a product of Ed and milling time, t, divided by the mass of milled powder, mp characterizes the milling progress independently of the milling device or milling conditions used. Once the milling dose is determined for one experimental configuration, it can be used to predict the milling time required to prepare the same material in any milling configuration, for which Ed is calculated. The concept is validated experimentally for DEM describing planetary and shaker mills. For attritor, the predicted Ed includes substantial contribution from milling tool interaction events with abnormally high forces (>103 N). The energy in such events is likely dissipated to heat or plastically deform milling tools rather than refine material. Indeed, DEM predictions for the attritor correlate with experiments when such events are ignored in the analysis. With an objective of obtaining real-time indicators of milling progress, power, torque, and rotation speed of the impeller of an attritor mill are measured during preparation of metal matrix composite powders in the subsequent portion of this thesis. Two material systems are selected and comparisons made between in-situ parameters and experimental milling progress indicators. It is established that real-time measurements can certainly be used to describe milling progress. However, they need to be interpreted carefully

  3. Scaling up carbonyl sulfide (COS) fluxes from leaf and soil to the canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fulin; Yakir, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) with atmospheric concentrations around 500 ppt is an analog of CO2 which can potentially serve as powerful and much needed tracer of photosynthetic CO2 uptake, and global gross primary production (GPP). However, questions remain regarding the application of this approach due to uncertainties in the contributions of different ecosystem components to the canopy scale fluxes of COS. We used laser quantum cascade spectroscopy in combination with soil and branch chambers, and eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem exchange fluxes of COS and CO2 (NEE) in citrus orchard during the driest summer month to test our ability to integrate the chamber measurements into the ecosystem fluxes. The results indicated that: 1) Soil fluxes showed clear gradient from continuous uptake under the trees in wet soil of up to -4 pmol m-2s-1 (CO2 emission of ~0.5 umol m-2s-1) to emission in dry hot and exposed soil between rows of trees of up to +3 pmol m-2s-1 (CO2 emission of ~11 umol m-2s-1). In all cases a clear correlation between fluxes and soil temperature was observed. 2) At the leaf scale, midday uptake was ~5.5 pmol m-2s-1 (CO2 uptake of ~1.8 umol m-2s-1). Some nighttime COS uptake was observed in the citrus leaves consistent with nocturnal leaf stomatal conductance. Leaf relative uptake (LRU) of COS vs. CO2 was not constant over the diurnal cycle, but showed exponential correlation with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) during the daytime. 3) At the canopy scale mid-day summer flux reached -12.0 pmol m-2s-1 (NEE ~6 umol m-2s-1) with the diurnal patterns of COS fluxes following those of CO2 fluxes during the daytime, but with small COS uptake fluxes maintained also during the night when significant CO2 emission fluxes were observed. The canopy-scale fluxes always indicated COS uptake, irrespective of the soil emission effects. GPP estimates were consistent with conventional indirect estimates based on NEE and nocturnal measurements. Scaling up

  4. High Temperature Syngas Cleanup Technology Scale-up and Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Ben; Turk, Brian; Denton, David

    Gasification is a technology for clean energy conversion of diverse feedstocks into a wide variety of useful products such as chemicals, fertilizers, fuels, electric power, and hydrogen. Existing technologies can be employed to clean the syngas from gasification processes to meet the demands of such applications, but they are expensive to build and operate and consume a significant fraction of overall parasitic energy requirements, thus lowering overall process efficiency. RTI International has developed a warm syngas desulfurization process (WDP) utilizing a transport-bed reactor design and a proprietary attrition-resistant, high-capacity solid sorbent with excellent performance replicated at lab, bench, and pilotmore » scales. Results indicated that WDP technology can improve both efficiency and cost of gasification plants. The WDP technology achieved ~99.9% removal of total sulfur (as either H 2S or COS) from coal-derived syngas at temperatures as high as 600°C and over a wide range of pressures (20-80 bar, pressure independent performance) and sulfur concentrations. Based on the success of these tests, RTI negotiated a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy for precommercial testing of this technology at Tampa Electric Company’s Polk Power Station IGCC facility in Tampa, Florida. The project scope also included a sweet water-gas-shift process for hydrogen enrichment and an activated amine process for 90+% total carbon capture. Because the activated amine process provides some additional non-selective sulfur removal, the integration of these processes was expected to reduce overall sulfur in the syngas to sub-ppmv concentrations, suitable for most syngas applications. The overall objective of this project was to mitigate the technical risks associated with the scale up and integration of the WDP and carbon dioxide capture technologies, enabling subsequent commercial-scale demonstration. The warm syngas cleanup pre-commercial test unit was

  5. Development of the Fray-Farthing-Chen Cambridge Process: Towards the Sustainable Production of Titanium and Its Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Di; Dolganov, Aleksei; Ma, Mingchan; Bhattacharya, Biyash; Bishop, Matthew T.; Chen, George Z.

    2018-02-01

    The Kroll process has been employed for titanium extraction since the 1950s. It is a labour and energy intensive multi-step semi-batch process. The post-extraction processes for making the raw titanium into alloys and products are also excessive, including multiple remelting steps. Invented in the late 1990s, the Fray-Farthing-Chen (FFC) Cambridge process extracts titanium from solid oxides at lower energy consumption via electrochemical reduction in molten salts. Its ability to produce alloys and powders, while retaining the cathode shape also promises energy and material efficient manufacturing. Focusing on titanium and its alloys, this article reviews the recent development of the FFC-Cambridge process in two aspects, (1) resource and process sustainability and (2) advanced post-extraction processing.

  6. Student and faculty perceptions on the rapid scale-up of medical students in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mengistu, Brittney S; Vins, Holly; Kelly, Caitrin M; McGee, Daphne R; Spicer, Jennifer O; Derbew, Miliard; Bekele, Abebe; Mariam, Damen Haile; Del Rio, Carlos; Blumberg, Henry M; Comeau, Dawn L

    2017-01-13

    Ethiopia is a country of over 94 million people that has a severe physician shortage with approximately only 2.5 physicians per 100,000 persons. Recently, the Ethiopian government implemented a "flood and retain" initiative to rapidly increase the quantity of physicians in Ethiopia. Consequently, medical student enrollment at Addis Ababa University (AAU) School of Medicine increased from 100 to approximately 300-400 students per class. This study evaluated the impact of the rapid scale-up in the number of medical students on the quality of medical education at AAU and the impact of the U.S. government-funded Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) grant awarded to AAU to provide resources to strengthen the quality of medical education at AAU. Qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 22 key informants including faculty members, administrators and medical students at AAU. The audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and interview data were analyzed with thematic analysis. Four key themes emerged from the data. Overall, participants perceived a decrease in the quality of medical education at AAU due to challenges created by the rapid scale-up in the number of medical students. Positive learning environments were described as difficult to achieve due to overcrowding in classrooms and the limited numbers of textbooks. Overall, participants stated that infrastructure improvement is needed to provide adequate medical student training. The medical education initiatives implemented and funded by MEPI have provided significant resources to support the medical student curriculum but additional resources are required to accommodate a large student body. The unprecedented rapid scale-up of medical students has impacted multiple facets of medical education at AAU. It is important to consider the perspectives of students and faculty in order to focus future medical education policies, MEPI programming and the allocation of resources.

  7. An integrated health sector response to violence against women in Malaysia: lessons for supporting scale up

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaysia has been at the forefront of the development and scale up of One-Stop Crisis Centres (OSCC) - an integrated health sector model that provides comprehensive care to women and children experiencing physical, emotional and sexual abuse. This study explored the strengths and challenges faced during the scaling up of the OSCC model to two States in Malaysia in order to identify lessons for supporting successful scale-up. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with health care providers, policy makers and key informants in 7 hospital facilities. This was complemented by a document analysis of hospital records and protocols. Data were coded and analysed using NVivo 7. Results The implementation of the OSCC model differed between hospital settings, with practise being influenced by organisational systems and constraints. Health providers generally tried to offer care to abused women, but they are not fully supported within their facility due to lack of training, time constraints, limited allocated budget, or lack of referral system to external support services. Non-specialised hospitals in both States struggled with a scarcity of specialised staff and limited referral options for abused women. Despite these challenges, even in more resource-constrained settings staff who took the initiative found it was possible to adapt to provide some level of OSCC services, such as referring women to local NGOs or community support groups, or training nurses to offer basic counselling. Conclusions The national implementation of OSCC provides a potentially important source of support for women experiencing violence. Our findings confirm that pilot interventions for health sector responses to gender based violence can be scaled up only when there is a sound health infrastructure in place – in other words a supportive health system. Furthermore, the successful replication of the OSCC model in other similar settings requires that the model – and the system

  8. SCALE-UP Your Astronomy and Physics Undergraduate Courses to Incorporate Heliophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rawi, Ahlam N.; Cox, Amanda; Hoshino, Laura; Fitzgerald, Cullen; Cebulka, Rebecca; Rodriguez Garrigues, Alvar; Montgomery, Michele; Velissaris, Chris; Flitsiyan, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Although physics and astronomy courses include heliophysics topics, students still leave these courses without knowing what heliophysics is and how heliophysics relates to their daily lives. To meet goals of NASA's Living With a Star Program of incorporating heliophysics into undergraduate curriculum, UCF Physics has modified courses such as Astronomy (for non-science majors), Astrophysics, and SCALE-UP: Electricity and Magnetism for Engineers and Scientists to incorporate heliophysics topics. In this presentation, we discuss these incorporations and give examples that have been published in NASA Wavelength. In an associated poster, we present data on student learnin

  9. Biogem: an effective tool-based approach for scaling up open source software development in bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Bonnal, Raoul J P; Aerts, Jan; Githinji, George; Goto, Naohisa; MacLean, Dan; Miller, Chase A; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Pagani, Massimiliano; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Smant, Geert; Strozzi, Francesco; Syme, Rob; Vos, Rutger; Wennblom, Trevor J; Woodcroft, Ben J; Katayama, Toshiaki; Prins, Pjotr

    2012-04-01

    Biogem provides a software development environment for the Ruby programming language, which encourages community-based software development for bioinformatics while lowering the barrier to entry and encouraging best practices. Biogem, with its targeted modular and decentralized approach, software generator, tools and tight web integration, is an improved general model for scaling up collaborative open source software development in bioinformatics. Biogem and modules are free and are OSS. Biogem runs on all systems that support recent versions of Ruby, including Linux, Mac OS X and Windows. Further information at http://www.biogems.info. A tutorial is available at http://www.biogems.info/howto.html bonnal@ingm.org.

  10. Studying Scale-Up and Spread as Social Practice: Theoretical Introduction and Empirical Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Sara; Wherton, Joseph; Hughes, Gemma; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2017-01-01

    Background Health and care technologies often succeed on a small scale but fail to achieve widespread use (scale-up) or become routine practice in other settings (spread). One reason for this is under-theorization of the process of scale-up and spread, for which a potentially fruitful theoretical approach is to consider the adoption and use of technologies as social practices. Objective This study aimed to use an in-depth case study of assisted living to explore the feasibility and usefulness of a social practice approach to explaining the scale-up of an assisted-living technology across a local system of health and social care. Methods This was an individual case study of the implementation of a Global Positioning System (GPS) “geo-fence” for a person living with dementia, nested in a much wider program of ethnographic research and organizational case study of technology implementation across health and social care (Studies in Co-creating Assisted Living Solutions [SCALS] in the United Kingdom). A layered sociological analysis included micro-level data on the index case, meso-level data on the organization, and macro-level data on the wider social, technological, economic, and political context. Data (interviews, ethnographic notes, and documents) were analyzed and synthesized using structuration theory. Results A social practice lens enabled the uptake of the GPS technology to be studied in the context of what human actors found salient, meaningful, ethical, legal, materially possible, and professionally or culturally appropriate in particular social situations. Data extracts were used to illustrate three exemplar findings. First, professional practice is (and probably always will be) oriented not to “implementing technologies” but to providing excellent, ethical care to sick and vulnerable individuals. Second, in order to “work,” health and care technologies rely heavily on human relationships and situated knowledge. Third, such technologies do not

  11. An integrated health sector response to violence against women in Malaysia: lessons for supporting scale up.

    PubMed

    Colombini, Manuela; Mayhew, Susannah H; Ali, Siti Hawa; Shuib, Rashidah; Watts, Charlotte

    2012-07-24

    Malaysia has been at the forefront of the development and scale up of One-Stop Crisis Centres (OSCC) - an integrated health sector model that provides comprehensive care to women and children experiencing physical, emotional and sexual abuse. This study explored the strengths and challenges faced during the scaling up of the OSCC model to two States in Malaysia in order to identify lessons for supporting successful scale-up. In-depth interviews were conducted with health care providers, policy makers and key informants in 7 hospital facilities. This was complemented by a document analysis of hospital records and protocols. Data were coded and analysed using NVivo 7. The implementation of the OSCC model differed between hospital settings, with practise being influenced by organisational systems and constraints. Health providers generally tried to offer care to abused women, but they are not fully supported within their facility due to lack of training, time constraints, limited allocated budget, or lack of referral system to external support services. Non-specialised hospitals in both States struggled with a scarcity of specialised staff and limited referral options for abused women. Despite these challenges, even in more resource-constrained settings staff who took the initiative found it was possible to adapt to provide some level of OSCC services, such as referring women to local NGOs or community support groups, or training nurses to offer basic counselling. The national implementation of OSCC provides a potentially important source of support for women experiencing violence. Our findings confirm that pilot interventions for health sector responses to gender based violence can be scaled up only when there is a sound health infrastructure in place - in other words a supportive health system. Furthermore, the successful replication of the OSCC model in other similar settings requires that the model - and the system supporting it - needs to be flexible enough to

  12. National malaria vector control policy: an analysis of the decision to scale-up larviciding in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Tesfazghi, Kemi; Hill, Jenny; Jones, Caroline; Ranson, Hilary; Worrall, Eve

    2016-02-01

    New vector control tools are needed to combat insecticide resistance and reduce malaria transmission. The World Health Organization (WHO) endorses larviciding as a supplementary vector control intervention using larvicides recommended by the WHO Pesticides Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES). The decision to scale-up larviciding in Nigeria provided an opportunity to investigate the factors influencing policy adoption and assess the role that actors and evidence play in the policymaking process, in order to draw lessons that help accelerate the uptake of new methods for vector control. A retrospective policy analysis was carried out using in-depth interviews with national level policy stakeholders to establish normative national vector control policy or strategy decision-making processes and compare these with the process that led to the decision to scale-up larviciding. The interviews were transcribed, then coded and analyzed using NVivo10. Data were coded according to pre-defined themes from an analytical policy framework developed a priori. Stakeholders reported that the larviciding decision-making process deviated from the normative vector control decision-making process. National malaria policy is normally strongly influenced by WHO recommendations, but the potential of larviciding to contribute to national economic development objectives through larvicide production in Nigeria was cited as a key factor shaping the decision. The larviciding decision involved a restricted range of policy actors, and notably excluded actors that usually play advisory, consultative and evidence generation roles. Powerful actors limited the access of some actors to the policy processes and content. This may have limited the influence of scientific evidence in this policy decision. This study demonstrates that national vector control policy change can be facilitated by linking malaria control objectives to wider socioeconomic considerations and through engaging powerful policy champions to

  13. Unrecoverable bi-products of drilling titanium alloy and tantalum metal implants: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Skowronek, Paweł; Olszewski, Paweł; Święszkowski, Wojciech; Synder, Marek; Sibiński, Marcin; Mazek, Jacek

    2018-05-01

    Trabecular metal implants with a porous architecture that allows for the incorporation of bone into the implant during healing are gaining popularity in alloplastic revision procedures. The bi-products of drilling titanium alloy (Ti) and tantalum (Ta) implants have not been previously assessed. Four holes were drilled in each of two spatially porous trabecular implants, one Ta and the other Ti alloy (Ti-6Al-7Nb), for this pilot in vitro study. The particles were flushed out with a continuous flow of saline. The particles' weight and the volume were then measured using a Radwag XA 110/2X (USA) laboratory balance. The total volume of the obtained metal fines was measured by titration using a 10 mm 3 measurement system. A cobalt carbide bit was used since the holes could not be made with a standard bone drill. Each Ti and Ta implant lost 1.26 g and 2.48 g of mass, respectively. The volume of free particles recovered after each stage was 280 mm 3 and 149 mm 3 , respectively. Approximately 0.6% of the total implant mass was not recovered after drilling (roughly 2% of the mass of the particles created by drilling), despite the use of 5 µm filters. It is technically difficult to drill holes in Ti and Ta implants using standard surgical tools. The drilling process creates a considerable amount of metal particles, which cannot be recovered despite intensive flushing. This may have an adverse influence on the bio-functionality (survival) of the endoprosthesis and present deleterious systemic consequences.

  14. ADVANCING THE FUNDAMENTAL UNDERSTANDING AND SCALE-UP OF TRISO FUEL COATERS VIA ADVANCED MEASUREMENT AND COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Pratim; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna

    2012-11-01

    Tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle coating is critical for the future use of nuclear energy produced byadvanced gas reactors (AGRs). The fuel kernels are coated using chemical vapor deposition in a spouted fluidized bed. The challenges encountered in operating TRISO fuel coaters are due to the fact that in modern AGRs, such as High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs), the acceptable level of defective/failed coated particles is essentially zero. This specification requires processes that produce coated spherical particles with even coatings having extremely low defect fractions. Unfortunately, the scale-up and design of the current processes and coaters have been based on empiricalmore » approaches and are operated as black boxes. Hence, a voluminous amount of experimental development and trial and error work has been conducted. It has been clearly demonstrated that the quality of the coating applied to the fuel kernels is impacted by the hydrodynamics, solids flow field, and flow regime characteristics of the spouted bed coaters, which themselves are influenced by design parameters and operating variables. Further complicating the outlook for future fuel-coating technology and nuclear energy production is the fact that a variety of new concepts will involve fuel kernels of different sizes and with compositions of different densities. Therefore, without a fundamental understanding the underlying phenomena of the spouted bed TRISO coater, a significant amount of effort is required for production of each type of particle with a significant risk of not meeting the specifications. This difficulty will significantly and negatively impact the applications of AGRs for power generation and cause further challenges to them as an alternative source of commercial energy production. Accordingly, the proposed work seeks to overcome such hurdles and advance the scale-up, design, and performance of TRISO fuel particle spouted bed coaters. The overall objectives of the proposed

  15. A practical approach for the scale-up of roller compaction process.

    PubMed

    Shi, Weixian; Sprockel, Omar L

    2016-09-01

    An alternative approach for the scale-up of ribbon formation during roller compaction was investigated, which required only one batch at the commercial scale to set the operational conditions. The scale-up of ribbon formation was based on a probability method. It was sufficient in describing the mechanism of ribbon formation at both scales. In this method, a statistical relationship between roller compaction parameters and ribbon attributes (thickness and density) was first defined with DoE using a pilot Alexanderwerk WP120 roller compactor. While the milling speed was included in the design, it has no practical effect on granule properties within the study range despite its statistical significance. The statistical relationship was then adapted to a commercial Alexanderwerk WP200 roller compactor with one experimental run. The experimental run served as a calibration of the statistical model parameters. The proposed transfer method was then confirmed by conducting a mapping study on the Alexanderwerk WP200 using a factorial DoE, which showed a match between the predictions and the verification experiments. The study demonstrates the applicability of the roller compaction transfer method using the statistical model from the development scale calibrated with one experiment point at the commercial scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Free-flow zone electrophoresis: a novel approach and scale-up for preparative protein separation.

    PubMed

    Poggel, M; Melin, T

    2001-04-01

    Different continuously working free-flow zone electrophoresis (FFZE) chambers have already been developed [1, 2]. All of them deal with the problem of distinctive Joule heating. The resulting temperature gradients cause an unstable density field which leads to thermal convection and thus to an intermixing of the different fractions within the chamber. The most promising and simple approach to stabilize the flow is to build chambers with one very small dimension (e.g., h = 0.5 mm) to assure efficient heat withdrawal. This in turn presents substantial disadvantages, namely limited throughput and restricted scale-up potential. The novel approach combines a simplified design and assembly with the possibility of straightforward scale-up. It still operates with one small dimension (d = 1-2 mm) to handle the Joule heating. Here, however, not the dimension perpendicular to the electric field but the dimension parallel to the electric field (separation distance) is chosen as the smallest dimension. The efficiency of the new device is shown by the separation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cytochrome c with an overall protein throughput of up to 1.1 g/h, using a cell with a separation volume of less than 20 mL.

  17. Semantic Representation and Scale-Up of Integrated Air Traffic Management Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.; Ranjan, Shubha; Wei, Mei Y.; Eshow, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Each day, the global air transportation industry generates a vast amount of heterogeneous data from air carriers, air traffic control providers, and secondary aviation entities handling baggage, ticketing, catering, fuel delivery, and other services. Generally, these data are stored in isolated data systems, separated from each other by significant political, regulatory, economic, and technological divides. These realities aside, integrating aviation data into a single, queryable, big data store could enable insights leading to major efficiency, safety, and cost advantages. In this paper, we describe an implemented system for combining heterogeneous air traffic management data using semantic integration techniques. The system transforms data from its original disparate source formats into a unified semantic representation within an ontology-based triple store. Our initial prototype stores only a small sliver of air traffic data covering one day of operations at a major airport. The paper also describes our analysis of difficulties ahead as we prepare to scale up data storage to accommodate successively larger quantities of data -- eventually covering all US commercial domestic flights over an extended multi-year timeframe. We review several approaches to mitigating scale-up related query performance concerns.

  18. Dynamic Single-Use Bioreactors Used in Modern Liter- and m(3)- Scale Biotechnological Processes: Engineering Characteristics and Scaling Up.

    PubMed

    Löffelholz, Christian; Kaiser, Stephan C; Kraume, Matthias; Eibl, Regine; Eibl, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    During the past 10 years, single-use bioreactors have been well accepted in modern biopharmaceutical production processes targeting high-value products. Up to now, such processes have mainly been small- or medium-scale mammalian cell culture-based seed inoculum, vaccine or antibody productions. However, recently first attempts have been made to modify existing single-use bioreactors for the cultivation of plant cells and tissue cultures, and microorganisms. This has even led to the development of new single-use bioreactor types. Moreover, due to safety issues it has become clear that single-use bioreactors are the "must have" for expanding human stem cells delivering cell therapeutics, the biopharmaceuticals of the next generation. So it comes as no surprise that numerous different dynamic single-use bioreactor types, which are suitable for a wide range of applications, already dominate the market today. Bioreactor working principles, main applications, and bioengineering data are presented in this review, based on a current overview of greater than milliliter-scale, commercially available, dynamic single-use bioreactors. The focus is on stirred versions, which are omnipresent in R&D and manufacturing, and in particular Sartorius Stedim's BIOSTAT family. Finally, we examine development trends for single-use bioreactors, after discussing proven approaches for fast scaling-up processes.

  19. Scale-up synthesis of zinc borate from the reaction of zinc oxide and boric acid in aqueous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılınç, Mert; Çakal, Gaye Ö.; Yeşil, Sertan; Bayram, Göknur; Eroğlu, İnci; Özkar, Saim

    2010-11-01

    Synthesis of zinc borate was conducted in a laboratory and a pilot scale batch reactor to see the influence of process variables on the reaction parameters and the final product, 2ZnO·3B 2O 3·3.5H 2O. Effects of stirring speed, presence of baffles, amount of seed, particle size and purity of zinc oxide, and mole ratio of H 3BO 3:ZnO on the zinc borate formation reaction were examined at a constant temperature of 85 °C in a laboratory (4 L) and a pilot scale (85 L) reactor. Products obtained from the reaction in both reactors were characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The kinetic data for the zinc borate production reaction was fit by using the logistic model. The results revealed that the specific reaction rate, a model parameter, decreases with increase in particle size of zinc oxide and the presence of baffles, but increases with increase in stirring speed and purity of zinc oxide; however, it is unaffected with the changes in the amount of seed and reactants ratio. The reaction completion time is unaffected by scaling-up.

  20. Handbook of the Materials Properties of FeCrAl Alloys For Nuclear Power Production Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Yukinori; Snead, Mary A.; Field, Kevin G.

    FeCrAl alloys are a class of alloys that have seen increased interest for nuclear power applications including as accident tolerant fuel cladding, structural components for fast fission reactors, and as first wall and blanket structures for fusion reactors. FeCrAl alloys are under consideration for these applications due to their inherent corrosion resistance, stress corrosion cracking resistance, radiation-induced swelling resistance, and high temperature oxidation resistance. A substantial amount of research effort has been completed to design, develop, and begin commercial scaling of FeCrAl alloys for nuclear power applications over the past half a century. These efforts have led to the developmentmore » of an extensive database on material properties and process knowledge for FeCrAl alloys but not within a consolidated format. The following report is the first edition of a materials handbook to consolidate the state-of-the-art on FeCrAl alloys for nuclear power applications. This centralized database focuses solely on wrought FeCrAl alloys, oxide dispersion strengthened alloys, although discussed in brief, are not covered. Where appropriate, recommendations for applications of the data is provided and current knowledge gaps are identified.« less

  1. Continuous production of granular or powder Ti, Zr and Hf or their alloy products

    DOEpatents

    White, Jack C.; Oden, Laurance L.

    1993-01-01

    A continuous process for producing a granular metal selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr or Hf under conditions that provide orderly growth of the metal free of halide inclusions comprising: a) dissolving a reducing metal selected from the group consisting of Na, Mg, Li or K in their respective halide salts to produce a reducing molten salt stream; b) preparing a second molten salt stream containing the halide salt of Ti, Zr or Hf; c) mixing and reacting the two molten streams of steps a) and b) in a continuous stirred tank reactor; d) wherein steps a) through c) are conducted at a temperature range of from about 800.degree. C. to about 1100.degree. C. so that a weight percent of equilibrium solubility of the reducing metal in its respective halide salt varies from about 1.6 weight percent at about 900.degree. C. to about 14.4 weight percent at about 1062.degree. C.; and wherein a range of concentration of the halide salt of Ti, Zn or Hf in molten halides of Na, Mg, Li or K is from about 1 to about 5 times the concentration of Na, Mg, Li or K; e) placing the reacted molten stream from step c) in a solid-liquid separator to recover an impure granular metal product by decantation, centrifugation, or filtration; and f) removing residual halide salt impurity by vacuum evaporator or inert gas sweep at temperatures from about 850.degree. C. to 1000.degree. C. or cooling the impure granular metal product to ambient temperature and water leaching off the residual metal halide salt.

  2. Heat and mass transfer scale-up issues during freeze-drying, III: control and characterization of dryer differences via operational qualification tests.

    PubMed

    Rambhatla, S; Tchessalov, S; Pikal, Michael J

    2006-04-21

    The objective of this research was to estimate differences in heat and mass transfer between freeze dryers due to inherent design characteristics using data obtained from sublimation tests. This study also aimed to provide guidelines for convenient scale-up of the freeze-drying process. Data obtained from sublimation tests performed on laboratory-scale, pilot, and production freeze dryers were used to evaluate various heat and mass transfer parameters: nonuniformity in shelf surface temperatures, resistance of pipe, refrigeration system, and condenser. Emissivity measurements of relevant surfaces such as the chamber wall and the freeze dryer door were taken to evaluate the impact of atypical radiation heat transfer during scale-up. "Hot" and "cold" spots were identified on the shelf surface of different freeze dryers, and the impact of variation in shelf surface temperatures on the primary drying time and the product temperature during primary drying was studied. Calculations performed using emissivity measurements on different freeze dryers suggest that a front vial in the laboratory lyophilizer received 1.8 times more heat than a front vial in a manufacturing freeze dryer operating at a shelf temperature of -25 degrees C and a chamber pressure of 150 mTorr during primary drying. Therefore, front vials in the laboratory are much more atypical than front vials in manufacturing. Steady-state heat and mass transfer equations were used to study a combination of different scale-up issues pertinent during lyophilization cycles commonly used for the freeze-drying of pharmaceuticals.

  3. Scaling up cervical cancer screening in the midst of human papillomavirus vaccination advocacy in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Screening tests for cervical cancer are effective in reducing the disease burden. In Thailand, a Pap smear program has been implemented throughout the country for 40 years. In 2008 the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) unexpectedly decided to scale up the coverage of free cervical cancer screening services, to meet an ambitious target. This study analyzes the processes and factors that drove this policy innovation in the area of cervical cancer control in Thailand. Methods In-depth interviews with key policy actors and review of relevant documents were conducted in 2009. Data analysis was guided by a framework, developed on public policy models and existing literature on scaling-up health care interventions. Results Between 2006 and 2008 international organizations and the vaccine industry advocated the introduction of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Meanwhile, a local study suggested that the vaccine was considerably less cost-effective than cervical cancer screening in the Thai context. Then, from August to December 2008, the MoPH carried out a campaign to expand the coverage of its cervical cancer screening program, targeting one million women. The study reveals that several factors were influential in focusing the attention of policymakers on strengthening the screening services. These included the high burden of cervical cancer in Thailand, the launch of the HPV vaccine onto the global and domestic markets, the country’s political instability, and the dissemination of scientific evidence regarding the appropriateness of different options for cervical cancer prevention. Influenced by the country’s political crisis, the MoPH’s campaign was devised in a very short time. In the view of the responsible health officials, the campaign was not successful and indeed, did not achieve its ambitious target. Conclusion The Thai case study suggests that the political crisis was a crucial factor that drew the

  4. Scaling up cervical cancer screening in the midst of human papillomavirus vaccination advocacy in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yothasamut, Jomkwan; Putchong, Choenkwan; Sirisamutr, Teera; Teerawattananon, Yot; Tantivess, Sripen

    2010-07-02

    Screening tests for cervical cancer are effective in reducing the disease burden. In Thailand, a Pap smear program has been implemented throughout the country for 40 years. In 2008 the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) unexpectedly decided to scale up the coverage of free cervical cancer screening services, to meet an ambitious target. This study analyzes the processes and factors that drove this policy innovation in the area of cervical cancer control in Thailand. In-depth interviews with key policy actors and review of relevant documents were conducted in 2009. Data analysis was guided by a framework, developed on public policy models and existing literature on scaling-up health care interventions. Between 2006 and 2008 international organizations and the vaccine industry advocated the introduction of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Meanwhile, a local study suggested that the vaccine was considerably less cost-effective than cervical cancer screening in the Thai context. Then, from August to December 2008, the MoPH carried out a campaign to expand the coverage of its cervical cancer screening program, targeting one million women. The study reveals that several factors were influential in focusing the attention of policymakers on strengthening the screening services. These included the high burden of cervical cancer in Thailand, the launch of the HPV vaccine onto the global and domestic markets, the country's political instability, and the dissemination of scientific evidence regarding the appropriateness of different options for cervical cancer prevention. Influenced by the country's political crisis, the MoPH's campaign was devised in a very short time. In the view of the responsible health officials, the campaign was not successful and indeed, did not achieve its ambitious target. The Thai case study suggests that the political crisis was a crucial factor that drew the attention of policymakers to the cervical

  5. Scaling up watershed model parameters--Flow and load simulations of the Edisto River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feaster, Toby D.; Benedict, Stephen T.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Conrads, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The Edisto River is the longest and largest river system completely contained in South Carolina and is one of the longest free flowing blackwater rivers in the United States. The Edisto River basin also has fish-tissue mercury concentrations that are some of the highest recorded in the United States. As part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to expand the understanding of relations among hydrologic, geochemical, and ecological processes that affect fish-tissue mercury concentrations within the Edisto River basin, analyses and simulations of the hydrology of the Edisto River basin were made with the topography-based hydrological model (TOPMODEL). The potential for scaling up a previous application of TOPMODEL for the McTier Creek watershed, which is a small headwater catchment to the Edisto River basin, was assessed. Scaling up was done in a step-wise process beginning with applying the calibration parameters, meteorological data, and topographic wetness index data from the McTier Creek TOPMODEL to the Edisto River TOPMODEL. Additional changes were made with subsequent simulations culminating in the best simulation, which included meteorological and topographic wetness index data from the Edisto River basin and updated calibration parameters for some of the TOPMODEL calibration parameters. Comparison of goodness-of-fit statistics between measured and simulated daily mean streamflow for the two models showed that with calibration, the Edisto River TOPMODEL produced slightly better results than the McTier Creek model, despite the significant difference in the drainage-area size at the outlet locations for the two models (30.7 and 2,725 square miles, respectively). Along with the TOPMODEL hydrologic simulations, a visualization tool (the Edisto River Data Viewer) was developed to help assess trends and influencing variables in the stream ecosystem. Incorporated into the visualization tool were the water-quality load models TOPLOAD, TOPLOAD-H, and LOADEST

  6. Teaching assistant-student interactions in a modified SCALE-UP classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBeck, George; Demaree, Dedra

    2012-02-01

    In the spring term of 2010, Oregon State University (OSU) began using a SCALE-UP style classroom in the instruction of the introductory calculus-based physics series. Instruction in this classroom was conducted in weekly two-hour sessions facilitated by the primary professor and either two graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) or a graduate teaching assistant and an undergraduate learning assistant (LA). During the course of instruction, two of the eight tables in the room were audio and video recorded. We examine the practices of the GTAs in interacting with the students through both qualitative and quantitative analyses of these recordings. Quantitatively, significant differences are seen between the most experienced GTA and the rest. A major difference in confidence is also observed in the qualitative analysis of this GTA compared to a less experienced GTA.

  7. Scale-up of ecological experiments: Density variation in the mobile bivalve Macomona liliana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Davod C.; Walters, R.; Thrush, S.; Dayton, P.

    1997-01-01

    At present the problem of scaling up from controlled experiments (necessarily at a small spatial scale) to questions of regional or global importance is perhaps the most pressing issue in ecology. Most of the proposed techniques recommend iterative cycling between theory and experiment. We present a graphical technique that facilitates this cycling by allowing the scope of experiments, surveys, and natural history observations to be compared to the scope of models and theory. We apply the scope analysis to the problem of understanding the population dynamics of a bivalve exposed to environmental stress at the scale of a harbour. Previous lab and field experiments were found not to be 1:1 scale models of harbour-wide processes. Scope analysis allowed small scale experiments to be linked to larger scale surveys and to a spatially explicit model of population dynamics.

  8. Scaling up our understanding of non-consumptive effects in insect systems

    DOE PAGES

    Hermann, Sara L.; Landis, Douglas A.

    2017-04-06

    Here, non-consumptive effects (NCEs) of predators on prey is an important topic in insect ecology with potential applications for pest management. NCEs are changes in prey behavior and physiology that aid in predation avoidance. While NCEs can have positive outcomes for prey survival there may also be negative consequences including increased stress and reduced growth. These effects can cascade through trophic systems influencing ecosystem function. Most NCEs have been studied at small spatial and temporal scales. However, recent studies show promise for the potential to manipulate NCEs for pest management. We suggest the next frontier for NCE studies includes manipulatingmore » the landscape of fear to improve pest control, which requires scaling-up to field and landscape levels, over ecologically relevant time frames.« less

  9. Recommendations for scale-up of community-based misoprostol distribution programs.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Nuriya; Kapungu, Chisina; Carnahan, Leslie; Geller, Stacie

    2014-06-01

    Community-based distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in resource-poor settings has been shown to be safe and effective. However, global recommendations for prenatal distribution and monitoring within a community setting are not yet available. In order to successfully translate misoprostol and PPH research into policy and practice, several critical points must be considered. A focus on engaging the community, emphasizing the safe nature of community-based misoprostol distribution, supply chain management, effective distribution, coverage, and monitoring plans are essential elements to community-based misoprostol program introduction, expansion, or scale-up. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Scaling up our understanding of non-consumptive effects in insect systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, Sara L.; Landis, Douglas A.

    Here, non-consumptive effects (NCEs) of predators on prey is an important topic in insect ecology with potential applications for pest management. NCEs are changes in prey behavior and physiology that aid in predation avoidance. While NCEs can have positive outcomes for prey survival there may also be negative consequences including increased stress and reduced growth. These effects can cascade through trophic systems influencing ecosystem function. Most NCEs have been studied at small spatial and temporal scales. However, recent studies show promise for the potential to manipulate NCEs for pest management. We suggest the next frontier for NCE studies includes manipulatingmore » the landscape of fear to improve pest control, which requires scaling-up to field and landscape levels, over ecologically relevant time frames.« less

  11. Scaling up the health workforce in the public sector: the role of government fiscal policy.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Health workers play a key role in increasing access to health care services. Global and country-level estimates show that staffing in many developing countries - particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa - is far leaner than needed to deliver essential health services to the population. One factor that can limit scaling up the health workforce in developing countries is the government's overall wage policy which sometimes creates restrictions on hiring in the health sector. But while there is considerable debate, the information base in this important area has been quite limited. This paper summarizes the process that determines the budget for health wages in the public sector, how it is linked to overall wage policies, and how this affects staffing in the health sector. The author draws mainly from a recent World Bank report.

  12. Supervision, monitoring and evaluation of nationwide scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in Malawi.

    PubMed Central

    Libamba, Edwin; Makombe, Simon; Mhango, Eustice; de Ascurra Teck, Olga; Limbambala, Eddie; Schouten, Erik J.; Harries, Anthony D.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the supervision, monitoring and evaluation strategies used to assess the delivery of antiretroviral therapy during nationwide scale-up of treatment in Malawi. METHODS: In the first quarter of 2005, the HIV Unit of the Ministry of Health and its partners (the Lighthouse Clinic; Médecins Sans Frontières-Belgium, Thyolo district; and WHO's Country Office) undertook structured supervision and monitoring of all public sector health facilities in Malawi delivering antiretroviral therapy. FINDINGS: Data monitoring showed that by the end of 2004, there were 13,183 patients (5274 (40%) male, 12 527 (95%) adults) who had ever started antiretroviral therapy. Of patients who had ever started, 82% (10 761/13,183) were alive and taking antiretrovirals; 8% (1026/13,183) were dead; 8% (1039/13,183) had been lost to follow up; <1% (106/13,183) had stopped treatment; and 2% (251/13,183) had transferred to another facility. Of those alive and on antiretrovirals, 98% (7098/7258) were ambulatory; 85% (6174/7258) were fit to work; 10% (456/4687) had significant side effects; and, based on pill counts, 96% (6824/7114) had taken their treatment correctly. Mistakes in the registration and monitoring of patients were identified and corrected. Drug stocks were checked, and one potential drug stock-out was averted. As a result of the supervisory visits, by the end of March 2005 recruitment of patients to facilities scheduled to start delivering antiretroviral therapy had increased. CONCLUSION: This report demonstrates the importance of early supervision for sites that are starting to deliver antiretroviral therapy, and it shows the value of combining data collection with supervision. Making regular supervisory and monitoring visits to delivery sites are essential for tracking the national scale-up of delivery of antiretrovirals. PMID:16628306

  13. Scaling up the 454 Titanium Library Construction and Pooling of Barcoded Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Phung, Wilson; Hack, Christopher; Shapiro, Harris

    2009-03-23

    We have been developing a high throughput 454 library construction process at the Joint Genome Institute to meet the needs of de novo sequencing a large number of microbial and eukaryote genomes, EST, and metagenome projects. We have been focusing efforts in three areas: (1) modifying the current process to allow the construction of 454 standard libraries on a 96-well format; (2) developing a robotic platform to perform the 454 library construction; and (3) designing molecular barcodes to allow pooling and sorting of many different samples. In the development of a high throughput process to scale up the number ofmore » libraries by adapting the process to a 96-well plate format, the key process change involves the replacement of gel electrophoresis for size selection with Solid Phase Reversible Immobilization (SPRI) beads. Although the standard deviation of the insert sizes increases, the overall quality sequence and distribution of the reads in the genome has not changed. The manual process of constructing 454 shotgun libraries on 96-well plates is a time-consuming, labor-intensive, and ergonomically hazardous process; we have been experimenting to program a BioMek robot to perform the library construction. This will not only enable library construction to be completed in a single day, but will also minimize any ergonomic risk. In addition, we have implemented a set of molecular barcodes (AKA Multiple Identifiers or MID) and a pooling process that allows us to sequence many targets simultaneously. Here we will present the testing of pooling a set of selected fosmids derived from the endomycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices. By combining the robotic library construction process and the use of molecular barcodes, it is now possible to sequence hundreds of fosmids that represent a minimal tiling path of this genome. Here we present the progress and the challenges of developing these scaled-up processes.« less

  14. Computational psychotherapy research: scaling up the evaluation of patient-provider interactions.

    PubMed

    Imel, Zac E; Steyvers, Mark; Atkins, David C

    2015-03-01

    In psychotherapy, the patient-provider interaction contains the treatment's active ingredients. However, the technology for analyzing the content of this interaction has not fundamentally changed in decades, limiting both the scale and specificity of psychotherapy research. New methods are required to "scale up" to larger evaluation tasks and "drill down" into the raw linguistic data of patient-therapist interactions. In the current article, we demonstrate the utility of statistical text analysis models called topic models for discovering the underlying linguistic structure in psychotherapy. Topic models identify semantic themes (or topics) in a collection of documents (here, transcripts). We used topic models to summarize and visualize 1,553 psychotherapy and drug therapy (i.e., medication management) transcripts. Results showed that topic models identified clinically relevant content, including affective, relational, and intervention related topics. In addition, topic models learned to identify specific types of therapist statements associated with treatment-related codes (e.g., different treatment approaches, patient-therapist discussions about the therapeutic relationship). Visualizations of semantic similarity across sessions indicate that topic models identify content that discriminates between broad classes of therapy (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy vs. psychodynamic therapy). Finally, predictive modeling demonstrated that topic model-derived features can classify therapy type with a high degree of accuracy. Computational psychotherapy research has the potential to scale up the study of psychotherapy to thousands of sessions at a time. We conclude by discussing the implications of computational methods such as topic models for the future of psychotherapy research and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Minnesota wood energy scale-up project 1994 establishment cost data

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, M.; Pierce, R.; Kroll, T.

    1996-03-18

    The Minnesota Wood Energy Scale-up Project began in late 1993 with the first trees planted in the spring of 1994. The purpose of the project is to track and monitor economic costs of planting, maintaining and monitoring larger scale commercial plantings. For 15 years, smaller scale research plantings of hybrid poplar have been used to screen for promising, high-yielding poplar clones. In this project 1000 acres of hybrid poplar trees were planted on Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land near Alexandria, Minnesota in 1994. The fourteen landowners involved re-contracted with the CRP for five-year extensions of their existing 10-year contracts. Thesemore » extended contracts will expire in 2001, when the plantings are 7 years old. The end use for the trees planted in the Minnesota Wood Energy Scale-up Project is undetermined. They will belong to the owner of the land on which they are planted. There are no current contracts in place for the wood these trees are projected to supply. The structure of the wood industry in the Minnesota has changed drastically over the past 5 years. Stumpage values for fiber have risen to more than $20 per cord in some areas raising the possibility that these trees could be used for fiber rather than energy. Several legislative mandates have forced the State of Minnesota to pursue renewable energy including biomass energy. These mandates, a potential need for an additional 1700 MW of power by 2008 by Northern States Power, and agricultural policies will all affect development of energy markets for wood produced much like agricultural crops. There has been a tremendous amount of local and international interest in the project. Contractual negotiations between area landowners, the CRP, a local Resource Conservation and Development District, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and others are currently underway for additional planting of 1000 acres in spring 1995.« less

  16. Geriatric health policy in India: The need for scaling-up implementation

    PubMed Central

    Paul, N. Sherin Susan; Asirvatham, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    In an anticipation of the rising geriatric population in India, the Central government constituted the National Policy for Older Persons in 1999 to promote the health and welfare of senior citizens in India. A major strategy of this policy is to encourage families to take care of their older family members. The policy also encourages voluntary organizations to supplement the care provided by the family and provide care and protection to vulnerable elderly people. The implementation of this policy, particularly in the rural areas, has been negligible and calls for a scaling-up of programs to address the physical, psychological, and social needs of the poor. Due to breakdown of the joint family system and the migration of the younger generation to the towns and cities, the elderly parents in the villages are left to fend for themselves. Too old to work and with little or no source of income, the elders are struggling even to satisfy their basic needs. This article primarily focuses on the various facets of elderly care in India. As a fledgling nation in elderly care, we should take cues from other nations who have pioneered in this field and should constantly evolve to identify and face the various challenges that come up, especially from rural India. The Rural Unit for Health and Social Affairs Department of a well-known Medical College in South India has developed a “senior recreation day care” model which proves to be a useful replicable model to improve the quality of life and nutritional status of the elderly in the lower rungs of society. More than a decade since its inception, it is now the right time to assess the implementation of our geriatric health policy and scale-up programs so that the elderly in our country, irrespective of urban and rural, will have a dignified and good quality life. PMID:27843821

  17. Peruvian Mental Health Reform: A Framework for Scaling-up Mental Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, Mauricio; Castillo, Humberto; Galea, Jerome T.; Brandt, Lena R.; Mendoza, María; Herrera, Vanessa; Mitrani, Martha; Cutipé, Yuri; Cavero, Victoria; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mental, neurological, and substance (MNS) use disorders are a leading cause of disability worldwide; specifically in Peru, MNS affect 1 in 5 persons. However, the great majority of people suffering from these disorders do not access care, thereby making necessary the improvement of existing conditions including a major rearranging of current health system structures beyond care delivery strategies. This paper reviews and examines recent developments in mental health policies in Peru, presenting an overview of the initiatives currently being introduced and the main implementation challenges they face. Methods: Key documents issued by Peruvian governmental entities regarding mental health were reviewed to identify and describe the path that led to the beginning of the reform; how the ongoing reform is taking place; and, the plan and scope for scale-up. Results: Since 2004, mental health has gained importance in policies and regulations, resulting in the promotion of a mental health reform within the national healthcare system. These efforts crystallized in 2012 with the passing of Law 29889 which introduced several changes to the delivery of mental healthcare, including a restructuring of mental health service delivery to occur at the primary and secondary care levels and the introduction of supporting services to aid in patient recovery and reintegration into society. In addition, a performance-based budget was approved to guarantee the implementation of these changes. Some of the main challenges faced by this reform are related to the diversity of the implementation settings, eg, isolated rural areas, and the limitations of the existing specialized mental health institutes to substantially grow in parallel to the scaling-up efforts in order to be able to provide training and clinical support to every region of Peru. Conclusion: Although the true success of the mental healthcare reform will be determined in the coming years, thus far, Peru has achieved a

  18. Trans-National Scale-Up of Services in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Shahin, Ilan; Sohal, Raman; Ginther, John; Hayden, Leigh; MacDonald, John A.; Mossman, Kathryn; Parikh, Himanshu; McGahan, Anita; Mitchell, Will; Bhattacharyya, Onil

    2014-01-01

    Background Scaling up innovative healthcare programs offers a means to improve access, quality, and health equity across multiple health areas. Despite large numbers of promising projects, little is known about successful efforts to scale up. This study examines trans-national scale, whereby a program operates in two or more countries. Trans-national scale is a distinct measure that reflects opportunities to replicate healthcare programs in multiple countries, thereby providing services to broader populations. Methods Based on the Center for Health Market Innovations (CHMI) database of nearly 1200 health programs, the study contrasts 116 programs that have achieved trans-national scale with 1,068 single-country programs. Data was collected on the programs' health focus, service activity, legal status, and funding sources, as well as the programs' locations (rural v. urban emphasis), and founding year; differences are reported with statistical significance. Findings This analysis examines 116 programs that have achieved trans-national scale (TNS) across multiple disease areas and activity types. Compared to 1,068 single-country programs, we find that trans-nationally scaled programs are more donor-reliant; more likely to focus on targeted health needs such as HIV/AIDS, TB, malaria, or family planning rather than provide more comprehensive general care; and more likely to engage in activities that support healthcare services rather than provide direct clinical care. Conclusion This work, based on a large data set of health programs, reports on trans-national scale with comparison to single-country programs. The work is a step towards understanding when programs are able to replicate their services as they attempt to expand health services for the poor across countries and health areas. A subset of these programs should be the subject of case studies to understand factors that affect the scaling process, particularly seeking to identify mechanisms that lead to

  19. Scale-up of collaborative TB/HIV activities in Guyana.

    PubMed

    Baker, Brian J; Peterson, Brandy; Mohanlall, Jeetendra; Singh, Shanti; Hicks, Collene; Jacobs, Ruth; Ramos, Ruth; Allen, Barbara; Pevzner, Eric

    2017-04-20

    To assess scale-up of recommended tuberculosis (TB)/HIV activities in Guyana and to identify specific strategies for further expansion. Medical records and clinic registers were reviewed at nine TB clinics and 10 HIV clinics. At TB clinics, data were collected on HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for patients with TB/HIV; at HIV clinics, data were collected on intensified case finding (ICF), tuberculin skin test (TST) results, and provision of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). At TB clinics, among 461 patients newly diagnosed with TB, 419 (90.9%) had a known HIV status and 121 (28.9%) were HIV-infected. Among the 63 patients with TB/HIV, 33 (52.4%) received ART. Among the 45 patients with TB/HIV for whom dates of HIV diagnosis were available, 38 (84.4%) individuals knew their HIV status prior to TB diagnosis. At HIV clinics, among 127 patients eligible to receive a TST, 87 (68.5%) received a TST, 66 (75.9%) had a TST result, seven (10.6%) had a newly positive result, two had a previously positive result, and six of nine patients with positive results (66.7%) received IPT. ICF could not be assessed because of incomplete or discrepant documentation. An in-depth evaluation of TB/HIV activities successfully identified areas of success and remaining challenges. At TB clinics, HIV testing rates are high; further scale-up of ART for persons with TB/HIV is needed. At HIV clinics, use of TST to focus IPT is a feasible and efficient strategy; improving rates of annual TST screening will allow for further expansion of IPT.

  20. Risks of beryllium disease related to work processes at a metal, alloy, and oxide production plant.

    PubMed

    Kreiss, K; Mroz, M M; Zhen, B; Wiedemann, H; Barna, B

    1997-08-01

    To describe relative hazards in sectors of the beryllium industry, risk factors of beryllium disease and sensitisation related to work process were sought in a beryllium manufacturing plant producing pure metal, oxide, alloys, and ceramics. All 646 active employees were interviewed; beryllium sensitisation was ascertained with the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation blood test on 627 employees; clinical evaluation and bronchoscopy were offered to people with abnormal test results; and industrial hygiene measurements related to work processes taken in 1984-93 were reviewed. 59 employees (9.4%) had abnormal blood tests, 47 of whom underwent bronchoscopy. 24 new cases of beryllium disease were identified, resulting in a beryllium disease prevalence of 4.6%, including five known cases (29/632). Employees who had worked in ceramics had the highest prevalence of beryllium disease (9.0%). Employees in the pebble plant (producing beryllium metal) who had been employed after 1983 also had increased risk, with a prevalence of beryllium disease of 6.4%, compared with 1.3% of other workers hired in the same period, and a prevalence of abnormal blood tests of 19.2%. Logistic regression modelling confirmed these two risk factors for beryllium disease related to work processes and the dependence on time of the risk at the pebble plant. The pebble plant was not associated with the highest gravimetric industrial hygiene measurements available since 1984. Further characterisation of exposures in beryllium metal production may be important to understanding how beryllium exposures confer high contemporary risk of beryllium disease.

  1. Hypoxia-elicited impairment of cell wall integrity, glycosylation precursor synthesis, and growth in scaled-up high-cell density fed-batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Aon, Juan C; Sun, Jianxin; Leighton, Julie M; Appelbaum, Edward R

    2016-08-15

    In this study we examine the integrity of the cell wall during scale up of a yeast fermentation process from laboratory scale (10 L) to industrial scale (10,000 L). In a previous study we observed a clear difference in the volume fraction occupied by yeast cells as revealed by wet cell weight (WCW) measurements between these scales. That study also included metabolite analysis which suggested hypoxia during scale up. Here we hypothesize that hypoxia weakens the yeast cell wall during the scale up, leading to changes in cell permeability, and/or cell mechanical resistance, which in turn may lead to the observed difference in WCW. We tested the cell wall integrity by probing the cell wall sensitivity to Zymolyase. Also exometabolomics data showed changes in supply of precursors for the glycosylation pathway. The results show a more sensitive cell wall later in the production process at industrial scale, while the sensitivity at early time points was similar at both scales. We also report exometabolomics data, in particular a link with the protein glycosylation pathway. Significantly lower levels of Man6P and progressively higher GDP-mannose indicated partially impaired incorporation of this sugar nucleotide during co- or post-translational protein glycosylation pathways at the 10,000 L compared to the 10 L scale. This impairment in glycosylation would be expected to affect cell wall integrity. Although cell viability from samples obtained at both scales were similar, cells harvested from 10 L bioreactors were able to re-initiate growth faster in fresh shake flask media than those harvested from the industrial scale. The results obtained help explain the WCW differences observed at both scales by hypoxia-triggered weakening of the yeast cell wall during the scale up.

  2. Do we have the right models for scaling up health services to achieve the Millennium Development Goals?

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Savitha; Naimoli, Joseph; Matsubayashi, Toru; Peters, David H

    2011-12-14

    There is widespread agreement on the need for scaling up in the health sector to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). But many countries are not on track to reach the MDG targets. The dominant approach used by global health initiatives promotes uniform interventions and targets, assuming that specific technical interventions tested in one country can be replicated across countries to rapidly expand coverage. Yet countries scale up health services and progress against the MDGs at very different rates. Global health initiatives need to take advantage of what has been learned about scaling up. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify conceptual models for scaling up health in developing countries, with the articles assessed according to the practical concerns of how to scale up, including the planning, monitoring and implementation approaches. We identified six conceptual models for scaling up in health based on experience with expanding pilot projects and diffusion of innovations. They place importance on paying attention to enhancing organizational, functional, and political capabilities through experimentation and adaptation of strategies in addition to increasing the coverage and range of health services. These scaling up approaches focus on fostering sustainable institutions and the constructive engagement between end users and the provider and financing organizations. The current approaches to scaling up health services to reach the MDGs are overly simplistic and not working adequately. Rather than relying on blueprint planning and raising funds, an approach characteristic of current global health efforts, experience with alternative models suggests that more promising pathways involve "learning by doing" in ways that engage key stakeholders, uses data to address constraints, and incorporates results from pilot projects. Such approaches should be applied to current strategies to achieve the MDGs.

  3. Purification of uranium alloys by differential solubility of oxides and production of purified fuel precursors

    DOEpatents

    McLean, II, William; Miller, Philip E.

    1997-01-01

    A method for purifying metallic alloys of uranium for use as nuclear reactor fuels in which the metal alloy is first converted to an oxide and then dissolved in nitric acid. Initial removal of metal oxide impurities not soluble in nitric acid is accomplished by filtration or other physical means. Further purification can be accomplished by carbonate leaching of uranyl ions from the partially purified solution or using traditional methods such as solvent extraction.

  4. Purification of uranium alloys by differential solubility of oxides and production of purified fuel precursors

    DOEpatents

    McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.

    1997-12-16

    A method is described for purifying metallic alloys of uranium for use as nuclear reactor fuels in which the metal alloy is first converted to an oxide and then dissolved in nitric acid. Initial removal of metal oxide impurities not soluble in nitric acid is accomplished by filtration or other physical means. Further purification can be accomplished by carbonate leaching of uranyl ions from the partially purified solution or using traditional methods such as solvent extraction. 3 figs.

  5. Human resources requirements for highly active antiretroviral therapy scale-up in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Muula, Adamson S; Chipeta, John; Siziya, Seter; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Mataya, Ronald H; Kataika, Edward

    2007-12-19

    pharmacy technicians and 27.9% to 55.7% of all clinical officers and physicians. The actual number of health professionals working in the delivery of HAART in the clinics represented 44% to 88.8% (for clinical officers and medical doctors) and 13.6% and 47.6% (for nurses), of what would have been needed based on the literature estimation. HAART provision is a labour intensive exercise. Although these data are insufficient to determine whether HAART scale-up has resulted in the weakening or strengthening of the health systems in Malawi, the human resources requirements for HAART scale-up are significant. Malawi is using far less human resources than would be estimated based on the literature from other settings. The impact of HAART scale-up on the overall delivery of health services should be assessed.

  6. DC Electric Arc Furnace Application for Production of Nickel-Boron Master Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkan, Murat; Tasyürek, Kerem Can; Bugdayci, Mehmet; Turan, Ahmet; Yücel, Onuralp

    2017-09-01

    In this study, nickel-boron (Ni-B) alloys were produced via a carbothermic reduction starting from boric acid (H3BO3) with high-purity nickel oxide (NiO), charcoal, and wood chips in a direct current arc furnace. In electric arc furnace experiments, different starting mixtures were used, and their effects on the chemical compositions of the final Ni-B alloys were investigated. After the reduction and melting stages, Ni-B alloys were obtained by tapping from the bottom of the furnace. The samples from the designated areas were also taken and analyzed. The chemical composition of the final alloys and selected samples were measured with wet chemical analysis. The Ni-B alloys had a composition of up to 14.82 mass% B. The phase contents of the final alloys and selected samples were measured using x-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD data helped predict possible reactions and reaction mechanisms. The material and energy balance calculations were made via the XRD Rietveld and chemical compositions. Nickel boride phases started to form 600 mm below the surface. The targeted NiB phase was detected at the tapping zone of the crucible (850-900 mm depth). The energy consumption was 1.84-4.29 kWh/kg, and the electrode consumption was 10-12 g/kg of raw material charged.

  7. Task sharing in Zambia: HIV service scale-up compounds the human resource crisis.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Aisling; Ndubani, Phillimon; Simbaya, Joseph; Dicker, Patrick; Brugha, Ruairí

    2010-09-17

    Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on health workers due to the availability of new funds for HIV/AIDS control scale-up. This study analyses and reports trends in HIV and non-HIV ambulatory service workloads on clinical staff in urban and rural district level facilities. Structured surveys of health facility managers, and health services covering 2005-07 were conducted in three districts of Zambia in 2008 (two urban and one rural), to fill this evidence gap. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, comparing trends in HIV and non-HIV service utilisation with staff trends. Clinical staff (doctors, nurses and nurse-midwives, and clinical officers) numbers and staff population densities fell slightly, with lower ratios of staff to population in the rural district. The ratios of antenatal care and family planning registrants to nurses/nurse-midwives were highest at baseline and increased further at the rural facilities over the three years, while daily outpatient department (OPD) workload in urban facilities fell below that in rural facilities. HIV workload, as measured by numbers of clients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) per facility staff member, was highest in the capital city, but increased rapidly in all three districts. The analysis suggests evidence of task sharing, in that staff designated by managers as ART and PMTCT workers made up a higher proportion of frontline service providers by 2007. This analysis of workforce patterns across 30 facilities in three districts of Zambia illustrates that the remarkable achievements in scaling-up HIV/AIDS service delivery has been on the back of sustained non-HIV workload levels, increasing HIV workload and stagnant

  8. Scaling up a Mobile Telemedicine Solution in Botswana: Keys to Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Ndlovu, Kagiso; Littman-Quinn, Ryan; Park, Elizabeth; Dikai, Zambo; Kovarik, Carrie L

    2014-01-01

    Effective health care delivery is significantly compromised in an environment where resources, both human and technical, are limited. Botswana's health care system is one of the many in the African continent with few specialized medical doctors, thereby posing a barrier to patients' access to health care services. In addition, the traditional landline and non-robust Information Technology (IT) network infrastructure characterized by slow bandwidth still dominates the health care system in Botswana. Upgrading of the landline IT infrastructure to meet today's health care demands is a tedious, long, and expensive process. Despite these challenges, there still lies hope in health care delivery utilizing wireless telecommunication services. Botswana has recently experienced tremendous growth in the mobile telecommunication industry coupled with an increase in the number of individually owned mobile devices. This growth inspired the Botswana-UPenn Partnership (BUP) to collaborate with local partners to explore using mobile devices as tools to improve access to specialized health care delivery. Pilot studies were conducted across four medical specialties, including radiology, oral medicine, dermatology, and cervical cancer screening. Findings from the studies became vital evidence in support of the first scale-up project of a mobile telemedicine solution in Botswana, also known as "Kgonafalo." Some technical and social challenges were encountered during the initial studies, such as malfunctioning of mobile devices, accidental damage of devices, and cultural misalignment between IT and healthcare providers. These challenges brought about lessons learnt, including a strong need for unwavering senior management support, establishment of solid local public-private partnerships, and efficient project sustainability plans. Sustainability milestones included the development and signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the Botswana government and a private

  9. Peruvian Mental Health Reform: A Framework for Scaling-up Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Mauricio; Castillo, Humberto; Galea, Jerome T; Brandt, Lena R; Mendoza, María; Herrera, Vanessa; Mitrani, Martha; Cutipé, Yuri; Cavero, Victoria; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Miranda, J Jaime

    2017-01-22

    Mental, neurological, and substance (MNS) use disorders are a leading cause of disability worldwide; specifically in Peru, MNS affect 1 in 5 persons. However, the great majority of people suffering from these disorders do not access care, thereby making necessary the improvement of existing conditions including a major rearranging of current health system structures beyond care delivery strategies. This paper reviews and examines recent developments in mental health policies in Peru, presenting an overview of the initiatives currently being introduced and the main implementation challenges they face. Key documents issued by Peruvian governmental entities regarding mental health were reviewed to identify and describe the path that led to the beginning of the reform; how the ongoing reform is taking place; and, the plan and scope for scale-up. Since 2004, mental health has gained importance in policies and regulations, resulting in the promotion of a mental health reform within the national healthcare system. These efforts crystallized in 2012 with the passing of Law 29889 which introduced several changes to the delivery of mental healthcare, including a restructuring of mental health service delivery to occur at the primary and secondary care levels and the introduction of supporting services to aid in patient recovery and reintegration into society. In addition, a performance-based budget was approved to guarantee the implementation of these changes. Some of the main challenges faced by this reform are related to the diversity of the implementation settings, eg, isolated rural areas, and the limitations of the existing specialized mental health institutes to substantially grow in parallel to the scaling-up efforts in order to be able to provide training and clinical support to every region of Peru. Although the true success of the mental healthcare reform will be determined in the coming years, thus far, Peru has achieved a number of legal, policy and fiscal

  10. Scaling up a Mobile Telemedicine Solution in Botswana: Keys to Sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Ndlovu, Kagiso; Littman-Quinn, Ryan; Park, Elizabeth; Dikai, Zambo; Kovarik, Carrie L.

    2014-01-01

    Effective health care delivery is significantly compromised in an environment where resources, both human and technical, are limited. Botswana’s health care system is one of the many in the African continent with few specialized medical doctors, thereby posing a barrier to patients’ access to health care services. In addition, the traditional landline and non-robust Information Technology (IT) network infrastructure characterized by slow bandwidth still dominates the health care system in Botswana. Upgrading of the landline IT infrastructure to meet today’s health care demands is a tedious, long, and expensive process. Despite these challenges, there still lies hope in health care delivery utilizing wireless telecommunication services. Botswana has recently experienced tremendous growth in the mobile telecommunication industry coupled with an increase in the number of individually owned mobile devices. This growth inspired the Botswana-UPenn Partnership (BUP) to collaborate with local partners to explore using mobile devices as tools to improve access to specialized health care delivery. Pilot studies were conducted across four medical specialties, including radiology, oral medicine, dermatology, and cervical cancer screening. Findings from the studies became vital evidence in support of the first scale-up project of a mobile telemedicine solution in Botswana, also known as “Kgonafalo.” Some technical and social challenges were encountered during the initial studies, such as malfunctioning of mobile devices, accidental damage of devices, and cultural misalignment between IT and healthcare providers. These challenges brought about lessons learnt, including a strong need for unwavering senior management support, establishment of solid local public-private partnerships, and efficient project sustainability plans. Sustainability milestones included the development and signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the Botswana government and a private

  11. From Buckets to Basins: Scaling up from the CZO to the NOAA National Water Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugger, A. L.; Gochis, D.; Cosgrove, B.; Sampson, K. M.; McCreight, J. L.; Rafieeinasab, A.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA's National Water Model (NWM) is generating terabytes of data on current and future states of water in streams, soils, snowpacks, lakes, and floodplains across the U.S. Altogether there are approximately 2.7 million stream reaches in the NWM and land cells distributed every 250-m (soil moisture, inundation) and 1-km (snow, evapotranspiration). Water predictions span the next hour to the next 30 days. Flood forecasting is an obvious NWM priority in the near term, but longer-range plans extend to water supply planning, drought forecasting, and water quality. An obvious question posed to a model operating across this many dimensions of space, time, and variables is: are you including the right processes and parameterizations to capture the hydrologic behaviors you are designed for? To answer this question, we generally rely on networks of in-situ observations to constrain models via parameter estimation or evaluate alternate process representations. While this gets us part of the way there, the question remains how well these in-situ characterizations scale up in the context of a national-scale model. The WRF-Hydro community hydrologic modeling system provides the initial backbone for the NWM, driving simulation of water and energy within the critical zone - vertical energy and water fluxes, lateral redistribution of surface and subsurface water, simple deep groundwater dynamics, and channel routing. In this study, we first present baseline performance of the NWM over US-wide networks of streamflow (USGS), soil moisture (CRN, SCAN), and evapotranspiration (Ameriflux) observations at a range of spatial and temporal scales. We conduct a series of simple experiments using different submodel combinations of WRF-Hydro at high-resolution to predict water storage and partitioning behavior at 3 well-instrumented catchments, with the goal of optimizing combined performance of snowpack, soil moisture, ET, and streamflow prediction. We scale-up the optimal physics suites and

  12. The Student-Centered Active Learning Environment for Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichner, Robert J.

    2011-04-01

    How do you keep a classroom of 100 undergraduates actively learning? Can students practice communication and teamwork skills in a large class? How do you boost the performance of underrepresented groups? The Student-Centered Active Learning Environment for Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) Project has addressed these concerns. Because of their inclusion in a leading introductory physics textbook, project materials are used by more than 1/3 of all science, math, and engineering majors nationwide. The room design and pedagogy have been adopted at more than 100 leading institutions across the country. Physics, chemistry, math, astronomy, biology, engineering, earth sciences, and even literature classes are currently being taught this way. Educational research indicates that students should collaborate on interesting tasks and be deeply involved with the material they are studying. We promote active learning in a redesigned classroom for 100 students or more. (Of course, smaller classes can also benefit.) Class time is spent primarily on "tangibles" and "ponderables"--hands-on activities, simulations, and interesting questions. Nine students sit in three teams at round tables. Instructors circulate and engage in Socratic dialogues. The setting looks like a banquet hall, with lively interactions nearly all the time. Hundreds of hours of classroom video and audio recordings, transcripts of numerous interviews and focus groups, data from conceptual learning assessments (using widely-recognized instruments in a pretest/posttest protocol), and collected portfolios of student work are part of our rigorous assessment effort. Our findings (based on data from over 16,000 students collected over five years as well as replications at adopting sites) can be summarized as the following: 1) Female failure rate is 1/5 of previous levels, even though more is demanded of students. 2) Minority failure rate is 1/4 that seen in traditionally taught courses. 3) At-risk students are more

  13. Scaling up and error analysis of transpiration for Populus euphratica in a desert riparian forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, J.; Li, W.; Feng, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Water consumption information of the forest stand is the most important factor for regional water resources management. However, water consumption of individual trees are usually measured based on the limited sample trees , so, it is an important issue how to realize eventual scaling up of data from a series of sample trees to entire stand. Estimation of sap flow flux density (Fd) and stand sapwood area (AS-stand) are among the most critical factors for determining forest stand transpiration using sap flow measurement. To estimate Fd, the various links in sap flow technology have great impact on the measurement of sap flow, to estimate AS-stand, an appropriate indirect technique for measuring each tree sapwood area (AS-tree) is required, because it is impossible to measure the AS-tree of all trees in a forest stand. In this study, Fd was measured in 2 mature P. euphratic trees at several radial depths, 0~10, 10~30mm, using sap flow sensors with the heat ratio method, the relationship model between AS-tree and stem diameter (DBH), growth model of AS-tree were established, using investigative original data of DBH, tree-age, and AS-tree. The results revealed that it can achieve scaling up of transpiration from sample trees to entire forest stand using AS-tree and Fd, however, the transpiration of forest stand (E) will be overvalued by 12.6% if using Fd of 0~10mm, and it will be underestimated by 25.3% if using Fd of 10~30mm, it implied that major uncertainties in mean stand Fd estimations are caused by radial variations in Fd. E will be obviously overvalued when the AS-stand is constant, this result imply that it is the key to improve the prediction accuracy that how to simulate the AS-stand changes in the day scale; They also showed that the potential errors in transpiration with a sample size of approximately ≥30 were almost stable for P.euphrtica, this suggests that to make an allometric equation it might be necessary to sample at least 30 trees.

  14. Effective Collaboration for Scaling Up Health Technologies: A Case Study of the Chlorhexidine for Umbilical Cord Care Experience

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Patricia S; Hodgins, Steve; Bishop, Amie

    2018-01-01

    The global health field is replete with examples of cross-organizational collaborative partnerships, such as networks, alliances, coalitions, task forces, and working groups, often established to tackle a shared global health concern, condition, or threat affecting low-income countries or communities. The purpose of this article is to review factors influencing the effectiveness of a multi-agency global health collaborative effort using the Chlorhexidine Working Group (CWG) as our case study. The CWG was established to accelerate the introduction and global scale-up of chlorhexidine for umbilical cord care to reduce infection-related neonatal morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. Questions included: how current and past CWG members characterized the effectiveness, productivity, collaboration, and leadership of the CWG; what factors facilitated or hindered group function; institutional or individual reasons for participating and length of participation in the CWG; and lessons that might be relevant for future global collaborative partnerships. Data were collected through in-depth, semistructured individual interviews with 19 group members and a review of key guiding documents. Six domains of internal coalition functioning (leadership, interpersonal relationships, task focus, participant benefits and costs, sustainability planning, and community support) were used to frame and describe the functioning of the CWG. Collaboration effectiveness was found to depend on: (1) leadership that maintained a careful balance between discipline and flexibility, (2) a strong secretariat structure that supported the evolution of trust and transparent communication in interpersonal relationships, (3) shared goals that allowed for task focus, (4) diverse membership and active involvement from country-level participants, which created a positive benefit-cost ratio for participants, (5) sufficient resources to support the partnership and build sustainable capacity for members

  15. Impact of the scale-up of piped water on urogenital schistosomiasis infection in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Azongo, Daniel K; Vandormael, Alain; Bärnighausen, Till; Appleton, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Recent work has estimated that sub-Saharan Africa could lose US$3.5 billion of economic productivity every year as a result of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. One of the main interventions to control schistosomiasis is the provision of safe water to limit the contact with infected water bodies and break the cycle of transmission. To date, a rigorous quantification of the impact of safe water supplies on schistosomiasis is lacking. Using data from one of Africa’s largest population-based cohorts, we establish the impact of the scale-up of piped water in a typical rural South African population over a seven-year time horizon. High coverage of piped water in the community decreased a child’s risk of urogenital schistosomiasis infection eight-fold (adjusted odds ratio = 0.12, 95% CI 0.06–0.26, p<0.001). The provision of safe water could drive levels of urogenital schistosomiasis infection to low levels of endemicity in rural African settings. PMID:29460779

  16. High temperature alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, R. G.; Semmel, J. W., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Molybdenum is substituted for tungsten on an atomic basis in a cobalt-based alloy, S-1, thus enabling the alloy to be formed into various mill products, such as tubing and steels. The alloy is weldable, has good high temperature strength and is not subject to embrittlement produced by high temperature aging.

  17. Engineering integrated digital circuits with allosteric ribozymes for scaling up molecular computation and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Penchovsky, Robert

    2012-10-19

    Here we describe molecular implementations of integrated digital circuits, including a three-input AND logic gate, a two-input multiplexer, and 1-to-2 decoder using allosteric ribozymes. Furthermore, we demonstrate a multiplexer-decoder circuit. The ribozymes are designed to seek-and-destroy specific RNAs with a certain length by a fully computerized procedure. The algorithm can accurately predict one base substitution that alters the ribozyme's logic function. The ability to sense the length of RNA molecules enables single ribozymes to be used as platforms for multiple interactions. These ribozymes can work as integrated circuits with the functionality of up to five logic gates. The ribozyme design is universal since the allosteric and substrate domains can be altered to sense different RNAs. In addition, the ribozymes can specifically cleave RNA molecules with triplet-repeat expansions observed in genetic disorders such as oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. Therefore, the designer ribozymes can be employed for scaling up computing and diagnostic networks in the fields of molecular computing and diagnostics and RNA synthetic biology.

  18. Scale-up on basis of structured mixing models: A new concept.

    PubMed

    Mayr, B; Moser, A; Nagy, E; Horvat, P

    1994-02-05

    A new scale-up concept based upon mixing models for bioreactors equipped with Rushton turbines using the tanks-in-series concept is presented. The physical mixing model includes four adjustable parameters, i.e., radial and axial circulation time, number of ideally mixed elements in one cascade, and the volume of the ideally mixed turbine region. The values of the model parameters were adjusted with the application of a modified Monte-Carlo optimization method, which fitted the simulated response function to the experimental curve. The number of cascade elements turned out to be constant (N = 4). The model parameter radial circulation time is in good agreement with the one obtained by the pumping capacity. In case of remaining parameters a first or second order formal equation was developed, including four operational parameters (stirring and aeration intensity, scale, viscosity). This concept can be extended to several other types of bioreactors as well, and it seems to be a suitable tool to compare the bioprocess performance of different types of bioreactors. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Vaccinium meridionale Swartz Supercritical CO₂ Extraction: Effect of Process Conditions and Scaling Up.

    PubMed

    López-Padilla, Alexis; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Restrepo Flórez, Claudia Estela; Rivero Barrios, Diana Marsela; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2016-06-25

    Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (Mortiño or Colombian blueberry) is one of the Vaccinium species abundantly found across the Colombian mountains, which are characterized by high contents of polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins and flavonoids). The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Vaccinium species has mainly focused on the study of V. myrtillus L. (blueberry). In this work, the SFE of Mortiño fruit from Colombia was studied in a small-scale extraction cell (273 cm³) and different extraction pressures (20 and 30 MPa) and temperatures (313 and 343 K) were investigated. Then, process scaling-up to a larger extraction cell (1350 cm³) was analyzed using well-known semi-empirical engineering approaches. The Broken and Intact Cell (BIC) model was adjusted to represent the kinetic behavior of the low-scale extraction and to simulate the large-scale conditions. Extraction yields obtained were in the range 0.1%-3.2%. Most of the Mortiño solutes are readily accessible and, thus, 92% of the extractable material was recovered in around 30 min. The constant CO₂ residence time criterion produced excellent results regarding the small-scale kinetic curve according to the BIC model, and this conclusion was experimentally validated in large-scale kinetic experiments.

  20. Scaling-up essential neuropsychiatric services in Ethiopia: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Kirsten Bjerkreim; Chisholm, Dan; Fekadu, Abebaw; Johansson, Kjell Arne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is an immense need for scaling-up neuropsychiatric care in low-income countries. Contextualized cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) provide relevant information for local policies. The aim of this study is to perform a contextualized CEA of neuropsychiatric interventions in Ethiopia and to illustrate expected population health and budget impacts across neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods A mathematical population model (PopMod) was used to estimate intervention costs and effectiveness. Existing variables from a previous WHO-CHOICE regional CEA model were substantially revised. Treatments for depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and epilepsy were analysed. The best available local data on epidemiology, intervention efficacy, current and target coverage, resource prices and salaries were used. Data were obtained from expert opinion, local hospital information systems, the Ministry of Health and literature reviews. Results Treatment of epilepsy with a first generation antiepileptic drug is the most cost-effective treatment (US$ 321 per DALY adverted). Treatments for depression have mid-range values compared with other interventions (US$ 457–1026 per DALY adverted). Treatments for schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are least cost-effective (US$ 1168–3739 per DALY adverted). Conclusion This analysis gives the Ethiopian government a comprehensive overview of the expected costs, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of introducing basic neuropsychiatric interventions. PMID:26491060

  1. Experimental and numerical investigation of a scaled-up passive micromixer using fluorescence technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yanfeng; Hassan, Ibrahim

    2010-09-01

    The present paper investigates experimentally and numerically a scaled-up micromixer that combines the mixing principles of focusing/diverging and flow split-and-recombine. The micromixer consists of two units called “cross” and “omega”, which are similar to a zigzag structure. The total length is 199.5 mm with a depth of 3 mm. Fluorescence technique is used in the present study for local quantitative measurements of concentration. Two syringe pumps are used to supply the working fluids at two inlets. The testing range of Reynolds number is at 1 ≤ Re ≤ 50. The results of the experiment, obtained by fluorescence technique, are supported by the mixing visualization. The experimental results show that the mixing efficiency decreases at Re ≤ 10 and increases at Re ≥ 10. This is caused by the change in mixing mechanism from mass-diffusion domination to mass-convection domination. After five cells, the mixing efficiency reaches to 70% at Re = 50. The computational fluid dynamics is applied to assist in the understanding of fluid characteristics in channels. The simulation has a good agreement with the experiment. Based on the simulation results, vortices are observed in the channels at high Re, which could stretch and fold the fluids to enhance the effect of mass-convection on mixing. This design has the potential to be developed for micromixers with high flow rates.

  2. Stem Cell Spheroids and Ex Vivo Niche Modeling: Rationalization and Scaling-Up.

    PubMed

    Chimenti, Isotta; Massai, Diana; Morbiducci, Umberto; Beltrami, Antonio Paolo; Pesce, Maurizio; Messina, Elisa

    2017-04-01

    Improved protocols/devices for in vitro culture of 3D cell spheroids may provide essential cues for proper growth and differentiation of stem/progenitor cells (S/PCs) in their niche, allowing preservation of specific features, such as multi-lineage potential and paracrine activity. Several platforms have been employed to replicate these conditions and to generate S/PC spheroids for therapeutic applications. However, they incompletely reproduce the niche environment, with partial loss of its highly regulated network, with additional hurdles in the field of cardiac biology, due to debated resident S/PCs therapeutic potential and clinical translation. In this contribution, the essential niche conditions (metabolic, geometric, mechanical) that allow S/PCs maintenance/commitment will be discussed. In particular, we will focus on both existing bioreactor-based platforms for the culture of S/PC as spheroids, and on possible criteria for the scaling-up of niche-like spheroids, which could be envisaged as promising tools for personalized cardiac regenerative medicine, as well as for high-throughput drug screening.

  3. Scaling Up Integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illness: Update from Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Nsona, Humphreys; Mtimuni, Angella; Daelmans, Bernadette; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A.; Gilroy, Kate; Mgalula, Leslie; Kachule, Timothy; Zamasiya, Texas

    2012-01-01

    The Government of Malawi (GoM) initiated activities to deliver treatment of common childhood illnesses (suspected pneumonia, fever/suspected malaria, and diarrhea) in the community in 2008. The service providers are Health Surveillance Assistants (HSAs), and they are posted nationwide to serve communities at a ratio of 1 to 1,000 population. The GoM targeted the establishment of 3,452 village health clinics (VHCs) in hard-to-reach areas by 2011. By September of 2011, 3,296 HSAs had received training in integrated case management of childhood illness, and 2,709 VHCs were functional. An assessment has shown that HSAs are able to treat sick children with quality similar to the quality provided in fixed facilities. Monitoring data also suggest that communities are using the sick child services. We summarize factors that have facilitated the scale up of integrated community case management of children in Malawi and address challenges, such as ensuring a steady supply of medicines and supportive supervision. PMID:23136278

  4. Effectiveness of a Scaled-Up Arthritis Self-Management Program in Oregon: Walk With Ease.

    PubMed

    Conte, Kathleen P; Odden, Michelle C; Linton, Natalie M; Harvey, S Marie

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Walk With Ease (WWE), an evidence-based arthritis self-management program that was scaled up in Oregon in 2012 to 2014. Guided by the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework, we collected participant surveys and attendance records and conducted observations. Preprogram and postprogram, participants self-reported pain and fatigue (scale: 0-10 points; high scores indicate more pain and fatigue) and estimated episodes of physical activity per week in the last month. Recruitment successfully reached the targeted population-sedentary adults with arthritis (n = 598). Participants reported significant reduction in pain (-0.47 points; P = .006) and fatigue (-0.58 points; P = .021) and increased physical activity (0.86 days/week; P < .001). WWE was adopted by workplaces and medical, community, faith, and retirement centers. Most WWE programs were delivered with high fidelity; average attendance was 47%. WWE is suitable for implementation by diverse organizations. Effect sizes for pain and fatigue were less than those in the original WWE studies, but this is to be expected for a large-scale implementation. Public Health Implications. WWE can be effectively translated to diverse, real-world contexts to help sedentary adults increase physical activity and reduce pain and fatigue.

  5. Fan-out Estimation in Spin-based Quantum Computer Scale-up.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thien; Hill, Charles D; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L; James, Matthew R

    2017-10-17

    Solid-state spin-based qubits offer good prospects for scaling based on their long coherence times and nexus to large-scale electronic scale-up technologies. However, high-threshold quantum error correction requires a two-dimensional qubit array operating in parallel, posing significant challenges in fabrication and control. While architectures incorporating distributed quantum control meet this challenge head-on, most designs rely on individual control and readout of all qubits with high gate densities. We analysed the fan-out routing overhead of a dedicated control line architecture, basing the analysis on a generalised solid-state spin qubit platform parameterised to encompass Coulomb confined (e.g. donor based spin qubits) or electrostatically confined (e.g. quantum dot based spin qubits) implementations. The spatial scalability under this model is estimated using standard electronic routing methods and present-day fabrication constraints. Based on reasonable assumptions for qubit control and readout we estimate 10 2 -10 5 physical qubits, depending on the quantum interconnect implementation, can be integrated and fanned-out independently. Assuming relatively long control-free interconnects the scalability can be extended. Ultimately, the universal quantum computation may necessitate a much higher number of integrated qubits, indicating that higher dimensional electronics fabrication and/or multiplexed distributed control and readout schemes may be the preferredstrategy for large-scale implementation.

  6. Simulation for Supporting Scale-Up of a Fluidized Bed Reactor for Advanced Water Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz; Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri Wan

    2014-01-01

    Simulation of fluidized bed reactor (FBR) was accomplished for treating wastewater using Fenton reaction, which is an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The simulation was performed to determine characteristics of FBR performance, concentration profile of the contaminants, and various prominent hydrodynamic properties (e.g., Reynolds number, velocity, and pressure) in the reactor. Simulation was implemented for 2.8 L working volume using hydrodynamic correlations, continuous equation, and simplified kinetic information for phenols degradation as a model. The simulation shows that, by using Fe3+ and Fe2+ mixtures as catalyst, TOC degradation up to 45% was achieved for contaminant range of 40–90 mg/L within 60 min. The concentration profiles and hydrodynamic characteristics were also generated. A subsequent scale-up study was also conducted using similitude method. The analysis shows that up to 10 L working volume, the models developed are applicable. The study proves that, using appropriate modeling and simulation, data can be predicted for designing and operating FBR for wastewater treatment. PMID:25309949

  7. Scaling-up permafrost thermal measurements in western Alaska using an ecotype approach

    DOE PAGES

    Cable, William L.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Jorgenson, M. Torre

    2016-10-25

    Permafrost temperatures are increasing in Alaska due to climate change and in some cases permafrost is thawing and degrading. In areas where degradation has already occurred the effects can be dramatic, resulting in changing ecosystems, carbon release, and damage to infrastructure. However, in many areas we lack baseline data, such as subsurface temperatures, needed to assess future changes and potential risk areas. Besides climate, the physical properties of the vegetation cover and subsurface material have a major influence on the thermal state of permafrost. These properties are often directly related to the type of ecosystem overlaying permafrost. In this papermore » we demonstrate that classifying the landscape into general ecotypes is an effective way to scale up permafrost thermal data collected from field monitoring sites. Additionally, we find that within some ecotypes the absence of a moss layer is indicative of the absence of near-surface permafrost. As a proof of concept, we used the ground temperature data collected from the field sites to recode an ecotype land cover map into a map of mean annual ground temperature ranges at 1 m depth based on analysis and clustering of observed thermal regimes. In conclusion, the map should be useful for decision making with respect to land use and understanding how the landscape might change under future climate scenarios.« less

  8. Accelerated reforms in healthcare financing: the need to scale up private sector participation in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ejughemre, Ufuoma John

    2014-01-01

    The health sector, a foremost service sector in Nigeria, faces a number of challenges; primarily, the persistent under-funding of the health sector by the Nigerian government as evidence reveals low allocations to the health sector and poor health system performance which are reflected in key health indices of the country.Notwithstanding, there is evidence that the private sector could be a key player in delivering health services and impacting health outcomes, including those related to healthcare financing. This underscores the need to optimize the role of private sector in complementing the government's commitment to financing healthcare delivery and strengthening the health system in Nigeria. There are also concerns about uneven quality and affordability of private-driven health systems, which necessitates reforms aimed at regulation. Accordingly, the argument is that the benefits of leveraging the private sector in complementing the national government in healthcare financing outweigh the challenges, particularly in light of lean public resources and finite donor supports. This article, therefore, highlights the potential for the Nigerian government to scale up healthcare financing by leveraging private resources, innovations and expertise, while working to achieve the universal health coverage.

  9. Materials Engineering and Scale Up of Fluid Phase Chemical Hydrogen Storage for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Westman, Matthew P.; Chun, Jaehun; Choi, Young Joon

    Among candidates for chemical hydrogen storage in PEM fuel cell automotive applications, ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) is considered to be one of the most promising materials due to its high hydrogen content of 14-16 wt% below 200°C and high volumetric density. In our previous paper, we selected AB in silicone oil as a role model for a slurry hydrogen storage system. Materials engineering properties were optimized by increasing solid loading by using an ultra-sonic process. In this paper, we proceeded to scale up to liter size batches with solid loadings up to 50 wt% (8 wt% H2) with dynamic viscositiesmore » less than 1000cP at 25°C. The use of a non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-15, shows significant promise in controlling the level of foaming produced during the thermal dehydrogenation of the AB. Through the development of new and efficient processing techniques and the ability to adequately control the foaming, stable homogenous slurries of high solid loading have been demonstrated as a viable hydrogen delivery source.« less

  10. Scaling up interventions to achieve global tuberculosis control: progress and new developments.

    PubMed

    Raviglione, Mario; Marais, Ben; Floyd, Katherine; Lönnroth, Knut; Getahun, Haileyesus; Migliori, Giovanni B; Harries, Anthony D; Nunn, Paul; Lienhardt, Christian; Graham, Steve; Chakaya, Jeremiah; Weyer, Karin; Cole, Stewart; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2012-05-19

    Tuberculosis is still one of the most important causes of death worldwide. The 2010 Lancet tuberculosis series provided a comprehensive overview of global control efforts and challenges. In this update we review recent progress. With improved control efforts, the world and most regions are on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of decreasing tuberculosis incidence by 2015, and the Stop TB Partnership target of halving 1990 mortality rates by 2015; the exception is Africa. Despite these advances, full scale-up of tuberculosis and HIV collaborative activities remains challenging and emerging drug-resistant tuberculosis is a major threat. Recognition of the effect that non-communicable diseases--such as smoking-related lung disease, diet-related diabetes mellitus, and alcohol and drug misuse--have on individual vulnerability, as well as the contribution of poor living conditions to community vulnerability, shows the need for multidisciplinary approaches. Several new diagnostic tests are being introduced in endemic countries and for the first time in 40 years a coordinated portfolio of promising new tuberculosis drugs exists. However, none of these advances offer easy solutions. Achievement of international tuberculosis control targets and maintenance of these gains needs optimum national health policies and services, with ongoing investment into new approaches and strategies. Despite growing funding in recent years, a serious shortfall persists. International and national financial uncertainty places gains at serious risk. Perseverance and renewed commitment are needed to achieve global control of tuberculosis, and ultimately, its elimination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Scaling up the global nursing health workforce: contributions of an international organization.

    PubMed

    Rukholm, Ellen E; Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg; Talbot, Lise R; Bednash, Geraldine; Raines, Fay; Potempa, Kathleen; Nugent, Pauline; Clark, Dame Jill Macleod; Bernhauser, Sue; Parfitt, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    In this paper key highlights of the scholarly work presented at the Toronto 2008 Global Alliance for Nursing Education & Scholarship (GANES) conference are summarized, challenges opportunities and issues facing nursing education globally arising from the conference discourse are outlined and initial steps are suggested as a way forward to a shared global view of baccalaureate and graduate nursing education and scholarship. This shared view arises from beginning understandings of the issues and opportunities we face globally starting with and building upon the lessons learned from the literature and from the experiences of nursing educators and nursing education organization locally, regionally, nationally and internationally. The theme of the groundbreaking GANES Toronto conference was "Educating the future nursing and health workforce: A global challenge". One hundred seventy delegates from 17 countries attended the event, with over 80 papers presented. A primary focus of GANES is the contribution of a strategic alliance of national nursing education organizations to contribute to nursing education leading practices and policy that address the scaling up of global nursing and health workforce. The founding members of GANES see a clear link between a strong educational infrastructure and strong scholarship activities in nursing and the ability of a society to be healthy and prosperous. Evidence presented at the recent GANES conference supports that belief. Through the strength of partnerships and other capacity-building efforts, member countries can support each other to address the global nursing education and health challenges while respecting the local issues.

  12. Ensembl Genomes 2013: scaling up access to genome-wide data.

    PubMed

    Kersey, Paul Julian; Allen, James E; Christensen, Mikkel; Davis, Paul; Falin, Lee J; Grabmueller, Christoph; Hughes, Daniel Seth Toney; Humphrey, Jay; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Khobova, Julia; Langridge, Nicholas; McDowall, Mark D; Maheswari, Uma; Maslen, Gareth; Nuhn, Michael; Ong, Chuang Kee; Paulini, Michael; Pedro, Helder; Toneva, Iliana; Tuli, Mary Ann; Walts, Brandon; Williams, Gareth; Wilson, Derek; Youens-Clark, Ken; Monaco, Marcela K; Stein, Joshua; Wei, Xuehong; Ware, Doreen; Bolser, Daniel M; Howe, Kevin Lee; Kulesha, Eugene; Lawson, Daniel; Staines, Daniel Michael

    2014-01-01

    Ensembl Genomes (http://www.ensemblgenomes.org) is an integrating resource for genome-scale data from non-vertebrate species. The project exploits and extends technologies for genome annotation, analysis and dissemination, developed in the context of the vertebrate-focused Ensembl project, and provides a complementary set of resources for non-vertebrate species through a consistent set of programmatic and interactive interfaces. These provide access to data including reference sequence, gene models, transcriptional data, polymorphisms and comparative analysis. This article provides an update to the previous publications about the resource, with a focus on recent developments. These include the addition of important new genomes (and related data sets) including crop plants, vectors of human disease and eukaryotic pathogens. In addition, the resource has scaled up its representation of bacterial genomes, and now includes the genomes of over 9000 bacteria. Specific extensions to the web and programmatic interfaces have been developed to support users in navigating these large data sets. Looking forward, analytic tools to allow targeted selection of data for visualization and download are likely to become increasingly important in future as the number of available genomes increases within all domains of life, and some of the challenges faced in representing bacterial data are likely to become commonplace for eukaryotes in future.

  13. Scale-up of HIV Treatment Through PEPFAR: A Historic Public Health Achievement

    PubMed Central

    El-Sadr, Wafaa M.; Holmes, Charles B.; Mugyenyi, Peter; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Ellerbrock, Tedd; Ferris, Robert; Sanne, Ian; Asiimwe, Anita; Hirnschall, Gottfried; Nkambule, Rejoice N.; Stabinski, Lara; Affrunti, Megan; Teasdale, Chloe; Zulu, Isaac; Whiteside, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Since its inception in 2003, the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has been an important driving force behind the global scale-up of HIV care and treatment services, particularly in expansion of access to antiretroviral therapy. Despite initial concerns about cost and feasibility, PEPFAR overcame challenges by leveraging and coordinating with other funders, by working in partnership with the most affected countries, by supporting local ownership, by using a public health approach, by supporting task-shifting strategies, and by paying attention to health systems strengthening. As of September 2011, PEPFAR directly supported initiation of antiretroviral therapy for 3.9 million people and provided care and support for nearly 13 million people. Benefits in terms of prevention of morbidity and mortality have been reaped by those receiving the services, with evidence of societal benefits beyond the anticipated clinical benefits. However, much remains to be accomplished to achieve universal access, to enhance the quality of programs, to ensure retention of patients in care, and to continue to strengthen health systems. PMID:22797746

  14. Scale-up of HIV treatment through PEPFAR: a historic public health achievement.

    PubMed

    El-Sadr, Wafaa M; Holmes, Charles B; Mugyenyi, Peter; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Ellerbrock, Tedd; Ferris, Robert; Sanne, Ian; Asiimwe, Anita; Hirnschall, Gottfried; Nkambule, Rejoice N; Stabinski, Lara; Affrunti, Megan; Teasdale, Chloe; Zulu, Isaac; Whiteside, Alan

    2012-08-15

    Since its inception in 2003, the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has been an important driving force behind the global scale-up of HIV care and treatment services, particularly in expansion of access to antiretroviral therapy. Despite initial concerns about cost and feasibility, PEPFAR overcame challenges by leveraging and coordinating with other funders, by working in partnership with the most affected countries, by supporting local ownership, by using a public health approach, by supporting task-shifting strategies, and by paying attention to health systems strengthening. As of September 2011, PEPFAR directly supported initiation of antiretroviral therapy for 3.9 million people and provided care and support for nearly 13 million people. Benefits in terms of prevention of morbidity and mortality have been reaped by those receiving the services, with evidence of societal benefits beyond the anticipated clinical benefits. However, much remains to be accomplished to achieve universal access, to enhance the quality of programs, to ensure retention of patients in care, and to continue to strengthen health systems.

  15. Scale-up of a Luminescent Solar Concentrator-Based Photomicroreactor via Numbering-up.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang; Cambié, Dario; Janse, Jeroen; Wieland, Eric W; Kuijpers, Koen P L; Hessel, Volker; Debije, Michael G; Noël, Timothy

    2018-01-02

    The use of solar energy to power chemical reactions is a long-standing dream of the chemical community. Recently, visible-light-mediated photoredox catalysis has been recognized as the ideal catalytic transformation to convert solar energy into chemical bonds. However, scaling photochemical transformations has been extremely challenging due to Bouguer-Lambert-Beer law. Recently, we have pioneered the development of luminescent solar concentrator photomicroreactors (LSC-PMs), which display an excellent energy efficiency. These devices harvest solar energy, convert the broad solar energy spectrum to a narrow-wavelength region, and subsequently waveguide the re-emitted photons to the reaction channels. Herein, we report on the scalability of such LSC-PMs via a numbering-up strategy. Paramount in our work was the use of molds that were fabricated via 3D printing. This allowed us to rapidly produce many different prototypes and to optimize experimentally key design aspects in a time-efficient fashion. Reactors up to 32 parallel channels have been fabricated that display an excellent flow distribution using a bifurcated flow distributor (standard deviations below 10%). This excellent flow distribution was crucial to scale up a model reaction efficiently, displaying yields comparable to those obtained in a single-channel device. We also found that interchannel spacing is an important and unique design parameter for numbered-up LSC-PMs, which influences greatly the photon flux experienced within the reaction channels.

  16. Scaling-up essential neuropsychiatric services in Ethiopia: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Strand, Kirsten Bjerkreim; Chisholm, Dan; Fekadu, Abebaw; Johansson, Kjell Arne

    2016-05-01

    There is an immense need for scaling-up neuropsychiatric care in low-income countries. Contextualized cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) provide relevant information for local policies. The aim of this study is to perform a contextualized CEA of neuropsychiatric interventions in Ethiopia and to illustrate expected population health and budget impacts across neuropsychiatric disorders. A mathematical population model (PopMod) was used to estimate intervention costs and effectiveness. Existing variables from a previous WHO-CHOICE regional CEA model were substantially revised. Treatments for depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and epilepsy were analysed. The best available local data on epidemiology, intervention efficacy, current and target coverage, resource prices and salaries were used. Data were obtained from expert opinion, local hospital information systems, the Ministry of Health and literature reviews. Treatment of epilepsy with a first generation antiepileptic drug is the most cost-effective treatment (US$ 321 per DALY adverted). Treatments for depression have mid-range values compared with other interventions (US$ 457-1026 per DALY adverted). Treatments for schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are least cost-effective (US$ 1168-3739 per DALY adverted). This analysis gives the Ethiopian government a comprehensive overview of the expected costs, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of introducing basic neuropsychiatric interventions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  17. Transforming Global Health by Improving the Science of Scale-Up

    PubMed Central

    Kruk, Margaret E.; Yamey, Gavin; Angell, Sonia Y.; Beith, Alix; Cotlear, Daniel; Guanais, Frederico; Jacobs, Lisa; Saxenian, Helen; Victora, Cesar; Goosby, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In its report Global Health 2035, the Commission on Investing in Health proposed that health investments can reduce mortality in nearly all low- and middle-income countries to very low levels, thereby averting 10 million deaths per year from 2035 onward. Many of these gains could be achieved through scale-up of existing technologies and health services. A key instrument to close this gap is policy and implementation research (PIR) that aims to produce generalizable evidence on what works to implement successful interventions at scale. Rigorously designed PIR promotes global learning and local accountability. Much greater national and global investments in PIR capacity will be required to enable the scaling of effective approaches and to prevent the recycling of failed ideas. Sample questions for the PIR research agenda include how to close the gap in the delivery of essential services to the poor, which population interventions for non-communicable diseases are most applicable in different contexts, and how to engage non-state actors in equitable provision of health services in the context of universal health coverage. PMID:26934704

  18. Vaccinium meridionale Swartz Supercritical CO2 Extraction: Effect of Process Conditions and Scaling Up

    PubMed Central

    López-Padilla, Alexis; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Restrepo Flórez, Claudia Estela; Rivero Barrios, Diana Marsela; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (Mortiño or Colombian blueberry) is one of the Vaccinium species abundantly found across the Colombian mountains, which are characterized by high contents of polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins and flavonoids). The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Vaccinium species has mainly focused on the study of V. myrtillus L. (blueberry). In this work, the SFE of Mortiño fruit from Colombia was studied in a small-scale extraction cell (273 cm3) and different extraction pressures (20 and 30 MPa) and temperatures (313 and 343 K) were investigated. Then, process scaling-up to a larger extraction cell (1350 cm3) was analyzed using well-known semi-empirical engineering approaches. The Broken and Intact Cell (BIC) model was adjusted to represent the kinetic behavior of the low-scale extraction and to simulate the large-scale conditions. Extraction yields obtained were in the range 0.1%–3.2%. Most of the Mortiño solutes are readily accessible and, thus, 92% of the extractable material was recovered in around 30 min. The constant CO2 residence time criterion produced excellent results regarding the small-scale kinetic curve according to the BIC model, and this conclusion was experimentally validated in large-scale kinetic experiments. PMID:28773640

  19. Context matters: Successes and challenges of intrapartum care scale-up in four districts of Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Tappis, Hannah; Koblinsky, Marge; Winch, Peter J; Turkmani, Sabera; Bartlett, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Reducing preventable maternal mortality and achieving Sustainable Development Goal targets for 2030 will require increased investment in improving access to quality health services in fragile and conflict-affected states. This study explores the conditions that affect availability and utilisation of intrapartum care services in four districts of Afghanistan where mortality studies were conducted in 2002 and 2011. Information on changes in each district was collected through interviews with community members; service providers; and district, provincial and national officials. This information was then triangulated with programme and policy documentation to identify factors that affect the coverage of safe delivery and emergency obstetric care services. Comparison of barriers to maternal health service coverage across the four districts highlights the complexities of national health policy planning and resource allocation in Afghanistan, and provides examples of the types of challenges that must be addressed to extend the reach of life-saving maternal health interventions to women in fragile and conflict-affected states. Findings suggest that improvements in service coverage must be measured at a sub-national level, and context-specific service delivery models may be needed to effectively scale up intrapartum care services in extremely remote or insecure settings.

  20. Scaling Up Graph-Based Semisupervised Learning via Prototype Vector Machines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Lan, Liang; Kwok, James T.; Vucetic, Slobodan; Parvin, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    When the amount of labeled data are limited, semi-supervised learning can improve the learner's performance by also using the often easily available unlabeled data. In particular, a popular approach requires the learned function to be smooth on the underlying data manifold. By approximating this manifold as a weighted graph, such graph-based techniques can often achieve state-of-the-art performance. However, their high time and space complexities make them less attractive on large data sets. In this paper, we propose to scale up graph-based semisupervised learning using a set of sparse prototypes derived from the data. These prototypes serve as a small set of data representatives, which can be used to approximate the graph-based regularizer and to control model complexity. Consequently, both training and testing become much more efficient. Moreover, when the Gaussian kernel is used to define the graph affinity, a simple and principled method to select the prototypes can be obtained. Experiments on a number of real-world data sets demonstrate encouraging performance and scaling properties of the proposed approach. It also compares favorably with models learned via ℓ1-regularization at the same level of model sparsity. These results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach in producing highly parsimonious and accurate models for semisupervised learning. PMID:25720002

  1. PEPFAR support for the scaling up of collaborative TB/HIV activities.

    PubMed

    Howard, Andrea A; Gasana, Michel; Getahun, Haileyesus; Harries, Anthony; Lawn, Stephen D; Miller, Bess; Nelson, Lisa; Sitienei, Joseph; Coggin, William L

    2012-08-15

    The US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has supported a comprehensive package of care in which interventions to address HIV-related tuberculosis (TB) have received increased funding and support in recent years. PEPFAR's TB/HIV programming is based on the World Health Organization's 12-point policy for collaborative TB/HIV activities, which are integrated into PEPFAR annual guidance. PEPFAR implementing partners have provided crucial support to TB/HIV collaboration, and as a result, PEPFAR-supported countries in sub-Saharan Africa have made significant gains in HIV testing and counseling of TB patients and linkages to HIV care and treatment, intensified TB case finding, and TB infection control. PEPFAR's support of TB/HIV integration has also included significant investment in health systems, including improved laboratory services and educating and enlarging the workforce. The scale-up of antiretroviral therapy along with support of programs to increase HIV counseling and testing and improve linkage and retention in HIV care may have considerable impact on TB morbidity and mortality, if used synergistically with isoniazid preventive therapy, intensified case finding, and infection control. Issues to be addressed by future programming include accelerating implementation of isoniazid preventive therapy, increasing access and ensuring appropriate use of new TB diagnostics, supporting early initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected TB patients, and strengthening systems to monitor and evaluate program implementation.

  2. Scale-up of a Luminescent Solar Concentrator-Based Photomicroreactor via Numbering-up

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The use of solar energy to power chemical reactions is a long-standing dream of the chemical community. Recently, visible-light-mediated photoredox catalysis has been recognized as the ideal catalytic transformation to convert solar energy into chemical bonds. However, scaling photochemical transformations has been extremely challenging due to Bouguer–Lambert–Beer law. Recently, we have pioneered the development of luminescent solar concentrator photomicroreactors (LSC-PMs), which display an excellent energy efficiency. These devices harvest solar energy, convert the broad solar energy spectrum to a narrow-wavelength region, and subsequently waveguide the re-emitted photons to the reaction channels. Herein, we report on the scalability of such LSC-PMs via a numbering-up strategy. Paramount in our work was the use of molds that were fabricated via 3D printing. This allowed us to rapidly produce many different prototypes and to optimize experimentally key design aspects in a time-efficient fashion. Reactors up to 32 parallel channels have been fabricated that display an excellent flow distribution using a bifurcated flow distributor (standard deviations below 10%). This excellent flow distribution was crucial to scale up a model reaction efficiently, displaying yields comparable to those obtained in a single-channel device. We also found that interchannel spacing is an important and unique design parameter for numbered-up LSC-PMs, which influences greatly the photon flux experienced within the reaction channels. PMID:29333350

  3. Scaling-Up the Impact of Aflatoxin Research in Africa. The Role of Social Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Stepman, Francois

    2018-01-01

    At the interface between agriculture and nutrition, the aflatoxin contamination of food and feed touches on agriculture, health, and trade. For more than three decades now, the problem of aflatoxin has been researched in Africa. The interest of development cooperation for aflatoxin and the support to aflatoxin mitigation projects has its ups and downs. The academic world and the development world still seem to operate in different spheres and a collaboration is still challenging due to the complexity of the contamination sources at pre-harvest and post-harvest levels. There is a growing call by research funders and development actors for the impact of solutions at a scale. The solutions to mitigate aflatoxin contamination require new ways of working together. A more prominent role is to be played by social scientists. The role of social scientists in scaling-up the impact of aflatoxin research in Africa and the proposed mitigation solutions is to ensure that awareness, advantage, affordability, and access are systematically assessed. Aflatoxin-reduced staple foods and feed would be an agricultural result with a considerable health and food safety impact. PMID:29570687

  4. Scale-up of phosphate remobilization from sewage sludge in a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Happe, Manuel; Sugnaux, Marc; Cachelin, Christian Pierre; Stauffer, Marc; Zufferey, Géraldine; Kahoun, Thomas; Salamin, Paul-André; Egli, Thomas; Comninellis, Christos; Grogg, Alain-François; Fischer, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate remobilization from digested sewage sludge containing iron phosphate was scaled-up in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). A 3litre triple chambered MFC was constructed. This reactor was operated as a microbial fuel cell and later as a microbial electrolysis cell to accelerate cathodic phosphate remobilization. Applying an additional voltage and exceeding native MFC power accelerated chemical base formation and the related phosphate remobilization rate. The electrolysis approach was extended using a platinum-RVC cathode. The pH rose to 12.6 and phosphate was recovered by 67% in 26h. This was significantly faster than using microbial fuel cell conditions. Shrinking core modelling particle fluid kinetics showed that the reaction resistance has to move inside the sewage sludge particle for considerable rate enhancement. Remobilized phosphate was subsequently precipitated as struvite and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry indicated low levels of cadmium, lead, and other metals as required by law for recycling fertilizers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. CO₂ sorption kinetics of scaled-up polyethylenimine-functionalized mesoporous silica sorbent.

    PubMed

    Al-Marri, M J; Khader, M M; Tawfik, M; Qi, G; Giannelis, E P

    2015-03-31

    Two CO2 solid sorbents based on polyethylenimine, PEI (M(n) ∼ 423 and 10K), impregnated into mesoporous silica (MPS) foam prepared in kilogram quantities via a scale-up process were synthesized and systematically characterized by a range of analytical and surface techniques. The mesoporous silica sorbent impregnated with lower molecular weight PEI, PEI-423/MPS, showed higher capacity toward CO2 sorption than the sorbent functionalized with the higher molecular weight PEI (PEI-10K/MPS). On the other hand, PEI-10K/MPS exhibited higher thermal stability than PEI-423/MPS. The kinetics of CO2 adsorption on both PEI/MPS fitted well with a double-exponential model. According to this model CO2 adsorption can be divided into two steps: the first is fast and is attributed to CO2 adsorption on the sorbent surface; the second is slower and can be related to the diffusion of CO2 within and between the mesoporous particles. In contrast, the desorption process obeyed first-order kinetics with activation energies of 64.3 and 140.7 kJ mol(-1) for PEI-423/MPS and PEI-10K/MPS, respectively. These studies suggest that the selection of amine is critical as it affects not only sorbent capacity and stability but also the energy penalty associated with sorbent regeneration.

  6. PEPFAR Support for the Scaling Up of Collaborative TB/HIV Activities

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Andrea A.; Gasana, Michel; Getahun, Haileyesus; Harries, Anthony; Lawn, Stephen D.; Miller, Bess; Nelson, Lisa; Sitienei, Joseph; Coggin, William L.

    2014-01-01

    The US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has supported a comprehensive package of care in which interventions to address HIV-related tuberculosis (TB) have received increased funding and support in recent years. PEPFAR’s TB/HIV programming is based on the World Health Organization 12-point policy for collaborative TB/HIV activities, which are integrated into PEPFAR annual guidance. PEPFAR implementing partners have provided crucial support to TB/HIV collaboration, and as a result PEPFAR-supported countries in sub-Saharan Africa have made significant gains in HIV testing and counseling of TB patients and linkages to HIV care and treatment, intensified TB case finding, and TB infection control. PEPFAR’s support of TB/HIV integration has also included significant investment in health systems, including improved laboratory services and educating and enlarging the workforce. The scale-up of antiretroviral therapy along with support of programs to increase HIV counseling and testing and improve linkage and retention in HIV care may have considerable impact on TB morbidity and mortality, if used synergistically with isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), intensified case finding and infection control. Issues to be addressed by future programming include accelerating implementation of IPT, increasing access and ensuring appropriate use of new TB diagnostics, supporting early initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected TB patients, and strengthening systems to monitor and evaluate program implementation. PMID:22797735

  7. Scaling up access to oral rehydration solution for diarrhea: Learning from historical experience in low- and high-performing countries.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Shelby E; Morris, Saul S; Gilbert, Sarah Skye; Mosites, Emily; Hackleman, Rob; Weum, Kristoffer L M; Pintye, Jillian; Manhart, Lisa E; Hawes, Stephen E

    2013-06-01

    This paper aims to identify factors that systematically predict why some countries that have tried to scale up oral rehydration solution (ORS) have succeeded, and others have not. We examined ORS coverage over time, across countries, and through case studies. We conducted expert interviews and literature and data searches to better understand the history of ORS scale-up efforts and why they failed or succeeded in nine countries. We used qualitative, pairwise (or three-country) comparisons of geographically or otherwise similar countries that had different outcomes in terms of ORS scale-up. An algorithm was developed which scored country performance across key supply, demand and financing activities to quantitatively assess the scale-up efforts in each country. The vast majority of countries have neither particularly low nor encouragingly high ORS use rates. We observed three clearly identifiable contrasts between countries that achieved and sustained high ORS coverage and those that did not. Key partners across sectors have critical roles to play to effectively address supply- and demand-side barriers. Efforts must synchronize demand generation, private provider outreach and public sector work. Many donor funds are either suspended or redirected in the event of political instability, exacerbating the health challenges faced by countries in these contexts. We found little information on the cost of scale-up efforts. We identified a number of characteristics of successful ORS scale-up programs, including involvement of a broad range of key players, addressing supply and demand generation together, and working with both public and private sectors. Dedicated efforts are needed to launch and sustain success, including monitoring and evaluation plans to track program costs and impacts. These case studies were designed to inform programmatic decision-making; thus, rigorous academic methods to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate country ORS scale-up programs might

  8. Successful scaling-up of self-sustained pyrolysis of oil palm biomass under pool-type reactor.

    PubMed

    Idris, Juferi; Shirai, Yoshihito; Andou, Yoshito; Mohd Ali, Ahmad Amiruddin; Othman, Mohd Ridzuan; Ibrahim, Izzudin; Yamamoto, Akio; Yasuda, Nobuhiko; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2016-02-01

    An appropriate technology for waste utilisation, especially for a large amount of abundant pressed-shredded oil palm empty fruit bunch (OFEFB), is important for the oil palm industry. Self-sustained pyrolysis, whereby oil palm biomass was combusted by itself to provide the heat for pyrolysis without an electrical heater, is more preferable owing to its simplicity, ease of operation and low energy requirement. In this study, biochar production under self-sustained pyrolysis of oil palm biomass in the form of oil palm empty fruit bunch was tested in a 3-t large-scale pool-type reactor. During the pyrolysis process, the biomass was loaded layer by layer when the smoke appeared on the top, to minimise the entrance of oxygen. This method had significantly increased the yield of biochar. In our previous report, we have tested on a 30-kg pilot-scale capacity under self-sustained pyrolysis and found that the higher heating value (HHV) obtained was 22.6-24.7 MJ kg(-1) with a 23.5%-25.0% yield. In this scaled-up study, a 3-t large-scale procedure produced HHV of 22.0-24.3 MJ kg(-1) with a 30%-34% yield based on a wet-weight basis. The maximum self-sustained pyrolysis temperature for the large-scale procedure can reach between 600 °C and 700 °C. We concluded that large-scale biochar production under self-sustained pyrolysis was successfully conducted owing to the comparable biochar produced, compared with medium-scale and other studies with an electrical heating element, making it an appropriate technology for waste utilisation, particularly for the oil palm industry. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Evaluating Ecotypes as a means of Scaling-up Permafrost Thermal Measurements in Western Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    In many regions, permafrost temperatures are increasing due to climate change and in some cases permafrost is thawing and degrading. In areas where degradation has already occurred the effects can be dramatic, resulting in changing ecosystems, carbon release, and damage to infrastructure. Yet in many areas we lack baseline data, such as subsurface temperatures, needed to assess future changes and potential risk areas. Besides climate, the physical properties of the vegetation cover and subsurface material have a major influence on the thermal state of permafrost. These properties are often directly related to the type of ecosystem overlaying permafrost. Thus, classifying the landscape into general ecotypes might be an effective way to scale up permafrost thermal data. To evaluate using ecotypes as a way of scaling-up permafrost thermal data within a region we selected an area in Western Alaska, the Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, which is on the boundary between continuous and discontinuous permafrost. This region was selected because previously an ecological land classification had been conducted and a very high-resolution ecotype map was generated. Using this information we selected 18 spatially distributed sites covering the most abundant ecotypes, where we are collecting low vertical resolution soil temperature data to a depth of 1.5 meters at most sites. At three additional core sites, we are collecting air temperature, snow depth, and high vertical resolution soil temperature to a depth of 3 meters. The sites were installed in the summers of 2011 and 2012; consequently, we have at least two years of data from all sites. Mean monthly and mean annual air temperature and snow depth for all three core sites are similar within the 2012-2014 period. Additionally, the average air temperature and snow depth from our three cores sites compares well with that of a nearby meteorological station for which long-term data is available. During the study period snow depth

  10. Production of al-si alloy feedstocks using the solvent hot mixing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, J. Q.; Han, K. Q.; Yu, M. H.

    2018-05-01

    Powder injection molding is a promising low-cost technique for net shape processing of metal and ceramic components. This study aimed to investigate a new method for preparing aluminium (Al) – silicon (Si) alloy feedstock using the solvent hot mixing process. For this purpose, micron-sized Al-Si (20 wt. %) alloy powder was mixed with a binder consisting of 55 wt. % carnauba wax, 45 wt. % high-density polyethylene, and 3 wt. % stearic acid in a hot xylene bath. The scanning electron microscopy technique, thermogravimetric analysis, density measurement and torque measurements were used to verify the homogeneity of the feedstock. Moreover, the feedstock was chosen to perform the molding, debinding cycle and sintering. An Al-Si (20 wt. %) alloy part was successfully produced using this new method.

  11. Scale-up and integration of alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and ethanolic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Goutami; Car, Suzana; Liu, Tongjun; Williams, Daniel L; Meza, Sarynna López; Walton, Jonathan D; Hodge, David B

    2012-04-01

    Alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) has several attractive features as a pretreatment in the lignocellulosic biomass-to-ethanol pipeline. Here, the feasibility of scaling-up the AHP process and integrating it with enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was studied. Corn stover (1 kg) was subjected to AHP pretreatment, hydrolyzed enzymatically, and the resulting sugars fermented to ethanol. The AHP pretreatment was performed at 0.125 g H(2) O(2) /g biomass, 22°C, and atmospheric pressure for 48 h with periodic pH readjustment. The enzymatic hydrolysis was performed in the same reactor following pH neutralization of the biomass slurry and without washing. After 48 h, glucose and xylose yields were 75% and 71% of the theoretical maximum. Sterility was maintained during pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis without the use of antibiotics. During fermentation using a glucose- and xylose-utilizing strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, all of the Glc and 67% of the Xyl were consumed in 120 h. The final ethanol titer was 13.7 g/L. Treatment of the enzymatic hydrolysate with activated carbon prior to fermentation had little effect on Glc fermentation but markedly improved utilization of Xyl, presumably due to the removal of soluble aromatic inhibitors. The results indicate that AHP is readily scalable and can be integrated with enzyme hydrolysis and fermentation. Compared to other leading pretreatments for lignocellulosic biomass, AHP has potential advantages with regard to capital costs, process simplicity, feedstock handling, and compatibility with enzymatic deconstruction and fermentation. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2012; 109:922-931. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Scaling up the evaluation of psychotherapy: evaluating motivational interviewing fidelity via statistical text classification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Behavioral interventions such as psychotherapy are leading, evidence-based practices for a variety of problems (e.g., substance abuse), but the evaluation of provider fidelity to behavioral interventions is limited by the need for human judgment. The current study evaluated the accuracy of statistical text classification in replicating human-based judgments of provider fidelity in one specific psychotherapy—motivational interviewing (MI). Method Participants (n = 148) came from five previously conducted randomized trials and were either primary care patients at a safety-net hospital or university students. To be eligible for the original studies, participants met criteria for either problematic drug or alcohol use. All participants received a type of brief motivational interview, an evidence-based intervention for alcohol and substance use disorders. The Motivational Interviewing Skills Code is a standard measure of MI provider fidelity based on human ratings that was used to evaluate all therapy sessions. A text classification approach called a labeled topic model was used to learn associations between human-based fidelity ratings and MI session transcripts. It was then used to generate codes for new sessions. The primary comparison was the accuracy of model-based codes with human-based codes. Results Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses of model-based codes showed reasonably strong sensitivity and specificity with those from human raters (range of area under ROC curve (AUC) scores: 0.62 – 0.81; average AUC: 0.72). Agreement with human raters was evaluated based on talk turns as well as code tallies for an entire session. Generated codes had higher reliability with human codes for session tallies and also varied strongly by individual code. Conclusion To scale up the evaluation of behavioral interventions, technological solutions will be required. The current study demonstrated preliminary, encouraging findings regarding the utility

  13. Technology transfer and scale-up of the Flublok recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) influenza vaccine manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Buckland, Barry; Boulanger, Robert; Fino, Mireli; Srivastava, Indresh; Holtz, Kathy; Khramtsov, Nikolai; McPherson, Clifton; Meghrous, Jamal; Kubera, Paul; Cox, Manon M J

    2014-09-22

    Multiple different hemagglutinin (HA) protein antigens have been reproducibly manufactured at the 650L scale by Protein Sciences Corporation (PSC) based on an insect cell culture with baculovirus infection. Significantly, these HA protein antigens were produced by the same Universal Manufacturing process as described in the biological license application (BLA) for the first recombinant influenza vaccine approved by the FDA (Flublok). The technology is uniquely designed so that a change in vaccine composition can be readily accommodated from one HA protein antigen to another one. Here we present a vaccine candidate to combat the recently emerged H7N9 virus as an example starting with the genetic sequence for the required HA, creation of the baculovirus and ending with purified protein antigen (or vaccine component) at the 10L scale accomplished within 38 days under GMP conditions. The same process performance is being achieved at the 2L, 10L, 100L, 650L and 2500L scale. An illustration is given of how the technology was transferred from the benchmark 650L scale facility to a retrofitted microbial facility at the 2500L scale within 100 days which includes the time for facility engineering changes. The successful development, technology transfer and scale-up of the Flublok process has major implications for being ready to make vaccine rapidly on a worldwide scale as a defense against pandemic influenza. The technology described does not have the same vulnerability to mutations in the egg adapted strain, and resulting loss in vaccine efficacy, faced by egg based manufacture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Scaling up experimental ocean acidification and warming research: from individuals to the ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queiros, A. M.

    2016-02-01

    separately. Scaling up the results of experimental climate change research requires approaches that account for long-term, multi-scale responses to multiple stressors, in an ecosystem context.

  15. Interagency Collaborative Team Model for Capacity Building to Scale-Up Evidence-Based Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hurlburt, Michael; Aarons, Gregory A; Fettes, Danielle; Willging, Cathleen; Gunderson, Lara; Chaffin, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Background System-wide scale up of evidence-based practice (EBP) is a complex process. Yet, few strategic approaches exist to support EBP implementation and sustainment across a service system. Building on the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, and Sustainment (EPIS) implementation framework, we developed and are testing the Interagency Collaborative Team (ICT) process model to implement an evidence-based child neglect intervention (i.e., SafeCare®) within a large children’s service system. The ICT model emphasizes the role of local agency collaborations in creating structural supports for successful implementation. Methods We describe the ICT model and present preliminary qualitative results from use of the implementation model in one large scale EBP implementation. Qualitative interviews were conducted to assess challenges in building system, organization, and home visitor collaboration and capacity to implement the EBP. Data collection and analysis centered on EBP implementation issues, as well as the experiences of home visitors under the ICT model. Results Six notable issues relating to implementation process emerged from participant interviews, including: (a) initial commitment and collaboration among stakeholders, (b) leadership, (c) communication, (d) practice fit with local context, (e) ongoing negotiation and problem solving, and (f) early successes. These issues highlight strengths and areas for development in the ICT model. Conclusions Use of the ICT model led to sustained and widespread use of SafeCare in one large county. Although some aspects of the implementation model may benefit from enhancement, qualitative findings suggest that the ICT process generates strong structural supports for implementation and creates conditions in which tensions between EBP structure and local contextual variations can be resolved in ways that support the expansion and maintenance of an EBP while preserving potential for public health benefit. PMID:27512239

  16. Computational Psychotherapy Research: Scaling up the evaluation of patient-provider interactions

    PubMed Central

    Imel, Zac E.; Steyvers, Mark; Atkins, David C.

    2014-01-01

    In psychotherapy, the patient-provider interaction contains the treatment’s active ingredients. However, the technology for analyzing the content of this interaction has not fundamentally changed in decades, limiting both the scale and specificity of psychotherapy research. New methods are required in order to “scale up” to larger evaluation tasks and “drill down” into the raw linguistic data of patient-therapist interactions. In the current paper we demonstrate the utility of statistical text analysis models called topic models for discovering the underlying linguistic structure in psychotherapy. Topic models identify semantic themes (or topics) in a collection of documents (here, transcripts). We used topic models to summarize and visualize 1,553 psychotherapy and drug therapy (i.e., medication management) transcripts. Results showed that topic models identified clinically relevant content, including affective, content, and intervention related topics. In addition, topic models learned to identify specific types of therapist statements associated with treatment related codes (e.g., different treatment approaches, patient-therapist discussions about the therapeutic relationship). Visualizations of semantic similarity across sessions indicate that topic models identify content that discriminates between broad classes of therapy (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy vs. psychodynamic therapy). Finally, predictive modeling demonstrated that topic model derived features can classify therapy type with a high degree of accuracy. Computational psychotherapy research has the potential to scale up the study of psychotherapy to thousands of sessions at a time, and we conclude by discussing the implications of computational methods such as topic models for the future of psychotherapy research and practice. PMID:24866972

  17. When does seed limitation matter for scaling up reforestation from patches to landscapes?

    PubMed

    Caughlin, T Trevor; Elliott, Stephen; Lichstein, Jeremy W

    2016-12-01

    Restoring forest to hundreds of millions of hectares of degraded land has become a centerpiece of international plans to sequester carbon and conserve biodiversity. Forest landscape restoration will require scaling up ecological knowledge of secondary succession from small-scale field studies to predict forest recovery rates in heterogeneous landscapes. However, ecological field studies reveal widely divergent times to forest recovery, in part due to landscape features that are difficult to replicate in empirical studies. Seed rain can determine reforestation rate and depends on landscape features that are beyond the scale of most field studies. We develop mathematical models to quantify how landscape configuration affects seed rain and forest regrowth in degraded patches. The models show how landscape features can alter the successional trajectories of otherwise identical patches, thus providing insight into why some empirical studies reveal a strong effect of seed rain on secondary succession, while others do not. We show that seed rain will strongly limit reforestation rate when patches are near a threshold for arrested succession, when positive feedbacks between tree canopy cover and seed rain occur during early succession, and when directed dispersal leads to between-patch interactions. In contrast, seed rain has weak effects on reforestation rate over a wide range of conditions, including when landscape-scale seed availability is either very high or very low. Our modeling framework incorporates growth and survival parameters that are commonly estimated in field studies of reforestation. We demonstrate how mathematical models can inform forest landscape restoration by allowing land managers to predict where natural regeneration will be sufficient to restore tree cover. Translating quantitative forecasts into spatially targeted interventions for forest landscape restoration could support target goals of restoring millions of hectares of degraded land and help

  18. The Impact and Cost of Scaling up GeneXpert MTB/RIF in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Rath, Gesine; Schnippel, Kathryn; Long, Lawrence; MacLeod, William; Sanne, Ian; Stevens, Wendy; Pillay, Sagie; Pillay, Yogan; Rosen, Sydney

    2012-01-01

    Objective We estimated the incremental cost and impact on diagnosis and treatment uptake of national rollout of Xpert MTB/RIF technology (Xpert) for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB above the cost of current guidelines for the years 2011 to 2016 in South Africa. Methods We parameterised a population-level decision model with data from national-level TB databases (n = 199,511) and implementation studies. The model follows cohorts of TB suspects from diagnosis to treatment under current diagnostic guidelines or an algorithm that includes Xpert. Assumptions include the number of TB suspects, symptom prevalence of 5.5%, annual suspect growth rate of 10%, and 2010 public-sector salaries and drug and service delivery costs. Xpert test costs are based on data from an in-country pilot evaluation and assumptions about when global volumes allowing cartridge discounts will be reached. Results At full scale, Xpert will increase the number of TB cases diagnosed per year by 30%–37% and the number of MDR-TB cases diagnosed by 69%–71%. It will diagnose 81% of patients after the first visit, compared to 46% currently. The cost of TB diagnosis per suspect will increase by 55% to USD 60–61 and the cost of diagnosis and treatment per TB case treated by 8% to USD 797–873. The incremental capital cost of the Xpert scale-up will be USD 22 million and the incremental recurrent cost USD 287–316 million over six years. Conclusion Xpert will increase both the number of TB cases diagnosed and treated and the cost of TB diagnosis. These results do not include savings due to reduced transmission of TB as a result of earlier diagnosis and treatment initiation. PMID:22693561

  19. Effectiveness of a scaled up physical activity intervention in Brazil: A natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Simões, Eduardo J; Hallal, Pedro C; Siqueira, Fernando V; Schmaltz, Chester; Menor, Danielle; Malta, Deborah C; Duarte, Hebe; Hino, Adriano Akira; Mielke, Gregore I; Pratt, Michael; Reis, Rodrigo S

    2017-10-01

    Physical inactivity causes 5.3 million deaths annually worldwide. We evaluated the impact on population leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) of scaling up an intervention in Brazil, Academia das Cidades program (AC-P). AC-P is a health promotion program classified as physical activity classes in community settings which started in the state of Pernambuco state in 2008. We surveyed households from 80 cities of Pernambuco state in 2011, 2012 and 2013, using monitoring data to classify city-level exposure to AC-P. We targeted 2370 individuals in 2011; 3824 individuals in 2012; and 3835 individuals in 2013. We measured participation in AC-P and whether respondents had seen an AC-P activity or heard about AC-P. We measured LTPA using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. We estimated the odds of reaching recommended LTPA by levels of exposure to the three AC-P measures. For women, the odds of reaching recommended LTPA were 1.10 for those living in cities with AC-P activity for less than three years, and 1.46 for those living in cities with AC-P activity for more than three years compared to those living in cities that had not adopted AC-P. The odds of reaching recommended LTPA increased with AC-P participation and knowledge about AC-P. AC-P exposure is associated with increased population LTPA. Extending AC-P to all cities could potentially impact non-communicable diseases in Brazil. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Scaling up experimental ocean acidification and warming research: from individuals to the ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Queirós, Ana M; Fernandes, José A; Faulwetter, Sarah; Nunes, Joana; Rastrick, Samuel P S; Mieszkowska, Nova; Artioli, Yuri; Yool, Andrew; Calosi, Piero; Arvanitidis, Christos; Findlay, Helen S; Barange, Manuel; Cheung, William W L; Widdicombe, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    . Scaling up the results of experimental climate change research requires approaches that account for long-term, multiscale responses to multiple stressors, in an ecosystem context. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Opportunistic Computing with Lobster: Lessons Learned from Scaling up to 25k Non-Dedicated Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Li, Wenzhao; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Yannakopoulos, Anna; Tovar, Benjamin; Donnelly, Patrick; Brenner, Paul; Lannon, Kevin; Hildreth, Mike; Thain, Douglas

    2017-10-01

    We previously described Lobster, a workflow management tool for exploiting volatile opportunistic computing resources for computation in HEP. We will discuss the various challenges that have been encountered while scaling up the simultaneous CPU core utilization and the software improvements required to overcome these challenges. Categories: Workflows can now be divided into categories based on their required system resources. This allows the batch queueing system to optimize assignment of tasks to nodes with the appropriate capabilities. Within each category, limits can be specified for the number of running jobs to regulate the utilization of communication bandwidth. System resource specifications for a task category can now be modified while a project is running, avoiding the need to restart the project if resource requirements differ from the initial estimates. Lobster now implements time limits on each task category to voluntarily terminate tasks. This allows partially completed work to be recovered. Workflow dependency specification: One workflow often requires data from other workflows as input. Rather than waiting for earlier workflows to be completed before beginning later ones, Lobster now allows dependent tasks to begin as soon as sufficient input data has accumulated. Resource monitoring: Lobster utilizes a new capability in Work Queue to monitor the system resources each task requires in order to identify bottlenecks and optimally assign tasks. The capability of the Lobster opportunistic workflow management system for HEP computation has been significantly increased. We have demonstrated efficient utilization of 25 000 non-dedicated cores and achieved a data input rate of 30 Gb/s and an output rate of 500GB/h. This has required new capabilities in task categorization, workflow dependency specification, and resource monitoring.

  2. Scaling up nutrition in fragile and conflict-affected states: the pivotal role of governance.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sebastian A J; Perez-Ferrer, Carolina; Griffiths, Andrew; Brunner, Eric

    2015-02-01

    Acute and chronic undernutrition undermine conditions for health, stability and socioeconomic development across the developing world. Although fragile and conflict-affected states have some of the highest rates of undernutrition globally, their response to the multilateral 'Scaling Up Nutrition' (SUN) initiative in its first two-year period was ambivalent. The purpose of this research was to investigate factors affecting fragile and conflict-affected states' engagement with SUN, and to examine what differentiated those fragile states that joined SUN in its first phase from those that did not. Drawing on global databases (Unicef, World Bank, UNDP), and qualitative country case studies (Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sierra Leone, Pakistan and Yemen) we used bivariate logistic regressions and principal component analysis to assess social, economic and political factors across 41 fragile states looking for systematic differences between those that had signed up to SUN before March 2013 (n = 16), and those that had not (n = 25). While prevalence of malnutrition, health system functioning and level of citizen empowerment had little or no impact on a fragile state's likelihood of joining SUN, the quality of governance (QOG) strongly predicted accession. SUN-signatory fragile states scored systematically better on the World Bank's Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) and the Worldwide Governance Indicators 'effectiveness of government' indices. We conclude that strengthening governance in fragile states may enhance their engagement with initiatives such as SUN, but also (recognising the potential for endogeneity), that the way aid is structured and delivered in fragile states may be an underlying determinant of whether and how governance in such contexts improves. The research demonstrates that more nuanced analysis of conditions within and among countries classed as 'fragile and conflict-affected' is both possible and necessary if aid

  3. Interagency Collaborative Team Model for Capacity Building to Scale-Up Evidence-Based Practice.

    PubMed

    Hurlburt, Michael; Aarons, Gregory A; Fettes, Danielle; Willging, Cathleen; Gunderson, Lara; Chaffin, Mark J

    2014-04-01

    System-wide scale up of evidence-based practice (EBP) is a complex process. Yet, few strategic approaches exist to support EBP implementation and sustainment across a service system. Building on the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, and Sustainment (EPIS) implementation framework, we developed and are testing the Interagency Collaborative Team (ICT) process model to implement an evidence-based child neglect intervention (i.e., SafeCare®) within a large children's service system. The ICT model emphasizes the role of local agency collaborations in creating structural supports for successful implementation. We describe the ICT model and present preliminary qualitative results from use of the implementation model in one large scale EBP implementation. Qualitative interviews were conducted to assess challenges in building system, organization, and home visitor collaboration and capacity to implement the EBP. Data collection and analysis centered on EBP implementation issues, as well as the experiences of home visitors under the ICT model. Six notable issues relating to implementation process emerged from participant interviews, including: (a) initial commitment and collaboration among stakeholders, (b) leadership, (c) communication, (d) practice fit with local context, (e) ongoing negotiation and problem solving, and (f) early successes. These issues highlight strengths and areas for development in the ICT model. Use of the ICT model led to sustained and widespread use of SafeCare in one large county. Although some aspects of the implementation model may benefit from enhancement, qualitative findings suggest that the ICT process generates strong structural supports for implementation and creates conditions in which tensions between EBP structure and local contextual variations can be resolved in ways that support the expansion and maintenance of an EBP while preserving potential for public health benefit.

  4. Protecting HIV information in countries scaling up HIV services: a baseline study.

    PubMed

    Beck, Eduard J; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Harling, Guy; Santas, Xenophon M; Mosure, Debra; Delay, Paul R

    2011-02-06

    Individual-level data are needed to optimize clinical care and monitor and evaluate HIV services. Confidentiality and security of such data must be safeguarded to avoid stigmatization and discrimination of people living with HIV. We set out to assess the extent that countries scaling up HIV services have developed and implemented guidelines to protect the confidentiality and security of HIV information. Questionnaires were sent to UNAIDS field staff in 98 middle- and lower-income countries, some reportedly with guidelines (G-countries) and others intending to develop them (NG-countries). Responses were scored, aggregated and weighted to produce standard scores for six categories: information governance, country policies, data collection, data storage, data transfer and data access. Responses were analyzed using regression analyses for associations with national HIV prevalence, gross national income per capita, OECD income, receiving US PEPFAR funding, and being a G- or NG-country. Differences between G- and NG-countries were investigated using non-parametric methods. Higher information governance scores were observed for G-countries compared with NG-countries; no differences were observed between country policies or data collection categories. However, for data storage, data transfer and data access, G-countries had lower scores compared with NG-countries. No significant associations were observed between country score and HIV prevalence, per capita gross national income, OECD economic category, and whether countries had received PEPFAR funding. Few countries, including G-countries, had developed comprehensive guidelines on protecting the confidentiality and security of HIV information. Countries must develop their own guidelines, using established frameworks to guide their efforts, and may require assistance in adapting, adopting and implementing them.

  5. Costs and outcomes of VCT delivery models in the context of scaling up services in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Siregar, Adiatma Y M; Komarudin, Dindin; Wisaksana, Rudi; van Crevel, Reinout; Baltussen, Rob

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate costs and outcomes of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) service delivery models in urban Indonesia. We collected primary data on utilization, costs and outcomes of VCT services in a hospital clinic (568 clients), HIV community clinic (28 clients), sexually transmitted infection (STI) community clinic (784 clients) and prison clinic (574 clients) in Bandung, Indonesia, in the period January 2008-April 2009. The hospital clinic diagnosed the highest proportion and absolute number of HIV infections, but with the lowest average CD4 cell count and with the highest associated travelling and waiting time. The prison clinic detected fewer cases, but at an earlier stage, and all enrolled in HIV care. The community clinics detected the smallest number of cases, and only 0-8% enrolled in HIV care. The unit cost per VCT was highest in the hospital clinic (US$74), followed by the STI community clinic (US$65), the HIV community clinic (US$39) and the prison (US$23). We propose a reorientation of the delivery models for VCT and related HIV/AIDS treatment in this setting. We call for the scaling up of community clinics for VCT to improve access, promote earlier detection and to perform (early) treatment activities. This would reduce the burden of the hospital clinic to orient itself towards the treatment of AIDS patients. This is one of very few studies addressing this issue in Asia and the first of its kind in Indonesia, which has a rapidly growing HIV epidemic. The conceptual framework and overall conclusions may be relevant to other low-income settings. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Public-private interactions on health in South Africa: opportunities for scaling up.

    PubMed

    Kula, Nothemba; Fryatt, Robert J

    2014-08-01

    South Africa has long recognized partnerships between the public and private sectors as a policy objective in health, but experience is still limited and poorly documented. The objectives of this article are to understand the factors that increase the likelihood of success of public-private interactions in South Africa, and identify and discuss opportunities for them to be scaled up. There is a strong legislative framework and a number of guidelines and tools that have been developed by the Treasury for managing partnerships. The review of literature confirmed the need for the state to have effective regulations in order to oversee quality and standards and to provide stewardship and oversight. The public sector requires sufficient capacity not only to manage relationships with the private sector but also to enable innovation and experimentation. Evaluation is an integral part of all interactions not only to learn from successes but also to identify any perverse incentives that may lead to unintended consequences. Four case studies show that the private for-profit sector is already engaged in a number of projects that are closely aligned to current health system reform priorities. Factors that increase the likelihood of interactions being successful include: increasing the government's capacity to manage public-private relationships; choosing public-private interactions that are strategically important to national goals; building a knowledge base on what works, where and why; moving from pilots to large scale initiatives; harnessing the contracting expertise in private providers; and encouraging innovation and learning. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  7. Corrosion resistance of alumina forming alloys against molten chlorides for energy production. II: Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy under thermal cycling conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Gomez-Vidal, Judith C.; Fernandez, A. G.; Tirawat, R.; ...

    2017-04-01

    Next-generation power systems require higher temperatures to increase the efficiency of electricity production in the power block. Concentrating solar power (CSP) technology is looking for high temperature thermal fluids able to work in the range of 550–750 °C. Molten chlorides containing NaCl, KCl, MgCl 2, and/or ZnCl 2 are being considered for solar receivers and/or sensible- or latent- thermal energy storage systems. Vapor pressures of chlorides are high enough that in combination with oxygen gaseous compounds will produce a harsh atmosphere that is generally very aggressive to common chromia forming alloys. Corrosion mitigations must consider a solution in which bothmore » zones (immersed in fluid and exposed to vapor phase) will be protected. This could easily be obtained using alloy surface modification approaches. Surface passivation, produced after pre-oxidation treatments, of alumina forming alloys (Inconel 702, Haynes 224 and Kanthal APMT) was evaluated in molten 35.59 wt% MgCl2 – 64.41 wt% KCl thermally cycled from 550 °C to 700 °C in flowing Ar and static zero air (ZA) atmospheres. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests and metallographic characterization showed that the best performing alloy was pre-oxidized In702 in ZA at 1050 °C for 4 h due to the formation of protective, dense and continuous alumina layers. The alumina layers were unstable when flowing Ar was used as the inert atmosphere during corrosion evaluations. Corrosion results in static ZA are promising for next-generation CSP applications using molten chlorides because alumina scales were stable after 185 h of immersion in the oxygen-containing atmosphere. Alumina layers in pre-oxidized Al-FA In702 grew from 5 µm (before immersion) to 13 µm (after 185 h of immersion). As a result, the use of these alloys could be commercial feasibility and cost-effective because of the possibility of using oxygen-containing atmospheres instead of keeping enclosed systems with inert

  8. Corrosion resistance of alumina forming alloys against molten chlorides for energy production. II: Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy under thermal cycling conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Vidal, Judith C.; Fernandez, A. G.; Tirawat, R.

    Next-generation power systems require higher temperatures to increase the efficiency of electricity production in the power block. Concentrating solar power (CSP) technology is looking for high temperature thermal fluids able to work in the range of 550–750 °C. Molten chlorides containing NaCl, KCl, MgCl 2, and/or ZnCl 2 are being considered for solar receivers and/or sensible- or latent- thermal energy storage systems. Vapor pressures of chlorides are high enough that in combination with oxygen gaseous compounds will produce a harsh atmosphere that is generally very aggressive to common chromia forming alloys. Corrosion mitigations must consider a solution in which bothmore » zones (immersed in fluid and exposed to vapor phase) will be protected. This could easily be obtained using alloy surface modification approaches. Surface passivation, produced after pre-oxidation treatments, of alumina forming alloys (Inconel 702, Haynes 224 and Kanthal APMT) was evaluated in molten 35.59 wt% MgCl2 – 64.41 wt% KCl thermally cycled from 550 °C to 700 °C in flowing Ar and static zero air (ZA) atmospheres. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests and metallographic characterization showed that the best performing alloy was pre-oxidized In702 in ZA at 1050 °C for 4 h due to the formation of protective, dense and continuous alumina layers. The alumina layers were unstable when flowing Ar was used as the inert atmosphere during corrosion evaluations. Corrosion results in static ZA are promising for next-generation CSP applications using molten chlorides because alumina scales were stable after 185 h of immersion in the oxygen-containing atmosphere. Alumina layers in pre-oxidized Al-FA In702 grew from 5 µm (before immersion) to 13 µm (after 185 h of immersion). As a result, the use of these alloys could be commercial feasibility and cost-effective because of the possibility of using oxygen-containing atmospheres instead of keeping enclosed systems with inert

  9. Scale-Up of Lubricant Mixing Process by Using V-Type Blender Based on Discrete Element Method.

    PubMed

    Horibe, Masashi; Sonoda, Ryoichi; Watano, Satoru

    2018-01-01

    A method for scale-up of a lubricant mixing process in a V-type blender was proposed. Magnesium stearate was used for the lubricant, and the lubricant mixing experiment was conducted using three scales of V-type blenders (1.45, 21 and 130 L) under the same fill level and Froude (Fr) number. However, the properties of lubricated mixtures and tablets could not correspond with the mixing time or the total revolution number. To find the optimum scale-up factor, discrete element method (DEM) simulations of three scales of V-type blender mixing were conducted, and the total travel distance of particles under the different scales was calculated. The properties of the lubricated mixture and tablets obtained from the scale-up experiment were well correlated with the mixing time determined by the total travel distance. It was found that a scale-up simulation based on the travel distance of particles is valid for the lubricant mixing scale-up processes.

  10. Excellence in Physics Education Award: SCALE-UP, Student Centered Active Learning Environment with Upside-down Pedagogies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichner, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The Student-Centered Active Learning Environment with Upside-down Pedagogies (SCALE-UP) Project combines curricula and a specially-designed instructional space to enhance learning. SCALE-UP students practice communication and teamwork skills while performing activities that enhance their conceptual understanding and problem solving skills. This can be done with small or large classes and has been implemented at more than 250 institutions. Educational research indicates that students should collaborate on interesting tasks and be deeply involved with the material they are studying. SCALE-UP classtime is spent primarily on ``tangibles'' and ``ponderables''--hands-on measurements/observations and interesting questions. There are also computer simulations (called ``visibles'') and hypothesis-driven labs. Students sit at tables designed to facilitate group interactions. Instructors circulate and engage in Socratic dialogues. The setting looks like a banquet hall, with lively interactions nearly all the time. Impressive learning gains have been measured at institutions across the US and internationally. This talk describes today's students, how lecturing got started, what happens in a SCALE-UP classroom, and how the approach has spread. The SCALE-UP project has greatly benefitted from numerous Grants made by NSF and FIPSE to NCSU and other institutions.

  11. Act local, think global: how the Malawi experience of scaling up antiretroviral treatment has informed global policy.

    PubMed

    Harries, Anthony D; Ford, Nathan; Jahn, Andreas; Schouten, Erik J; Libamba, Edwin; Chimbwandira, Frank; Maher, Dermot

    2016-09-06

    The scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Malawi was based on a public health approach adapted to its resource-poor setting, with principles and practices borrowed from the successful tuberculosis control framework. From 2004 to 2015, the number of new patients started on ART increased from about 3000 to over 820,000. Despite being a small country, Malawi has made a significant contribution to the 15 million people globally on ART and has also contributed policy and service delivery innovations that have supported international guidelines and scale up in other countries. The first set of global guidelines for scaling up ART released by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2002 focused on providing clinical guidance. In Malawi, the ART guidelines adopted from the outset a more operational and programmatic approach with recommendations on health systems and services that were needed to deliver HIV treatment to affected populations. Seven years after the start of national scale-up, Malawi launched a new strategy offering all HIV-infected pregnant women lifelong ART regardless of the CD4-cell count, named Option B+. This strategy was subsequently incorporated into a WHO programmatic guide in 2012 and WHO ART guidelines in 2013, and has since then been adopted by the majority of countries worldwide. In conclusion, the Malawi experience of ART scale-up has become a blueprint for a public health response to HIV and has informed international efforts to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030.

  12. Near-Net-Shape Production of Hollow Titanium Alloy Components via Electrochemical Reduction of Metal Oxide Precursors in Molten Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Di; Xiao, Wei; Chen, George Z.

    2013-04-01

    Metal oxide precursors (ca. 90 wt pct Ti, 6 wt pct Al, and 4 wt pct V) were prepared with a hollow structure in various shapes such as a sphere, miniature golf club head, and cup using a one-step solid slip-casting process. The precursors were then electro-deoxidized in molten calcium chloride [3.2 V, 1173 K (900 °C)] against a graphite anode. After 24 hours of electrolysis, the near-net-shape Ti-6Al-4V product maintained its original shape with controlled shrinkage. Oxygen contents in the Ti-6Al-4V components were typically below 2000 ppm. The maximum compressive stress and modulus of electrolytic products obtained in this work were approximately 243 MPa and 14 GPa, respectively, matching with the requirement for medical implants. Further research directions are discussed for mechanical improvement of the products via densification during or after electrolysis. This simple, fast, and energy-efficient near-net-shape manufacturing method could allow titanium alloy components with desired geometries to be prepared directly from a mixture of metal oxides, promising an innovative technology for the low-cost production of titanium alloy components.

  13. Composition and automated crystal orientation mapping of rapid solidification products in hypoeutectic Al-4 at.%Cu alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Zweiacker, K. W.; Liu, Can; Gordillo, M. A.; ...

    2017-12-05

    Rmore » apid solidification can produce metastable phases and unusual microstructure modifications in multi-component alloys during additive manufacturing or laser beam welding. Composition and phase mapping by transmission electron microscopy have been used in this paper to characterize the morphologically distinct zones developing in hypoeutectic Al-4 at.% Cu alloy after pulsed laser melting for different crystal growth rate regimes. Deviations of the compositions of the alloy phases from equilibrium predictions and unique orientation relationships between the solidification transformation products have been determined. Specifically, for the columnar growth zone at solidification rates of 0.8 m s - 1 < v < v a = 1.8 m s - 1 , two distinct orientation relationships were established between the concomitantly forming non-equilibrium phases, supersaturated α-Al solid solution and the discontinuously distributed α-Al 2Cu-based θ'-phase, which can be described as {110} θ ∥ {001} α, [001] θ ∥ [110] α and {001} θ ∥ {001} α, [100] θ ∥ [100] α. These orientation relationships permit formation of coherent interphase interfaces with low interfacial free energy. Finally, this endows a kinetic advantage to the thermodynamically less stable θ'-Al 2Cu phase relative to the more stable equilibrium θ-Al 2Cu phase during formation of the morphologically modified eutectic of the columnar growth zone grains, since repeated nucleation is required to establish the discontinuous distribution of θ'-Al 2Cu phase.« less

  14. Characterization of corrosion products of AB{sub 5}-type hydrogen storage alloys for nickel-metal hydride batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Maurel, F.; Knosp, B.; Backhaus-Ricoult, M.

    2000-01-01

    To better understand the decrease in storage capacity of AB{sub 5}-type alloys in rechargeable Ni/MH batteries undergoing repeated charge/discharge cycles, the corrosion of a MnNi{sub 3.55}Co{sub 0.75}Mn{sub 0.4}Al{sub 0.3} alloy in aqueous KOH electrolyte was studied. The crystal structure, chemical composition, and distribution of corrosion products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Hollow and filed needles of a mixed rare earth hydroxide Mn(OH){sub 3} were found to cover a continuous nanocrystalline corrosion scale composed of metal (Ni, Co) solid solution, oxide (Ni,Co)O solid solution and rare earth hydroxide, and a Mn-depleted alloy subscale. Corrosionmore » kinetics were measured for three different temperatures. Growth kinetics of the continuous corrosion scale and of the Mm(OH){sub 3} needles obeyed linear and parabolic rate laws, respectively. Models for the corrosion mechanism were developed on the basis of diffusional transport of Mn and OH through the hydroxide needles and subsequent diffusion along grain boundaries through the nanocrystalline scale.« less

  15. Composition and automated crystal orientation mapping of rapid solidification products in hypoeutectic Al-4 at.%Cu alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zweiacker, K. W.; Liu, Can; Gordillo, M. A.

    Rmore » apid solidification can produce metastable phases and unusual microstructure modifications in multi-component alloys during additive manufacturing or laser beam welding. Composition and phase mapping by transmission electron microscopy have been used in this paper to characterize the morphologically distinct zones developing in hypoeutectic Al-4 at.% Cu alloy after pulsed laser melting for different crystal growth rate regimes. Deviations of the compositions of the alloy phases from equilibrium predictions and unique orientation relationships between the solidification transformation products have been determined. Specifically, for the columnar growth zone at solidification rates of 0.8 m s - 1 < v < v a = 1.8 m s - 1 , two distinct orientation relationships were established between the concomitantly forming non-equilibrium phases, supersaturated α-Al solid solution and the discontinuously distributed α-Al 2Cu-based θ'-phase, which can be described as {110} θ ∥ {001} α, [001] θ ∥ [110] α and {001} θ ∥ {001} α, [100] θ ∥ [100] α. These orientation relationships permit formation of coherent interphase interfaces with low interfacial free energy. Finally, this endows a kinetic advantage to the thermodynamically less stable θ'-Al 2Cu phase relative to the more stable equilibrium θ-Al 2Cu phase during formation of the morphologically modified eutectic of the columnar growth zone grains, since repeated nucleation is required to establish the discontinuous distribution of θ'-Al 2Cu phase.« less

  16. Cost-Effective Method for Producing Self Supported Palladium Alloy Membranes for Use in Efficient Production of Coal Derived Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    K. Coulter

    2008-03-31

    Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}) has utilized its expertise in large-area vacuum deposition methods to conduct research into the fabrication of dense, freestanding Pd-alloy membranes that are 3-5 microns thick and over 100 in{sup 2} in area. The membranes were deposited onto flexible and rigid supports that were subsequently removed and separated using novel techniques developed over the course of the project. Using these methods, the production of novel alloy compositions centered around the Pd-Cu system were developed with the objective of producing a thermally stable, nano-crystalline grain structure with the highest flux recorded as 242 SCFH/ft{sup 2} for a 2more » {micro}m thick Pd{sub 53}Cu{sub 47} at 400 C and 20 psig feed pressure which when extrapolated is over twice the 2010 Department of Energy pure H{sub 2} flux target. Several membranes were made with the same permeability, but with different thicknesses and these membranes were highly selective. Researchers at the Colorado School of Mines supported the effort with extensive testing of experimental membranes as well as design and modeling of novel alloy composite structures. IdaTech provided commercial bench testing and analysis of SwRI-manufactured membranes. The completed deliverables for the project include test data on the performance of experimental membranes fabricated by vacuum deposition and several Pd-alloy membranes that were supplied to IdaTech for testing.« less

  17. Photovoltaic semiconductor materials based on alloys of tin sulfide, and methods of production

    DOEpatents

    Lany, Stephan

    2016-06-07

    Photovoltaic thin-film materials comprising crystalline tin sulfide alloys of the general formula Sn.sub.1-x(R).sub.xS, where R is selected from magnesium, calcium and strontium, as well as methods of producing the same, are disclosed.

  18. The Impact and Cost of Scaling up Midwifery and Obstetrics in 58 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Linda; Weissman, Eva; Gubin, Rehana; Patton-Molitors, Rachel; Friberg, Ingrid K.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Methods To guide achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, we used the Lives Saved Tool to provide a novel simulation of potential maternal, fetal, and newborn lives and costs saved by scaling up midwifery and obstetrics services, including family planning, in 58 low- and middle-income countries. Typical midwifery and obstetrics interventions were scaled to either 60% of the national population (modest coverage) or 99% (universal coverage). Findings Under even a modest scale-up, midwifery services including family planning reduce maternal, fetal, and neonatal deaths by 34%. Increasing midwifery alone or integrated with obstetrics is more cost-effective than scaling up obstetrics alone; when family planning was included, the midwifery model was almost twice as cost-effective as the obstetrics model, at $2,200 versus $4,200 per death averted. The most effective strategy was the most comprehensive: increasing midwives, obstetricians, and family planning could prevent 69% of total deaths under universal scale-up, yielding a cost per death prevented of just $2,100. Within this analysis, the interventions which midwifery and obstetrics are poised to deliver most effectively are different, with midwifery benefits delivered across the continuum of pre-pregnancy, prenatal, labor and delivery, and postpartum-postnatal care, and obstetrics benefits focused mostly on delivery. Including family planning within each scope of practice reduced the number of likely births, and thus deaths, and increased the cost-effectiveness of the entire package (e.g., a 52% reduction in deaths with midwifery and obstetrics increased to 69% when family planning was added; cost decreased from $4,000 to $2,100 per death averted). Conclusions This analysis suggests that scaling up midwifery and obstetrics could bring many countries closer to achieving mortality reductions. Midwives alone can achieve remarkable mortality reductions, particularly when they also perform family

  19. Spatial Translation and Scaling Up of LID Practices in Deer Creek Watershed in East Missouri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vittorio, Damien

    This study investigated two important aspects of hydrologic effects of low impact development (LID) practices at the watershed scale by (1) examining the potential benefits of scaling up of LID design, and (2) evaluating downstream effects of LID design and its spatial translation within a watershed. The Personal Computer Storm Water Management Model (PCSWMM) was used to model runoff reduction with the implementation of LID practices in Deer Creek watershed (DCW), Missouri. The model was calibrated from 2003 to 2007 (R2 = 0.58 and NSE = 0.57), and validated from 2008 to 2012 (R2 = 0.64 and NSE = 0.65) for daily direct runoff. Runoff simulated for the study period, 2003 to 2012 (NSE = 0.61; R2 = 0.63), was used as the baseline for comparison to LID scenarios. Using 1958 areal imagery to assign land cover, a predevelopment scenario was constructed and simulated to assess LID scenarios' ability to restore predevelopment hydrologic conditions. The baseline and all LID scenarios were simulated using 2006 National Land Cover Dataset. The watershed was divided in 117 subcatchments, which were clustered in six groups of approximately equal areas and two scaling concepts consisting of incremental scaling and spatial scaling were modelled. Incremental scaling was investigated using three LID practices (rain barrel, porous pavement, and rain garden). Each LID practice was simulated at four implementation levels (25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) in all subcatchments for the study period (2003 to 2012). Results showed an increased runoff reduction, ranging from 3% to 31%, with increased implementation level. Spatial scaling was investigated by increasing the spatial extent of LID practices using the subcatchment groups and all three LID practices (combined) implemented at 50% level. Results indicated that as the spatial extent of LID practices increased the runoff reduction at the outlet also increased, ranging from 3% to 19%. Spatial variability of LID implementation was examined by

  20. A Reevaluation of the Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Scale-Up Plan in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Awad, Susanne F; Sgaier, Sema K; Ncube, Gertrude; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Mugurungi, Owen M; Mhangara, Mutsa M; Lau, Fiona K; Mohamoud, Yousra A; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2015-01-01

    The voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) program in Zimbabwe aims to circumcise 80% of males aged 13-29 by 2017. We assessed the impact of actual VMMC scale-up to date and evaluated the impact of potential alterations to the program to enhance program efficiency, through prioritization of subpopulations. We implemented a recently developed analytical approach: the age-structured mathematical (ASM) model and accompanying three-level conceptual framework to assess the impact of VMMC as an intervention. By September 2014, 364,185 males were circumcised, an initiative that is estimated to avert 40,301 HIV infections by 2025. Through age-group prioritization, the number of VMMCs needed to avert one infection (effectiveness) ranged between ten (20-24 age-group) and 53 (45-49 age-group). The cost per infection averted ranged between $811 (20-24 age-group) and $5,518 (45-49 age-group). By 2025, the largest reductions in HIV incidence rate (up to 27%) were achieved by prioritizing 10-14, 15-19, or 20-24 year old. The greatest program efficiency was achieved by prioritizing 15-24, 15-29, or 15-34 year old. Prioritizing males 13-29 year old was programmatically efficient, but slightly inferior to the 15-24, 15-29, or 15-34 age groups. Through geographic prioritization, effectiveness varied from 9-12 VMMCs per infection averted across provinces. Through risk-group prioritization, effectiveness ranged from one (highest sexual risk-group) to 60 (lowest sexual risk-group) VMMCs per infection averted. The current VMMC program plan in Zimbabwe is targeting an efficient and impactful age bracket (13-29 year old), but program efficiency can be improved by prioritizing a subset of males for demand creation and service availability. The greatest program efficiency can be attained by prioritizing young sexually active males and males whose sexual behavior puts them at higher risk for acquiring HIV.

  1. Demonstrate Scale-up Procedure for Glass Composite Material (GCM) for Incorporation of Iodine Loaded AgZ.

    SciTech Connect

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Garino, Terry J.; Croes, Kenneth James

    2015-07-01

    Two large size Glass Composite Material (GCM) waste forms containing AgI-MOR were fabricated. One contained methyl iodide-loaded AgI-MOR that was received from Idaho National Laboratory (INL, Test 5, Beds 1 – 3) and the other contained iodine vapor loaded AgIMOR that was received from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL, SHB 2/9/15 ). The composition for each GCM was 20 wt% AgI-MOR and 80 wt% Ferro EG2922 low sintering temperature glass along with enough added silver flake to prevent any I2 loss during the firing process. The silver flake amounts were 1.2 wt% for the GCM with the INL AgI-MOR andmore » 3 wt% for the GCM contained the ORNL AgI-MOR. The GCMs, nominally 100 g, were first uniaxially pressed to 6.35 cm (2.5 inch) diameter disks then cold isostatically pressed, before firing in air to 550°C for 1hr. They were cooled slowly (1°C/min) from the firing temperature to avoid any cracking due to temperature gradients. The final GCMs were ~5 cm in diameter (~2 inches) and non-porous with densities of ~4.2 g/cm³. X-ray diffraction indicated that they consisted of the amorphous glass phase with small amounts of mordenite and AgI. Furthermore, the presence of the AgI was confirmed by X-ray fluorescence. Methodology for the scaled up production of GCMs to 6 inch diameter or larger is also presented.« less

  2. Teacher Teams and School Processes in Scaling-Up a Content Literacy Innovation in High Schools. Final Report: The Evaluation of the Scale-Up of Reading Apprenticeship through the Reading Apprenticeship Improving Secondary Education (RAISE) Project. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Denis; Zacamy, Jenna; Lazarev, Valeriy; Lin, Li; Jaciw, Andrew P.; Hegseth, Whitney

    2015-01-01

    We report on the scaling up of a high school content literacy framework, Reading Apprenticeship, over a period of four years as part of the independent evaluation of an Investing in Innovation grant from the U.S. Department of Education to WestEd's Strategic Literacy Institute (SLI). Our goal was to understand the school processes that support…

  3. Delayed damage accumulation by athermal suppression of defect production in concentrated solid solution alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Velişa, G.; Wendler, E.; Zhao, S.

    A combined experimental and computational evaluation of damage accumulation in ion-irradiated Ni, NiFe, and NiFeCoCr is presented. Furthermore, a suppressed damage accumulation, at early stages (low-fluence irradiation), is revealed in NiFeCoCr, with a linear dependence as a function of ion fluence, in sharp contrast with Ni and NiFe. This effect, observed at 16 K, is attributed to the complex energy landscape in these alloys that limits defect mobility and therefore enhances defect interaction and recombination. Our results, together with previous room-temperature and high-temperature investigations, suggest "self-healing" as an intrinsic property of complex alloys that is not a thermally activated process.

  4. Delayed damage accumulation by athermal suppression of defect production in concentrated solid solution alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Velişa, G.; Wendler, E.; Zhao, S.; ...

    2017-12-17

    A combined experimental and computational evaluation of damage accumulation in ion-irradiated Ni, NiFe, and NiFeCoCr is presented. Furthermore, a suppressed damage accumulation, at early stages (low-fluence irradiation), is revealed in NiFeCoCr, with a linear dependence as a function of ion fluence, in sharp contrast with Ni and NiFe. This effect, observed at 16 K, is attributed to the complex energy landscape in these alloys that limits defect mobility and therefore enhances defect interaction and recombination. Our results, together with previous room-temperature and high-temperature investigations, suggest "self-healing" as an intrinsic property of complex alloys that is not a thermally activated process.

  5. 78 FR 32381 - Applications for New Awards, Investing in Innovation Fund, Scale-up and Validation Grants...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards, Investing in Innovation Fund, Scale- up and Validation Grants; Correction AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education. ACTION.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carol Lyons, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue SW...

  6. Community Health Workers in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: What Do We Know About Scaling Up and Sustainability?

    PubMed Central

    Minhas, Dilpreet; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Taylor, Lauren; Curry, Leslie; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to provide a systematic review of the determinants of success in scaling up and sustaining community health worker (CHW) programs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods. We searched 11 electronic databases for academic literature published through December 2010 (n = 603 articles). Two independent reviewers applied exclusion criteria to identify articles that provided empirical evidence about the scale-up or sustainability of CHW programs in LMICs, then extracted data from each article by using a standardized form. We analyzed the resulting data for determinants and themes through iterated categorization. Results. The final sample of articles (n = 19) present data on CHW programs in 16 countries. We identified 23 enabling factors and 15 barriers to scale-up and sustainability, which were grouped into 3 thematic categories: program design and management, community fit, and integration with the broader environment. Conclusions. Scaling up and sustaining CHW programs in LMICs requires effective program design and management, including adequate training, supervision, motivation, and funding; acceptability of the program to the communities served; and securing support for the program from political leaders and other health care providers. PMID:23678926

  7. Collaboration, negotiation, and coalescence for interagency-collaborative teams to scale-up evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Aarons, Gregory A; Fettes, Danielle L; Hurlburt, Michael S; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Gunderson, Lara; Willging, Cathleen E; Chaffin, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    Implementation and scale-up of evidence-based practices (EBPs) is often portrayed as involving multiple stakeholders collaborating harmoniously in the service of a shared vision. In practice, however, collaboration is a more complex process that may involve shared and competing interests and agendas, and negotiation. The present study examined the scale-up of an EBP across an entire service system using the Interagency Collaborative Team approach. Participants were key stakeholders in a large-scale county-wide implementation of an EBP to reduce child neglect, SafeCare. Semistructured interviews and/or focus groups were conducted with 54 individuals representing diverse constituents in the service system, followed by an iterative approach to coding and analysis of transcripts. The study was conceptualized using the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, and Sustainment framework. Although community stakeholders eventually coalesced around implementation of SafeCare, several challenges affected the implementation process. These challenges included differing organizational cultures, strategies, and approaches to collaboration; competing priorities across levels of leadership; power struggles; and role ambiguity. Each of the factors identified influenced how stakeholders approached the EBP implementation process. System-wide scale-up of EBPs involves multiple stakeholders operating in a nexus of differing agendas, priorities, leadership styles, and negotiation strategies. The term collaboration may oversimplify the multifaceted nature of the scale-up process. Implementation efforts should openly acknowledge and consider this nexus when individual stakeholders and organizations enter into EBP implementation through collaborative processes.

  8. Voices from the Field: Implementing and Scaling-Up Universal Design for Learning in Teacher Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Eric J.; Smith, Frances G.; Hollingshead, Aleksandra; Wojcik, Brian

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing pressure on universities in the United States to meet the needs of diverse learners. This fact increases the urgency for implementation and scaling up of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) in higher education. This qualitative study draws two major insights from interviews with six faculty members from universities and…

  9. Scaling up Corporate Social Investments in Education: Five Strategies That Work. Global Views. Policy Paper 2012-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Fleet, Justin W.

    2012-01-01

    Scaling up good corporate social investment practices in developing countries is crucial to realizing the "Education for All" and "Millennium Development Goals". Yet very few corporate social investments have the right mix of vision, financing, cross-sector engagement and leadership to come to scale. Globally, 67 million…

  10. Collaboration, Negotiation, and Coalescence for Interagency-Collaborative Teams to Scale-up Evidence-Based Practice

    PubMed Central

    Aarons, Gregory A.; Fettes, Danielle; Hurlburt, Michael; Palinkas, Lawrence; Gunderson, Lara; Willging, Cathleen; Chaffin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objective Implementation and scale-up of evidence-based practices (EBPs) is often portrayed as involving multiple stakeholders collaborating harmoniously in the service of a shared vision. In practice, however, collaboration is a more complex process that may involve shared and competing interests and agendas, and negotiation. The present study examined the scale-up of an EBP across an entire service system using the Interagency Collaborative Team (ICT) approach. Methods Participants were key stakeholders in a large-scale county-wide implementation of an EBP to reduce child neglect, SafeCare®. Semi-structured interviews and/or focus groups were conducted with 54 individuals representing diverse constituents in the service system, followed by an iterative approach to coding and analysis of transcripts. The study was conceptualized using the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, and Sustainment (EPIS) framework. Results Although community stakeholders eventually coalesced around implementation of SafeCare, several challenges affected the implementation process. These challenges included differing organizational cultures, strategies, and approaches to collaboration, competing priorities across levels of leadership, power struggles, and role ambiguity. Each of the factors identified influenced how stakeholders approached the EBP implementation process. Conclusions System wide scale-up of EBPs involves multiple stakeholders operating in a nexus of differing agendas, priorities, leadership styles, and negotiation strategies. The term collaboration may oversimplify the multifaceted nature of the scale-up process. Implementation efforts should openly acknowledge and consider this nexus when individual stakeholders and organizations enter into EBP implementation through collaborative processes. PMID:24611580

  11. Evaluating Introductory Physics Classes in Light of the ABET Criteria: An Example from the SCALE-UP Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saul, Jeffery M.; Deardorff, Duane L.; Abbott, David S.; Allain, Rhett J.; Beichner, Robert J.

    The Student-Centered Activities for Large Enrollment University Physics (SCALE-UP) project at North Carolina State University (NCSU) is developing a curriculum to promote learning through in-class group activities in introductory physics classes up to 100 students. The authors are currently in Phase II of the project using a specially designed…

  12. A Case Study with Green Dot Public Schools on Managing the Tension between Fidelity and Adaptation When Scaling-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cevallos, Pedro F., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation was a single case study with Green Dot Public Schools (GDPS) describing their rapid scale-up process. Specifically, it investigates the phenomenon of the inherent tension between maintaining the fidelity of the original model school's design, culture and values with local adaptation of the brand by stakeholders at the expansion…

  13. School Processes That Can Drive Scaling-Up of an Innovation, or Contribute to Its Abandonment. Conference Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacamy, Jenna; Newman, Denis; Lazarev, Valeriy; Lin, Li

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a multi-year study of the scale-up of Reading Apprenticeship (RA), an approach to improve academic literacy by helping teachers provide the support students need to be successful readers in the content areas. WestEd's Strategic Literacy Initiative (SLI), began developing the program in 1995 and has since reached…

  14. What Did It Take to Scale up and Sustain Udaan, a School-Based Adolescent Education Program in Jharkhand, India?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Plesons, Marina; Barua, Alka; Gogoi, Aparajita; Katoch, Manju; Ziauddin, Mohammed; Mishra, Rita; Nathani, Vinita; Sinha, Anand

    2018-01-01

    Since 2006, Udaan--a school-based adolescent education program in Jharkhand, India--was the only at-scale state-run program in the country. To determine factors that contributed to Udaan's scale-up and longevity, this study drew information from programmatic reports and interviews with the Centre for Catalyzing Change staff. Key factors for…

  15. A Case Study with Green Dot Public Schools on Managing the Tension between Fidelity and Adaptation when Scaling-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cevallos, Pedro Felipe, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation was a single case study with Green Dot Public Schools (GDPS) describing their rapid scale-up process. Specifically, it investigates the phenomenon of the inherent tension between maintaining the fidelity of the original model school's design, culture and values with local adaptation of the brand by stakeholders at the expansion…

  16. Year One Results from the Multisite Randomized Evaluation of the i3 Scale-Up of Reading Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Henry; Gray, Abigail; Sirinides, Philip; Goldsworthy, Heather; Armijo, Michael; Sam, Cecile; Gillespie, Jessica N.; Tognatta, Namrata

    2015-01-01

    Reading Recovery (RR) is a short-term, one-to-one intervention designed to help the lowest achieving readers in first grade. This article presents first-year results from the multisite randomized controlled trial (RCT) and implementation study under the $55 million Investing in Innovation (i3) Scale-Up Project. For the 2011-2012 school year, the…

  17. Scale-Up of Safe & Civil Schools' Model for School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolkowski, Keith; Strycker, Lisa; Ward, Bryce

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the scale-up of a Safe & Civil Schools "Foundations: Establishing Positive Discipline Policies" positive behavioral interventions and supports initiative through 4 years of "real-world" implementation in a large urban school district. The study extends results from a previous randomized controlled trial…

  18. Scale up, optimization and stability analysis of Curcumin C3 complex-loaded nanoparticles for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Amalendu P; Mukerjee, Anindita; Helson, Lawrence; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K

    2012-08-31

    Nanoparticle based delivery of anticancer drugs have been widely investigated. However, a very important process for Research & Development in any pharmaceutical industry is scaling nanoparticle formulation techniques so as to produce large batches for preclinical and clinical trials. This process is not only critical but also difficult as it involves various formulation parameters to be modulated all in the same process. In our present study, we formulated curcumin loaded poly (lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA-CURC). This improved the bioavailability of curcumin, a potent natural anticancer drug, making it suitable for cancer therapy. Post formulation, we optimized our process by Reponse Surface Methodology (RSM) using Central Composite Design (CCD) and scaled up the formulation process in four stages with final scale-up process yielding 5 g of curcumin loaded nanoparticles within the laboratory setup. The nanoparticles formed after scale-up process were characterized for particle size, drug loading and encapsulation efficiency, surface morphology, in vitro release kinetics and pharmacokinetics. Stability analysis and gamma sterilization were also carried out. Results revealed that that process scale-up is being mastered for elaboration to 5 g level. The mean nanoparticle size of the scaled up batch was found to be 158.5±9.8 nm and the drug loading was determined to be 10.32±1.4%. The in vitro release study illustrated a slow sustained release corresponding to 75% drug over a period of 10 days. The pharmacokinetic profile of PLGA-CURC in rats following i.v. administration showed two compartmental model with the area under the curve (AUC0-∞) being 6.139 mg/L h. Gamma sterilization showed no significant change in the particle size or drug loading of the nanoparticles. Stability analysis revealed long term physiochemical stability of the PLGA-CURC formulation. A successful effort towards formulating, optimizing and scaling up PLGA-CURC by using

  19. Scale up, optimization and stability analysis of Curcumin C3 complex-loaded nanoparticles for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nanoparticle based delivery of anticancer drugs have been widely investigated. However, a very important process for Research & Development in any pharmaceutical industry is scaling nanoparticle formulation techniques so as to produce large batches for preclinical and clinical trials. This process is not only critical but also difficult as it involves various formulation parameters to be modulated all in the same process. Methods In our present study, we formulated curcumin loaded poly (lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA-CURC). This improved the bioavailability of curcumin, a potent natural anticancer drug, making it suitable for cancer therapy. Post formulation, we optimized our process by Reponse Surface Methodology (RSM) using Central Composite Design (CCD) and scaled up the formulation process in four stages with final scale-up process yielding 5 g of curcumin loaded nanoparticles within the laboratory setup. The nanoparticles formed after scale-up process were characterized for particle size, drug loading and encapsulation efficiency, surface morphology, in vitro release kinetics and pharmacokinetics. Stability analysis and gamma sterilization were also carried out. Results Results revealed that that process scale-up is being mastered for elaboration to 5 g level. The mean nanoparticle size of the scaled up batch was found to be 158.5 ± 9.8 nm and the drug loading was determined to be 10.32 ± 1.4%. The in vitro release study illustrated a slow sustained release corresponding to 75% drug over a period of 10 days. The pharmacokinetic profile of PLGA-CURC in rats following i.v. administration showed two compartmental model with the area under the curve (AUC0-∞) being 6.139 mg/L h. Gamma sterilization showed no significant change in the particle size or drug loading of the nanoparticles. Stability analysis revealed long term physiochemical stability of the PLGA-CURC formulation. Conclusions A successful effort towards

  20. Impact of SCALE-UP on science teaching self-efficacy of students in general education science courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassani, Mary Kay Kuhr

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two pedagogical models used in general education science on non-majors' science teaching self-efficacy. Science teaching self-efficacy can be influenced by inquiry and cooperative learning, through cognitive mechanisms described by Bandura (1997). The Student Centered Activities for Large Enrollment Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) model of inquiry and cooperative learning incorporates cooperative learning and inquiry-guided learning in large enrollment combined lecture-laboratory classes (Oliver-Hoyo & Beichner, 2004). SCALE-UP was adopted by a small but rapidly growing public university in the southeastern United States in three undergraduate, general education science courses for non-science majors in the Fall 2006 and Spring 2007 semesters. Students in these courses were compared with students in three other general education science courses for non-science majors taught with the standard teaching model at the host university. The standard model combines lecture and laboratory in the same course, with smaller enrollments and utilizes cooperative learning. Science teaching self-efficacy was measured using the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument - B (STEBI-B; Bleicher, 2004). A science teaching self-efficacy score was computed from the Personal Science Teaching Efficacy (PTSE) factor of the instrument. Using non-parametric statistics, no significant difference was found between teaching models, between genders, within models, among instructors, or among courses. The number of previous science courses was significantly correlated with PTSE score. Student responses to open-ended questions indicated that students felt the larger enrollment in the SCALE-UP room reduced individual teacher attention but that the large round SCALE-UP tables promoted group interaction. Students responded positively to cooperative and hands-on activities, and would encourage inclusion of more such activities in all of the

  1. Regenerability of hydrotalcite-derived nickel-iron alloy nanoparticles for syngas production from biomass tar.

    PubMed

    Li, Dalin; Koike, Mitsuru; Wang, Lei; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Xu, Ya; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2014-02-01

    Nickel-iron/magnesium/aluminum bimetallic catalysts were prepared by the calcination and reduction of nickel-magnesium-iron-aluminum hydrotalcite-like compounds. Characterization suggests that, at iron/nickel≤0.5, both nickel and iron species are homogeneously distributed in the hydrotalcite precursor and incorporated into the Mg(Ni, Fe, Al)O periclase after calcination, giving rise to uniform nickel-iron alloy nanoparticles after reduction. Ni-Fe/Mg/Al (Fe/Ni=0.25) exhibits the best catalytic performance for the steam reforming of tar derived from the pyrolysis of biomass. It is suggested that the uniform nickel-iron alloy nanoparticles and the synergy between nickel and iron are responsible for the high catalytic performance. Moreover, the Ni-Fe/Mg/Al catalyst exhibits much better regenerability toward oxidation-reduction treatment for the removal of deposited coke than that of conventional Ni-Fe/α-Al2 O3 . This property can be attributed to the better regeneration of Ni-Fe alloy nanoparticles through the formation and reduction of Mg(Ni, Fe, Al)O. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Characterization of Discontinuous Coarsening Reaction Products in INCONEL® Alloy 740H® Fusion Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechetti, Daniel H.; Dupont, John N.; Watanabe, Masashi; de Barbadillo, John J.

    2017-04-01

    Characterization of γ' coarsened zones (CZs) in alloy 740H fusion welds via a variety of electron microscopy techniques was conducted. The effects of solute partitioning during nonequilibrium solidification on the amount of strengthening precipitates along the grain boundaries were evaluated via electron-probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy. Electron backscatter diffraction was used to present evidence for the preferential growth of CZs toward regions of lower γ' content, even if growth in that direction increases grain boundary area. Scanning electron microscopy and image analysis were used to quantify the propensity for CZs to develop along certain segments of the grain boundaries, as governed by the local variations in γ' content. Scanning transmission electron microscopy with X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry (XEDS) was used to assess the compositions of the matrix and precipitate phases within the CZs and to quantify the segregation of alloying components to the reaction front. Thermodynamic and kinetic modeling were used to compare calculated and experimental compositions. The work presented here provides new insight into the progression of the discontinuous coarsening (DC) reaction in a complex engineering alloy.

  3. Removing hydrochloric acid exhaust products from high performance solid rocket propellant using aluminum-lithium alloy.

    PubMed

    Terry, Brandon C; Sippel, Travis R; Pfeil, Mark A; Gunduz, I Emre; Son, Steven F

    2016-11-05

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (ISP). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal ISP by ∼7s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5±4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A stakeholder-driven agenda for advancing the science and practice of scale-up and spread in health.

    PubMed

    Norton, Wynne E; McCannon, C Joseph; Schall, Marie W; Mittman, Brian S

    2012-12-06

    Although significant advances have been made in implementation science, comparatively less attention has been paid to broader scale-up and spread of effective health programs at the regional, national, or international level. To address this gap in research, practice and policy attention, representatives from key stakeholder groups launched an initiative to identify gaps and stimulate additional interest and activity in scale-up and spread of effective health programs. We describe the background and motivation for this initiative and the content, process, and outcomes of two main phases comprising the core of the initiative: a state-of-the-art conference to develop recommendations for advancing scale-up and spread and a follow-up activity to operationalize and prioritize the recommendations. The conference was held in Washington, D.C. during July 2010 and attended by 100 representatives from research, practice, policy, public health, healthcare, and international health communities; the follow-up activity was conducted remotely the following year. Conference attendees identified and prioritized five recommendations (and corresponding sub-recommendations) for advancing scale-up and spread in health: increase awareness, facilitate information exchange, develop new methods, apply new approaches for evaluation, and expand capacity. In the follow-up activity, 'develop new methods' was rated as most important recommendation; expanding capacity was rated as least important, although differences were relatively minor. Based on the results of these efforts, we discuss priority activities that are needed to advance research, practice and policy to accelerate the scale-up and spread of effective health programs.

  5. Scale-up of a comprehensive harm reduction programme for people injecting opioids: lessons from north-eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Lalmuanpuii, Melody; Biangtung, Langkham; Mishra, Ritu Kumar; Reeve, Matthew J; Tzudier, Sentimoa; Singh, Angom L; Sinate, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Problem Harm reduction packages for people who inject illicit drugs, including those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are cost-effective but have not been scaled up globally. In the north-eastern Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland, the epidemic of HIV infection is driven by the injection of illicit drugs, especially opioids. These states needed to scale up harm reduction programmes but faced difficulty doing so. Approach In 2004, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation funded Project ORCHID to scale up a harm reduction programme in Manipur and Nagaland. Local setting In 2003, an estimated 10 000 and 16 000 people were injecting drugs in Manipur and Nagaland, respectively. The prevalence of HIV infection among people injecting drugs was 24.5% in Manipur and 8.4% in Nagaland. Relevant changes By 2012, the harm reduction programme had been scaled up to an average of 9011 monthly contacts outside clinics (80% of target); an average of 1709 monthly clinic visits (15% of target, well above the 5% monthly goal) and an average monthly distribution of needles and syringes of 16 each per programme participant. Opioid agonist maintenance treatment coverage was 13.7% and retention 6 months after enrolment was 63%. Antiretroviral treatment coverage for HIV-positive participants was 81%. Lessons learnt A harm reduction model consisting of community-owned, locally relevant innovations and business approaches can result in good harm reduction programme scale-up and influence harm reduction policy. Project ORCHID has influenced national harm reduction policy in India and contributed to the development of harm reduction guidelines. PMID:23599555

  6. Impact Monitoring of the National Scale Up of Zinc Treatment for Childhood Diarrhea in Bangladesh: Repeat Ecologic Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Charles P.; Saha, Unnati Rani; Nazrul, Hazera

    2009-01-01

    Background Zinc treatment of childhood diarrhea has the potential to save 400,000 under-five lives per year in lesser developed countries. In 2004 the World Health Organization (WHO)/UNICEF revised their clinical management of childhood diarrhea guidelines to include zinc. The aim of this study was to monitor the impact of the first national campaign to scale up zinc treatment of childhood diarrhea in Bangladesh. Methods/Findings Between September 2006 to October 2008 seven repeated ecologic surveys were carried out in four representative population strata: mega-city urban slum and urban nonslum, municipal, and rural. Households of approximately 3,200 children with an active or recent case of diarrhea were enrolled in each survey round. Caretaker awareness of zinc as a treatment for childhood diarrhea by 10 mo following the mass media launch was attained in 90%, 74%, 66%, and 50% of urban nonslum, municipal, urban slum, and rural populations, respectively. By 23 mo into the campaign, approximately 25% of urban nonslum, 20% of municipal and urban slum, and 10% of rural under-five children were receiving zinc for the treatment of diarrhea. The scale-up campaign had no adverse effect on the use of oral rehydration salt (ORS). Conclusions Long-term monitoring of scale-up programs identifies important gaps in coverage and provides the information necessary to document that intended outcomes are being attained and unintended consequences avoided. The scale-up of zinc treatment of childhood diarrhea rapidly attained widespread awareness, but actual use has lagged behind. Disparities in zinc coverage favoring higher income, urban households were identified, but these were gradually diminished over the two years of follow-up monitoring. The scale up campaign has not had any adverse effect on the use of ORS. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:19888335

  7. Systems approach to monitoring and evaluation guides scale up of the Standard Days Method of family planning in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Igras, Susan; Sinai, Irit; Mukabatsinda, Marie; Ngabo, Fidele; Jennings, Victoria; Lundgren, Rebecka

    2014-01-01

    There is no guarantee that a successful pilot program introducing a reproductive health innovation can also be expanded successfully to the national or regional level, because the scaling-up process is complex and multilayered. This article describes how a successful pilot program to integrate the Standard Days Method (SDM) of family planning into existing Ministry of Health services was scaled up nationally in Rwanda. Much of the success of the scale-up effort was due to systematic use of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) data from several sources to make midcourse corrections. Four lessons learned illustrate this crucially important approach. First, ongoing M&E data showed that provider training protocols and client materials that worked in the pilot phase did not work at scale; therefore, we simplified these materials to support integration into the national program. Second, triangulation of ongoing monitoring data with national health facility and population-based surveys revealed serious problems in supply chain mechanisms that affected SDM (and the accompanying CycleBeads client tool) availability and use; new procedures for ordering supplies and monitoring stockouts were instituted at the facility level. Third, supervision reports and special studies revealed that providers were imposing unnecessary medical barriers to SDM use; refresher training and revised supervision protocols improved provider practices. Finally, informal environmental scans, stakeholder interviews, and key events timelines identified shifting political and health policy environments that influenced scale-up outcomes; ongoing advocacy efforts are addressing these issues. The SDM scale-up experience in Rwanda confirms the importance of monitoring and evaluating programmatic efforts continuously, using a variety of data sources, to improve program outcomes. PMID:25276581

  8. Systems approach to monitoring and evaluation guides scale up of the Standard Days Method of family planning in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Igras, Susan; Sinai, Irit; Mukabatsinda, Marie; Ngabo, Fidele; Jennings, Victoria; Lundgren, Rebecka

    2014-05-01

    There is no guarantee that a successful pilot program introducing a reproductive health innovation can also be expanded successfully to the national or regional level, because the scaling-up process is complex and multilayered. This article describes how a successful pilot program to integrate the Standard Days Method (SDM) of family planning into existing Ministry of Health services was scaled up nationally in Rwanda. Much of the success of the scale-up effort was due to systematic use of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) data from several sources to make midcourse corrections. Four lessons learned illustrate this crucially important approach. First, ongoing M&E data showed that provider training protocols and client materials that worked in the pilot phase did not work at scale; therefore, we simplified these materials to support integration into the national program. Second, triangulation of ongoing monitoring data with national health facility and population-based surveys revealed serious problems in supply chain mechanisms that affected SDM (and the accompanying CycleBeads client tool) availability and use; new procedures for ordering supplies and monitoring stockouts were instituted at the facility level. Third, supervision reports and special studies revealed that providers were imposing unnecessary medical barriers to SDM use; refresher training and revised supervision protocols improved provider practices. Finally, informal environmental scans, stakeholder interviews, and key events timelines identified shifting political and health policy environments that influenced scale-up outcomes; ongoing advocacy efforts are addressing these issues. The SDM scale-up experience in Rwanda confirms the importance of monitoring and evaluating programmatic efforts continuously, using a variety of data sources, to improve program outcomes.

  9. Scaling up paediatric HIV care with an integrated, family-centred approach: an observational case study from Uganda.

    PubMed

    Luyirika, Emmanuel; Towle, Megan S; Achan, Joyce; Muhangi, Justus; Senyimba, Catherine; Lule, Frank; Muhe, Lulu

    2013-01-01

    Family-centred HIV care models have emerged as an approach to better target children and their caregivers for HIV testing and care, and further provide integrated health services for the family unit's range of care needs. While there is significant international interest in family-centred approaches, there is a dearth of research on operational experiences in implementation and scale-up. Our retrospective case study examined best practices and enabling factors during scale-up of family-centred care in ten health facilities and ten community clinics supported by a non-governmental organization, Mildmay, in Central Uganda. Methods included key informant interviews with programme management and families, and a desk review of hospital management information systems (HMIS) uptake data. In the 84 months following the scale-up of the family-centred approach in HIV care, Mildmay experienced a 50-fold increase of family units registered in HIV care, a 40-fold increase of children enrolled in HIV care, and nearly universal coverage of paediatric cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. The Mildmay experience emphasizes the importance of streamlining care to maximize paediatric capture. This includes integrated service provision, incentivizing care-seeking as a family, creating child-friendly service environments, and minimizing missed paediatric testing opportunities by institutionalizing early infant diagnosis and provider-initiated testing and counselling. Task-shifting towards nurse-led clinics with community outreach support enabled rapid scale-up, as did an active management structure that allowed for real-time review and corrective action. The Mildmay experience suggests that family-centred approaches are operationally feasible, produce strong coverage outcomes, and can be well-managed during rapid scale-up.

  10. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis, Characterization, and Scale-Up of Milk Thistle Flavonolignan Glucuronides.

    PubMed

    Gufford, Brandon T; Graf, Tyler N; Paguigan, Noemi D; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Paine, Mary F

    2015-11-01

    Plant-based therapeutics, including herbal products, continue to represent a growing facet of the contemporary health care market. Mechanistic descriptions of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of constituents composing these products remain nascent, particularly for metabolites produced following herbal product ingestion. Generation and characterization of authentic metabolite standards are essential to improve the quantitative mechanistic understanding of herbal product disposition in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Using the model herbal product, milk thistle, the objective of this work was to biosynthesize multimilligram quantities of glucuronides of select constituents (flavonolignans) to fill multiple knowledge gaps in the understanding of herbal product disposition and action. A partnership between clinical pharmacology and natural products chemistry expertise was leveraged to optimize reaction conditions for efficient glucuronide formation and evaluate alternate enzyme and reagent sources to improve cost effectiveness. Optimized reaction conditions used at least one-fourth the amount of microsomal protein (from bovine liver) and cofactor (UDP glucuronic acid) compared with typical conditions using human-derived subcellular fractions, providing substantial cost savings. Glucuronidation was flavonolignan-dependent. Silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, and isosilybin B generated five, four, four, and three monoglucuronides, respectively. Large-scale synthesis (40 mg of starting material) generated three glucuronides of silybin A: silybin A-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (15.7 mg), silybin A-5-O-β-D-glucuronide (1.6 mg), and silybin A-4´´-O-β-D-glucuronide (11.1 mg). This optimized, cost-efficient method lays the foundation for a systematic approach to synthesize and characterize herbal product constituent glucuronides, enabling an improved understanding of mechanisms underlying herbal product disposition and action. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society

  11. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis, Characterization, and Scale-Up of Milk Thistle Flavonolignan Glucuronides

    PubMed Central

    Gufford, Brandon T.; Graf, Tyler N.; Paguigan, Noemi D.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2015-01-01

    Plant-based therapeutics, including herbal products, continue to represent a growing facet of the contemporary health care market. Mechanistic descriptions of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of constituents composing these products remain nascent, particularly for metabolites produced following herbal product ingestion. Generation and characterization of authentic metabolite standards are essential to improve the quantitative mechanistic understanding of herbal product disposition in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Using the model herbal product, milk thistle, the objective of this work was to biosynthesize multimilligram quantities of glucuronides of select constituents (flavonolignans) to fill multiple knowledge gaps in the understanding of herbal product disposition and action. A partnership between clinical pharmacology and natural products chemistry expertise was leveraged to optimize reaction conditions for efficient glucuronide formation and evaluate alternate enzyme and reagent sources to improve cost effectiveness. Optimized reaction conditions used at least one-fourth the amount of microsomal protein (from bovine liver) and cofactor (UDP glucuronic acid) compared with typical conditions using human-derived subcellular fractions, providing substantial cost savings. Glucuronidation was flavonolignan-dependent. Silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, and isosilybin B generated five, four, four, and three monoglucuronides, respectively. Large-scale synthesis (40 mg of starting material) generated three glucuronides of silybin A: silybin A-7-O-β-d-glucuronide (15.7 mg), silybin A-5-O-β-d-glucuronide (1.6 mg), and silybin A-4´´-O-β-d-glucuronide (11.1 mg). This optimized, cost-efficient method lays the foundation for a systematic approach to synthesize and characterize herbal product constituent glucuronides, enabling an improved understanding of mechanisms underlying herbal product disposition and action. PMID:26316643

  12. Effectivity of fluoride treatment on hydrogen and corrosion product generation in temporal implants for different magnesium alloys.

    PubMed

    Trinidad, Javier; Arruebarrena, Gurutze; Marco, Iñigo; Hurtado, Iñaki; Sáenz de Argandoña, Eneko

    2013-12-01

    The increasing interest on magnesium alloys relies on their biocompatibility, bioabsorbility and especially on their mechanical properties. Due to these characteristics, magnesium alloys are becoming a promising solution to be used, as temporary implants. However, magnesium alloys must overcome their poor corrosion resistance. This article analyses the corrosion behaviour in phosphate-buffered saline solution of three commercial magnesium alloys (AZ31B, WE43 and ZM21) as well as the influence of fluoride treatment on their corrosion behaviour. It is shown that the corrosion rate of all the alloys is decreased by fluoride treatment. However, fluoride treatment affects each alloy differently.

  13. High freestream turbulence studies on a scaled-up stator vane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radomsky, Roger William, Jr.

    2000-10-01

    Today's gas turbine engines are operating at combustor exit temperatures far exceeding the maximum temperatures of the component alloys downstream of the combustor. These higher temperatures are necessary to increase the efficiency of the engine, and, as such, durability of the downstream components becomes an issue. The highly turbulent flowfield that exists at the exit of the combustor complicates issues further by increasing heat transfer from the hot gas to the component surface. To account for the high heat transfer rates, and provide a better prediction of the applied heat loads, detailed heat transfer and flowfield information is needed at turbulence levels representative those exiting a combustor. Flowfield measurements at high freestream turbulence levels indicated that turbulence, which was isotropic at the inlet, became highly anisotropic in the test section as a result of surface curvature and strain. Turbulent kinetic energy levels were shown to increase in the passage by as much as 131% and 31% for the 10% and 19.5% turbulence levels. Although the turbulent kinetic energy was high, the turbulence level based upon local velocity decreased quickly to levels of 3% and 6% near the suction surface for the 10% and 19.5% turbulence levels. For the pressure surface, local turbulence levels were as high as 10% and 16% for the 10% and 19.5% turbulence levels. High local turbulence levels and heat transfer augmentation were observed near the stagnation location, by as much as 50%, and along the pressure surface, by as much as 80%, where airfoil geometries have shown degradation after prolonged usage. Endwall flowfield measurements on a plane at the stagnation location showed that a horseshoe vortex developed in the juncture region of the vane at high freestream. turbulence similar to that at low freestream turbulence. Measurements near the center of the vortex indicated that the vortex was highly unsteady. In regions where strong secondary flows (horseshoe and

  14. Biocatalytic Synthesis of the Rare Sugar Kojibiose: Process Scale-Up and Application Testing.

    PubMed

    Beerens, Koen; De Winter, Karel; Van de Walle, Davy; Grootaert, Charlotte; Kamiloglu, Senem; Miclotte, Lisa; Van de Wiele, Tom; Van Camp, John; Dewettinck, Koen; Desmet, Tom

    2017-07-26

    Cost-efficient (bio)chemical production processes are essential to evaluate the commercial and industrial applications of promising carbohydrates and also are essential to ensure economically viable production processes. Here, the synthesis of the naturally occurring disaccharide kojibiose (2-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-d-glucopyranoside) was evaluated using different Bifidobacterium adolescentis sucrose phosphorylase variants. Variant L341I_Q345S was found to efficiently synthesize kojibiose while remaining fully active after 1 week of incubation at 55 °C. Process optimization allowed kojibiose production at the kilogram scale, and simple but efficient downstream processing, using a yeast treatment and crystallization, resulted in more than 3 kg of highly pure crystalline kojibiose (99.8%). These amounts allowed a deeper characterization of its potential in food applications. It was found to have possible beneficial health effects, including delayed glucose release and potential to trigger SCFA production. Finally, we compared the bulk functionality of highly pure kojibiose to that of sucrose, hereby mapping its potential as a new sweetener in confectionery products.

  15. The paradigm of eave tubes: scaling up house improvement and optimizing insecticide delivery against disease-transmitting mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Okumu, Fredros

    2017-05-19

    ) ineligibility of poorest and highest-risk households living in housing structures not amenable to eave tubes, and (3) poor synergies when eave tubes are combined with LLINs or IRS in same households. Overall, this paradigm significantly improves delivery of insecticides against disease-transmitting mosquitoes, and provides opportunities for scaling-up the long-neglected concept of house improvement as a malaria intervention.

  16. A review of pharmaceutical extrusion: critical process parameters and scaling-up.

    PubMed

    Thiry, J; Krier, F; Evrard, B

    2015-02-01

    Hot melt extrusion has been a widely used process in the pharmaceutical area for three decades. In this field, it is important to optimize the formulation in order to meet specific requirements. However, the process parameters of the extruder should be as much investigated as the formulation since they have a major impact on the final product characteristics. Moreover, a design space should be defined in order to obtain the expected product within the defined limits. This gives some freedom to operate as long as the processing parameters stay within the limits of the design space. Those limits can be investigated by varying randomly the process parameters but it is recommended to use design of experiments. An examination of the literature is reported in this review to summarize the impact of the variation of the process parameters on the final product properties. Indeed, the homogeneity of the mixing, the state of the drug (crystalline or amorphous), the dissolution rate, the residence time, can be influenced by variations in the process parameters. In particular, the impact of the following process parameters: temperature, screw design, screw speed and feeding, on the final product, has been reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Two stage hydrolysis of corn stover at high solids content for mixing power saving and scale-up applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ke; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2015-11-01

    A two stage hydrolysis of corn stover was designed to solve the difficulties between sufficient mixing at high solids content and high power input encountered in large scale bioreactors. The process starts with the quick liquefaction to convert solid cellulose to liquid slurry with strong mixing in small reactors, then followed the comprehensive hydrolysis to complete saccharification into fermentable sugars in large reactors without agitation apparatus. 60% of the mixing energy consumption was saved by removing the mixing apparatus in large scale vessels. Scale-up ratio was small for the first step hydrolysis reactors because of the reduced reactor volume. For large saccharification reactors in the second step, the scale-up was easy because of no mixing mechanism was involved. This two stage hydrolysis is applicable for either simple hydrolysis or combined fermentation processes. The method provided a practical process option for industrial scale biorefinery processing of lignocellulose biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparing multi-module connections in membrane chromatography scale-up.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhou; Karkaria, Tishtar; Espina, Marianela; Hunjun, Manjeet; Surendran, Abera; Luu, Tina; Telychko, Julia; Yang, Yan-Ping

    2015-07-20

    Membrane chromatography is increasingly used for protein purification in the biopharmaceutical industry. Membrane adsorbers are often pre-assembled by manufacturers as ready-to-use modules. In large-scale protein manufacturing settings, the use of multiple membrane modules for a single batch is often required due to the large quantity of feed material. The question as to how multiple modules can be connected to achieve optimum separation and productivity has been previously approached using model proteins and mass transport theories. In this study, we compare the performance of multiple membrane modules in series and in parallel in the production of a protein antigen. Series connection was shown to provide superior separation compared to parallel connection in the context of competitive adsorption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Scaling-up public sector childhood diarrhea management program: Lessons from Indian states of Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Roy, Rajashree; Dutta, Sucharita

    2015-12-01

    Diarrhea remains a leading cause of death among children under five in India. Public health sector is an important source for diarrhea treatment with oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc. In 2010, Micronutrient Initiative started a project to improve service delivery for childhood diarrhea management through public health sector in Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Bihar. This paper aims to highlight feasible strategies, experiences and lessons learned from scaling-up zinc and ORS for childhood diarrhea management in the public sector in three Indian states. The project was implemented in six districts of Gujarat, 12 districts of UP and 15 districts of Bihar, which includes 10.5 million children. Program strategies included capacity building of health care providers, expanding service delivery through community health workers (CHWs), providing supportive supervision to CHWs, ensuring supplies and conducting monitoring and evaluation. The lessons described in this paper are based on program data, government documents and studies that were used to generate evidence and inform program scale-up. 140 000 health personnel, including CHWs, were trained in childhood diarrhea management. During three years, CHWs had sustained knowledge and have treated and reported more than three million children aged 2-59 months having diarrhea, of which 84% were treated with both zinc and ORS. The successful strategies were scaled-up. It is feasible and viable to introduce and scale-up zinc and ORS for childhood diarrhea treatment through public sector. Community-based service delivery, timely and adequate supplies, trained staff and pro-active engagement with government were essential for program success.

  20. Scaling Up of Breastfeeding Promotion Programs in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: the “Breastfeeding Gear” Model12

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Curry, Leslie; Minhas, Dilpreet; Taylor, Lauren; Bradley, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Breastfeeding (BF) promotion is one of the most cost-effective interventions to advance mother–child health. Evidence-based frameworks and models to promote the effective scale up and sustainability of BF programs are still lacking. A systematic review of peer-reviewed and gray literature reports was conducted to identify key barriers and facilitators for scale up of BF programs in low- and middle-income countries. The review identified BF programs located in 28 countries in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Asia. Study designs included case studies, qualitative studies, and observational quantitative studies. Only 1 randomized, controlled trial was identified. A total of 22 enabling factors and 15 barriers were mapped into a scale-up framework termed “AIDED” that was used to build the parsimonious breastfeeding gear model (BFGM). Analogous to a well-oiled engine, the BFGM indicates the need for several key “gears” to be working in synchrony and coordination. Evidence-based advocacy is needed to generate the necessary political will to enact legislation and policies to protect, promote, and support BF at the hospital and community levels. This political-policy axis in turn drives the resources needed to support workforce development, program delivery, and promotion. Research and evaluation are needed to sustain the decentralized program coordination “gear” required for goal setting and system feedback. The BFGM helps explain the different levels of performance in national BF outcomes in Mexico and Brazil. Empirical research is recommended to further test the usefulness of the AIDED framework and BFGM for global scaling up of BF programs. PMID:23153733

  1. Mobilizing women's groups for improved maternal and newborn health: evidence for impact, and challenges for sustainability and scale up.

    PubMed

    Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Costello, Anthony; Prost, Audrey

    2012-10-01

    Research conducted over the past decade has shown that community-based interventions can improve the survival and health of mothers and newborns in low- and middle-income countries. Interventions engaging women's groups in participatory learning and action meetings and other group activities, for example, have led to substantial increases in neonatal survival in high-mortality settings. Participatory interventions with women's groups work by providing a forum for communities to develop a common understanding of maternal and neonatal problems, as well as locally acceptable and sustainable strategies to address these. Potential partners for scaling up interventions with women's groups include government community health workers and volunteers, as well as organizations working with self-help groups. It is important to tailor scale-up efforts to local contexts, while retaining fidelity to the intervention, by ensuring that the mobilization of women's groups complements other local programs (e.g. home visits), and by providing capacity building for participatory learning and action methods across a range of nongovernmental organizations and government stakeholders. Research into scale-up mechanisms and effectiveness is needed to inform further implementation, and prospective surveillance of maternal and neonatal mortality in key scale-up sites can provide valuable data for measuring impact and for advocacy. There is a need for further research into the role of participatory interventions with women's groups to improve the quality of health services, health, and nutrition beyond the perinatal period, as well as the role of groups in influencing non-health issues, such as women's decision-making power. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. At-line process analytical technology (PAT) for more efficient scale up of biopharmaceutical microfiltration unit operations.

    PubMed

    Watson, Douglas S; Kerchner, Kristi R; Gant, Sean S; Pedersen, Joseph W; Hamburger, James B; Ortigosa, Allison D; Potgieter, Thomas I

    2016-01-01

    Tangential flow microfiltration (MF) is a cost-effective and robust bioprocess separation technique, but successful full scale implementation is hindered by the empirical, trial-and-error nature of scale-up. We present an integrated approach leveraging at-line process analytical technology (PAT) and mass balance based modeling to de-risk MF scale-up. Chromatography-based PAT was employed to improve the consistency of an MF step that had been a bottleneck in the process used to manufacture a therapeutic protein. A 10-min reverse phase ultra high performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) assay was developed to provide at-line monitoring of protein concentration. The method was successfully validated and method performance was comparable to previously validated methods. The PAT tool revealed areas of divergence from a mass balance-based model, highlighting specific opportunities for process improvement. Adjustment of appropriate process controls led to improved operability and significantly increased yield, providing a successful example of PAT deployment in the downstream purification of a therapeutic protein. The general approach presented here should be broadly applicable to reduce risk during scale-up of filtration processes and should be suitable for feed-forward and feed-back process control. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. The BeUpstanding Program™: Scaling up the Stand Up Australia Workplace Intervention for Translation into Practice

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Genevieve N; Goode, Ana; Schultz, Diane; Lee, Donna; Leahy, Bell; Dunstan, David W; Gilson, Nicholas D; Eakin, Elizabeth G

    2016-01-01

    Context and purpose Too much sitting is now recognised as a common risk factor for several health outcomes, with the workplace identified as a key setting in which to address prolonged sitting time. The Stand Up Australia intervention was designed to reduce prolonged sitting in the workplace by addressing influences at multiple-levels, including the organisation, the environment, and the individual. Intervention success has been achieved within the context of randomised controlled trials, where research staff deliver several of the key intervention components. This study describes the initial step in the multi-phase process of scaling up the Stand Up Australia intervention for workplace translation. Methods A research-government partnership was critical in funding and informing the prototype for the scaled up BeUpstanding program™. Evidence, protocols and materials from Stand Up Australia were adapted in collaboration with funding partner Workplace Health and Safety Queensland to ensure consistency and compatibility with existing government frameworks and resources. In recognition of the key role of workplace champions in facilitating workplace health promotion programs, the BeUpstanding program™ is designed to be delivered through a stand-alone, free, website-based toolkit using a ‘train the champion’ approach. Key findings and significance The BeUpstanding program™ was influenced by the increasing recognition of prolonged sitting as an emerging health issue as well as industry demand. The research-government partnership was critical in informing and resourcing the development of the scaled-up program. PMID:29546167

  4. Up-scaling expectations among Pakistan's HIV bureaucrats: entrepreneurs of the self and job precariousness post-scale-up.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Ayaz

    2014-01-01

    Existing research has documented how the expansion of HIV programming has produced new subjectivities among the recipients of interventions. However, this paper contends that changes in politics, power and subjectivities may also be seen among the HIV bureaucracy in the decade of scale-up. One year's ethnographic fieldwork was conducted among AIDS control officials in Pakistan at a moment of rolling back a World Bank-financed Enhanced Programme. In 2003, the World Bank convinced the Musharraf regime to scale up the HIV response, offering a multimillion dollar soft loan package. I explore how the Enhanced Programme initiated government employees into a new transient work culture and turned the AIDS control programmes into a hybrid bureaucracy. However, the donor money did not last long and individuals' entrepreneurial abilities were tested in a time of crisis engendered by dependence on aid, leaving them precariously exposed to job insecurity, and undermining the continuity of AIDS prevention and treatment in the country. I do not offer a story of global 'best practices' thwarted by local 'lack of capacity', but an ethnographic critique of the transnational HIV apparatus and its neoliberal underpinning. I suggest that this Pakistan-derived analysis is more widely relevant in the post-scale-up decade.

  5. TB preventive therapy for people living with HIV: key considerations for scale-up in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Pathmanathan, I; Ahmedov, S; Pevzner, E; Anyalechi, G; Modi, S; Kirking, H; Cavanaugh, J S

    2018-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death for persons living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). TB preventive therapy (TPT) works synergistically with, and independently of, antiretroviral therapy to reduce TB morbidity, mortality and incidence among PLHIV. However, although TPT is a crucial and cost-effective component of HIV care for adults and children and has been recommended as an international standard of care for over a decade, it remains highly underutilized. If we are to end the global TB epidemic, we must address the significant reservoir of tuberculous infection, especially in those, such as PLHIV, who are most likely to progress to TB disease. To do so, we must confront the pervasive perception that barriers to TPT scale-up are insurmountable in resource-limited settings. Here we review available evidence to address several commonly stated obstacles to TPT scale-up, including the need for the tuberculin skin test, limited diagnostic capacity to reliably exclude TB disease, concerns about creating drug resistance, suboptimal patient adherence to therapy, inability to monitor for and prevent adverse events, a 'one size fits all' option for TPT regimen and duration, and uncertainty about TPT use in children, adolescents, and pregnant women. We also discuss TPT delivery in the era of differentiated care for PLHIV, how best to tackle advanced planning for drug procurement and supply chain management, and how to create an enabling environment for TPT scale-up success.

  6. Advanced Cast Aluminum Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    This production route has demonstrated that aluminum alloys with yield strengths in excess of 690 MPa with good elongation (reportedly 8%) are...series of aluminum alloys have poor-to-fair general corrosion resistance and poor-to-good stress corrosion cracking resistance. Wrought 2519...aluminum alloy has good strength, good ballistic performance, good stress corrosion cracking resistance but only fair general corrosion resistance

  7. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, David S.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Powell, Roger W.

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  8. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, D.S.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Powell, R.W.

    1985-02-07

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  9. Program to Develop High Strength Aluminum Powder Metallurgy Mill Products - Phase IV-B-Scale - up to 3200 lb Billet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-25

    H . Dudas and J . Paul Lyle, Jr. as project supervisors. The Frankford Arsenal Project Engineer...container was controlled to minimize dust emissions through any of the seals in the complete assembly. A gas bypass line allowed the displaced gas in...2) the cylinder, a shrink fit assembly of an H -12 steel liner and two outer retaining rings; and (3) a ram assembly consisting of a ram nose,

  10. Biomass Production of Hairy Roots of Artemisia annua and Arachis hypogaea in a Scaled-Up Mist Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, Ganapathy; Liu, Chunzhao; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Hairy roots have the potential to produce a variety of valuable small and large molecules. The mist reactor is a gas phase bioreactor that has shown promise for low-cost culture of hairy roots. Using a newer, disposable culture bag, mist reactor performance was studied with two species, Artemisia annua L. and Arachis hypogaea (peanut), at scales from 1 to 20 L. Both species of hairy roots when grown at 1 L in the mist reactor showed growth rates that surpassed that in shake flasks. From the information gleaned at 1 L, Arachis was scaled further to 4 and then 20 L. Misting duty cycle, culture medium flow rate, and timing of when flow rate was increased were varied. In a mist reactor increasing the misting cycle or increasing the medium flow rate are the two alternatives for increased delivery of liquid nutrients to the root bed. Longer misting cycles beyond 2–3 min were generally deemed detrimental to growth. On the other hand, increasing the medium flow rate to the sonic nozzle especially during the exponential phase of root growth (weeks 2–3) was the most important factor for increasing growth rates and biomass yields in the 20 L reactors. A. hypogaea growth in 1 L reactors was μ = 0.173 day−1 with biomass yield of 12.75 g DWL−1. This exceeded that in shake flasks at μ = 0.166 day−1 and 11.10 g DWL−1. Best growth rate and biomass yield at 20 L was μ = 0.147 and 7.77 g DWL−1, which was mainly achieved when medium flow rate delivery was increased. The mist deposition model was further evaluated using this newer reactor design and when the apparent thickness of roots (+hairs) was taken into account, the empirical data correlated with model predictions. Together these results establish the most important conditions to explore for future optimization of the mist bioreactor for culture of hairy roots. PMID:20687140

  11. What are the constraints and opportunities for HIVST scale-up in Africa? Evidence from Kenya, Malawi and South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Rooyen, Heidi; Tulloch, Olivia; Mukoma, Wanjiru; Makusha, Tawanda; Chepuka, Lignet; Knight, Lucia C; Peck, Roger B; Lim, Jeanette M; Muturi, Nelly; Chirwa, Ellen; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    HIV self-testing (HIVST) has the potential to increase uptake of HIV testing among untested populations in sub-Saharan Africa and is on the brink of scale-up. However, it is unclear to what extent HIVST would be supported by stakeholders, what policy frameworks are in place and how variations between contexts might influence country-preparedness for scale-up. This qualitative study assessed the perceptions of HIVST among stakeholders in three sub-Saharan countries. Fifty-four key informant interviews were conducted in Kenya (n=16), Malawi (n=26) and South Africa (n=12) with government policy makers, academics, activists, donors, procurement specialists, laboratory practitioners and health providers. A thematic analysis was conducted in each country and a common coding framework allowed for inter-country analysis to identify common and divergent themes across contexts. Respondents welcomed the idea of an accurate, easy-to-use, rapid HIV self-test which could increase testing across all populations. High-risk groups, such as men, Men who have sex with men (MSM), couples and young people in particular, could be targeted through a range of health facility and community-based distribution points. HIVST is already endorsed in Kenya, and political support for scale-up exists in South Africa and Malawi. However, several caveats remain. Further research, policy and ensuing guidelines should consider how to regulate, market and distribute HIVST, ensure quality assurance of tests and human rights, and critically, link testing to appropriate support and treatment services. Low literacy levels in some target groups would also need context-specific consideration before scale up. World Health Organization (WHO) policy and regulatory frameworks are needed to guide the process in those areas which are new or specific to self-testing. Stakeholders in three HIV endemic sub-Saharan countries felt that HIVST will be an important complement to existing community and facility

  12. Exploring the use of routinely-available, retrospective data to study the association between malaria control scale-up and micro-economic outcomes in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Comfort, Alison; Leegwater, Anthony; Nakhimovsky, Sharon; Kansembe, Henry; Hamainza, Busiku; Bwalya, Benson; Alilio, Martin; Johns, Ben; Olsho, Lauren

    2017-01-04

    Country-level evidence on the impact of malaria control on micro-economic outcomes is vital for mobilizing domestic and donor resources for malaria control. Using routinely available survey data could facilitate this investigation in a cost-efficient way. The authors used Malaria Indicator Surveys (MIS) and Living Conditions Monitoring Survey (LCMS) data from 2006 to 2010 for all 72 districts in Zambia to relate malaria control scale-up with household food spending (proxy for household well-being), educational attainment and agricultural production. The authors used two quasi-experimental designs: (1) a generalized propensity score for a continuous treatment variable (defined as coverage from owning insecticide-treated bed nets and/or receipt of indoor residual spraying); and, (2) a district fixed effects model to assess changes in the outcome relative to changes in treatment pre-post scale-up. The unit of analysis was at district level. The authors also conducted simulations post-analysis to assess statistical power. Micro-economic outcomes increased (33% increase in food spending) concurrently with malaria control coverage (62% increase) from 2006 to 2010. Despite using data from all 72 districts, both analytic methods yielded wide confidence intervals that do not conclusively link outcomes and malaria control coverage increases. The authors cannot rule out positive, null or negative effects. The upper bound estimates of the results show that if malaria control coverage increases from 60 to 70%, food spending could increase up to 14%, maize production could increase up to 57%, and years of schooling could increase up to 0.5 years. Simulations indicated that the generalized propensity score model did not have good statistical power. While it is technically possible to use routinely available survey data to relate malaria control scale-up and micro-economic outcomes, it is not clear from this analysis that meaningful results can be obtained when survey data are

  13. Transformation process for production of ultrahigh carbon steels and new alloys

    DOEpatents

    Strum, M.J.; Goldberg, A.; Sherby, O.D.; Landingham, R.L.

    1995-08-29

    Ultrahigh carbon steels with superplastic properties are produced by heating a steel containing ferrite and carbide phases to a soaking temperature approximately 50 C above the A{sub 1} transformation temperature, soaking the steel above the A{sub 1} temperature for a sufficient time that the major portion of the carbides dissolve into the austenite matrix, and then cooling the steel in a controlled manner within predetermined limits of cooling rate or transformation temperature, to obtain a steel having substantially spheroidal carbides. New alloy compositions contain aluminum and solute additions which promote the formation of a fine grain size and improve the resistance of the carbides to coarsening at the forming temperature. 9 figs.

  14. Transformation process for production of ultrahigh carbon steels and new alloys

    DOEpatents

    Strum, Michael J.; Goldberg, Alfred; Sherby, Oleg D.; Landingham, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    Ultrahigh carbon steels with superplastic properties are produced by heating a steel containing ferrite and carbide phases to a soaking temperature approximately 50.degree. C. above the A.sub.1 transformation temperature, soaking the steel above the A.sub.1 temperature for a sufficient time that the major portion of the carbides dissolve into the austenite matrix, and then cooling the steel in a controlled manner within predetermined limits of cooling rate or transformation temperature, to obtain a steel having substantially spheroidal carbides. New alloy compositions contain aluminum and solute additions which promote the formation of a fine grain size and improve the resistance of the carbides to coarsening at the forming temperature.

  15. Using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy on vacuum alloys-production process for elements concentration analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tianzhuo; Fan, Zhongwei; Lian, Fuqiang; Liu, Yang; Lin, Weiran; Mo, Zeqiang; Nie, Shuzhen; Wang, Pu; Xiao, Hong; Li, Xin; Zhong, Qixiu; Zhang, Hongbo

    2017-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) utilizing an echelle spectrograph-ICCD system is employed for on-line analysis of elements concentration in a vacuum induction melting workshop. Active temperature stabilization of echelle spectrometer is implemented specially for industrial environment applications. The measurement precision is further improved by monitoring laser parameters, such as pulse energy, spatial and temporal profiles, in real time, and post-selecting laser pulses with specific pulse energies. Experimental results show that major components of nickel-based alloys are stable, and can be well detected. By using internal standard method, calibration curves for chromium and aluminum are obtained for quantitative determination, with determination coefficient (relative standard deviation) to be 0.9559 (< 2.2%) and 0.9723 (< 2.8%), respectively.

  16. A comparative study of glycerol and sorbitol as co-substrates in methanol-induced cultures of Pichia pastoris: temperature effect and scale-up simulation.

    PubMed

    Berrios, Julio; Flores, María-Olga; Díaz-Barrera, Alvaro; Altamirano, Claudia; Martínez, Irene; Cabrera, Zaida

    2017-03-01

    The production of recombinant proteins by Pichia pastoris under AOX1 promoter is usually performed using methanol together with either glycerol or sorbitol as co-substrate. Although both co-substrates have been widely used, comparative studies are scarce. In addition, these comparisons have been performed at different specific growth rate (µ) that it is well known that has an important effect on productivity. Thus, the effect of using these co-substrates on the production of Rhyzopus oryzae lipase (ROL) by P. pastoris was compared in continuous cultures growing at the same µ at either 22 or 30 °C. Results show that using glycerol as co-substrate led to higher volumetric productivities, and lower specific and volumetric methanol consumption rates. Scale-up simulation with 10-10,000 L bioreactor sizes indicated that glycerol produced the highest volumetric productivity of ROL with lower aeration requirements. Therefore, glycerol rises as a better option than sorbitol in ROL production.

  17. ASRM propellant and igniter propellant development and process scale-up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landers, L. C.; Booth, D. W.; Stanley, C. B.; Ricks, D. W.

    1993-01-01

    A program of formulation and process development for ANB-3652 motor propellant was conducted to validate design concepts and screen critical propellant composition and process parameters. Design experiments resulted in the selection of a less active grade of ferric oxide to provide better burning rate control, the establishment of AP fluidization conditions that minimized the adverse effects of particle attrition, and the selection of a higher mix temperature to improve mechanical properties. It is shown that the propellant can be formulated with AP and aluminum powder from various producers. An extended duration pilot plant run demonstrated stable equipment operation and excellent reproducibility of propellant properties. A similar program of formulation and process optimization culminating in large batch scaleup was conducted for ANB-3672 igniter propellant. The results for both ANB-3652 and ANB 37672 confirmed that their processing characteristics are compatible with full-scale production.

  18. Scale-up of mild gasification to be a process development unit mildgas 24 ton/day PDU design report. Final report, November 1991--July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    From November 1991 to April 1996, Kerr McGee Coal Corporation (K-M Coal) led a project to develop the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) Mild Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program were to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scale-up; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The project team for the PDU development program consisted of: K-M Coal,more » IGT, Bechtel Corporation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC), General Motors (GM), Pellet Technology Corporation (PTC), LTV Steel, Armco Steel, Reilly Industries, and Auto Research.« less

  19. Large-area triple-junction a-Si alloy production scaleup. Annual subcontract report, 17 March 1993--18 March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, R.; Morris, J.

    1994-11-01

    The objective of this subcontract over its three-year duration is to advance Solarex`s photovoltaic manufacturing technologies, reduce its a-Si:H module production costs, increase module performance and expand the Solarex commercial production capacity. Solarex shall meet these objectives by improving the deposition and quality of the transparent front contact, by optimizing the laser patterning process, scaling-up the semiconductor deposition process, improving the back contact deposition, scaling-up and improving the encapsulation and testing of its a-Si:H modules. In the Phase 2 portion of this subcontract, Solarex focused on improving deposition of the front contact, investigating alternate feed stocks for the front contact,more » maximizing throughput and area utilization for all laser scribes, optimizing a-Si:H deposition equipment to achieve uniform deposition over large-areas, optimizing the triple-junction module fabrication process, evaluating the materials to deposit the rear contact, and optimizing the combination of isolation scribe and encapsulant to pass the wet high potential test. Progress is reported on the following: Front contact development; Laser scribe process development; Amorphous silicon based semiconductor deposition; Rear contact deposition process; Frit/bus/wire/frame; Materials handling; and Environmental test, yield and performance analysis.« less

  20. Dewatering Treatment Scale-up Testing Results of Hanford Tank Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Tedeschi, A.R.; May, T.H.; Bryan, W.E.

    2008-07-01

    This report documents CH2M HILL Hanford Group Inc. (CH2M HILL) 2007 dryer testing results in Richland, WA at the AMEC Nuclear Ltd., GeoMelt Division (AMEC) Horn Rapids Test Site. It provides a discussion of scope and results to qualify the dryer system as a viable unit-operation in the continuing evaluation of the bulk vitrification process. A 10,000 liter (L) dryer/mixer was tested for supplemental treatment of Hanford tank low activity wastes, drying and mixing a simulated non-radioactive salt solution with glass forming minerals. Testing validated the full scale equipment for producing dried product similar to smaller scale tests, and qualifiedmore » the dryer system for a subsequent integrated dryer/vitrification test using the same simulant and glass formers. The dryer system is planned for installation at the Hanford tank farms to dry/mix radioactive waste for final treatment evaluation of the supplemental bulk vitrification process. (authors)« less

  1. Scaling up the precision in a ytterbium Bose-Einstein condensate interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAlpine, Katherine; Plotkin-Swing, Benjamin; Gochnauer, Daniel; Saxberg, Brendan; Gupta, Subhadeep

    2016-05-01

    We report on progress toward a high-precision ytterbium (Yb) Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) interferometer, with the goal of measuring h/m and thus the fine structure constant α. Here h is Planck's constant and m is the mass of a Yb atom. The use of the non-magnetic Yb atom makes our experiment insensitive to magnetic field noise. Our chosen symmetric 3-path interferometer geometry suppresses errors from vibration, rotation, and acceleration. The precision scales with the phase accrued due to the kinetic energy difference between the interferometer arms, resulting in a quadratic sensitivity to the momentum difference. We are installing and testing the laser pulses for large momentum transfer via Bloch oscillations. We will report on Yb BEC production in a new apparatus and progress toward realizing the atom optical elements for high precision measurements. We will also discuss approaches to mitigate two important systematics: (i) atom interaction effects can be suppressed by creating the BEC in a dynamically shaped optical trap to reduce the density; (ii) diffraction phase effects from the various atom-optical elements can be accounted for through an analysis of the light-atom interaction for each pulse.

  2. Scale-up of 2G wire manufacturing at American Superconductor Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleshler, S.; Buczek, D.; Carter, B.; Cedrone, P.; DeMoranville, K.; Gannon, J.; Inch, J.; Li, X.; Lynch, J.; Otto, A.; Podtburg, E.; Roy, D.; Rupich, M.; Sathyamurthy, S.; Schreiber, J.; Thieme, C.; Thompson, E.; Tucker, D.; Nagashima, K.; Ogata, M.

    2009-10-01

    American Superconductor Corporation (AMSC) has developed the base technology and a manufacturing line for initial volume production of low-cost second generation high temperature superconductor (2G HTS) wire for commercial and military applications. The manufacturing line is based on reel-to-reel processing of wide HTS strips using rolling assisted bi-axially textured substrate (RABiTS™) for the template and Metal Organic Deposition (MOD) for the HTS layer. AMSC’s wide strip process is a low cost manufacturing technology since multiple wires are produced in a single manufacturing pass by slitting the wide strip to narrower width in the last stage of the manufacturing process. Industry standard 4.4 mm wide wires are produced by laminating metallic foils, such as copper, stainless steel or any other material, to the HTS insert wire, and are chosen to tailor the electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of the wire for specific applications. The laminated, 4.4 mm wide wires are known as “344 superconductors.” In this paper, we summarize the status of AMSC’s manufacturing capability, the performance of the wire presently being produced, as well as the cost and technical advantages of AMSC’s manufacturing approach. In addition, future direction for research and development to improve electrical performance is presented.

  3. A Novel Scale Up Model for Prediction of Pharmaceutical Film Coating Process Parameters.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Minami, Hidemi; Terada, Katsuhide

    2016-01-01

    In the pharmaceutical tablet film coating process, we clarified that a difference in exhaust air relative humidity can be used to detect differences in process parameters values, the relative humidity of exhaust air was different under different atmospheric air humidity conditions even though all setting values of the manufacturing process parameters were the same, and the water content of tablets was correlated with the exhaust air relative humidity. Based on this experimental data, the exhaust air relative humidity index (EHI), which is an empirical equation that includes as functional parameters the pan coater type, heated air flow rate, spray rate of coating suspension, saturated water vapor pressure at heated air temperature, and partial water vapor pressure at atmospheric air pressure, was developed. The predictive values of exhaust relative humidity using EHI were in good correlation with the experimental data (correlation coefficient of 0.966) in all datasets. EHI was verified using the date of seven different drug products of different manufacturing scales. The EHI model will support formulation researchers by enabling them to set film coating process parameters when the batch size or pan coater type changes, and without the time and expense of further extensive testing.

  4. Universal access to electricity in Burkina Faso: scaling-up renewable energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moner-Girona, M.; Bódis, K.; Huld, T.; Kougias, I.; Szabó, S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the status quo of the power sector in Burkina Faso, its limitations, and develops a new methodology that through spatial analysis processes with the aim to provide a possible pathway for universal electricity access. Following the SE4All initiative approach, it recommends the more extensive use of distributed renewable energy systems to increase access to electricity on an accelerated timeline. Less than 5% of the rural population in Burkina Faso have currently access to electricity and supply is lacking at many social structures such as schools and hospitals. Energy access achievements in Burkina Faso are still very modest. According to the latest SE4All Global Tracking Framework (2015), the access to electricity annual growth rate in Burkina Faso from 2010 to 2012 is 0%. The rural electrification strategy for Burkina Faso is scattered in several electricity sector development policies: there is a need of defining a concrete action plan. Planning and coordination between grid extension and the off-grid electrification programme is essential to reach a long-term sustainable energy model and prevent high avoidable infrastructure investments. This paper goes into details on the methodology and findings of the developed Geographic Information Systems tool. The aim of the dynamic planning tool is to provide support to the national government and development partners to define an alternative electrification plan. Burkina Faso proves to be paradigm case for the methodology as its national policy for electrification is still dominated by grid extension and the government subsidising fossil fuel electricity production. However, the results of our analysis suggest that the current grid extension is becoming inefficient and unsustainable in order to reach the national energy access targets. The results also suggest that Burkina Faso’s rural electrification strategy should be driven local renewable resources to power distributed mini-grids. We find that

  5. Scale-up of an alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus MTCC 7514 utilizing fish meal as a sole source of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rishikesh Kumar; Prasad, Dinesh; Sathesh, Jaykumar; Naidu, Ramachandra Boopathy; Kamini, Numbi Ramudu; Palanivel, Saravanan; Gowthaman, Marichetti Kuppuswami

    2012-09-01

    Fish meal grades SL1 and SL2 from Sardine (Sardinella longiceps) and NJ from Pink Perch (Nemipterus japonicas) were evaluated as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen in the medium for alkaline protease production by Bacillus pumilus MTCC 7514. The analysis of the fish meal suggests that the carbon and nitrogen contents in fish meal are sufficient to justify its choice as replacement for other nutrients. Protease production increased significantly (4,914 U/ml) in medium containing only fish meal, compared with the basal medium (2,646 U/ml). However, the elimination of inorganic salts from media reduced the protease productivity. In addition, all the three grades of fish meal yielded almost the same amounts of protease when employed as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Nevertheless, the best results were observed in fish meal SL1 medium. Furthermore, protease production was enhanced to 6,966 U/ml and 7,047 U/ml on scaling up from flask (4,914 U/ml) to 3.7 and 20 L fermenters, respectively, using fish meal (10 g/l). Similarly, the corresponding improvement in productivities over flask (102.38 U/ml/h) was 193.5 and 195.75 U/ml/h in 3.7 and 20 L fermenters, respectively. The crude protease was found to have dehairing ability in leather processing, which is bound to have great environmental benefits.

  6. Staged, High-Pressure Oxy-Combustion Technology: Development and Scale-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Axelbaum, Richard; Xia, Fei; Gopan, Akshay

    Washington University in St. Louis and its project partners are developing a unique pressurized oxy-combustion process that aims to improve efficiency and costs by reducing the recycling of flue gas to near zero. Normally, in the absence of recycled flue gas or another inert gas, combustion of fuel and oxygen results in a dramatic increase in temperature of the combustion products and radiant energy, as compared to combustion in air. High heat flux to the boiler tubes may result in a tube surface temperatures that exceed safe operating limits. In the Staged Pressurized Oxy-Combustion (SPOC) process, this problem is addressedmore » by staging the delivery of fuel and by novel combustion design that allows control of heat flux. In addition, the main mode of heat transfer to the steam cycle is by radiation, as opposed to convection. Therefore, the requirement for recycling large amounts of flue gas, for temperature control or to improve convective heat transfer, is eliminated, resulting in a reduction in auxiliary loads. The following report contains a detailed summary of scientific findings and accomplishments for the period of Oct. 1, 2013 to Sept 30, 2014. Results of ASPEN process and CFD modelling activities aimed at improving the SPOC process and boiler design are presented. The effects of combustion pressure and fuel moisture on the plant efficiency are discussed. Combustor pressure is found to have only a minor impact beyond 16 bar. For fuels with moisture content greater than approx 30%, e.g. coal/water slurries, the amount of latent heat of condensation exceeds that which can be utilized in the steam cycle and plant efficiency is reduced significantly. An improved boiler design is presented that achieves a more uniform heat flux profile. In addition, a fundamental study of radiation in high-temperature, high-pressure, particle-laden flows is summarized which provides a more complete understanding of heat transfer in these unusual conditions and to allow for

  7. Mental health policy in Kenya -an integrated approach to scaling up equitable care for poor populations.

    PubMed

    Kiima, David; Jenkins, Rachel

    2010-06-28

    Although most donor and development agency attention is focussed on communicable diseases in Kenya, the importance of non-communicable diseases including mental health and mental illness is increasingly apparent, both in their own right and because of their influence on health, education and social goals. Mental illness is common but the specialist service is extremely sparse and primary care is struggling to cope with major health demands. Non health sectors e.g. education, prisons, police, community development, gender and children, regional administration and local government have significant concerns about mental health, but general health programmes have been surprisingly slow to appreciate the significance of mental health for physical health targets. Despite a people centred post colonial health delivery system, poverty and global social changes have seriously undermined equity. This project sought to meet these challenges, aiming to introduce sustainable mental health policy and implementation across the country, within the context of extremely scarce resources. A multi-faceted and comprehensive programme which combined situation appraisal to inform planning, sustained intersectoral policy dialogue at national and regional level; establishment of a health sector system for coordination, supervision and training of at each level (national, regional, district and primary care); development workshops; production of toolkits, development of guidelines and standards; encouragement of intersectoral liaison at national, regional, district and local levels; public education; and integration of mental health into health management systems. The programme has achieved detailed situation appraisal, epidemiological needs assessment, inclusion of mental health into the health sector reform plans, and into the National Package of Essential Health Interventions, annual operational plans, mental health policy guidelines to accompany the general health policy, tobacco

  8. Population size estimation of men who have sex with men through the network scale-up method in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ezoe, Satoshi; Morooka, Takeo; Noda, Tatsuya; Sabin, Miriam Lewis; Koike, Soichi

    2012-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are one of the groups most at risk for HIV infection in Japan. However, size estimates of MSM populations have not been conducted with sufficient frequency and rigor because of the difficulty, high cost and stigma associated with reaching such populations. This study examined an innovative and simple method for estimating the size of the MSM population in Japan. We combined an internet survey with the network scale-up method, a social network method for estimating the size of hard-to-reach populations, for the first time in Japan. An internet survey was conducted among 1,500 internet users who registered with a nationwide internet-research agency. The survey participants were asked how many members of particular groups with known population sizes (firepersons, police officers, and military personnel) they knew as acquaintances. The participants were also asked to identify the number of their acquaintances whom they understood to be MSM. Using these survey results with the network scale-up method, the personal network size and MSM population size were estimated. The personal network size was estimated to be 363.5 regardless of the sex of the acquaintances and 174.0 for only male acquaintances. The estimated MSM prevalence among the total male population in Japan was 0.0402% without adjustment, and 2.87% after adjusting for the transmission error of MSM. The estimated personal network size and MSM prevalence seen in this study were comparable to those from previous survey results based on the direct-estimation method. Estimating population sizes through combining an internet survey with the network scale-up method appeared to be an effective method from the perspectives of rapidity, simplicity, and low cost as compared with more-conventional methods.

  9. Population Size Estimation of Men Who Have Sex with Men through the Network Scale-Up Method in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ezoe, Satoshi; Morooka, Takeo; Noda, Tatsuya; Sabin, Miriam Lewis; Koike, Soichi

    2012-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are one of the groups most at risk for HIV infection in Japan. However, size estimates of MSM populations have not been conducted with sufficient frequency and rigor because of the difficulty, high cost and stigma associated with reaching such populations. This study examined an innovative and simple method for estimating the size of the MSM population in Japan. We combined an internet survey with the network scale-up method, a social network method for estimating the size of hard-to-reach populations, for the first time in Japan. Methods and Findings An internet survey was conducted among 1,500 internet users who registered with a nationwide internet-research agency. The survey participants were asked how many members of particular groups with known population sizes (firepersons, police officers, and military personnel) they knew as acquaintances. The participants were also asked to identify the number of their acquaintances whom they understood to be MSM. Using these survey results with the network scale-up method, the personal network size and MSM population size were estimated. The personal network size was estimated to be 363.5 regardless of the sex of the acquaintances and 174.0 for only male acquaintances. The estimated MSM prevalence among the total male population in Japan was 0.0402% without adjustment, and 2.87% after adjusting for the transmission error of MSM. Conclusions The estimated personal network size and MSM prevalence seen in this study were comparable to those from previous survey results based on the direct-estimation method. Estimating population sizes through combining an internet survey with the network scale-up method appeared to be an effective method from the perspectives of rapidity, simplicity, and low cost as compared with more-conventional methods. PMID:22563366

  10. Scaling up delivery of contraceptive implants in sub-Saharan Africa: operational experiences of Marie Stopes International

    PubMed Central

    Duvall, Susan; Thurston, Sarah; Weinberger, Michelle; Nuccio, Olivia; Fuchs-Montgomery, Nomi

    2014-01-01

    Contraceptive implants offer promising opportunities for addressing the high and growing unmet need for modern contraceptives in sub-Saharan Africa. Marie Stopes International (MSI) offers implants as one of many family planning options. Between 2008 and 2012, MSI scaled up voluntary access to implants in 15 sub-Saharan African countries, from 80,041 implants in 2008 to 754,329 implants in 2012. This 9-fold increase amounted to more than 1.7 million implants delivered cumulatively over the 5-year period. High levels of client satisfaction were attained alongside service provision scale up by using existing MSI service delivery channels—mobile outreach, social franchising, and clinics—to implement strategies that broadened access for underserved clients and maintained service quality. Use of adaptive and context-specific service delivery models and attention to key operational components, including sufficient numbers of trained providers, strong supply chains, diverse financing mechanisms, and implant removal services, underpinned our service delivery efforts. Accounting for 70% of the implants delivered by MSI in 2012, mobile outreach services through dedicated MSI provider teams played a central role in scale-up efforts, fueled in part by the provision of free or heavily subsidized services. Social franchising also demonstrated promise for future program growth, along with MSI clinics. Continued high growth in implant provision between 2011 and 2012 in all sub-Saharan African countries indicates the region's capacity for further service delivery expansion. Meeting the expected rising demand for implants and ensuring long-term sustainable access to the method, as part of a comprehensive method mix, will require continued use of appropriate service delivery models, effective operations, and ongoing collaboration between the private, public, and nongovernmental sectors. MSI's experience can be instructive for future efforts to ensure contraceptive access and

  11. Antiretroviral treatment and the health workforce in South Africa: how have ART workers been affected by scaling up?

    PubMed

    Tobi, Patrick; George, Gavin; Schmidt, Elena; Renton, Adrian

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the effect of scaling up antiretroviral treatment (ART) on the working environment and motivation of health workers in South Africa; and to suggest strategies to minimize negative effects and maximise positive effects. Exploratory interviews with health managers and senior clinical staff were used to identify locally relevant work environment indicators. A self-reported Likert scale questionnaire was administered to a randomly selected cohort of 269 health professionals at health facilities in KwaZulu Natal and Western Cape provinces of South Africa that included ART delivery sites. The cohort was disaggregated into ART and non-ART groups and differences between the two compared with Fisher's exact test and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. The ART sub-cohort reported: (i) a lighter workload (P = 0.013), (ii) higher level of staffing (P = 0.010), (iii) lower sickness absence (P = 0.032), (iv) higher overall job satisfaction (P = 0.010), (v) poorer physical state of their work premises (P = 0.003), and (vi) higher staff turnover (P = 0.036). Conclusion Scale-up affects the work environment in ways that influence workers' motivation both positively and negatively. A net negative balance is likely to drive staff out-migration, undermine the quality of care and compromise the capacity of the programme to achieve significant scale. As health workers are the most important element of the health system, a comprehensive and systematic understanding of scale-up impacts on their working conditions and motivation needs to be an integral part of any delivery strategy.

  12. Scaling up delivery of contraceptive implants in sub-Saharan Africa: operational experiences of Marie Stopes International.

    PubMed

    Duvall, Susan; Thurston, Sarah; Weinberger, Michelle; Nuccio, Olivia; Fuchs-Montgomery, Nomi

    2014-02-01

    Contraceptive implants offer promising opportunities for addressing the high and growing unmet need for modern contraceptives in sub-Saharan Africa. Marie Stopes International (MSI) offers implants as one of many family planning options. Between 2008 and 2012, MSI scaled up voluntary access to implants in 15 sub-Saharan African countries, from 80,041 implants in 2008 to 754,329 implants in 2012. This 9-fold increase amounted to more than 1.7 million implants delivered cumulatively over the 5-year period. High levels of client satisfaction were attained alongside service provision scale up by using existing MSI service delivery channels-mobile outreach, social franchising, and clinics-to implement strategies that broadened access for underserved clients and maintained service quality. Use of adaptive and context-specific service delivery models and attention to key operational components, including sufficient numbers of trained providers, strong supply chains, diverse financing mechanisms, and implant removal services, underpinned our service delivery efforts. Accounting for 70% of the implants delivered by MSI in 2012, mobile outreach services through dedicated MSI provider teams played a central role in scale-up efforts, fueled in part by the provision of free or heavily subsidized services. Social franchising also demonstrated promise for future program growth, along with MSI clinics. Continued high growth in implant provision between 2011 and 2012 in all sub-Saharan African countries indicates the region's capacity for further service delivery expansion. Meeting the expected rising demand for implants and ensuring long-term sustainable access to the method, as part of a comprehensive method mix, will require continued use of appropriate service delivery models, effective operations, and ongoing collaboration between the private, public, and nongovernmental sectors. MSI's experience can be instructive for future efforts to ensure contraceptive access and choice

  13. Scaling up watershed model parameters: flow and load simulations of the Edisto River Basin, South Carolina, 2007-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feaster, Toby D.; Benedict, Stephen T.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Conrads, Paul

    2014-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to expand the understanding of relations among hydrologic, geochemical, and ecological processes that affect fish-tissue mercury concentrations within the Edisto River Basin, analyses and simulations of the hydrology of the Edisto River Basin were made using the topography-based hydrological model (TOPMODEL). A primary focus of the investigation was to assess the potential for scaling up a previous application of TOPMODEL for the McTier Creek watershed, which is a small headwater catchment to the Edisto River Basin. Scaling up was done in a step-wise manner, beginning with applying the calibration parameters, meteorological data, and topographic-wetness-index data from the McTier Creek TOPMODEL to the Edisto River TOPMODEL. Additional changes were made for subsequent simulations, culminating in the best simulation, which included meteorological and topographic wetness index data from the Edisto River Basin and updated calibration parameters for some of the TOPMODEL calibration parameters. The scaling-up process resulted in nine simulations being made. Simulation 7 best matched the streamflows at station 02175000, Edisto River near Givhans, SC, which was the downstream limit for the TOPMODEL setup, and was obtained by adjusting the scaling factor, including streamflow routing, and using NEXRAD precipitation data for the Edisto River Basin. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of model-fit efficiency and Pearson’s correlation coefficient for simulation 7 were 0.78 and 0.89, respectively. Comparison of goodness-of-fit statistics between measured and simulated daily mean streamflow for the McTier Creek and Edisto River models showed that with calibration, the Edisto River TOPMODEL produced slightly better results than the McTier Creek model, despite the substantial difference in the drainage-area size at the outlet locations for the two models (30.7 and 2,725 square miles, respectively). Along with the TOPMODEL

  14. Tensile and impact properties of General Atomics 832864 heat of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Nowicki, L.J.; Gazda, J.

    A 1300-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy was procured by General Atomics (GA) for the DIII-D radiative divertor program. To determine the mechanical properties of this alloy, tensile and Charpy tests were conducted on specimens prepared from pieces of 4.8-mm-thick as-rolled plates, a major product form for the DIII-D application. The tensile tests were conducted at three temperatures, 26, 280 and 380 C, the last two being the anticipated peak temperatures during DIII-D boronization and postvent bake-out, respectively. Results from these tests show that the tensile and impact properties of the 832864 heat are comparable to those of the other smallermore » V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloy heats previously developed by the US Fusion Materials Program and that scale-up of vanadium alloy production can be successfully achieved as long as reasonable process control is implemented.« less

  15. Production of aluminum-silicon alloy and ferrosilicon and commercial purity aluminum by the direct reduction process. Third interim technical report, Phase C for the period 1980 July 1-1980 September 30

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, M.J.

    1980-10-01

    Pilot reactor VSR-3 operation in the third quarter was directed to tapping molten alloy product. Modifications to the hearth region included a tapping furnace to maintain taphole temperature, a graphite ring filter to separate carbides from matal and an alumina liner to eliminate carbiding from reaction of alloy with the graphite hearth walls. Tapping was not successful, however, due to high alloy viscosity from a large concentration of carbides. Three runs were made on the pilot crystallizer to determine the effects of alloy composition, cooling rate, tamping rate, remelt temperature and rate on eutectic Al-Si yield.

  16. Identifying the Characteristics of Effective High Schools: Report from Year One of the National Center on Scaling up Effective Schools. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Stacey; Cohen-Vogel, Lora; Osborne-Lampkin, La'Tara

    2012-01-01

    The National Center on Scaling up Effective Schools (NCSU) is a five-year project working to develop, implement, and test new processes to scale up effective practices in high schools that districts will be able to apply within the context of their own unique goals and circumstances. This report describes the activities and findings of the first…

  17. WWC Review of the Report "Evaluation of the i3 Scale-up of Reading Recovery Year One Report, 2011-12." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    For the 2013 study, "Evaluation of the i3 Scale-up of Reading Recovery Year One Report, 2011-12," researchers examined the Year 1 impacts of the Investing in Innovation (i3) scale-up of "Reading Recovery"®, a short-term intervention for struggling readers, on the reading achievement of first-grade students. The analytic sample…

  18. A SCALE-UP Mock-Up: Comparison of Student Learning Gains in High- and Low-Tech Active-Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soneral, Paula A. G.; Wyse, Sara A.

    2017-01-01

    Student-centered learning environments with upside-down pedagogies (SCALE-UP) are widely implemented at institutions across the country, and learning gains from these classrooms have been well documented. This study investigates the specific design feature(s) of the SCALE-UP classroom most conducive to teaching and learning. Using pilot survey…

  19. Scaling up a School-Based Sexual and Reproductive Health Intervention in Rural Tanzania: A Process Evaluation Describing the Implementation Realities for the Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renju, Jenny; Nyalali, Kija; Andrew, Bahati; Kishamawe, Coleman; Kimaryo, Micheal; Remes, Pieter; Changalucha, John; Obasi, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the nature and mechanisms of factors that facilitate or inhibit the scale-up and subsequent implementation of school-based adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) interventions. We present process evaluation findings examining the factors that affected the 10-fold scale-up of such an intervention, focussing on…

  20. Production of aluminum-silicon alloy and ferrosilicon and commercial purity aluminum by the direct reduction process. First interim technical report, Phase D, January 1-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, M.J.

    1981-04-01

    Operation of the bench AF-reactor on burden with all reducing carbon exterior to the ore pellet resulted in low metal alloy product yields and prematurely terminated runs, indicating the need for intimate contact between alumina and carbon to produce oxycarbide liquid prior to reaction with solid silicon carbide. Carbon solubility tests made on 60Al-40Si alloys at 2200/sup 0/C in graphite crucibles indicated continued reaction to form SiC for one hour. Efficiency of reduction to SiC ranged from 68 to 100%. The A-C two-electrode submerged arc reactor pilot, SAR-II, was successfully operated on both alumina-clay-coke and alumina-silicon carbide-coke (from the VSRmore » prereduction) burdens. Metal alloy was produced and tapped in each of four runs. The pilot crystallizer was operated to evalute the two-stage (stop and go) crystallization technique on obtaining high yields of Al in Al-Si eutectic, with a limit of 1.0% Fe and 0.1% Ti in the alloy product. 18 figures, 19 tables. (DLC)« less

  1. The success factors of scaling-up Estonian sexual and reproductive health youth clinic network--from a grassroots initiative to a national programme 1991-2013.

    PubMed

    Kempers, Jari; Ketting, Evert; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Raudsepp, Triin

    2015-01-08

    A growing number of middle-income countries are scaling up youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health pilot projects to national level programmes. Yet, there are few case studies on successful national level scale-up of such programmes. Estonia is an excellent example of scale-up of a small grassroots adolescent sexual and reproductive health initiative to a national programme, which most likely contributed to improved adolescent sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This study; (1) documents the scale-up process of the Estonian youth clinic network 1991-2013, and (2) analyses factors that contributed to the successful scale-up. This research provides policy makers and programme managers with new insights to success factors of the scale-up, that can be used to support planning, implementation and scale-up of adolescent sexual and reproductive health programmes in other countries. Information on the scale-up process and success factors were collected by conducting a literature review and interviewing key stakeholders. The findings were analysed using the WHO-ExpandNet framework, which provides a step-by-step process approach for design, implementation and assessment of the results of scaling-up health innovations. The scale-up was divided into two main phases: (1) planning the scale-up strategy 1991-1995 and (2) managing the scaling-up 1996-2013. The planning phase analysed innovation, user organizations (youth clinics), environment and resource team (a national NGO and international assistance). The managing phase examines strategic choices, advocacy, organization, resource mobilization, monitoring and evaluation, strategic planning and management of the scale-up. The main factors that contributed to the successful scale-up in Estonia were: (1) favourable social and political climate, (2) clear demonstrated need for the adolescent services, (3) a national professional organization that advocated, coordinated and represented the youth clinics, (4) enthusiasm

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a National Neonatal Hearing Screening Program in China: Conditions for the Scale-Up

    PubMed Central

    Tobe, Ruoyan Gai; Mori, Rintaro; Huang, Lihui; Xu, Lingzhong; Han, Demin; Shibuya, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Health recommended scale-up of routine neonatal hearing screening - previously performed primarily only in select urban hospitals - throughout the entire country. Methods A decision analytical model for a simulated population of all live births in China was developed to compare the costs and health effects of five mutually exclusive interventions: 1) universal screening using Otoacoustic Emission (OAE) and Automated Auditory Brainstem Response (AABR); 2) universal OAE; 3) targeted OAE and AABR; 4) targeted OAE; and 5) no screening. Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) were calculated for health effects. Results and Discussion Based on the cost-effectiveness and potential health outcomes, the optimal path for scale-up would be to start with targeted OAE and then expand to universal OAE and universal OAE plus AABR. Accessibility of screening, diagnosis, and intervention services significantly affect decision of the options. Conclusion In conclusion, to achieve cost-effectiveness and best health outcomes of the NHS program, the accessibility of screening, diagnosis, and intervention services should be expanded to reach a larger population. The results are thus expected to be of particular benefit in terms of the ‘rolling out’ of the national plan. PMID:23341887

  3. An investigation of viscous-mediated coupling of crickets cercal hair sensors using a scaled up model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagirisamy, Pasupathy S.; Jeronimidis, George; Le Moàl, Valerie

    2009-08-01

    Viscous coupling between filiform hair sensors of insects and arthropods has gained considerable interest recently. Study of viscous coupling between hairs at micro scale with current technologies is proving difficult and hence the hair system has been physically scaled up by a factor of 100. For instance, a typical filiform hair of 10 μm diameter and 1000 μm length has been physically scaled up to 1 mm in diameter and 100mm in length. At the base, a rotational spring with a bonded strain gauge provides the restoring force and measures the angle of deflection of the model hair. These model hairs were used in a glycerol-filled aquarium where the velocity of flow and the fluid properties were determined by imposing the Reynolds numbers compatible with biological system. Experiments have been conducted by varying the separation distance and the relative position between the moveable model hairs, of different lengths and between the movable and rigid hairs of different lengths for the steady velocity flow with Reynolds numbers of 0.02 and 0.05. In this study, the viscous coupling between hairs has been characterised. The effect of the distance from the physical boundaries, such as tank walls has also been quantified (wall effect). The purpose of this investigation is to provide relevant information for the design of MEMS systems mimicking the cricket's hair array.

  4. Constraints, synergies and avenues for scaling up breastfeeding, antibiotics for pneumonia and IMCI interventions in the Cusco region, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Gericke, Christian A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this qualitative case study was to assess the feasibility of scaling up exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, antibiotics for pneumonia and integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) child interventions in three districts of the Cusco region, Peru. Methods: During field visits, constraints, synergies and solutions to the implementation of the selected interventions were collected through observational recording and interviews of mothers, health workers, and health managers/decision makers. Results are presented for each intervention according to the health system level where they occurred: mother/community, health worker, health centre, and political/managerial levels. Findings: This case study demonstrates that it is feasible to scale up exclusive breastfeeding, antibiotics for pneumonia and IMCI interventions in poverty-stricken rural areas of a low-income country. Factors that helped and hindered the implementation were identified for each intervention. Conclusions: The need for a coherent multi-sector approach that includes regulation, implementation and monitoring of health policies and education of all involved stakeholders was apparent. This study also demonstrates that global health interventions need to undergo local adaptation. Identifying local constraints and facilitating factors in a systematic way as proposed in this study is a useful step to increase their effectiveness and reach at the local level and to identify areas for improvement in the original intervention policies. PMID:24358831

  5. Extraction of bioactives from Orthosiphon stamineus using microwave and ultrasound-assisted techniques: Process optimization and scale up.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chung-Hung; See, Tiam-You; Yusoff, Rozita; Ngoh, Gek-Cheng; Kow, Kien-Woh

    2017-04-15

    This work demonstrated the optimization and scale up of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of bioactive compounds from Orthosiphon stamineus using energy-based parameters such as absorbed power density and absorbed energy density (APD-AED) and response surface methodology (RSM). The intensive optimum conditions of MAE obtained at 80% EtOH, 50mL/g, APD of 0.35W/mL, AED of 250J/mL can be used to determine the optimum conditions of the scale-dependent parameters i.e. microwave power and treatment time at various extraction scales (100-300mL solvent loading). The yields of the up scaled conditions were consistent with less than 8% discrepancy and they were about 91-98% of the Soxhlet extraction yield. By adapting APD-AED method in the case of UAE, the intensive optimum conditions of the extraction, i.e. 70% EtOH, 30mL/g, APD of 0.22W/mL, AED of 450J/mL are able to achieve similar scale up results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improving health outcomes through concurrent HIV program scale-up and health system development in Rwanda: 20 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Nsanzimana, Sabin; Prabhu, Krishna; McDermott, Haley; Karita, Etienne; Forrest, Jamie I; Drobac, Peter; Farmer, Paul; Mills, Edward J; Binagwaho, Agnes

    2015-09-09

    The 1994 genocide against the Tutsi destroyed the health system in Rwanda. It is impressive that a small country like Rwanda has advanced its health system to the point of now offering near universal health insurance coverage. Through a series of strategic structural changes to its health system, catalyzed through international assistance, Rwanda has demonstrated a commitment towards improving patient and population health indicators. In particular, the rapid scale up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has become a great success story for Rwanda. The country achieved universal coverage of ART at a CD4 cell count of 200 cells/mm(3) in 2007 and increased the threshold for initiation of ART to ≤350 cells/mm(3) in 2008. Further, 2013 guidelines raised the threshold for initiation to ≤500 cells/mm(3) and suggest immediate therapy for key affected populations. In 2015, guidelines recommend offering immediate treatment to all patients. By reviewing the history of HIV and the scale-up of treatment delivery in Rwanda since the genocide, this paper highlights some of the key innovations of the Government of Rwanda and demonstrates the ways in which the national response to the HIV epidemic has catalyzed the implementation of interventions that have helped strengthen the overall health system.

  7. Using Benefit-Cost Analysis to Scale Up Early Childhood Programs through Pay-for-Success Financing

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Judy A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing access to high-quality preschool programs is a high priority at local, state, and federal levels. Recently, two initiatives to expand preschool programming in Illinois and Utah have used funds from private investors to scale up existing programs. Private-sector social impact investors provide funding to nonprofit or public preschool providers to increase the number of children served. If the measured outcomes from preschool participation meet pre-determined goals, then the estimated government cost savings arising from these preschool interventions are used to repay the investors. Social impact investing with a “Pay for Success” contract can help budget-constrained governments expand proven or promising preventive interventions without the need to increase taxes. Cost-benefit analysis plays a crucial role in helping to identify which social, educational or health interventions are suitable for this type of innovative financing. Cost-benefit analysts are needed to design the structure of the success payments that the government will make to the private investors. This paper describes social impact borrowing as a new method for financing public services, outlines the contribution of cost-benefit analysis, and discusses the innovative use of social impact financing to promote scaling up of the evidence-based Child Parent Centers and other early childhood programs. PMID:27882288

  8. Bioprocess scale-up/down as integrative enabling technology: from fluid mechanics to systems biology and beyond.

    PubMed

    Delvigne, Frank; Takors, Ralf; Mudde, Rob; van Gulik, Walter; Noorman, Henk

    2017-09-01

    Efficient optimization of microbial processes is a critical issue for achieving a number of sustainable development goals, considering the impact of microbial biotechnology in agrofood, environment, biopharmaceutical and chemical industries. Many of these applications require scale-up after proof of concept. However, the behaviour of microbial systems remains unpredictable (at least partially) when shifting from laboratory-scale to industrial conditions. The need for robust microbial systems is thus highly needed in this context, as well as a better understanding of the interactions between fluid mechanics and cell physiology. For that purpose, a full scale-up/down computational framework is already available. This framework links computational fluid dynamics (CFD), metabolic flux analysis and agent-based modelling (ABM) for a better understanding of the cell lifelines in a heterogeneous environment. Ultimately, this framework can be used for the design of scale-down simulators and/or metabolically engineered cells able to cope with environmental fluctuations typically found in large-scale bioreactors. However, this framework still needs some refinements, such as a better integration of gas-liquid flows in CFD, and taking into account intrinsic biological noise in ABM. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Global Learning Scales up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Becoming more global is a familiar refrain for many a school administrator or curriculum developer wrestling with delivering 21st century skills. Over the past decade, districts have expanded their foreign language programs, added Mandarin Chinese to the mix, and in some cases launched language immersion classes in their elementary schools. Others…

  10. Reducing metal alloy powder costs for use in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing: Improving the economics for production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Fransisco

    Titanium and its associated alloys have been used in industry for over 50 years and have become more popular in the recent decades. Titanium has been most successful in areas where the high strength to weight ratio provides an advantage over aluminum and steels. Other advantages of titanium include biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that has been successfully applied in the manufacturing of titanium components for the aerospace and medical industry with equivalent or better mechanical properties as parts fabricated via more traditional casting and machining methods. As the demand for titanium powder continues to increase, the price also increases. Titanium spheroidized powder from different vendors has a price range from 260/kg-450/kg, other spheroidized alloys such as Niobium can cost as high as $1,200/kg. Alternative titanium powders produced from methods such as the Titanium Hydride-Dehydride (HDH) process and the Armstrong Commercially Pure Titanium (CPTi) process can be fabricated at a fraction of the cost of powders fabricated via gas atomization. The alternative powders can be spheroidized and blended. Current sectors in additive manufacturing such as the medical industry are concerned that there will not be enough spherical powder for production and are seeking other powder options. It is believed the EBM technology can use a blend of spherical and angular powder to build fully dense parts with equal mechanical properties to those produced using traditional powders. Some of the challenges with angular and irregular powders are overcoming the poor flow characteristics and the attainment of the same or better packing densities as spherical powders. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing alternative and lower cost powders in the EBM process. As a result, reducing the cost of the raw material to reduce the overall cost of the product produced with

  11. Scaling up kangaroo mother care in South Africa: 'on-site' versus 'off-site' educational facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Bergh, Anne-Marie; van Rooyen, Elise; Pattinson, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    Background Scaling up the implementation of new health care interventions can be challenging and demand intensive training or retraining of health workers. This paper reports on the results of testing the effectiveness of two different kinds of face-to-face facilitation used in conjunction with a well-designed educational package in the scaling up of kangaroo mother care. Methods Thirty-six hospitals in the Provinces of Gauteng and Mpumalanga in South Africa were targeted to implement kangaroo mother care and participated in the trial. The hospitals were paired with respect to their geographical location and annual number of births. One hospital in each pair was randomly allocated to receive either 'on-site' facilitation (Group A) or 'off-site' facilitation (Group B). Hospitals in Group A received two on-site visits, whereas delegates from hospitals in Group B attended one off-site, 'hands-on' workshop at a training hospital. All hospitals were evaluated during a site visit six to eight months after attending an introductory workshop and were scored by means of an existing progress-monitoring tool with a scoring scale of 0–30. Successful implementation was regarded as demonstrating evidence of practice (score >10) during the site visit. Results There was no significant difference between the scores of Groups A and B (p = 0.633). Fifteen hospitals in Group A and 16 in Group B demonstrated evidence of practice. The median score for Group A was 16.52 (range 00.00–23.79) and that for Group B 14.76 (range 07.50–23.29). Conclusion A previous trial illustrated that the implementation of a new health care intervention could be scaled up by using a carefully designed educational package, combined with face-to-face facilitation by respected resource persons. This study demonstrated that the site of facilitation, either on site or at a centre of excellence, did not influence the ability of a hospital to implement KMC. The choice of outreach strategy should be guided by

  12. Promoting universal financial protection: constraints and enabling factors in scaling-up coverage with social health insurance in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onoka, Chima A; Onwujekwe, Obinna E; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S; Ezumah, Nkoli N

    2013-06-13

    The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Nigeria was launched in 2005 as part of efforts by the federal government to achieve universal coverage using financial risk protection mechanisms. However, only 4% of the population, and mainly federal government employees, are currently covered by health insurance and this is primarily through the Formal Sector Social Health Insurance Programme (FSSHIP) of the NHIS. This study aimed to understand why different state (sub-national) governments decided whether or not to adopt the FSSHIP for their employees. This study used a comparative case study approach. Data were collected through document reviews and 48 in-depth interviews with policy makers, programme managers, health providers, and civil servant leaders. Although the programme's benefits seemed acceptable to state policy makers and the intended beneficiaries (employees), the feasibility of employer contributions, concerns about transparency in the NHIS and the role of states in the FSSHIP, the roles of policy champions such as state governors and resistance by employees to making contributions, all influenced the decision of state governments on adoption. Overall, the power of state governments over state-level health reforms, attributed to the prevailing system of government that allows states to deliberate on certain national-level policies, enhanced by the NHIS legislation that made adoption voluntary, enabled states to adopt or not to adopt the program. The study demonstrates and supports observations that even when the content of a programme is generally acceptable, context, actor roles, and the wider implications of programme design on actor interests can explain decision on policy adoption. Policy implementers involved in scaling-up the NHIS programme need to consider the prevailing contextual factors, and effectively engage policy champions to overcome known challenges in order to encourage adoption by sub-national governments. Policy makers and

  13. Scaling up from field to region for wind erosion prediction using a field-scale wind erosion model and GIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zobeck, T.M.; Parker, N.C.; Haskell, S.; Guoding, K.

    2000-01-01

    Factors that affect wind erosion such as surface vegetative and other cover, soil properties and surface roughness usually change spatially and temporally at the field-scale to produce important field-scale variations in wind erosion. Accurate estimation of wind erosion when scaling up from fields to regions, while maintaining meaningful field-scale process details, remains a challenge. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of using a field-scale wind erosion model with a geographic information system (GIS) to scale up to regional levels and to quantify the differences in wind erosion estimates produced by different scales of soil mapping used as a data layer in the model. A GIS was used in combination with the revised wind erosion equation (RWEQ), a field-scale wind erosion model, to estimate wind erosion for two 50 km2 areas. Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite imagery from 1993 with 30 m resolution was used as a base map. The GIS database layers included land use, soils, and other features such as roads. The major land use was agricultural fields. Data on 1993 crop management for selected fields of each crop type were collected from local government agency offices and used to 'train' the computer to classify land areas by crop and type of irrigation (agroecosystem) using commercially available software. The land area of the agricultural land uses was overestimated by 6.5% in one region (Lubbock County, TX, USA) and underestimated by about 21% in an adjacent region (Terry County, TX, USA). The total estimated wind erosion potential for Terry County was about four times that estimated for adjacent Lubbock County. The difference in potential erosion among the counties was attributed to regional differences in surface soil texture. In a comparison of different soil map scales in Terry County, the generalised soil map had over 20% more of the land area and over 15% greater erosion potential in loamy sand soils than did the detailed soil map. As

  14. Alloy materials

    DOEpatents

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo; Thompson, Elliott D.; Fritzemeier, Leslie G.; Cameron, Robert D.; Siegal, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  15. A Generic Wet Impregnation Method for Preparing Substrate-Supported Platinum Group Metal and Alloy Nanoparticles with Controlled Particle Morphology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changlin; Oliaee, Shirin Norooz; Hwang, Sang Youp; Kong, Xiangkai; Peng, Zhenmeng

    2016-01-13

    Mass production of shape-controlled platinum group metal (PGM) and alloy nanoparticles is of high importance for their many fascinating properties in catalysis, electronics, and photonics. Despite of successful demonstrations at milligram scale using wet chemistry syntheses in many fundamental studies, there is still a big gap between the current methods and their real applications due to the complex synthetic procedures, scale-up difficulty, and surface contamination problem of the made particles. Here we report a generic wet impregnation method for facile, surfactant-free, and scalable preparation of nanoparticles of PGMs and their alloys on different substrate materials with controlled particle morphology and clean surface, which bridges the outstanding properties of these nanoparticles to practical important applications. The underlying particle growth and shape formation mechanisms were investigated using a combination of ex situ and in situ characterizations and were attributed to their different interactions with the applied gas molecules.

  16. Single Layer Centrifugation Can Be Scaled-Up Further to Process up to 150 mL Semen

    PubMed Central

    Morrell, J. M.; van Wienen, M.; Wallgren, M.

    2011-01-01

    Single-Layer centrifugation has been used to improve the quality of sperm samples in several species. However, where stallion or boar semen is to be used for AI, larger volumes of semen have to be processed than for other species, thus limiting the effectiveness of the original technique. The objective of the present study was to scale up the SLC method for both stallion and boar semen. Stallion semen could be processed in 100 mL glass tubes without a loss of sperm quality, and similarly, boar semen could be processed in 200 mL and 500 mL tubes without losing sperm quality. The results of these preliminary studies are encouraging, and larger trials are underway to evaluate using these methods in the field. PMID:23738111

  17. Development of a scaled-down aerobic fermentation model for scale-up in recombinant protein vaccine manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Patrick; Sun, Jacob; Gao, Meg; Sun, Hong; Pattara, Ben; Zeiser, Arno; D'Amore, Tony

    2012-08-17

    A simple approach to the development of an aerobic scaled-down fermentation model is presented to obtain more consistent process performance during the scale-up of recombinant protein manufacture. Using a constant volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a) for the criterion of a scale-down process, the scaled-down model can be "tuned" to match the k(L)a of any larger-scale target by varying the impeller rotational speed. This approach is demonstrated for a protein vaccine candidate expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli, where process performance is shown to be consistent among 2-L, 20-L, and 200-L scales. An empirical correlation for k(L)a has also been employed to extrapolate to larger manufacturing scales. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Increases in adult life expectancy in rural South Africa: valuing the scale-up of HIV treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bor, Jacob; Herbst, Abraham J; Newell, Marie-Louise; Bärnighausen, Till

    2013-01-01

    The scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is expected to raise adult life expectancy in populations with high HIV prevalence. Using data from a population cohort of over 101,000 individuals in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, we measured changes in adult life expectancy for 2000–2011. In 2003, the year before ART became available in the public sector health system, adult life expectancy was 49.2 years; by 2011, adult life expectancy had increased to 60.5 years – an 11.3-year gain. Based on standard monetary valuation of life, the survival benefits of ART far outweigh the costs of providing treatment in this community. These gains in adult life expectancy signify the social value of ART and have implications for investment decisions of individuals, governments, and donors. PMID:23430655

  19. Examining diseased states in a scaled-up vocal fold model using simultaneous temporally resolved DPIV and pressure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Dylan; Wei, Nathaniel; Ringenber, Hunter; Krane, Michael; Wei, Timothy

    2017-11-01

    This study builds on the parallel presentation of Ringenberg, et al. (APS-DFD 2017) involving simultaneous, temporally and spatially resolved flow and pressure measurements in a scaled-up vocal fold model. In this talk, data from experiments replicating characteristics of diseased vocal folds are presented. This begins with vocal folds that do not fully close and continues with asymmetric oscillations. Data are compared to symmetric, i.e. `healthy', oscillatory motions presented in the companion talk. Having pressure and flow data for individual as well as phase averaged oscillations for these diseased cases highlights the potential for aeroacoustic analysis in this complex system. Supported by NIH Grant No. 2R01 DC005642-11.

  20. Oxidation products of Inconel alloys 600 and 690 in hydrogenated steam environments and their role in stress corrosion cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, J. Bryce

    Inconel Alloys 600 and 690 are used extensively in components of Nuclear Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) in the primary water loop which consists of H2 supersaturated steam. Alloy 600 has been found to crack intergranularly when exposed to primary water conditions. Alloy 690 was designed as a replacement and is generally regarded as immune to cracking. There is no consensus as to the mechanism which is responsible for cracking or the lack thereof in these alloys. In this work thermodynamic arguments for the stability of Ni and Cr compounds developed under pressurized water reactor environments ( PH2O and PH2 ) were experimentally tested. A mechanism is proposed to explain crack initiation and propagation alloy 600 along the grain boundaries where Cr2O3 has formed from the leaching of Cr from the matrix leaving behind a porous Ni-rich region. The mechanism is based on the thermodynamic potential for the transformation of a protective NiO surface layer into an amorphous non-protective Ni(OH)2 gel. This gel would also form along the grain boundaries and when hydrogenated steam reaches the porous Ni-rich regions. Crack initiation is then favored by tensile stressing of the grain boundary regions which can easily rupture the gelatinous film. The leaching of matrix Cr to form non-protective CrOOH gel at the crack tip followed by the exposure of fresh porous Ni to the environment also explains crack propagation in inconel alloy 600. The proposed crack initiation mechanism is not expected to occur in alloy 690 where a protective Cr2O 3 film covers the entire metal surface. However, crack propagation along the grain boundaries in alloy 600 and pre-cracked alloy 690 is expected to be active as hydroxide-forming reactions weaken the material at the grain boundaries.

  1. Scaled-up manufacturing of recombinant antibodies produced by plant cells in a 200-L orbitally-shaken disposable bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Raven, Nicole; Rasche, Stefan; Kuehn, Christoph; Anderlei, Tibor; Klöckner, Wolf; Schuster, Flora; Henquet, Maurice; Bosch, Dirk; Büchs, Jochen; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Tobacco BY-2 cells have emerged as a promising platform for the manufacture of biopharmaceutical proteins, offering efficient protein secretion, favourable growth characteristics and cultivation in containment under a controlled environment. The cultivation of BY-2 cells in disposable bioreactors is a useful alternative to conventional stainless steel stirred-tank reactors, and orbitally-shaken bioreactors could provide further advantages such as simple bag geometry, scalability and predictable process settings. We carried out a scale-up study, using a 200-L orbitally-shaken bioreactor holding disposable bags, and BY-2 cells producing the human monoclonal antibody M12. We found that cell growth and recombinant protein accumulation were comparable to standard shake flask cultivation, despite a 200-fold difference in cultivation volume. Final cell fresh weights of 300-387 g/L and M12 yields of ∼20 mg/L were achieved with both cultivation methods. Furthermore, we established an efficient downstream process for the recovery of M12 from the culture broth. The viscous spent medium prevented clarification using filtration devices, but we used expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography with SP Sepharose as an alternative for the efficient capture of the M12 antibody. EBA was introduced as an initial purification step prior to protein A affinity chromatography, resulting in an overall M12 recovery of 75-85% and a purity of >95%. Our results demonstrate the suitability of orbitally-shaken bioreactors for the scaled-up cultivation of plant cell suspension cultures and provide a strategy for the efficient purification of antibodies from the BY-2 culture medium. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Experimental investigation of a scaled-up passive micromixer with uneven interdigital inlet and teardrop obstruction elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Kristina J.; Fan, YanFeng; Hassan, Ibrahim

    2012-05-01

    Micromixers are vital components in micro total analysis systems. It is desirable to develop micromixers which are capable of rapidly mixing two or more fluids in a small footprint area, while minimizing mechanical losses. A novel planar scaled-up passive micromixer is experimentally investigated in this study. The design incorporates a 7-substream uneven interdigital inlet which supplies two liquid species in a parallel arrangement and promotes diffusion along the side walls. Forty-eight staggered teardrop-shaped obstruction elements located along the channel length combined with 32 side walls protrusions increase the two-fluid interfacial area while converging the flow due to periodic reductions in cross-sectional area. The scaled-up micromixer has a mixing channel length of 110 mm with a mixing channel height and width of 2 and 5 mm, respectively. Experimental investigations are carried out at four locations along the channel length and at Reynolds numbers equal to 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100, where the Reynolds number is calculated based on total two-fluid flow and the mixing channel hydraulic diameter. Flow visualization is employed to study flow patterns, while induced fluorescence (IF), using de-ionized water and low concentration Rhodamine 6G solutions, provides mixing efficiency data. Results show a change in dominant mixing mechanism from mass diffusion to mass advection, with a critical Reynolds number of 25. At high Reynolds numbers, the formation of additional lamellae is observed, as is the formation of Dean vortices in the vicinity of the teardrop obstructions. Of the tested cases, the highest outlet mixing efficiency, 68.5%, is achieved at a Reynolds number of 1, where mass diffusion dominates. At low Reynolds numbers, superior mixing efficiency is due primarily to the implementation of the uneven interdigital inlet. A comparable mixing length is proposed to allow for reasonable comparison with published studies.

  3. The Costs of Scaling Up HIV Prevention for High Risk Groups: Lessons Learned from the Avahan Programme in India

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekar, Sudhashree; Guinness, Lorna; Pickles, Michael; Shetty, Govindraj Y.; Alary, Michel; Vickerman, Peter; Vassall, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objective The study objective is to measure, analyse costs of scaling up HIV prevention for high-risk groups in India, in order to assist the design of future HIV prevention programmes in South Asia and beyond. Design Prospective costing study. Methods This study is one of the most comprehensive studies of the costs of HIV prevention for high-risk groups to date in both its scope and size. HIV prevention included outreach, sexually transmitted inf