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Sample records for alloy satellite boxes

  1. Aluminum alloys for satellite boxes : engineering guidelines for obtaining adequate strength while minimizing residual stresses and machining distortion.

    SciTech Connect

    Younger, Mandy S.; Eckelmeyer, Kenneth Hall

    2007-11-01

    This report provides strategies for minimizing machining distortion in future designs of aluminum alloy satellite boxes, based in part on key findings from this investigation. The report outlines types of aluminum alloys and how they are heat treated, how residual stresses develop during heat treatment of age hardening alloys, ways residual stresses can be minimized, and the design of machining approaches to minimize distortion in parts that contain residual stresses. Specific recommendations are made regarding alloy selection, heat treatment, stress relieving, and machining procedures for boxes requiring various strength levels with emphasis on 6061 and 7075 aluminum alloys.

  2. Overcoming residual stresses and machining distortion in the production of aluminum alloy satellite boxes.

    SciTech Connect

    Younger, Mandy S.; Eckelmeyer, Kenneth Hall

    2007-11-01

    Distortion frequently occurs during machining of age hardening aluminum alloys due to residual stresses introduced during the quenching step in the heat treatment process. This report quantifies, compares, and discusses the effectiveness of several methods for minimizing residual stresses and machining distortion in aluminum alloys 7075 and 6061.

  3. Adjustable box-wing model for solar radiation pressure impacting GPS satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Solano, C. J.; Hugentobler, U.; Steigenberger, P.

    2012-04-01

    One of the major uncertainty sources affecting Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite orbits is the direct solar radiation pressure. In this paper a new model for the solar radiation pressure on GPS satellites is presented that is based on a box-wing satellite model, and assumes nominal attitude. The box-wing model is based on the physical interaction between solar radiation and satellite surfaces, and can be adjusted to fit the GPS tracking data. To compensate the effects of solar radiation pressure, the International GNSS Service (IGS) analysis centers employ a variety of approaches, ranging from purely empirical models based on in-orbit behavior, to physical models based on pre-launch spacecraft structural analysis. It has been demonstrated, however, that the physical models fail to predict the real orbit behavior with sufficient accuracy, mainly due to deviations from nominal attitude, inaccurately known optical properties, or aging of the satellite surfaces. The adjustable box-wing model presented in this paper is an intermediate approach between the physical/analytical models and the empirical models. The box-wing model fits the tracking data by adjusting mainly the optical properties of the satellite's surfaces. In addition, the so called Y-bias and a parameter related to a rotation lag angle of the solar panels around their rotation axis (about 1.5° for Block II/IIA and 0.5° for Block IIR) are estimated. This last parameter, not previously identified for GPS satellites, is a key factor for precise orbit determination. For this study GPS orbits are generated based on one year (2007) of tracking data, with the processing scheme derived from the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE). Two solutions are computed, one using the adjustable box-wing model and one using the CODE empirical model. Using this year of data the estimated parameters and orbits are analyzed. The performance of the models is comparable, when looking at orbit overlap and orbit

  4. Effect of polymer coatings on fatigue strength of aluminum alloy 2024 box beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordmark, G. E.; Kelsey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Previous investigators have shown that polymer coatings raise the fatigue strength of metals tested in air to about the same level as that of uncoated specimens tested in vacuum. The results are given of tests to determine if a polymer coating would improve the fatigue strength of built-up aluminum alloy members simulating aircraft construction. Aluminum alloy 2024-T4 riveted box beams were subjected to constant amplitude fatigue tests in air as well as in salt water fog. The coating did not improve the fatigue strength of beams tested in either environment. This is believed to result from the fact that most failures originated at rivet holes, which were isolated from both the coating and the environment.

  5. The influence of polarization on box air mass factors for UV/vis nadir satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilboll, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Rozanov, Vladimir V.; Burrows, John P.

    2015-04-01

    Tropospheric abundances of pollutant trace gases like, e.g., NO2, are often derived by applying the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) method to space-borne measurements of back-scattered and reflected solar radiation. The resulting quantity, the slant column density (SCD), subsequently has to be converted to more easily interpretable vertical column densities by means of the so-called box air mass factor (BAMF). The BAMF describes the ratio of SCD and VCD within one atmospheric layer and is calculated by a radiative transfer model. Current operational and scientific data products of satellite-derived trace gas VCDs do not include the effect of polarization in their radiative transfer models. However, the various scattering processes in the atmosphere do lead to a distinctive polarization pattern of the observed Earthshine spectra. This study investigates the influence of these polarization patterns on box air mass factors for satellite nadir DOAS measurements of NO2 in the UV/vis wavelength region. NO2 BAMFs have been simulated for a multitude of viewing geometries, surface albedos, and surface altitudes, using the radiative transfer model SCIATRAN. The results show a potentially large influence of polarization on the BAMF, which can reach 10% and more close to the surface. A simple correction for this effect seems not to be feasible, as it strongly depends on the specific measurement scenario and can lead to both high and low biases of the resulting NO2 VCD. We therefore conclude that all data products of NO2 VCDs derived from space-borne DOAS measurements should include polarization effects in their radiative transfer model calculations, or at least include the errors introduced by using linear models in their uncertainty estimates.

  6. CENP-B box and pJalpha sequence distribution in human alpha satellite higher-order repeats (HOR).

    PubMed

    Rosandić, Marija; Paar, Vladimir; Basar, Ivan; Gluncić, Matko; Pavin, Nenad; Pilas, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Using our Key String Algorithm (KSA) to analyze Build 35.1 assembly we determined consensus alpha satellite higher-order repeats (HOR) and consensus distributions of CENP-B box and pJalpha motif in human chromosomes 1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 17, 19, and X. We determined new suprachromosomal family (SF) assignments: SF5 for 13mer (2211 bp), SF5 for 13mer (2214 bp), SF2 for 11mer (1869 bp), SF1 for 18mer (3058 bp), SF3 for 12mer (2047 bp), SF3 for 14mer (2379 bp), and SF5 for 17mer (2896 bp) in chromosomes 4, 5, 8, 10, 11, 17, and 19, respectively. In chromosome 5 we identified SF5 13mer without any CENP-B box and pJalpha motif, highly homologous (96%) to 13mer in chromosome 19. Additionally, in chromosome 19 we identified new SF5 17mer with one CENP-B box and pJalpha motif, aligned to 13mer by deleting four monomers. In chromosome 11 we identified SF3 12mer, homologous to 12mer in chromosome X. In chromosome 10 we identified new SF1 18mer with eight CENP-B boxes in every other monomer (except one). In chromosome 4 we identified new SF5 13mer with CENP-B box in three consecutive monomers. We found four exceptions to the rule that CENP-B box belongs to type B and pJalpha motif to type A monomers.

  7. Development and field-testing of the BENTO box: A new satellite-linked data collection system for volcano monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, D. C.; Behar, A.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Fouch, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Currently it is impossible to monitor all of Earth's hazardous volcanoes for precursory eruption signals, and it is particularly difficult to monitor volcanoes in remote regions. The primary constraint is the high cost of deploying monitoring instrumentation (e.g., seismometers, gas sensors), which includes the cost of reliable, high-resolution sensors, the cost of maintenance (including periodic travel to remote areas), and the cost/difficulty of developing remote data telemetry. We are developing an integrated monitoring system, the BENTO (Behar's ENvironmental Telemetry and Observation) box that will allow identification of restless volcanoes through widespread deployment of robust, lightweight, low-cost, easily deployable monitoring/telemetry systems. Ultimately, we expect that this strategy will lead to more efficient allocation of instrumentation and associated costs. BENTO boxes are portable, autonomous, self-contained data collection systems are designed for long-term operation (up to ~12 months) in remote environments. They use low-cost two-way communication through the commercial Iridium satellite network, and, depending on data types, can pre-process raw data onboard to obtain useful summary statistics for transmission through Iridium. BENTO boxes also have the ability to receive commands through Iridium, allowing, for example, remote adjustment of sampling rates, or requests for segments of raw data in cases where only summary statistics are routinely transmitted. Currently, BENTO boxes can measure weather parameters (e.g., windspeed, wind direction, rainfall, humidity, atmospheric pressure), volcanic gas (CO2, SO2, and halogens) concentrations, and seismicity. In the future, we plan to interface BENTO boxes with additional sensors such as atmospheric pressure/infrasound, tilt, GPS and temperature. We are currently field-testing 'BENTO 1' boxes equipped with gas and meteorological sensors ('BENTO 1') at Telica Volcano, Nicaragua; Kilauea Volcano, Hawai

  8. Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) Community Observer Program including the Science Enhancement Option Box (SEO Box) - 12 TB On-board Flash Memory for Serendipitous Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schingler, Robert; Villasenor, J. N.; Ricker, G. R.; Latham, D. W.; Vanderspek, R. K.; Ennico, K. A.; Lewis, B. S.; Bakos, G.; Brown, T. M.; Burgasser, A. J.; Charbonneau, D.; Clampin, M.; Deming, L. D.; Doty, J. P.; Dunham, E. W.; Elliot, J. L.; Holman, M. J.; Ida, S.; Jenkins, J. M.; Jernigan, J. G.; Kawai, N.; Laughlin, G. P.; Lissauer, J. J.; Martel, F.; Sasselov, D. D.; Seager, S.; Torres, G.; Udry, S.; Winn, J. N.; Worden, S. P.

    2010-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will perform an all-sky survey in a low-inclination, low-Earth orbit. TESS's 144 GB of raw data collected each orbit will be stacked, cleaned, cut, compressed and downloaded. The Community Observer Program is a Science Enhancement Option (SEO) that takes advantage of the low-radiation environment, technology advances in flash memory, and the vast amount of astronomical data collected by TESS. The Community Observer Program requires the addition of a 12 TB "SEO Box” inside the TESS Bus. The hardware can be built using low-cost Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components and fits within TESS's margins while accommodating GSFC gold rules. The SEO Box collects and stores a duplicate of the TESS camera data at a "raw” stage ( 4.3 GB/orbit, after stacking and cleaning) and makes them available for on-board processing. The sheer amount of onboard storage provided by the SEO Box allows the stacking and storing of several months of data, allowing the investigator to probe deeper in time prior to a given event. Additionally, with computation power and data in standard formats, investigators can utilize data-mining techniques to investigate serendipitous phenomenon, including pulsating stars, eclipsing binaries, supernovae or other transient phenomena. The Community Observer Program enables ad-hoc teams of citizen scientists to propose, test, refine and rank algorithms for on-board analysis to support serendipitous science. Combining "best practices” of online collaboration, with careful moderation and community management, enables this `crowd sourced’ participatory exploration with a minimal risk and impact on the core TESS Team. This system provides a powerful and independent tool opening a wide range of opportunity for science enhancement and secondary science. Support for this work has been provided by NASA, the Kavli Foundation, Google, and the Smithsonian Institution.

  9. Mutational spectrum of CENP-B box and α-satellite DNA on chromosome 21 in Down syndrome children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Tan, Bin; He, Jun-Lin; Liu, Xue-Qing; Chen, Xue-Mei; Gao, Ru-Fei; Zhu, Jing; Wang, Ying-Xiong; Qi, Hong-Bo

    2017-04-01

    The centromere is responsible for the correct inheritance of eukaryotic chromosomes during cell division. Centromere protein B (CENP‑B) and its 17 base pair binding site (CENP‑B box), which appears at regular intervals in centromeric α-satellite DNA (α-satDNA), are important for the assembly of the centromere components. Therefore, it is conceivable that CENP-B box mutations may induce errors in cell division. However, the association between the deoxynucleotide alterations of the CENP‑B box and the extra chromosome 21 (Chr21) present in patients with Down syndrome (DS) remains to be elucidated. The mutational spectrum of the α‑satDNA, including 4 functional CENP‑B boxes in Chr21 from 127 DS and 100 healthy children were analyzed by direct sequencing. The de novo occurrences of mutations within CENP‑B boxes in patients with DS were excluded. The prevalence of 6 novel mutations (g.661delC, g.1035_1036insA, g.1076_1077insC, g.670T>G, g.1239A>T, g.1343T>C) and 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (g.727C/T, g.863A/C, g.1264C/G) were not significantly different between DS and controls (P>0.05). However, g.525C/G (P=0.01), g.601T/C (P=0.00000002), g.1279A/G (P=0.002), g.1294C/T (P=0.0006) and g.1302 G/T (P=0.004) were significantly associated with the prevalence of DS (P<0.05). The results indicated that CENP‑B boxes are highly conserved in DS patients and may not be responsible for Chr21 nondisjunction events. However, α‑satDNA in Chr21 is variable and deoxynucleotide deletions, mutations and polymorphisms may act as potential molecular diagnostic markers of DS.

  10. Thermal vacuum tests of a five watt pseudo chip in a SEM-X electronic module clamped in a satellite box

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, W.H.; Akau, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    A five watt pseudo chip in the middle of a SEM-X circuit card was tested with various heat conduction paths in a satellite type electronic box while mounted in a vacuum chamber. Previous tests showed low temperature differentials with the use of circuit board clamps. Flight hardware with thin box walls, low mass module frames, and thin heat covers were tested to determine the temperature differential at 5.0 watts as well as at lower powers. The smallest temperature differential was 23 degrees Kelvin between the 5 watt pseudo chip and the cold plate. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Thermal vacuum tests of a five watt pseudo chip in a SEM-X electronic module clamped in a satellite box

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, W.H.; Akau, R.L.

    1995-09-01

    A five watt pseudo chip in the middle of a SEM-X circuit card was tested with various heat conduction paths in a satellite type electronic box while mounted in a vacuum chamber. Previous tests showed low temperature differentials with the use of circuit board clamps. Flight hardware with thin box walls, low mass module frames, and thin heat covers were tested to determine the temperature differential at 5.0 watts as well as at lower powers. The smallest temperature differential was 23 degrees Celsius between the 5 watt pseudo chip and the cold plate.

  12. Big Box, Little Box.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This article presents activities for young children in child care settings using boxes of various sizes. Suggestions include making shape sorters and sensory boxes for infants and toddlers, and constructing personal collection boxes, book boxes, games, and playhouses for older children. (Author/KB)

  13. Satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system.

  14. Magical Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Students get excited when they realize that they can transform a flat sheet of paper into a box. By using different sizes of paper, they can make different sizes of boxes and put a box inside a box, inside a box. These magical boxes within boxes can contain unwanted emotions or special treasures. The project described in this article incorporates…

  15. Magical Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Students get excited when they realize that they can transform a flat sheet of paper into a box. By using different sizes of paper, they can make different sizes of boxes and put a box inside a box, inside a box. These magical boxes within boxes can contain unwanted emotions or special treasures. The project described in this article incorporates…

  16. Jeweled Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2009-01-01

    While an empty cardboard box from a ream of copy paper may be the most coveted box among teachers in the author's school, for other people, brass boxes from India, Khokhlova lacquer boxes from Russia, and puzzle boxes from Japan are more the type that are collected and admired. Whether it is used for storage or decoration, a box can evoke a sense…

  17. Jeweled Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2009-01-01

    While an empty cardboard box from a ream of copy paper may be the most coveted box among teachers in the author's school, for other people, brass boxes from India, Khokhlova lacquer boxes from Russia, and puzzle boxes from Japan are more the type that are collected and admired. Whether it is used for storage or decoration, a box can evoke a sense…

  18. Conserved DNA Motifs, Including the CENP-B Box-like, Are Possible Promoters of Satellite DNA Array Rearrangements in Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Car, Ana; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe; Abad, Pierre; Plohl, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Tandemly arrayed non-coding sequences or satellite DNAs (satDNAs) are rapidly evolving segments of eukaryotic genomes, including the centromere, and may raise a genetic barrier that leads to speciation. However, determinants and mechanisms of satDNA sequence dynamics are only partially understood. Sequence analyses of a library of five satDNAs common to the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. fallax together with a satDNA, which is specific for M. chitwoodi only revealed low sequence identity (32–64%) among them. However, despite sequence differences, two conserved motifs were recovered. One of them turned out to be highly similar to the CENP-B box of human alpha satDNA, identical in 10–12 out of 17 nucleotides. In addition, organization of nematode satDNAs was comparable to that found in alpha satDNA of human and primates, characterized by monomers concurrently arranged in simple and higher-order repeat (HOR) arrays. In contrast to alpha satDNA, phylogenetic clustering of nematode satDNA monomers extracted either from simple or from HOR array indicated frequent shuffling between these two organizational forms. Comparison of homogeneous simple arrays and complex HORs composed of different satDNAs, enabled, for the first time, the identification of conserved motifs as obligatory components of monomer junctions. This observation highlights the role of short motifs in rearrangements, even among highly divergent sequences. Two mechanisms are proposed to be involved in this process, i.e., putative transposition-related cut-and-paste insertions and/or illegitimate recombination. Possibility for involvement of the nematode CENP-B box-like sequence in the transposition-related mechanism and together with previously established similarity of the human CENP-B protein and pogo-like transposases implicate a novel role of the CENP-B box and related sequence motifs in addition to the known function in centromere protein binding. PMID:23826269

  19. An inadvertent capture cell for orbital debris and micrometeorites - The main electronics box thermal blanket of the solar maximum satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Schramm, L. S.; Barrett, R. A.; Mckay, D. S.; Zook, H. A.

    1986-01-01

    The physical properties of impact features in the Solar Max main electronics box thermal blanket are consistent with hypervelocity impacts of particles in the near-earth space environment. The majority of particles are orbital debris and include spacecraft paints and bismuth-rich particles. At least 30 percent of all impact features are caused by micrometeorites, which include silicates and sulfides. Some micrometeorites survive impact with only minor shock-metamorphic effects or chemical fractionation. Currently calibration experiments are under way to relate flux to particle diameter (or mass).

  20. An inadvertent capture cell for orbital debris and micrometeorites - The main electronics box thermal blanket of the solar maximum satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Schramm, L. S.; Barrett, R. A.; Mckay, D. S.; Zook, H. A.

    1986-01-01

    The physical properties of impact features in the Solar Max main electronics box thermal blanket are consistent with hypervelocity impacts of particles in the near-earth space environment. The majority of particles are orbital debris and include spacecraft paints and bismuth-rich particles. At least 30 percent of all impact features are caused by micrometeorites, which include silicates and sulfides. Some micrometeorites survive impact with only minor shock-metamorphic effects or chemical fractionation. Currently calibration experiments are under way to relate flux to particle diameter (or mass).

  1. Use of a Variety of Aerosols Transported off the US Northeast Coast in ICARTT 2004 for Multi-Grid-Box Validation of Satellite Optical Depth Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J.; Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Ramirez, S.; Eilers, J.; Pilewskie, P.; Chu, A.; Kahn, R.; Quinn, P.; Howell, S.; Ferrare, R.; Browell, E.

    2005-12-01

    Transport of a variety of aerosol types off the US Northeast coast during INTEX/ITCT/ICARTT in Summer 2004 produced a wide range of aerosol optical depth (AOD) values, as well as many cases of horizontal gradients in AOD over the Gulf of Maine. The aerosol types included biomass smoke transported from wildfires in Alaska and Western Canada as well as particles in urban and power plant plumes transported from nearby sources on the New England coast and more distant sources in the Ohio River Valley. In these conditions we flew a sunphotometer on a Jetstream 31 (J31) aircraft across many adjacent aerosol retrieval grid boxes of the satellite radiometers MODIS-Terra, MODIS-Aqua, and MISR, in order to test and inter-compare their AOD retrievals, including their ability to capture the AOD gradients. Characterization of the retrieval environment was aided by using spectral flux radiometers on the J31, to measure water surface albedo spectra (which can contribute the largest uncertainty to satellite aerosol retrievals when AOD is small). Additional characterization came from vertical profiles by the J31 (showing aerosol vertical structure) and, on occasion, shipboard measurements of AOD, scattering, and absorption, and DC-8 measurements of aerosol scattering, absorption, size, composition, and lidar backscatter. The J31 sunphotometer was the 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14), which provides AOD at thirteen discrete wavelengths, 354-2138 nm, spanning the range of aerosol retrieval wavelengths for MODIS over ocean (470-2130 nm) and MISR (446-866 nm). The J31 flux radiometers were the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometers (SSFR), which provide spectra of upwelling and downwelling irradiance at resolution 8-12 nm from 350 to 1670 nm. We show results from 11 J31 flights made 12 July-8 August 2004. These include comparisons of AATS AOD spectra to spaceborne retrievals for more than 88 grid boxes of MODIS-Terra, MODIS-Aqua, and MISR that were either along

  2. An investigation on the growth of thin chalcopyrite CuInSe2 films by selenization of Cu-In alloys in a box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parretta, A.; Addonizio, M. L.; Loreti, S.; Quercia, L.; Jayaraj, M. K.

    1998-01-01

    The morphological and structural properties of copper-indium alloys selenized in a box by selenium vapours have been studied by varying the thermal cycle of the selenization process. In the first series of selenizations, equal metallic precursors were exposed for 30 min to the selenium vapours at different temperatures in the range 175-405°C The chalcopyrite CuInSe 2 phase was found at temperatures as low as 250°C and as a single phase at T > 375°C. At low temperatures different copper selenides were found, like CuSe, Cu 2 - xSe and CuSe 2, which affected in a different way the composition and morphology of the film. Indium loss was detected in the 250-300°C range and was attributed to the evolution in the gas phase of the In 2Se species. Short selenization cycles were also used with the purpose of identifying the chemical precursors of CuInSe 2. The determination of the selenium content in the alloys at different temperatures allowed us to determine a 7 kcal/mol activation energy for the kinetics of selenium incorporation. Long selenizations at 450°C allowed us to obtain a large-grained, compact layer of chalcopyrite CuInSe 2 which could be used for the fabrication of photovoltaic devices.

  3. Boxed In!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Early years practitioners know what parents are reminded of every Christmas Day--it does not matter how long families spend carefully selecting the presents, the children are likely to spend longer playing with the empty boxes! Children are fascinated with boxes and practitioners can capitalise on this and support early mathematical development…

  4. Bento Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasio, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Bento boxes are common objects in Japanese culture, designed to hold enough lunch for one person. They have individual compartments and sometimes multiple tiers for rice, vegetables, and other side dishes. They are made of materials ranging from wood, cloth, aluminum, or plastic. In general, the greater the number of foods, the better the box is…

  5. Bento Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasio, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Bento boxes are common objects in Japanese culture, designed to hold enough lunch for one person. They have individual compartments and sometimes multiple tiers for rice, vegetables, and other side dishes. They are made of materials ranging from wood, cloth, aluminum, or plastic. In general, the greater the number of foods, the better the box is…

  6. A novel tape spring hinge mechanism for quasi-static deployment of a satellite deployable using shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ju Won; Yoo, Young Ik; Shin, Dong Kil; Lim, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Kyung Won; Lee, Jung Ju

    2014-02-01

    A tape spring hinge (TSH) is a typical flexible deployment device for a satellite and becomes frequently used due to its simplicity, lightweight, low cost, and high deployment reliability. However, the performance of a TSH is quite limited due to trade-offs among deployed stiffness, deployment torque, and latch-up shock despite its many advantages. In this study, a novel conceptual design that circumvents the trade-offs among functional requirements (FRs) is proposed. The trade-offs are obviated by a newly proposed shape memory alloy damper that converts the deployment behavior of a conventional TSH from unstable dynamic to stable quasi-static. This makes it possible to maximize the deployment stiffness and deployment torque of a conventional TSH, which are larger-the-better FR, without any increase in the latch-up shock. Therefore, in view of conceptual design, it is possible to design a highly improved TSH that has much higher deployed stiffness and deployment torque compared to a conventional TSH while minimizing latch-up shock and deployment unstableness. Detailed design was performed through response surface method and finite element analysis. Finally, a prototype was manufactured and tested in order to verify its performance (four point, deployment torque, and latch-up shock tests). The test results confirm the feasibility of the proposed TSH mechanism.

  7. A novel tape spring hinge mechanism for quasi-static deployment of a satellite deployable using shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Ju Won; Yoo, Young Ik; Shin, Dong Kil; Lim, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Kyung Won; Lee, Jung Ju

    2014-02-01

    A tape spring hinge (TSH) is a typical flexible deployment device for a satellite and becomes frequently used due to its simplicity, lightweight, low cost, and high deployment reliability. However, the performance of a TSH is quite limited due to trade-offs among deployed stiffness, deployment torque, and latch-up shock despite its many advantages. In this study, a novel conceptual design that circumvents the trade-offs among functional requirements (FRs) is proposed. The trade-offs are obviated by a newly proposed shape memory alloy damper that converts the deployment behavior of a conventional TSH from unstable dynamic to stable quasi-static. This makes it possible to maximize the deployment stiffness and deployment torque of a conventional TSH, which are larger-the-better FR, without any increase in the latch-up shock. Therefore, in view of conceptual design, it is possible to design a highly improved TSH that has much higher deployed stiffness and deployment torque compared to a conventional TSH while minimizing latch-up shock and deployment unstableness. Detailed design was performed through response surface method and finite element analysis. Finally, a prototype was manufactured and tested in order to verify its performance (four point, deployment torque, and latch-up shock tests). The test results confirm the feasibility of the proposed TSH mechanism.

  8. Film Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art lesson in which students created three-dimensional designs for 35mm film packages to improve graphic arts learning. Describes how the students examined and created film boxes using QuarkXPress software. (CMK)

  9. Film Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art lesson in which students created three-dimensional designs for 35mm film packages to improve graphic arts learning. Describes how the students examined and created film boxes using QuarkXPress software. (CMK)

  10. A one piece wall box for space electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, W.H.

    1995-05-01

    In extraterrestrial applications, satellite payloads have printed circuit modules that are housed in boxes or chassis. The box may be a one piece wall or a segmented wall. These two wall options are compared for function and cost.

  11. Exploding Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney; Jan

    2011-01-01

    How do you teach the "same old, same old" in an interesting and inexpensive way? Art teachers are forever looking for new angles on the good-old elements and principles. And, as budgets tighten, they are trying to be as frugal as possible while still holding their students' attention. Enter exploding boxes! In conceptualizing the three types of…

  12. Exploding Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney; Jan

    2011-01-01

    How do you teach the "same old, same old" in an interesting and inexpensive way? Art teachers are forever looking for new angles on the good-old elements and principles. And, as budgets tighten, they are trying to be as frugal as possible while still holding their students' attention. Enter exploding boxes! In conceptualizing the three types of…

  13. Einstein's boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norsen, Travis

    2005-02-01

    At the 1927 Solvay conference, Albert Einstein presented a thought experiment intended to demonstrate the incompleteness of the quantum mechanical description of reality. In the following years, the experiment was modified by Einstein, de Broglie, and several other commentators into a simple scenario involving the splitting in half of the wave function of a single particle in a box. This paper collects together several formulations of this thought experiment from the literature, analyzes and assesses it from the point of view of the Einstein-Bohr debates, the EPR dilemma, and Bell's theorem, and argues for "Einstein's Boxes" taking its rightful place alongside similar but historically better known quantum mechanical thought experiments such as EPR and Schrödinger's Cat.

  14. The BENTO Box: Development and field-testing of a new satellite-linked data collection system for multiparameter volcano monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, D. C.; Behar, A.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.

    2014-12-01

    Predicting volcanic activity requires continuous monitoring for signals of magmatic unrest in harsh, often remote environments. BENTO is a next-generation monitoring system, currently in prototype testing, that is highly portable, low-cost, rapidly deployable, and entirely autonomous. Such a system could be used to provide critical monitoring and data collection capabilities during rapid-onset eruptions, or to provide a crude baseline monitor at large numbers of remote volcanoes to 'flag' the onset of unrest so that costlier resources such as specialized instrumentation can be deployed in the appropriate place at the appropriate time. The BENTO 1 (low-rate data) prototype currently comprises off-the-shelf volcanic gas sensors (SO2, CO2, Fl, Cl, and Br), a weather station (temperature, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, humidity, pressure), and telemetry via Iridium modem. In baseline mode, BENTO 1 takes a measurement from all of its sensors every two hours and automatically sends the measurements through Iridium to a server that posts them to a dedicated and customizable web page. The measurement interval and other sensor parameters (pumping time, sensor constants) can be adjusted directly or remotely (through the Iridium network) as needed. Currently, BENTO 1 is deployed at Mt. Etna, Italy; Telica Volcano, Nicaragua, Hengill Volcano, Iceland; and Hekla Volcano, Iceland. The BENTO 2 (high-rate) system is motivated by a need to avoid having to telemeter raw seismic data, which at 20-100 Hz/channel is far too voluminous for cost- and power-effective transmission through satellite networks such as Iridium. Our solution is to regularly transmit only state-of-health information and descriptions of the seismic data (e.g., 'triggered' seismic event rates and amplitudes), rather than the data itself. The latter can be accomplished through on-board data analysis and reduction at the installation site. Currently, it is possible to request specific time segments of raw

  15. Development of a Nano-Satellite Micro-Coupling Mechanism with Characterization of a Shape Memory Alloy Interference Joint

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Ultimately, a smooth roll off in coupling strength took place due to decreasing interference joint surface area contact as the SMA separated from the steel ...There was no plastic deformation of the SMA or steel bushing beyond a visible surface texture change. Martensitic de-stressing was approximately 1-mil...titanium (NiTi), shape memory alloy (SMA) cylindrical ring that is press-fit, in its detwinned martensitic phase, into a steel bushing, creating an

  16. Uncontrolled re-entry of satellite parts after finishing their mission in LEO: Titanium alloy degradation by thermite reaction energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monogarov, K. A.; Pivkina, A. N.; Grishin, L. I.; Frolov, Yu. V.; Dilhan, D.

    2017-06-01

    Analytical and experimental studies conducted at Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics for investigating the use of pyrotechnic compositions, i.e., thermites, to reduce the risk of the fall of thermally stable parts of deorbiting end-of-life LEO satellites on the Earth are described. The main idea was the use of passive heating during uncontrolled re-entry to ignite thermite composition, fixed on the titanium surface, with the subsequent combustion energy release to be sufficient to perforate the titanium cover. It is supposed, that thus destructed satellite parts will lose their streamline shape, and will burn out being aerodynamically heated during further descending in atmosphere (patent FR2975080). On the base of thermodynamic calculations the most promising thermite compositions have been selected for the experimental phase. The unique test facilities have been developed for the testing of the efficiency of thermite charges to perforate the titanium TA6V cover of 0.8 mm thickness under temperature/pressure conditions duplicated the uncontrolled re-entry of titanium tank after its mission on LEO. Experiments with the programmed laser heating inside the vacuum chamber revealed the only efficient thermite composition among preliminary selected ones to be Al/Co3O4. Experimental searching of the optimal aluminum powder between spherical and flaked nano- and micron-sized ones revealed the possibility to adjust the necessary ignition delay time, according to the titanium cover temperature dependency on deorbiting time. For the titanium tank the maximum temperature is 1100 °C at altitude 68 km and pressure 60 Pa. Under these conditions Al/Co3O4 formulations with nano-Al spherical particles provide the ignition time to be 13.3 s, and ignition temperature as low as 592±5 °C, whereas compositions with the micron-sized spherical Al powder reveal these values to be much higher, i.e., 26.3 s and 869±5 °C, respectively. The analytical and experimental studies described

  17. EPA EcoBox

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This tool box of ecological risk assessment (Eco-box) includes over 400+ links to tools, models, and databases found within EPA and our Government partners designed that can aid risk assessors with performing exposure assessments.

  18. 4. DETAIL VIEW (SIDE A) OF HANDMADE STEEL BOX ASSOCIATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW (SIDE A) OF HANDMADE STEEL BOX ASSOCIATED WITH THE DEPLETED URANIUM ALLOY DEVELOPMENT AND COMPONENT FABRICATION PROCESS. THE BOX WAS USED TO TRANSFER HEATED BLOCKS OF METAL (SHOWN IN THE OPENED DOOR) FROM THE MOLTEN SALT BATH TO THE ROLLER LINES. (4/28/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  19. An Improved Box Theater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huster, Michael E.

    2011-09-01

    While designing an optics lab for a conceptual physics course, I came across a "box theater" activity. The box theater is a pinhole camera obscura made from a box that students put over their heads and shoulders. I use the activity as a capstone experience to explain optical systems. (Classroom demonstrations of the camera obscura have been described by others.2) First, the students build and experiment with a camera obscura made from a plastic cup and a convex lens with a focal length of 7.5 cm, and then "wear" the box theater. The difficulty with the box theater is the dimness of the image. A cloth drape has to be hung from the bottom of the box around the shoulders of the students to prevent light leakage, and the students have to wait a few minutes for their eyes to adjust to the darkness.

  20. GLOVE BOX ATTACHMENT

    DOEpatents

    Butts, H.L.

    1962-02-13

    This invention comprises a housing unit to be fitted between a glove box port and a glove so that a slidable plate within the housing seals off the glove box port for evacuation of the glove box without damage to the glove. The housing and the glove may be evacuated without damage to the glove since movement of the glove is restricted during evacuation by the slidable plate. (AEC)

  1. Math in the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to make an origami paper box and explores the algebra, geometry, and other mathematics that unfolds. A set of origami steps that transforms the paper into an open box can hold mathematical surprises for both students and teachers. An origami lesson can engage students in an open-ended exploration of the relationship…

  2. Math in the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to make an origami paper box and explores the algebra, geometry, and other mathematics that unfolds. A set of origami steps that transforms the paper into an open box can hold mathematical surprises for both students and teachers. An origami lesson can engage students in an open-ended exploration of the relationship…

  3. Thinking outside the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanshawe, Simon; Sriskandarajah, Dhananjayan

    2010-01-01

    Britain is not only more diverse than ever before, but that diversity itself is growing more diverse. Britain's simplistic "tick-box" approach to identity is in danger of inhibiting the very equality it seeks to promote. To question the tick-box is not to accuse local authorities of "political correctness gone mad". The notion…

  4. Straw in a Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrard, Richard; Schneider, Joel; Smallberg, Ralph; Wetzel, John

    2006-01-01

    A problem on a state's high school exit exam asked for the longest straw that would fit in a box. The examiners apparently wanted the length of a diagonal of the box, but the figure accompanying the question suggested otherwise--that the radius of the straw be considered. This article explores that more general problem.

  5. Boxing with neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, D.J. |; Weiler, T.J.

    1999-06-01

    We develop a characterization of neutrino oscillations based on the coefficients of the oscillating terms. These coefficients are individually observable; although they are quartic in the elements of the unitary mixing matrix, they are independent of the conventions chosen for the angle and phase parametrization of the mixing matrix. We call these reparametrization-invariant observables {open_quotes}boxes{close_quotes} because of their geometric relation to the mixing matrix, and because of their association with the Feynman box diagram that describes oscillations in field theory. The real parts of the boxes are the coefficients for the {ital CP}- or {ital T}-even oscillation modes, while the imaginary parts are the coefficients for the {ital CP}- or {ital T}-odd oscillation modes. Oscillation probabilities are linear in the boxes, so measurements can straightforwardly determine values for the boxes (which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements). We examine the effects of unitarity on the boxes and discuss the reduction of the number of boxes to a minimum basis set. For the three-generation case, we explicitly construct the basis. Using the box algebra, we show that {ital CP} violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. The framework presented here will facilitate general analyses of neutrino oscillations among n{ge}3 flavors. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Thinking outside the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanshawe, Simon; Sriskandarajah, Dhananjayan

    2010-01-01

    Britain is not only more diverse than ever before, but that diversity itself is growing more diverse. Britain's simplistic "tick-box" approach to identity is in danger of inhibiting the very equality it seeks to promote. To question the tick-box is not to accuse local authorities of "political correctness gone mad". The notion…

  7. Glove box shield

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, Larry W.; Hoenes, Glenn R.

    1981-01-01

    According to the present invention, a shield for a glove box housing radioactive material is comprised of spaced apart clamping members which maintain three overlapping flaps in place therebetween. There is a central flap and two side flaps, the side flaps overlapping at the interior edges thereof and the central flap extending past the intersection of the side flaps in order to insure that the shield is always closed when the user withdraws his hand from the glove box. Lead loaded neoprene rubber is the preferred material for the three flaps, the extent of lead loading depending upon the radiation levels within the glove box.

  8. Glove box shield

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Hoenes, G.R.

    A shield for a glove box housing radioactive material is comprised of spaced apart clamping members which maintain three overlapping flaps in place therebetween. There is a central flap and two side flaps, the side flaps overlapping at the interior edges thereof and the central flap extending past the intersection of the side flaps in order to insure that the shield is always closed when the user wthdraws his hand from the glove box. Lead loaded neoprene rubber is the preferred material for the three flaps, the extent of lead loading depending upon the radiation levels within the glove box.

  9. Glove box shield

    SciTech Connect

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Hoenes, G.R.

    1981-02-17

    According to the present invention, a shield for a glove box housing radioactive material is comprised of spaced apart clamping members which maintain three overlapping flaps in place therebetween. There is a central flap and two side flaps, the side flaps overlapping at the interior edges thereof and the central flap extending past the intersection of the side flaps in order to insure that the shield is always closed when the user withdraws his hand from the glove box. Lead loaded neoprene rubber is the preferred material for the three flaps, the extent of lead loading depending upon the radiation levels within the glove box. 2 figs.

  10. 18. DETAILED VIEW OF A GLOVE BOX DAMAGED IN A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAILED VIEW OF A GLOVE BOX DAMAGED IN A FIRE THAT OCCURRED ON MAY 11, 1969. THE FIRE OCCURRED FROM THE SPONTANEOUS IGNITION OF A BRIQUETTE OF SCRAP PLUTONIUM ALLOY METAL. (5/18/69) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  11. Voice box (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The larynx, or voice box, is located in the neck and performs several important functions in the body. The larynx is involved in swallowing, breathing, and voice production. Sound is produced when the air which ...

  12. Climate in a Box

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Climate in a Box Project is exploring the utility of supercomputers in providing a complete, pre-packaged, ready-to-use toolkit of climate research products and on-demand access to a high-pe...

  13. Nonneurologic emergencies in boxing.

    PubMed

    Coletta, Domenic F

    2009-10-01

    Professional boxing has done an admirable job in promoting safety standards in its particular sport. However, injuries occur during the normal course of competition and, unfortunately, an occasional life-threatening emergency may arise. Although most common medical emergencies in boxing are injuries from closed head trauma, in this article those infrequent but potentially catastrophic nonneurologic conditions are reviewed along with some less serious emergencies that the physician must be prepared to address.

  14. Freedom to box.

    PubMed Central

    Warburton, N

    1998-01-01

    The british Medical Association wants to criminalise all boxing. This article examines the logic of the arguments it uses and finds them wanting. The move from medical evidence about the risk of brain damage to the conclusion that boxing should be banned is not warranted. The BMA's arguments are a combination of inconsistent paternalism and legal moralism. Consistent application of the principles implicit in the BMA's arguments would lead to absurd consequences and to severe limitations being put on individual freedom. PMID:9549684

  15. [Boxing: traumatology and prevention].

    PubMed

    Cabanis, Emmanuel-Alain; Iba-Zizen, Marie-Thérèse; Perez, Georges; Senegas, Xavier; Furgoni, Julien; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Louquet, Jean-Louis; Henrion, Roger

    2010-10-01

    In 1986, a surgeon who, as an amateur boxer himself was concerned with boxers' health, approached a pioneering Parisian neuroimaging unit. Thus began a study in close cooperation with the French Boxing Federation, spanning 25 years. In a first series of 52 volunteer boxers (13 amateurs and 39 professionals), during which MRI gradually replaced computed tomography, ten risk factors were identified, which notably included boxing style: only one of 40 "stylists" with a good boxing technique had cortical atrophy (4.5 %), compared to 15 % of "sloggers". Changes to the French Boxing Federation rules placed the accent on medical prevention. The second series, of 247 boxers (81 amateurs and 266 professionals), showed a clear improvement, as lesions were suspected in 14 individuals, of which only 4 (1.35 %) were probably due to boxing. The third and fourth series were part of a protocol called "Brain-Boxing-Ageing", which included 76 boxers (11 having suffered KOs) and 120 MRI scans, with reproducible CT and MRI acquisitions (9 sequences with 1.5 T then 3 T, and CT). MRI anomalies secondary to boxing were found in 11 % of amateurs and 38 % of professionals (atrophy, high vascular T2 signal areas, 2 cases of post-KO subdural bleeding). CT revealed sinus damage in 13 % of the amateurs and 19 % of the professionals. The risk of acute and chronic facial and brain damage was underline, along with detailed precautionary measures (organization of bouts, role of the referee and ringside doctor, and application of French Boxing Federation rules).

  16. Infectious disease and boxing.

    PubMed

    King, Osric S

    2009-10-01

    There are no unique boxing diseases but certain factors contributing to the spread of illnesses apply strongly to the boxer, coach, and the training facility. This article examines the nature of the sport of boxing and its surrounding environment, and the likelihood of spread of infection through airborne, contact, or blood-borne routes of transmission. Evidence from other sports such as running, wrestling, and martial arts is included to help elucidate the pathophysiologic elements that could be identified in boxers.

  17. Automatic box loader

    DOEpatents

    Eldridge, Harry H.; Jones, Robert A.; Lindner, Gordon M.; Hight, Paul H.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a system for repetitively forming an assembly consisting of a single layer of tubes and a row of ferromagnetic armatures underlying the same, electromagnetically conveying the resulting assembly to a position overlying a storage box, and depositing the assembly in the box. The system includes means for simultaneously depositing a row of the armatures on the inclined surface of a tube retainer. Tubes then are rolled down the surface to form a single tube layer bridging the armatures. A magnet assembly carrying electromagnets respectively aligned with the armatures is advanced close to the tube layer, and in the course of this advance is angularly displaced to bring the pole pieces of the electromagnets into parallelism with the tube layer. The magnets then are energized to pick up the assembly. The loaded magnet assembly is retracted to a position overlying the box, and during this retraction is again displaced to bring the pole pieces of the electromagnets into a horizontal plane. Means are provided for inserting the loaded electromagnets in the box and then de-energizing the electromagnets to deposit the assembly therein. The system accomplishes the boxing of fragile tubes at relatively high rates. Because the tubes are boxed as separated uniform layers, subsequent unloading operations are facilitated.

  18. Torsion Test of a Monocoque Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherson, Albert E; Ramberg, Walter; Levy, Samuel

    1942-01-01

    A monocoque box beam consisting of a 24S-T aluminum-alloy sheet reinforced by four bulkheads and by longitudinal stringers and corner posts was subjected to bending loads as follows: pure bending about the lift axis, cantilever bending about the lift axis, and pure bending about both lift and drag axis. Longitudinal strains were measured for loads up to a load at which permanent set became measurable. The loads were sufficient to produce buckling of the sheet between stringers on the compression side of the box. The only noticeable effect of this buckling was a small increase in extreme-fiber strain on the compression side. The measured strains and measured deflections differed less than 10 percent from those computed from the simple beam theory after taking account of the effective width of the buckled sheet. The effect of the bulkheads on the distribution of stringer strain was negligible.

  19. Compressive Tests of a Monocoque Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramberg, Walter; Mcpherson, Albert E; Levy, Sam

    1939-01-01

    A monocoque box specimen of aluminum alloy was subjected to end compression and the strains in the stringers were measured up to loads at which permanent set became noticeable. The stringer strains at low loads agreed closely with those computed from the assumption of uniform stress distribution. Buckling of the 0.026-inch sheet between stringers and of the 0.075-inch shear web took place at stresses in accord with theoretical values. Permanent set became noticeable at a load of 115,200 pounds, corresponding to an average stringer stress of about 16,000 pounds per square inch. The measured average strain above the first buckling load was within 2 percent of the theoretical strain as calculated from the dimensions of the box and effective width formulas due to Marguerre and to Cox.

  20. Cable Tester Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Cables are very important electrical devices that carry power and signals across multiple instruments. Any fault in a cable can easily result in a catastrophic outcome. Therefore, verifying that all cables are built to spec is a very important part of Electrical Integration Procedures. Currently, there are two methods used in lab for verifying cable connectivity. (1) Using a Break-Out Box and an ohmmeter this method is time-consuming but effective for custom cables and (2) Commercial Automated Cable Tester Boxes this method is fast, but to test custom cables often requires pre-programmed configuration files, and cables used on spacecraft are often uniquely designed for specific purposes. The idea is to develop a semi-automatic continuity tester that reduces human effort in cable testing, speeds up the electrical integration process, and ensures system safety. The JPL-Cable Tester Box is developed to check every single possible electrical connection in a cable in parallel. This system indicates connectivity through LED (light emitting diode) circuits. Users can choose to test any pin/shell (test node) with a single push of a button, and any other nodes that are shorted to the test node, even if they are in the same connector, will light up with the test node. The JPL-Cable Tester Boxes offers the following advantages: 1. Easy to use: The architecture is simple enough that it only takes 5 minutes for anyone to learn how operate the Cable Tester Box. No pre-programming and calibration are required, since this box only checks continuity. 2. Fast: The cable tester box checks all the possible electrical connections in parallel at a push of a button. If a cable normally takes half an hour to test, using the Cable Tester Box will improve the speed to as little as 60 seconds to complete. 3. Versatile: Multiple cable tester boxes can be used together. As long as all the boxes share the same electrical potential, any number of connectors can be tested together.

  1. 6. VIEW OF INTERIOR GLOVE BOX DURING CONSTRUCTION. GLOVE BOXES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF INTERIOR GLOVE BOX DURING CONSTRUCTION. GLOVE BOXES CONTAINED ALL PRODUCTION OPERATIONS AND WERE INTERCONNECTED BY CONVEYORS. (9/21/59) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  2. Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and Repossessed Uranium in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  3. Thinking "Inside" the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a test to determine whether they could incorporate a discovery box into a preschool setting was successful. It stimulated the students' natural inquiry processes while promoting understanding of healthy foods and allowing for practice of fine-motor skills. It was easily incorporated into the curriculum and classroom space.…

  4. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  5. EPA ExpoBox

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases, mode

  6. Drawing inside the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Ranella

    2007-01-01

    When working with very young children and/or students with special needs, it is beneficial for teachers to think "outside the box" in order to preserve and enhance a child's natural curiosity. In an effort to teach young children to control their drawing tools, they are often presented with coloring book-type pages and instructed to "stay inside…

  7. Mystery Box Marvels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Joel; Centurio, Tina

    2012-01-01

    What happens in the first week of school could very well set the stage for the rest of the school year. Setting high standards for science activities based in inquiry can start on the first day of science class and develop as the year unfolds. With the use of simple, readily available, inexpensive materials, an efficient mystery box lesson can be…

  8. Shoe Box Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandifer, Cody

    2009-01-01

    Students' eyes grow wide with wonder as they get a motor to work or make a bulb light for the first time. As these daunting feats of electrical engineering remind us, teaching electricity is invariably rewarding and worthwhile. In this inquiry-based science project, elementary students work in pairs to design and wire a shoe box "room" that meets…

  9. The Idea Box.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Education of Young Children, Washington, DC.

    Five pamphlets offer helpful ideas and instructions on teacher planning, learning environments, teaching with nature, a creative curriculum, and ideas for administrators in "The Idea Box," compiled by members of the Austin Association for the Education of Young Children. Each pamphlet contains useful information for working with young children.…

  10. Teaching with Box Tops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiser, Lynne; D'Zamko, Mary Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Using environmental materials (such as the phone book and placemats from fast food restaurants) can be a motivating way to teach learning disabled students skills and concepts, as shown in an approach to reading, math, science and nutrition, and social studies instruction using a JELL-O brand gelatin box. (CL)

  11. Thinking "Inside" the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a test to determine whether they could incorporate a discovery box into a preschool setting was successful. It stimulated the students' natural inquiry processes while promoting understanding of healthy foods and allowing for practice of fine-motor skills. It was easily incorporated into the curriculum and classroom space.…

  12. Teaching with Box Tops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiser, Lynne; D'Zamko, Mary Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Using environmental materials (such as the phone book and placemats from fast food restaurants) can be a motivating way to teach learning disabled students skills and concepts, as shown in an approach to reading, math, science and nutrition, and social studies instruction using a JELL-O brand gelatin box. (CL)

  13. Shoe Box Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandifer, Cody

    2009-01-01

    Students' eyes grow wide with wonder as they get a motor to work or make a bulb light for the first time. As these daunting feats of electrical engineering remind us, teaching electricity is invariably rewarding and worthwhile. In this inquiry-based science project, elementary students work in pairs to design and wire a shoe box "room" that meets…

  14. Mystery Box Marvels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Joel; Centurio, Tina

    2012-01-01

    What happens in the first week of school could very well set the stage for the rest of the school year. Setting high standards for science activities based in inquiry can start on the first day of science class and develop as the year unfolds. With the use of simple, readily available, inexpensive materials, an efficient mystery box lesson can be…

  15. Drawing inside the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Ranella

    2007-01-01

    When working with very young children and/or students with special needs, it is beneficial for teachers to think "outside the box" in order to preserve and enhance a child's natural curiosity. In an effort to teach young children to control their drawing tools, they are often presented with coloring book-type pages and instructed to "stay inside…

  16. Cereal Box Totems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, AnnMarie

    2002-01-01

    Presents a multicultural project used with fourth-grade students in which they created a three-dimensional totem pole using leftover cereal boxes. Discusses in detail how to create the totem pole. Explains that students learned about Northwest American Indians in class. (CMK)

  17. "Can" the Black Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lestingi, Francis S.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the use of the "Arcane (mysterious) Can" which is a "tin" can which is permanently sealed, both air- and water-tight, by means of a home canning device. The canning procedure permits the use of a large variety of materials which can not be utilized in the ordinary mystery box. This Can activity is valuable for…

  18. Ocular complications of boxing.

    PubMed

    Bianco, M; Vaiano, A S; Colella, F; Coccimiglio, F; Moscetti, M; Palmieri, V; Focosi, F; Zeppilli, P; Vinger, P F

    2005-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence of ocular injuries in a large population of boxers over a period of 16 years, in particular, the most severe lesions that may be vision threatening. Clinical records of the medical archive of the Italian Boxing Federation were analysed. A total of 1032 boxers were examined from February 1982 to October 1998. A complete ophthalmological history was available for 956, who formed the study population (a total of 10 697 examinations). The following data were collected: age when started boxing; duration of competitive boxing career (from the date of the first bout); weight category; a thorough ocular history. The following investigations were carried out: measurement of visual acuity and visual fields, anterior segment inspection, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and examination of ocular fundus. Eighty age matched healthy subjects, who had never boxed, formed the control group. Of the 956 boxers examined, 428 were amateur (44.8%) and 528 professional (55.2%). The median age at first examination was 23.1 (4.3) years (range 15-36). The prevalence of conjunctival, corneal, lenticular, vitreal, ocular papilla, and retinal alterations in the study population was 40.9% compared with 3.1% in the control group (p< or =0.0001). The prevalence of serious ocular findings (angle, lens, macula, and peripheral retina alterations) was 5.6% in boxers and 3.1% in controls (NS). Boxing does not result in a higher prevalence of severe ocular lesions than in the general population. However, the prevalence of milder lesions (in particular with regard to the conjunctiva and cornea) is noteworthy, justifying the need for adequate ophthalmological surveillance.

  19. Ocular complications of boxing

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, M; Vaiano, A; Colella, F; Coccimiglio, F; Moscetti, M; Palmieri, V; Focosi, F; Zeppilli, P; Vinger, P

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of ocular injuries in a large population of boxers over a period of 16 years, in particular, the most severe lesions that may be vision threatening. Methods: Clinical records of the medical archive of the Italian Boxing Federation were analysed. A total of 1032 boxers were examined from February 1982 to October 1998. A complete ophthalmological history was available for 956, who formed the study population (a total of 10 697 examinations). The following data were collected: age when started boxing; duration of competitive boxing career (from the date of the first bout); weight category; a thorough ocular history. The following investigations were carried out: measurement of visual acuity and visual fields, anterior segment inspection, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and examination of ocular fundus. Eighty age matched healthy subjects, who had never boxed, formed the control group. Results: Of the 956 boxers examined, 428 were amateur (44.8%) and 528 professional (55.2%). The median age at first examination was 23.1 (4.3) years (range 15–36). The prevalence of conjunctival, corneal, lenticular, vitreal, ocular papilla, and retinal alterations in the study population was 40.9% compared with 3.1% in the control group (p⩽0.0001). The prevalence of serious ocular findings (angle, lens, macula, and peripheral retina alterations) was 5.6% in boxers and 3.1% in controls (NS). Conclusions: Boxing does not result in a higher prevalence of severe ocular lesions than in the general population. However, the prevalence of milder lesions (in particular with regard to the conjunctiva and cornea) is noteworthy, justifying the need for adequate ophthalmological surveillance. PMID:15665199

  20. Hermit Points on a Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Richard; Grinstead, Charles; Grindstead, Marshall; Bergstrand, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Suppose that we are given a rectangular box in 3-space. Given any two points on the surface of this box, we can define the surface distance between them to be the length of the shortest path between them on the surface of the box. This paper determines the pairs of points of maximum surface distance for all boxes. It is often the case that these…

  1. Hermit Points on a Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Richard; Grinstead, Charles; Grindstead, Marshall; Bergstrand, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Suppose that we are given a rectangular box in 3-space. Given any two points on the surface of this box, we can define the surface distance between them to be the length of the shortest path between them on the surface of the box. This paper determines the pairs of points of maximum surface distance for all boxes. It is often the case that these…

  2. Making Connections with Memory Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatley, April

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the use of children's literature within the social studies classroom on the topic of memory boxes. Includes discussions of four books: (1) "The Littlest Angel" (Charles Tazewell); (2) "The Hundred Penny Box" (Sharon Bell Mathis); (3) "Wilfrid Gordon McDonald Partridge" (Mem Fox); and (4) "The Memory Box" (Mary Bahr). (CMK)

  3. Making Connections with Memory Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatley, April

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the use of children's literature within the social studies classroom on the topic of memory boxes. Includes discussions of four books: (1) "The Littlest Angel" (Charles Tazewell); (2) "The Hundred Penny Box" (Sharon Bell Mathis); (3) "Wilfrid Gordon McDonald Partridge" (Mem Fox); and (4) "The Memory Box" (Mary Bahr). (CMK)

  4. Multicultural and Nonsexist Prop Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutte, Gloria S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how prop boxes enhance learning and are resources in multicultural and nonsexist primary education, focusing on play, experimentation, and cooperation. Examines integration of prop boxes into the curricula and activities, and presents examples of generic and specific multicultural prop boxes that incorporate art, music, foods,…

  5. The Electronic Battle Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouin, Denis; Turcotte, Guy; Lebel, Eric; Gilbert, Annie

    2000-08-01

    The Electronic Battle Box is an integrated suite of planning and decision-aid tools specially designed to facilitate Canadian Armed Force Officers during their training and during their tasks of preparing and conducting military operations. It is the result of a collaborative effort between the Defence Research Establishment Valcartier, the Directorate of Army Doctrine (DAD), the Directorate of Land Requirements (DLR), the G4 staff of 1Cdn Div HQ and CGI Information and Management Consultants Inc. Distributed on CD-ROM, the Electronic Battle Box contains efficient and user-friendly tools that significantly reduce the planning time for military operations and ensure staff officers a better focus on significant tasks. Among the tools are an OrBat Browser and an Equipment Browser allowing to view and edit military organizations, a Task Browser providing facilities to prepare plans using Gantt charts, a Logistic Planner allowing to estimate supply requirements applying complex calculations, and Road, Air and Rail Movement Planners. EBB also provides staff officers with a large set of doctrinal documents in an electronic format. This paper provides an overview of the various tools of the Electronic Battle Box.

  6. Learning with Box Kernels.

    PubMed

    Melacci, Stefano; Gori, Marco

    2013-04-12

    Supervised examples and prior knowledge on regions of the input space have been profitably integrated in kernel machines to improve the performance of classifiers in different real-world contexts. The proposed solutions, which rely on the unified supervision of points and sets, have been mostly based on specific optimization schemes in which, as usual, the kernel function operates on points only. In this paper, arguments from variational calculus are used to support the choice of a special class of kernels, referred to as box kernels, which emerges directly from the choice of the kernel function associated with a regularization operator. It is proven that there is no need to search for kernels to incorporate the structure deriving from the supervision of regions of the input space, since the optimal kernel arises as a consequence of the chosen regularization operator. Although most of the given results hold for sets, we focus attention on boxes, whose labeling is associated with their propositional description. Based on different assumptions, some representer theorems are given which dictate the structure of the solution in terms of box kernel expansion. Successful results are given for problems of medical diagnosis, image, and text categorization.

  7. Learning with box kernels.

    PubMed

    Melacci, Stefano; Gori, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Supervised examples and prior knowledge on regions of the input space have been profitably integrated in kernel machines to improve the performance of classifiers in different real-world contexts. The proposed solutions, which rely on the unified supervision of points and sets, have been mostly based on specific optimization schemes in which, as usual, the kernel function operates on points only. In this paper, arguments from variational calculus are used to support the choice of a special class of kernels, referred to as box kernels, which emerges directly from the choice of the kernel function associated with a regularization operator. It is proven that there is no need to search for kernels to incorporate the structure deriving from the supervision of regions of the input space, because the optimal kernel arises as a consequence of the chosen regularization operator. Although most of the given results hold for sets, we focus attention on boxes, whose labeling is associated with their propositional description. Based on different assumptions, some representer theorems are given that dictate the structure of the solution in terms of box kernel expansion. Successful results are given for problems of medical diagnosis, image, and text categorization.

  8. Study of Magnetic Alloys: Critical Phenomena.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MAGNETIC ALLOYS, TRANSPORT PROPERTIES), ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE, SEEBECK EFFECT , MAGNETIC PROPERTIES, ALUMINUM ALLOYS, COBALT ALLOYS, GADOLINIUM ALLOYS, GOLD ALLOYS, IRON ALLOYS, NICKEL ALLOYS, PALLADIUM ALLOYS, PLATINUM ALLOYS, RHODIUM ALLOYS

  9. Satellite Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  10. Satellite Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  11. Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer attitude control electronics box design and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, K.; Clagett, C.; Correll, T.; Gruner, T.; Quinn, T.; Shiflett, L.; Schnurr, R.; Wennersten, M.; Frederick, M.; Fox, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    The attitude Control Electronics (ACE) Box is the center of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) satellite. This unit is the single point interface for all of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) related sensors and actuators. Commands and telemetry between the SAMPEX flight computer and the ACE Box are routed via a MIL-STD-1773 bus interface, through the use of an 80C85 processor. The ACE Box consists of the flowing electronic elements: power supply, momentum wheel driver, electromagnet driver, coarse sun sensor interface, digital sun sensor interface, magnetometer interface, and satellite computer interface. In addition, the ACE Box also contains an independent Safehold electronics package capable of keeping the satellite pitch axis pointing towards the sun. The ACE Box has dimensions of 24 x 31 x 8 cm, a mass of 4.3 kg, and an average power consumption of 10.5 W. This set of electronics was completely designed, developed, integrated, and tested by personnel at NASA GSFC. SAMPEX was launched on July 3, 1992, and the initial attitude acquisition was successfully accomplished via the analog Safehold electronics in the ACE Box. This acquisition scenario removed the excess body rates via magnetic control and precessed the satellite pitch axis to within 10 deg of the sun line. The performance of the SAMPEX ACS in general and the ACE Box in particular has been quite satisfactory.

  12. Small, Lightweight, Collapsible Glove Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    A small, lightweight, collapsible glove box enables its user to perform small experiments and other tasks. Originally intended for use aboard a space shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS), this glove box could also be attractive for use on Earth in settings in which work space or storage space is severely limited and, possibly, in which it is desirable to minimize weight. The development of this glove box was prompted by the findings that in the original space-shuttle or ISS setting, (1) it was necessary to perform small experiments in a large general-purpose work station, so that, in effect, they occupied excessive space; and it took excessive amounts of time to set up small experiments. The design of the glove box reflects the need to minimize the space occupied by experiments and the time needed to set up experiments, plus the requirement to limit the launch weight of the box and the space needed to store the box during transport into orbit. To prepare the glove box for use, the astronaut or other user has merely to insert hands through the two fabric glove ports in the side walls of the box and move two hinges to a locking vertical position (see figure). The user could do this while seated with the glove box on the user fs lap. When stowed, the glove box is flat and has approximately the thickness of two pieces of 8-in. (.20 cm) polycarbonate.

  13. Projection optics box

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.; Malsbury, Terry; Hudyma, Russell M.; Parker, John M.

    2000-01-01

    A projection optics box or assembly for use in an optical assembly, such as in an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system using 10-14 nm soft x-ray photons. The projection optics box utilizes a plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors, each mounted on a precision actuator, and which reflects an optical image, such as from a mask, in the EUVL system onto a point of use, such as a target or silicon wafer, the mask, for example, receiving an optical signal from a source assembly, such as a developed from laser system, via a series of highly reflective mirrors of the EUVL system. The plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors are mounted in a housing assembly comprised of a series of bulkheads having wall members secured together to form a unit construction of maximum rigidity. Due to the precision actuators, the mirrors must be positioned precisely and remotely in tip, tilt, and piston (three degrees of freedom), while also providing exact constraint.

  14. The Classroom Animal: Box Turtles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic information on the anatomy, physiology, behaviors, and distribution patterns of the box turtle. Offers suggestions for the turtle's care and maintenance in a classroom environment. (ML)

  15. The Classroom Animal: Box Turtles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic information on the anatomy, physiology, behaviors, and distribution patterns of the box turtle. Offers suggestions for the turtle's care and maintenance in a classroom environment. (ML)

  16. 2. UPPER NOTTINGHAM MINE, WOODEN BOXES. BOXES ARE LOCATED APPROXIMATELY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. UPPER NOTTINGHAM MINE, WOODEN BOXES. BOXES ARE LOCATED APPROXIMATELY 10 YARDS TO THE RIGHT AND DOWNSLOPE OF THE ADIT IN ID-31-F-1. CAMERA IS POINTED EAST-SOUTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  17. Alloy materials

    DOEpatents

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo; Thompson, Elliott D.; Fritzemeier, Leslie G.; Cameron, Robert D.; Siegal, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  18. More box codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    A new investigation shows that, starting from the BCH (21,15;3) code represented as a 7 x 3 matrix and adding a row and column to add even parity, one obtains an 8 x 4 matrix (32,15;8) code. An additional dimension is obtained by specifying odd parity on the rows and even parity on the columns, i.e., adjoining to the 8 x 4 matrix, the matrix, which is zero except for the fourth column (of all ones). Furthermore, any seven rows and three columns will form the BCH (21,15;3) code. This box code has the same weight structure as the quadratic residue and BCH codes of the same dimensions. Whether there exists an algebraic isomorphism to either code is as yet unknown.

  19. ACYSYS in a box

    SciTech Connect

    Briegel, C.; Finstrom, D.; Hendricks, B.; King, C.; Lackey, S.; Neswold, R.; Nicklaus, D.; Patrick, J.; Petrov, A.; Rechenmacher, R.; Schumann, C.; /Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    The Accelerator Control System at Fermilab has evolved to enable this relatively large control system to be encapsulated into a 'box' such as a laptop. The goal was to provide a platform isolated from the 'online' control system. This platform can be used internally for making major upgrades and modifications without impacting operations. It also provides a standalone environment for research and development including a turnkey control system for collaborators. Over time, the code base running on Scientific Linux has enabled all the salient features of the Fermilab's control system to be captured in an off-the-shelf laptop. The anticipated additional benefits of packaging the system include improved maintenance, reliability, documentation, and future enhancements.

  20. Impedance Measurement Box

    ScienceCinema

    Christophersen, Jon

    2016-07-12

    Energy storage devices, primarily batteries, are now more important to consumers, industries and the military. With increasing technical complexity and higher user expectations, there is also a demand for highly accurate state-of-health battery assessment techniques. IMB incorporates patented, proprietary, and tested capabilities using control software and hardware that can be part of an embedded monitoring system. IMB directly measures the wideband impedance spectrum in seconds during battery operation with no significant impact on service life. It also can be applied to batteries prior to installation, confirming health before entering active service, as well as during regular maintenance. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/impedance-measurement-box/

  1. Impedance Measurement Box

    SciTech Connect

    Christophersen, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Energy storage devices, primarily batteries, are now more important to consumers, industries and the military. With increasing technical complexity and higher user expectations, there is also a demand for highly accurate state-of-health battery assessment techniques. IMB incorporates patented, proprietary, and tested capabilities using control software and hardware that can be part of an embedded monitoring system. IMB directly measures the wideband impedance spectrum in seconds during battery operation with no significant impact on service life. It also can be applied to batteries prior to installation, confirming health before entering active service, as well as during regular maintenance. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/impedance-measurement-box/

  2. Box-and Peanut-Shaped Bulges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lütticke, R.; Dettmar, R.-J.

    Our new statistics of bulges of disk galaxies reveals a frequency of almost 50% being box- or peanut-shaped. Therefore very common processes are required to explain this high fraction. Our sample of edge-on disk galaxies was selected from the RC3 (de Vaucouleurs et al., 1991) with D25 > 2 arcmin. We characterized bulges by their degree of b/p-shapeness, as non-b/p, or unclassifiable using the "Digitized Sky Survey". In an analysis of a possible relation between this internal structure and the environment of galaxies with b/p bulge we detect that on large scales there is no hint for a connection. However, we find that galaxies with b/p bulges have more companions and satellites and show more frequently interactions than a control sample. Thus we conclude that the small scale environment is important for the existence of b/p bulges. Therefore the most likely reason responsible for the development of b/p bulges is a bar originating from galaxy interaction in stable disks or by an infalling satellite. From this statistical approach we can not totally exclude that some b/p structures may be caused by either bars produced by dynamically cold disks through a global instability or directly from material accreted from infalling satellite companions (soft merging).

  3. Lightweight Disk Alloy Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    2001 (1982). 45. K C. Russell and J. W Eddington , JI Mat. Sci., 6, 20 (1972). 46. M. J. Lequeux, Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. de Paris-Sud (1979). 47. P S ...AD-A237 064 UGHTWEIGHT DISK ALLOY DEVELOPMENT S . M. Russel, C. C. Law and M. J. Blackburn Uted Te lowkles Corpoaton Prat & Whtney Govnment Enes...Space Propulo P. 0. Box 109600 West Palm Beach, FL 33410-9600 P. C. Clapp and D. M. Pease Istitute of Materials Science 9 ELECT Fg AW 11il S E Final

  4. Being Creative "Inside the Box"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomascoff, Rocky

    2011-01-01

    Artist Joseph Cornell (1903-1972) created wonderful environments inside boxes using mostly found objects. They were often Surrealistic in nature. Some boxes were designed with glass fronts, and others were meant to be interactive with the viewer, wherein the objects could be handled. With Joseph Cornell in mind, the author introduces an art…

  5. Cardboard Boxes: Learning Concepts Galore!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Laverne; Wilmoth, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Mrs. Keenan, a preschool teacher, observed her 3-year-old granddaughter Riley pull, tug, and stack piles of holiday boxes on the floor. She remembered that her child care director had suggested using boxes as a curriculum theme, but she hadn't given much thought about the idea until now. She said to herself, "I wonder if my children would be as…

  6. What Makes a Better Box?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Every morning, many Americans start their day with a bowl of cereal. Some spend time while they eat breakfast reading the back of the cereal box, but few consider its size, shape, and construction, or realize that it was designed by an engineer. This article describes a lesson in which students design, build, and critique cereal boxes. The lesson…

  7. Spirit Boxes: Expressions of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMuro, Ted

    1984-01-01

    After studying the culture and art of the ancient civilizations of South America, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Egypt, secondary level art students made spirit boxes as expressions of the various cultures. How to make the boxes and how to prepare the face molds are described. (RM)

  8. Being Creative "Inside the Box"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomascoff, Rocky

    2011-01-01

    Artist Joseph Cornell (1903-1972) created wonderful environments inside boxes using mostly found objects. They were often Surrealistic in nature. Some boxes were designed with glass fronts, and others were meant to be interactive with the viewer, wherein the objects could be handled. With Joseph Cornell in mind, the author introduces an art…

  9. Spirit Boxes: Expressions of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMuro, Ted

    1984-01-01

    After studying the culture and art of the ancient civilizations of South America, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Egypt, secondary level art students made spirit boxes as expressions of the various cultures. How to make the boxes and how to prepare the face molds are described. (RM)

  10. What Makes a Better Box?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Every morning, many Americans start their day with a bowl of cereal. Some spend time while they eat breakfast reading the back of the cereal box, but few consider its size, shape, and construction, or realize that it was designed by an engineer. This article describes a lesson in which students design, build, and critique cereal boxes. The lesson…

  11. Cardboard Boxes: Learning Concepts Galore!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Laverne; Wilmoth, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Mrs. Keenan, a preschool teacher, observed her 3-year-old granddaughter Riley pull, tug, and stack piles of holiday boxes on the floor. She remembered that her child care director had suggested using boxes as a curriculum theme, but she hadn't given much thought about the idea until now. She said to herself, "I wonder if my children would be as…

  12. Crash energy absorption of two-segment crash box with holes under frontal load

    SciTech Connect

    Choiron, Moch Agus Sudjito,; Hidayati, Nafisah Arina

    2016-03-29

    Crash box is one of the passive safety components which designed as an impact energy absorber during collision. Crash box designs have been developed in order to obtain the optimum crashworthiness performance. Circular cross section was first investigated with one segment design, it rather influenced by its length which is being sensitive to the buckling occurrence. In this study, the two-segment crash box design with additional holes is investigated and deformation behavior and crash energy absorption are observed. The crash box modelling is performed by finite element analysis. The crash test components were impactor, crash box, and fixed rigid base. Impactor and the fixed base material are modelled as a rigid, and crash box material as bilinear isotropic hardening. Crash box length of 100 mm and frontal crash velocity of 16 km/jam are selected. Crash box material of Aluminum Alloy is used. Based on simulation results, it can be shown that holes configuration with 2 holes and ¾ length locations have the largest crash energy absorption. This condition associated with deformation pattern, this crash box model produces axisymmetric mode than other models.

  13. Recent progress on gas tungsten arc welding of vanadium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.F.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Goodwin, G.M.; Alexander, D.J.

    1997-04-01

    This is a progress report on a continuing research project to acquire a fundamental understanding of the metallurgical processes in the welding of vanadium alloys. It also has the goal of developing techniques for welding structural vanadium alloys. The alloy V-4Cr-4Ti is used as a representative alloy of the group; it is also the prime candidate vanadium alloy for the U.S. Fusion Program at the present time. However, other alloys of this class were used in the research as necessary. The present work focuses on recent findings of hydrogen embrittlement found in vanadium alloy welds. It was concluded that the atmosphere in the inert gas glove box was insufficient for welding 6mm thick vanadium alloy plates.

  14. Thinking Inside the Box

    SciTech Connect

    Boeheim, Charles T.; /SLAC

    2007-11-16

    In early 2007, SLAC was faced with a shortage of both electrical power and cooling in the main computer building, at the same time that the BaBar collaboration needed a new cluster of 250 batch machines installed. A number of different options were explored for the expansion. Provision of additional electrical power to the building was estimated to take one to two years, and cost several million dollars; additional cooling was even worse. Space in a Silicon Valley co-location facilities was reasonable on a one-year timescale, but broke even in costs by the end of three years, and were more expensive after that. There were also unresolved questions about the affects of additional latency from an offsite compute cluster to the onsite disk servers. The option of converting existing experimental hall space into computer space was estimated at one year, with uncertain availability. An option to aggressively replace several existing clusters with more power-efficient equipment was studied closely, but was disruptive to continued operations, expensive, and didn't provide any additional headroom. Finally, the installation of a Sun Project Blackbox (PBB) unit was selected as providing the capacity on a timescale of six months for a reasonable cost with minimal disruption to service. SLAC obtained and installed a beta unit and have been running it in production since September 2007. The experiences described are with the Early Access version of the PBB. The production version of the box has engineering changes based in part on our experiences.

  15. Antioxidant therapeutics: Pandora's box.

    PubMed

    Day, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has favored the utilization of dioxygen (O2) in the development of complex multicellular organisms. O2 is actually a toxic mutagenic gas that is highly oxidizing and combustible. It is thought that plants are largely to blame for polluting the earth's atmosphere with O2 owing to the development of photosynthesis by blue-green algae over 2 billion years ago. The rise of the plants and atmospheric O2 levels placed evolutionary stress on organisms to adapt or become extinct. This implies that all the surviving creatures on our planet are mutants that have adapted to the "abnormal biology" of O2. Much of the adaptation to the presence of O2 in biological systems comes from well-coordinated antioxidant and repair systems that focus on converting O2 to its most reduced form, water (H2O), and the repair and replacement of damaged cellular macromolecules. Biological systems have also harnessed O2's reactive properties for energy production, xenobiotic metabolism, and host defense and as a signaling messenger and redox modulator of a number of cell signaling pathways. Many of these systems involve electron transport systems and offer many different mechanisms by which antioxidant therapeutics can alternatively produce an antioxidant effect without directly scavenging oxygen-derived reactive species. It is likely that each agent will have a different set of mechanisms that may change depending on the model of oxidative stress, organ system, or disease state. An important point is that all biological processes of aerobes have coevolved with O2 and this creates a Pandora's box for trying to understand the mechanism(s) of action of antioxidants being developed as therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Breaking out of Our Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, William

    2003-01-01

    Argues that educators must "think outside the box" to improve school performance. Suggests several areas for expanded thought, including school size, curriculum coverage, grading practices, use of time, organization of students, time management, and belief statement. (PKP)

  17. Breaking out of Our Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, William

    2003-01-01

    Argues that educators must "think outside the box" to improve school performance. Suggests several areas for expanded thought, including school size, curriculum coverage, grading practices, use of time, organization of students, time management, and belief statement. (PKP)

  18. Center Spot: Shoe Box Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jan

    1976-01-01

    This is the second "Center Spot" devoted to Jan Hoffman's "Shoe Box Science," a program that organizes manipulative materials so that children can identify, describe, order, construct, name and distinguish on their own.

  19. SATELLITE Capabilities and Limitations for the ACPC Box Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    This presentation was given at the Aerosol-Clouds-Precipitation-Climate (ACPC) Workshop held at NASA GISS in April 2015. The organizers of the meeting plan to post the presentations to a public website maintained by the University of Leipzig.

  20. The lithium vapor box divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldston, R. J.; Myers, R.; Schwartz, J.

    2016-02-01

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m-2, implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. At the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma.

  1. Casting alloys.

    PubMed

    Wataha, John C; Messer, Regina L

    2004-04-01

    Although the role of dental casting alloys has changed in recent years with the development of improved all-ceramic materials and resin-based composites, alloys will likely continue to be critical assets in the treatment of missing and severely damaged teeth. Alloy shave physical, chemical, and biologic properties that exceed other classes of materials. The selection of the appropriate dental casting alloy is paramount to the long-term success of dental prostheses,and the selection process has become complex with the development of many new alloys. However, this selection process is manageable if the practitioner focuses on the appropriate physical and biologic properties, such as tensile strength, modulus of elasticity,corrosion, and biocompatibility, and avoids dwelling on the less important properties of alloy color and short-term cost. The appropriate selection of an alloy helps to ensure a longer-lasting restoration and better oral health for the patient.

  2. 30 CFR 57.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 57.12006 Section 57.12006... and Underground § 57.12006 Distribution boxes. Distribution boxes shall be provided with a... deenergized, and the distribution box shall be labeled to show which circuit each device controls....

  3. Plate forming and break down pizza box

    DOEpatents

    Pantisano, Frank; Devine, Scott M.

    1992-01-01

    A standard corrugated paper pizza box is provided with slit cuts cut through the top panel of the pizza box in a shape to form four circular serving plates with a beveled raised edge and cross slit cuts through the bottom panel of the pizza box separating the box into four essentially equal portions for easy disposal.

  4. Satellite situation report, volume 31, number 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Data computed at GSFC, NORAD, or provided by satellite owners is reported. A space objects box score is presented of objects in orbit and decayed objects. Data of objects in orbit is presented in tabular form and the table headings include name of the object, catalog number, source, launch date, period minutes, inclination, apogee KM., perigee KM., and transmitting frequency.

  5. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses.

    PubMed

    Palukaitis, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  6. Satellite theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozai, Y.

    1981-04-01

    The dynamical characteristics of the natural satellite of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are analyzed on the basis of the solar tidal perturbation factor and the oblateness factor of the primary planet for each satellite. For the inner satellites, for which the value of the solar tidal factor is much smaller than the planetary oblateness factor, it is shown that the eccentricity and inclination of satellite orbits are generally very small and almost constant; several pairs of inner satellites are also found to exhibit commensurable mean motions, or secular accelerations in mean longitude. In the case of the outer satellites, for which solar perturbations are dominant, secular perturbations and long-period perturbations may be derived by the solution of equations of motion reduced to one degree of freedom. The existence of a few satellites, termed intermediary satellites, for which the solar tidal perturbation is on the order of the planetary oblateness factor, is also observed, and the pole of the orbital plane of the satellite is noted to execute a complex motion around the pole of the planet or the orbital plane of the planet.

  7. The lithium vapor box divertor

    SciTech Connect

    Goldston, R. J.; Myers, R.; Schwartz, J.

    2016-01-13

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Our recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m-2, implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. Furthermore, at the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required in order to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma.

  8. The lithium vapor box divertor

    DOE PAGES

    Goldston, R. J.; Myers, R.; Schwartz, J.

    2016-01-13

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Our recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m-2, implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al asmore » well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. Furthermore, at the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required in order to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma.« less

  9. Classical three-box 'paradox'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, K. A.

    2003-05-01

    A simple classical probabilistic system (a simple card game) classically exemplifies Aharonov and Vaidman's 'three-box 'paradox'' (1991 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 24 2315), implying that the three-box example is neither quantal nor a paradox and leaving one with less difficulty to busy the interpreters of quantum mechanics. An ambiguity in the usual expression of the retrodiction formula is shown to have misled Albert et al (1985 Phys. Rev. Lett. 54 5) to a result not, in fact, 'curious'; the discussion illustrates how to avoid this ambiguity.

  10. VANADIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1959-05-12

    This patent deals with vanadium based ternary alloys useful as fuel element jackets. According to the invention the ternary vanadium alloys, prepared in an arc furnace, contain from 2.5 to 15% by weight titanium and from 0.5 to 10% by weight niobium. Characteristics of these alloys are good thermal conductivity, low neutron capture cross section, good corrosion resistance, good welding and fabricating properties, low expansion coefficient, and high strength.

  11. BRAZING ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, R.G.; Gilliland, R.G.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1963-02-26

    A brazing alloy which, in the molten state, is characterized by excellent wettability and flowability, said alloy being capable of forming a corrosion resistant brazed joint wherein at least one component of said joint is graphite and the other component is a corrosion resistant refractory metal, said alloy consisting essentially of 20 to 50 per cent by weight of gold, 20 to 50 per cent by weight of nickel, and 15 to 45 per cent by weight of molybdenum. (AEC)

  12. Satellite Broadcasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chayes, Abram; And Others

    This report of the 1970 International Broadcast Institute (IBI) surveyed legal and communicational experts in France, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States on the general topic of satellite broadcasting. The responses covered technical data (satellite and ground systems), legal information (international law and the International…

  13. Satellite Vulnerabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-18

    per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...allies. 8  Satellites and Intelligence , Surveillance, and Reconnaissance We have become dependent also on our satellite surveillance assets...uninterrupted ISR”, with “space intelligence , surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) systems…fundamental to air power—especially to the execution

  14. Meteorological satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J. (Editor); Schnapf, A.; Diesen, B. C., III; Martin, P. S.; Schwalb, A.; Bandeen, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is presented of the meteorological satellite programs that have been evolving from 1958 to the present, and plans for the future meteorological and environmental satellite systems that are scheduled to be placed into service in the early 1980's are reviewed. The development of the TIROS family of weather satellites, including TIROS, ESSA, ITOS/NOAA, and the present TIROS-N (the third generation operational system) is summarized. The contribution of the Nimbus and ATS technology satellites to the development of the operational-orbiting and geostationary satellites is discussed. Included are descriptions of both the TIROS-N and the DMSP payloads currently under development to assure a continued and orderly growth of these systems into the 1980's.

  15. NETL's JIC in a box

    ScienceCinema

    David Anna

    2016-07-12

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory developed the idea of a portable joint information center AKA JIC in-a-box. This video discribes some of the equipment in the portable JIC as well as some of the methodology that NETL developed as a result of this portable JIC concept.

  16. The Bird Box Survey Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    When high school students are asked what's the best part of science class, many will say it's the field trips. Students enjoy engaging in authentic, community-based science outside the classroom. To capitalize on this, Patrick Willis created the Bird Box Survey Project for his introductory field biology class. The project takes students…

  17. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  18. Expo-Box Contact Us

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA-Expo-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases, mode

  19. Black Boxes in Workplace Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julian; Wake, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    We ground Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) in studies of workplace practices from a mathematical point of view. We draw on multiple case study visits by college students and teacher-researchers to workplaces. By asking questions that "open boxes", we "outsiders and boundary-crossers" sought to expose contradictions between College and…

  20. NETL's JIC in a box

    SciTech Connect

    David Anna

    2009-06-03

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory developed the idea of a portable joint information center AKA JIC in-a-box. This video discribes some of the equipment in the portable JIC as well as some of the methodology that NETL developed as a result of this portable JIC concept.

  1. Breaking Out of the Box.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spady, William G.

    2000-01-01

    Deplores inconsistencies between the realities of today's technologically driven, information-age world and the static, constraining boxes in which state-initiated, accountability- focused reforms hold American education. We must reconceptualize schooling, curriculum content, time, grade levels, and achievement to allow more informal,…

  2. The Bird Box Survey Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    When high school students are asked what's the best part of science class, many will say it's the field trips. Students enjoy engaging in authentic, community-based science outside the classroom. To capitalize on this, Patrick Willis created the Bird Box Survey Project for his introductory field biology class. The project takes students…

  3. Black Boxes in Workplace Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julian; Wake, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    We ground Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) in studies of workplace practices from a mathematical point of view. We draw on multiple case study visits by college students and teacher-researchers to workplaces. By asking questions that "open boxes", we "outsiders and boundary-crossers" sought to expose contradictions between College and…

  4. Looking into the Black Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shellman, Amy

    2011-01-01

    In these remarks, the author shares some comments that not only encapsulate the individual research presentations but also help provide some context with regard to the theme for the session titled "Into the Black Box: Linking Process and Outcomes in Experiential Education," and what these papers collectively contribute to experiential education…

  5. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  6. EPA-Expo-Box Terminology

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA-Expo-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases,

  7. The Cereal Box Problem Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the cereal box problem using both an experimental and theoretical framework, and Monte Carlo methods. Using empirical data, students can discover patterns and relationships that help them understand the origin of the theoretical solution to the problem. Contains 17 references. (Author/ASK)

  8. CENP-B box, a nucleotide motif involved in centromere formation, occurs in a New World monkey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Centromere protein B (CENP-B) is one of the major proteins involved in centromere formation, binding to centromeric repetitive DNA by recognizing a 17 bp motif called the CENP-B box. Hominids (humans and great apes) carry large numbers of CENP-B boxes in alpha satellite DNA (AS, the major centromeric repetitive DNA of simian primates). Only negative results have been reported regarding the presence of the CENP-B box in other primate taxa. Consequently, it is widely believed that the CENP-B box is confined, within primates, to the hominids. We report here that the common marmoset, a New World monkey, contains an abundance of CENP-B boxes in its AS. First, in a long contig sequence we constructed and analysed, we identified the motif in 17 of the 38 alpha satellite repeat units. We then sequenced terminal regions of additional clones and found the motif in many of them. Immunostaining of marmoset cells demonstrated that CENP-B binds to DNA in the centromeric regions of chromosomes. Therefore, functional CENP-B boxes are not confined to hominids. Our results indicate that the efficiency of identification of the CENP-B box may depend largely on the sequencing methods used, and that the CENP-B box in centromeric repetitive DNA may be more common than researchers previously thought. PMID:27029836

  9. Evaluation of bike boxes at signalized intersections.

    PubMed

    Dill, Jennifer; Monsere, Christopher M; McNeil, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a before-after study of bike boxes at 10 signalized intersections in Portland, Oregon. The bike boxes, also known as advanced stop lines or advanced stop boxes, were installed to increase visibility of cyclists and reduce conflicts between motor vehicles and cyclists, particularly in potential "right-hook" situations. Before and after video were analyzed for seven intersections with green bike boxes, three intersections with uncolored bike boxes, and two control intersections. User perceptions were measured through surveys of cyclists passing through five of the bike box intersections and of motorists working downtown, where the boxes were concentrated. Both the observations and survey of motorists found a high rate of compliance and understanding of the markings. Overall, 73% of the stopping motor vehicles did not encroach at all into the bike box. Both motor vehicle and bicycle encroachment in the pedestrian crosswalk fell significantly at the bike box locations compared to the control intersections. The bike boxes had mixed effects on the motorists' encroachment in the bicycle lane. The number of observed conflicts at the bike box locations decreased, while the total number of cyclists and motor vehicles turning right increased. Negative-binomial models based upon the data predict fewer conflicts with the boxes, particularly as right-turning motor vehicle volumes increase. Observations of yielding behavior at two bike box and one control intersection found an improvement in motorists yielding to cyclists at the bike box locations. Differences in the traffic volumes and location contexts make firm conclusions about the effects of green coloring of the boxes difficult. Higher shares of surveyed motorists felt that the bike boxes made driving safer rather than more dangerous, even when the sample was narrowed to respondents who were not also cyclists. Over three-quarters of the surveyed cyclists thought that the boxes made the intersection safer

  10. PILOT EVALUATION OF VANADIUM ALLOYS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ARCS, SHEETS, ROLLING(METALLURGY), HIGH TEMPERATURE, SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, COMPRESSIVE PROPERTIES, DUCTILITY, CREEP, OXIDATION, COATINGS , SILICIDES , HARDNESS, WELDING, EXTRUSION, TANTALUM ALLOYS, MOLYBDENUM ALLOYS....VANADIUM ALLOYS, * NIOBIUM ALLOYS, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, TITANIUM ALLOYS, ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS, CARBON ALLOYS, MELTING, ELECTRIC

  11. Nonswelling alloy

    DOEpatents

    Harkness, S.D.

    1975-12-23

    An aluminum alloy containing one weight percent copper has been found to be resistant to void formation and thus is useful in all nuclear applications which currently use aluminum or other aluminum alloys in reactor positions which are subjected to high neutron doses.

  12. URANIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Seybolt, A.U.

    1958-04-15

    Uranium alloys containing from 0.1 to 10% by weight, but preferably at least 5%, of either zirconium, niobium, or molybdenum exhibit highly desirable nuclear and structural properties which may be improved by heating the alloy to about 900 d C for an extended period of time and then rapidly quenching it.

  13. ZIRCONIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, H.A.; Ames, D.P.

    1959-02-01

    A binary zirconiuin--antimony alloy is presented which is corrosion resistant and hard containing from 0.07% to 1.6% by weight of Sb. The alloys have good corrosion resistance and are useful in building equipment for the chemical industry.

  14. Satellite Videoconferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA is helping thousands of teachers to learn more about aerospace matters, improve their classroom skills, and expand significantly the content of their aerospace education curricula by means of live educational satellite videoconferences. The 1 1/2 hour 'Update for Teachers' programs originate at Oklahoma State University (OSU) Telecommunications Center. The television signals are transmitted to the WESTAR IV communications satellite, which remits them to participating schools across the U.S. and in parts of Mexico and Canada. The schools are equipped with small home style satellite reception dishes. Education Satellite Videoconference programs are conducted four times yearly, covering a variety of aerospace subjects. Teachers can call toll-free and have questions answered after the speaker's presentations. Information about NASA educational resources and how to obtain them will be provided.

  15. Satellite (Natural)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    In its most general sense, any celestial object in orbit around a similar larger object. Thus, for example, the Magellanic Clouds are satellite galaxies of our own Milky Way galaxy. Without qualification, the term is used to mean a body in orbit around a planet; an alternative term is moon. The term natural satellite distinguishes these bodies from artificial satellites—spacecraft placed in orbi...

  16. Glove box for water pit applications

    DOEpatents

    Mills, William C.; Rabe, Richard A.

    2005-01-18

    A glove box assembly that includes a glove box enclosure attached to a longitudinally extending hollow tube having an entranceway, wherein the portion of the tube is in a liquid environment. An elevator member is provided for raising an object that is introduced into the hollow tube from the liquid environment to a gas environment inside the glove box enclosure while maintaining total containment.

  17. The Guide to the Ecology Box.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Inst. for Studies in Education, Toronto.

    Cooperating with the Canadian Commission for UNESCO, the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education has prepared boxes of experimental curriculum materials on the subject of ecology. This guide summarizes the design and contents of the boxes and provides instructions for those using the boxes--principals, teachers, parents, librarians, and…

  18. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  19. The Guide to the Ecology Box.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Inst. for Studies in Education, Toronto.

    Cooperating with the Canadian Commission for UNESCO, the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education has prepared boxes of experimental curriculum materials on the subject of ecology. This guide summarizes the design and contents of the boxes and provides instructions for those using the boxes--principals, teachers, parents, librarians, and…

  20. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  1. Operation and modeling of the FORTE trigger box

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.

    1996-06-01

    The fast on-orbit recording of transient events satellite (FORTE) will carry a multiple-narrow-band trigger designed to detect impulsive VHF signals embedded in a high-noise background. The FORTE trigger boxes consist of eight VHF channels spaced across twenty MHz of bandwidth. A trigger is generated when a sufficiently bright signal is seen in a user-defined number of these channels within a specified coincidence window. In addition, the trigger circuitry incorporates a feature to reject events caused by the actuation of narrow-band carriers. This report describes the trigger`s operating principles and their implementation in the satellite hardware. We then discuss a computer model which can be used to simulate the performance of the trigger circuit.

  2. Illumination box and camera system

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Kelly, Fredrick R.; Bushman, John F.; Wiefel, Michael H.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Klunder, Gregory L.

    2002-01-01

    A hand portable, field-deployable thin-layer chromatography (TLC) unit and a hand portable, battery-operated unit for development, illumination, and data acquisition of the TLC plates contain many miniaturized features that permit a large number of samples to be processed efficiently. The TLC unit includes a solvent tank, a holder for TLC plates, and a variety of tool chambers for storing TLC plates, solvent, and pipettes. After processing in the TLC unit, a TLC plate is positioned in a collapsible illumination box, where the box and a CCD camera are optically aligned for optimal pixel resolution of the CCD images of the TLC plate. The TLC system includes an improved development chamber for chemical development of TLC plates that prevents solvent overflow.

  3. MELFI-3 Cold Box inspection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-13

    ISS043e000724 (03/13/2015) --- ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti, Expedition 43 flight engineer works daily on science and maintenance duties on board the International Space Station. She is inspecting the Minus Eighty-degree Laboratory Freezer called by the shorter title "MELFI-3 Cold Box inspection". Astronauts are trained for long periods at the Johnson Space Center and in Russia before their missions in space begin so that they are fully trained for these complex duties.

  4. Aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Linda B. (Inventor); Starke, Edgar A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to aluminum alloys, particularly to aluminum-copper-lithium alloys containing at least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium as an essential component, which are suitable for applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles. At least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium is added as an essential component to an alloy which precipitates a T1 phase (Al2CuLi). This addition enhances the nucleation of the precipitate T1 phase, producing a microstructure which provides excellent strength as indicated by Rockwell hardness values and confirmed by standard tensile tests.

  5. Aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Linda B. (Inventor); Starke, Edgar A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to aluminum alloys, particularly to aluminum-copper-lithium alloys containing at least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium as an essential component, which are suitable for applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles. At least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium is added as an essential component to an alloy which precipitates a T1 phase (Al2CuLi). This addition enhances the nucleation of the precipitate T1 phase, producing a microstructure which provides excellent strength as indicated by Rockwell hardness values and confirmed by standard tensile tests.

  6. PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Chynoweth, W.

    1959-06-16

    The preparation of low-melting-point plutonium alloys is described. In a MgO crucible Pu is placed on top of the lighter alloying metal (Fe, Co, or Ni) and the temperature raised to 1000 or 1200 deg C. Upon cooling, the alloy slug is broke out of the crucible. With 14 at. % Ni the m.p. is 465 deg C; with 9.5 at. % Fe the m.p. is 410 deg C; and with 12.0 at. % Co the m.p. is 405 deg C. (T.R.H.) l6262 l6263 ((((((((Abstract unscannable))))))))

  7. Invariant box-parameterization of neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Weiler, Thomas J.; Wagner, DJ

    1998-10-19

    The model-independent 'box' parameterization of neutrino oscillations is examined. The invariant boxes are the classical amplitudes of the individual oscillating terms. Being observables, the boxes are independent of the choice of parameterization of the mixing matrix. Emphasis is placed on the relations among the box parameters due to mixing-matrix unitarity, and on the reduction of the number of boxes to the minimum basis set. Using the box algebra, we show that CP-violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. General analyses of neutrino oscillations among n{>=}3 flavors can readily determine the boxes, which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements.

  8. COATED ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Harman, C.G.; O'Bannon, L.S.

    1958-07-15

    A coating is described for iron group metals and alloys, that is particularly suitable for use with nickel containing alloys. The coating is glassy in nature and consists of a mixture containing an alkali metal oxide, strontium oxide, and silicon oxide. When the glass coated nickel base metal is"fired'' at less than the melting point of the coating, it appears the nlckel diffuses into the vitreous coating, thus providing a closely adherent and protective cladding.

  9. BRAZING ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, R.G.; Gilliland, R.G.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1962-02-20

    A brazing alloy is described which, in the molten state, is characterized by excellent wettability and flowability and is capable of forming a corrosion-resistant brazed joint. At least one component of said joint is graphite and the other component is a corrosion-resistant refractory metal. The brazing alloy consists essentially of 40 to 90 wt % of gold, 5 to 35 wt% of nickel, and 1 to 45 wt% of tantalum. (AEC)

  10. Satellite Coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, R. J.

    2004-06-01

    The Radio Regulations set out complex procedures to ensure that when new systems start to use the frequency bands allocated to them there is minimal disruption to existing systems using the same bands. The process of satellite coordination is described, and the issues for radio astronomy are discussed. In order to be protected by the ITU-R machinery radio telescopes need to be officially registered. The issue of paper satellites highlights the need for early registration to gain priority over incoming systems. Modern developments including the use of complex Monte-Carlo simulations to predict interference levels, and the issue of adjacent band interference, are discussed.

  11. Some background about satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Four tables of planetary and satellite data are presented which list satellite discoveries, planetary parameters, satellite orbits, and satellite physical properties respectively. A scheme for classifying the satellites is provided and it is noted that most known moons fall into three general classes: regular satellites, collisional shards, and irregular satellites. Satellite processes are outlined with attention given to origins, dynamical and thermal evolution, surface processes, and composition and cratering. Background material is provided for each family of satellites.

  12. New hot box solar cooker

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiping; Hou Shuqin; Sha Yongling; Liu Zude

    1992-12-31

    At present, over 100,000 solar cookers are in service in China. Most of these are concentrating cookers, making use of reflectors to concentrate sunlight at the cooking area. These cookers offer higher efficiency, more power and shorter cooking times. Since 1975 the authors have researched solar energy applications and, specifically, solar cookers. The major work has been the development of design calculations, selection of structure and materials, and performance testing. This paper describes the testing of several collection surface structures and box structures.

  13. Voronoi Diagrams Without Bounding Boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, E. T. K.

    2015-10-01

    We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010) and Nerbonne et al (2011).

  14. Uranus Satellites

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-11-26

    On Jan. 18, 1986, NASA Voyager 2 discoverd three Uranus satellites. All three lie outside the orbits of Uranus nine known rings, the outermost of which, the epsilon ring, is seen at upper right. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00368

  15. Galilean Satellites

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    These photos of the four Galilean satellites of Jupiter were taken by NASA Voyager 1 during its approach to the planet in early March 1979. Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto are shown in their correct relative sizes. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00012

  16. Sampling Errors in Rainfall Estimates by Multiple Satellites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, Gerald R.; Shen, Samuel S. P.; Upson, Robert

    1993-02-01

    This paper examines the sampling characteristics of combining data collected by several low-orbiting satellites attempting to estimate the space time average of rain rates. The several satellites can have different orbital and swath-width parameters. The satellite overpasses are allowed to make partial coverage snapshots of the grid box with each overpass. Such partial visits are considered in an approximate way, letting each intersection area fraction of the grid box by a particular satellite swath be a random variable with mean and variance parameters computed from exact orbit calculations. The derivation procedure is based upon the spectral minimum mean-square error formalism introduced by North and Nakamoto. By using a simple parametric form for the space time spectral density, simple formulas are derived for a large number of examples, including the combination of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission with an operational sun-synchronous orbiter. The approximations and results are discussed and directions for future research are summarized.

  17. Sampling errors in rainfall estimates by multiple satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, Gerald R.; Shen, Samuel S. P.; Upson, Robert

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the sampling characteristics of combining data collected by several low-orbiting satellites attempting to estimate the space-time average of rain rates. The several satellites can have different orbital and swath-width parameters. The satellite overpasses are allowed to make partial coverage snapshots of the grid box with each overpass. Such partial visits are considered in an approximate way, letting each intersection area fraction of the grid box by a particular satellite swath be a random variable with mean and variance parameters computed from exact orbit calculations. The derivation procedure is based upon the spectral minimum mean-square error formalism introduced by North and Nakamoto. By using a simple parametric form for the spacetime spectral density, simple formulas are derived for a large number of examples, including the combination of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission with an operational sun-synchronous orbiter. The approximations and results are discussed and directions for future research are summarized.

  18. Sampling errors in rainfall estimates by multiple satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, Gerald R.; Shen, Samuel S. P.; Upson, Robert

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the sampling characteristics of combining data collected by several low-orbiting satellites attempting to estimate the space-time average of rain rates. The several satellites can have different orbital and swath-width parameters. The satellite overpasses are allowed to make partial coverage snapshots of the grid box with each overpass. Such partial visits are considered in an approximate way, letting each intersection area fraction of the grid box by a particular satellite swath be a random variable with mean and variance parameters computed from exact orbit calculations. The derivation procedure is based upon the spectral minimum mean-square error formalism introduced by North and Nakamoto. By using a simple parametric form for the spacetime spectral density, simple formulas are derived for a large number of examples, including the combination of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission with an operational sun-synchronous orbiter. The approximations and results are discussed and directions for future research are summarized.

  19. Elevated temperature aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meschter, Peter (Inventor); Lederich, Richard J. (Inventor); O'Neal, James E. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Three aluminum-lithium alloys are provided for high performance aircraft structures and engines. All three alloys contain 3 wt % copper, 2 wt % lithium, 1 wt % magnesium, and 0.2 wt % zirconium. Alloy 1 has no further alloying elements. Alloy 2 has the addition of 1 wt % iron and 1 wt % nickel. Alloy 3 has the addition of 1.6 wt % chromium to the shared alloy composition of the three alloys. The balance of the three alloys, except for incidentql impurities, is aluminum. These alloys have low densities and improved strengths at temperatures up to 260.degree. C. for long periods of time.

  20. The Lithium Vapor Box Divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldston, Robert; Hakim, Ammar; Hammett, Gregory; Jaworski, Michael; Myers, Rachel; Schwartz, Jacob

    2015-11-01

    Projections of scrape-off layer width to a demonstration power plant suggest an immense parallel heat flux, of order 12 GW/m2, which will necessitate nearly fully detached operation. Building on earlier work by Nagayama et al. and by Ono et al., we propose to use a series of differentially pumped boxes filled with lithium vapor to isolate the buffering vapor from the main plasma chamber, allowing stable detachment. This powerful differential pumping is only available for condensable vapors, not conventional gases. We demonstrate the properties of such a system through conservation laws for vapor mass and enthalpy, and then include plasma entrainment and ultimately an estimate of radiated power. We find that full detachment should be achievable with little leakage of lithium to the main plasma chamber. We also present progress towards solving the Navier-Stokes equation numerically for the chain of vapor boxes, including self-consistent wall boundary conditions and fully-developed shocks, as well as concepts for an initial experimental demonstration-of-concept. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  1. Deformity in the "Boxing Boys".

    PubMed

    Ferrence, Susan; Bendersky, Gordon

    2005-01-01

    The late Bronze Age wall painting the Boxing Boys (c. 17th-16th century BCE) was excavated in the ancient town of Akrotiri on the Greek island of Thera. This article considers a medical interpretation for the spinal-pelvic anomaly in the anatomy of one of the boys. The artist has depicted a combination of structural anatomical adjustments diagnostic of spondylolisthesis, a forward slippage of one of the lumbar vertebrae. The accurate portrayal of the surface appearance of this condition suggests that the artist painted directly from a live subject. Thus, the Boxing Boys mural may be the earliest visual record of a sports-induced injury. Although the meaning of the wall paintings is unclear, the wild goats (agrimia) on the adjoining walls simulate swayback as a reflection of the boy's torso deformity and share other features with the boxers, adding to the unifying characteristics of the room. The abnormal morphology appears to be the earliest achievement of transforming disease into aesthetic charm on a monumental scale.

  2. Solar Radiation Pressure and Attitude Modeling of GNSS Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Solano, C.; Hugentobler, U.; Steigenberger, P.

    2011-12-01

    The main non-gravitational orbit perturbation acting on GNSS satellites is the solar radiation pressure. There are two main approaches to model this force: 1) adjusting empirical parameters that fit best the GNSS tracking data, and 2) computing the a priori force from analytical models based on the detailed satellite structure and information available on ground. The first approach is not based on the physical interaction between solar radiation and the satellite, while the second one cannot be easily adjusted to the real on-orbit behaviour of the satellites, e.g., changes due to aging of optical properties or deviations from nominal attitude. We use here an intermediate approach, an analytical box-wing model based on the physical interaction between the solar radiation and a satellite consisting of a bus (box shape) and solar panels. Furthermore, some of the parameters of the box-wing model can be adjusted to fit the GNSS tracking data, namely the optical properties of the satellite surfaces. It was found that a pure box-wing model interacting with solar radiation is not sufficient for precise orbit determination. In particular a rotation lag angle of the solar panels was identified. This deviation of the solar panels from nominal attitude is a key factor to obtain precise GNSS orbits. Moreover, the yaw attitude of GNSS satellites during eclipse seasons deviates from nominal attitude due to maneuvers performed by the satellites. As mentioned in other studies, the phase measurements are degraded if these maneuvers are not taken into account since the modelled position of the navigation antenna may differ from the true position. In this study we focus on the impact of the yaw attitude on the solar radiation pressure parameters and the benefits for precise orbit determination and prediction.

  3. Interchangeable breech lock for glove boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Lemonds, David Preston

    2015-11-24

    A breech lock for a glove box is provided that may be used to transfer one or more items into the glove box. The breech lock can be interchangeably installed in place of a plug, glove, or other device in a port or opening of a glove box. Features are provided to aid the removal of items from the breech lock by a gloved operator. The breech lock can be reused or, if needed, can be replaced with a plug, glove, or other device at the port or opening of the glove box.

  4. Repackaging SRS Black Box TRU Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Swale, D. J.; Stone, K.A.; Milner, T. N.

    2006-01-09

    Historically, large items of TRU Waste, which were too large to be packaged in drums for disposal have been packaged in various sizes of custom made plywood boxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS), for many years. These boxes were subsequently packaged into large steel ''Black Boxes'' for storage at SRS, pending availability of Characterization and Certification capability, to facilitate disposal of larger items of TRU Waste. There are approximately 107 Black Boxes in inventory at SRS, each measuring some 18' x 12' x 7', and weighing up to 45,000 lbs. These Black Boxes have been stored since the early 1980s. The project to repackage this waste into Standard Large Boxes (SLBs), Standard Waste Boxes (SWB) and Ten Drum Overpacks (TDOP), for subsequent characterization and WIPP disposal, commenced in FY04. To date, 10 Black Boxes have been repackaged, resulting in 40 SLB-2's, and 37 B25 overpack boxes, these B25's will be overpacked in SLB-2's prior to shipping to WIPP. This paper will describe experience to date from this project.

  5. Duplex unwinding with DEAD-box proteins.

    PubMed

    Jankowsky, Eckhard; Putnam, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    DEAD-box proteins, which comprise the largest helicase family, are involved in virtually all aspects of RNA metabolism. DEAD-box proteins catalyze diverse ATP-driven functions including the unwinding of RNA secondary structures. In contrast to many well-studied DNA and viral RNA helicases, DEAD-box proteins do not rely on translocation on one of the nucleic acid strands for duplex unwinding, but directly load onto helical regions and then locally pry the strands apart in an ATP-dependent fashion. In this chapter, we outline substrate design and unwinding protocols for DEAD-box proteins and focus on the quantitative evaluation of their unwinding activity.

  6. Accuracy Analysis of a Box-wing Theoretical SRP Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoya; Hu, Xiaogong; Zhao, Qunhe; Guo, Rui

    2016-07-01

    For Beidou satellite navigation system (BDS) a high accuracy SRP model is necessary for high precise applications especially with Global BDS establishment in future. The BDS accuracy for broadcast ephemeris need be improved. So, a box-wing theoretical SRP model with fine structure and adding conical shadow factor of earth and moon were established. We verified this SRP model by the GPS Block IIF satellites. The calculation was done with the data of PRN 1, 24, 25, 27 satellites. The results show that the physical SRP model for POD and forecast for GPS IIF satellite has higher accuracy with respect to Bern empirical model. The 3D-RMS of orbit is about 20 centimeters. The POD accuracy for both models is similar but the prediction accuracy with the physical SRP model is more than doubled. We tested 1-day 3-day and 7-day orbit prediction. The longer is the prediction arc length, the more significant is the improvement. The orbit prediction accuracy with the physical SRP model for 1-day, 3-day and 7-day arc length are 0.4m, 2.0m, 10.0m respectively. But they are 0.9m, 5.5m and 30m with Bern empirical model respectively. We apply this means to the BDS and give out a SRP model for Beidou satellites. Then we test and verify the model with Beidou data of one month only for test. Initial results show the model is good but needs more data for verification and improvement. The orbit residual RMS is similar to that with our empirical force model which only estimate the force for along track, across track direction and y-bias. But the orbit overlap and SLR observation evaluation show some improvement. The remaining empirical force is reduced significantly for present Beidou constellation.

  7. Orthodontic silver brazing alloys.

    PubMed

    Brockhurst, P J; Pham, H L

    1989-10-01

    Orthodontic silver brazing alloys suffer from the presence of cadmium, excessive flow temperatures, and crevice corrosion on stainless steel. Seven alloys were examined. Two alloys contained cadmium. The lowest flow temperature observed was 629 degrees C for a cadmium alloy and 651 degrees C for two cadmium free alloys. Three alloys had corrosion resistance superior to the other solders. Addition of low melting temperature elements gallium and indium reduced flow temperature in some cases but produced brittleness in the brazing alloy.

  8. Managing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Integral Systems, Inc.'s EPOCH 2000 forms the core of NASA's Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission's command and control center. EPOCH 2000, which allows ground operators to monitor and control satellites over a wide area network, owes part of its heritage from work completed to support Goddard Space Flight Center. The software automates telemetry processing, commanding, anomaly detection, and archiving collected data. The NEAR spacecraft, launched in February 1996, will rendezvous in early 1999 and orbit the Asteroid Eros for a year. Integral Systems also provided Low Earth Orbit Autonomous Ground Terminals (LEO-Ts) to NASA. The LEO-T is designed to make it easier and less expensive for principal investigators to obtain telemetry, tracking and control services for their science missions. The company products have supported well over 70 satellite missions aimed at scientific research, meteorology, or communications applications.

  9. Tactical satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, F. H.

    1993-02-01

    The concept of a Tactical Space System (TACSAT) is a means to provide a rapid, on demand, augmentation of the backbone U.S. military space systems. Such augmentation would be valuable to temporarily replace lost capability or in times of crisis, to accommodate surge demands. Because augmentation needs are not always known a-priori, it would be desirable to be able to rapidly constitute the appropriate payload-satellite bus combination to accommodate the need for a specific space capability. To do this, one can envision a standard bus capable of accepting a variety of payloads, or better yet, a single spacecraft designed to perform several different missions. Both options are considered. A number of potential missions exist in the areas of surveillance, navigation, environmental sensing, and communications. Of these, two are presented as strawman concepts: surveillance and communication. For surveillance, an electro-optical payload is described that could be used for missile surveillance, theater targeting, or weather data using the same optics, focal plane, and processor. The satellite orbit selected dictates which mission is performed. For communication, both SHF and EHF payloads are defined to provide theater coverage for the tactical user. The advantages and penalties that accrue to the use of a common bus are also explored. In addition, launch options are identified and a comparison made between 'launch-on-demand' and 'launch-on-schedule' strategies. Potential timelines for rapid launch are shown based on parallel processing and checkout of spacecraft and launcher. This technique is compared with launching satellites on a routine basis and storing them in orbit. Energy requirements for repositioning these stored satellites after they are activated in time of need are defined.

  10. Virtual Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammrs, Stephan R.

    2008-01-01

    Virtual Satellite (VirtualSat) is a computer program that creates an environment that facilitates the development, verification, and validation of flight software for a single spacecraft or for multiple spacecraft flying in formation. In this environment, enhanced functionality and autonomy of navigation, guidance, and control systems of a spacecraft are provided by a virtual satellite that is, a computational model that simulates the dynamic behavior of the spacecraft. Within this environment, it is possible to execute any associated software, the development of which could benefit from knowledge of, and possible interaction (typically, exchange of data) with, the virtual satellite. Examples of associated software include programs for simulating spacecraft power and thermal- management systems. This environment is independent of the flight hardware that will eventually host the flight software, making it possible to develop the software simultaneously with, or even before, the hardware is delivered. Optionally, by use of interfaces included in VirtualSat, hardware can be used instead of simulated. The flight software, coded in the C or C++ programming language, is compilable and loadable into VirtualSat without any special modifications. Thus, VirtualSat can serve as a relatively inexpensive software test-bed for development test, integration, and post-launch maintenance of spacecraft flight software.

  11. Box and peanut shaped bulges of disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lütticke, R.; Dettmar, R.-J.

    1998-07-01

    Our new statistics of bulges of disk galaxies reveals a high frequency of box- or peanut shaped (b/p) bulges of up to 50%. Therefore very common processes are required to explain this high fraction. In a sample of edge-on disk galaxies selected from the RC3 we characterize bulges by their degree of b/p-shape using the ``Digitized Sky Survey''. The distributions of galaxies with b/p-bulge and barred galaxies binned by morphological type show the same general dependences. In an analysis of a possible relation between this internal structure and the presence of satellite systems of isolated disk galaxies we find a possible connection between b/p bulges and galaxies with the presence of satellites. From this we conclude that b/p-bulges preferentially occur in disk galaxies with companions. Therefore the most likely reason responsible for the development of b/p-bulges is a bar originating from galaxy interaction in stable disks or by an infalling satellite.

  12. Boxing and chronic brain damage.

    PubMed

    Stiller, J W; Weinberger, D R

    1985-06-01

    A chronic, and at times, progressive neurologic syndrome associated with boxing has been recognized for some time by boxing fans and people involved with the sport. Since Martland's first description of the syndrome in 1929, there has been only one randomly selected study of ex-boxers, that of Roberts, which showed a 17 per cent prevalence of this syndrome among boxers who fought between 1929 and 1955. This syndrome can be progressive but often is not. Furthermore, the extent of occupational exposure is probably a significant risk factor. Because of this, it would be expected that the prevalance of the syndrome in the modern boxer, as well as the amateur, would be significantly less than during the first half of the century, and, indeed, several studies appear to support this. Recent studies provide evidence that brain damage does exist in modern boxers and suggests that "subclinical" brain damage is likely to be more prevalent than obvious clinical dysfunction. There is clearly a discrepancy between subclinical evidence of neurologic involvement (for example, an abnormal CT scan) and signs of clinical neurologic dysfunction (for example, clinical exam and neuropsychological testing). The latter tend to show less frequent and consistent evidence of brain damage in boxers than does the CT scan. Although it is tempting to assume that an abnormal CT scan presages the development of neurologic dysfunction, it is not clear that this is the case. The prevalence of the syndrome, risk for progression to functional deficit, warning signs, and the natural history cannot be defined at this time. The only way to better define these parameters would be a controlled prospective study, which has yet to be undertaken.

  13. PINE Discovery Box, 101 Stimulating Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    This manual is intended for use with the PINE (Projects in Imaginative Nature Education) discovery box in elementary school conservation education. The box contains 21 natural specimens which can serve as the starting point for simple student investigations. Specimens and activities are keyed for grade level. For each item, background information…

  14. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2004-01-01

    This article describes cereal box design, an interdisciplinary graphics activity. The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. It lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in…

  15. BLS: Box-fitting Least Squares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, G.; Zucker, S.; Mazeh, T.

    2016-07-01

    BLS (Box-fitting Least Squares) is a box-fitting algorithm that analyzes stellar photometric time series to search for periodic transits of extrasolar planets. It searches for signals characterized by a periodic alternation between two discrete levels, with much less time spent at the lower level.

  16. 49 CFR 38.33 - Fare box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fare box. 38.33 Section 38.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.33 Fare box. Where provided, the...

  17. 49 CFR 38.33 - Fare box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fare box. 38.33 Section 38.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.33 Fare box. Where provided, the...

  18. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge…

  19. 49 CFR 38.33 - Fare box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fare box. 38.33 Section 38.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.33 Fare box. Where provided, the...

  20. Magnetorotational dynamo action in the shearing box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Justin; Boldyrev, Stanislav

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic dynamo action caused by the magnetorotational instability is studied in the shearing-box approximation with no imposed net magnetic flux. Consistent with recent studies, the dynamo action is found to be sensitive to the aspect ratio of the box: it is much easier to obtain in tall boxes (stretched in the direction normal to the disc plane) than in long boxes (stretched in the radial direction). Our direct numerical simulations indicate that the dynamo is possible in both cases, given a large enough magnetic Reynolds number. To explain the relatively larger effort required to obtain the dynamo action in a long box, we propose that the turbulent eddies caused by the instability most efficiently fold and mix the magnetic field lines in the radial direction. As a result, in the long box the scale of the generated strong azimuthal (stream-wise directed) magnetic field is always comparable to the scale of the turbulent eddies. In contrast, in the tall box the azimuthal magnetic flux spreads in the vertical direction over a distance exceeding the scale of the turbulent eddies. As a result, different vertical sections of the tall box are permeated by large-scale non-zero azimuthal magnetic fluxes, facilitating the instability. In agreement with this picture, the cases when the dynamo is efficient are characterized by a strong intermittency of the local azimuthal magnetic fluxes.

  1. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2004-01-01

    This article describes cereal box design, an interdisciplinary graphics activity. The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. It lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in…

  2. An effective box trap for capturing lynx

    Treesearch

    Jay A. Kolbe; John R. Squires; Thomas W. Parker

    2003-01-01

    We designed a box trap for capturing lynx (Lynx lynx) that is lightweight, safe, effective, and less expensive than many commercial models. It can be constructed in approximately 3-4 hours from readily available materials. We used this trap to capture 40 lynx 89 times (96% of lynx entering traps) and observed no trapping related injuries. We compare our box...

  3. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge…

  4. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable entering... through which a conductor enters must be closed. (b) Cable armor must be secured to the box or fitting. (c...

  5. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable entering... through which a conductor enters must be closed. (b) Cable armor must be secured to the box or fitting. (c...

  6. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable entering... through which a conductor enters must be closed. (b) Cable armor must be secured to the box or fitting. (c...

  7. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable entering... through which a conductor enters must be closed. (b) Cable armor must be secured to the box or fitting. (c...

  8. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable entering... through which a conductor enters must be closed. (b) Cable armor must be secured to the box or fitting. (c...

  9. North American box turtles: A natural history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Once a familiar backyard visitor in many parts of the United States and Mexico, the box turtle is losing the battle against extinction. In North American Box Turtles, C. Kenneth Dodd, Jr., has written the first book-length natural history of the twelve species and subspecies of this endangered animal. This volume includes comprehensive information on the species’ evolution, behavior, courtship and reproduction, habitat use, diet, population structure, systematics, and disease. Special features include color photos of all species, subspecies, and their habitats; a simple identification guide to both living and fossil species; and a summary of information on fossil Terrapene and Native uses of box turtles. End-of-chapter sections highlight future research directions, including the need for long-term monitoring and observation of box turtles within their natural habitat and conservation applications. A glossary and a bibliography of literature on box turtles accompany the text.

  10. One experienced engineer`s approach to better/cheaper/faster satellite testing (philosophies and lessons learned)

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, C.M.

    1995-10-01

    In this paper, the author recalls hardware failures observed on satellites over the years; makes some observations about today`s environment of trying to build and test satellites; and makes specific recommendations concerning testing in general, as well as specifically addressing box-, payload-, spacecraft-, and full up satellite-level testing. The recommendations are intended to provide insight into how to produce satellites better, cheaper, and faster.

  11. Alloys formation upon hypervelocity impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandeville, J. C.; Perrin, J. M.; Vidal, L.; Vidal, A.

    Satellite materials exposed to the space environment are indeed valuable detectors for cosmic and man-made solid particles Many investigations have been made to deduce the geometric size shape and dynamic incidence angle parameters of these projectiles from the morphology of the impact features Furthermore the chemical analysis of remnants when they are found inside craters can provide valuable information about the nature and the origin of these particles However interpretation difficulties have made necessary laboratory hypervelocity impact tests A number of impacts with well defined angles of incidence and velocities using calibrated projectiles have been performed on various targets Alloys obviously formed from projectile and targets components are found We have studied the links between the morphologies the physical and chemical properties of these alloys and those of the incident particles and the targets When projectiles and targets are made of pure materials such as in laboratory tests we have found a clear connection between the composition of the alloys and the kinetic energy of the projectiles Explanations using phase diagrams are given An extrapolation to complex materials such as those used in solar arrays is presented Further modelling of the alloys formation upon hypervelocity impacts is proposed

  12. Small Aperture Telescope Observations of Co-located Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, R.; Wallace, B.

    As geostationary orbit (GEO) continues to be populated, satellite operators are increasing usage of co-location techniques to maximize usage of fewer GEO longitude slots. Co-location is an orbital formation strategy where two or more geostationary satellites reside within one GEO stationkeeping box. The separation strategy used to prevent collision between the co-located satellites generally uses eccentricity (radial separation) and inclination (latitude separation) vector offsets. This causes the satellites to move in relative motion ellipses about each other as the relative longitude drift between the satellites is near zero. Typical separations between the satellites varies from 1 to 100 kilometers. When co-located satellites are observed by optical ground based space surveillance sensors the participants appear to be separated by a few minutes of arc or less in angular extent. Under certain viewing geometries, these satellites appear to visually conjunct even though the satellites are, in fact, well separated spatially. In situations where one of the co-located satellites is more optically reflective than the other, the reflected sunglint from the more reflective satellite can overwhelm the other. This less frequently encountered issue causes the less reflective satellite to be glint masked in the glare of the other. This paper focuses on space surveillance observations on co-located Canadian satellites using a small optical telescope operated by Defence R&D Canada - Ottawa. The two above mentioned problems (cross tagging and glint masking) are investigated and we quantify the results for Canadian operated geostationary satellites. The performance of two line element sets when making in-frame CCD image correlation between the co-located satellites is also examined. Relative visual magnitudes between the co-located members are also inspected and quantified to determine the susceptibility of automated telescopes to glint masking of co-located satellite members.

  13. Boxing injuries: neurologic, radiologic, and neuropsychologic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ross, R J; Casson, I R; Siegel, O; Cole, M

    1987-01-01

    Boxing is an endeavor that may have to be re-evaluated in the coming years as to whether it should be designated as a sport. It is the only "sport" in which victory is determined by the amount of physical damage done to the opponent. We have presented the largest number of professional and amateur boxers (58) evaluated by various modern diagnostic modalities and have unequivocally demonstrated the deleterious effects of boxing upon the brain. There have been few, if any, meaningful actions taken by the promoters of boxing to correct the conditions under which boxers are subjected to physical abuse. Recommendations regarding the creation of a National Board of Boxing to supervise this "sport" have not been heeded. Suggested safeguards for the boxer, including mandatory medical and boxing history records (passports), use of headgear and approved safe boxing gloves, avoiding blows to the head, improved boxing ring floors, mandatory neurologic examinations, and more competent physicians at ringsides making medical decisions, have essentially not been implemented. The suggestions that mandatory computed tomograms at various stages in a boxer's career be used to determine possible changes of atrophy have not been followed, even when the CT scans have been made available at no cost to the boxers. The effective use of neuropsychologic evaluation, even when offered at no cost, has also been denied. The established medical injuries due to boxing and the lack of any sustained and significant efforts on the part of organized boxing create an atmosphere that is conducive to following the call for the consideration of a ban of boxing.

  14. Integrated tools for teleoperated satellite repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, H.; Fiorini, P.

    1993-01-01

    Tools and tool handling techniques designed for demonstrating the use of the Advanced Teleoperation System at JPL in satellite repair operations are described in this paper. Our model for the repair demonstration is the Main Electronics Box (MEB) replacement on the Solar Maximum Satellite Repair (SMSR) procedure developed by NASA and successfully performed by the crew of Space Shuttle STS-13 in 1984. A summary of the repair procedure consists of uncovering thermal protection blankets on the satellite, removing screws from the MEB panel, opening the panel and clamping it in place, then removing electrical connectors from their sockets, cutting cords that hold electrical cables to the MEB panel, replacing the panel, and finally reversing the previous procedures. Methods for handling tools used in our SMSR procedure, along with details of the tool designs are discussed in this paper.

  15. Open Space Box: communication to support Big Data in orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Atif F.; Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    Communication to and from a small spacecraft can be at an extremely slow Baud rate, means both sending and receiving any communication will take some time. Extract, Transform and Load tools designed to transmit and receive data needs to have a flexible protocol. The Open Space Box model provides this base for smaller spacecraft to provide users data in a fashion that is pervasive within satellites as well as the ground stations. It also autonomically distinguishes data streams and disseminates relevant information to the related end users. Streaming Data can also be considered the generation of Big Data. At a ground station, the receiving of data can create the problem of Big Data and its management. Messages are sent in batch mode and communications are done using MapReduce.

  16. 6. VIEW OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS AND WATER CONTROL BOX, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS AND WATER CONTROL BOX, SHOWING WATER CONTROL BOX WITH LOWERED LAKE LEVEL - Three Bears Lake & Dams, Water Control Box, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  17. Alloy softening in binary molybdenum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of alloy additions of Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt on the hardness of Mo. Special emphasis was placed on alloy softening in these binary Mo alloys. Results showed that alloy softening was produced by those elements having an excess of s+d electrons compared to Mo, while those elements having an equal number or fewer s+d electrons than Mo failed to produce alloy softening. Alloy softening and hardening can be correlated with the difference in number of s+d electrons of the solute element and Mo.

  18. The ocular complications of boxing.

    PubMed

    Giovinazzo, V J; Yannuzzi, L A; Sorenson, J A; Delrowe, D J; Cambell, E A

    1987-06-01

    In cooperation with the New York State Athletic Commission, 74 boxers applying for a new or yearly renewal license were sequentially referred over a 2-year period for a complete dilated ocular examination at the Sports Vision Institute of the Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital. At least one ocular injury was found in 66% of boxers. Vision-threatening injuries, defined as significant damage to the angle, lens, macula, or peripheral retina occurred in 58% of boxers. Nineteen percent of boxers had angle abnormalities. Nineteen percent of boxers had pathologic cataracts, over 70% of these were posterior subcapsular. Six boxers had macular lesions. A total of 24% of boxers had retinal tears. Standardized photographs were used to distinguish pathologic cataracts from congenital opacities and pathologic retinal tears from atrophic holes. Attempts were made to identify risk factors in boxing that might be predictive for ocular injury. Variables included age, weight division, left- or right-handedness, total number of losses, and total number of bouts. Significant correlations were found between the total number of bouts and the total number of losses, and the presence of retinal tears. College varsity athletes were selected as controls. Significant differences were found between boxers and controls for the total number of injuries, total vision-threatening injuries, and the number of retinal tears. A series of recommendations are proposed to aide in the early detection and prevention of serious ocular injuries.

  19. Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box field test

    SciTech Connect

    Giangiacomo, L.A.

    1999-05-28

    The Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box is a seal assembly for polished rod pumping installations commonly used in oil and gas pumping well installations to contain produced well fluids. The improved stuffing box was developed and patented by Harold H. Palmour of The Palmour Group of Livingston, TX. The stuffing box is designed to reduce the incidence of seal leakage and to utilize an environmentally safe fluid, so that if there is any leakage, environmental damage is reduced or eliminated. The unit was tested on two wells at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. During the test period, the performance of the stuffing box was measured by monitoring the pressure on the tubing and the inner chamber with a Barton Two-pen recorder. The amount of safe fluid consumed, fluid leakage at the top of the stuffing box, pressure supplied from the nitrogen bottle, ambient temperature, and polish rod temperature was recorded. The stuffing box is capable of providing a better seal between well fluids an d the environment than conventional stuffing boxes. It allows the polished rod to operate cooler and with lubrication, extending the life of the packing elements, and reducing the amount of attention required to prevent leakage.

  20. High-Density Terminal Box for Testing Wire Harness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, W. B.; Collins, W. G.

    1982-01-01

    Compact terminal box provides access to complex wiring harnesses for testing. Box accommodates more than twice as many wires as previous boxes. Box takes in wires via cable connectors and distributes them to contacts on box face. Instead of separate insulated jacks in metal face panel, box uses pairs of small military-standard metal sockets in precision-drilled plastic panel. Shorting plug provides continuity for wires when not being tested.

  1. Box-wing model approach for solar radiation pressure modelling in a multi-GNSS scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobias, Guillermo; Jesús García, Adrián

    2016-04-01

    The solar radiation pressure force is the largest orbital perturbation after the gravitational effects and the major error source affecting GNSS satellites. A wide range of approaches have been developed over the years for the modelling of this non gravitational effect as part of the orbit determination process. These approaches are commonly divided into empirical, semi-analytical and analytical, where their main difference relies on the amount of knowledge of a-priori physical information about the properties of the satellites (materials and geometry) and their attitude. It has been shown in the past that the pre-launch analytical models fail to achieve the desired accuracy mainly due to difficulties in the extrapolation of the in-orbit optical and thermic properties, the perturbations in the nominal attitude law and the aging of the satellite's surfaces, whereas empirical models' accuracies strongly depend on the amount of tracking data used for deriving the models, and whose performances are reduced as the area to mass ratio of the GNSS satellites increases, as it happens for the upcoming constellations such as BeiDou and Galileo. This paper proposes to use basic box-wing model for Galileo complemented with empirical parameters, based on the limited available information about the Galileo satellite's geometry. The satellite is modelled as a box, representing the satellite bus, and a wing representing the solar panel. The performance of the model will be assessed for GPS, GLONASS and Galileo constellations. The results of the proposed approach have been analyzed over a one year period. In order to assess the results two different SRP models have been used. Firstly, the proposed box-wing model and secondly, the new CODE empirical model, ECOM2. The orbit performances of both models are assessed using Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) measurements, together with the evaluation of the orbit prediction accuracy. This comparison shows the advantages and disadvantages of

  2. HYDROGEN RETENTION IN METAL WASTE BOXES

    SciTech Connect

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    2004-11-18

    The Hanford Waste Management Project Master Documented Safety Analysis (MDSA) (HNF-14741,2003) identifies derived safety controls to prevent or mitigate the risks of a single- container deflagration during operations requiring moving, venting or opening transuranic (TRU)-waste containers. The issue is whether these safety controls are necessary for operations involving TRU-waste boxes that are being retrieved from burial at the Hanford Site. This paper investigates the potential for a deflagration hazard within these boxes and whether safety controls identified for drum deflagration hazards should be applied to operations involving these boxes.

  3. Satellite altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheney, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    Since altimetry data are not really old enough to use the term data archaeology, Mr. Cheney referred to the stewardship of these data. He noted that it is very important to document the basis for an altimetry data set as the algorithms and corrections used to arrive at the Geophysical Data Record (GDR) have been improving and are continuing to improve the precision of sea level data derived from altimetry. He noted that the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) data set has recently been reprocessed by his organization in the National Ocean Service of NOAA and made available to the scientific community on CD/ROM disks by the National Oceanographic Data Center of the U.S. (NODC). The new data set contains a satellite orbit more precise by an order of magnitude together with an improved water vapor correction. A new, comprehensive GDR Handbook has also been prepared.

  4. [Present views on boxing--Henner's legacy].

    PubMed

    Tichý, J

    1997-05-29

    Fifty years ago academician Henner formulated clearly the negative view of neurologists on boxing as practised in his time. It was his merit that a protective helmet was introduced, many of his demands concerning the regime after a KO and the importance of medical examinations were no yet adequately appreciated. At the opportunity of the 100th anniversary of Henner's birth and the fiftieth anniversary of the Clinic he founded in the premises of saint Catherine the author discusses contemporary views on boxing, the risk of repeated injuries for the development of encephalopathia pugilistica and their relationship to Alzheimer's disease. Contemporary boxing is a spectacle which is a continuation of historical fights of gladiators. If the main objective is to hurt the adversary, this activity does not deserve the name of "sport" Sport should promote and maintain physical and mental health which is not the case in professional boxing.

  5. Mystery Boxes, X Rays, and Radiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Norman

    2000-01-01

    Indicates the difficulties of teaching concepts beyond light and color and creating memorable learning experiences. Recommends sequential activities using the mystery box approach to explain how scientists and doctors use photon applications. (YDS)

  6. Light Therapy Boxes for Seasonal Affective Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) Light therapy boxes can offer an effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder. Features such as light intensity, safety, cost and style are important considerations. ...

  7. EPA ExpoBox Toolbox Search

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant assessment data bases,

  8. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  9. EPA EcoBox Phases of ERA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  10. EPA EcoBox Tools by Effects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  11. EPA EcoBox Tools by Receptors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  12. Black Box Theatres: Cheyenne Mountain High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of the academic arts building at Cheyenne Mountain High School in Colorado Springs, Colorado, including its black box theater, art classroom, computer graphics lab, gallery, video production area, and chorus classroom. (EV)

  13. Mystery Boxes, X Rays, and Radiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Norman

    2000-01-01

    Indicates the difficulties of teaching concepts beyond light and color and creating memorable learning experiences. Recommends sequential activities using the mystery box approach to explain how scientists and doctors use photon applications. (YDS)

  14. Neptune's small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, P.

    1992-04-01

    The small satellites of Neptune and other planets discovered during the Voyager 2 mission are discussed in terms of their composition and relationship to the planetary systems. The satellite Proteus is described in terms of its orbit, five other satellites are described, and they are compared to ther small satellites and systems. Neptune's satellites are hypothesized to be related to the ring system, and the satellite Galatea is related to the confinement of the rings.

  15. A look inside the actuarial black box.

    PubMed

    Math, S E; Youngerman, H

    1992-12-01

    Hospital executives often rely on actuaries (and their "black boxes") to determine self-insurance program liabilities and funding contributions. Typically, the hospital supplies the actuary with a myriad of statistics, and eventually the hospital receives a liability estimate and recommended funding level. The mysterious actuarial calculations that occur in between data reporting and receipt of the actuary's report are akin to a black box--a complicated device whose internal mechanism is hidden from or mysterious to the user.

  16. BOX-DEATH HOLLOW ROADLESS AREA, UTAH.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weir, Gordon W.; Lane, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Geologic mapping, geochemical sampling, and a search for prospects and mineralized rock in the Box-Death Hollow Roadless Area, Utah indicate that there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in the area. Additional exploratory drilling by industry seems warranted if wells elsewhere in the region find oil or gas in strata as yet untested in the Box-Death Hollow Roadless Area.

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Set Top Boxes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Set-top Boxes that are effective as of September 1, 2011 or the Version 4.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Set-top Boxes that are effective as of December 19, 2014. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=find_a_product.showProductGroup&pgw_code=ST

  18. Glove box on vehicular instrument panel

    DOEpatents

    Atarashi, Kazuya

    1985-01-01

    A glove box for the upper surface of an automobile dashboard whereby it may be positioned close to the driver. The glove box lid is pivotally supported by arms extending down either side to swing forwardly for opening. A hook is pivotally support adjacent an arm and weighted to swing into engagement with the arm to prevent opening of the lid during abrupt deceleration. A toggle spring assists in maintaining the lid in either the open or closed position.

  19. BOX DIMENSIONS OF α-FRACTAL FUNCTIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, Md. Nasim; Prasad, M. Guru Prem; Navascués, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    The box dimension of the graph of non-affine, continuous, nowhere differentiable function fα which is a fractal analogue of a continuous function f corresponding to a certain iterated function system (IFS), is investigated in the present paper. The estimates for box dimension of the graph of α-fractal function fα for equally spaced as well as arbitrary data sets are found.

  20. Autoantibodies to box A of high mobility group box 1 in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Schaper, F; de Leeuw, K; Horst, G; Maas, F; Bootsma, H; Heeringa, P; Limburg, P C; Westra, J

    2017-02-28

    Autoantibodies to nuclear structures are a hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), including autoantibodies to nuclear protein high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). HMGB1 consists of three separate domains: box A, box B and an acidic tail. Recombinant box A acts as a competitive antagonist for HMGB1 and might be an interesting treatment option in SLE. However, antibodies to box A might interfere. Therefore, levels of anti-box A were examined in SLE patients in association with disease activity and clinical parameters. Serum anti-box A was measured in 86 SLE patients and 44 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). Serum samples of 28 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and 32 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were included as disease controls. Anti-HMGB1 and anti-box B levels were also measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay during quiescent disease [SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) ≤ 4, n = 47] and active disease (SLEDAI ≥ 5, n = 39). Anti-box A levels in active SLE patients were higher compared to quiescent patients, and were increased significantly compared to HC and disease controls. Anti-box A levels correlated positively with SLEDAI and anti-dsDNA levels and negatively with complement C3 levels. Increased levels of anti-box A antibodies were present in the majority of patients with nephritic (73%) and non-nephritic exacerbations (71%). Antibodies to the box A domain of HMGB1 might be an interesting new biomarker, as these had a high specificity for SLE and were associated with disease activity. Longitudinal studies should be performed to evaluate whether these antibodies perform better in predicting an exacerbation, especially non-nephritic exacerbations.

  1. Amateur boxing: physical and physiological attributes.

    PubMed

    Chaabène, Helmi; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Franchini, Emerson; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Amara, Samiha; Chaabène, Raja Bouguezzi; Hachana, Younés

    2015-03-01

    Boxing is one of the oldest combat sports. The aim of the current review is to critically analyze the amateur boxer's physical and physiological characteristics and to provide practical recommendations for training as well as new areas of scientific research. High-level male and female boxers show a propensity for low body fat levels. Although studies on boxer somatotypes are limited, the available information shows that elite-level male boxers are characterized by a higher proportion of mesomorphy with a well-developed muscle mass and a low body fat level. To help support the overall metabolic demands of a boxing match and to accelerate the recovery process between rounds, athletes of both sexes require a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness. International boxers show a high peak and mean anaerobic power output. Muscle strength in both the upper and lower limbs is paramount for a fighter's victory and is one of the keys to success in boxing. As boxing punches are brief actions and very dynamic, high-level boxing performance requires well-developed muscle power in both the upper and lower limbs. Albeit limited, the available studies reveal that isometric strength is linked to high-level boxing performance. Future investigations into the physical and physiological attributes of boxers are required to enrich the current data set and to help create a suitable training program.

  2. HYDROGEN AND VOC RETENTION IN WASTE BOXES

    SciTech Connect

    PACE ME; MARUSICH RM

    2008-11-21

    The Hanford Waste Management Project Master Documented Safety Analysis (MDSA) (HNF-14741, 2003) identifies derived safety controls to prevent or mitigate the risks of a single-container deflagration during operations requiring moving, venting or opening transuranic (TRU)-waste containers. The issue is whether these safety controls are necessary for operations involving TRU-waste boxes that are being retrieved from burial at the Hanford Site. This paper investigates the potential for a deflagration hazard within these boxes and whether safety controls identified for drum deflagration hazards should be applied to operations involving these boxes. The study evaluates the accumulation of hydrogen and VOCs within the waste box and the transport of these gases and vapors out of the waste box. To perform the analysis, there were numerous and major assumptions made regarding the generation rate and the transport pathway dimensions and their number. Since there is little actual data with regards to these assumptions, analyses of three potential configurations were performed to obtain some indication of the bounds of the issue (the concentration of hydrogen or flammable VOCs within a waste box). A brief description of each of the three cases along with the results of the analysis is summarized.

  3. Box-Cox transformation for QTL mapping.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runqing; Yi, Nengjun; Xu, Shizhong

    2006-01-01

    The maximum likelihood method of QTL mapping assumes that the phenotypic values of a quantitative trait follow a normal distribution. If the assumption is violated, some forms of transformation should be taken to make the assumption approximately true. The Box-Cox transformation is a general transformation method which can be applied to many different types of data. The flexibility of the Box-Cox transformation is due to a variable, called transformation factor, appearing in the Box-Cox formula. We developed a maximum likelihood method that treats the transformation factor as an unknown parameter, which is estimated from the data simultaneously along with the QTL parameters. The method makes an objective choice of data transformation and thus can be applied to QTL analysis for many different types of data. Simulation studies show that (1) Box-Cox transformation can substantially increase the power of QTL detection; (2) Box-Cox transformation can replace some specialized transformation methods that are commonly used in QTL mapping; and (3) applying the Box-Cox transformation to data already normally distributed does not harm the result.

  4. Yeast TATA-box transcription factor gene.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M C; Kao, C C; Pei, R; Berk, A J

    1989-10-01

    The first step in the transcription of most protein-encoding genes in eukaryotes is the binding of a transcription factor to the TATA-box promoter element. This TATA-box transcription factor was purified from extracts of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using reconstitution of in vitro transcription reactions as an assay. The activity copurified with a protein whose sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel mobility is 25 kDa. The sequence of the amino-terminal 21 residues of this protein was determined by sequential Edman degradation. A yeast genomic library was screened with mixed oligonucleotides encoding six residues of the protein sequence. The yeast TATA-box factor gene was cloned, and DNA sequencing revealed a 720-base-pair open reading frame encoding a 27,016-Da protein. The identity of the clone was confirmed by expressing the gene in Escherichia coli and detecting TATA-box factor DNA binding and transcriptional activities in extracts of the recombinant E. coli. The TATA-box factor gene was mapped to chromosome five of S. cerevisiae. RNA blot hybridization and nuclease S1 analysis indicated that the major TATA-box factor mRNA is 1.3 kilobases, including an unusually long 5' untranslated region of 188 +/- 5 nucleotides. Homology searches showed a region of distant similarity to the calcium-binding structures of calpains, a structure that has a conformation similar to the helix-turn-helix motif of DNA binding proteins.

  5. COMPASS Final Report: Lunar Relay Satellite (LRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Relay Satellite (LRS) COllaborative Modeling and Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) session was tasked to design a satellite to orbit in an elliptical lunar polar orbit to provide relay communications between lunar South Pole assets and the Earth. The design included a complete master equipment list, power requirement list, configuration design, and brief risk assessment and cost analysis. The LRS is a half-TDRSS sized box spacecraft, which provides communications and navigation relay between lunar outposts (via Lunar Communications Terminals (LCT)) or Sortie parties (with user radios) and large ground antennas on Earth. The LRS consists of a spacecraft containing all the communications and avionics equipment designed by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory s (JPL) Team X to perform the relay between lunar-based assets and the Earth. The satellite design is a standard box truss spacecraft design with a thermal control system, 1.7 m solar arrays for 1 kWe power, a 1 m diameter Ka/S band dish which provides relay communications with the LCT, and a Q-band dish for communications to/from the Earth based assets. While JPL's Team X and Goddard Space Flight Center s (GSFC) I M Design Center (IMDC) have completed two other LRS designs, this NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) COMPASS LRS design sits between them in terms of physical size and capabilities.

  6. Metal alloy identifier

    DOEpatents

    Riley, William D.; Brown, Jr., Robert D.

    1987-01-01

    To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

  7. 31 CFR 500.326 - Custody of safe deposit boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Custody of safe deposit boxes. 500... Definitions § 500.326 Custody of safe deposit boxes. Safe deposit boxes shall be deemed to be in the custody not only of all persons having access thereto but also of the lessors of such boxes whether or...

  8. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual alarm boxes. 78.47-10 Section 78.47-10 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-10 Manual alarm boxes. (a) In all new installations, manual alarm boxes shall be clearly and permanently marked “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” Existing boxes not...

  9. 48 CFR 908.7118 - Rental of post office boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... boxes. 908.7118 Section 908.7118 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION... post office boxes. DOE offices and authorized contractors may rent post office boxes on an annual basis... the whole period or at the beginning of each quarter in which the box is to be used....

  10. 31 CFR 515.326 - Custody of safe deposit boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Custody of safe deposit boxes. 515... Definitions § 515.326 Custody of safe deposit boxes. Safe deposit boxes shall be deemed to be in the custody not only of all persons having access thereto but also of the lessors of such boxes whether or...

  11. Use of satellite precipitation data in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adesi, A. P.; Adelugba, T.; Salami, T.

    2009-04-01

    The use of satellite precipitation data for forecast in Nigeria is greatly advancing, this is due to the availability of satellite imagery and measured real time rainfall data that can be used to validating the estimated amount of rainfall been derived from imagery captured by satellite of an area. Rainfall data from rain gauge measurements have been used to validate the data of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar (TRMM PR) and the data of two other satellite algorithms namely 3B43 and TMPI for 36 months (Jan1998-Dec2000) at 1.00∘×1.00∘ latitude/longitude grid boxes over Nigeria. Between 1998 and 2000 we studied the interconnection between precipitation imageries captured over Nigeria and the amount of Rainfall measured. We noted that there is critical connection between the Thermodynamic properties over the surface, the estimated amount of rainfall from a particular captured imagery and measured rainfall data. Therefore proper understanding of the satellite precipitation imagery will enable forecasters in Nigeria to forecast the amount of precipitation from a particular type of imagery for flood and disaster monitoring. More practical issues will be presented. Flood disaster related event has claimed million of lives, make thousand homeless and devastated more million arable land in Africa.

  12. Iodine Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  13. Characterization and isolation of highly purified porcine satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shijie; Wang, Fei; Liu, Yan; Li, Sheng; Zhou, Guanghong; Hu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Pig is an important food source and an excellent system to model human diseases. Careful characterization of the swine skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) will shed lights on generation of swine skeletal muscle disease model and efficient production of porcine meat for the food industry. Paired box protein 7 (Pax7) is a highly conserved transcription factor shared by satellite cells from various species. However, the sequence of Pax7 has not been characterized in pig. The lack of method to isolate highly purified satellite cells hinders the thorough characterization of the swine satellite cells. Here we found molecular markers for swine satellite cells and revealed that the porcine satellite cells were heterogeneous in various pieces of skeletal muscle. We further developed a method to isolate highly purified satellite cells directly from porcine muscles using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We next characterized the proliferation and differentiation abilities of isolated satellite cells in vitro; and found that long-term culturing of satellite cells in vitro led to stemness loss. PMID:28417015

  14. Tethered Communication Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes concept for placing several communication satellites in geostationary orbit without taking up more space than assigned to single satellite. Proposed scheme eases orbital crowding more economically than space platforms. Concept requires minimal redesign of existing satellites and accommodates many satellites in just one orbital slot. System much lighter in weight than geostationary platform and easier and more economical to transport.

  15. Slat Heater Boxes for Thermal Vacuum Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    Slat heater boxes have been invented for controlling the sink temperatures of objects under test in a thermal vacuum chamber, the walls of which are cooled to the temperature of liquid nitrogen. A slat heater box (see Figure 1) includes a framework of struts that support electrically heated slats that are coated with a high-emissivity optically gray paint. The slats can be grouped together into heater zones for the purpose of maintaining an even temperature within each side. The sink temperature of an object under test is defined as the steady-state temperature of the object in the vacuum/ radiative environment during the absence of any internal heat source or sink. The slat heater box makes it possible to closely control the radiation environment to obtain a desired sink temperature. The slat heater box is placed inside the cold thermal vacuum chamber, and the object under test is placed inside (but not in contact with) the slat heater box. The slat heaters occupy about a third of the field of view from any point on the surface of the object under test, the remainder of the field of view being occupied by the cold chamber wall. Thus, the radiation environment is established by the combined effects of the slat heater box and the cold chamber wall. Given (1) the temperature of the chamber wall, (2) the fractions of the field of view occupied by the chamber wall and the slat heater box, and (3) the emissivities of the slats, chamber wall, and the surface of object under test, the slat temperature required to maintain a desired sink temperature can be calculated by solving the equations of gray-body radiation for the steady-state adiabatic case (equal absorption and emission by the object under test). Slat heater boxes offer an important advantage over the infrared lamps that have been previously used to obtain desired sink temperatures: In comparison with an infrared lamp, a slat heater box provides a greater degree of sink temperature uniformity for a test

  16. Solar box cookers and geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    A major amount of world-wide forest depletion is caused by harvesting cooking wood. Solar box cookers can help to ameliorate this situation in that they use solar energy instead of wood to cook food. Usable year-round in the tropics and for 6 to 8 months of the year in most sunny areas of the world, the cookers can cook almost anything if there is 15 minutes of sunshine every hour. Developed in 1976 solar box cookers represent a major advance over early solar cookers. Solar box cookers are about the size of an ice chest, easily constructed by the users themselves and inexpensive. The cookers are made of cardboard or wood, and aluminum foil. Each box is topped with a sheet of glass above which an adjustable reflective lid is positioned to angle in sunlight. The food cooks in covered, dark-colored pans. One cooker can cook 10-15 pounds of food in three to five hours. Fruits, vegetables, meats, and any baked goods can be prepared, and water and milk pasteurized in them. The coking food does not have to be stirred and will not burn. The developer is also looking for ways the geothermal community could interface with solar box cookers.

  17. BMI Sandwich Wing Box Analysis and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, Tod; Mahler, Mary; Shah, Chandu; Rouse, Marshall; Bush, Harold; Wu, Chauncey; Small, William J.

    2000-01-01

    A composite sandwich single bay wing box test article was developed by Northrop Grumman and tested recently at NASA Langley Research Center. The objectives for the wing box development effort were to provide a demonstration article for manufacturing scale up of structural concepts related to a high speed transport wing, and to validate the structural performance of the design. The box concept consisted of highly loaded composite sandwich wing skins, with moderately loaded composite sandwich spars. The dimensions of the box were chosen to represent a single bay of the main wing box, with a spar spacing of 30 inches, height of 20 inches constant depth, and length of 64 inches. The bismaleimide facesheet laminates and titanium honeycomb core chosen for this task are high temperature materials able to sustain a 300F service temperature. The completed test article is shown in Figure 1. The tests at NASA Langley demonstrated the structures ability to sustain axial tension and compression loads in excess of 20,000 lb/in, and to maintain integrity in the thermal environment. Test procedures, analysis failure predictions, and test results are presented.

  18. Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge of Black Box Warnings

    PubMed Central

    Shireman, Theresa I.; Generali, Joyce; Rigler, Sally; Mayorga, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the progression of pharmacy students’ knowledge of black box warnings across 3 years of didactic training, and to determine how they stay current with new warnings. Methods A cross-sectional survey instrument was administered to pharmacy students in their first (P1), second (P2), and third (P3) professional years. The survey assessed student awareness of medications possessing a black box warning and familiarity with the warning content for 20 medications (15 with and 5 without warnings). Results Mean number of correct responses identifying the presence or absence of a black box warning among the 20 medications were 5.8 ± 3.3, 9.6 ± 4.0, and 14.8 ± 2.8 for the P1, P2, and P3 students, respectively. Knowledge of black box warning content was variable. Students were least aware of the warning content for stavudine and enoxaparin. Students were most familiar with the warning content for paroxetine and estrogen. Conclusion Students’ awareness and understanding of black box warnings was proportional to their educational progression, but their knowledge level was inconsistent across drug groups. PMID:20221356

  19. Pharmacy students' knowledge of black box warnings.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Karen E; Shireman, Theresa I; Generali, Joyce; Rigler, Sally; Mayorga, Angela

    2010-02-10

    To evaluate the progression of pharmacy students' knowledge of black box warnings across 3 years of didactic training, and to determine how they stay current with new warnings. A cross-sectional survey instrument was administered to pharmacy students in their first (P1), second (P2), and third (P3) professional years. The survey assessed student awareness of medications possessing a black box warning and familiarity with the warning content for 20 medications (15 with and 5 without warnings). Mean number of correct responses identifying the presence or absence of a black box warning among the 20 medications were 5.8 +/- 3.3, 9.6 +/- 4.0, and 14.8 +/- 2.8 for the P1, P2, and P3 students, respectively. Knowledge of black box warning content was variable. Students were least aware of the warning content for stavudine and enoxaparin. Students were most familiar with the warning content for paroxetine and estrogen. Students' awareness and understanding of black box warnings was proportional to their educational progression, but their knowledge level was inconsistent across drug groups.

  20. Power Control System for the AGIILE Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebale, G.; Lamantia, A.; La Bella, M.

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the operation and design of the AGILE (Astrorivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero) power control system PEB (Power Electronic Box); the satellite is based on the MITA bus (Minisatellite Italiano a Tecnologia Avanzata). The main design drivers are: • Efficiency of the system due to size limitation of the solar array and battery • Mass • Redundancy management. The unit provides an unregulated bus of 22.5÷35VDC and manages an average power to the loads of about 210W, with peak values up to 350W.

  1. Satellite situation report, volume 32, no. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This report consists of data computed at the U.S. Space Command, GSFC, or provided by satellite owners. A space objects box score table is presented with data under the following headings: source/organization, objects in orbit, and decayed objects. The objects in orbit and decayed objects headings have payload, debris, and total as subheadings. The bulk of the document is objects-in-orbit tables with data under the following headings: international designation, name, catalog number, source, launch date, period minutes, inclination, apogee (km), perigee (km), and notes.

  2. Satellite situation report, volume 31, no. 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This report consists of data computed at the U.S. Space Command, GSFC, or provided by satellite owners. A space objects box score table is presented with data under the following headings: source/organization, objects in orbit, and decayed objects. The objects in orbit and decayed objects headings have payload, debris, and total as subheadings. The bulk of the document is objects-in-orbit tables with data under the following headings: international designation, name, catalog number, source, launch date, period minutes, inclination, apogee (km), perigee (km), and notes.

  3. Satellite situation report, volume 32, no. 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This report consists of data computed at the U.S. Space Command, GSFC, or provided by satellite owners. A space objects box score table is presented with data under the following headings: source/organization, objects in orbit, and decayed objects. The objects in orbit and decayed objects headings have payload, debris, and total as subheadings. The bulk of the document is objects-in-orbit tables with data under the following headings: international designation, name, catalog number, source, launch date, period minutes, inclination, apogee (km), perigee (km), and notes.

  4. Satellite situation report, volume 33, no. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This report consists of data computed at the U.S. Space Command, GSFC, or provided by satellite owners. A space objects box score table is presented with data under the following headings: source/organization, objects in orbit, and decayed objects. The objects in orbit and decayed objects headings have payload, debris, and total as subheadings. The bulk of the document is objects-in-orbit tables with data under the following headings: international designation, name, catalog number, source, launch date, period minutes, inclination, apogee (km), perigee (km), and notes.

  5. Exploring the Uranian satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert Hamilton

    1986-01-01

    Data on the Uranian satellites from the January 25, 1986 flyby of Voyager 2 are presented. Ten new satellites were discovered by Voyager 2; the features and orbits of these ten satellites are examined. The main geological characteristics for Oberon, Umbriel, Titania, Ariel, and Miranda discovered in the Voyager 2 images are described. Possible relationships between the Uranian satellites and Jovian and Saturnian satellites are being researched.

  6. Outer planet satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Schenk, P.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent findings on the outer-planet satellites are presented, with special consideration given to data on the rheologic properties of ice on icy satellites, the satellite surfaces and exogenic processes, cratering on dead cratered satellites, volcanism, and the interiors of outer-planet satellites. Particular attention is given to the state of Titan's surface and the properties of Triton, Pluto, and Charon. 210 refs.

  7. Iodine Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John; Kamhawi, Hani; Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    This project is a collaborative effort to mature an iodine propulsion system while reducing risk and increasing fidelity of a technology demonstration mission concept. 1 The FY 2014 tasks include investments leveraged throughout NASA, from multiple mission directorates, as a partnership with NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), a NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Technology Investment Project, and an Air Force partnership. Propulsion technology is often a critical enabling technology for space missions. NASA is investing in technologies to enable high value missions with very small and low-cost spacecraft, even CubeSats. However, these small spacecraft currently lack any appreciable propulsion capability. CubeSats are typically deployed and drift without any ability to transfer to higher value orbits, perform orbit maintenance, or deorbit. However, the iodine Hall system can allow the spacecraft to transfer into a higher value science orbit. The iodine satellite (iSAT) will be able to achieve a (Delta)V of >500 m/s with <1 kg of solid iodine propellant, which can be stored in an unpressurized benign state prior to launch. The iSAT propulsion system consists of the 200 W Hall thruster, solid iodine propellant tank, a power processing unit, and the necessary valves and tubing to route the iodine vapor. The propulsion system is led by GRC, with critical hardware provided by the Busek Co. The propellant tank begins with solid iodine unpressurized on the ground and in-flight before operations, which is then heated via tank heaters to a temperature at which solid iodine sublimates to iodine vapor. The vapor is then routed through tubing and custom valves to control mass flow to the thruster and cathode assembly. 2 The thruster then ionizes the vapor and accelerates it via magnetic and electrostatic fields, resulting in thrust with a specific impulse >1,300 s. The iSAT spacecraft, illustrated in figure 1, is currently a 12U CubeSat. The spacecraft chassis will be

  8. Projected Applications of a "Weather in a Box" Computing System at the NASA Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Molthan, Andrew; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Srikishen, Jayanthi

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT)'s new "Weather in a Box" resources will provide weather research and forecast modeling capabilities for real-time application. Model output will provide additional forecast guidance and research into the impacts of new NASA satellite data sets and software capabilities. By combining several research tools and satellite products, SPoRT can generate model guidance that is strongly influenced by unique NASA contributions.

  9. Superconductivity in Metals and Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    LEAD(METAL), LIQUEFIED GASES, LOW TEMPERATURE RESEARCH, METAL FILMS, METALLIC SOAPS, NIOBIUM ALLOYS, PHASE STUDIES, RESISTANCE (ELECTRICAL), SAMARIUM...SYNTHESIS, TANTALUM ALLOYS, TIN, TIN ALLOYS, TRANSITION TEMPERATURE, VANADIUM ALLOYS

  10. PHOTOGRAPHIC TRACKING FOR HIGH ALTITUDE SATELLITES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    TRACKING, *COMMUNICATION SATELLITES, ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES, TRACKING CAMERAS, COMMUNICATION SATELLITES, PHOTOGRAPHY, SATELLITE ATTITUDE, ORBITS, ERRORS, CORRECTIONS, HIGH ALTITUDE , ILLUMINATION, STARS.

  11. Advances in the theory of box integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, J.M.; Crandall, R.E.

    2009-06-25

    Box integrals - expectations <|{rvec r}|{sup s}> or <|{rvec r}-{rvec q}|{sup s}> over the unit n-cube (or n-box) - have over three decades been occasionally given closed forms for isolated n,s. By employing experimental mathematics together with a new, global analytic strategy, we prove that for n {le} 4 dimensions the box integrals are for any integer s hypergeometrically closed in a sense we clarify herein. For n = 5 dimensions, we show that a single unresolved integral we call K{sub 5} stands in the way of such hyperclosure proofs. We supply a compendium of exemplary closed forms that naturally arise algorithmically from this theory.

  12. Promotion of solar box cooker technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stibravy, R.

    1992-09-01

    Over 1.5 billion people are affected by fuel wood shortage, according to the UN Food and Agricultural Organization. Meanwhile solar cookers are under-exploited. The author presents one version of this technology and discusses how it may be promoted world-wide. The increased use of non fossil fuel energy is essential world-wide in combating global warming trends, preserving the environment, conserving resources and achieving sustainable development. The Solar Box Cooker (SBC) - a box within a box - uses an easily available source of such energy that is also renewable (in contrast to energy that, once used, is not, such as oil, coal, gas, wood). It is also readily available for the developing world, and for much of the developed world too.

  13. Nearly Seamless Vacuum-Insulated Boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanian, Christopher J.; Ou, Danny; Hu, Xiangjun

    2010-01-01

    A design concept, and a fabrication process that would implement the design concept, have been proposed for nearly seamless vacuum-insulated boxes that could be the main structural components of a variety of controlled-temperature containers, including common household refrigerators and insulating containers for shipping foods. In a typical case, a vacuum-insulated box would be shaped like a rectangular parallelepiped conventional refrigerator box having five fully closed sides and a hinged door on the sixth side. Although it is possible to construct the five-closed-side portion of the box as an assembly of five unitary vacuum-insulated panels, it is not desirable to do so because the relatively high thermal conductances of the seams between the panels would contribute significant amounts of heat leakage, relative to the leakage through the panels themselves. In contrast, the proposal would make it possible to reduce heat leakage by constructing the five-closed-side portion of the box plus the stationary portion (if any) of the sixth side as a single, seamless unit; the only remaining seam would be the edge seal around the door. The basic cross-sectional configuration of each side of a vacuum-insulated box according to the proposal would be that of a conventional vacuum-insulated panel: a low-density, porous core material filling a partially evacuated space between face sheets. However, neither the face sheets nor the core would be conventional. The face sheets would be opposite sides of a vacuum bag. The core material would be a flexible polymer-modified silica aerogel of the type described in Silica/Polymer and Silica/Polymer/Fiber Composite Aero - gels (MSC-23736) in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. As noted in that article, the stiffness of this core material against compression is greater than that of prior aerogels. This is an important advantage because it translates to greater retention of thickness and, hence, of insulation performance when pressure is

  14. Helical fold prediction for the cyclin box.

    PubMed

    Bazan, J F

    1996-01-01

    The smooth progression of the eukaryotic cell cycle relies on the periodic activation of members of a family of cell cycle kinases by regulatory proteins called cyclins. Outside of the cell cycle, cyclin homologs play important roles in regulating the assembly of transcription complexes; distant structural relatives of the conserved cyclin core or "box" can also function as general transcription factors (like TFIIB) or survive embedded in the chain of the tumor suppressor, retinoblastoma protein. The present work attempts the prediction of the canonical secondary, supersecondary, and tertiary fold of the minimal cyclin box domain using a combination of techniques that make use of the evolutionary information captured in a multiple alignment of homolog sequences. A tandem set of closely packed, helical modules are predicted to form the cyclin box domain.

  15. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box.

    PubMed

    Cook, Diane J; Crandall, Aaron S; Thomas, Brian L; Krishnan, Narayanan C

    2013-07-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS "smart home in a box", a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and implementing smart home technologies.

  16. FRAC-IN-THE-BOX utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, D.G.; West, J.T.

    1989-06-01

    FRAC-IN-THE-BOX is a computer code developed to calculate the fractions of rectangular parallelepiped mesh cell volumes that are intersected by combinatorial geometry type zones. The geometry description used in the code is a subset of the combinatorial geometry used in SABRINA. The input file may be read into SABRINA and three dimensional plots made of the input geometry. The volume fractions for those portions of the geometry that are too complicated to describe with the geometry routines provided in FRAC-IN-THE-BOX may be calculated in SABRINA and merged with the volume fractions computed for the remainder of the geometry. 21 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Outcome of recent satellite impact experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, T.; Liou, J.-C.; Nakajima, T.; Stansbery, E.

    2009-09-01

    This paper summarizes three micro-satellite impact tests completed in early 2007 through collaboration between Kyushu University and the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office. The previous experiments completed in late 2005 aimed to compare low- and hypervelocity impacts on identical target micro-satellites, whereas the new tests used larger micro-satellites as targets and aimed to investigate the effects of impact directions. Three identical micro-satellites equipped with fully functional electronic devices were prepared as targets. Their dimensions were 20 cm by 20 cm by 20 cm, and the mass of each was approximately 1.3 kg. Aluminum alloy solid spheres, with a diameter of 3 cm and a mass of 39 g, were prepared as projectiles. The impact velocity was approximately 1.7 km/s. The impact tests were carried out using the two-stage light gas gun at the Kyushu Institute of Technology. All target micro-satellites were completely fragmented, but there were noticeable differences among the three sets of fragments due to the different impact directions. More than 1000 fragments from each test were collected, measured, photographed, and documented with material descriptions. Preliminary results of the new data and comparisons with the previous data will be presented in the paper.

  18. Outcome of Recent Satellite Impact Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Toshiya; Liou, J.-C.; Nakajima, Takashi; Stansbery, Eugene

    This paper summarizes three satellite impact tests completed in early 2007 through collaboration between Kyushu University and the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office. The previous experiments completed in late 2005 aimed to compare lowand hyper-velocity impacts on identical target satellites, whereas the new tests used larger satellites as targets and aimed to investigate the effects of impact directions. Three identical micro satellites equipped with fully-functional electronic devices were prepared as targets. Their dimensions were 20 cm by 20 cm by 20 cm, and the mass of each was approximately 1.3 kilograms. Aluminum alloy solid spheres, with diameters of 3 cm and masses of 39 grams were prepared as projectiles. The impact velocity was approximately 1.7 km/s. The impact tests were carried out at the twostage light gas gun facility at the Kyushu Institute of Technology. All three target satellites were completely fragmented, but there were noticeable differences among the three sets of fragments due to the different impact directions. More than 1000 fragments from each test were collected, measured, photographed, and documented with material descriptions. The analysis of the fragments is currently in progress. Preliminary results of the new data and comparisons with previous data will be included in the paper.

  19. Satellite orbit predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton l.; Garrett, James, Major

    An analog aid to determine satellite coverage of Emergency Locator Transmitters Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (ELT/EPIRB) distress incidence is discussed. The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the Local User Terminal. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite.A table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

  20. China's satellite communications discussed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhou, Z.

    1986-04-01

    In 1972, China began to enter the age of satellite comunications, and it was realized that satellites could play a large role in television transmission in China. The experimental broadcasting of satellite television programs was begun in 1978, and satisfactory results were obtained. The success of the television transmission demonstration has led to important decisions regarding development of a domestic satellite communications system. Before specialized communications satellites are launched, the decision was made to lease an international communications satellite transmitter. The responsibility of the ground stations were discussed.

  1. Small satellite product assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demontlivault, J.; Cadelec, Jacques

    1993-01-01

    In order to increase the interest in small satellites, their cost must be reduced; reducing product assurance costs induced by quality requirements is a major objective. For a logical approach, small satellites are classified in three main categories: satellites for experimental operations with a short lifetime, operational satellites manufactured in small mass with long lifetime requirements, operational satellites (long lifetime required), of which only a few models are produced. The various requirements as regards the product assurance are examined for each satellite category: general requirements for space approach, reliability, electronic components, materials and processes, quality assurance, documentation, tests, and management. Ideal product assurance system integrates quality teams and engineering teams.

  2. Geostationary satellite log

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, C. H.

    The present listing of current and planned geostationary satellites for the Fixed Satellite Service, Maritime Mobile Satellite Service, Broadcasting Satellite Service, and Space Research Service, are ordered along increasing East longitude orbit position; they update previously published lists through December, 1985. Also given is a key to the frequency bands used by current and planned satellites and replacement satellites; subband locations are designated by an up/down-link frequency column. Service allocations and the applicable ITU region for bands not allocated worldwide are included.

  3. Turbine Blade Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacKay, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    The High Speed Research Airfoil Alloy Program developed a fourth-generation alloy with up to an +85 F increase in creep rupture capability over current production airfoil alloys. Since improved strength is typically obtained when the limits of microstructural stability are exceeded slightly, it is not surprising that this alloy has a tendency to exhibit microstructural instabilities after high temperature exposures. This presentation will discuss recent results obtained on coated fourth-generation alloys for subsonic turbine blade applications under the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program. Progress made in reducing microstructural instabilities in these alloys will be presented. In addition, plans will be presented for advanced alloy development and for computational modeling, which will aid future alloy development efforts.

  4. Argon purge gas cooled by chill box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiro, L. W.

    1966-01-01

    Cooling argon purge gas by routing it through a shop-fabricated chill box reduces charring of tungsten inert gas torch head components. The argon gas is in a cooled state as it enters the torch and prevents buildup of char caused by the high concentrations of heat in the weld area during welding operations.

  5. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  6. 30 CFR 57.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 57.12006 Section 57.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity...

  7. 30 CFR 57.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 57.12006 Section 57.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity...

  8. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  9. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  10. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  11. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  12. Quantum Nonlocal Boxes Exhibit Stronger Distillability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran

    2013-06-01

    The hypothetical nonlocal box (NLB) proposed by Popescu and Rohrlich allows two spatially separated parties, Alice and Bob, to exhibit stronger than quantum correlations. If the generated correlations are weak, they can sometimes be distilled into a stronger correlation by repeated applications of the NLB. Motivated by the limited distillability of NLBs, we initiate here a study of the distillation of correlations for nonlocal boxes that output quantum states rather than classical bits (qNLBs). We propose a new protocol for distillation and show that it asymptotically distills a class of correlated quantum nonlocal boxes to the value (1)/(2)(3√ {3}+1) ≈ 3.098076, whereas in contrast, the optimal non-adaptive parity protocol for classical nonlocal boxes asymptotically distills only to the value 3.0. We show that our protocol is an optimal non-adaptive protocol for 1, 2 and 3 qNLB copies by constructing a matching dual solution for the associated primal semidefinite program (SDP). We conclude that qNLBs are a stronger resource for nonlocality than NLBs. The main premise that develops from this conclusion is that the NLB model is not the strongest resource to investigate the fundamental principles that limit quantum nonlocality. As such, our work provides strong motivation to reconsider the status quo of the principles that are known to limit nonlocal correlations under the framework of qNLBs rather than NLBs.

  13. Minimal Solutions to the Box Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Jer-Chin

    2009-01-01

    The "box problem" from introductory calculus seeks to maximize the volume of a tray formed by folding a strictly rectangular sheet from which identical squares have been cut from each corner. In posing such questions, one would like to choose integral side-lengths for the sheet so that the excised squares have rational or integral side-length.…

  14. EPA ExpoBox Related Links

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases,

  15. Expo-Box: Submit Tool Information

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA-Expo-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases, mode

  16. On the Strength of Box Type Fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathar, J

    1929-01-01

    The present investigation relates to a box-type fuselage with sides consisting of thin smooth sheet metal, stiffened by longitudinal members riveted to the flanged channel-section bulkheads or transverse frames and to the semicircular corrugated corner stiffenings. The results obtained in this particular case can be applied to a great number of similar structures.

  17. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  18. Nest Boxes Artificial Homes for Woodland Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Daniel J.; Kelley, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Provides instructions for constructing artificial "homes" for squirrels, raccoons, and rabbits. These include squirrel dens constructed from discarded automobile tires and squirrel nest boxes, raccoon dens, and rabbit burrows constructed from wood. Includes a chart giving dimensions of materials needed and suggestions on where to place the…

  19. Draw-a-Scientist/Mystery Box Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Ann

    2007-01-01

    It is important that students have the opportunity to experience the nature and processes of science for themselves. The sequence of activities presented in this paper--Draw-a-Scientist and the Mystery Box Redux--were designed to help students better understand the nature of science (NOS) and engage them in the process of scientific inquiry. These…

  20. Minimal Solutions to the Box Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Jer-Chin

    2009-01-01

    The "box problem" from introductory calculus seeks to maximize the volume of a tray formed by folding a strictly rectangular sheet from which identical squares have been cut from each corner. In posing such questions, one would like to choose integral side-lengths for the sheet so that the excised squares have rational or integral side-length.…

  1. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  2. Hazard Analysis of Japanese Boxed Lunches (Bento).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Frank L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    For the purposes of identifying contaminants, of assessing risks, and of determining critical food processing control points, hazard analyses were conducted at two "bento" (oriental boxed meals) catering operations. Time and temperature abuses during the holding period, after cooking and prior to consumption, were found to be the primary…

  3. One-Dimensional Oscillator in a Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amore, Paolo; Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a quantum-mechanical model of two particles that interact by means of a harmonic potential and are confined to a one-dimensional box with impenetrable walls. We apply perturbation theory to the cases of different and equal masses and analyse the symmetry of the states in the latter case. We compare the approximate perturbation results…

  4. Fast box-counting algorithm on GPU.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, J; Ruiz de Miras, J

    2012-12-01

    The box-counting algorithm is one of the most widely used methods for calculating the fractal dimension (FD). The FD has many image analysis applications in the biomedical field, where it has been used extensively to characterize a wide range of medical signals. However, computing the FD for large images, especially in 3D, is a time consuming process. In this paper we present a fast parallel version of the box-counting algorithm, which has been coded in CUDA for execution on the Graphic Processing Unit (GPU). The optimized GPU implementation achieved an average speedup of 28 times (28×) compared to a mono-threaded CPU implementation, and an average speedup of 7 times (7×) compared to a multi-threaded CPU implementation. The performance of our improved box-counting algorithm has been tested with 3D models with different complexity, features and sizes. The validity and accuracy of the algorithm has been confirmed using models with well-known FD values. As a case study, a 3D FD analysis of several brain tissues has been performed using our GPU box-counting algorithm.

  5. Nest Boxes Artificial Homes for Woodland Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Daniel J.; Kelley, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Provides instructions for constructing artificial "homes" for squirrels, raccoons, and rabbits. These include squirrel dens constructed from discarded automobile tires and squirrel nest boxes, raccoon dens, and rabbit burrows constructed from wood. Includes a chart giving dimensions of materials needed and suggestions on where to place the…

  6. Hazard Analysis of Japanese Boxed Lunches (Bento).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Frank L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    For the purposes of identifying contaminants, of assessing risks, and of determining critical food processing control points, hazard analyses were conducted at two "bento" (oriental boxed meals) catering operations. Time and temperature abuses during the holding period, after cooking and prior to consumption, were found to be the primary…

  7. Library Technology: The Black Box Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Norman

    1983-01-01

    Presents overview of library uses of automation, noting the earliest example of a "black box" in 1588, the "indicator" invented in England in 1863, various forms of card catalogs, and computer solutions posed by Vannevar Bush, J. C. R. Licklider, Project Intrex, and John G. Kemeny. Ten references are cited. (EJS)

  8. One-Dimensional Oscillator in a Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amore, Paolo; Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a quantum-mechanical model of two particles that interact by means of a harmonic potential and are confined to a one-dimensional box with impenetrable walls. We apply perturbation theory to the cases of different and equal masses and analyse the symmetry of the states in the latter case. We compare the approximate perturbation results…

  9. Learning Geography with a "Geography Box"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambrinos, Nikos; Bibou, Ioanna

    2006-01-01

    It seems that geography teaching faces almost the same problems around the world. Geography teachers try to find new methods to teach geography based mainly on pupils' experiences. This paper describes a teaching approach that focuses on what pupils think about geography. The children are asked to prepare and present a box filled with objects that…

  10. 36 CFR 1192.33 - Fare box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fare box. 1192.33 Section 1192.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and...

  11. 36 CFR 1192.33 - Fare box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fare box. 1192.33 Section 1192.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and...

  12. 36 CFR 1192.33 - Fare box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fare box. 1192.33 Section 1192.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and...

  13. 36 CFR 1192.33 - Fare box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fare box. 1192.33 Section 1192.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and...

  14. Mystery Boxes: Helping Children Improve Their Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.

    2007-01-01

    This guest editorial describes ways teachers can use guessing games about an unknown item in a "mystery box" to help children improve their abilities to listen to others, recall information, ask purposeful questions, classify items by class, make inferences, synthesize information, and draw conclusions. The author presents information…

  15. Hadron scattering in an asymmetric box*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    China Lattice QCD Collaboration; Li, Xin; Chen, Ying; Meng, Guo-Zhan; Feng, Xu; Gong, Ming; He, Song; Li, Gang; Liu, Chuan; Liu, Yu-Bin; Ma, Jian-Ping; Meng, Xiang-Fei; Shen, Yan; Zhang, Jian-Bo

    2007-06-01

    We propose to study hadron-hadron scattering using lattice QCD in an asymmetric box which allows one to access more non-degenerate low-momentum modes for a given volume. The conventional Lüscher's formula applicable in a symmetric box is modified accordingly. To illustrate the feasibility of this approach, pion-pion elastic scattering phase shifts in the I = 2, J = 0 channel are calculated within quenched approximation using improved gauge and Wilson fermion actions on anisotropic lattices in an asymmetric box. After the chiral and continuum extrapolation, we find that our quenched results for the scattering phase shifts in this channel are consistent with the experimental data when the three-momentum of the pion is below 300MeV. Agreement is also found when compared with previous theoretical results from lattice and other means. Moreover, with the usage of asymmetric volume, we are able to compute the scattering phases in the low-momentum range (pion three momentum less than about 350MeV in the center of mass frame) for over a dozen values of the pion three-momenta, much more than using the conventional symmetric box with comparable volume.

  16. Draw-a-Scientist/Mystery Box Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Ann

    2007-01-01

    It is important that students have the opportunity to experience the nature and processes of science for themselves. The sequence of activities presented in this paper--Draw-a-Scientist and the Mystery Box Redux--were designed to help students better understand the nature of science (NOS) and engage them in the process of scientific inquiry. These…

  17. Study of WATCH GRB Error Boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorosabel, J.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Lund, N.; Brandt, S.; Guziy, S.; Shlyapnikov, A.

    1995-09-01

    We have studied the first WATCH GRB Catalogue ofγ-ray Bursts in order to find correlations between WATCH GRB error boxes and a great variety of celestial objects present in 33 different catalogues. No particular class of objects has been found to be significantly correlated with the WATCH GRBs.

  18. Treasure Boxes. Teacher's Guide. LHS GEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Jaine; Hosoume, Kimi

    Collections of small objects have often been used in mathematics programs to develop classification and patterning skills. This book synthesizes that body of experience to create a new and original sequence of activities that build upon each other in order to draw out the greatest possible educational richness from the treasures. Treasure Boxes is…

  19. Using Story Boxes in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Story boxes and story bags are containers for holding realia that are used to enhance reading and provide a variety of activities for encouraging language acquisition and use. Whatever the packaging, these are good ways to develop students' interest in books. Using realia, or real-life objects, to teach a foreign language is not a novel concept.…

  20. Galileo satellite antenna modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  1. Centromeric Alpha-Satellite DNA Adopts Dimeric i-Motif Structures Capped by AT Hoogsteen Base Pairs.

    PubMed

    Garavís, Miguel; Escaja, Núria; Gabelica, Valérie; Villasante, Alfredo; González, Carlos

    2015-06-26

    Human centromeric alpha-satellite DNA is composed of tandem arrays of two types of 171 bp monomers; type A and type B. The differences between these types are concentrated in a 17 bp region of the monomer called the A/B box. Here, we have determined the solution structure of the C-rich strand of the two main variants of the human alpha-satellite A box. We show that, under acidic conditions, the C-rich strands of two A boxes self-recognize and form a head-to-tail dimeric i-motif stabilized by four intercalated hemi-protonated C:C(+) base pairs. Interestingly, the stack of C:C(+) base pairs is capped by T:T and Hoogsteen A:T base pairs. The two main variants of the A box adopt a similar three-dimensional structure, although the residues involved in the formation of the i-motif core are different in each case. Together with previous studies showing that the B box (known as the CENP-B box) also forms dimeric i-motif structures, our finding of this non-canonical structure in the A box shows that centromeric alpha satellites in all human chromosomes are able to form i-motifs, which consequently raises the possibility that these structures may play a role in the structural organization of the centromere. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Satellite Home Tutorials vs. Satellite Classroom Tutorials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyth-Marom, Ruth; Yafe, Edna; Privman, Meira; Harpaz, Hamutal Razy

    In this study, students who registered for a course at the Open University of Israel could choose the tutorial method they preferred: group face-to-face tutorials with a local tutor in their residential vicinity; tutorials via satellite broadcasting to groups of students around the country; or getting the same satellite tutorial at home on the…

  3. Advanced Cast Aluminum Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    microstructure of the Al - Zn -Mg- Cu alloys was similar to the as-cast microstructure ...Further, new research has been initiated on ultra-high strength, microalloyed Al - Zn -Mg- Cu alloys with the goal of producing complex castings with...wrought 2519 alloy . Further, new research has been initiated on ultra-high strength, microalloyed Al - Zn -Mg- Cu alloys with the goal of producing

  4. box modeling of the eastern mediterranean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, Y.; Stone, P. H.

    2003-04-01

    Recently (~1990) a new source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was found in the southern part of the Aegean sea. Till then, the only source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was in the Adriatic sea; the rate of the deep water formation of the new Aegean source is 1Sv=10^6m^3/s, three times larger then the Adriatic source. We develop a simple 3 box-model to study the stability of the thermohaline circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean sea. The 3 boxes represent the Adriatic sea, Aegean sea, and the Ionian sea. The boxes exchange heat and salinity and may be described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. We analytically analyze these equations and find that the system may have one, two, or four stable flux states. We consider two cases for which the temperatures of the boxes are (i) fixed or (ii) variable. After setting the parameters to correspond to the Eastern Mediterranean we find that the system has two stable states, one with (i) two thermally dominant sources of deep water formation in the Adriatic and Aegean and the other with (ii) a salinity dominant source of deep water formation in the Adriatic and a thermally dominant source in the Aegean. While the Adriatic thermally dominant source is comparable to the observed flux of 0.3Sv the Aegean source has much smaller flux than the observed value. This situation is analogous to the state of the thermohaline circulation pre 1990 where the only source of deep water formation was in the Adriatic. If we decrease the atmospheric temperature of the Aegean box by 2C in accordance with recent observations, we find that the deep water formation of the Aegean increases significantly to a value comparable to the recently observed flux.

  5. A tapered box model of the cochlea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Luyang; Ni, Guangjian; Elliott, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    The complicated, three dimensional geometry of the fluid chambers in the cochlea is often represented in models of its mechanics by a box with a uniform area along its length. In this paper we use previous measurements of the variation in area of the two fluid chambers along the length of the cochlea in various mammals, to calculate the variation in the "effective area" that determines the 1D fluid coupling, which is given by the harmonic mean of the two chamber areas. The square root of this effective area is found to vary surprisingly linearly along the cochlea length in several mammalian species. This suggests a variation of the box model in which the width and height of the two fluid chambers are still equal, but now decrease linearly along its length. The width of the basilar membrane, BM, is assumed to increase linearly along the length of the model. The analytic form of the 1D fluid pressure distribution due to elemental BM motion is derived for this tapered box model. The added mass due to the near field acoustic coupling can also be computed, which surprisingly turns out to be almost constant along the length of the BM. The coupled response of the box model with a passive BM can then be readily calculated. Although the pressure distributions due to elemental fluid coupling are very different in the uniform and tapered box models, the distribution of the passive BM response in the coupled models are very similar in the two cases, although the overall level of the response in the tapered model is about 10 dB greater than that in the uniform model.

  6. Bilirubin oxidation products (BOXes): synthesis, stability and chemical characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Wurster, W. L.; Pyne-Geithman, G. J.; Peat, I. R.; Clark, J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Bilirubin oxidation products (BOXes) have been a subject of interest in neurosurgery because they are purported to be involved in subarachnoid hemorrhage induced cerebral vasospasm. There is a growing body of information concerning their putative role in vasospasm; however, there is a dearth of information concerning the chemical and biochemical characteristics of BOXes. A clearer understanding of the synthesis, stability and characteristics of BOXes will be important for a better understanding of the role of BOXes post subarachnoid hemorrhage. We used hydrogen peroxide to oxidize bilirubin and produce BOXes. BOXes were extracted and analyzed using conventional methods such as HPLC and mass spectrometry. Characterization of the stability BOXes demonstrates that light can photodegrade BOXes with a t1/2 of up to 10 h depending upon conditions. Mixed isomers of BOXes have an apparent extinction coefficient of ε = 6985, and a λmax of 310 nm. BOXes are produced by the oxidation of bilirubin, yielding a mixture of isomers: 4-methyl-5-oxo-3-vinyl-(1,5-dihydropyrrol-2-ylidene)acetamide (BOX A) and 3-methyl-5-oxo-4-vinyl-(1,5-dihydropyrrol-2-ylidene)acetamide (BOX B). The BOXes are photodegraded by ambient light and can be analyzed spectrophotometrically with their extinction coefficient as well as with HPLC or mass spectrometry. Their small molecular weight and photodegradation may have made them difficult to characterize in previous studies. PMID:18456996

  7. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses of Plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chung-Chi; Hsu, Yau-Heiu; Lin, Na-Sheng

    2009-12-01

    The view that satellite RNAs (satRNAs) and satellite viruses are purely molecular parasites of their cognate helper viruses has changed. The molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic and/or antagonistic interactions among satRNAs/satellite viruses, helper viruses, and host plants are beginning to be comprehended. This review aims to summarize the recent achievements in basic and practical research, with special emphasis on the involvement of RNA silencing mechanisms in the pathogenicity, population dynamics, and, possibly, the origin(s) of these subviral agents. With further research following current trends, the comprehensive understanding of satRNAs and satellite viruses could lead to new insights into the trilateral interactions among host plants, viruses, and satellites.

  8. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chung-Chi; Hsu, Yau-Heiu; Lin, Na-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The view that satellite RNAs (satRNAs) and satellite viruses are purely molecular parasites of their cognate helper viruses has changed. The molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic and/or antagonistic interactions among satRNAs/satellite viruses, helper viruses, and host plants are beginning to be comprehended. This review aims to summarize the recent achievements in basic and practical research, with special emphasis on the involvement of RNA silencing mechanisms in the pathogenicity, population dynamics, and, possibly, the origin(s) of these subviral agents. With further research following current trends, the comprehensive understanding of satRNAs and satellite viruses could lead to new insights into the trilateral interactions among host plants, viruses, and satellites. PMID:21994595

  9. Analysis of micrometeorite material captured by the solar max satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, L. S.; Mckay, D. S.; Zook, H. A.; Robinson, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    A Solar Maximum satellite was retrieved and repaired after being subjected for four years and 55 days to impacts by micrometeorites and Earth-orbiting space debris. The chemical variety and physical condition of particles associated with two particular impact structures in the insulation blanket of the main electronics box are studied. A scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X ray analyzer was used to determine morphology and chemistry of impacted areas and associated particles. Some details are discussed.

  10. SUPERCONDUCTING VANADIUM BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, H.J.

    1958-10-21

    A new vanadium-base alloy which possesses remarkable superconducting properties is presented. The alloy consists of approximately one atomic percent of palladium, the balance being vanadium. The alloy is stated to be useful in a cryotron in digital computer circuits.

  11. PLUTONIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-15

    New plutonium-base binary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuel are described. The alloys consist of 50 to 98 at.% thorium with the remainder plutonium. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are easy fabrication, phase stability, and the accompanying advantuge of providing a means for converting Th/sup 232/ into U/sup 233/.

  12. DELTA PHASE PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Cramer, E.M.; Ellinger, F.H.; Land. C.C.

    1960-03-22

    Delta-phase plutonium alloys were developed suitable for use as reactor fuels. The alloys consist of from 1 to 4 at.% zinc and the balance plutonium. The alloys have good neutronic, corrosion, and fabrication characteristics snd possess good dimensional characteristics throughout an operating temperature range from 300 to 490 deg C.

  13. Weldability of intermetallic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Ordered intermetallic alloys are a unique class of material that have potential for structural applications at elevated temperatures. The paper describes the welding and weldability of these alloys. The alloys studied were nickel aluminide (Ni[sub 3]Al), titanium aluminide (Ti[sub 3]Al), and iron aluminide.

  14. Separation in Binary Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, D. O.; Facemire, B. R.; Kaukler, W. F.; Witherow, W. K.; Fanning, U.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of monotectic alloys and alloy analogs reviewed. Report surveys research on liquid/liquid and solid/liquid separation in binary monotectic alloys. Emphasizes separation processes in low gravity, such as in outer space or in free fall in drop towers. Advances in methods of controlling separation in experiments highlighted.

  15. Stereo Measurements from Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, R.

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this presentation include: 1) 'Stereographic Observations from Geosynchronous Satellites: An Important New Tool for the Atmospheric Sciences'; 2) 'Thunderstorm Cloud Top Ascent Rates Determined from Stereoscopic Satellite Observations'; 3) 'Artificial Stereo Presentation of Meteorological Data Fields'.

  16. HMG-box sequences from microbats homologous to the human SOX30 HMG-box.

    PubMed

    Bullejos, M; Díaz de la Guardia, R; Barragán, M J; Sánchez, A

    2000-01-01

    SOX genes are a family of genes that encode for proteins which are characterised by the presence of a HMG-domain related to that of the mammalian sex-determining gene (SRY). By definition, the DNA binding domain of SOX genes is at least 50% identical to the 79 amino acid HMG domain of the SRY gene. We report here two HMG-box sequences from two microbat species (R. ferrumequinum and P. Pipistrellus) which were PCR amplified using a primer pair specific to the mouse Sry HMG-box. The high percentage of identity of this sequences with the human and mouse SOX30 HMG-box suggests that they are the SOX30 HMG-box for these two bat species.

  17. Flying the TRMM Satellite in a GCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Xin; Fowler, Laura D.; Randall, David A.

    2001-01-01

    By incorporating the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite orbital information into the Colorado State University General Circulation Model (CSU GCM), we are able to 'fly' a satellite in the GCM, and sample the simulated atmosphere in the same way as the TRMM sensors sample the real atmosphere. The TRMM-sampled statistics for precipitation and radiative fluxes at annual, intraseasonal, monthly-mean and seasonal-mean diurnal time scales are evaluated by comparing the satellite-sampled against fully-sampled simulated atmospheres. The sampling rates of the TRMM sensors are significantly affected by the sensors' swath widths. The TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and the Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) sample each 2.25 x 2.25 degree grid box in the Tropics and subtropics about once per day, but at a different local time every day, while the Precipitation Radar (PR) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) sensor visit each grid box about once every three days and twice per day, respectively. Besides inadequate samplings resulting from sensors' swath widths, there is a large, systematic diurnal undersampling associated with TRMM's orbital geometry for grid boxes away from the Equator. When only one month of TRMM data are used, this diurnal undersampling can lead to more daytime samples relative to nighttime samples in one hemisphere, and more nighttime samples relative to daytime samples in the other hemisphere. The resulting sampling biases (3-6 W m(exp-2)) are very pronounced in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) over the subtropical land masses. The sampling errors in OLR monthly- and seasonal-means are less than 8 W m(exp-2) (5%) for each 2.25 x 2.25 degree grid box. The OLR monthly- and seasonal-means are not sensitive to diurnal undersamplings associated with the TRMM orbits and sensors' swath widths. However, this is not the case for total precipitation. Diurnal undersampling could produce errors as large as 20% in the Tropics and 40

  18. Upstream box/TATA box order is the major determinant of the direction of transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, L C; Thali, M; Schaffner, W

    1991-01-01

    Mammalian gene promoters for transcription by RNA polymerase II are typically organized in the following order: upstream sequence motif(s)/TATA box/initiation site. Here we report studies in which the order, orientation and DNA sequences of these three elements are varied to determine how these affect polarity of transcription. We have constructed promoters with an 'octamer' upstream sequence ATTTGCAT (or its complement ATGCAAAT) in combination with several different TATA boxes and initiation (cap) sites, and tested these promoters in transfection experiments with cultured cells. TATA boxes derived from the adenovirus major late promoter (TATAAAA), immunoglobulin kappa light chain (TTATATA) and heavy chain (TAAATATA) promoter functioned equally well or even better when inverted. Only the beta-globin TATA box (CATAAAA) was poorly active when inverted. In addition, a symmetrical TATA box (TATATATA) derived from a casein gene was very active. Our results suggest that the asymmetry of most TATA boxes (consensus TATAAAA) is not a primary determinant of the polarity of transcription. We also found that the initiation (cap) site, which usually consists of an adenine embedded in a pyrimidine-rich region (PyPyCAPyPyPyPyPy), was permissive towards sequence alterations; even a randomly composed sequence worked well. However, an inverted, hence purine-rich, cap site reduced transcript levels to 1/7th, as did an oligo G sequence. Irrespective of the presence of a cap site, the configuration: 'TATA box/octamer' yielded a strong leftward, rather than rightward transcription. From this, we conclude that the polarity of transcription is primarily determined by the linear order of an upstream sequence relative to a TATA box, rather than by the individual orientations of either of these two elements. Images PMID:1762900

  19. Rhenium alloying of tungsten heavy alloys

    SciTech Connect

    German, R.M.; Bose, A.; Jerman, G.

    1989-01-01

    Alloying experiments were performed using rhenium additions to a classic 90 mass % tungsten heavy alloy. The mixed-powder system was liquid phase sintered to full density at 1500 C in 60 min The rhenium-modified alloys exhibited a smaller grain size, higher hardness, higher strength, and lower ductility than the unalloyed system. For an alloy with a composition of 84W-6Re-8Ni-2Fe, the sintered density was 17, 4 Mg/m{sup 3} with a yield strength of 815 MPa, tensile strength of 1180 MPa, and elongation to failure of 13%. This property combination results from the aggregate effects of grain size reduction and solid solution hardening due to rhenium. In the unalloyed system these properties require post-sintering swaging and aging; thus, alloying with rhenium is most attractive for applications where net shaping is desired, such as by powder injection molding.

  20. 7. Process areas room. Incinerator and glove boxes (hoods) to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Process areas room. Incinerator and glove boxes (hoods) to the right. Filter boxes to the left. Looking south. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  1. 22. Steering gear box and wheel from starboard side. Mizzen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Steering gear box and wheel from starboard side. Mizzen boom has been removed for repairs (note boom cradle just forward of steering gear box). - Schooner C.A. THAYER, Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. Double gloves reduce contamination of dry box atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbell, T. P.; Quantinetz, M.; Reinhardt, G.

    1965-01-01

    Pair of encased low permeability hand gloves between which an inert gas circulates reduces dry box contamination. This innovation is applicable to dry boxes using radioactive and alkali metal compounds, submicron powders, and liquid metals.

  3. 24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES FOR A BRASS GATE VALVE BODY MADE ON A CORE BOX, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. The Box Turtle: Room with a View on Species Decline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belzer, Bill; Steisslinger, Mary Beth

    1999-01-01

    Surveys salient aspects of eastern box-turtle natural history. Explores the societal and ecological factors that have contributed to the decline of the box-turtle population. Contains 18 references. (WRM)

  5. The Box Turtle: Room with a View on Species Decline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belzer, Bill; Steisslinger, Mary Beth

    1999-01-01

    Surveys salient aspects of eastern box-turtle natural history. Explores the societal and ecological factors that have contributed to the decline of the box-turtle population. Contains 18 references. (WRM)

  6. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes...

  7. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes...

  8. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes...

  9. 49 CFR 230.104 - Driving box shoes and wedges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.104 Driving box shoes and wedges. Driving box shoes and wedges...

  10. 49 CFR 230.104 - Driving box shoes and wedges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.104 Driving box shoes and wedges. Driving box shoes and wedges...

  11. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes...

  12. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes...

  13. [Theme Issue: Communications Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    One section of this journal is devoted to issues involving broadcast satellites. Separate articles discuss the need for international planning of satellite broadcasting, decisions made at the 1971 World Administrative Radio Conference for Space Telecommunications, potential problems in satellite broadcasting, a series of proposals drawn up by the…

  14. Tracking Weather Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Helen E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of weather satellites in providing an exciting, cohesive framework for students learning Earth and space science and in providing a hands-on approach to technology in the classroom. Discusses the history of weather satellites and classroom satellite tracking. (JRH)

  15. Which satellites were used?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    The three satellites ERBS, NOAA-9, NOAA-10 carrying two ERBE instrument packages (Scanner and NonScanner) were used. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center built the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) on which ... and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather monitoring satellites, NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 in 1984 and 1986, respectively. ...

  16. Geodetic Secor Satellite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    simple, and had low-power lem. 17 14. Satellite Orientation . The satellite was designed to maintain a constant relationship between the antenna...the same satellite orientation . Further considerations were Th oscillations, however, when higher orbital ranges (500-2500 nautical miles) -, 3 a

  17. [Theme Issue: Communications Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    One section of this journal is devoted to issues involving broadcast satellites. Separate articles discuss the need for international planning of satellite broadcasting, decisions made at the 1971 World Administrative Radio Conference for Space Telecommunications, potential problems in satellite broadcasting, a series of proposals drawn up by the…

  18. Processing and alloying of tungsten heavy alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, A.; Dowding, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    Tungsten heavy alloys are two-phase metal matrix composites with a unique combination of density, strength, and ductility. They are processed by liquid-phase sintering of mixed elemental powders. The final microstructure consists of a contiguous network of nearly pure tungsten grains embedded in a matrix of a ductile W-Ni-Fe alloy. Due to the unique property combination of the material, they are used extensively as kinetic energy penetrators, radiation shields. counterbalances, and a number of other applications in the defense industry. The properties of these alloys are extremely sensitive to the processing conditions. Porosity levels as low as 1% can drastically degrade the properties of these alloys. During processing, care must be taken to reduce or prevent incomplete densification, hydrogen embrittlement, impurity segregation to the grain boundaries, solidification shrinkage induced porosity, and in situ formation of pores due to the sintering atmosphere. This paper will discuss some of the key processing issues for obtaining tungsten heavy alloys with good properties. High strength tungsten heavy alloys are usually fabricated by swaging and aging the conventional as-sintered material. The influence of this on the shear localization tendency of a W-Ni-Co alloy will also be demonstrated. Recent developments have shown that the addition of certain refractory metals partially replacing tungsten can significantly improve the strength of the conventional heavy alloys. This development becomes significant due to the recent interest in near net shaping techniques such as powder injection moldings. The role of suitable alloying additions to the classic W-Ni-Fe based heavy alloys and their processing techniques will also be discussed in this paper.

  19. ABC of Satellites for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shousan

    1995-01-01

    Introduces the basic concepts and elements of satellite and telecommunications satellites. Identifies the advantages of using the unique characteristics of telecommunications satellites in education. Lists cautions of using telecommunications satellite systems to deliver educational programs. (Author/AEF)

  20. Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A ballast system for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.

  1. Castability of Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, A. L.; Han, Q.; Horton, J. A.

    There is intense research effort into the development of high pressure die cast-able creep resistant magnesium alloys. One of the difficulties encountered in magnesium alloy development for creep resistance is that many additions made to improve the creep properties have reportedly resulted in alloys that are difficult to cast. It is therefore important to have an understanding of the effect of alloying elements on the castability. This paper gives a review of the state of the knowledge of the castability of magnesium alloys.

  2. High strength alloys

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  3. High strength alloys

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub

    2012-06-05

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  4. Extrusion of aluminium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, T.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years the importance of extruded alloys has increased due to the decline in copper extrusion, increased use in structural applications, environmental impact and reduced energy consumption. There have also been huge technical advances. This text provides comprehensive coverage of the metallurgical, mathematical and practical features of the process. The contents include: continuum principles; metallurgical features affecting the extrusion of Al-alloys; extrusion processing; homogenization and extrusion conditions for specific alloys; processing of 6XXX alloys; plant utilization; Appendix A: specification of AA alloys and DIN equivalents; Appendix B: chemical compositions; and Appendix C: typical properties.

  5. Demand for nest boxes in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J J; Appleby, M C

    1996-04-01

    Domestic hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) from commercial laying strains have been selected for high egg yield and may lay over 300 eggs in their working lives. In conventional wire cages, there is little opportunity to perform either nest seeking or nest building activities, which may lead to frustration each time an egg is laid. To measure the demand for a well-defined nest-site, which may act as a consummatory stimulus for nest seeking behaviour and an appetitive stimulus for nest building behaviour, 16 hens were allowed to work to gain access to a pen containing two littered, enclosed nest boxes. The cost of access to the nest boxes was varied by changing the width of the vertical gap, which divided a home pen containing food, water and a perch from the pen containing the nest boxes (gaps of 220, 140, 125, 110 and 95 mm, compared with mean body width of 117 mm). The number of entries to the nest pen declined with narrowing gap, whilst the number of failed attempts to enter rose, but all 16 hens persevered with entering the nest pen prior to oviposition and laid in the nest boxes. Between 120 and 30 min to oviposition hens made many entries with the 220 mm gap (27.6), but this declined to no entries with 95 mm gap. Hens made few entries in the last half hour prior to ovipositoin (1.3) but there was no significant decline in entries as the gap narrowed (1.1 with 95 mm gap). The number of nest inspections and nest entries also declined with width of gap, but there was no effect on time spent in the nest boxes. Hens passed gaps of 220, and 140 mm to return to the nest pen following oviposition, but did not pass gaps of 125, 110 or 95 mm. We therefore conclude that the narrow gap width can be used to assess the demand for environmental requirements. Hens were willing to pay a high cost to gain access to a nest box prior to oviposition, so prelaying behaviour may be frustrated in hens without a well-defined, littered nest site.

  6. Xkid Is Degraded in a D-Box, KEN-Box, and A-Box-Independent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Anna; Vigneron, Suzanne; Bernis, Cyril; Labbé, Jean-Claude; Lorca, Thierry

    2003-01-01

    During mitosis, the Xenopus chromokinesin Kid (Xkid) provides the polar ejection forces needed at metaphase for chromosome congression, and its degradation is required at anaphase to induce chromosome segregation. Despite the fact that the degradation of Xkid at anaphase seems to be a key regulatory factor to induce chromosome movement to the poles, little is known about the mechanisms controlling this proteolysis. We investigated here the degradation pathway of Xkid. We demonstrate that Xkid is degraded both in vitro and in vivo by APC/Cdc20 and APC/Cdh1. We show that, despite the presence of five putative D-box motifs in its sequence, Xkid is proteolyzed in a D-box-independent manner. We identify a domain within the C terminus of this chromokinesin, with sequence GxEN, whose mutation completely stabilizes this protein by both APC/Cdc20 and APC/Cdh1. Moreover, we show that this degradation sequence acts as a transposable motif and induces the proteolysis of a GST-GXEN fusion protein. Finally, we demonstrate that both a D-box and a GXEN-containing peptides completely block APC-dependent degradation of cyclin B and Xkid, indicating that the GXEN domain might mediate the recognition and association of Xkid with the APC. PMID:12773557

  7. Xkid is degraded in a D-box, KEN-box, and A-box-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Castro, Anna; Vigneron, Suzanne; Bernis, Cyril; Labbé, Jean-Claude; Lorca, Thierry

    2003-06-01

    During mitosis, the Xenopus chromokinesin Kid (Xkid) provides the polar ejection forces needed at metaphase for chromosome congression, and its degradation is required at anaphase to induce chromosome segregation. Despite the fact that the degradation of Xkid at anaphase seems to be a key regulatory factor to induce chromosome movement to the poles, little is known about the mechanisms controlling this proteolysis. We investigated here the degradation pathway of Xkid. We demonstrate that Xkid is degraded both in vitro and in vivo by APC/Cdc20 and APC/Cdh1. We show that, despite the presence of five putative D-box motifs in its sequence, Xkid is proteolyzed in a D-box-independent manner. We identify a domain within the C terminus of this chromokinesin, with sequence GxEN, whose mutation completely stabilizes this protein by both APC/Cdc20 and APC/Cdh1. Moreover, we show that this degradation sequence acts as a transposable motif and induces the proteolysis of a GST-GXEN fusion protein. Finally, we demonstrate that both a D-box and a GXEN-containing peptides completely block APC-dependent degradation of cyclin B and Xkid, indicating that the GXEN domain might mediate the recognition and association of Xkid with the APC.

  8. Survey: National Environmental Satellite Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The national Environmental Satellite Service (NESS) receives data at periodic intervals from satellites of the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite/Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite series and from the Improved TIROS (Television Infrared Observational Satellite) Operational Satellite. Within the conterminous United States, direct readout and processed products are distributed to users over facsimile networks from a central processing and data distribution facility. In addition, the NESS Satellite Field Stations analyze, interpret, and distribute processed geostationary satellite products to regional weather service activities.

  9. The Effect of Nest Box Distribution on Sustainable Propagation of Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Commercial Tart Cherry Orchards.

    PubMed

    Boyle, N K; Pitts-Singer, T L

    2017-01-01

    The blue orchard bee, Osmia lignaria (Say), is a solitary bee that is an excellent pollinator of tree fruit orchards. Due to the annual rising costs of honey bee hive rentals, many orchardists are eager to develop management tools and practices to support O. lignaria as an alternative pollinator. Establishing O. lignaria pollination as a sustainable industry requires careful consideration of both bee and orchard management. Here, we test the effect of artificial nest box distribution on in-orchard propagation of O. lignaria in Utah commercial tart cherry orchards. Two nest box distributions were compared across three paired, 1.2-ha plots. One distribution, traditionally employed by O. lignaria consultants, included a centrally located tote for mass-nesting with smaller, surrounding 'satellite' nest boxes at orchard margins. The other distribution was composed of smaller, more equally distributed nest boxes throughout the 1.2-ha plots. Significantly higher propagation of O. lignaria was observed in the latter nest box distribution, although all treatments resulted in bee return exceeding the number of bees initially released. These findings provide support for the use of O. lignaria in tart cherry orchards, and demonstrate how simple changes to bee set-up and management can influence propagation efforts. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Transformative Environmental Education: Stepping Outside the Curriculum Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Environmental education has become trapped in the curriculum box. At a time when our students' generation is becoming trapped in a global warming box, their education needs to be rapidly adaptable to the changing state of their planet. Venturing outside the curriculum box takes courage, creativity, and a willingness to let nature serve as the…

  11. 77 FR 74513 - Folding Gift Boxes From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... COMMISSION Folding Gift Boxes From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on folding gift boxes from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4365 (November 2012), entitled Folding Gift Boxes from China...

  12. 30 CFR 18.49 - Connection boxes on machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connection boxes on machines. 18.49 Section 18... Design Requirements § 18.49 Connection boxes on machines. Connection boxes used to facilitate replacement of cables or machine components shall be explosion-proof. Portable-cable terminals on cable reels...

  13. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.515 Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements...

  14. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.515 Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements...

  15. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.515 Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements...

  16. 46. DETAIL VIEW OF THE MORTAR BOXES, STAMP BATTERIES AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. DETAIL VIEW OF THE MORTAR BOXES, STAMP BATTERIES AND AMALGAMATION TABLES. NOTE FULTON IRON WORKS, SAM FRANCISCO 1908 STAMPED INTO THE MORTAR BOX. ALSO NOTE THE DIES RESTING ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE MORTAR BOX BY THE SECOND STAMP BATTERY FROM THE CAMERA POSITION. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  17. 46 CFR 113.20-3 - Connection boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Connection boxes. 113.20-3 Section 113.20-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-3 Connection boxes. Each connection box and...

  18. 46 CFR 113.20-3 - Connection boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Connection boxes. 113.20-3 Section 113.20-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-3 Connection boxes. Each connection box and...

  19. 46 CFR 113.20-3 - Connection boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Connection boxes. 113.20-3 Section 113.20-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-3 Connection boxes. Each connection box and...

  20. 46 CFR 113.20-3 - Connection boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Connection boxes. 113.20-3 Section 113.20-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-3 Connection boxes. Each connection box and...

  1. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing box: General. 215.107... Suspension System § 215.107 Defective plain bearing box: General. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A plain...

  2. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... plastic box must be closed with a self-adhesive tape having sufficient tensile strength to prevent the box... manufactured from suitable plastic material and be of adequate strength in relation to its capacity and... material of adequate strength and so designed as to prevent the box from unintentionally opening. (7...

  3. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... plastic box must be closed with a self-adhesive tape having sufficient tensile strength to prevent the box... manufactured from suitable plastic material and be of adequate strength in relation to its capacity and... material of adequate strength and so designed as to prevent the box from unintentionally opening. (7...

  4. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... plastic box must be closed with a self-adhesive tape having sufficient tensile strength to prevent the box... manufactured from suitable plastic material and be of adequate strength in relation to its capacity and... material of adequate strength and so designed as to prevent the box from unintentionally opening. (7...

  5. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... plastic box must be closed with a self-adhesive tape having sufficient tensile strength to prevent the box... manufactured from suitable plastic material and be of adequate strength in relation to its capacity and... material of adequate strength and so designed as to prevent the box from unintentionally opening. (7...

  6. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... plastic box must be closed with a self-adhesive tape having sufficient tensile strength to prevent the box... manufactured from suitable plastic material and be of adequate strength in relation to its capacity and... material of adequate strength and so designed as to prevent the box from unintentionally opening. (7...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are made...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are made...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are made...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are made...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are made...

  12. 49 CFR 230.104 - Driving box shoes and wedges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Driving box shoes and wedges. 230.104 Section 230.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.104 Driving box shoes and wedges. Driving box shoes and...

  13. 49 CFR 230.104 - Driving box shoes and wedges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Driving box shoes and wedges. 230.104 Section 230.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.104 Driving box shoes and wedges. Driving box shoes and...

  14. 49 CFR 230.104 - Driving box shoes and wedges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Driving box shoes and wedges. 230.104 Section 230.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.104 Driving box shoes and wedges. Driving box shoes and...

  15. 77 FR 36585 - Post Office Box Service Enhancements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... COMMISSION Post Office Box Service Enhancements AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... concerning enhanced services for Post Office Box service. It also addresses the status of a related Complaint... enhanced services that it offers to post office box customers at certain retail locations.\\1\\ The...

  16. 30 CFR 57.12007 - Junction box connection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Junction box connection procedures. 57.12007... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12007 Junction box connection procedures. Trailing cable and power-cable connections to junction boxes shall not be made or broken under load....

  17. Using Origami Boxes to Explore Concepts of Geometry and Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wares, Arsalan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this classroom note is to provide an example of how a simple origami box can be used to explore important concepts of geometry and calculus. This article describes how an origami box can be folded, then it goes on to describe how its volume and surface area can be calculated. Finally, it describes how the box could be folded to…

  18. Using Origami Boxes to Explore Concepts of Geometry and Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wares, Arsalan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this classroom note is to provide an example of how a simple origami box can be used to explore important concepts of geometry and calculus. This article describes how an origami box can be folded, then it goes on to describe how its volume and surface area can be calculated. Finally, it describes how the box could be folded to…

  19. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... alarm boxes shall be clearly and permanently marked “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” Existing boxes not so... at least 1/2 inch letters “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” All manual alarm boxes shall be numbered in...

  20. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... alarm boxes shall be clearly and permanently marked “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” Existing boxes not so... at least 1/2 inch letters “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” All manual alarm boxes shall be numbered in...

  1. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... alarm boxes shall be clearly and permanently marked “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” Existing boxes not so... at least 1/2 inch letters “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” All manual alarm boxes shall be numbered in...

  2. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... alarm boxes shall be clearly and permanently marked “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” Existing boxes not so... at least 1/2 inch letters “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” All manual alarm boxes shall be numbered in...

  3. 30 CFR 18.49 - Connection boxes on machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Connection boxes on machines. 18.49 Section 18... Design Requirements § 18.49 Connection boxes on machines. Connection boxes used to facilitate replacement of cables or machine components shall be explosion-proof. Portable-cable terminals on cable...

  4. 30 CFR 18.49 - Connection boxes on machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Connection boxes on machines. 18.49 Section 18... Design Requirements § 18.49 Connection boxes on machines. Connection boxes used to facilitate replacement of cables or machine components shall be explosion-proof. Portable-cable terminals on cable...

  5. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.515 Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements for...

  6. Creep Resistant Zinc Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Frank E. Goodwin

    2002-12-31

    This report covers the development of Hot Chamber Die Castable Zinc Alloys with High Creep Strengths. This project commenced in 2000, with the primary objective of developing a hot chamber zinc die-casting alloy, capable of satisfactory service at 140 C. The core objectives of the development program were to: (1) fill in missing alloy data areas and develop a more complete empirical model of the influence of alloy composition on creep strength and other selected properties, and (2) based on the results from this model, examine promising alloy composition areas, for further development and for meeting the property combination targets, with the view to designing an optimized alloy composition. The target properties identified by ILZRO for an improved creep resistant zinc die-casting alloy were identified as follows: (1) temperature capability of 1470 C; (2) creep stress of 31 MPa (4500 psi); (3) exposure time of 1000 hours; and (4) maximum creep elongation under these conditions of 1%. The project was broadly divided into three tasks: (1) Task 1--General and Modeling, covering Experimental design of a first batch of alloys, alloy preparation and characterization. (2) Task 2--Refinement and Optimization, covering Experimental design of a second batch of alloys. (3) Task 3--Creep Testing and Technology transfer, covering the finalization of testing and the transfer of technology to the Zinc industry should have at least one improved alloy result from this work.

  7. Gamma titanium aluminide alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, M.; Inui, H.; Kishida, K.; Matsumuro, M.; Shirai, Y.

    1995-08-01

    Extensive progress and improvements have been made in the science and technology of gamma titanium aluminide alloys within the last decade. In particular, the understanding of their microstructural characteristics and property/microstructure relationships has been substantially deepened. Based on these achievements, various engineering two-phase gamma alloys have been developed and their mechanical and chemical properties have been assessed. Aircraft and automotive industries arc pursuing their introduction for various structural components. At the same time, recent basic studies on the mechanical properties of two-phase gamma alloys, in particular with a controlled lamellar structure have provided a considerable amount of fundamental information on the deformation and fracture mechanisms of the two-phase gamma alloys. The results of such basic studies are incorporated in the recent alloy and microstructure design of two-phase gamma alloys. In this paper, such recent advances in the research and development of the two-phase gamma alloys and industrial involvement are summarized.

  8. Fundamentals of satellite navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiller, A. H.

    The basic operating principles and capabilities of conventional and satellite-based navigation systems for air, sea, and land vehicles are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams. Consideration is given to autonomous onboard systems; systems based on visible or radio beacons; the Transit, Cicada, Navstar-GPS, and Glonass satellite systems; the physical laws and parameters of satellite motion; the definition of time in satellite systems; and the content of the demodulated GPS data signal. The GPS and Glonass data format frames are presented graphically, and tables listing the GPS and Glonass satellites, their technical characteristics, and the (past or scheduled) launch dates are provided.

  9. Three small deployed satellites

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-04

    ISS033-E-009282 (4 Oct. 2012) --- Several tiny satellites are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 33 crew member on the International Space Station. The satellites were released outside the Kibo laboratory using a Small Satellite Orbital Deployer attached to the Japanese module’s robotic arm on Oct. 4, 2012. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Aki Hoshide, flight engineer, set up the satellite deployment gear inside the lab and placed it in the Kibo airlock. The Japanese robotic arm then grappled the deployment system and its satellites from the airlock for deployment. Earth’s horizon and the blackness of space provide the backdrop for the scene.

  10. Weldability of High Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Maroef, I

    2003-01-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of silicon and iron on the weldability of HAYNES HR-160{reg_sign} alloy. HR-I60 alloy is a solid solution strengthened Ni-Co-Cr-Si alloy. The alloy is designed to resist corrosion in sulfidizing and other aggressive high temperature environments. Silicon is added ({approx}2.75%) to promote the formation of a protective oxide scale in environments with low oxygen activity. HR-160 alloy has found applications in waste incinerators, calciners, pulp and paper recovery boilers, coal gasification systems, and fluidized bed combustion systems. HR-160 alloy has been successfully used in a wide range of welded applications. However, the alloy can be susceptible to solidification cracking under conditions of severe restraint. A previous study by DuPont, et al. [1] showed that silicon promoted solidification cracking in the commercial alloy. In earlier work conducted at Haynes, and also from published work by DuPont et al., it was recognized that silicon segregates to the terminal liquid, creating low melting point liquid films on solidification grain boundaries. Solidification cracking has been encountered when using the alloy as a weld overlay on steel, and when joining HR-160 plate in a thickness greater than19 millimeters (0.75 inches) with matching filler metal. The effect of silicon on the weldability of HR-160 alloy has been well documented, but the effect of iron is not well understood. Prior experience at Haynes has indicated that iron may be detrimental to the solidification cracking resistance of the alloy. Iron does not segregate to the terminal solidification product in nickel-base alloys, as does silicon [2], but iron may have an indirect or interactive influence on weldability. A set of alloys covering a range of silicon and iron contents was prepared and characterized to better understand the welding metallurgy of HR-160 alloy.

  11. Public service satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The development of the communications satellite system is discussed, taking into account a suggestion by Clarke in 1945 concerning the significance of geosynchronous satellites, the establishment of Intelsat, reductions in the cost of transatlantic telephone calls as a result of satellite communications service, questions of satellite cost, and the need for larger satellites. It is pointed out that the use of the Space Shuttle will reduce the cost of placing a satellite in orbit from more than half to less than a quarter of the total cost of design, construction, and launch. Attention is given to studies of a personal communications system which involves direct broadcast from a 'wrist watch radio' to a high-capacity, multibeam satellite for retransmission to ground communications centrals.

  12. Geosynchronous satellite collision avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, W.

    1985-01-01

    The increases in the number of satellite systems, the growing dependency on these systems, and the potentially hazardous conjunctions in space, dictates careful management of satellite positions. The potential for satellite collision increases as more objects are placed in orbit. At geosynchronous altitudes active satellites maintain fixed longitudinal station-keeping control while inactive satellites and debris generally drift around the globe or oscillate about two geopotential stable points. Portions of the total objects in geosynchronous orbit are tracked by ground stations while a significant number of additional pieces of space debris regularly pass through geosynchronous orbit altitudes. The probability of an operational satellite colliding with another satellite or a piece of space debris will increase in the number of space objects, their sizes, and on-orbit lifetimes.

  13. Flutter analysis of composite box beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Dewey H.; Greenman, Matthew

    1995-01-01

    The dynamic aeroelastic instability of flutter is an important factor in the design of modern high-speed, flexible aircraft. The current trend is toward the creative use of composites to delay flutter. To obtain an optimum design, we need an accurate as well as efficient model. As a first step towards this goal, flutter analysis is carried out for an unswept composite box beam using a linear structural model and Theodorsen's unsteady aerodynamic theory. Structurally, the wing was modeled as a thin-walled box-beam of rectangular cross section. Theodorsen's theory was used to get 2-D unsteady aerodynamic forces, which were integrated over the span. A free-vibration analysis is carried out. These fundamental modes are used to get the flutter solution using the V-g method. Future work is intended to build on this foundation.

  14. Magnons in a box: Condensation and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fang; Olf, Ryan; Wu, Shun; Kadau, Holger; Marti, G. Edward; Stamper-Kurn, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold gases offer us a remarkable window into the quantum world, allowing direct access to a wide range of manybody and condensed matter phenomena at convenient macroscopic length and time scales. However, producing ultracold gases at ever lower entropy, and measuring statistical properties such as temperature in these low entropy regimes, is a persistent challenge. Magnons, gapless spin excitations of spinor Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC), are expected to behave like free particles. We show that magnons can be used to cool BEC in a deep trap and serve as a thermometer to measure temperatures at extremely low entropy-per-particle. Unlike atoms trapped in a harmonic trap, trapped magnons experience a box potential due to near exact cancellation of the trapping potential by the mean-field interaction within the condensate. We observe the quasi-condensation of magnon excitations within this nature-made box.

  15. Beyond the Black Box Approach to Ethics!

    PubMed Central

    Sandman, Lars; Gustavsson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    In the editorial published in this journal, Daniels and colleagues argue that his and Sabin’s accountability for reasonableness (A4R) framework should be used to handle ethical issues in the health technology assessment (HTA)-process, especially concerning fairness. In contrast to this suggestion, it is argued that such an approach risks suffering from the irrrelevance or insufficiency they warn against. This is for a number of reasons: lack of comprehensiveness, lack of guidance for how to assess ethical issues within the "black box" of A4R as to issues covered, competence and legitimate arguments and finally seemingly accepting consensus as the final verdict on ethical issues. We argue that the HTA community is already in a position to move beyond this black box approach PMID:27285520

  16. Solar box-cooker: Part 1-modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Thulasi Das, T.C. ); Karmakar, S. ); Rao, D.P. )

    1994-03-01

    Thermal models for the solar box-cookers loaded with one, two, or four vessels have been presented. The method of Taha and Eldighidy has been utilized to estimate the enhanced solar irradiance on the cooker due to the flat reflector fitted to the cooker. The coupling of the Taha and Eldighidy method with the thermal models yielded the models for the box-cookers. A great many transfer coefficients and view factors are required as the model inputs. The methods for their estimation are given. Analysis of the transfer processes, computer simulation of the cooker, and experimental data on some of the coefficients, which are peculiar to the cooker and not available in the literature are presented in the companion paper.

  17. Are artificial neural networks black boxes?

    PubMed

    Benitez, J M; Castro, J L; Requena, I

    1997-01-01

    Artificial neural networks are efficient computing models which have shown their strengths in solving hard problems in artificial intelligence. They have also been shown to be universal approximators. Notwithstanding, one of the major criticisms is their being black boxes, since no satisfactory explanation of their behavior has been offered. In this paper, we provide such an interpretation of neural networks so that they will no longer be seen as black boxes. This is stated after establishing the equality between a certain class of neural nets and fuzzy rule-based systems. This interpretation is built with fuzzy rules using a new fuzzy logic operator which is defined after introducing the concept of f-duality. In addition, this interpretation offers an automated knowledge acquisition procedure.

  18. The Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) top box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Daniel R.; Janes, Clinton C.; Montgomery, John W.; Ouellette, David B.; Sharp, Frank H.

    1986-01-01

    So named because it resides on top of the focal plane instrument, the MMT top box is a two-level optical bench with many remotely controlled features which can be configured for experimental use of the MMT. It houses the relay optics and television cameras for focusing, coaligning and guiding the six telescopes of the MMT, as well as the integrating sphere, filter wheel, Hartmann mask wheel, and relay optics of the comparison source for instrumental calibration. It also provides a rigid mounting platform for research instruments as well as special fixtures for telescope tests and collimation. In accommodating these tasks the top box incorporates several novel features which may interest designers of other large telescopes.

  19. PCB-Based Break-Out Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Break-out boxes (BOBs) are necessary for all electrical integration/cable checkouts and troubleshooting. Because the price of a BOB is high, and no work can be done without one, often the procedure stops, simply waiting for a BOB. A less expensive BOB would take less time in the integration, testing, and troubleshooting process. The PCB-based BOB works and looks the same as a standard JPL BOB, called Gold Boxes. The only differences between the old BOB and the new PCB-based BOB is that the new one has 80 percent of its circuitry in a printed circuit board. This process reduces the time for fabrication, thus making the BOBs less expensive. Moreover, because of its unique design, the new BOBs can be easily assembled and fixed. About 80 percent of the new PCB-based BOB is in a $22 (at the time of this reporting) custom-designed, yet commercially available PCB. This device has been used successfully to verify that BOB cables were properly made. Also, upon completion, the BOB was beeped out via a multimeter to ensure that all sockets on the connectors were properly connected to the respective banana jack. When compared to the Gold Box BOBs, the new BOB has many advantages. It is much more cost efficient, it delivers equal usability at substantially lower cost of the BOB, and the Gold Box is much heavier when compared to the new BOB. The new BOB is also a bit longer and much more versatile in that connectors are easily changeable and if a banana jack is broken, it can be replaced instead of throwing away an entire BOB.

  20. Avionics Box Cold Plate Damage Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambolian, Damon; Larcher, Steven; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Over the years there have been several occurrences of damage to Space Shuttle Orbiter cold plates during removal and replacement of avionics boxes. Thus a process improvement team was put together to determine ways to prevent these kinds of damage. From this effort there were many solutions including, protective covers, training, and improved operations instructions. The focus of this paper is to explain the cold plate damage problem and the corrective actions for preventing future damage to aerospace avionics cold plate designs.

  1. Avoiding troubles in large gear boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Abou-Haidar, A.N.

    1995-05-08

    This article describes how attention to details such as moisture, contamination, and mechanical loading pays off in troublefree service. Most problems in large gear boxes occur with gears and bearings. Their failure modes and causes should be carefully analyzed to determine the proper corrective action. If gears are selected properly and maintained while in operation, they should last 20 or 30 yr. Gears usually fail because an interruption in operation causes wear and surface fatigue.

  2. Deployment Mechanism for the Space Technology 5 Micro Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossoni, Peter; Cooperrider, Caner; Durback, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    Space Technology 5 (ST5) is a technology mission that will send three spin-stabilized, 25-kg satellites into a highly elliptical Earth orbit. Each of these satellites must be deployed separately from the same launch vehicle with a spin rate of 3.4 rad/s (32.4 rpm). Because of the satellite's small size and the requirement to achieve its mission spin rate on deploy, typical spin table, pyrotechnic deployment devices or spin up thrusters could not be used. Instead, this new mechanism design employs a 'Frisbee' spin up strategy with a shape memory alloy actuated Pinpuller to deploy each satellite. The mechanism has undergone several design and test iterations and has been successfully qualified for flight.

  3. Deployment Mechanism for the Space Technology 5 Micro Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossoni, Peter; Cooperrider, Caner; Durback, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    Space Technology 5 (ST5) is a technology mission that will send three spin-stabilized, 25-kg satellites into a highly elliptical Earth orbit. Each of these satellites must be deployed separately from the same launch vehicle with a spin rate of 3.4 rads (32.4 rpm). Because of the satellite's small size and the requirement to achieve its mission spin rate on deploy, typical spin table, pyrotechnic deployment devices or spin up thrusters could not be used. Instead, this new mechanism design employs a "Frisbee" spin up strategy with a shape memory alloy actuated Pinpuller to deploy each satellite. The mechanism has undergone several design and test iterations and has been successfully qualified for flight.

  4. An Enhanced Box-Wing Solar Radiation pressure model for BDS and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qunhe; Wang, Xiaoya; Hu, Xiaogong; Guo, Rui; Shang, Lin; Tang, Chengpan; Shao, Fan

    2016-04-01

    Solar radiation pressure forces are the largest non-gravitational perturbations acting on GNSS satellites, which is difficult to be accurately modeled due to the complicated and changing satellite attitude and unknown surface material characteristics. By the end of 2015, there are more than 50 stations of the Multi-GNSS Experiment(MGEX) set-up by the IGS. The simple box-plate model relies on coarse assumptions about the dimensions and optical properties of the satellite due to lack of more detailed information. So, a physical model based on BOX-WING model is developed, which is more sophisticated and more detailed physical structure has been taken into account, then calculating pressure forces according to the geometric relations between light rays and surfaces. All the MGEX stations and IGS core stations had been processed for precise orbit determination tests with GPS and BDS observations. Calculation range covers all the two kinds of Eclipsing and non-eclipsing periods in 2015, and we adopted the un-differential observation mode and more accurate values of satellite phase centers. At first, we tried nine parameters model, and then eliminated the parameters with strong correlation between them, came into being five parameters of the model. Five parameters were estimated, such as solar scale, y-bias, three material coefficients of solar panel, x-axis and z-axis panels. Initial results showed that, in the period of yaw-steering mode, use of Enhanced ADBOXW model results in small improvement for IGSO and MEO satellites, and the Root-Mean-Square(RMS) error value of one-day arc orbit decreased by about 10%~30% except for C08 and C14. The new model mainly improved the along track acceleration, up to 30% while in the radial track was not obvious. The Satellite Laser Ranging(SLR) validation showed, however, that this model had higher prediction accuracy in the period of orbit-normal mode, compared to GFZ multi-GNSS orbit products, as well with relative post

  5. Function of B-BOX under shade.

    PubMed

    Crocco, Carlos D; Holm, Magnus; Yanovsky, Marcelo J; Botto, Javier F

    2011-01-01

    Plants are capable of perceiving changes in the light environment and finely adjust their growth and development. Reductions of red to far-red ratio (R:FR) generated by an increase of the plant canopy above the plant are sensed by the phytochrome system triggering the shade-avoidance syndrome (SAS) that includes elongation of vegetative structures, reduction of branching and acceleration of flowering. Albeit the SAS is a strategy of major adaptative significance in plant communities, involving massive changes in gene expression, our knowledge of the SAS signaling network is still fragmented. By a selection and characterization of a T-DNA mutant with a long hypocotyl under shade, we identified BBX21, a protein with two B-box domains involved in the SAS. BBX21 belongs to a small eight member family of B-box containing proteins with both opposite and additive functions in the SAS signaling. BBX21 down-regulates the gene expression of auxin, brassinosteroid and ethylene signaling pathway components under shade. Furthermore BBX21 is a transcription factor that interacts genetically with COP1. We propose a model in which a dynamic balance of positive and negative B-box transcriptional regulators acts as a gas-and-brake mechanism into the COP1 signaling to regulate the expression of SAS.

  6. T-box factors determine cardiac design.

    PubMed

    Hoogaars, W M H; Barnett, P; Moorman, A F M; Christoffels, V M

    2007-03-01

    The heart of higher vertebrates is a structurally complicated multi-chambered pump that contracts synchronously. For its proper function a number of distinct integrated components have to be generated, including force-generating compartments, unidirectional valves, septa and a system in charge of the initiation and coordinated propagation of the depolarizing impulse over the heart. Not surprisingly, a large number of regulating factors are involved in these processes that act in complex and intertwined pathways to regulate the activity of target genes responsible for morphogenesis and function. The finding that mutations in T-box transcription factor-encoding genes in humans lead to congenital heart defects has focused attention on the importance of this family of regulators in heart development. Functional and genetic analyses in a variety of divergent species has demonstrated the critical roles of multiple T-box factor gene family members, including Tbx11, -2, -3, -5, -18 and -20, in the patterning, recruitment, specification, differentiation and growth processes underlying formation and integration of the heart components. Insight into the roles of T-box factors in these processes will enhance our understanding of heart formation and the underlying molecular regulatory pathways.

  7. Alloy 10: A 1300F Disk Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John

    2000-01-01

    Gas turbine engines for future subsonic transports will probably have higher pressure ratios which will require nickel-base superalloy disks with 13000 to 1400 F temperature capability. Several advanced disk alloys are being developed to fill this need. One of these, Allied Signal's Alloy 10, is a promising candidate for gas turbine engines to be used on smaller, regional aircraft. For this application, compressor/turbine disks must withstand temperatures of 1300 F for several hundred hours over the life of the engine. In this paper, three key properties of Alloy 10--tensile, 0.2% creep, and fatigue crack growth--will be assessed at 1300 F.

  8. Prohibiting Headgear for Safety in Amateur Boxing? Opinion of the Canadian Boxing Community: an Online Poll.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Philip; Rempel, Philip

    In 2013, the Amateur International Boxing Association (AIBA) introduced a rule banning headgear for male-senior open class boxers during competition. The AIBA has defended the rule change as motivated by safety and supported by internal unpublished studies. As a result, in 2018, the AIBA plans to universally prohibit headgear in competition: for all competitors (male and female), all ages and all levels. Within Canada, this ruling has generated controversy in the boxing community, yet there has been no overall measure of opinion. To address this, we instituted a voluntary, anonymous, online open-access poll to allow members of the boxing community to express their stance on headgear use in competition. In total, 636 responses were received. A total of 71.5 % of Canadian respondents believed headgear should be mandatory at all levels. Only 5.8 % agreed that headgear should be prohibited, as planned for 2018. Estimating results on a representative breakdown of boxing membership in Canada, a similar pattern emerged, whereby 68.2 % concurred with mandatory headgear while only 4.95 % supported its prohibition. Parents of boxers were almost unanimously against banning headgear, stating they would change sports as a result. Similarly, only 1.7 % of women believed headgear should be prohibited. The consensus of the Canadian boxing community largely opposes the rule changes that the AIBA has implemented. The results highlight risks posed to the long-term viability of the sport, if significant grassroots safety concerns are disregarded.

  9. Utilization of Boxes for Pesticide Storage in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Pieris, Ravi; Weerasinghe, Manjula; Abeywickrama, Tharaka; Manuweera, Gamini; Eddleston, Michael; Dawson, Andrew; Konradsen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide self-poisoning is now considered one of the two most common methods of suicide worldwide. Encouraging safe storage of pesticides is one particular approach aimed at reducing pesticide self-poisoning. CropLife Sri Lanka (the local association of pesticide manufacturers), with the aid of the Department of Agriculture, distributed lockable in-house pesticide storage boxes free of charge to a farming community in a rural district of Sri Lanka. Padlocks were not provided with the boxes. These storage boxes were distributed to the farmers without prior education. The authors carried out a cross-sectional follow-up survey to assess the usage of boxes at 7 months after distribution. In an inspection of a sample of 239 box recipients' households, 142 households stored pesticides in the provided box at the time of survey. Among them, only 42 (42/142, 29.65%) households had locked the box; the remaining households (100/142, 70.4%) had not locked the box. A simple hand over of in-house pesticide storage boxes without awareness/education results in poor use of boxes. Additionally, providing in-house storage boxes may encourage farmers to store pesticides in and around houses and, if they are not locked, may lead to unplanned adverse effects.

  10. HMGB Binding to DNA: Single and Double Box Motifs

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Micah J.; Zimmerman, Jeff; Maher, L. James; C.Williams, Mark

    2007-01-01

    High Mobility Group (HMG) proteins are nuclear proteins believed to significantly affect DNA interactions by altering nucleic acid flexibility. HMG group B proteins contain HMG box domains known to bind into the DNA minor groove without sequence specificity, slightly intercalating base pairs and inducing a strong bend in the DNA helix axis. A dual beam optical tweezers is used to extend double–stranded DNA (dsDNA) in the absence and presence of a single box derivative of human HMGB2 [HMGB2(box A)] and a double box derivative of rat HMGB1 [HMGB1(box A+B)]. The single box domain is observed to reduce the persistence length of the double helix, generating sharp DNA bends with an average bend angle of 99 ± 9°, and at very high concentrations also stabilizing dsDNA against denaturation. The double box protein contains two consecutive HMG box domains joined by a flexible tether. This protein also reduces the DNA persistence length, induces an average bending angle of 77 ± 7° and stabilizes dsDNA at significantly lower concentrations. These results suggest that the single and double box proteins increase DNA flexibility and stability, but both effects are achieved at much lower protein concentrations for the double box. In addition, at low concentrations the single box protein can alter DNA flexibility without stabilizing dsDNA, while stabilization at higher concentration is likely achieved through a cooperative binding mode. PMID:17964600

  11. Invariant box[endash]parameterization of neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Weiler, T.J. ); Wagner, D. )

    1998-10-01

    The model-independent [open quotes]box[close quotes] parameterization of neutrino oscillations is examined. The invariant boxes are the classical amplitudes of the individual oscillating terms. Being observables, the boxes are independent of the choice of parameterization of the mixing matrix. Emphasis is placed on the relations among the box parameters due to mixing[endash]matrix unitarity, and on the reduction of the number of boxes to the minimum basis set. Using the box algebra, we show that CP-violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. General analyses of neutrino oscillations among n[ge]3 flavors can readily determine the boxes, which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements. [copyright] [ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Invariant box{endash}parameterization of neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Weiler, T.J.; Wagner, D.

    1998-10-01

    The model-independent {open_quotes}box{close_quotes} parameterization of neutrino oscillations is examined. The invariant boxes are the classical amplitudes of the individual oscillating terms. Being observables, the boxes are independent of the choice of parameterization of the mixing matrix. Emphasis is placed on the relations among the box parameters due to mixing{endash}matrix unitarity, and on the reduction of the number of boxes to the minimum basis set. Using the box algebra, we show that CP-violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. General analyses of neutrino oscillations among n{ge}3 flavors can readily determine the boxes, which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Policy statement—Boxing participation by children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Laura; LeBlanc, Claire M A

    2011-09-01

    Thousands of boys and girls younger than 19 years participate in boxing in North America. Although boxing provides benefits for participants, including exercise, self-discipline, and self-confidence, the sport of boxing encourages and rewards deliberate blows to the head and face. Participants in boxing are at risk of head, face, and neck injuries, including chronic and even fatal neurologic injuries. Concussions are one of the most common injuries that occur with boxing. Because of the risk of head and facial injuries, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Canadian Paediatric Society oppose boxing as a sport for children and adolescents. These organizations recommend that physicians vigorously oppose boxing in youth and encourage patients to participate in alternative sports in which intentional head blows are not central to the sport.

  14. Can the design of glove dispensing boxes influence glove contamination?

    PubMed

    Assadian, O; Leaper, D J; Kramer, A; Ousey, K J

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have explored the microbial contamination of glove boxes in clinical settings. The objective of this observational study was to investigate whether a new glove packaging system in which single gloves are dispensed vertically, cuff end first, has lower levels of contamination on the gloves and on the surface around the box aperture compared with conventional glove boxes. Seven participating sites were provided with vertical glove dispensing systems (modified boxes) and conventional boxes. Before opening glove boxes, the surface around the aperture was sampled microbiologically to establish baseline levels of superficial contamination. Once the glove boxes were opened, the first pair of gloves in each box was sampled for viable bacteria. Thereafter, testing sites were visited on a weekly basis over a period of six weeks and the same microbiological assessments were made. The surface near the aperture of the modified boxes became significantly less contaminated over time compared with the conventional boxes (P<0.001), with an average of 46.7% less contamination around the aperture. Overall, gloves from modified boxes showed significantly less colony-forming unit contamination than gloves from conventional boxes (P<0.001). Comparing all sites over the entire six-week period, gloves from modified boxes had 88.9% less bacterial contamination. This simple improvement to glove box design reduces contamination of unused gloves. Such modifications could decrease the risk of microbial cross-transmission in settings that use gloves. However, such advantages do not substitute for strict hand hygiene compliance and appropriate use of non-sterile, single-use gloves. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Surface alloying of Mg alloys after surface nanocrystallization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Xing; Shi, Yi-Nong; Sun, Haiqing; Kelly, Patrick M

    2008-05-01

    Surface nanocrystallization using a surface mechanical attrition treatment effectively activates the surface of magnesium alloys due to the increase in grain boundary diffusion channels. As a result, the temperature of subsequent surface alloying treatment of pure Mg and AZ91 alloy can be reduced from 430 degrees C to 380 degrees C. Thus, it is possible to combine the surface alloying process with the solution treatment for this type of alloy. After surface alloying, the hardness of the alloyed layer is 3 to 4 times higher than that of the substrate and this may significantly improve the wear resistance of magnesium alloys.

  16. 49 CFR 178.512 - Standards for steel or aluminum boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for steel or aluminum boxes. 178.512... aluminum boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for steel or aluminum boxes: (1) 4A for a steel box; and (2) 4B for an aluminum box. (b) Construction requirements for steel or aluminum boxes are as...

  17. 49 CFR 178.512 - Standards for steel, aluminum or other metal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for steel, aluminum or other metal boxes..., aluminum or other metal boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for steel, aluminum, or other metal boxes: (1) 4A for a steel box; (2) 4B for an aluminum box; and (3) 4N for an other metal box....

  18. Catalyst Alloys Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xincai

    2014-10-01

    Catalysts are one of the key materials used for diamond formation at high pressures. Several such catalyst products have been developed and applied in China and around the world. The catalyst alloy most widely used in China is Ni70Mn25Co5 developed at Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In this article, detailed techniques for manufacturing such a typical catalyst alloy will be reviewed. The characteristics of the alloy will be described. Detailed processing of the alloy will be presented, including remelting and casting, hot rolling, annealing, surface treatment, cold rolling, blanking, finishing, packaging, and waste treatment. An example use of the catalyst alloy will also be given. Industrial experience shows that for the catalyst alloy products, a vacuum induction remelt furnace can be used for remelting, a metal mold can be used for casting, hot and cold rolling can be used for forming, and acid pickling can be used for metal surface cleaning.

  19. Communication satellite applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    The status and future of the technologies, numbers and services provided by communications satellites worldwide are explored. The evolution of Intelsat satellites and the associated earth terminals toward high-rate all-digital telephony, data, facsimile, videophone, videoconferencing and DBS capabilities are described. The capabilities, services and usage of the Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Arabsat and Palapa systems are also outlined. Domestic satellite communications by means of the Molniya, ANIK, Olympus, Intelsat and Palapa spacecraft are outlined, noting the fast growth of the market and the growing number of different satellite manufacturers. The technical, economic and service definition issues surrounding DBS systems are discussed, along with presently operating and planned maritime and aeronautical communications and positioning systems. Features of search and rescue and tracking, data, and relay satellite systems are summarized, and services offered or which will be offered by every existing or planned communication satellite worldwide are tabulated.

  20. Conformal coating value/risk assessment for Sandia satellite programs.

    SciTech Connect

    Russick, Edward Mark; Thayer, Gayle Echo

    2008-03-01

    Conformal coatings are used in space applications on printed circuit board (PCB) assemblies primarily as a protective barrier against environmental contaminants. Such coatings have been used at Sandia for decades in satellite applications including the GPS satellite program. Recently, the value of conformal coating has been questioned because it is time consuming (requiring a 5-6 week schedule allowance) and delays due to difficulty of repairs and rework performed afterward are troublesome. In an effort to find opportunities where assembly time can be reduced, a review of the literature as well as discussions with satellite engineers both within and external to Sandia regarding the value of conformal coating was performed. Several sources on the value of conformal coating, the functions it performs, and on whether coatings are necessary and should be used at all were found, though nearly all were based on anecdotal information. The first section of this report, titled 'Conformal Coating for Space Applications', summarizes the results of an initial risk-value assessment of the conformal coating process for Sandia satellite programs based on information gathered. In the process of collecting information to perform the assessment, it was necessary to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the entire satellite box assembly process. A production time-line was constructed and is presented in the second section of this report, titled 'Satellite Box Assembly', specifically to identify potential sources of time delays, manufacturing issues, and component failures related to the conformal coating process in relation to the box assembly. The time-line also allows for identification of production issues that were anecdotally attributed to the conformal coating but actually were associated with other production steps in the box assembly process. It was constructed largely in consultation with GPS program engineers with empirical knowledge of times required to complete the

  1. Satellite Data Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    emphasized. After a discussion of existing standard tariffed satellite data services and special tariffed data services we list some possible future data...international maritime cammunica- tions satellite (MARISAT) is scheduled for launch early in 1975, and an inter- national aeronautical satellite (AEROSAT...circuit may achieve a data rate of 9600 bits per second under carefully controlled conditions [8]. A 50,000 bits per second data circuit, tariffed

  2. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  3. Amorphous metal alloy

    DOEpatents

    Wang, R.; Merz, M.D.

    1980-04-09

    Amorphous metal alloys of the iron-chromium and nickel-chromium type have excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature stability and are suitable for use as a protective coating on less corrosion resistant substrates. The alloys are stabilized in the amorphous state by one or more elements of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. The alloy is preferably prepared by sputter deposition.

  4. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, D.S.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Powell, R.W.

    1985-02-07

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  5. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, David S.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Powell, Roger W.

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  6. Satellite networks for education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. P.; Morgan, R. P.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Satellite based educational networking is discussed with particular attention given to the potential uses of communications satellites to help meet educational needs in the United states. Four major subject areas were covered; (1) characteristics and structure of networks, (2) definition of pressures within educational establishment that provide motivation for various types of networks, (3) examination of current educational networking status for educational radio and television, instructional television fixed services, inter- and intra-state educational communication networks, computer networks, and cable television for education, and (4) identification of possible satellite based educational telecommunication services and three alternatives for implementing educational satellite systems.

  7. Methods of satellite oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical basis for remote sensing measurements of climate and ocean dynamics is examined. Consideration is given to: the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere; scattering in the atmosphere; and satellite observations using visible light. Consideration is also given to: the theory of radio scatter from the sea; scatter of centimeter waves from the sea; and the theory of operation of synthetic aperture radars. Additional topics include: the coordinate systems of satellite orbits for oceanographic remote sensing applications; the operating features of the major U.S. satellite systems for viewing the ocean; and satellite altimetry.

  8. Satellite communication antenna technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittra, R. (Editor); Imbriale, W. A. (Editor); Maanders, E. J. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    A general overview of current technology in the field of communication satellite antennas is presented. Among the topics discussed are: the design of multiple beam systems; frequency reuse; and polarization control of antenna measurements. Consideration is also given to: contour beam synthesis; dual shaped reflector synthesis; beam shaping; and offset reflector design. The applications of the above technologies to present and future generations of communications satellites is considered, with emphasis given to such systems as: the Intelsats; the Defense Satellite Communications System, (DSCS-III); Satellite Business System (SBS), and Comstar.

  9. Echo 30" Sub Satellite

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-09-07

    James Hansen describes the work on Project Echo s air density experiment known as the Sub-Satellite. Before launch engineers subjected the sub-satellite to many tests. Here, the sub-satellite is shown prior to tests to determine the capacity of the 30-inch Sub-Satellite to withstand the high temperature of direct sunlight in space, Langley researchers subjected it to 450 F heat test. Results indicated that the aluminum-covered Mylar plastic would effectively reflect the dangerous heat. -- Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 168.

  10. Satellite Antenna Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Through the Technology Affiliates Program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the ACTS antenna system was transferred from experimental testing status to commercial development with KVH Industries, Inc. The ACTS design enables mobile satellite antennas to remain pointed at the satellite, regardless of the motion or vibration on which it is mounted. KVH's first product based on the ACTS design is a land-mobile satellite antenna system that will enable direct broadcast satellite television aboard moving trucks, recreational vehicles, trains, and buses. Future products could include use in broadcasting, emergency medical and military vehicles.

  11. Satellite Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Researchers at the Center for Aerospace Sciences of the University of North Dakota (UND), Grand Forks, used three NASA Computer programs (SANDTRACKS, ODG, NORAD) to develop a Satellite Tracking System for real time utilization of TIROS weather/environment satellite information. SANDTRACKS computes the satellite's position relative to the Earth. ODG allows plotting a view of Earth as seen by the satellite. NORAD computes sight direction, visibility times and maximum elevation angle during each orbit. With the system, UND's Earth System Science Institute will be able to routinely monitor agricultural and environmental conditions of the Northern Plains.

  12. NICKEL-BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Inouye, H.; Manly, W.D.; Roche, T.K.

    1960-01-19

    A nickel-base alloy was developed which is particularly useful for the containment of molten fluoride salts in reactors. The alloy is resistant to both salt corrosion and oxidation and may be used at temperatures as high as 1800 deg F. Basically, the alloy consists of 15 to 22 wt.% molybdenum, a small amount of carbon, and 6 to 8 wt.% chromium, the balance being nickel. Up to 4 wt.% of tungsten, tantalum, vanadium, or niobium may be added to strengthen the alloy.

  13. Supersaturated Aluminum Alloy Powders.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-15

    shown in Fig. 18 . It .an be clearly seen that most of the iron is concentrated in the precipitates (Fig. 18 ), X-ray mapping immage for the chromium...At 232°C our alloys are comparable to 2� and 2618 in their tensile properties, and except for alloy #1 which at t i temperature has elongation of...demonstrate better yield strength and UTS than the 2219, 2618 and are comparable to the ALCOA alloy. They show however higher ductility than the ALCOA alloy

  14. Boxing headguard performance in punch machine tests.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Andrew S; Patton, Declan A

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents a novel laboratory method for assessing boxing headguard impact performance. The method is applied to examine the effects of headguards on head impact dynamics and injury risk. A linear impactor was developed, and a range of impacts was delivered to an instrumented Hybrid III head and neck system both with and without an AIBA (Association Internationale de Boxe Amateur)-approved headguard. Impacts at selected speeds between 4.1 and 8.3 m/s were undertaken. The impactor mass was approximately 4 kg and an interface comprising a semirigid 'fist' with a glove was used. The peak contact forces were in the range 1.9-5.9 kN. Differences in head impact responses between the Top Ten AIBA-approved headguard and bare headform in the lateral and forehead tests were large and/or significant. In the 8.3 m/s fist-glove impacts, the mean peak resultant headform accelerations for bare headform tests was approximately 130 g compared with approximately 85 g in the forehead impacts. In the 6.85 m/s bare headform impacts, mean peak resultant angular head accelerations were in the range of 5200-5600 rad/s(2) and almost halved by the headguard. Linear and angular accelerations in 45° forehead and 60° jaw impacts were reduced by the headguard. The data support the opinion that current AIBA headguards can play an important role in reducing the risk of concussion and superficial injury in boxing competition and training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Box codes of lengths 48 and 72

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.; Jin, Y.

    1993-01-01

    A self-dual code length 48, dimension 24, with Hamming distance essentially equal to 12 is constructed here. There are only six code words of weight eight. All the other code words have weights that are multiples of four and have a minimum weight equal to 12. This code may be encoded systematically and arises from a strict binary representation of the (8,4;5) Reed-Solomon (RS) code over GF (64). The code may be considered as six interrelated (8,7;2) codes. The Mattson-Solomon representation of the cyclic decomposition of these codes and their parity sums are used to detect an odd number of errors in any of the six codes. These may then be used in a correction algorithm for hard or soft decision decoding. A (72,36;15) box code was constructed from a (63,35;8) cyclic code. The theoretical justification is presented herein. A second (72,36;15) code is constructed from an inner (63,27;16) Bose Chaudhuri Hocquenghem (BCH) code and expanded to length 72 using box code algorithms for extension. This code was simulated and verified to have a minimum distance of 15 with even weight words congruent to zero modulo four. The decoding for hard and soft decision is still more complex than the first code constructed above. Finally, an (8,4;5) RS code over GF (512) in the binary representation of the (72,36;15) box code gives rise to a (72,36;16*) code with nine words of weight eight, and all the rest have weights greater than or equal to 16.

  16. Litter box preference in domestic cats: covered versus uncovered.

    PubMed

    Grigg, Emma K; Pick, Lindsay; Nibblett, Belle

    2013-04-01

    Feline inappropriate elimination (periuria and/or perichezia) remains a very common behavioral complaint of cat owners. Treatment recommendations often include improving the attractiveness of the litter boxes available to the cat. One frequent recommendation is to avoid covered litter boxes, although this has not previously been tested experimentally. The goal of this study was to assess whether, all else being equal, cats preferentially used uncovered litter boxes over covered litter boxes. Twenty-eight cats were enrolled in the study and offered the choice of a covered or uncovered box. Waste was scooped daily from each box, and the weight of waste in the different box styles was compared and evaluated using paired t-tests and χ(2) analyses. Overall, there was no significant difference between use of the two box styles. Eight individual cats did exhibit a preference (four for covered, four for uncovered), but individual preference results are not evenly distributed, with more cats than expected showing no preference between litter box types. We postulate that, if boxes are kept sufficiently clean (ie, once daily minimum cleaning), most cats will not show a preference for either box type. The observation that a minority of cats in the study exhibited a preference supports the recommendation of providing individual cats with a 'cafeteria' of litter box styles, including a covered box, to determine whether such a preference exists. These findings add to existing literature on the topic of feline inappropriate elimination and provide additional information for clinicians recommending treatment options for cats exhibiting this behavior.

  17. A (72, 36; 15) box code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1993-01-01

    A (72,36;15) box code is constructed as a 9 x 8 matrix whose columns add to form an extended BCH-Hamming (8,4;4) code and whose rows sum to odd or even parity. The newly constructed code, due to its matrix form, is easily decodable for all seven-error and many eight-error patterns. The code comes from a slight modification in the parity (eighth) dimension of the Reed-Solomon (8,4;5) code over GF(512). Error correction uses the row sum parity information to detect errors, which then become erasures in a Reed-Solomon correction algorithm.

  18. "Out of the box" professional development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-04-01

    At a recent AAPT meeting, I was part of a conversation about professional development that focused on conferences. We discussed the current meeting structure used by AAPT and some alternative formats. This discussion added greatly to my own understanding of new ways for teachers to receive their professional development. This conversation also began my friendship with Kelly O'Shea, a physics teacher from New York. She is also a blogger (check her out at https://kellyoshea.wordpress.com) and an innovative educator. Through my relationship with Kelly, I have grown in my own knowledge of two "out of the box" ways teachers are getting their professional development.

  19. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Diane J.; Crandall, Aaron S.; Thomas, Brian L.; Krishnan, Narayanan C.

    2013-01-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS “smart home in a box”, a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and implementing smart home technologies. PMID:24415794

  20. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, J.

    1994-12-07

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory`s NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system`s embedded operating and data reduction software.

  1. Processing of satellite imagery at the National Environmental Satellite Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, M.

    1977-01-01

    The National Environmental Satellite Service (NESS) image product processing system is described. Other topics discussed include: (1) image processing of polar-orbiter satellite data; (2) image processing of geostationary satellite data; and (3) quality assurance and product monitoring.

  2. Teaching Outside the Box: ARL Librarians' Integration of the "One- Box" into Student Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulp, Christina; McCain, Cheryl; Scrivener, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey that targeted reference and instruction librarians who work at libraries that are members of the Asso- ciation of Research Libraries (ARL). Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not they teach students to use the one-box tool, and why or why not. Based on the responses of the 352 librarians who…

  3. Historical Thinking inside the Box: Preservice Elementary Teachers Use Journey Boxes to Craft Counter Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alarcon, Jeannette; Holmes, Kathlene; Bybee, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This article details the "journey box" project process enacted by two elementary preservice teacher cohorts. Engaging in activities and projects that promote a sense of investment in not only consuming but producing historical narratives, preservice teachers potentially become interested in sharing this type of learning with their…

  4. Historical Thinking inside the Box: Preservice Elementary Teachers Use Journey Boxes to Craft Counter Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alarcon, Jeannette; Holmes, Kathlene; Bybee, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This article details the "journey box" project process enacted by two elementary preservice teacher cohorts. Engaging in activities and projects that promote a sense of investment in not only consuming but producing historical narratives, preservice teachers potentially become interested in sharing this type of learning with their…

  5. 46 CFR 111.81-1 - Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...; UL 50; UL 514A, UL 514B, and UL 514C; IEC 60092-101; IEC 92-201; IEC 92-306; IEC 60092-352; IEC 92-401; and IEC 60092-502. (e) Each outlet or junction box must be securely attached to its mounting and... NEMA or IEC standard. ...

  6. DEAD-Box RNA Binding Protein DDX5: Not a Black-Box during Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Nefzger, Christian M; Polo, Jose M

    2017-04-06

    The role of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) during nuclear reprogramming is poorly characterized. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell,Li et al. (2017) show that DEAD-box RBP DDX5 acts as a reprogramming roadblock and give important mechanistic insights into the establishment of pluripotency by characterizing the intricate downstream events.

  7. Communications technology satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A description of the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS), its planned orbit, its experiments, and associated ground facilities was given. The communication experiments, to be carried out by a variety of groups in both the United States and Canada, include tele-education, tele-medicine, community interaction, data communications and broadcasting. A historical summary of communications satellite development was also included.

  8. Jovian satellite nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review of the history of Jovian satellite nomenclature is given to indicate the background for the names proposed for the numbered satellites. The new names are consistent with established tradition and should cause minimal confusion with other named objects in the solar system.

  9. Federal Agency Satellite Requirements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument have been established with I Thailand and Malaysia . AID’s Early Warning Program relies on satellite...CE’s mission. a. Environmental and Hydrological Data. High-resolution digi - tal satellite data have great potential for supplying hydro- logic and

  10. Satellites of spiral galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Smith, Rodney; Frenk, Carlos; White, Simon D. M.

    1993-01-01

    We present a survey of satellites around a homogeneous set of late-type spirals with luminosity similar to that of the Milky Way. On average, we find fewer than 1.5 satellites per primary, but we argue that we can treat the survey as an ensemble and so derive the properties of the halo of a 'typical' isolated spiral. The projected density profile of the ensemble falls off approximately as 1/r. Within 50 kpc the azimuthal distribution of satellites shows some evidence for the 'Holmberg effect', an excess near the minor axis of the primary; however, at larger projected distances, the distribution appears isotropic. There is a weak but significant correlation between the size of a satellite and its distance from its primary, as expected if satellites are tidally truncated. Neither Hubble type nor spectral characteristics correlate with apparent separation. The ensemble of satellites appears to be rotating at about 30 km/s in the same direction as the galactic disk. Satellites on prograde orbits tend to be brighter than those on retrograde orbits. The typical velocity difference between a satellite and its primary shows no clear dependence either on apparent separation, or on the rotation speed of the primary. Thus our survey demonstrates that isolated spiral galaxies have massive halos that extend to many optical radii.

  11. Telecommunications satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramat, Pierre

    1992-12-01

    A survey of the telecommunications satellite field is presented. After a review of the historical and regulatory background, the main technical features of satellite networks are analyzed, and existing international and national systems are considered. Particular attention is given to Intelsat, Inmarsat, Eutelsat, and Telecom 1 and 2. Future technical and economic trends are then projected.

  12. Outer planets satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation takes into account the published literature on outer planet satellites for 1979-1982. It is pointed out that all but three (the moon and the two Martian satellites) of the known planetary satellites are found in the outer solar system. Most of these are associated with the three regular satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. The largest satellites are Titan in the Saturn system and Ganymede and Callisto in the Jupiter system. Intermediate in size between Mercury and Mars, each has a diameter of about 5000 km. Presumably each has an internal composition about 60 percent rock and 40 ice, and each is differentiated with a dense core extending out about 75 percent of the distance to the surface, with a mantle of high-pressure ice and a crust of ordinary ice perhaps 100 km thick. Attention is also given to Io, Europa, the icy satellites of Saturn, the satellites of Uranus, the small satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, Triton and the Pluto system, and plans for future studies.

  13. Amateur Radio Satellite Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, David P.

    The Amateur Radio Satellite Communications project had, as its goal, the assembly of an amateur radio satellite station in a high school physics classroom. Specific objectives were to provide: (1) a special source of interest as a motivator for attracting students and building public relations; (2) a center of interest as a motivator for the study…

  14. Signals from Communications Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Volker

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the Doppler effect for relative motion between a source of waves and an observer and the orbital dynamics of communications satellites. Presents preliminary calculations of the satellite's altitude and linear velocity using only the concepts of the Doppler shift and the mechanics of motion in a circular path. (JRH)

  15. Satellite Teleconference Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgin Community Coll., IL.

    The vocational education satellite teleconference project accomplished two goals: (1) identified, acquired, copied, and distributed to the Illinois Vocational Curriculum Center 100 marketing or training videotapes for staff development and classroom use; and (2) provided from 15-25 variable time (1- to 3-hour) satellite teleconferences in four…

  16. Audio direct broadcast satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Satellite sound broadcasting is, as the name implies, the use of satellite techniques and technology to broadcast directly from space to low-cost, consumer-quality receivers the types of sound programs commonly received in the AM and FM broadcast bands. It would be a ubiquitous service available to the general public in the home, in the car, and out in the open.

  17. Signals from Communications Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Volker

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the Doppler effect for relative motion between a source of waves and an observer and the orbital dynamics of communications satellites. Presents preliminary calculations of the satellite's altitude and linear velocity using only the concepts of the Doppler shift and the mechanics of motion in a circular path. (JRH)

  18. Satellites in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, C. I.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of satellite data in physics classrooms. Describes the apparatus that can be used to collect and analyze data. Provides examples of how telemetry data transmitted by the satellite UoSAT-2 can be used not only in teaching physics, but also in geography, mathematics, and information technology. (TW)

  19. Interactive Learning by Satellite.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce O.

    1987-01-01

    Describes three systems of interactive satellite instruction for high school credit: German by Satellite, offered by the University of Oklahoma; Accelerated Learning of Spanish, originating in Utah; and the TI-IN network, which broadcasts 14 different high school courses from San Antonio, Texas. (JC)

  20. Communication satellite technology trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuccia, Louis

    1986-01-01

    A chronology of space-Earth interconnectivity is presented. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) system, Land Mobile Satellite, space-Earth antennas, impact of antenna size on coverage, intersatellite links are outlined. This presentation is represented by graphs and charts only.

  1. Tethered satellite control mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyrias, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    The tethered satellite control mechanisms consist of four major subsystems. The reel drive mechanism stores the tether. It is motor driven and includes a level wind to uniformly feed the tether to the reel. The lower boom mechanism serves two primary functions: (1) it measures tether length and velocity as the tether runs through the mechanism, and (2) it reads the tether tension at the reel. It also provides change the direction for the tether from the reel to the upper boom mechanism. The deployment boom positions the upper boom mechanism with satellite out of the cargo bay. The deployment function places the 500-kg satellite 20 m away from the Space Shuttle (producing a small natural gravity gradient force), impacts an initial velocity to the satellite for deployment, and allows for satellite docking at a safe distance from the body of the Space Shuttle. The upper boom mechanism (UBM) services three functions: (1) it provides tether control to the satellite as the satellite swings in and out of plane; (2) it reads tether tension in the low range during the early deployment and final retrieval parts of the mission; and (3) it produces additional tether tension at the reel when tether tension to the satellite is in the low range.

  2. Research of intelligent bus coin box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Shihao

    2017-03-01

    In the energy-saving emission reduction of the social context, in response to low-carbon travel, buses become the majority of people choose. We have designed this sorting machine for the present situation that the bus company has received a large amount of mixed zero coins and employed a large amount of manpower to sort out and lower the efficiency. Its function is to separate the coins and notes mixed, and the coins sort storage, the display shows the value of the received coins, so that the whole mechanized inventory classification, reduce the cost of clearing up and improve the efficiency of zero cash recycling, use Simple mechanical principles for classification, to be efficient, accurate and practical. Really meet the current city bus companies, commerce and banking and other industries in order to zero notes, zero coins in the actual demand. The size and specification of this machine are designed according to the size of the bus coin box. It is suitable for almost all buses. It can be installed in the coin box directly, real-time sorting and real-time counting. The difficulty of clearing change.

  3. The Ion Wakefield Inside a Glass Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mudi; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2016-10-01

    The formation of an ion wakefield downstream of dust particles in a complex plasma sheath has long been understood to have strong implications on their structure, stability and dynamics . The presence of the ion wake introduces interesting phenomena such as charge reduction on downstream particles and asymmetric interaction forces between upstream and downstream particles. Many of the self-ordered dust particle structures observed in complex plasma experiments are the result of the combination of the ion-wakefield and the external confinement; unfortunately, few experimental measurements isolating the effect of the wakefield have been conducted. In this experiment, 1-D dust particle structures (i.e., vertically aligned particle chains) are formed in a GEC RF reference cell within a glass box sitting on the powered lower electrode. A diode pumped, solid-state laser is used to perturb individual particles within the particle chain, allowing a map of the ion wakefield inside the glass box to be generated. The implications of these results will be discussed. NSF / DOE funding is gratefully acknowledged - PHY1414523 & PHY1262031.

  4. Rings and boxes in dissipative environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horovitz, Baruch

    2012-02-01

    We study a particle on a ring in presence of a dissipative Caldeira-Leggett environment and derive its response to a DC field [1]. We find, through a 2-loop renormalization group analysis, that a large dissipation parameter η flows to a fixed point R̂=/2π. We also reexamine the mapping of this problem to that of the Coulomb box and show that the relaxation resistance, of recent interest, has a certain average that is quantized for η>R̂, leading to quantized noise. We propose a box experiment to detect this noise. When the particle carries a spin with spin-orbit interactions [2] we find that the spin correlations in the direction perpendicular to the ring are finite at long times, i.e. do not dephase, while the parallel components may decay as a power law at strong dissipation. [4pt] [1] Y. Etzioni, B. Horovitz and P. Le Doussal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 166803 (2011). [0pt] [2] G. Zar'and, G. T. Zim'anyi and F. Wilhelm, Phys. Rev. B62, 8137 (2000).

  5. The Design of the Orthogonal Box Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, Alfred; /Fermilab

    2010-09-15

    The muon collider and/or the neutrino factory require large accelerating electric field gradients immersed in large (3 to 6 T) solenoidal magnetic fields for ionization cooling of muon beams. Our original vacuum breakdown study demonstrated a loss of achievable peak accelerating gradient in solenoidal magnetic fields by a factor 2 or greater. The Muon Collaboration has developed a theory of a method to suppress high electric field breakdown in vacuum cavities needed for a Muon collider or neutrino factory. It has been shown in our studies and by others that high gradient electric field emitted electrons (dark current) are the primary cause of breakdown. A DC magnetic field orthogonal to the RF electric accelerating field prevents dark current high field emitted electrons from traveling across the accelerating gap and then will prevent breakdown. We have decided to test this theory by building a special cavity in the shape of vacuum box. Figure 1 is a simplified view of the cavity design. The design is based on an 805 MHz WR975 waveguide cavity resonating in the TE{sub 101} mode. For the TE{sub 101} mode the resonant frequency f{sub 0} is given by the relationship f{sub 0} = c[(I/a){sup 2} + (m/b){sup 2} + (n/d){sup 2}]{sup 0.5}/2 where a and d are the lengths of the base sides and b is the height of the box in MKS units and c is the velocity of light.

  6. Flexible bulb large storage box hydrogen maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, V.

    1973-01-01

    The principal limitation on the accuracy of the hydrogen maser as a primary frequency standard has been the irreproducibility of the frequency shift caused by collisions of the radiating atoms with the walls of the vessel containing them. The flexible bulb-large storage box hydrogen maser allows correction for this wall shift within a single device, sidestepping the reproducibility problem, and reducing the frequency error from the wall shift to the level imposed by the device's stability. The principles of the device are discussed including the flexible bulb technique and the complications caused by a multiple region storage bulb. The stability of the device is discussed including a comparison with an ordinary hydrogen maser. Data is presented from a working flexible bulb-large storage box hydrogen maser demonstrating the feasibility of the device and showing some of its operating characteristics. The flexibility of the device is demonstrated by showing how the device's added degrees of freedom allow measurement of parameters unmeasurable in an ordinary hydrogen maser.

  7. A Group Action Method for Construction of Strong Substitution Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamal, Sajjad Shaukat; Shah, Tariq; Attaullah, Atta

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the method to develop cryptographically strong substitution box is presented which can be used in multimedia security and data hiding techniques. The algorithm of construction depends on the action of a projective general linear group over the set of units of the finite commutative ring. The strength of substitution box and ability to create confusion is assessed with different available analyses. Moreover, the ability of resistance against malicious attacks is also evaluated. The substitution box is examined by bit independent criterion, strict avalanche criterion, nonlinearity test, linear approximation probability test and differential approximation probability test. This substitution box is equated with well-recognized substitution boxes such as AES, Gray, APA, S8, prime of residue, Xyi and Skipjack. The comparison shows encouraging results about the strength of the proposed box. The majority logic criterion is also calculated to analyze the strength and its practical implementation.

  8. [Design and application of hand-wrist caring moxibustion box].

    PubMed

    Gao, Xi-Yan; Wang, Xin; Xu, Cui-Xiang; Gao, Ling; Ma, Qiao-Lin

    2013-11-01

    A hand-wrist moxibustion box is designed to effectively solve difficulty to have moxibustion at handwrist joint and problem of bad moxibustion effect as well as improve heat efficiency of moxibustion. The device is consisted of a box and protective screening. The box is hollow with opening on top and bottom. A reversible cover is fixed on the top of the box and support frames are put in the inner-middle. On the side wall there is a hole that is at the same horizontal level of support frames, and horizontal protective screening is put on the bottom. The design of this moxibustion box is novel and unique, simple and reasonable, which could give moxibustion on hand and wrist at the same time. Also it is easily made with low cost, easy to use and favorable effect. It is an innovation on moxibustion box.

  9. Communications satellite needs examined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supharat

    1985-02-01

    Thailand can use a communications satellite to provide various forms of international and domestic telecommunications services such as telephone, teleprinter, telephotograph, television and radio service. This can be done in a manner that is just as efficient as using a microwave radio and underwater and optical fiber cable system. A communications satellite is also superior in terms of flexibility and speed in putting it into operation with no restrictions on distance, routes or geographical characteristics. A ground radio transmitter-receiver station can be built anywhere radio waves from the satellite can be picked up. Costs of launching a satellite into orbit and procedures involved from a regulatory point of view are examined. Initiatives taken to provide Thailand with its own satellites are highlighted.

  10. Satellite networks for education.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. P.; Morgan, R. P.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of satellite-based educational networking. The characteristics and structure of networks are reviewed, and pressures within the educational establishment that are providing motivation for various types of networks are discussed. A number of studies are cited in which networking needs for educational sectors and services are defined. The current status of educational networking for educational radio and television, instructional television fixed services, inter- and intrastate educational communication networks, computer networks, cable television for education, and continuing and proposed educational experiments using NASA's Applications Technology Satellites is reviewed. Possible satellite-based educational telecommunication services and three alternatives for implementing educational satellite systems are described. Some remarks are made concerning public policy aspects of future educational satellite system development.

  11. Laser Geodynamics Satellite (LAGEOS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-04

    This 1975 NASA video highlights the development of LAser GEOdynamics Satellite (LAGEOS I) developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. LAGEOS I is a passive satellite constructed from brass and aluminum and contains 426 individual precision reflectors made from fused silica glass. The mirrored surface of the satellite was designed to reflect laser beams from ground stations for accurate ranging measurements. LAGEOS I was launched on May 4, 1976 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. The two-foot diameter, 900-pound satellite orbited the Earth from pole to pole, measuring the movements of the Earth's surface relative to earthquakes, continental drift, and other geophysical phenomena. Scientists at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama came up with the idea for the satellite and built it at the Marshall Center.

  12. Satellite networks for education.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. P.; Morgan, R. P.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of satellite-based educational networking. The characteristics and structure of networks are reviewed, and pressures within the educational establishment that are providing motivation for various types of networks are discussed. A number of studies are cited in which networking needs for educational sectors and services are defined. The current status of educational networking for educational radio and television, instructional television fixed services, inter- and intrastate educational communication networks, computer networks, cable television for education, and continuing and proposed educational experiments using NASA's Applications Technology Satellites is reviewed. Possible satellite-based educational telecommunication services and three alternatives for implementing educational satellite systems are described. Some remarks are made concerning public policy aspects of future educational satellite system development.

  13. The Satellite Situation Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teague, M. J.; Sawyer, D. M.; Vette, J. I.

    1982-01-01

    Considerations related to the early planning for the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) took into account the desirability of an establishment of specific entities for generating and disseminating coordination information for both retrospective and predictive periods. The organizations established include the IMS/Satellite Situation Center (IMS/SSC) operated by NASA. The activities of the SSC are related to the preparation of reports on predicted and actually achieved satellite positions, the response to inquiries, the compilation of information on satellite experiments, and the issue of periodic status summaries. Attention is given to high-altitude satellite services, other correlative satellite services, non-IMS activities of the SSC, a summary of the SSC request activity, and post-IMS and future activities.

  14. Three small deployed satellites

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-04

    ISS033-E-009285 (4 Oct. 2012) --- Several tiny satellites are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 33 crew member on the International Space Station. The satellites were released outside the Kibo laboratory using a Small Satellite Orbital Deployer attached to the Japanese module’s robotic arm on Oct. 4, 2012. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Aki Hoshide, flight engineer, set up the satellite deployment gear inside the lab and placed it in the Kibo airlock. The Japanese robotic arm then grappled the deployment system and its satellites from the airlock for deployment. A portion of the station’s solar array panels and a blue and white part of Earth provide the backdrop for the scene.

  15. Three small deployed satellites

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-04

    ISS033-E-009286 (4 Oct. 2012) --- Several tiny satellites are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 33 crew member on the International Space Station. The satellites were released outside the Kibo laboratory using a Small Satellite Orbital Deployer attached to the Japanese module’s robotic arm on Oct. 4, 2012. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Aki Hoshide, flight engineer, set up the satellite deployment gear inside the lab and placed it in the Kibo airlock. The Japanese robotic arm then grappled the deployment system and its satellites from the airlock for deployment. A portion of the station’s solar array panels and a blue and white part of Earth provide the backdrop for the scene.

  16. Modern Sparingly Alloyed Titanium Alloys: Application and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nochovnaya, N. A.; Panin, P. V.; Alekseev, E. B.; Bokov, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the properties of domestic and foreign sparingly alloyed titanium alloys is preformed, and the main tendencies and prospects of their development are considered. Recent works of FGUP "VIAM" in the field of creation and approbation of various-purpose low-alloy titanium alloys are reviewed.

  17. Cesium iodide alloys

    DOEpatents

    Kim, H.E.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1992-12-15

    A transparent, strong CsI alloy is described having additions of monovalent iodides. Although the preferred iodide is AgI, RbI and CuI additions also contribute to an improved polycrystalline CsI alloy with outstanding multispectral infrared transmittance properties. 6 figs.

  18. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Shaber, Eric L.; DuPont, John N.; Robino, Charles V.; Williams, David B.

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

  19. Copper-tantalum alloy

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.

    1986-07-15

    A tantalum-copper alloy can be made by preparing a consumable electrode consisting of an elongated copper billet containing at least two spaced apart tantalum rods extending longitudinally the length of the billet. The electrode is placed in a dc arc furnace and melted under conditions which co-melt the copper and tantalum to form the alloy.

  20. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Conner, William V.

    1983-01-01

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as sources of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.